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Sample records for human streptococcus agalactiae

  1. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  2. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H; Pasnik, David J; Bohnsack, John F

    2009-05-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  3. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Christian M J; Crumlish, Margaret; Fontaine, Michael C; Pollock, Jolinda; Foster, Geoff; Dagleish, Mark P; Turnbull, James F; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2013-02-18

    In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Isolates from fish (n = 26), seals (n = 6), a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST) 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of S. agalactiae strains.

  4. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26), seals (n = 6), a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST) 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of S

  5. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  6. Discovery and Characterization of Human-Urine Utilization by Asymptomatic-Bacteriuria-Causing Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Ipe, Deepak S.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Sullivan, Matthew J.; Beatson, Scott A.; Ulett, Kimberly B.; Benjamin, William H.; Davies, Mark R.; Dando, Samantha J.; King, Nathan P.; Cripps, Allan W.; Dougan, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes both symptomatic cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU); however, growth characteristics of S. agalactiae in human urine have not previously been reported. Here, we describe a phenotype of robust growth in human urine observed in ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) that was not seen among uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) strains isolated from patients with acute cystitis. In direct competition assays using pooled human urine inoculated with equal numbers of a prototype ABSA strain, designated ABSA 1014, and any one of several UPSA strains, measurement of the percentage of each strain recovered over time showed a markedly superior fitness of ABSA 1014 for urine growth. Comparative phenotype profiling of ABSA 1014 and UPSA strain 807, isolated from a patient with acute cystitis, using metabolic arrays of >2,500 substrates and conditions revealed unique and specific l-malic acid catabolism in ABSA 1014 that was absent in UPSA 807. Whole-genome sequencing also revealed divergence in malic enzyme-encoding genes between the strains predicted to impact the activity of the malate metabolic pathway. Comparative growth assays in urine comparing wild-type ABSA and gene-deficient mutants that were functionally inactivated for the malic enzyme metabolic pathway by targeted disruption of the maeE or maeK gene in ABSA demonstrated attenuated growth of the mutants in normal human urine as well as synthetic human urine containing malic acid. We conclude that some S. agalactiae strains can grow in human urine, and this relates in part to malic acid metabolism, which may affect the persistence or progression of S. agalactiae ABU. PMID:26553467

  7. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, G P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quality consequences, and control, prevention, and therapy were included. Streptococcus agalactiae is an oblique parasite of the bovine mammary gland and is susceptible to treatment with a variety of antibiotics. Despite this fact, where state or provincial census data are available, herd prevalence levels range from 11% (Alberta, 1991) to 47% (Vermont, 1985). Infection with S. agalactiae is associated with elevated somatic cell count and total bacteria count and a decrease in the quantity and quality of milk products produced. Bulk tank milk culture has, using traditional milk culture techniques, had a low sensitivity for identifying S. agalactiae at the herd level. New culture methods, using selective media and large inocula, have substantially improved the sensitivity of bulk tank culture. Efficacy of therapy on individual cows remains high. Protocols for therapy of all infected animals in a herd are generally successful in eradicating the pathogen from the herd, especially if they are followed up with good udder hygiene techniques. PMID:9220132

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype IV in Humans and Cattle, Northern Europe1

    PubMed Central

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Kulkas, Laura; Katholm, Jørgen; Waller, Karin Persson; Saha, Kerttu; Tomusk, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of nonpregnant human adults worldwide and a reemerging pathogen of dairy cattle in parts of Europe. To learn more about interspecies transmission of this bacterium, we compared contemporaneously collected isolates from humans and cattle in Finland and Sweden. Multilocus sequence typing identified 5 sequence types (STs) (ST1, 8, 12, 23, and 196) shared across the 2 host species, suggesting possible interspecies transmission. More than 54% of the isolates belonged to those STs. Molecular serotyping and pilus island typing of those isolates did not differentiate between populations isolated from different host species. Isolates from humans and cattle differed in lactose fermentation, which is encoded on the accessory genome and represents an adaptation to the bovine mammary gland. Serotype IV-ST196 isolates were obtained from multiple dairy herds in both countries. Cattle may constitute a previously unknown reservoir of this strain. PMID:27869599

  9. Aerobic Metabolism of Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Mickelson, M. N.

    1967-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae cultures possess an aerobic pathway for glucose oxidation that is strongly inhibited by cyanide. The products of glucose oxidation by aerobically grown cells of S. agalactiae 50 are lactic and acetic acids, acetylmethylcarbinol, and carbon dioxide. Glucose degradation products by aerobically grown cells, as percentage of glucose carbon, were 52 to 61% lactic acid, 20 to 23% acetic acid, 5.5 to 6.5% acetylmethylcarbinol, and 14 to 16% carbon dioxide. There was no evidence for a pentose cycle or a tricarboxylic acid cycle. Crude cell-free extracts of S. agalactiae 50 possessed a strong reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2) oxidase that is also cyanide-sensitive. Dialysis or ultrafiltration of the crude, cell-free extract resulted in loss of NADH2 oxidase activity. Oxidase activity was restored to the inactive extract by addition of the ultrafiltrate or by addition of menadione or K3Fe(CN)6. Noncytochrome iron-containing pigments were present in cell-free extracts of S. agalactiae. The possible participation of these pigments in the respiration of S. agalactiae is presently being studied. PMID:4291090

  10. In silico prediction of conserved vaccine targets in Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from fish, cattle, and human samples.

    PubMed

    Pereira, U P; Soares, S C; Blom, J; Leal, C A G; Ramos, R T J; Guimarães, L C; Oliveira, L C; Almeida, S S; Hassan, S S; Santos, A R; Miyoshi, A; Silva, A; Tauch, A; Barh, D; Azevedo, V; Figueiredo, H C P

    2013-08-12

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; group B streptococci) is a major pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis and meningitis in humans. The available prophylactic measures for conserving human and animal health are not totally effective and have limitations. Effective vaccines against the different serotypes or genotypes of pathogenic strains from the various hosts would be useful. We used an in silico strategy to identify conserved vaccine candidates in 15 genomes of group B streptococci strains isolated from human, bovine, and fish samples. The degree of conservation, subcellular localization, and immunogenic potential of S. agalactiae proteins were investigated. We identified 36 antigenic proteins that were conserved in all 15 genomes. Among these proteins, 5 and 23 were shared only by human or fish strains, respectively. These potential vaccine targets may help develop effective vaccines that will help prevent S. agalactiae infection.

  11. A contribution to the research of infection of cows and humans with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Brglez, I

    1981-01-01

    In the small area of eight alpine villages in Slovenia 159 cows and 113 persons from 34 family-farms on Streptococcus agalactiae (Str. agal.) were examined. From the milk of 35 cows (22%) from 21 farms and from the throat and urine of 17 persons (15%) from 14 farms Str. agal. was isolated. Identical serotypes of Str. agal. were established on the farms, where infected cows and infected persons were detected: in cows serotypes II and III and in persons serotypes II, III and R. In persons from the farms, where the cows were negative, other serotypes were found: Ib, Ic and II. In 12 persons Str. agal. was isolated from urine, in 3 persons from the throat and in 2 persons from the urine and throat. All positive persons were without visible clinical symptoms. We suggest, that one of the ways of infection with Str. agal. in humans is probably a direct route with infected milk or from the infected cows.

  12. Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Tatiana Castro Abreu; Costa, Natália Silva; Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; de Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes; de Mattos, Marcos Correa; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10−7 and 9.10−7, was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts. PMID:25477908

  13. Streptococcus agalactiae Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Akhrass, Fadi; Abdallah, Lina; Berger, Steven; Hanna, Rami; Reynolds, Nina; Thompson, Shellie; Hallit, Rabih; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present 2 patients with Streptococcus agalactiae toxic shock-like syndrome and review another 11 well-reported cases from the literature. Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome is a devastating illness with a high mortality rate, therefore we stress the importance of early supportive management, antimicrobial therapy, and surgical intervention. Toxic shock-like syndrome is likely to be underestimated in patients with invasive Streptococcus agalactiae infection who present with shock. Early diagnosis requires high suspicion of the illness, along with a thorough mucocutaneous examination. Streptococcus agalactiae produces uncharacterized pyrogenic toxins, which explains the ability of the organism to cause toxic shock-like syndrome. PMID:23263717

  14. Development of Streptococcus agalactiae vaccines for tilapia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhu, Jielian; Chen, Kangming; Gao, Tingting; Yao, Huochun; Liu, Yongjie; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2016-12-21

    Vaccination is a widely accepted and effective method to prevent most pathogenic diseases in aquaculture. Various species of tilapia, especially Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, are farmed worldwide because of their high consumer demand. Recently, the tilapia-breeding industry has been hampered by outbreaks of Streptococcus agalactiae infection, which cause high mortality and huge economic losses. Many researchers have attempted to develop effective S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia. This review provides a summary of the different kinds of S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia that have been developed recently. Among the various vaccine types, inactivated S. agalactiae vaccines showed superior protection efficiency when compared with live attenuated, recombinant and DNA vaccines. With respect to vaccination method, injecting the vaccine into tilapia provided the most effective immunoprotection. Freund's incomplete adjuvant appeared to be suitable for tilapia vaccines. Other factors, such as immunization duration and number, fish size and challenge dose, also influenced the vaccine efficacy.

  15. Molecular mapping of the cell wall polysaccharides of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Péchoux, Christine; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Hols, Pascal; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2014-11-01

    The surface of many bacterial pathogens is covered with polysaccharides that play important roles in mediating pathogen-host interactions. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is recognized as a major virulence factor while the group B carbohydrate (GBC) is crucial for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell division. Despite the important roles of CPS and GBC, there is little information available on the molecular organization of these glycopolymers on the cell surface. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to analyze the nanoscale distribution of CPS and GBC in wild-type (WT) and mutant strains of S. agalactiae. TEM analyses reveal that in WT bacteria, peptidoglycan is covered with a very thin (few nm) layer of GBC (the ``pellicle'') overlaid by a 15-45 nm thick layer of CPS (the ``capsule''). AFM-based single-molecule mapping with specific antibody probes shows that CPS is exposed on WT cells, while it is hardly detected on mutant cells impaired in CPS production (ΔcpsE mutant). By contrast, both TEM and AFM show that CPS is over-expressed in mutant cells altered in GBC expression (ΔgbcO mutant), indicating that the production of the two surface glycopolymers is coordinated in WT cells. In addition, AFM topographic imaging and molecular mapping with specific lectin probes demonstrate that removal of CPS (ΔcpsE), but not of GBC (ΔgbcO), leads to the exposure of peptidoglycan, organized into 25 nm wide bands running parallel to the septum. These results indicate that CPS forms a homogeneous barrier protecting the underlying peptidoglycan from environmental exposure, while the presence of GBC does not prevent peptidoglycan detection. This work shows that single-molecule AFM, combined with high-resolution TEM, represents a powerful platform for analysing the molecular arrangement of the cell wall polymers of bacterial pathogens.

  16. Specific detection by PCR of Streptococcus agalactiae in milk.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G; Harel, J; Gottschalk, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and specific method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from cow's milk. The method was based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific and universal primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene. The amplification product was verified by restriction endonuclease digest and sequencing. Specific identification was proven on a collection of 147 S. agalactiae isolates of bovine and human origin. In addition, 17 strains belonging to different bacterial species that potentially can be found in milk samples also tested negative. The PCR developed was used for direct detection of S. agalactiae in milk, using for the first time with gram-positive bacteria the nucleic acid-binding properties of diatomaceous earth. The test, which has high specificity, high sensitivity (100 cfu/mL), and can be carried out in less than 24 h, represents an innovative diagnostic tool for the detection of S. agalactiae in milk.

  17. Epidemiology of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in Germany.

    PubMed

    Brimil, Nadia; Barthell, Elisabeth; Heindrichs, Uwe; Kuhn, Melanie; Lütticken, Rudolf; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2006-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause severe pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis in neonates and remains one of the most prevalent causes of invasive neonatal infections. Maternal transmission of S. agalactiae during delivery can be prevented by prenatal screening and peripartal antibiotic prophylaxis. Implementation of CDC guidelines for group B streptococci (GBS) disease prevention resulted in a significant decline of invasive neonatal S. agalactiae infections in the USA. Similar national guidelines were issued in 2000 for Germany. However, the epidemiology of S. agalactiae colonization in Germany has not been investigated for more than 15 years and the impact these guidelines will have is therefore unknown. To assess colonization rates in Germany, we cultured vaginal and rectal swabs for S. agalactiae from pregnant and non-pregnant adult patients in the region of Aachen and Munich. Swabs were cultivated in selective broth medium for 24h and subsequently plated on blood agar plates according to the CDC recommendations. Colonies negative for catalase and pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase were further differentiated by the CAMP test and a DNA probe specific for S. agalactiae. Rectal or vaginal colonization of S. agalactiae was found in 34 (16%) of 210 pregnant patients and in 41 (16%) of 250 non-pregnant women. S. agalactiae was found only in rectal swabs in 4% of pregnant and non-pregnant patients. For further characterization of the strains capsular serotypes and major surface protein antigens were determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and PCR. Among the 75 different patient isolates serotype III was the most prevalent with 21 (28%) isolates, followed by 16 (21%) isolates of serotype II, 13 (17%) isolates of serotype Ia, 12 (16%) of serotype V, 11 (15%) of serotype Ib and only 2 (3%) isolates of serotype IV. The vast majority of all strains harbored genes for the major surface protein antigens, the alpha-C-protein or alpha-C-protein like antigens like Alp2-4, epsilon and

  18. Necrotizing fasciitis in captive juvenile Crocodylus porosus caused by Streptococcus agalactiae: an outbreak and review of the animal and human literature.

    PubMed

    Bishop, E J; Shilton, C; Benedict, S; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Gal, D; Godoy, D; Spratt, B G; Currie, B J

    2007-11-01

    We observed an outbreak of necrotizing fasciitis associated with Streptococcus agalactiae infection in a group of juvenile saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus). We undertook screening of crocodiles and the environment to clarify the source of the outbreak and evaluated the isolates cultured from post-mortem specimens with molecular methods to assess clonality and the presence of known group B streptococcal virulence determinants. The isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. They were a typical serotype Ia strain with the Calpha-like protein gene, epsilon (or alp1), the mobile genetic elements IS381 ISSag1 and ISSag2, and belonged to multi-locus sequence type (ST) 23. All of these characteristics suggest they were probably of human origin. We review the medical and veterinary literature relating to S. agalactiae necrotizing fasciitis, epidemiology and virulence determinants.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships among Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from piscine, dolphin, bovine and human sources: a dolphin and piscine lineage associated with a fish epidemic in Kuwait is also associated with human...

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) causes of infections in multiple animals. This study examined the genetic relatedness of piscine, dolphin, and human GBS isolates and bovine GBS reference strains from different geographical regions using serological and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) techni...

  20. Antigenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae extracellular products and vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pasnik, D J; Evans, J J; Panangala, V S; Klesius, P H; Shelby, R A; Shoemaker, C A

    2005-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major bacterial pathogen that is the cause of serious economic losses in many species of freshwater, marine and estuarine fish worldwide. A highly efficacious S. agalactiae vaccine was developed using extracellular products (ECP) and formalin-killed whole cells of S. agalactiae. The vaccine efficacy following storage of S. agalactiae ECP and formalin-killed S. agalactiae cells at 4 degrees C for 1 year was determined. The stored ECP containing S. agalactiae formalin-killed cells failed to prevent morbidity and mortality among the vaccinated fish, and the relative percentage survival was 29. Serum antibody responses of the stored ECP and freshly prepared ECP against soluble whole cell extract of S. agalactiae indicated that significantly less antibody was produced in fish immunized with stored ECP and S. agalactiae cells than in those fish immunized with freshly prepared ECP and S. agalactiae cells at day 31 post-vaccination. Silver staining of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels and immunostaining of Western blots with tilapia antiserum to S. agalactiae revealed that predominant 54 and 55 kDa bands were present in the freshly prepared ECP fraction. The 55 kDa band was absent from the stored ECP and new bands below 54 kDa appeared on the Western blot. The results of this study on S. agalactiae ECP provide evidence for a correlation between protection and antibody production to ECP and for the importance of the 55 kDa ECP antigen for vaccine efficacy.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of an Attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae Strain Isolated from the Gut of a Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Angen; Lan, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Yulei; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yuhui; Hu, Minqiang; Cheng, Jiewei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus agalactiae is a pathogen that causes severe anthropozoonosis within a broad range of hosts from aquatic animals to mammals, including human beings. Here, we describe the draft genome of S. agalactiae HZAUSC001, a low-virulent strain isolated from the gut of a moribund tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in China. PMID:28183773

  2. Streptococcus agalactiae Native Valve Endocarditis: Uncommon Presentation of Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Pinho Oliveira, Ana; Delgado, Anne; Martins, Cláudia; Gama, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Adults with chronic immunosuppressive conditions are at an increased risk for Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis, which is typically characterized by acute onset, presence of large vegetations, rapid valvular destruction and frequent complications. We report a rare case of a 74 years old man presenting with fever, renal infarction, ischemic stroke and uveitis. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed and Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in blood cultures. A multiple myeloma Ig G-K was also diagnosed. The infective endocarditis was successfully treated with a course of benzylpenicillin and gentamicin. The authors highlight the severity of vascular embolic disease present in this case and the diagnostic challenge. They also intend to remind about the association between Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis and chronic diseases, despite its low reported prevalence.

  3. Multiple Evolutionary Selections Involved in Synonymous Codon Usages in the Streptococcus agalactiae Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan-Ping; Ke, Hao; Liang, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Hao, Le; Ma, Jiang-Yao; Li, Yu-Gu

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important human and animal pathogen. To better understand the genetic features and evolution of S. agalactiae, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in S. agalactiae were analyzed in this study. A- and U-ending rich codons were used in S. agalactiae function genes through the overall codon usage analysis, indicating that Adenine (A)/Thymine (T) compositional constraints might contribute an important role to the synonymous codon usage pattern. The GC3% against the effective number of codon (ENC) value suggested that translational selection was the important factor for codon bias in the microorganism. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that (i) mutational pressure was the most important factor in shaping codon usage of all open reading frames (ORFs) in the S. agalactiae genome; (ii) strand specific mutational bias was not capable of influencing the codon usage bias in the leading and lagging strands; and (iii) gene length was not the important factor in synonymous codon usage pattern in this organism. Additionally, the high correlation between tRNA adaptation index (tAI) value and codon adaptation index (CAI), frequency of optimal codons (Fop) value, reinforced the role of natural selection for efficient translation in S. agalactiae. Comparison of synonymous codon usage pattern between S. agalactiae and susceptible hosts (human and tilapia) showed that synonymous codon usage of S. agalactiae was independent of the synonymous codon usage of susceptible hosts. The study of codon usage in S. agalactiae may provide evidence about the molecular evolution of the bacterium and a greater understanding of evolutionary relationships between S. agalactiae and its hosts. PMID:26927064

  4. Comparative genomics and the role of lateral gene transfer in the evolution of bovine adapted Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Vincent P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Lefébure, Tristan; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to causing severe invasive infections in humans, Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is also a major cause of bovine mastitis. Here we provide the first genome sequence for S. agalactiae isolated from a cow diagnosed with clinical mastitis (strain FSL S3-026). Comparison to eight S. agalactiae genomes obtained from human disease isolates revealed 183 genes specific to the bovine strain. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for the presence/absence of a subset of these loci in additional bovine and human strains revealed strong differentiation between the two groups (Fisher exact test: p < 0.0001). The majority of the bovine strain-specific genes (~85%) clustered tightly into eight genomic islands, suggesting these genes were acquired through lateral gene transfer (LGT). This bovine GBS also contained an unusually high proportion of insertion sequences (4.3% of the total genome), suggesting frequent genomic rearrangement. Comparison to other mastitis-causing species of bacteria provided strong evidence for two cases of interspecies LGT within the shared bovine environment: bovine S. agalactiae with Streptococcus uberis (nisin U operon) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (lactose operon). We also found evidence for LGT, involving the salivaricin operon, between the bovine S. agalactiae strain and either Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus salivarius. Our findings provide insight intomechanismsfacilitatingenvironmentaladaptationandacquisitionofpotential virulence factors, while highlighting both the key role LGT has played in the recent evolution of the bovine S. agalactiae strain, and the importance of LGT among pathogens within a shared environment. PMID:21536150

  5. Identification of immunoreactive proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from cultured tilapia in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause lethal infections in humans and animals, including aquatic species. Immunoreactive proteins of the S. agalactiae strain, GD201008-001, isolated from cultured tilapia in China, were screened by immunoproteomics using hyperimmune sera, convalescent guinea pig sera and GD201008-001-infected tilapia antisera as primary detection antibodies. A total of 16 different proteins were identified including 13 novel immunoreactive proteins of S. agalactiae. Four proteins, serine-rich repeat glycoprotein 1, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BKD) subunit E2, 5'-nucleotidase family protein and ornithine carbamoyltransferase, were shown to react with the three types of sera and thus were considered to represent novel S. agalactiae vaccine candidate antigens. Our findings represent the basis for vaccine development for piscine S. agalactiae and are necessary for understanding virulence factors and immunogenicity of S. agalactiae with different hosts.

  6. Pigment Production by Streptococcus agalactiae in Quasi-Defined Media

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Sampedro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; García-Peña, Maria Luisa; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; Haïdour, Ali

    2001-01-01

    A quasi-defined medium that supports the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae as pigmented colonies has been developed. The medium contains starch, a peptic digest of albumin, amino acids, nucleosides, vitamins, and salts. The presence of free cysteine, which could be replaced with other sulphur-containing compounds and to a lesser degree by reducing agents, was required for pigment formation. PMID:11133484

  7. Serotype IX, a Proposed New Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype▿

    PubMed Central

    Slotved, Hans-Christian; Kong, Fanrong; Lambertsen, Lotte; Sauer, Susanne; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

    2007-01-01

    We identified three isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), of human origin, which failed to react with antisera against any of the nine known GBS serotypes. Polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against these isolates and standard GBS typing sera were used in capillary precipitation and Ouchterlony tests to compare the strains with known GBS serotype reference strains. All three previously nontypeable isolates reacted with all three new antisera, producing lines of identity in the Ouchterlony test. Weak cross-reactions with antisera against several GBS serotypes were observed but were removed by absorption with corresponding antigens. The new antisera were used to test 227 GBS isolates that had been nontypeable or difficult to type using standard antisera. Of these, five reacted with the new antisera. These results suggested that all eight isolates belong to the previously unrecognized GBS serotype. They were tested by Western blotting for the Cα and Cβ proteins and by PCR to identify molecular serotypes and surface protein antigen genes. Two segments of the cps gene cluster (3′ end of cpsE-cpsF and 5′ end of cpsG, approximately 700 bp; 3′ end of cpsH and 5′ end of cpsM, approximately 560 bp) were sequenced. All eight isolates expressed Cα, and seven expressing the Cβ protein and the corresponding genes, bca and bac, respectively, were identified. They all share the same, unique partial cps sequence. These results indicate that these eight isolates represent a new S. agalactiae serotype, which we propose should be designated serotype IX. PMID:17634306

  8. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lianci; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Li, Zhengwen; Zou, Yuanfeng; Liang, Xiaoxia; Li, Lixia; He, Changliang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae were investigated in this study by analyzing the growth, morphology and protein of the S. agalactiae cells treated with berberine. The antibacterial susceptibility test result indicated minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae was 78 μg/mL and the time-kill curves showed the correlation of concentration-time. After the bacteria was exposed to 78 μg/mL berberine, the fragmentary cell membrane and cells unequal division were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating the bacterial cells were severely damaged. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) study demonstrated that berberine could damage bacterial cells through destroying cellular proteins. Meanwhile, Fluorescence microscope revealed that berberine could affect the synthesis of DNA. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that berberine may damage the structure of bacterial cell membrane and inhibit synthesis of protein and DNA, which cause Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria to die eventually. PMID:26191220

  9. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lianci; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Li, Zhengwen; Zou, Yuanfeng; Liang, Xiaoxia; Li, Lixia; He, Changliang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae were investigated in this study by analyzing the growth, morphology and protein of the S. agalactiae cells treated with berberine. The antibacterial susceptibility test result indicated minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae was 78 μg/mL and the time-kill curves showed the correlation of concentration-time. After the bacteria was exposed to 78 μg/mL berberine, the fragmentary cell membrane and cells unequal division were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating the bacterial cells were severely damaged. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) study demonstrated that berberine could damage bacterial cells through destroying cellular proteins. Meanwhile, Fluorescence microscope revealed that berberine could affect the synthesis of DNA. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that berberine may damage the structure of bacterial cell membrane and inhibit synthesis of protein and DNA, which cause Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria to die eventually.

  10. Neonatal necrotizing fasciitis of the scrotum caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Junpei; Inoue, Nobuaki; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Terakawa, Toshiro; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2015-04-01

    We herein describe the case of a 27-day-old male infant who was brought to the emergency room for intermittent crying, and swelling of the left scrotum. Based on the clinical findings, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected, and surgical intervention was successfully completed within a few hours of admission. Streptococcus agalactiae type Ia was cultured from the drained abscess, and was considered the causative pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal necrotizing fasciitis caused by S. agalactiae. Prompt diagnosis and immediate surgical debridement are crucial in the initial management of this disease.

  11. The novel fibrinogen-binding protein FbsB promotes Streptococcus agalactiae invasion into epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, Heike; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Reinscheid, Dieter J

    2004-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in human newborns. The interaction of S. agalactiae with host proteins and the entry into host cells thereby represent important virulence traits of these bacteria. The present report describes the identification of the fbsB gene, encoding a novel fibrinogen-binding protein that plays a crucial role in the invasion of S. agalactiae into human cells. In Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) experiments, the FbsB protein was demonstrated to interact with soluble and immobilized fibrinogen. Binding studies showed the N-terminal 388 residues of FbsB and the Aalpha-subunit of human fibrinogen to recognize each other. By reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, the fbsB gene was shown to be cotranscribed with the gbs0851 gene in S. agalactiae. Deletion of the fbsB gene in the genome of S. agalactiae did not influence the binding of the bacteria to fibrinogen, suggesting that FbsB does not participate in the attachment of S. agalactiae to fibrinogen. In tissue culture experiments, however, the fbsB deletion mutant was severely impaired in its invasion into lung epithelial cells. Bacterial invasion could be reestablished by introducing the fbsB gene on a shuttle plasmid into the fbsB deletion mutant. Furthermore, treatment of lung epithelial cells with FbsB fusion protein blocked S. agalactiae invasion of epithelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. These results suggest an important role of the FbsB protein in the overall process of host cell entry by S. agalactiae.

  12. Clinical analysis of cases of neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, S J; Tang, X S; Zhao, W L; Qiu, H X; Wang, H; Feng, Z C

    2016-06-17

    With the advent of antibiotic resistance, pathogenic bacteria have become a major threat in cases of neonatal sepsis; however, guidelines for treatment have not yet been standardized. In this study, 15 cases of neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae sepsis from our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, nine cases showed early-onset and six cases showed late-onset sepsis. Pathogens were characterized by genotyping and antibiotic sensitivity tests on blood cultures. Results demonstrated that in cases with early-onset sepsis, clinical manifestations affected mainly the respiratory tract, while late-onset sepsis was accompanied by intracranial infection. Therefore, we suggest including a cerebrospinal fluid examination when diagnosing neonatal sepsis. Bacterial genotyping indicated the bacteria were mainly type Ib, Ia, and III S. agalactiae. We recommend treatment with penicillin or ampicillin, since bacteria were resistant to clindamycin and tetracycline. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information for the clinical treatment of S. agalactiae sepsis in neonatal infants.

  13. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Through selection of resistance to sparfloxacin, an attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar was obtained from its virulent parent strain S. agalactiae 138P. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138spar is 1,838,126 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identi...

  14. Development of primer sets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification that enables rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three ...

  15. Capsular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) from fish using multiplex PCR and serotyping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus spp. including Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) are considered emerging pathogens responsible for approximately $1 billion USD in annual losses to the global tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) aquaculture industry. This study evaluated a published multiplex PCR capsul...

  16. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow are able to infect tilapia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Rui; Luo, Fu-Guang; Huang, Yan; Liang, Wan-Wen; Huang, Ting; Lei, Ai-Ying; Gan, Xi; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-10-22

    Recent studies have shown that group B streptococcus (GBS) may be infectious across hosts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pathogenicity of clinical GBS isolates with serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow to tilapia and the evolutionary relationship among these GBS strains of different sources. A total of 27 clinical GBS isolates from human (n=10), cow (n=2) and tilapia (n=15) were analyzed using serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among them, 15 isolates were tested for their pathogenicity to tilapia. The results showed that five human GBS strains (2 serotype III, 2 serotype Ia and 1 serotype V) infected tilapia with mortality rate ranging from 56.67% to 100%, while the other five human GBS strains tested were unable to infect tilapia. In addition, two cow GBS strains C001 and C003 of serotype III infected tilapia. However, they had significantly lower pathogenicity than the five human strains. Furthermore, human GBS strains H005 and H008, which had very strong ability to infect tilapia, had the same PFGE pattern. MLST analysis showed that the five human and the two cow GBS strains that were able to infect tilapia belonged to clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103. The study for the first time confirmed that human or cow GBS clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103 containing strains with serotypes Ia, III and V could infect tilapia and induce clinical signs under experimental conditions.

  17. Identification of Major Outer Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Martin J. G.; Moore, Joanne C.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wilson, Rebecca; Pribul, Philippa K.; Younes, Zabin N.; Dobson, Richard J.; Everest, Paul; Reason, Andrew J.; Redfern, Joanne M.; Greer, Fiona M.; Paxton, Thanai; Panico, Maria; Morris, Howard R.; Feldman, Robert G.; Santangelo, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    To identify the major outer surface proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus), a proteomic analysis was undertaken. An extract of the outer surface proteins was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The visualized spots were identified through a combination of peptide sequencing and reverse genetic methodologies. Of the 30 major spots identified as S. agalactiae specific, 27 have been identified. Six of these proteins, previously unidentified in S. agalactiae, were sequenced and cloned. These were ornithine carbamoyltransferase, phosphoglycerate kinase, nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, enolase, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. Using a gram-positive expression system, we have overexpressed two of these proteins in an in vitro system. These recombinant, purified proteins were used to raise antisera. The identification of these proteins as residing on the outer surface was confirmed by the ability of the antisera to react against whole, live bacteria. Further, in a neonatal-animal model system, we demonstrate that some of these sera are protective against lethal doses of bacteria. These studies demonstrate the successful application of proteomics as a technique for identifying vaccine candidates. PMID:11854208

  18. DNA Microarray-Based Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Heike; Slickers, Peter; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae frequently colonizes the urogenital tract, and it is a major cause of bacterial septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia in newborns. For typing purposes, a microarray targeting group B streptococcus (GBS) virulence-associated markers and resistance genes was designed and validated with reference strains, as well as clinical and veterinary isolates. Selected isolates were also subjected to multilocus sequence typing. It was observed that putative typing markers, such as alleles of the alpha-like protein or capsule types, vary independently of each other, and they also vary independently from the affiliation to their multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-defined sequence types. Thus, it is not possible to assign isolates to sequence types based on the identification of a single distinct marker, such as a capsule type or alp allele. This suggests the occurrence of frequent genomic recombination. For array-based typing, a set of 11 markers (bac, alp, pil1 locus, pepS8, fbsB, capsule locus, hylB, abiG-I/-II plus Q8DZ34, pil2 locus, nss plus srr plus rogB2, and rgfC/A/D/B) was defined that provides a framework for splitting the tested 448 S. agalactiae isolates into 76 strains that clustered mainly according to MLST-defined clonal complexes. There was evidence for region- and host-specific differences in the population structure of S. agalactiae, as well as an overrepresentation of strains related to sequence type 17 among the invasive isolates. The arrays and typing scheme described here proved to be a convenient tool for genotyping large numbers of clinical/veterinary isolates and thus might help obtain insight into the epidemiology of S. agalactiae. PMID:25165085

  19. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  20. Comparison of transmission dynamics between Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of study were to determine the transmission parameters (β), durations of infection, and basic reproductive numbers (R0) of both Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis as pathogens causing mastitis outbreaks in dairy herds. A 10-mo longitudinal study was performed using 2 smallholder dairy herds with mastitis outbreaks caused by Strep. agalactiae and Strep. uberis, respectively. Both herds had poor mastitis control management and did not change their milking management during the entire study period. Quarter milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from all lactating animals in each herd for bacteriological identification. The durations of infection for Strep. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) and Strep. agalactiae IMI were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the Kaplan-Meier survival functions for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were compared using log rank survival-test. The spread of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae through the population was determined by transmission parameter, β, the probability per unit of time that one infectious quarter will infect another quarter, assuming that all other quarters are susceptible. For the Strep. uberis outbreak herd (31 cows), 56 new infections and 28 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. For the Strep. agalactiae outbreak herd (19 cows), 26 new infections and 9 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. The duration of infection for Strep. agalactiae (mean=270.84 d) was significantly longer than the duration of infection for Strep. uberis (mean=187.88 d). The transmission parameters (β) estimated (including 95% confidence interval) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were 0.0155 (0.0035-0.0693) and 0.0068 (0.0008-0.0606), respectively. The R0 (including 95% confidence interval) during the study were 2.91 (0.63-13.47) and 1.86 (0.21-16.61) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI, respectively. In conclusion, the transmission

  1. Characterization of Afb, a novel bifunctional protein in Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Dehbashi, Sanaz; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Rahil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns and results in pneumonia and bacteremia in adults. A number of S. agalactiae components are involved in colonization of target cells. Destruction of peptidoglycan and division of covalently linked daughter cells is mediated by autolysins. In this study, autolytic activity and plasma binding ability of AFb novel recombinant protein of S. agalactiae was investigated. Materials and Methods: The gbs1805 gene was cloned and expressed. E. coli strains DH5α and BL21 were used as cloning and expression hosts, respectively. After purification, antigenicity and binding ability to plasma proteins of the recombinant protein was evaluated. Results: AFb, the 18KDa protein was purified successfully. The insoluble mature protein revealed the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This insoluble mature protein revealed that it has the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin plasma proteins. Furthermore, in silico analysis demonstrated the AFb has an autolytic activity. Conclusions: AFb is a novel protein capable of binding to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This findings lay a ground work for further investigation of the role of the bacteria in adhesion and colonization to the host. PMID:27092228

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Streptococcus agalactiae ISOLATED FROM PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    de MELO, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; SANTOS, Nathally Claudiane de Souza; de OLIVEIRA, Marcia; SCODRO, Regiane Bertin de Lima; CARDOSO, Rosilene Fressatti; PÁDUA, Rúbia Andreia Falleiros; SILVA, Flavia Teixeira Ribeiro; COSTA, Aline Balandis; CARVALHO, Maria Dalva de Barros; PELLOSO, Sandra Marisa

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction: Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae can colonize the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and has been considered one of the most important risk factors for the development of neonatal disease. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of GBS isolates from pregnant women who were attended at a public health service in Northern Paraná, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 544 pregnant women, at ≥ 35 weeks of gestation. One hundred and thirty-six GBS isolates from pregnant women were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: All of the GBS isolates showed susceptibility to the drug that is most frequently used for intrapartum prophylaxis: penicillin. Resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin was detected, thus decreasing the options of prophylaxis in women who are allergic to penicillin. Conclusions: Additional studies should be conducted to increase the knowledge of GBS sensitivity profile to antimicrobials in other health centers. PMID:27828624

  3. Amperometric biosensor based on a single antibody of dual function for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Gersson; Rey, Alba; Rivera, Camilo; Iregui, Carlos; Orozco, Jahir

    2017-01-15

    Pathogenic bacteria are responsible for several diseases in humans and in a variety of hosts. Detection of pathogenic bacteria is imperative to avoid and/or fight their potential harmful effects. This work reports on the first amperometric biosensor for the rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae). The biosensor relies on a single biotinylated antibody that immobilizes the bacteria on a screen-printed carbon electrode while is further linked to a streptavidin-conjugated HRP reporter. The biotinylated antibody provides selectivity to the biosensor whereas serves as an anchoring point to the reporter for further amplification of the electrochemical signal. The resultant immunosensor is simple, responds rapidly, and allows for the selective and highly sensitive quantification of S. agalactiae cells in a concentration range of 10(1)-10(7)CFUml(-1), with a detection limit of 10CFUml(-1). The approach not only enables a rapid detection and quantification of S. agalactiae in environmental samples but also opens up new opportunities for the simple fabrication of electrochemical immunosensors for different target pathogens.

  4. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from diseased Nile tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P was isolated from the kidney of diseased Nile tilapia in Idaho during a 2007 streptococcal disease outbreak. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138P is 1,838,716 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes for antigen disco...

  5. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  6. Evaluation of nine teat dip formulations under experimental challenge to staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Pankey, J W; Philpot, W N; Boddie, R L; Watts, J L

    1983-01-01

    Nine postmilking teat dips were evaluated by an experimental challenge model against either Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, or both. Formulations containing .9 and .6% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium dichloro-s-triazene-trione, .55% chlorhexidine gluconate, and .35% povidone iodine reduced incidence of Staphylococcus aureus infections 56.8, 28.3, 75.9, 92.5, and 77.9%. Incidence of infections with Streptococcus agalactiae was reduced 48.1 and 63.2% by 1.7 and 1% sodium dichloro-s-triazene-trione formulations. The 1% chlorhexidine gluconate and .35% povidone iodine products reduced Streptococcus agalactiae infections 71.0 and 67.0%. Three experimental 1% iodophor formulations reduced Streptococcus agalactiae infections 28.9, 44.8, and 50.7%. The experimental challenge model was refined further and provided an efficient method to determine efficacy of postmilking teat dips.

  7. Transcriptomic and genomic evidence for Streptococcus agalactiae adaptation to the bovine environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bovine mastitis, which is the dominant health disorder affecting milk production within the dairy industry and is responsible for substantial financial losses to the industry worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence for host adaptation (ecotypes) within S. agalactiae, with both bovine and human sourced isolates showing a high degree of distinctiveness, suggesting differing ability to cause mastitis. Here, we (i) generate RNAseq data from three S. agalactiae isolates (two putative bovine adapted and one human) and (ii) compare publicly available whole genome shotgun sequence data from an additional 202 isolates, obtained from six host species, to elucidate possible genetic factors/adaptations likely important for S. agalactiae growth and survival in the bovine mammary gland. Results Tests for differential expression showed distinct expression profiles for the three isolates when grown in bovine milk. A key finding for the two putatively bovine adapted isolates was the up regulation of a lactose metabolism operon (Lac.2) that was strongly correlated with the bovine environment (all 36 bovine sourced isolates on GenBank possessed the operon, in contrast to only 8/151 human sourced isolates). Multi locus sequence typing of all genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis using conserved operon genes from 44 S. agalactiae isolates and 16 additional Streptococcus species provided strong evidence for acquisition of the operon via multiple lateral gene transfer events, with all Streptococcus species known to be major causes of mastitis, identified as possible donors. Furthermore, lactose fermentation tests were only positive for isolates possessing Lac.2. Combined, these findings suggest that lactose metabolism is likely an important adaptation to the bovine environment. Additional up regulation in the bovine adapted isolates included genes involved in copper homeostasis, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from significant bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Schuab, Rôde B B; Arêas, Glauber P; Souza, Viviane C; Barros, Rosana R

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae has been implicated in urinary tract infections, but the molecular epidemiology of such infections is poorly characterized. In this study, 194 isolates recovered from significant bacteriuria of non-pregnant individuals were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular characterization of macrolide resistance, PCR-based capsular typing and analysis of genetic diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By disk diffusion, all isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin; 87.6% and 9.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to tetracycline and clindamycin, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) confirmed that 11.3% of isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Macrolide resistance determinants were iMLSB (n = 9), cMLSB (n = 9) and M (n = 4), associated with ermA, ermB and mefA/E. Predominant capsular types were V, Ia, II and III. No significant association was observed between any capsular type and the occurrence of pyuria. However, type III was associated with erythromycin resistance, while type II was associated with erythromycin-susceptible isolates. Distinct PFGE profiles were observed among different types, but identical profiles were found among erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates of the same type. A variety of capsular and PFGE types are involved in significant bacteriuria. Although capsular types found here are prevalent in different infections, the frequency of each type seems to be unique. Erythromycin resistance is due to polyclonal origin instead of the expansion of few clones of S. agalactiae.

  9. Streptococcus agalactiae impairs cerebral bioenergetics in experimentally infected silver catfish.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Parmeggiani, Belisa S; Santos, Roberto C V; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-10-01

    It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain in brain increased, while the CK activity decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Brain histopathology revealed inflammatory demyelination, gliosis of the brain and intercellular edema in infected animals. Based on this evidence, S. agalactiae infection causes an impairment in cerebral bioenergetics through the augmentation of complex IV activity, which may be considered an adaptive response to maintain proper functioning of the electron respiratory chain, as well as to ensure ongoing electron flow through the electron transport chain. Moreover, inhibition of cerebral CK activity contributes to lower availability of ATP, contributing to impairment of cerebral energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefield’s group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  11. Structural characterization of the virulence factor nuclease A from Streptococcus agalactiae

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Andrea F.; Gaudu, Philippe; Pedersen, Lars C.

    2014-11-01

    The group B pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae commonly populates the human gut and urogenital tract, and is a major cause of infection-based mortality in neonatal infants and in elderly or immunocompromised adults. Nuclease A (GBS_NucA), a secreted DNA/RNA nuclease, serves as a virulence factor for S. agalactiae , facilitating bacterial evasion of the human innate immune response. GBS_NucA efficiently degrades the DNA matrix component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which attempt to kill and clear invading bacteria during the early stages of infection. In order to better understand the mechanisms of DNA substrate binding and catalysis of GBS_NucA, the high-resolution structure of a catalytically inactive mutant (H148G) was solved by X-ray crystallography. Several mutants on the surface of GBS_NucA which might influence DNA substrate binding and catalysis were generated and evaluated using an imidazole chemical rescue technique. While several of these mutants severely inhibited nuclease activity, two mutants (K146R and Q183A) exhibited significantly increased activity. Lastly, these structural and biochemical studies have greatly increased our understanding of the mechanism of action of GBS_NucA in bacterial virulence and may serve as a foundation for the structure-based drug design of antibacterial compounds targeted to S. agalactiae.

  12. Structural characterization of the virulence factor nuclease A from Streptococcus agalactiae

    DOE PAGES

    Moon, Andrea F.; Gaudu, Philippe; Pedersen, Lars C.

    2014-11-01

    The group B pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae commonly populates the human gut and urogenital tract, and is a major cause of infection-based mortality in neonatal infants and in elderly or immunocompromised adults. Nuclease A (GBS_NucA), a secreted DNA/RNA nuclease, serves as a virulence factor for S. agalactiae , facilitating bacterial evasion of the human innate immune response. GBS_NucA efficiently degrades the DNA matrix component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which attempt to kill and clear invading bacteria during the early stages of infection. In order to better understand the mechanisms of DNA substrate binding and catalysis of GBS_NucA, the high-resolution structuremore » of a catalytically inactive mutant (H148G) was solved by X-ray crystallography. Several mutants on the surface of GBS_NucA which might influence DNA substrate binding and catalysis were generated and evaluated using an imidazole chemical rescue technique. While several of these mutants severely inhibited nuclease activity, two mutants (K146R and Q183A) exhibited significantly increased activity. Lastly, these structural and biochemical studies have greatly increased our understanding of the mechanism of action of GBS_NucA in bacterial virulence and may serve as a foundation for the structure-based drug design of antibacterial compounds targeted to S. agalactiae.« less

  13. Proteomic Biomarkers Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Invasive Genogroups

    PubMed Central

    Lanotte, Philippe; Perivier, Marylise; Haguenoer, Eve; Mereghetti, Laurent; Burucoa, Christophe; Claverol, Stéphane; Atanassov, Christo

    2013-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in newborns and an etiological agent of meningitis, endocarditis, osteoarticular and soft tissue infections in adults. GBS isolates are routinely clustered in serotypes and in genotypes. At present one GBS sequence type (i.e. ST17) is considered to be closely associated with bacterial invasiveness and novel proteomic biomarkers could make a valuable contribution to currently available GBS typing data. For that purpose we analyzed the protein profiles of 170 genotyped GBS isolates by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI). Univariate statistical analysis of the SELDI profiles identified four protein biomarkers significantly discriminating ST17 isolates from those of the other sequence types. Two of these biomarkers (MW of 7878 Da and 12200 Da) were overexpressed and the other two (MW of 6258 Da and 10463 Da) were underexpressed in ST17. The four proteins were isolated by mass spectrometry-assisted purification and their tryptic peptides analyzed by LC-MS/MS. They were thereby identified as the small subunit of exodeoxyribonuclease VII, the 50S ribosomal protein L7/L12, a CsbD-like protein and thioredoxin, respectively. In conclusion, we identified four candidate biomarkers of ST17 by SELDI for high-throughput screening. These markers may serve as a basis for further studies on the pathophysiology of GBS infection, and for the development of novel vaccines. PMID:23372719

  14. Molecular characterization of temporally and geographically matched Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from food products and bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Domelier, Anne-Sophie; Salloum, Mazen; Violette, Jérémie; Arnault, Laurence; Gaillard, Nicolas; Bind, Jean-Louis; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Quentin, Roland

    2009-12-01

    In a defined geographic area, during a 3-month period, 914 food products were screened for Streptococcus agalactiae, and S. agalactiae strains isolated from bloodstream infections (BSI) in nonpregnant adults were collected. Eleven S. agalactiae strains were isolated from 1.2% of food products, with high rates in pastries (7.0%) and seafood products (11.8%). These findings indicate that S. agalactiae is a food product contaminant. Seven S. agalactiae BSI were observed in nonpregnant adults representing an incidence of 0.015/100 admissions. The distribution of strains in serotypes did not differ according to origin of the strains; food products and clinical strains were of serotypes Ia (22%), Ib (11%), II (5%), III (22%), IV (5%), and V (33%). The strains isolated from seafoods were of serotypes Ia and Ib. The distribution of strains in Sequence Types differed according to their origin; food strains were equally distributed between the major clonal complex (CC), CC1 (27%), CC9 (18%), CC17 (18%), and CC23 (27%), whereas a high proportion of BSI strains belonged to CC1 (57%). DNA macrorestriction using SmaI revealed diversity; nine different patterns were found for the 11 food strains and seven for the 7 BSI strains. One pattern was similar for two food strains and one BSI strain. On account of the molecular characteristics previously described for S. agalactiae strains of human carriage and fish and mice infections, the serotype characteristics of seafood strains suggest contamination by aquatic S. agalactiae, whereas the molecular characteristics of strains from pastries suggest human contamination, but may also originate from rodents. Indeed, serotype V CC1 strains, found in food and responsible for a high percentage of BSI in nonpregnant adults, belong to a known clone spreading worldwide, and have also been described in mice.

  15. Identification of a novel insertion sequence element in Streptococcus agalactiae. bspeller@imib.rwth-aachen.de.

    PubMed

    Spellerberg, B; Martin, S; Franken, C; Berner, R; Lütticken, R

    2000-01-04

    Gain and loss of bacterial pathogenicity is often associated with mobile genetic elements. A novel insertion sequence (IS) element designated ISSa4 was identified in Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci). The 963bp IS element is flanked by 25bp perfect inverted repeats and led to the duplication of a 9bp target sequence at the insertion site. ISSa4 contains one open reading frame coding for a putative transposase of 287 aa and exhibits closest similarities to insertion elements of the IS982 family which has previously not been identified in streptococci. Analysis of different S. agalactiae strains showed that the copy number of ISSa4 in S. agalactiae varies significantly between strains. The S. agalactiae strain with the highest copy number of ISSa4 was nonhemolytic and harbored one copy inserted in cylB, which encodes the membrane-spanning domain of the putative hemolysin transporter (Spellerberg et al., 1999. Identification of genetic determinants for the hemolytic activity of Streptococcus agalactiae by ISS1 transposition. J. Bacteriol. 181, 3212-3219). Determination of the distribution of ISSa4 in different S. agalactiae strains revealed that ISSa4 could be detected only in strains isolated after 1996, which might indicate a recent acquisition of this novel insertion element by S. agalactiae.

  16. [Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS)--the characteristic of isolated strains from productive women's vagina].

    PubMed

    Wolny, Katarzyna; Gołda-Matuszak, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of my research: to determine the frequency of colonisation Streptococcus agalactiae from productive women's vagina, an evaluation of usefulness microbiological diagnostic methods to detect GBS, to define serotype of analysed strains of S. agalactiae. After all, I tried to define fenotypic differential, biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility between GBS with and without hemolysis. All of strains S. agalactiae (n = 380) belong to bacteria Gram(+), they had B serologic group and didn't produce catalase. On the basis of TSA+5% sheep blood streptococcus with beta-hemolysis grew like a small, grey and shiny colonies with a narrow, bright ring. On the same base we had S. agalactiae without beta-hemolysis, in examine material--6% (n = 22). On the basis of Strepto B ID S. agalactiae grew like a small, round red colonies and on the base Granada agar like an orange, white colonies. The level of colonisation S. agalactiae was 22% (380GBS/1727women). Identification of analysed strains of S. agalactiae was made by test API 20 Strep. The susceptibility was examined to ampicilin, azithromycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, doxycyclin, cotrimoxasol, ciprofloxacin. Serotypes III (50%), Ia (18%) and V (14%) prevailed.

  17. Acute Neonatal Parotitis with Late-Onset Septic Shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Boulyana, M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute neonatal parotitis (ANP) is a very rare disease. Most cases are managed conservatively; early antibiotics and adequate hydration may reduce the need for surgery. The most common cause of ANP is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a rare case of acute neonatal parotitis with late-onset septic shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae. The diagnosis was confirmed with ultrasound and isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae from blood culture. The patient was treated successfully with 10 days of intravenous antibiotics and supportive measures. Despite being rare, streptococcal ANP should be considered in the etiological diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic might prevent serious complications. PMID:24653847

  18. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  19. Comparative proteome analysis of two Streptococcus agalactiae strains from cultured tilapia with different virulence.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Su, You-Lu; Mai, Yong-Zhan; Li, Yan-Wei; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, An-Xing

    2014-05-14

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major piscine pathogen, which causes significant morbidity and mortality among numerous fish species, and results in huge economic losses to aquaculture. Many S. agalactiae strains showing different virulence characteristics have been isolated from infected tilapia in different geographical regions throughout South China in the recent years, including natural attenuated S. agalactiae strain TFJ0901 and virulent S. agalactiae strain THN0901. In the present study, survival of tilapia challenged with S. agalactiae strain TFJ0901 and THN0901 (10(7)CFU/fish) were 93.3% and 13.3%, respectively. Moreover, there are severe lesions of the examined tissues in tilapia infected with strain THN0901, but no significant histopathological changes were observed in tilapia infected with the strain TFJ0901. In order to elucidate the factors responsible for the invasive potential of S. agalactiae between two strains TFJ0901 and THN0901, a comparative proteome analysis was applied to identify the different protein expression profiles between the two strains. 506 and 508 cellular protein spots of S. agalactiae TFJ0901 and THN0901 were separated by two dimensional electrophoresis, respectively. And 34 strain-specific spots, corresponding to 27 proteins, were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Among them, 23 proteins presented exclusively in S. agalactiae TFJ0901 or THN0901, and the other 4 proteins presented in different isomeric forms between TFJ0901 and THN0901. Most of the strain-specific proteins were just involved in metabolic pathways, while 7 of them were presumed to be responsible for the virulence differences of S. agalactiae strain TFJ0901 and THN0901, including molecular chaperone DnaJ, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, thioredoxin, manganese-dependent inorganic pyrophosphatase, elongation factor Tu, bleomycin resistance protein and cell division protein DivIVA. These virulence-associated proteins may contribute to identify new

  20. Visualization of the role of host heme on the virulence of the heme auxotroph Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Laetitia; Dagieu, Jean-Baptiste; Fernandez, Annabelle; Derré-Bobillot, Aurélie; Borezée-Durant, Elise; Fleurot, Isabelle; Gruss, Alexandra; Lechardeur, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Heme is essential for several cellular key functions but is also toxic. Whereas most bacterial pathogens utilize heme as a metabolic cofactor and iron source, the impact of host heme during bacterial infection remains elusive. The opportunist pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae does not synthesize heme but still uses it to activate a respiration metabolism. Concomitantly, heme toxicity is mainly controlled by the HrtBA efflux transporter. Here we investigate how S. agalactiae manages heme toxicity versus benefits in the living host. Using bioluminescent bacteria and heme-responsive reporters for in vivo imaging, we show that the capacity of S. agalactiae to overcome heme toxicity is required for successful infection, particularly in blood-rich organs. Host heme is simultaneously required, as visualized by a generalized infection defect of a respiration-negative mutant. In S. agalactiae, HrtBA expression responds to an intracellular heme signal via activation of the two-component system HssRS. A hssRS promoter-driven intracellular luminescent heme sensor was designed to identify host compartments that supply S. agalactiae with heme. S. agalactiae acquires heme in heart, kidneys, and liver, but not in the brain. We conclude that S. agalactiae response to heme is organ-dependent, and its efflux may be particularly relevant in late stages of infection. PMID:28091535

  1. Central nervous system involvement in adult patients with invasive infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Oyanguren, B; Esteban, L; Guillán, M; de Felipe, A; Alonso Cánovas, A; Navas, E; Quereda, C; Corral, I

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is frequently an asymptomatic coloniser and a cause of neonatal and puerperal sepsis. Infections in nonpregnant adults are uncommon. The frequency of neurological complications caused by invasive infection with this microorganism in adults remains unknown. Here, we study the frequency and characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in adults with invasive S. agalactiae infection. Review of all adults with invasive S. agalactiae infection between 2003 and 2011 in a tertiary hospital. S. agalactiae was isolated from blood, CSF or synovial fluid in 75 patients. Among them, 7 (9,3%) displayed neurological involvement: 5 men and 2 nonpregnant women, aged between 20 and 62 years. Diagnoses were spinal epidural abscess due to spondylodiscitis with spinal cord compression; acute bacterial meningitis; ischemic stroke as presentation of bacterial endocarditis (2 patients each); and meningoventriculitis after neurosurgery and ventricular shunting. One patient with endocarditis caused by S. agalactiae and S. aureus died in the acute phase, and another died 3 months later from metastatic cancer. The other patients recovered without sequelae. All patients had systemic predisposing factors for infection and 5 (71,4%) had experienced disruption of the mucocutaneous barrier as a possible origin of the infection. CNS involvement is not uncommon in adult patients with invasive infection caused by S. agalactiae. Isolating S. agalactiae, especially in cases of meningitis, should lead doctors to search for predisposing systemic disease and causes of mucocutaneous barrier disruption. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of immunoreactive extracellular proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Gabriela; Ferreira, Paula; Ribeiro, Niza; Dinis, Márcia; Andrade, Elva Bonifácio; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário; Tavares, Delfina

    2008-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a common pathogen that causes bovine mastitis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antibody response against S. agalactiae extracellular proteins in the whey and serum of naturally infected bovines and to identify possible immunodominant extracellular antigens. IgG1 antibodies against S. agalactiae extracellular proteins were elevated in the whey and serum of naturally infected bovines. In the whey, the levels of IgG1 specific for S. agalactiae extracellular proteins were similar in infected and noninfected milk quarters from the same cow, and the production of antibodies specific for S. agalactiae extracellular proteins was induced only by infection with this bacterium. The immunoreactivity of extracellular proteins with bovine whey was clearly different in infected versus control animals. Group B protective surface protein and 5'-nucleotidase family protein were 2 major immunoreactive proteins that were detected only in the whey of infected cows, suggesting that these proteins may be important in the pathogenesis of S. agalactiae-induced mastitis. This information could be used to diagnose S. agalactiae infection. In addition, these antigens may be useful as carrier proteins for serotype-specific polysaccharides in conjugate vaccines.

  3. [Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in healthy adults. Description of 2 new cases].

    PubMed

    Rivero Marcotegui, M; Hidalgo Ovejero, A; Lecumberri, M Cía; Otermin Maya, I; Pereda García, A

    2009-10-01

    The importance of Streptococcus agalactiae as a pathogen in nonpregnant adults has been widely recognized in recent years, especially in the elderly or immunocompromised patients. Two cases of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by S. agalactiae in young patients with no known underlying diseases or predisposing factor to infection are reported. A systematic review of the literature (MEDLINE, 1976-May 2008) was performed, 10 cases previously reported in the literature of vertebral osteomyelitis due to S. agalactiae being found in adults under 65 years of age with no predisposing risk factors for infection, most of which have been reported over the last 10 years. We believe that this microbial etiology should be considered in patients of any age and immunological status. Other factors, other than increasing the number of patients with chronic diseases, explaining the increased rate of S. agalactiae infections in adults need to be studied.

  4. Recombination between Streptococcus suis ICESsu32457 and Streptococcus agalactiae ICESa2603 yields a hybrid ICE transferable to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Marini, Emanuela; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna

    2015-07-09

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome but retain the ability to undergo excision and to transfer by conjugation. Genes involved in drug resistance, virulence, or niche adaptation are often found among backbone genes as cargo DNA. We recently characterized in Streptococcus suis an ICE (ICESsu32457) carrying resistance genes [tet(O/W/32/O), tet(40), erm(B), aphA, and aadE] in the 15K unstable genetic element, which is flanked by two ∼1.3kb direct repeats. Remarkably, ∼1.3-kb sequences are conserved in ICESa2603 of Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R, which carry heavy metal resistance genes cadC/cadA and mer. In matings between S. suis 32457 (donor) and S. agalactiae 2603V/R (recipient), transconjugants were obtained. PCR experiments, PFGE, and sequence analysis of transconjugants demonstrated a tandem array between ICESsu32457 and ICESa2603. Matings between tandem array-containing S. agalactiae 2603V/R (donor) and Streptococcus pyogenes RF12 (recipient) yielded a single transconjugant containing a hybrid ICE, here named ICESa2603/ICESsu32457. The hybrid formed by recombination of the left ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESsu32457 and the ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESa2603. Interestingly, the hybrid ICE was transferable between S. pyogenes strains, thus demonstrating that it behaves as a conventional ICE. These findings suggest that both tandem arrays and hybrid ICEs may contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in streptococci, creating novel mobile elements capable of disseminating new combinations of antibiotic resistance genes.

  5. Development of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Wen-de, Wu; Min, Li; Ming, Chen; Li-Ping, Li; Rui, Wang; Hai-Lan, Chen; Fu-Yan, Chen; Qiang, Mi; Wan-Wen, Liang; Han-Zhong, Chen

    2017-05-15

    A colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip was developed for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) infection in tilapia. The monoclonal antibodies (mAb) 4C12 and 3A9 were used to target S. agalactiae as colloidal gold-mAb conjugate and captured antibody, respectively. The colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip was assembled via routine procedures. Optimal pH and minimum antibody levels in the reaction system for gold colloidal-mAb 4C12 conjugation were pH 7.4 and 18μg/mL, respectively. Optimal concentrations of the captured antibody 3A9 and goat anti-mouse antibody were 0.6mg/mL and 2mg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity of the strip for detecting S. agalactiae was 1.5×10(5) colony forming units (CFU). No cross-reaction was observed with other commonly encountered bacteria, including Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae. The assay time for S. agalactiae was less than 15min. Tilapia samples artificially infected with S. agalactiae were tested using the newly developed strip. The results indicated that blood, brain, kidney, spleen, metanephros and intestine specimens of infected fish can be used for S. agalactiae detection. The validity of the strip was maintained for 6 months at 4°C. These findings suggested that the immunochromatographic strip was effective for spot and rapid detection of S. agalactiae infected tilapia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous Infection Caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in KK-A(y) Mice.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Fujii, Miki; Satou, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-10-01

    During 2006 through 2012, spontaneous group B Streptococcus infections were reported in 22 female KK-Ay mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The affected mice were 5 to 27 wk old, and the cases involved various body sites, including cases of submandibular, caudal, and lumbar abscesses (n =18) or led to torticollis (n = 2), hydrocephalus (n = 1), or moribund clinical signs (n = 1). At necropsy, the mouse with hydrocephalus also demonstrated retained exudate in the uterus, and the moribund mouse showed renal inflammation. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in pure culture from all except 2 cases: the facial abscess also yielded Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the uterine exudate was coinfected with Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, S. agalactiae was isolated from the oral cavity and feces of normal KK-Ay mice. S. agalactiae potentially can cause a clinically significant spontaneous infection in a mouse model of diabetes.

  7. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from disease Nile tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete genome of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P is 1838701 bp in size, containing 1831 genes. The genome has 1593 coding sequences, 152 pseudo genes, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and 1 non-coding RNA. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipel...

  8. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete genome of a sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine strain 138spar is 1,838,126 bp in size. The genome has 1892 coding sequences and 82 RNAs. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline. The publishing of this genome will allo...

  9. Structural and Functional Analysis of Cell Wall-anchored Polypeptide Adhesin BspA in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Rego, Sara; Heal, Timothy J; Pidwill, Grace R; Till, Marisa; Robson, Alice; Lamont, Richard J; Sessions, Richard B; Jenkinson, Howard F; Race, Paul R; Nobbs, Angela H

    2016-07-29

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is the predominant cause of early-onset infectious disease in neonates and is responsible for life-threatening infections in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Clinical manifestations of GBS infection include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Here, we describe BspA, a deviant antigen I/II family polypeptide that confers adhesive properties linked to pathogenesis in GBS. Heterologous expression of BspA on the surface of the non-adherent bacterium Lactococcus lactis confers adherence to scavenger receptor gp340, human vaginal epithelium, and to the fungus Candida albicans Complementary crystallographic and biophysical characterization of BspA reveal a novel β-sandwich adhesion domain and unique asparagine-dependent super-helical stalk. Collectively, these findings establish a new bacterial adhesin structure that has in effect been hijacked by a pathogenic Streptococcus species to provide competitive advantage in human mucosal infections. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Structural and Functional Analysis of Cell Wall-anchored Polypeptide Adhesin BspA in Streptococcus agalactiae*

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Sara; Heal, Timothy J.; Pidwill, Grace R.; Till, Marisa; Robson, Alice; Lamont, Richard J.; Sessions, Richard B.; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Race, Paul R.; Nobbs, Angela H.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is the predominant cause of early-onset infectious disease in neonates and is responsible for life-threatening infections in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Clinical manifestations of GBS infection include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Here, we describe BspA, a deviant antigen I/II family polypeptide that confers adhesive properties linked to pathogenesis in GBS. Heterologous expression of BspA on the surface of the non-adherent bacterium Lactococcus lactis confers adherence to scavenger receptor gp340, human vaginal epithelium, and to the fungus Candida albicans. Complementary crystallographic and biophysical characterization of BspA reveal a novel β-sandwich adhesion domain and unique asparagine-dependent super-helical stalk. Collectively, these findings establish a new bacterial adhesin structure that has in effect been hijacked by a pathogenic Streptococcus species to provide competitive advantage in human mucosal infections. PMID:27311712

  11. Phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced immunity of the whole cell of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-Yen; Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chi; Jiang, Bo-Huang; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive bacterium and a severe aquaculture pathogen that can infect a wide range of warmwater fish species. The outer-surface proteins in bacterial pathogens play an important role in pathogenesis. We evaluated the immunogenicity of two of the identified surface proteins namely phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase (OCT). PGK and OCT were over-expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and used as the subunit vaccines in tilapia. Tilapia immunized with the S. agalactiae modified bacteria vaccine (whole cell preparations with recombinant PGK and OCT proteins) individually were tested for the efficacy. OCT and PGK combined with WC had a higher survival rate. A high-level protection and significant specific antibody responses against S. agalactiae challenge was observed upon the vaccinated tilapia with the purified PGK protein and S. agalactiae whole cells. The specific antibody titer against S. agalactiae antigen suggested that increased antibody titers were correlated with post-challenge survival rate. Il-1β expression profile was higher in PGK + WC-treated group. Tnf-α expression in the PGK + WC group was significantly increased. Taken together, our results suggested the combinations of recombinant protein and whole cell may elicit immune responses that reach greater protection than that of individual S. agalactiae components.

  12. Novel substrate specificity of glutathione synthesis enzymes from Streptococcus agalactiae and Clostridium acetobutylicum

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, Kuniki . E-mail: kkino@waseda.jp; Kuratsu, Shoko; Noguchi, Atsushi; Kokubo, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Yuji; Arai, Toshinobu; Yagasaki, Makoto; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2007-01-12

    Glutathione (GSH) is synthesized by {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS) and glutathione synthetase (GS) in living organisms. Recently, bifunctional fusion protein, termed {gamma}-GCS-GS catalyzing both {gamma}-GCS and GS reactions from gram-positive firmicutes Streptococcus agalactiae, has been reported. We revealed that in the {gamma}-GCS activity, S. agalactiae {gamma}-GCS-GS had different substrate specificities from those of Escherichia coli {gamma}-GCS. Furthermore, S. agalactiae {gamma}-GCS-GS synthesized several kinds of {gamma}-glutamyltripeptide, {gamma}-Glu-X{sub aa}-Gly, from free three amino acids. In Clostridium acetobutylicum, the genes encoding {gamma}-GCS and putative GS were found to be immediately adjacent by BLAST search, and had amino acid sequence homology with S. agalactiae {gamma}-GCS-GS, respectively. We confirmed that the proteins expressed from each gene showed {gamma}-GCS and GS activity, respectively. C. acetobutylicum GS had broad substrate specificities and synthesized several kinds of {gamma}-glutamyltripeptide, {gamma}-Glu-Cys-X{sub aa}. Whereas the substrate specificities of {gamma}-GCS domain protein and GS domain protein of S. agalactiae {gamma}-GCS-GS were the same as those of S. agalactiae {gamma}-GCS-GS.

  13. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Faccone, D; Guerriero, L; Méndez, E; Errecalde, L; Cano, H; Yoyas, N; Togneri, A; Romanowski, V; Galas, M; Whonet, Red; Corso, A

    2010-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance is a growing problem that has only recently emerged in S. agalactiae. Between 2005-2007, WHONET--Argentina network evaluated levofloxacin susceptibility in 1128 clinical S. agalactiae isolates, 10 (0.9%) of which proved to be resistant. Nine of them had come from 5 hospitals (in Buenos Aires City and 4 Argentinean provinces) and recovered from urine (n=7) and vaginal screening cultures (n=2). Three strains were also resistant to macrolides, lincosamides and B streptogramins due to the ermA gene. All nine fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates bore the same two mutations, Ser79Phe in ParC and Ser81Leu in GyrA proteins. Genetic relationships were analyzed by Apal-PFGE and two clones were determined, A (n=6) and B (n=3). To our knowledge, these are the first fluoroquinolone-resistant S. agalactiae isolates detected in Latin America.

  14. Identification of a high-virulence clone of type III Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) causing invasive neonatal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Musser, J M; Mattingly, S J; Quentin, R; Goudeau, A; Selander, R K

    1989-01-01

    Chromosomal genotypes of 128 isolates of six serotypes (Ia, Ib, Ic, II, Ic/II, and III) of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) recovered predominantly from human infants in the United States were characterized by an analysis of electrophoretically demonstrable allelic profiles at 11 metabolic enzyme loci. Nineteen distinctive electrophoretic types (ETs), representing multilocus clonal genotypes, were identified. Mean genetic diversity per locus among ETs of isolates of the same serotype was, on average, nearly equal to that in all 19 ETs. Cluster analysis of the ETs revealed two primary phylogenetic divisions at a genetic distance of 0.65. A single clone (ET 1) represented by 40 isolates expressing type III antigen formed division I. Division II was composed of 18 ETs in three major lineages diverging from one another at distances greater than 0.35 and included strains of all six antigenic classes. The type III organisms in division I produce more extracellular neuraminidase and apparently are more virulent than the type III strains in division II, which are related to strains of other serotypes that cause disease much less frequently. The existence of this unusually virulent clone accounts, in major part, for the high morbidity and mortality associated with infection by type III organisms. PMID:2660146

  15. Comparative genome analysis identifies two large deletions in the genome of highly-passaged attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain YM001 compared to the parental pathogenic strain HN016.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Li, Liping; Huang, Yan; Luo, Fuguang; Liang, Wanwen; Gan, Xi; Huang, Ting; Lei, Aiying; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lianfu

    2015-11-04

    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae), also known as group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an important pathogen for neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. The global outbreaks of Streptococcus disease in tilapia cause huge economic losses and threaten human food hygiene safety as well. To investigate the mechanism of S. agalactiae pathogenesis in tilapia and develop attenuated S. agalactiae vaccine, this study sequenced and comparatively analyzed the whole genomes of virulent wild-type S. agalactiae strain HN016 and its highly-passaged attenuated strain YM001 derived from tilapia. We performed Illumina sequencing of DNA prepared from strain HN016 and YM001. Sequencedreads were assembled and nucleotide comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) , indels were analyzed between the draft genomes of HN016 and YM001. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and prophage were detected and analyzed in different S. agalactiae strains. The genome of S. agalactiae YM001 was 2,047,957 bp with a GC content of 35.61 %; it contained 2044 genes and 88 RNAs. Meanwhile, the genome of S. agalactiae HN016 was 2,064,722 bp with a GC content of 35.66 %; it had 2063 genes and 101 RNAs. Comparative genome analysis indicated that compared with HN016, YM001 genome had two significant large deletions, at the sizes of 5832 and 11,116 bp respectively, resulting in the deletion of three rRNA and ten tRNA genes, as well as the deletion and functional damage of ten genes related to metabolism, transport, growth, anti-stress, etc. Besides these two large deletions, other ten deletions and 28 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were also identified, mainly affecting the metabolism- and growth-related genes. The genome of attenuated S. agalactiae YM001 showed significant variations, resulting in the deletion of 10 functional genes, compared to the parental pathogenic strain HN016. The deleted and mutated functional genes all

  16. Experimental early pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in red tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    PubMed

    Iregui, C A; Comas, J; Vásquez, G M; Verján, N

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a severe systemic disease in fish, and the routes of entry are still ill-defined. To address this issue, two groups of 33 red tilapia Oreochromis spp. each of 10 g were orally infected with S. agalactiae (n = 30), and by immersion (n = 30), six individuals were control-uninfected fish. Three tilapias were killed at each time point from 30 min to 96 h post-inoculation (pi); controls were killed at 96 h. Samples from most tissues were examined by haematoxylin-eosin (H&E), indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI) and periodic acid-Schiff; only intestine from fish infected by gavage was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The results of both experiments suggest that the main entry site of S. agalactiae in tilapia is the gastrointestinal epithelium; mucus seems to play an important defensive role, and environmental conditions may be an important predisposing factor for the infection.

  17. Development of an indirect ELISA for bovine mastitis using Sip protein of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Bu, R E; Wang, J L; DebRoy, C; Wu, J H; Xi, L G W; Liu, Y; Shen, Z Q

    2015-01-01

    The sip gene encoding for a conserved highly immunogenic surface protein of Streptococcus agalactiae was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET32a (+) and expressed as a recombinant protein in E. coli BL21 (DE3). An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the purified Sip protein as a coating antigen, which could identify S. agalactiae specific antibody in sera. The coating antigen at a concentration of 3.125 μg/ml, serum diluted to 1:160, and HRP-conjugated secondary antibody concentration at 1:4000 was found to be most effective in exhibiting positive result. The ELISA was found to be highly specific for S. agalactiae that may be used for the detection of the pathogen in mastitis cases, for epidemiological studies and for surveillance.

  18. Prophylactic effect of Andrographis paniculata extracts against Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-05-01

    Six herbs were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, a major fish pathogen causing streptococcosis. Each herb was extracted with 3 solvents: water, 95% ethanol, and methanol. Using swab paper disc assays, aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata and Allium sativum produced the largest (27.5 mm) and smallest (10.3 mm) inhibition zones, respectively. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of herb extracts against S. agalactiae showed that the aqueous extract of A. paniculata had the lowest MIC value (31.25 microg/mL). Aqueous extract of A. sativum was the only herb extract with a MIC > 500 microg/mL. Based on mortalities in 2 weeks after intraperitoneal S. agalactiae injection, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of S. agalactiae for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was 3.79 x 10(5) CFU/mL. In vivo experiments showed that fish feed supplemented with either A. paniculata leaf powder or dried matter of A. paniculata aqueous extract reduced mortality of S. agalactiae infected Nile tilapia. In addition, no mortality was found in fish receiving dried matter of A. paniculata aqueous extract supplemented feeds at ratios (w/w) of 4:36 and 5:35. During 2 weeks of feeding with A. paniculata supplemented feeds, no adverse effects on appearance, behavior, or feeding responses were observed.

  19. Transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression analysis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) infected by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Li-li; Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Cheng-fei; Lu, Mai-xin; Bai, Jun-jie

    2013-10-01

    Tilapia is an important freshwater aquaculture species worldwide. In recent years, streptococcal diseases have severely threatened development of tilapia aquaculture, while effective prevention and control methods have not yet been established. In order to understand the immunological response of tilapia to infection by Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae), this study employed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and digital gene expression (DGE) technology to investigate changes in the tilapia transcriptome before and after S. agalactiae infection. We obtained 82,799 unigenes (mean size: 618 bp) using de novo assembly. Unigenes were annotated by comparing against databases including Nr, Swissprot, cluster of orthologous groups of proteins, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes, and gene ontology. Combined with DGE technology, transcriptomic changes in tilapia before and after bacteria challenging were examined. A total of 774 significantly up-regulated and 625 significantly down-regulated unigenes were identified, among which 293 were mapped to 181 signaling pathways including 17 immune-related pathways involving 65 differentially expressed genes. We observed a change in the expression of six genes in the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and this was subsequently confirmed via quantitative real-time PCR. This comparative study of the tilapia transcriptome before and after S. agalactiae infection identified important differentially-expressed immune-related genes and signaling pathways that will provide useful insights for further analysis of the mechanisms of tilapia defense against S. agalactiae infection.

  20. In silico analysis of candidate proteins sharing homology with Streptococcus agalactiae proteins and their role in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Parida, Rajeshwari; Samanta, Luna

    2017-02-01

    Leukocytospermia is a physiologic condition defined as human semen with a leukocyte count of >1 x 10(6) cells/ml that is often correlated with male infertility. Moreover, bacteriospermia has been associated with leukocytospermia ultimately leading to male infertility. We have found that semen samples with >1 x 10(6)/ml leukocytes and/or bacteriospermia have oxidative predominance as evidenced by augmented protein carbonyl and lipid peroxidation status of the semen which is implicated in sperm dysfunction. It has been reported that Streptococcus agalactiae is present in bacteriospermic samples. Previous research has shown that human leukocyte antigen beta chain paralog (HLA-DRB) alleles interact best with the infected sperm cells rather than the non-infected cells. Little is known about the interaction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) present on leukocytes with the sperm upon bacterial infection and how it induces an immunological response which we have addressed by epitope mapping. Therefore, we examined MHC class II derived bacterial peptides which might have human sperm-related functional aspects. Twenty-two S. agalactiae proteins were obtained from PUBMED protein database for our study. Protein sequences with more than two accession numbers were aligned using CLUSTAL Omega to check their conservation pattern. Each protein sequence was then analyzed for T-cell epitope prediction against HLA-DRB alleles using the immune epitope database (IEDB) analysis tool. Out of a plethora of peptides obtained from this analysis, peptides corresponding to proteins of interest such as DNA binding response regulator, hyaluronate lyase and laminin binding protein were screened against the human proteome using Blastp. Interestingly, we have found bacterial peptides sharing homology with human peptides deciphering some of the important sperm functions. Antibodies raised against these probable bacterial antigens of fertility will not only help us understand the mechanism of

  1. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Mechanisms of Erythromycin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: French Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    De Mouy, Dany; Cavallo, Jean-Didier; Leclercq, Roland; Fabre, Roland

    2001-01-01

    Among 126 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates collected in 10 French laboratories in 1999, 27 (21.4%) had macrolide resistance related to the presence of erm(B) (11 strains), erm(A) subclass erm(TR) (10 strains), and mef(A) genes (2 strains) and the presence of combinations of erm(B) and erm(A) genes or mef(A) genes (3 strains). PMID:11451709

  2. Characterization of two novel gadd45a genes in hybrid tilapia and their responses to the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yubang; Ma, Keyi; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-07-01

    Diseases are one of the major challenges in tilapia aquaculture. Identification of DNA markers associated with disease resistance may facilitate the acceleration of the selection for disease resistance. Gadd45a (growth arrest and DNA damage 45 A), a stress-inducible gene in humans and mice, has not been studied in fish. We characterized the two prologues of Gadd45a genes in hybrid tilapia. Gadd45a1 and Gadd45a2 shared an identical gene structure and showed an amino acid sequence identity of 73.8%. Their expressions were detected in all 10 tissues examined, with the kidney and gill having high transcriptional expressions. The expression levels of Gadd45a1 were significantly lower than those of Gadd45a2 in all examined tissues. After a challenge with a bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae, the expressions of the two genes were up-regulated significantly in the spleen, kidney, liver and intestine. These findings suggest that the two Gadd45a genes play an important role in the resistance to S. agalactiae in tilapia. We identified 10 SNPs in the two genes. The SNP markers in the two Gadd45a genes could be used to examine whether they are associated with resistance to S. agalactiae. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Regulation of PI-2b Pilus Expression in Hypervirulent Streptococcus agalactiae ST-17 BM110

    PubMed Central

    du Merle, Laurence; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Gominet, Myriam; Bellais, Samuel; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The widely spread Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B Streptococcus, GBS) “hypervirulent” ST17 clone is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. The PI-2b locus is mainly found in ST17 strains but is also present in a few non ST17 human isolates such as the ST-7 prototype strain A909. Here, we analysed the expression of the PI-2b pilus in the ST17 strain BM110 as compared to the non ST17 A909. Comparative genome analyses revealed the presence of a 43-base pair (bp) hairpin-like structure in the upstream region of PI-2b operon in all 26 ST17 genomes, which was absent in the 8 non-ST17 strains carrying the PI-2b locus. Deletion of this 43-bp sequence in strain BM110 resulted in a 3- to 5-fold increased transcription of PI-2b. Characterization of PI-2b promoter region in A909 and BM110 strains was carried out by RNAseq, primer extension, qRT-PCR and transcriptional fusions with gfp as reporter gene. Our results indicate the presence of a single promoter (Ppi2b) with a transcriptional start site (TSS) mapped 37 bases upstream of the start codon of the first PI-2b gene. The large operon of 16 genes located upstream of PI-2b codes for the group B carbohydrate (also known as antigen B), a major constituent of the bacterial cell wall. We showed that the hairpin sequence located between antigen B and PI-2b operons is a transcriptional terminator. In A909, increased expression of PI-2b probably results from read-through transcription from antigen B operon. In addition, we showed that an extended 5’ promoter region is required for maximal transcription of gfp as a reporter gene in S. agalactiae from Ppi2b promoter. Gene reporter assays performed in Lactococcus lactis strain NZ9000, a related non-pathogenic Gram-positive species, revealed that GBS-specific regulatory factors are required to drive PI-2b transcription. PI-2b expression is up-regulated in the BM110ΔcovR mutant as compared to the parental BM110 strain, but this effect is probably indirect

  4. Regulation of PI-2b Pilus Expression in Hypervirulent Streptococcus agalactiae ST-17 BM110.

    PubMed

    Périchon, Bruno; Szili, Noémi; du Merle, Laurence; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Gominet, Myriam; Bellais, Samuel; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2017-01-01

    The widely spread Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B Streptococcus, GBS) "hypervirulent" ST17 clone is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. The PI-2b locus is mainly found in ST17 strains but is also present in a few non ST17 human isolates such as the ST-7 prototype strain A909. Here, we analysed the expression of the PI-2b pilus in the ST17 strain BM110 as compared to the non ST17 A909. Comparative genome analyses revealed the presence of a 43-base pair (bp) hairpin-like structure in the upstream region of PI-2b operon in all 26 ST17 genomes, which was absent in the 8 non-ST17 strains carrying the PI-2b locus. Deletion of this 43-bp sequence in strain BM110 resulted in a 3- to 5-fold increased transcription of PI-2b. Characterization of PI-2b promoter region in A909 and BM110 strains was carried out by RNAseq, primer extension, qRT-PCR and transcriptional fusions with gfp as reporter gene. Our results indicate the presence of a single promoter (Ppi2b) with a transcriptional start site (TSS) mapped 37 bases upstream of the start codon of the first PI-2b gene. The large operon of 16 genes located upstream of PI-2b codes for the group B carbohydrate (also known as antigen B), a major constituent of the bacterial cell wall. We showed that the hairpin sequence located between antigen B and PI-2b operons is a transcriptional terminator. In A909, increased expression of PI-2b probably results from read-through transcription from antigen B operon. In addition, we showed that an extended 5' promoter region is required for maximal transcription of gfp as a reporter gene in S. agalactiae from Ppi2b promoter. Gene reporter assays performed in Lactococcus lactis strain NZ9000, a related non-pathogenic Gram-positive species, revealed that GBS-specific regulatory factors are required to drive PI-2b transcription. PI-2b expression is up-regulated in the BM110ΔcovR mutant as compared to the parental BM110 strain, but this effect is probably indirect

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen.

  6. Evaluation of colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for visual detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Suebsing, R; Kampeera, J; Tookdee, B; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Turner, W; Kiatpathomchai, W

    2013-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae and Strep. iniae are bacterial pathogens that cause streptococcosis in many fish species. An accelerated colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with pre-addition of calcein was established, and the transmission and detection of Strep. agalactiae and Strep. iniae in tilapia under natural aquatic environment were investigated. A positive reaction was observed by a colour change from orange to green through the naked eyes after completion at 63°C for 30 min with 10 times higher sensitivity than that of nested PCR assays and without cross-amplification with other fish bacterial pathogens. All sample types of Nile and red tilapia (broodstock, fertilized egg, fry) were Strep. agalactiae- and Strep. iniae positive by this new method, implying that they could be vertically transmitted. With its application for screening broodstock and fry before stocking and for monitoring fish health in grow-out ponds, the method would become very useful in fish farming industry. The application of colorimetric LAMP with pre-addition of calcein offers simple, rapid and sensitive technique with applicability for small field laboratories. This technique explored the possible vertical transmission mode of Strep. agalactiae and Strep. iniae under natural aquatic environment. It could be such preliminary data provided for the screening broodstock before breeding and/or the specific-pathogen-free production. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies. PMID:26016433

  8. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-05-26

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  9. Application of the California mastitis test in intramammary Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus infections of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Younan, M; Ali, Z; Bornstein, S; Müller, W

    2001-10-11

    A study was conducted on 207 lactating camels in six herds in Kenya to evaluate the California mastitis test (CMT) for the detection of intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus and to investigate the prevalence of both the pathogens in the camel udder. IMI with S. agalactiae was found in 12% of all camels sampled. IMI with S. aureus was present in 11% of all camels sampled. The herd-level prevalence of IMI varied between 0 and 50% for S. agalactiae and between 0 and 13% for S. aureus. Longitudinal observations over 10-12 months confirmed persistent infections for both pathogens. Observations in one herd suggested that camel pox was a contributing factor in spreading and exacerbating S. agalactiae udder infections.The CMT had quarter-level sensitivities of 77 and 68% for S. agalactiae and S. aureus in camels, respectively. The CMT specificities were 91% for both the pathogens.

  10. Two coregulated efflux transporters modulate intracellular heme and protoporphyrin IX availability in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Annabelle; Lechardeur, Delphine; Derré-Bobillot, Aurélie; Couvé, Elisabeth; Gaudu, Philippe; Gruss, Alexandra

    2010-04-22

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major neonatal pathogen whose infectious route involves septicemia. This pathogen does not synthesize heme, but scavenges it from blood to activate a respiration metabolism, which increases bacterial cell density and is required for full virulence. Factors that regulate heme pools in S. agalactiae are unknown. Here we report that one main strategy of heme and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) homeostasis in S. agalactiae is based on a regulated system of efflux using two newly characterized operons, gbs1753 gbs1752 (called pefA pefB), and gbs1402 gbs1401 gbs1400 (called pefR pefC pefD), where pef stands for 'porphyrin-regulated efflux'. In vitro and in vivo data show that PefR, a MarR-superfamily protein, is a repressor of both operons. Heme or PPIX both alleviate PefR-mediated repression. We show that bacteria inactivated for both Pef efflux systems display accrued sensitivity to these porphyrins, and give evidence that they accumulate intracellularly. The DeltapefR mutant, in which both pef operons are up-regulated, is defective for heme-dependent respiration, and attenuated for virulence. We conclude that this new efflux regulon controls intracellular heme and PPIX availability in S. agalactiae, and is needed for its capacity to undergo respiration metabolism, and to infect the host.

  11. Two Coregulated Efflux Transporters Modulate Intracellular Heme and Protoporphyrin IX Availability in Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Annabelle; Lechardeur, Delphine; Derré-Bobillot, Aurélie; Couvé, Elisabeth; Gaudu, Philippe; Gruss, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major neonatal pathogen whose infectious route involves septicemia. This pathogen does not synthesize heme, but scavenges it from blood to activate a respiration metabolism, which increases bacterial cell density and is required for full virulence. Factors that regulate heme pools in S. agalactiae are unknown. Here we report that one main strategy of heme and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) homeostasis in S. agalactiae is based on a regulated system of efflux using two newly characterized operons, gbs1753 gbs1752 (called pefA pefB), and gbs1402 gbs1401 gbs1400 (called pefR pefC pefD), where pef stands for ‘porphyrin-regulated efflux’. In vitro and in vivo data show that PefR, a MarR-superfamily protein, is a repressor of both operons. Heme or PPIX both alleviate PefR-mediated repression. We show that bacteria inactivated for both Pef efflux systems display accrued sensitivity to these porphyrins, and give evidence that they accumulate intracellularly. The ΔpefR mutant, in which both pef operons are up-regulated, is defective for heme-dependent respiration, and attenuated for virulence. We conclude that this new efflux regulon controls intracellular heme and PPIX availability in S. agalactiae, and is needed for its capacity to undergo respiration metabolism, and to infect the host. PMID:20421944

  12. Leukocyte populations and cytokine expression in the mammary gland in a mouse model of Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Gabriela; Dinis, Márcia; França, Angela; Bonifácio Andrade, Elva; Gil da Costa, Rui M; Ferreira, Paula; Tavares, Delfina

    2009-07-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a contagious, mastitis-causing pathogen that is highly adapted to survive in the bovine mammary gland. This study used a BALB/c mouse model of Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis to evaluate leukocyte populations in regional lymph nodes and cytokine expression in the mammary gland involved in the immune response against Streptococcus agalactiae. It was found that the bacteria replicated efficiently in the mammary gland, peaking after 24 h and increasing by 100-fold. Dissemination of bacteria to systemic organs was observed 6 h after infection. At the same time, a massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells and an increase in the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha were detected in mammary glands, indicating an early inflammatory response. A decrease in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in mammary glands was observed 72 h after infection, accompanied by an increase in the levels of IL-12 and IL-10, which were related to a gradual decrease in bacterial load. An increase in the number of macrophages and B220(+) lymphocytes and similar increases in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in regional lymph nodes were observed, being most pronounced 5 days after infection. Moreover, increased levels of anti-Streptococcus agalactiae antibodies in the mammary gland were observed 10 days after infection. Overall, these data suggest that the host exhibits both innate and acquired immune responses in response to Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis.

  13. Efficacy of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B) vaccine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by intraperitoneal and bath immersion administration.

    PubMed

    Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H; Shoemaker, Craig A

    2004-09-09

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) for prevention of streptococcal disease. The vaccine was prepared from formalin-killed cells and concentrated extracellular products (greater than 3 kDa) of a single isolate of S. agalactiae (ARS-KU-MU-11B). Intraperitoneal (IP) and bath immersion (BI) vaccine trials were conducted at two temperatures, 32 and 26 degrees C, and mean fish weights, 5 and 30 g. Control tilapia were injected with tryptic soy broth. Thirty gram tilapia vaccinated and challenged by IP injection with 1.5 x 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/fish of Streptococcus agalactiae at 30 days post-immunization had a relative percent survival (RPS) of 80. Smaller tilapia vaccinated and challenged under similar conditions had an RPS of 25. An RPS of zero was noted in 30 g fish IP vaccinated with Streptococcus iniae and IP challenged with S. agalactiae. The 5 and 30 g tilapia bath immunized with S. agalactiae and IP challenged with 3.6 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(6) CFU/fish of S. agalactiae had RPS values of 34. Intraperitoneal administration of the vaccine provided efficacious protection only in the 30 g tilapia regardless of whether the fish were immunized and challenged at 26 or 32 degrees C. Bath immunization of both 5 and 30 g tilapia resulted in RPS values that were two times lower than those achieved with IP vaccination. The results of this study suggest that there is a lack of cross-protection of S. iniae bacterins against S. agalactiae challenge. Protection against S. agalactiae infection is, however, provided through vaccination with a S. agalactiae modified bacterin vaccine.

  14. Whole-Genome Sequences and Classification of Streptococcus agalactiae Strains Isolated from Laboratory-Reared Long-Evans Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Dzink-Fox, J.; Feng, Y.; Shen, Z.; Bakthavatchalu, V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In collaboration with the CDC’s Streptococcus Laboratory, we report here the whole-genome sequences of seven Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria isolated from laboratory-reared Long-Evans rats. Four of the S. agalactiae isolates were associated with morbidity accompanied by endocarditis, metritis, and fatal septicemia, providing an opportunity for comparative genomic analysis of this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:28057750

  15. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongchun; Liu, Yinglong; Ding, Yunlei; Yi, Li; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie; Lu, Chengping

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and two Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) isolates were collected from dairy cattle with subclinical mastitis in Eastern China during 2011. Clonal groups were established by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS), pilus and alpha-like-protein (Alp) family genes were also characterized by molecular techniques. MLST analysis revealed that these isolates were limited to three clonal groups and were clustered in six different lineages, i.e. ST (sequence type) 103, ST568, ST67, ST301, ST313 and ST570, of which ST568 and ST570 were new genotypes. PFGE analysis revealed this isolates were clustered in 27 PFGE types, of which, types 7, 8, 14, 15, 16, 18, 23 and 25 were the eight major types, comprising close to 70% (71/102) of all the isolates. The most prevalent sequence types were ST103 (58% isolates) and ST568 (31% isolates), comprising capsular genotype Ia isolates without any of the detected Alp genes, suggesting the appearance of novel genomic backgrounds of prevalent strains of bovine S. agalactiae. All the strains possessed the pilus island 2b (PI-2b) gene and the prevalent capsular genotypes were types Ia (89% isolates) and II (11% isolates), the conserved pilus type providing suitable data for the development of vaccines against mastitis caused by S. agalactiae. PMID:23874442

  16. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mastitis in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongchun; Liu, Yinglong; Ding, Yunlei; Yi, Li; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie; Lu, Chengping

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and two Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) isolates were collected from dairy cattle with subclinical mastitis in Eastern China during 2011. Clonal groups were established by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS), pilus and alpha-like-protein (Alp) family genes were also characterized by molecular techniques. MLST analysis revealed that these isolates were limited to three clonal groups and were clustered in six different lineages, i.e. ST (sequence type) 103, ST568, ST67, ST301, ST313 and ST570, of which ST568 and ST570 were new genotypes. PFGE analysis revealed this isolates were clustered in 27 PFGE types, of which, types 7, 8, 14, 15, 16, 18, 23 and 25 were the eight major types, comprising close to 70% (71/102) of all the isolates. The most prevalent sequence types were ST103 (58% isolates) and ST568 (31% isolates), comprising capsular genotype Ia isolates without any of the detected Alp genes, suggesting the appearance of novel genomic backgrounds of prevalent strains of bovine S. agalactiae. All the strains possessed the pilus island 2b (PI-2b) gene and the prevalent capsular genotypes were types Ia (89% isolates) and II (11% isolates), the conserved pilus type providing suitable data for the development of vaccines against mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.

  17. Streptococcus agalactiae Capsule Polymer Length and Attachment Is Determined by the Proteins CpsABCD

    PubMed Central

    Toniolo, Chiara; Balducci, Evita; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Proietti, Daniela; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Grandi, Guido; Berti, Francesco; Ros, Immaculada Margarit Y; Janulczyk, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The production of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) or secreted exopolysaccharides is ubiquitous in bacteria, and the Wzy pathway constitutes a prototypical mechanism to produce these structures. Despite the differences in polysaccharide composition among species, a group of proteins involved in this pathway is well conserved. Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) produces a CPS that represents the main virulence factor of the bacterium and is a prime target in current vaccine development. We used this human pathogen to investigate the roles and potential interdependencies of the conserved proteins CpsABCD encoded in the cps operon, by developing knock-out and functional mutant strains. The mutant strains were examined for CPS quantity, size, and attachment to the cell surface as well as CpsD phosphorylation. We observed that CpsB, -C, and -D compose a phosphoregulatory system where the CpsD autokinase phosphorylates its C-terminal tyrosines in a CpsC-dependent manner. These Tyr residues are also the target of the cognate CpsB phosphatase. An interaction between CpsD and CpsC was observed, and the phosphorylation state of CpsD influenced the subsequent action of CpsC. The CpsC extracellular domain appeared necessary for the production of high molecular weight polysaccharides by influencing CpsA-mediated attachment of the CPS to the bacterial cell surface. In conclusion, although having no impact on cps transcription or the synthesis of the basal repeating unit, we suggest that these proteins are fine-tuning the last steps of CPS biosynthesis (i.e. the balance between polymerization and attachment to the cell wall). PMID:25666613

  18. Diversity and Mobility of Integrative and Conjugative Elements in Bovine Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, and S. uberis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Haenni, Marisa; Saras, Estelle; Bertin, Stéphane; Leblond, Pierre; Madec, Jean-Yves; Payot, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Bovine isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 76), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (n = 32), and Streptococcus uberis (n = 101) were analyzed for the presence of different integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and their association with macrolide, lincosamide, and tetracycline resistance. The diversity of the isolates included in this study was demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing for S. agalactiae and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for S. dysgalactiae and S. uberis. Most of the erythromycin-resistant strains carry an ermB gene. Five strains of S. uberis that are resistant to lincomycin but susceptible to erythromycin carry the lin(B) gene, and one has both linB and lnuD genes. In contrast to S. uberis, most of the S. agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae tetracycline-resistant isolates carry a tet(M) gene. A tet(S) gene was also detected in the three species. A Tn916-related element was detected in 30 to 50% of the tetracycline-resistant strains in the three species. Tetracycline resistance was successfully transferred by conjugation to an S. agalactiae strain. Most of the isolates carry an ICE integrated in the rplL gene. In addition, half of the S. agalactiae isolates have an ICE integrated in a tRNA lysine (tRNALys) gene. Such an element is also present in 20% of the isolates of S. dysgalactiae and S. uberis. A circular form of these ICEs was detected in all of the isolates tested, indicating that these genetic elements are mobile. These ICEs could thus also be a vehicle for horizontal gene transfer between streptococci of animal and/or human origin. PMID:20952646

  19. Epizootics of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in captive rays from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, R O; Dennis, M M; Blyde, D; Stone, B; Barnes, A C; Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Horton, M A; White, M; Condon, K; Jones, R

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to describe two epizootics of high mortalities from infection with Streptococcus agalactiae, occurring in captive rays held in a marine display aquarium in south-east Queensland, Australia, in 2009 and 2010. Five different species of rays were affected, including mangrove whiprays (Himantura granulata), estuary rays (Dasyatis fluviorum), eastern shovelnose rays (Aptychotrema rostrata), white-spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari) and blue-spotted mask rays (Neotrygon kuhlii). This report describes the history of both epizootics including collection, quarantine and husbandry of rays, the disease epizootics, clinico-pathological features of the disease, antimicrobial therapy, autogenous vaccine production, and laboratory studies including clinical and histopathology, bacteriology, PCR, molecular serotyping and sequencing of the bacterium S. agalactiae. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Type-Specific Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes of Streptococcus agalactiae Type Ia

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shin; Miyake, Katsuhide; Koike, Yoichi; Watanabe, Masaki; Machida, Yuichi; Ohta, Michio; Iijima, Shinji

    1999-01-01

    The type-specific capsular polysaccharide (CP) of a group B streptococcus, Streptococcus agalactiae type Ia, is a high-molecular-weight polymer consisting of the pentasaccharide repeating unit 4)-[α-d-NeupNAc-(2→3)-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→3)]-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1. Here, cloning, sequencing, and transcription of the type Ia-specific capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) genes and functional analysis of these gene products are described. A 26-kb DNA fragment containing 18 complete open reading frames (ORFs) was cloned. These ORFs were designated cpsIaA to cpsIaL, neu (neuraminic acid synthesis gene) A to D, orf1 and ung (uracil DNA glycosylase). The cps gene products of S. agalactiae type Ia were homologous to proteins involved in CP synthesis of S. agalactiae type III and S. pneumoniae serotype 14. Unlike the cps gene cluster of S. pneumoniae serotype 14, transcription of this operon may start from cpsIaA, cpsIaE, and orf1 because putative promoter sequences were found in front of these genes. Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension analyses supported this hypothesis. DNA sequence analysis showed that there were two transcriptional terminators in the 3′ end of this operon (downstream of orf1 and ung). The functions of CpsIaE, CpsIaG, CpsIaI, and CpsIaJ were examined by glycosyltransferase assay by using the gene products expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 harboring plasmids containing various S. agalactiae type Ia cps gene fragments. Enzyme assays suggested that the gene products of cpsIaE, cpsIaG, cpsIaI, and cpsIaJ are putative glucosyltransferase, β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, and β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, respectively. PMID:10464185

  1. Cloning and characterization of a novel macrolide efflux gene, mreA, from Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, J; Dib-Hajj, F; Petitpas, J W; Yuan, W

    1997-01-01

    A strain of Streptococcus agalactiae displayed resistance to 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides. In PCR assays, total genomic DNA from this strain contained neither erm nor mef genes. EcoRI-digested genomic DNA from this strain was cloned into lambda Zap II to construct a library of S. agalactiae genomic DNA. A clone, pAES63, expressing resistance to erythromycin, azithromycin, and spiramycin in Escherichia coli was recovered. Deletion derivatives of pAES63 which defined a functional region on this clone that encoded resistance to 14- and 15-membered, but not 16-membered, macrolides were produced. Studies that determined the levels of incorporation of radiolabelled erythromycin into E. coli were consistent with the presence of a macrolide efflux determinant. This putative efflux determinant was distinct from the recently described Mef pump in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae and from the multicomponent MsrA pump in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Its gene has been designated mreA (for macrolide resistance efflux). PMID:9420045

  2. The genetic diversity and phenotypic characterisation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; Silva, Lígia Guedes da; Pinto, Tatiana de Castro Abreu; Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes de; Fernandes, Flávio Gimenis; Costa, Natalia Silva da; Mattos, Marcos Corrêa de; Fracalanzza, Sergio Eduardo Longo; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

    2011-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ) that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.

  3. The MCP-8 gene and its possible association with resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Gui Hong; Wan, Zi Yi; Xia, Jun Hong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Xiao Jun; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-09-01

    Mast cell proteases play an important role in the regulation of the immune response. We identified the cDNA of the mast cell protease 8 (MCP-8) gene and analyzed its genomic structure in tilapia. The ORF of the MCP-8 was 768 bp, encoding 255 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the MCP-8 gene was expressed predominantly in spleen, moderately in liver, blood, brain, gill, intestine, skin, and weakly expressed in kidney, muscle and eye. After a challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae, the gene was induced significantly (p < 0.05) in intestine, kidney, spleen and liver. Furthermore, we identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MCP-8 gene and found that three SNPs were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with resistance against S. agalactiae. However, we found no association between four SNPs and growth traits (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the MCP-8 gene play an important role in the resistance to S. agalactiae in tilapia. The SNP markers in the MCP-8 gene associated with the resistance to the bacterial pathogen may facilitate selection of tilapia resistant to the bacterial disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Genes Preferentially Expressed by Highly Virulent Piscine Streptococcus agalactiae upon Interaction with Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chang-Ming; Chen, Rong-Rong; Kalhoro, Dildar Hussain; Wang, Zhao-Fei; Liu, Guang-Jin; Lu, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Yong-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. In this study, we used a mouse model and in vitro cell infection to evaluate the pathogenetic characteristics of S. agalactiae GD201008-001, isolated from tilapia in China. This bacterium was found to be highly virulent and capable of inducing brain damage by migrating into the brain by crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The phagocytosis assays indicated that this bacterium could be internalized by murine macrophages and survive intracellularly for more than 24 h, inducing injury to macrophages. Further, selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) was used to investigate microbial gene expression associated with intracellular survival. This positive cDNA selection technique identified 60 distinct genes that could be characterized into 6 functional categories. More than 50% of the differentially expressed genes were involved in metabolic adaptation. Some genes have previously been described as associated with virulence in other bacteria, and four showed no significant similarities to any other previously described genes. This study constitutes the first step in further gene expression analyses that will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by S. agalactiae to survive in macrophages and to cross the BBB. PMID:24498419

  5. The impact of pH and nutrient stress on the growth and survival of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Porter, Andrew J; Zhang, Meng; Harrington, Dean J; Black, Gary W; Sutcliffe, Iain C

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major neonatal pathogen that is able to colonise various host environments and is associated with both gastrointestinal and vaginal maternal carriage. Maternal vaginal carriage represents the major source for transmission of S. agalactiae to the foetus/neonate and thus is a significant risk factor for neonatal disease. In order to understand factors influencing maternal carriage we have investigated growth and long term survival of S. agalactiae under conditions of low pH and nutrient stress in vitro. Surprisingly, given that vaginal pH is normally <4.5, S. agalactiae was found to survive poorly at low pH and failed to grow at pH 4.3. However, biofilm growth, although also reduced at low pH, was shown to enhance survival of S. agalactiae. Proteomic analysis identified 26 proteins that were more abundant under nutrient stress conditions (extended stationary phase), including a RelE family protein, a universal stress protein family member and four proteins that belong to the Gls24 (PF03780) stress protein family. Cumulatively, these data indicate that novel mechanisms are likely to operate that allow S. agalactiae survival at low pH and under nutrient stress during maternal vaginal colonisation and/or that the bacteria may access a more favourable microenvironment at the vaginal mucosa. As current in vitro models for S. agalactiae growth appear unsatisfactory, novel methods need to be developed to study streptococcal colonisation under physiologically-relevant conditions.

  6. Duration of protective antibodies and correlation with survival in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus following Streptococcus agalactiae vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pasnik, David J; Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H

    2005-09-05

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major piscine pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality among numerous species of freshwater, estuarine and marine fishes. Considering the economic importance of fishes susceptible to S. agalactiae throughout the world, an efficacious S. agalactiae vaccine was developed using an extracellular product (ECP) fraction and formalin-killed whole cells of S. agalactiae. A vaccine study was conducted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in order to determine the duration of protection and its correlation to antibodies specific for this pathogen. After 47, 90 or 180 d post-vaccination (DPV), the fish were i.p. challenged with approximately 2.0 x 10(4) S. agalactiae colony-forming units (CFU) fish(-1) to determine the duration of protective immunity. The percent survival in control fish i.p.-injected with sterile TSB was 16,16, and 4% on 47, 90 and 180 DPV, respectively, while the percent survival for the vaccinated fish was 67, 62 and 49%, respectively. The specific mean antibody concentration of the vaccinated fish was significantly higher than that of the control fish, with significant correlation between the ELISA optical density (OD) and protection. These results indicate that the specific antibody has a correlation with protection following immunization with the S. agalactiae vaccine and that the vaccine can confer protection against S. agalactiae up to 180 DPV.

  7. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Laith, AA; Ambak, Mohd Azmi; Hassan, Marina; Sheriff, Shahreza Md.; Nadirah, Musa; Draman, Ahmad Shuhaimi; Wahab, Wahidah; Ibrahim, Wan Nurhafizah Wan; Aznan, Alia Syafiqah; Jabar, Amina; Najiah, Musa

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection. Results: The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity), reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity) and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule, hyperemic and

  8. Macrolide resistance gene mreA of Streptococcus agalactiae encodes a flavokinase.

    PubMed

    Clarebout, G; Villers, C; Leclercq, R

    2001-08-01

    The mreA gene from Streptococcus agalactiae COH31 gamma/delta, resistant to macrolides and clindamycin by active efflux, has recently been cloned in Escherichia coli, where it was reported to confer macrolide resistance (J. Clancy, F. Dib-Hajj, J. W. Petitpas, and W. Yuan, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:2719--2723, 1997). Cumulative data suggested that the mreA gene was located on the chromosome of S. agalactiae COH31 gamma/delta. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of mreA revealed significant homology with several bifunctional flavokinases/(flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetases, which convert riboflavin to flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FMN to FAD, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography experiments showed that the mreA gene product had a monofunctional flavokinase activity, similar to that of RibR from Bacillus subtilis. Sequences identical to those of the mreA gene and of a 121-bp upstream region containing a putative promoter were detected in strains of S. agalactiae UCN4, UCN5, and UCN6 susceptible to macrolides. mreA and its allele from S. agalactiae UCN4 were cloned on the shuttle vector pAT28. Both constructs were introduced into E. coli, where they conferred a similar two- to fourfold increase in the MICs of erythromycin, spiramycin, and clindamycin. The MICs of a variety of other molecules, including crystal violet, acriflavin, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antibiotics, such as certain cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, nalidixic acid, novobiocin, and rifampin, were also increased. In contrast, resistance to these compounds was not detected when the constructs were introduced into E. faecalis JH2-2. In conclusion, the mreA gene was probably resident in S. agalactiae and may encode a metabolic function. We could not provide any evidence that it was responsible for macrolide resistance in S. agalactiae COH31 gamma/delta; broad-spectrum resistance conferred by the gene in E. coli could involve multidrug efflux pumps

  9. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine for tilapia via continuous passage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, L P; Wang, R; Liang, W W; Huang, T; Huang, Y; Luo, F G; Lei, A Y; Chen, M; Gan, X

    2015-08-01

    Fish Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) seriously harms the world's aquaculture industry and causes huge economic losses. This study aimed to develop a potential live attenuated vaccine of S. agalactiae. Pre-screened vaccine candidate strain S. agalactiae HN016 was used as starting material to generate an attenuated strain S. agalactiae YM001 by continuous passage in vitro. The biological characteristics, virulence, and stability of YM001 were detected, and the protective efficacy of YM001 immunization in tilapia was also determined. Our results indicated that the growth, staining, characteristics of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotype, and virulence of YM001 were changed significantly as compared to the parental strain HN016. High doses of YM001 by intraperitoneal (IP) injection (1.0 × 10(9) CFU/fish) and oral gavage (1.0 × 10(10) CFU/fish) respectively did not cause any mortality and morbidity in tilapia. The relative percent survivals (RPSs) of fishes immunized with YM001 (1.0 × 10(8) CFU/fish, one time) via injection, immersion, and oral administration were 96.88, 67.22, and 71.81%, respectively, at 15 days, and 93.61, 60.56, and 53.16%, respectively, at 30 days. In all tests with 1-3 times of immunization in tilapia, the dosages at 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) CFU/fish displayed the similar best results, whereas the immunoprotection of the dosages at 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(7) CFU/fish declined significantly (P < 0.01), and 1 × 10(5) CFU/fish hardly displayed any protective effect. In addition, the efficacy of 2-3 times of immunization was significantly higher than that of single immunization (P < 0.01) while no significant difference in the efficacy between twice and thrice of immunization was seen (P > 0.05). The level of protective antibody elicited by oral immunization was significantly higher compared to that of the control group (P < 0.01), and the antibody reached their maximum levels 14-21 days after the immunization but decreased

  10. Molecular cloning and bioinformatic analysis of the Streptococcus agalactiae neuA gene isolated from tilapia.

    PubMed

    Wang, E L; Wang, K Y; Chen, D F; Geng, Y; Huang, L Y; Wang, J; He, Y

    2015-06-01

    Cytidine monophosphate (CMP) N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) synthetase, which is encoded by the neuA gene, can catalyze the activation of sialic acid with CMP, and plays an important role in Streptococcus agalactiae infection pathogenesis. To study the structure and function of the S. agalactiae neuA gene, we isolated it from diseased tilapia, amplified it using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers, and cloned it into a pMD19-T vector. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and identified by sequencing. Molecular characterization analyses of the neuA nucleotide amino acid sequence were performed using bioinformatic tools and an online server. The results showed that the neuA nucleotide sequence contained a complete coding region, which comprised 1242 bp, encoding 413 amino acids (aa). The aa sequence was highly conserved and contained a Glyco_tranf_GTA_type superfamily and an SGNH_hydrolase superfamily conserved domain, which are related to sialic acid activation catalysis. The NeuA protein possessed many important sites related to post-translational modification, including 28 potential phosphorylation sites and 2 potential N-glycosylation sites, had no signal peptides or transmembrane regions, and was predicted to reside in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the protein had some B-cell epitopes, which suggests its potential in development of a vaccine against S. agalactiae infection. The codon usage frequency of neuA differed greatly in Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens genes, and neuA may be more efficiently expressed in eukaryotes (yeast). S. agalactiae neuA from tilapia maintains high structural homology and sequence identity with CMP-NeuNAc synthetases from other bacteria.

  11. Loss of catabolic function in Streptococcus agalactiae strains and its association with neonatal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Domelier, Anne-Sophie; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Grandet, Adeline; Mereghetti, Laurent; Rosenau, Agnès; Quentin, Roland

    2006-09-01

    The abilities of 151 Streptococcus agalactiae strains to oxidize 95 carbon sources were studied using the Biolog system. Two populations were constituted: one with a high risk of causing meningitis (HR group; 63 strains), and the other with a lower risk of causing meningitis (LR group; 46 strains). Strains belonging to the HR group were significantly less able to use four carbon sources, i.e., alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate, D-ribose, beta-methyl-D-glucoside, and D,L-alpha-glycerol phosphate, than strains from the LR group (P agalactiae. Fifteen biotypes (B1 to B15) were identified from the results of oxidation of the four carbon sources, of which six (B1 to B6) included 92% of the isolates belonging to the HR group. Strains of biotypes B1 to B6 are thus 13 times more likely to be able to invade the central nervous system of neonates than strains of biotypes B7 to B15. In addition, 86% of strains recently associated with neonatal meningitis (42 strains studied) were identified as being of biotypes B1 to B6. Identification of particular S. agalactiae biotypes may therefore be one of the criteria to assist clinicians in assessing the level of risk of neonatal meningitis when a mother and/or her neonate is colonized with S. agalactiae.

  12. [Antimicrobial susceptibilities and serotype distribution of Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Bulut, Yunus; Demirtürk, Fazli; Calişkan, A Cantuğ

    2006-07-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of GBS isolated from pregnant women. A total of 671 pregnant women were screened for vaginal carriage of GBS, and vaginal colonization rate was found to be 14.6%. All GBS isolates were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol and ofloxacin. The rates of GBS resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin were 81.6%, 24.5% and 19.4%, respectively. The serotype distribution of GBS isolates was as follows in order of frequency; serotype III (33.7%), serotype Ib (24.5%), serotype V (18.4%), serotype Ia (7.1%), serotype IV (3.1%) and serotype II (2%). Eleven GBS isolates could not be serotyped by the antisera set used in the study.

  13. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the nisin resistance protein from Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Khosa, Sakshi; Hoeppner, Astrid; Kleinschrodt, Diana; Smits, Sander H J

    2015-06-01

    Nisin is a 34-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactococcus lactis belonging to the class of lantibiotics. Nisin displays a high bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive bacteria, including some human-pathogenic strains. However, there are some nisin-non-producing strains that are naturally resistant owing to the presence of the nsr gene within their genome. The encoded protein, NSR, cleaves off the last six amino acids of nisin, thereby reducing its bactericidal efficacy. An expression and purification protocol has been established for the NSR protein from Streptococcus agalactiae COH1. The protein was successfully crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method in hanging and sitting drops, resulting in crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.8 and 2.2 Å, respectively.

  14. Interaction of Streptococcus agalactiae and Cellular Innate Immunity in Colonization and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Landwehr-Kenzel, Sybille; Henneke, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is highly adapted to humans, where it is a normal constituent of the intestinal and vaginal flora. Yet, GBS has highly invasive potential and causes excessive inflammation, sepsis, and death at the beginning of life, in the elderly and in diabetic patients. Thus, GBS is a model pathobiont that thrives in the healthy host, but has not lost its potential virulence during coevolution with mankind. It remains incompletely understood how the innate immune system contains GBS in the natural niches, the intestinal and genital tracts, and which molecular events underlie breakdown of mucocutaneous resistance. Newborn infants between days 7 and 90 of life are at risk of a particularly striking sepsis manifestation (late-onset disease), where the transition from colonization to invasion and dissemination, and thus from health to severe sepsis is typically fulminant and not predictable. The great majority of late-onset sepsis cases are caused by one clone, GBS ST17, which expresses HvgA as a signature virulence factor and adhesin. In mice, HvgA promotes the crossing of both the mucosal and the blood–brain barrier. Expression levels of HvgA and other GBS virulence factors, such as pili and toxins, are regulated by the upstream two-component control system CovR/S. This in turn is modulated by acidic epithelial pH, high glucose levels, and during the passage through the mouse intestine. After invasion, GBS has the ability to subvert innate immunity by mechanisms like glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-dependent induction of IL-10 and β-protein binding to the inhibitory phagocyte receptors sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 5 and 14. On the host side, sensing of GBS nucleic acids and lipopeptides by both Toll-like receptors and the inflammasome appears to be critical for host resistance against GBS. Yet, comprehensive models on the interplay between GBS and human immune cells at the colonizing site are

  15. Transport of multidrug resistance substrates by the Streptococcus agalactiae hemolysin transporter.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Birgit; Bröker, Gerd; Kuhn, Melanie; Aymanns, Simone; Gleich-Theurer, Ute; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2006-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) causes neonatal sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis, as well as infections of the bovine udder. The S. agalactiae hemolysin is regarded as an important virulence factor, and hemolysin expression is dependent on the cyl gene cluster. cylA and cylB encode the ATP binding and transmembrane domains of a typical ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter. The deduced proteins contain the signature sequence of a multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter, and mutation of the genes results in a nonhemolytic and nonpigmented phenotype. To further elucidate the function of the putative transporter, nonpolar deletion mutants of cylA were constructed. These mutants are nonhemolytic and can be complemented by the transporter genes. Wild-type strain and nonhemolytic cylA and cylK deletion mutants were exposed to known substrates of MDR transporters. Mutation of cylA significantly impaired growth in the presence of daunorubicin, doxorubicin, and rhodamine 6G and resulted in a decreased export of doxorubicin from the cells. The mutation of cylK, a gene of unknown function located downstream from cylA, caused a loss of hemolysis but had no effect on the transport of MDR substrates. Furthermore, the hemolytic activity of the wild-type strain was inhibited by reserpine in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that CylAB closely resembles an ABC-type MDR transporter and propose that the GBS hemolysin molecule represents a natural substrate of the transporter.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae GD201008-001, Isolated in China from Tilapia with Meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain GD201008-001, a pathogen causing meningoencephalitis in cultural tilapia in China. The genome sequence provides opportunities to understand the piscine GBS pathogenicity and its genetic basis associated with host tropism. PMID:23144401

  17. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae GD201008-001, isolated in China from tilapia with meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2012-12-01

    This work describes a whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain GD201008-001, a pathogen causing meningoencephalitis in cultural tilapia in China. The genome sequence provides opportunities to understand the piscine GBS pathogenicity and its genetic basis associated with host tropism.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of two Streptococcus agalactiae proteins: the family II inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Rantanen, Mika K.; Lehtiö, Lari; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Rubens, Craig E.; Goldman, Adrian

    2006-09-01

    Two S. agalactiae proteins, the inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase, were crystallized and diffraction data were collected and processed from these crystals. The data from the two protein crystals extended to 2.80 and 2.65 Å, respectively. Streptococcus agalactiae, which infects human neonates and causes sepsis and meningitis, has recently been shown to possess a eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein phosphorylation signalling cascade. Through their target proteins, the S. agalactiae Ser/Thr kinase and Ser/Thr phosphatase together control the growth as well as the morphology and virulence of this organism. One of the targets is the S. agalactiae family II inorganic pyrophosphatase. The inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase have therefore been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected from their crystals. The data were processed using XDS. The inorganic pyrosphosphatase crystals diffracted to 2.80 Å and the Ser/Thr phosphatase crystals to 2.65 Å. Initial structure-solution experiments indicate that structure solution will be successful in both cases. Solving the structure of the proteins involved in this cascade is the first step towards understanding this phenomenon in atomic detail.

  19. Mucosal vaccination promotes clearance of Streptococcus agalactiae vaginal colonization.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jacqueline A; Lewis, Emma L; Byland, Leah M; Bonakdar, Maryam; Randis, Tara M; Ratner, Adam J

    2017-03-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants, and colonization of the maternal genital tract is the primary risk factor for newborn infection. Despite the importance of mucosal colonization in GBS pathogenesis, relevant host and bacterial factors are incompletely understood. We investigated the role of humoral immunity in clearance of vaginal colonization in vivo. B-cell-deficient mice or those lacking neonatal Fc-receptor, a mediator of IgG transport to the vaginal mucosa, exhibit prolonged GBS vaginal colonization compared to wild type animals. Intranasal but not intramuscular immunization induced systemic and mucosal immune responses and decreased GBS colonization duration without altering initial colonization density. Vaccine-induced clearance of GBS was serotype-specific, suggesting a role for anti-capsule antibodies in protection. Our results support a role for humoral immunity in GBS eradication from the female genital tract and suggest that mucosal vaccination may prime colonization clearance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Antigenic determinants of alpha-like proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Maeland, Johan A; Bevanger, Lars; Lyng, Randi Valsoe

    2004-11-01

    The majority of group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates express one or more of a family of surface-anchored proteins that vary by strain and that form ladder-like patterns on Western blotting due to large repeat units. These proteins, which are important as GBS serotype markers and as inducers of protective antibodies, include the alpha C (Calpha) and R4 proteins and the recently described alpha-like protein 2 (Alp2), encoded by alp2, and Alp3, encoded by alp3. In this study, we examined antigenic determinants possessed by Alp2 and Alp3 by testing of antibodies raised in rabbits, mainly by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and an ELISA absorption test. The results showed that Alp2 and Alp3 shared an antigenic determinant, which may be a unique immunological marker of the Alp variants of GBS proteins. Alp2, in addition, possessed an antigenic determinant which showed specificity for Alp2 and a third determinant which showed serological cross-reactivity with Calpha. Alp3, in addition to the determinant common to Alp2 and Alp3, harbored an antigenic site which also was present in the R4 protein, whereas no Alp3-specific antigenic site was detected. These ELISA-based results were confirmed by Western blotting and a fluorescent-antibody test. The results are consistent with highly complex antigenic structures of the alpha-like proteins in a fashion which is in agreement with the recently described structural mosaicism of the alp2 and alp3 genes. The results are expected to influence GBS serotyping, immunoprotection studies, and GBS vaccine developments.

  1. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus agalactiae NEM316

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Revathi; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2014-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an essential enzyme involved in glycolysis. Despite lacking the secretory signal sequence, this cytosolic enzyme has been found localized at the surface of several bacteria and fungi. As a surface protein, GAPDH exhibits various adhesive functions, thereby facilitating colonization and invasion of host tissues. Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group B streptococcus (GBS), binds onto the host using its surface adhesins and causes sepsis and pneumonia in neonates. GAPDH is one of the surface adhesins of GBS binding to human plasminogen and is a virulent factor associated with host colonization. Although the surface-associated GAPDH has been shown to bind to a variety of host extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in various bacteria, the molecular mechanism underlying their interaction is not fully understood. To investigate this, structural studies on GAPDH of S. agalactiae were initiated. The gapC gene of S. agalactiae NEM316 encoding GAPDH protein was cloned into pET-28a vector, overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The GAPDH crystals obtained in two different crystallization conditions diffracted to 2.8 and 2.6 Å resolution, belonging to two different space groups P21 and P212121, respectively. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is now in progress. PMID:25005093

  2. Nile Tilapia Infectivity by Genomically Diverse Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), is recognized for causing cattle mastitis, human neonatal meningitis, and fish meningo-encephalitis. We investigated the genomic diversity of GBS isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regions using serological t...

  3. Major surfome and secretome profile of Streptococcus agalactiae from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Insight into vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hai-Qing; He, Run-Zhen; Li, Yan-Wei; Su, You-Lu; Li, An-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major piscine pathogen that is responsible for huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry. Safe recombinant vaccines, based on a small number of antigenic proteins, are emerging as the most attractive, cost-effective solution against S. agalactiae. The proteins of S. agalactiae exposed to the environment, including surface proteins and secretory proteins, are important targets for the immune system and they are likely to be good vaccine candidates. To obtain a precise profile of its surface proteins, S. agalactiae strain THN0901, which was isolated from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was treated with proteinase K to cleave surface-exposed proteins, which were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Forty surface-associated proteins were identified, including ten proteins containing cell wall-anchoring motifs, eight lipoproteins, eleven membrane proteins, seven secretory proteins, three cytoplasmic proteins, and one unknown protein. In addition, culture supernatant proteins of S. agalactiae were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and all of the Coomassie-stained bands were subsequently identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of twenty-six extracellular proteins were identified, including eleven secretory proteins, seven cell wall proteins, three membrane proteins, two cytoplasmic proteins and three unknown proteins. Of these, six highly expressed surface-associated and secretory proteins are putative to be vaccine candidate of piscine S. agalactiae. Moreover, immunogenic secreted protein, a highly expressed protein screened from the secretome in the present study, was demonstrated to induce high antibody titer in tilapia, and it conferred protection against S. agalactiae, as evidenced by the relative percent survival (RPS) 48.61± 8.45%. The data reported here narrow the scope of screening protective antigens, and provide guidance in the development of a novel

  4. Additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae capsular type Ib: is genetic resistance correlated?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus (S.) iniae and S. agalactiae are both economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens affecting the globally farmed tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Historically control of these bacteria in tilapia culture has included biosecurity, therapeutants and vaccination strategies. Genet...

  5. An Evaluation of a Teat Dip with Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid in Preventing Bovine Mammary Gland Infection from Experimental Exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, D. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Brooks, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of a teat dip with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (1.94%) for the prevention of intramammary infections was determined in cows experimentally challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. The infection rates with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus were 62.5% and 75% in undipped quarters, 12.5% and 21.5% in dipped quarters with a reduction rate of 80% and 71% respectively. The significance of some findings in relation to mastitis control are discussed. PMID:17422110

  6. Correlation of Serotypes and Genotypes of Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Youl; Jang, In Ho; Hwang, Gyu Yel; Yoon, Kap Jun

    2005-01-01

    Despite the necessity for studies of group B streptococci (GBS), due to the increase in serious adult infections, the emergence of new serotypes, and the increased resistance to macrolide antibiotics, such studies have been limited in Korea. The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency trends of GBS serotypes, including serotypes VI, VII, and VIII. The final objective was to elucidate the relationship between the genotypes and serotypes of macrolide-resistant GBS isolates from a Korean population. Among 446 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, isolated between January 1990 and December 2002 in Korea, the frequency of serotypes were III (36.5%), Ib (22.0%), V (21.1%), Ia (9.6%), VI (4.3%), II (1.8%), VIII (1.3%), IV (1.1%), and VII (0.9%). The resistance rates to erythromycin, by serotype, were 85% (V), 23% (III), 21% (VI), 3% (Ib), and 2% (Ia). Of 135 erythromycin-resistant S. agalactiae, ermB was detected in 105 isolates, mefA in 20 isolates, and ermTR in seven isolates; most type V isolates harbored the ermB gene, Ib type isolates had an equal distribution of resistance genes, type III isolates accounted for 70% of all isolates carrying mefA genes, and one fourth of type VI isolates had mefA genes. PMID:16127771

  7. Streptococcus agalactiae Endophthalmitis in Boston Keratoprosthesis in a Patient with Steven-Johnson Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Humoud M; Talea, Mohammed; Kirat, Omar; Stone, Donald U; May, William N; Kozak, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old Syrian male with a previous episode of Stevens-Johnson syndrome with bilateral corneal cicatrization previously underwent surgery for Type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis (K-Pro). Sixteen months after the K-Pro surgery, the patient presented with decreased vision to hand motion and microbial keratitis of the graft around the K-Pro with purulent discharge. Corneal scrapings were nonrevealing. B-scan in 3 days showed increased debris in the vitreous cavity and thickened retinochoroidal layer. Intravitreal tap and injections of vancomycin and ceftazidime were performed. The vitreous culture revealed β-hemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae; fungal cultures were negative. Repeat B-scan 3 days later demonstrated decreased vitreous opacity, and the patient felt more comfortable and was without pain. His visual acuity improved to 20/70, ocular findings have been stable for 9 months, and the patient continues to be monitored.

  8. Changes in immunoglobulin levels in whey during experimental Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mackie, D P; Logan, E F

    1986-03-01

    Total protein and immunoglobulin levels in the wheys of eight first lactation heifers, four vaccinated and four unvaccinated, were measured during three consecutive experimental intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae. There were no significant differences between infections 1, 2 and 3 in the protein or immunoglobulin content of the uninfected quarters. Peak whey total protein of the infected quarters came earlier with each infection, until by the third they were seen after eight hours. During this acute phase a reversal of the normal milk IgG1/IgG2 ratio in all infected quarters was measured. Increases in whey IgA and IgM in the infected quarters of the vaccinates were also noted. A similar response only occurred following the third infection of the unvaccinated animals. All whey immunoglobulin levels returned to normal by 48 hours after infection, after which only IgG1 levels increased in infected quarters.

  9. NSR from Streptococcus agalactiae confers resistance against nisin and is encoded by a conserved nsr operon.

    PubMed

    Khosa, Sakshi; AlKhatib, Zainab; Smits, Sander H J

    2013-11-01

    Nisin is a lantibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), which is active against many Gram-positive bacteria. However, in various pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, the presence of a nisin resistance protein (NSR) confers resistance against nisin. Here, we show that NSR from Streptococcus agalactiae (SaNSR) confers 20-fold resistance when expressed in L. lactis. We also show that SaNSR is encoded by an operon structure comprising of a lipoprotein and an ATP-binding cassette transporter as well as a two-component system that is putatively involved in expression and regulation. This organization of the operon is conserved in several (non)pathogenic strains that do not produce nisin themselves.

  10. Streptococcus agalactiae Endophthalmitis in Boston Keratoprosthesis in a Patient with Steven–Johnson Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaibi, Humoud M.; Talea, Mohammed; Kirat, Omar; Stone, Donald U.; May, William N.; Kozak, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old Syrian male with a previous episode of Stevens-Johnson syndrome with bilateral corneal cicatrization previously underwent surgery for Type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis (K-Pro). Sixteen months after the K-Pro surgery, the patient presented with decreased vision to hand motion and microbial keratitis of the graft around the K-Pro with purulent discharge. Corneal scrapings were nonrevealing. B-scan in 3 days showed increased debris in the vitreous cavity and thickened retinochoroidal layer. Intravitreal tap and injections of vancomycin and ceftazidime were performed. The vitreous culture revealed β-hemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae; fungal cultures were negative. Repeat B-scan 3 days later demonstrated decreased vitreous opacity, and the patient felt more comfortable and was without pain. His visual acuity improved to 20/70, ocular findings have been stable for 9 months, and the patient continues to be monitored. PMID:27994401

  11. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus agalactiae strains colonizing the same pregnant woman.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ruiz, M.; Rodríguez-Granger, J. M.; Bautista-Marín, M. F.; Romero-Noguera, J.; Rosa-Fraile, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SmaI-DNA digests and serotyping was performed on 15 colonies of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) from each of 30 vaginal rectal colonized women. Five distinct GBS serotypes were observed among the 30 specimens (Ia, Ib, II, III and V). In 29 of the 30 samples, the same serotype was observed among all 15 colonies; in the remaining specimen, the 15 colonies yielded two serotypes (II and V). The PFGE profiles of all colonies in 27 of the 30 subjects were indistinguishable within each subject. In the remaining women, different DNA profiles were identified among the colonies in each specimen, one of whom carried two different serotypes. Furthermore, strains of the same serotype belonging to different women were genetically heterogeneous. PMID:15061514

  12. A streptococcal NRAMP homologue is crucial for the survival of Streptococcus agalactiae under low pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Shabayek, Sarah; Bauer, Richard; Mauerer, Stefanie; Mizaikoff, Boris; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts as well as a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis. Maternal vaginal carriage is the main source for GBS transmission and thus the most important risk factor for neonatal disease. Several studies in eukaryotes identified a group of proteins natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) that function as divalent cation transporters for Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) and confer on macrophages the ability to control replication of bacterial pathogens. Genome sequencing predicted potential NRAMP homologues in several prokaryotes. Here we describe for the first time, a pH-regulated NRAMP Mn(2+) /Fe(2+) transporter in GBS, designated MntH, which confers resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is crucial for bacterial growth and survival under low pH conditions. Our investigation implicates MntH as an important colonization determinant for GBS in the maternal vagina as it helps bacteria to adapt to the harsh acidic environment, facilitates bacterial adherence, contributes to the coexistence with the vaginal microbiota and plays a role in GBS intracellular survival inside macrophages.

  13. RovS and Its Associated Signaling Peptide Form a Cell-To-Cell Communication System Required for Streptococcus agalactiae Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaudu, Philippe; Fleuchot, Betty; Besset, Colette; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Gardan, Rozenn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Bacteria can communicate with each other to coordinate their biological functions at the population level. In a previous study, we described a cell-to-cell communication system in streptococci that involves a transcriptional regulator belonging to the Rgg family and short hydrophobic peptides (SHPs) that act as signaling molecules. Streptococcus agalactiae, an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium responsible for fatal infections in neonates and immunocompromised adults, has one copy of the shp/rgg locus. The SHP-associated Rgg is called RovS in S. agalactiae. In this study, we found that the SHP/RovS cell-to-cell communication system is active in the strain NEM316 of S. agalactiae, and we identified different partners that are involved in this system, such as the Eep peptidase, the PptAB, and the OppA1-F oligopeptide transporters. We also identified a new target gene controlled by this system and reexamined the regulation of a previously proposed target gene, fbsA, in the context of the SHP-associated RovS system. Furthermore, our results are the first to indicate the SHP/RovS system specificity to host liver and spleen using a murine model, which demonstrates its implication in streptococci virulence. Finally, we observed that SHP/RovS regulation influences S. agalactiae’s ability to adhere to and invade HepG2 hepatic cells. Hence, the SHP/RovS cell-to-cell communication system appears to be an essential mechanism that regulates pathogenicity in S. agalactiae and represents an attractive target for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Importance  Rgg regulators and their cognate pheromones, called small hydrophobic peptides (SHPs), are present in nearly all streptococcal species. The general pathways of the cell-to-cell communication system in which Rgg and SHP take part are well understood. However, many other players remain unidentified, and the direct targets of the system, as well as its link to virulence, remain unclear. Here, we

  14. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for monitoring Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and tissue tropism in experimentally infected tilapia.

    PubMed

    Su, Y-L; Feng, J; Li, Y-W; Bai, J-S; Li, A-X

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae has become one of the most important emerging pathogens in the aquaculture industry and has resulted in large economic losses for tilapia farms in China. In this study, three pairs of specific primers were designed and tested for their specificities and sensitivities in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) after optimization of the annealing temperature. The primer pair IGS-s/IGS-a, which targets the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, was finally chosen, having a detection limit of 8.6 copies of S. agalactiae DNA in a 20 μL reaction mixture. Bacterial tissue tropism was demonstrated by qPCR in Oreochromis niloticus 5 days post-injection with a virulent S. agalactiae strain. Bacterial loads were detected at the highest level in brain, followed by moderately high levels in kidney, heart, spleen, intestines, and eye. Significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in muscle, gill and liver. In addition, significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in the brain of convalescent O. niloticus 14 days post-injection with several different S. agalactiae strains. The qPCR for the detection of S. agalactiae developed in this study provides a quantitative tool for investigating bacterial tissue tropism in infected fish, as well as for monitoring bacterial colonization in convalescent fish.

  15. A novel C5a-derived immunobiotic peptide reduces Streptococcus agalactiae colonization through targeted bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Courtney K; Patras, Kathryn A; Zlamal, Jaime E; Thoman, Marilyn L; Morgan, Edward L; Sanderson, Sam D; Doran, Kelly S

    2013-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes the cervicovaginal tract in approximately 25% of healthy women. Although colonization is asymptomatic, GBS can be vertically transmitted to newborns peripartum, causing severe disease such as pneumonia and meningitis. Current prophylaxis, consisting of late gestation screening and intrapartum antibiotics, has failed to completely prevent transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in the United States. Lack of an effective vaccine and emerging antibiotic resistance necessitate exploring novel therapeutic strategies. We have employed a host-directed immunomodulatory therapy using a novel peptide, known as EP67, derived from the C-terminal region of human complement component C5a. Previously, we have demonstrated in vivo that EP67 engagement of the C5a receptor (CD88) effectively limits staphylococcal infection by promoting cytokine release and neutrophil infiltration. Here, using our established mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, we observed that EP67 treatment results in rapid clearance of GBS from the murine vagina. However, this was not dependent on functional neutrophil recruitment or CD88 signaling, as EP67 treatment reduced the vaginal bacterial load in mice lacking CD88 or the major neutrophil receptor CXCr2. Interestingly, we found that EP67 inhibits GBS growth in vitro and in vivo and that antibacterial activity was specific to Streptococcus species. Our work establishes that EP67-mediated clearance of GBS is likely due to direct bacterial killing rather than to enhanced immune stimulation. We conclude that EP67 may have potential as a therapeutic to control GBS vaginal colonization.

  16. Phenotypic and Molecular Characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates Recovered from Milk of Dairy Cows in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Rafael S.; Miranda, Otávio P.; Bellei, Bruna C.; Brito, Maria Aparecida V. P.; Teixeira, Lúcia M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae obtained from bovine sources in Brazil is still very limited. The aim of this study was to assess the phenotypic and genotypic diversity among S. agalactiae isolates from milk of dairy cows presenting clinical or subclinical mastitis in the southeast region of Brazil. Phenotypic characterization was based on physiological and serological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out by the disk method. Genetic diversity was evaluated by using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) (by using the primer 1254) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (by using SmaI as the restriction enzyme) and by PCRs for detection of genes associated with resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline as well as PCRs for detection of genes coding for cell surface-associated proteins. According to the results of physiologic tests, 45 (52.9%) isolates showed beta-hemolysis and 44 (51.7%) were susceptible to bacitracin. Fourteen different biotypes were detected. The two most frequent biotypes comprised strains that were non-beta-hemolytic; fermented galactose, lactose, and salicin; produced protease; and were negative for DNase production. Serotype III was predominant (66 isolates [77.6%]), followed by serotypes II, Ia, Ib, and VI. Resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 38 (44.7%) and 9 (10.5%) isolates, respectively, with tet(O) (31.7%) and erm(B) (100%) being the most frequently occurring resistance genes. Three genes coding for surface proteins, bca, lmb, and scpB, were detected in 55 (64.7%), 7 (8.2%), and 43 (50.5%) isolates, respectively. In most cases, isolates from animals in the same herd presented closely related genetic profiles (determined by either RAPD-PCR or PFGE), which were distinct from those of isolates from different herds. PMID:15365014

  17. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Causing Community- and Hospital-Acquired Infections in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haoqin; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Tianming; Liu, Hong; Gong, Ye; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, a colonizing agent in pregnant women and the main cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, has been increasingly associated with invasive disease in nonpregnant adults. We collected a total of 87 non-repetitive S. agalactiae isolates causing community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in nonpregnant adults from a teaching hospital in Shanghai between 2009 and 2013. We identified and characterized their antibiotic resistance, sequence type (ST), serotype, virulence, and biofilm formation. The most frequent STs were ST19 (29.9%), ST23 (16.1%), ST12 (13.8%), and ST1 (12.6%). ST19 had significantly different distributions between CA- and HA-group B Streptococci (GBS) isolates. The most frequent serotypes were III (32.2%), Ia (26.4%), V (14.9%), Ib (13.8%), and II (5.7%). Serotype III/ST19 was significantly associated with levofloxacin resistance in all isoates. The HA-GBS multidrug resistant rate was much higher than that of CA-GBS. Virulence genes pavA, cfb were found in all isolates. Strong correlations exist between serotype Ib (CA and HA) and surface protein genes spb1 and bac, serotype III (HA) and surface protein gene cps and GBS pilus cluster. The serotype, epidemic clone, PFGE-based genotype, and virulence gene are closely related between CA-GBS and HA-GBS, and certain serotypes and clone types were significantly associated with antibiotic resistance. However, CA-GBS and HA-GBS still had significant differences in their distribution of clone types, antibiotic resistance, and specific virulence genes, which may provide a basis for infection control. PMID:27625635

  18. L-proline increases survival of tilapias infected by Streptococcus agalactiae in higher water temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-Liang; Han, Yi; Ren, Shi-Tong; Ma, Yan-Mei; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcosis causes massive tilapia kills, which results in heavy economic losses of tilapia farming industry. Out of the Streptococcosis, Streptococcus agalactiae is the major pathogen. The bacterium causes higher mortality of tilapias in higher than lower temperatures. However, effect of temperature on metabolic regulation which is related to the mortality is largely unknown. The present study showed 50% and 70% mortality of tilapias cultured in 25 °C and 30 °C, respectively, in comparison with no death in 20 °C following infection caused by S. agalactiae. Then, GC/MS based metabolomics was used to investigate a global metabolic response of tilapia liver to the two higher water temperatures compared to 20 °C. Thirty-six and forty-five varied abundance of metabolites were identified in livers of tilapias cultured at 25 °C and 30 °C, respectively. More decreasing abundance of amino acids and increasing abundance of carbohydrates were detected in 30 °C than 25 °C groups. On the other hand, out of the pathways enriched, the first five biggest impact pathways belong to amino acid metabolism. Decreasing abundance of l-proline was identified as a crucial biomarker for indexing higher water temperature and a potential modulator to reduce the high death. This was validated by engineering injection or oral addition of l-proline. Exogenous l-proline led to elevated amino acid metabolism, which contributes to the elevated survivals. Our findings provide a potential metabolic modulator for controlling the disease, and shed some light on host metabolic prevention to infectious diseases.

  19. Efficacy of spray administration of formalin-killed Streptococcus agalactiae in hybrid Red Tilapia.

    PubMed

    Noraini, O; Sabri, M Y; Siti-Zahrah, A

    2013-06-01

    An initial evaluation of spray vaccination was carried out with 60 hybrid Red Tilapia Oreochromis spp., divided into three groups that consisted of 10 fish per group with duplicates. The formalin-killed cells (FKCs) of Streptococcus agalactiae were administered once to group 1 by spray and once daily for five consecutive days to group 2. Group 3 remained as the untreated control group and was sprayed with normal saline. A booster was given twice to all the groups, once at the second week and again at the fourth week after the first vaccination. After this initial evaluation, a challenge study was conducted with 40 tilapia divided into two groups that consisted of 10 fish per group with duplicates. Group 1 was vaccinated with FKCs of S. agalactiae by a single spray administration while group 2 remained as the untreated control group. A booster was given twice using the same protocol as in the initial evaluation. After 6 weeks, fish from one of the duplicate tanks from each of groups 1 and 2 were challenged with pathogenic S. agalactiae by intraperitoneal (IP) injection, while fish in another tank were challenged through immersion. Based on the observations, serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the challenged fish than in the either the preexposed fish or the control group 1 week after the initial exposure. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were noted between challenged groups 1 and 2. In addition, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between the frequencies of exposure. The mucus IgM level, however, remained high after each booster until the end of the 8-week study period. Meanwhile, serum IgM levels decreased after the challenge. A higher percentage of survival was noted for fish challenged through immersion (80%) compared with IP injection (70%). These results suggested that single spray exposure was able to induce IgM, which gave moderate to high protection during the challenge study.

  20. Serotypes, Antibiotic Susceptibilities, and Multi-Locus Sequence Type Profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates Circulating in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiu-hua; Song, Feng-li; Fan, Ling; Guo, Cui-mei; Shi, Wei; Yu, Sang-jie; Yao, Kai-hu; Yang, Yong-hong

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type (MLST) profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in Beijing to provide references for the prevention and treatment of S. agalactiae infections. Methods All isolates were identified using the CAMP test and the latex-agglutination assay and serotyped using a Strep-B-Latex kit, after which they were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, macrolide-resistance genes, and MLST profiles. Results In total, 56 S. agalactiae isolates were identified in 863 pregnant women (6.5%). Serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V were identified, among which types III (32.1%), Ia (17.9%), Ib (16.1%), and V (14.3%) were the predominant serotypes. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone. The nonsusceptiblity rates measured for erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were 85.7%, 92.9%, 98.2%, 30.4%, 73.2%, 91%, and 39.3%, respectively. We identified 14 sequence types (STs) for the 56 isolates, among which ST19 (30.4%) was predominant. The rate of fluoroquinolone resistance was higher in serotype III than in the other serotypes. Among the 44 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 32 (72.7%) carried ermB. Conclusion S. agalactiae isolates of the serotypes Ia, Ib, III, and V are common in Beijing. Among the S. agalactiae isolates, the macrolide and clindamycin resistance rates are extremely high. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates carry ermB. PMID:25781346

  1. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen.

  2. Rare serotype occurrence and PFGE genotypic diversity of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Wang, Rui; Liang, Wanwen; Gan, Xi; Huang, Ting; Huang, Yan; Li, Jian; Shi, Yunliang; Chen, Ming; Luo, Honglin

    2013-12-27

    Previously, we reported 10 PEGE types of 85 tilapia Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), which shifted from Streptococcus iniae in China, by using PEGE method. Presently, larger and more representative tilapia GBS were isolated, for the first time in China, to characterize their serotypes and genetic diversities more precisely than had done before. 168 GBS strains were distributed in five provinces of China, in which Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan were the major ones, holding 36.9% (62/168), 37.5% (63/168) and 19.6% (33/168), respectively. Serotypes, Ia, Ib and III, were observed in these strains and the most predominant one was Ia (95.2%), which mainly distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan. Ia initially occurred in 2009, it shoot up to 32.1% in 2010, but decreased to 16.1% in 2011 before went up to 45.2% in 2012. Ib sporadically occurred during 2007-2011, III only occurred in 2012. 14 different PFGE types, including 4 new types (N, O, P and Q), were observed, in which B, D, F and G were the predominant types, holding 83.9% (141/168) of the total GBS strains. Ia corresponded to 11 PFGE types (A-H, N-P), in which type D predominated (51%). Ib represented 3 genotypes (I, J and Q) and III harbored only 2 genotypes (N and F). Type N and F synchronously presented in Ia and III. In summary, the genetic diversity of tilapia GBS varied by serotypes and changed with geographical locations and years. Although Ia still predominated, new rare serotype III already occurred in China.

  3. Streptococcus agalactiae from pregnant women: antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance mechanisms and molecular typing.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Bezares, B; Azcona-Gutiérrez, J M; Martin, C; Jareño, M S; Torres, C; Sáenz, Y

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance mechanisms, virulence genes and clonal relationships of macrolide- and/or lincosamide-resistant (M+/-LR) Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) isolates from pregnant women in La Rioja in Northern Spain, a region with a significant immigrant population. In total 375 GBS isolates were recovered during 2011. About three-quarters of isolates were from European nationals and the remainder distributed among 23 other nationalities. Seventy-five (20%) were classified as M+/-LR strains and 28 (37%) of these were resistant to ⩾3 classes of antibiotics. Capsular serotypes III (29·3%), V (21·3%) and II (12%) were the most frequent. A wide variety of antibiotic resistance genes were detected in M+/-LR strains; notably, 5·3% harboured the lsa(C) gene associated with cross-resistance, and tet(W) was identified in a single strain. We report, for the first time, the detection of cadmium and copper resistance encoded by tcrB + cadA + cadC genes in 20 M+/-LR strains, which raises the possibility of co-selection of antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance disseminated through mobile genetic elements. The M+/-LR strains were highly diverse by DNA macrorestriction profiles (65 patterns) and 16 multilocus sequence types (STs) distributed among six clonal complexes; the most frequent were ST1, ST19, and ST12, and two strains were novel (ST586 and ST601). In conclusion, a wide diversity of genetic lineages of macrolide, lincosamide and heavy-metal- resistant GBS strains was observed in an ethnically diverse maternal population.

  4. Maternal colonisation with Streptococcus agalactiae, and associated stillbirth and neonatal disease in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Anna C; Koech, Angela C; Sheppard, Anna E; Barsosio, Hellen C; Langat, Joyce; Anyango, Emily; Mwakio, Stella; Mwarumba, Salim; Morpeth, Susan C; Anampiu, Kirimi; Vaughan, Alison; Giess, Adam; Mogeni, Polycarp; Walusuna, Leahbell; Mwangudzah, Hope; Mwanzui, Doris; Salim, Mariam; Kemp, Bryn; Jones, Caroline; Mturi, Neema; Tsofa, Benjamin; Mumbo, Edward; Mulewa, David; Bandika, Victor; Soita, Musimbi; Owiti, Maureen; Onzere, Norris; Walker, A Sarah; Schrag, Stephanie J; Kennedy, Stephen H; Fegan, Greg; Crook, Derrick W; Berkley, James A

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes neonatal disease and stillbirth, but its burden in sub-Saharan Africa is uncertain. We assessed maternal recto-vaginal GBS colonisation (7967 women), stillbirth and neonatal disease. Whole genome sequencing was used to determine serotypes, sequence types (ST), and phylogeny. We found low maternal GBS colonisation prevalence (934/7967, 12%), but comparatively high incidence of GBS-associated stillbirth and early onset neonatal disease (EOD) in hospital (0.91(0.25-2.3)/1000 births; 0.76(0.25-1.77)/1000 live-births respectively). However, using a population denominator, EOD incidence was considerably reduced (0.13(0.07-0.21)/1000 live-births). Treated cases of EOD had very high case fatality (17/36, 47%), especially within 24 hours of birth, making under-ascertainment of community-born cases highly likely, both here and in similar facility-based studies. Maternal GBS colonisation was less common in women with low socio-economic status, HIV infection and undernutrition, but when GBS-colonised, they were more likely colonised by the most virulent clone, CC17. CC17 accounted for 267/915(29%) of maternal colonising (265/267(99%) serotype III, 2/267(0.7%) serotype IV), and 51/73(70%) of neonatal disease cases (all serotype III). Trivalent (Ia/II/III) and pentavalent (Ia/Ib/II/III/V) vaccines would cover 71/73(97%) and 72/73(99%) of disease-causing serotypes respectively. Serotype IV should be considered for inclusion, with evidence of capsular switching in CC17 strains. PMID:27572968

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae CspA is a serine protease that inactivates chemokines.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Joshua D; Shelver, Daniel W

    2009-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) remains a leading cause of invasive infections in neonates and has emerged as a pathogen of the immunocompromised and elderly populations. The virulence mechanisms of GBS are relatively understudied and are still poorly understood. Previous evidence indicated that the GBS cspA gene is necessary for full virulence and the cleavage of fibrinogen. The predicted cspA product displays homology to members of the extracellular cell envelope protease family. CXC chemokines, many of which can recruit neutrophils to sites of infection, are important signaling peptides of the immune system. In this study, we purified CspA and demonstrated that it readily cleaved the CXC chemokines GRO-alpha, GRO-beta, GRO-gamma, neutrophil-activating peptide 2 (NAP-2), and granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2) but did not cleave interleukin-8. CspA did not cleave a panel of other test substrates, suggesting that it possesses a certain degree of specificity. CXC chemokines also underwent cleavage by whole GBS cells in a cspA-dependent manner. CspA abolished the abilities of three representative CXC chemokines, GRO-gamma, NAP-2, and GCP-2, to attract and activate neutrophils. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicated that CspA is a serine protease with S575 at its active site. D180 was also implicated as part of the signature serine protease catalytic triad, and both S575 and D180 were required for both N-terminal and C-terminal autocatalytic processing of CspA.

  6. Structure of the Streptococcus agalactiae family II inorganic pyrophosphatase at 2.80 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Mika K; Lehtiö, Lari; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Rubens, Craig E; Goldman, Adrian

    2007-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, a prokaryote that causes infections in neonates and immunocompromised adults, has a serine/threonine protein kinase (STK) signalling cascade. The structure of one of the targets, a family II inorganic pyrophosphatase, has been solved by molecular replacement and refined at 2.80 A resolution to an R factor of 19.2% (R(free) = 26.7%). The two monomers in the asymmetric unit are related by a noncrystallographic twofold axis, but the biological dimer is formed by a crystallographic twofold. Each monomer contains the pyrophosphate analogue imidodiphosphate (PNP) and three metal ions per active site: two Mn(2+) ions in sites M1 and M2 and an Mg(2+) ion in site M3. The enzyme is in the closed conformation. Like other family II enzymes, the structure consists of two domains (residues 1-191 and 198-311), with the active site located between them. The conformation of Lys298 in the active site is different from those observed previously and it coordinates to the conserved DHH motif in a unique way. The structure suggests that Ser150, Ser194, Ser195 and Ser296 are the most likely targets for the Ser/Thr kinase and phosphatase because they are surface-accessible and either in the active site or in the hinge region between the two domains.

  7. [Distribution of capsular types and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae causing infections in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Pérez, J; Limansky, A; Toresani, I; Ebner, G; Di Bartolomeo, S; de Inocenti, I; Pretto, G; Salazar, N; Laferrara, M; Bottiglieri, M; Ballester, D; Morales, M; Rivera, L; Cacace, M L; Castro, H; Roldán, L; Notario, R; Borda, N; Cera, G; Spoletti, M J; Gregorini, E; Sutich, E G

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an endogenous bacterium that has emerged in the last 20 years as an etiological agent in both neonatal and perinatal infections, and in immunocompromised patients. The differentiation of the capsular polysaccharide, the presence of surface proteins c, X, R, and molecular methods allow classification in serotypes and genotypes. This identification is a useful tool for epidemiological purposes and virulence studies in this bacterium. The objective of this work was to study the serotypes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates recovered from invasive diseases in different areas of Argentina. In the analyzed sample a fair predominance of Ia and III serotypes was recovered, followed by II and IV serotypes. All the isolates were found to be sensitive to penicillin. A 6% of resistance to erythromycin and a 4.5% to clindamycin were detected. In three of the isolates, constitutive MLS phenotype (resistance to macrolides, lincosamins and streptogramins) was founded, while in the remaining one, inducible MLS phenotype was detected. These results stress the importance of conducting a surveillance of the prevalent serotypes in our country with the goal of future prevention of this disease with an effective vaccine. The knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile will be also important to obtain therapeutic success in the treatment.

  8. Uncaria tomentosa increases growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Yunis-Aguinaga, Jefferson; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; de Moraes, Julieta R Engrácia; de Moraes, Flávio R; Fernandes, João B K

    2015-11-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is an Amazon herb using in native cultures in Peru. In mammals, it has been described several effects of this herb. However, this is the first report of its use on the diet of fish. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of this plant on the growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus. Nile tilapia (81.3 ± 4.5 g) were distributed into 5 groups and supplemented with 0 (non-supplement fish), 75, 150, 300, and 450 mg of U. tomentosa.kg(-1) of diet for a period of 28 days. Fish were inoculated in the swim bladder with inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae and samples were taken at 6, 24, and 48 h post inoculation (HPI). Dose dependent increases were noted in some of the evaluated times of thrombocytes and white blood cells counts (WBC) in blood and exudate, burst respiratory activity, lysozyme activity, melanomacrophage centers count (MMCs), villi length, IgM by immunohistochemistry in splenic tissue, and unexpectedly on growth parameters. However, dietary supplementation of this herb did not affect red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin, and there were no observed histological lesions in gills, intestine, spleen, and liver. The current results demonstrate for the first time that U. tomentosa can stimulate fish immunity and improve growth performance in Nile tilapia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Eugenol against Streptococcus agalactiae and Synergistic Interaction with Biologically Produced Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Perugini Biasi-Garbin, Renata; Saori Otaguiri, Eliane; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Fernandes da Silva, Mayara; Belotto Morguette, Ana Elisa; Armando Contreras Lancheros, César; Kian, Danielle; Perugini, Márcia Regina Eches; Nakazato, Gerson; Durán, Nelson; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci (GBS)) is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in GBS-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. However, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among GBS, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat GBS infections. This study reported for the first time the effect of eugenol on GBS isolated from colonized women, alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum (AgNPbio). Eugenol showed a bactericidal effect against planktonic cells of all GBS strains, and this effect appeared to be time-dependent as judged by the time-kill curves and viability analysis. Combination of eugenol with AgNPbio resulted in a strong synergistic activity, significantly reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration values of both compounds. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed fragmented cells and changes in bacterial morphology after incubation with eugenol. In addition, eugenol inhibited the viability of sessile cells during biofilm formation and in mature biofilms. These results indicate the potential of eugenol as an alternative for controlling GBS infections.

  10. Virulence factors, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Beigverdi, Reza; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Boroumandi, Shahram; Taherikalani, Morovat; Emaneini, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Forty-one Streptococcus agalactiae isolates collected from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation were analysed for their capsular types, antimicrobial resistance determinants, distribution of virulence factors and genetic relatedness using PCR and multiplex PCR. Capsular type III was predominant (65.8%), followed by capsular type II (14.6%), Ib (7.3%), and V(4.9%). All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin were found in 97.6%, 24.4%, and 14.6% of isolates, respectively. The most common antimicrobial resistance gene was tetM found in 97.6% of the isolates followed by ermTR and ermB found in 12% and 7.3% of isolates, respectively. The most common virulence gene was hly (100%), followed by scpB (97.6%), bca (97.6%), rib (53.65%) and bac (4.9%). The insertion sequence IS1548 was found in 63.4% of isolates. By multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing, 30 different allelic profiles or MLVA types (MTs) were identified. The most frequent was the MT1 (5/41, 12.2%) and followed by MT2 (4/41, 9.75%). Our data revealed that population structure of these isolates is highly diverse and indicates different MLVA types.

  11. Effect of Eugenol against Streptococcus agalactiae and Synergistic Interaction with Biologically Produced Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Perugini Biasi-Garbin, Renata; Saori Otaguiri, Eliane; Fernandes da Silva, Mayara; Belotto Morguette, Ana Elisa; Armando Contreras Lancheros, César; Kian, Danielle; Perugini, Márcia Regina Eches; Durán, Nelson; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci (GBS)) is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in GBS-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. However, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among GBS, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat GBS infections. This study reported for the first time the effect of eugenol on GBS isolated from colonized women, alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum (AgNPbio). Eugenol showed a bactericidal effect against planktonic cells of all GBS strains, and this effect appeared to be time-dependent as judged by the time-kill curves and viability analysis. Combination of eugenol with AgNPbio resulted in a strong synergistic activity, significantly reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration values of both compounds. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed fragmented cells and changes in bacterial morphology after incubation with eugenol. In addition, eugenol inhibited the viability of sessile cells during biofilm formation and in mature biofilms. These results indicate the potential of eugenol as an alternative for controlling GBS infections. PMID:25945115

  12. Isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae and an aquatic birnavirus from doctor fish Garra rufa L

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The doctor fish, Garra rufa, has become increasingly popular as a treatment for skin disorders and for pedicures in recent years. Despite this there is very little information available regarding the welfare of these fish and the range of potential pathogens they may carry. In this study, a group of fish suffering from post-transport mortalities were examined and the isolated pathogens identified. Findings Group B Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from kidney swabs of the fish and found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. In addition to this, a fish virus belonging to the aquabirnavirus group, serogroup C was isolated for the first time in Ireland. However, no clinical signs of disease typical of bacterial or viral infections were observed in any fish examined. Conclusions As no clinical signs of disease attributable to either of the pathogens identified were found it was concluded that the mortalities were most likely due to transport related stress exacerbated by the presence of the pathogens. Further work is required to assess the suitability of current transport strategies and to examine the potential risk associated with the transport of live ornamental fish. PMID:24028334

  13. Validation of absolute quantitative real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae in fish.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Fernanda de A; Lemos, Eliana G M; Pilarski, Fabiana

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) are Gram-positive cocci responsible for substantial losses in tilapia fish farms in Brazil and worldwide. It causes septicemia, meningoencephalitis and mortality of whole shoals that can occur within 72 h. Thus, diagnostic methods are needed that are rapid, specific and sensitive. In this study, a pair of specific primers for GBS was generated based on the cfb gene sequence and initially evaluated by conventional PCR. The protocols for absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were then adapted to validate the technique for the identification and quantification of GBS isolated by real-time detection of amplicons using fluorescence measurements. Finally, an infectivity test was conducted in tilapia infected with GBS strains. Total DNA from the host brain was subjected to the same technique, and the strains were re-isolated to validate Koch's postulates. The assay showed 100% specificity for the other bacterial species evaluated and a sensitivity of 367 gene copies per 20 mg of brain tissue within 4 h, making this test a valuable tool for health monitoring programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The susceptibility of bovine udder quarters colonized with Corynebacterium bovis to experimental infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A

    1984-01-01

    Twenty bovine udder quarters colonized with Corynebacterium bovis SR6 and 20 uncolonized quarters were challenged by inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus Newbould 305 (ATCC 29740) into the teat cistern. The percentage of infection in quarters colonized with C. bovis (50%) was significantly lower than that in controls (100%). By similar challenge no significant difference was observed between the percentage of infection with Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 27956 in 33 quarters colonized with C. bovis (70%) compared to 33 controls (87.9%). A total of 37 quarters colonized with C. bovis and 37 control quarters were challenged with Staph. aureus Newbould 305 (ATCC 29740) and Maxi (ATCC 27543) and Strep. agalactiae (ATCC 27956) by exposure of the teat orifice. The percentage of teat ducts colonized with C. bovis which became infected with either pathogen was not different from that for controls. PMID:6372969

  15. vanG Element Insertions within a Conserved Chromosomal Site Conferring Vancomycin Resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus anginosus

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Knipe, Kristen M.; Ouattara, Mahamoudou; McGee, Lesley; Shewmaker, Patricia L.; Glennen, Anita; Nichols, Megin; Harris, Carol; Brimmage, Mary; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Park, Connie J.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Frace, Michael A.; Sammons, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three vancomycin-resistant streptococcal strains carrying vanG elements (two invasive Streptococcus agalactiae isolates [GBS-NY and GBS-NM, both serotype II and multilocus sequence type 22] and one Streptococcus anginosus [Sa]) were examined. The 45,585-bp elements found within Sa and GBS-NY were nearly identical (together designated vanG-1) and shared near-identity over an ~15-kb overlap with a previously described vanG element from Enterococcus faecalis. Unexpectedly, vanG-1 shared much less homology with the 49,321-bp vanG-2 element from GBS-NM, with widely different levels (50% to 99%) of sequence identity shared among 44 related open reading frames. Immediately adjacent to both vanG-1 and vanG-2 were 44,670-bp and 44,680-bp integrative conjugative element (ICE)-like sequences, designated ICE-r, that were nearly identical in the two group B streptococcal (GBS) strains. The dual vanG and ICE-r elements from both GBS strains were inserted at the same position, between bases 1328 and 1329, within the identical RNA methyltransferase (rumA) genes. A GenBank search revealed that although most GBS strains contained insertions within this specific site, only sequence type 22 (ST22) GBS strains contained highly related ICE-r derivatives. The vanG-1 element in Sa was also inserted within this position corresponding to its rumA homolog adjacent to an ICE-r derivative. vanG-1 insertions were previously reported within the same relative position in the E. faecalis rumA homolog. An ICE-r sequence perfectly conserved with respect to its counterpart in GBS-NY was apparent within the same site of the rumA homolog of a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain. Additionally, homologous vanG-like elements within the conserved rumA target site were evident in Roseburia intestinalis. PMID:25053786

  16. Screening vaccine candidate strains against Streptococcus agalactiae of tilapia based on PFGE genotype.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Rui; Li, Li-Ping; Liang, Wan-Wen; Li, Jian; Huang, Yan; Lei, Ai-Ying; Huang, Wei-Yi; Gan, Xi

    2012-09-14

    The immunogenicity identification of epidemic strain is important for the development and application of vaccine. In this study, 85 Streptococcus agalactiae prevalent strains from the tilapia main cultured areas of China were distributed among 10 distinct PFGE genotypes (A-J). For each genotype, one representative strain (S.a(A)-S.a(J)) was selected to develop an inactivated whole-cell bacterial vaccine (V(A)-V(J)), which then underwent a protective immunity test. V(A)-V(J) showed similar relative percent survival (RPS) to the homologous or heterologous strains with the identical genotype, while the average RPS among V(A)-V(J) protecting against itself genotype strains showed large differences (44.71-98.81%). The RPS of V(A)-V(J) vaccinated fish against infections by the mixture of S.a(A)-S.a(J) at 15 days post vaccination (dpv) was ranged from 13.33% to 60.00%, and V(B), V(D), V(F), and V(G) showed the highest RPS of 60.00%, 46.67%, 53.33% and 60.00% respectively. V(B), V(D) and V(G) have their own specific protection scope, V(B) showed strong protective immunity to infections caused by A-D, F, G and J (53.57-100%), and V(G) showed strong protective immunity to C-H and J (50.00-100%), whereas V(D) showed weak protective immunity to all non-self genotype strains (14.81-36.67%). The results of the combined vaccination showed that V(G)+V(B) group had wider protection scope and higher RPS value than V(G)+V(D) group. Our results demonstrated that the protective immunity of S. agalactiae from tilapia was not only associated with their serotypes, but also related to their PFGE genotypes. It is difficult to acquire a single vaccine candidate strain that can protect against all genotype strains from the same serotype.

  17. Méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae chez l'adulte non immunodéprimé

    PubMed Central

    Rafai, Mostafa; Chouaib, Naoufal; Zidouh, Saad; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae est un Streptocoque beta-hémolytique du groupe B (SGB), c'est un germe commensal occasionnel de la peau, du tube digestif et des voies génito-urinaires. Nous rapportons un cas inhabituel d'une méningo-encéphalite due au Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) multisensible à l'antibiogramme chez un sujet adulte immunocompétent admis au service des urgences pour prise en charge de troubles de conscience fébrile. L’évolution clinique et biologique à J10 était favorable et le patient à été transféré au service de neurologie pour complément de prise en charge secondaire. L'originalité de notre observation réside dans la rareté du type d'infection par ce germe puise qu'elle est la troisième à notre connaissance d'une méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae dans la littérature, c'est ainsi que même s'il est très rarement en cause, il doit être considéré comme une étiologie possible de méningo-encéphalite chez l'adulte en dehors de la grossesse, quelle que soit le statut immunitaire du patient, et sans méconnaitre le rôle du terrain sous-jacent dans l’émergence de cette pathologie infectieuse polymorphe est potentiellement grave. PMID:25995802

  18. Preliminary observations on the use of latex agglutination test for the detection of mastitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae in cows.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, R C; Barnum, D A

    1986-01-01

    A commercial latex agglutination test for the detection of Group B streptococcal antigens was used to detect infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae in whey of bovine milk samples. Fifteen out of 17 known infections were detected, but it was necessary to incubate the wheys at 37 degrees C for 18 hours in nine of the samples. It was found that the latex agglutination test could detect Group streptococcal carbohydrate antigens in whey samples from artificially infected quarters from one to four days after failure to detect the organism on culture or after antibiotic therapy of the affected quarter. PMID:3527389

  19. Presence and resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in vaginal specimens of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women and association with other aerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Numanović, Fatima; Smajlović, Jasmina; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Bektaš, Sabaheta; Halilović, Emir; Nurkić, Jasmina

    2017-02-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S. agalactiae and other aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion and microdilution method(VITEK 2/AES instrument). Results Among 200 vaginal swabs, 17 (8.50%) were positive for S. agalactiae, e. g., 7% (7/100) of pregnant and 10% (10/100) of adult non-pregnant women. In the pregnant group, 71.4% (5/7) of S. agalactiae isolates were susceptible to clindamycin and 85.7%(6/7) to erythromycin. In the adult non-pregnant group, only resistance to clindamycin was observed in one patient (1/10; 10%). S. agalactiae as single pathogen was isolated in 57.14% (4/7) of pregnant and 60% (6/10) of adult non-pregnant S. agalactiae positive women. In mixed microbial cultures S. agalactiae was most frequently associated with Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Conclusion The rate of S. agalactiae positive women in the population of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women of Tuzla Canton, B&H is comparable with other European countries. Large studies are needed to develop a common national strategy for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in B&H, especially during pregnancy.

  20. A commercial rapid optical immunoassay detects Streptococcus agalactiae from aquatic cultures and clinical specimens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The BioStar STREPT B Optical ImmunoAssay (OIA) (BioStar® OIA® Strep B Assay Kit; Biostar Incorporation; Louisville, CO, USA) was used to identify 32 known group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates of fish, dolphin, bovine, and human origin. Thirteen non-GBS isolates from fish and other animals were test...

  1. Prevalence and mechanisms of erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae from healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Sandra; Radhouani, Hajer; Coelho, Céline; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Carvalho, Eulália; Carvalho, José António; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda; Torres, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine the resistance phenotypes for erythromycin and clindamycin and the mechanisms implicated in 93 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from healthy pregnant women. Susceptibility testing for erythromycin, clindamycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, choramphenicol, ofloxacin, and meropenen was carried out by disc-diffusion test, and the E-test was also applied for erythromycin and clindamycin. The constitutive MLS(B) resistance (cMLS(B)) and inducible MLS(B) resistance (iMLS(B)) phenotypes, respectively, as well as the M resistance phenotype were determined by the erythromycin-clindamycin double-disc test. The presence of ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, and mef(A/E) macrolide resistance genes was studied by PCR. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was found in 15% and 9.6% of the isolates, respectively. The resistance phenotypes detected among the 14 erythromycin-resistant isolates were as follows (number of isolates): cMLS(B) (9), iMLS(B) (3), and M (2). The MICs for erythromycin and clindamycin were as follows: cMLS(B) isolates (128-256 and >or=32 mg/L, respectively), iMLS(B) isolates (16-256 and 1 mg/L), and M isolates (2-8 and 1 mg/L). The following combination of genes were detected among isolates with cMLS(B) or iMLS(B) phenotypes: erm(B) (6 isolates), ermA + ermTR (3), ermA + ermB + ermTR (1), and none of these genes (2). The two isolates with M phenotype harbored the mef(A/E), and msrA gene was also found in one of them.

  2. Molecular and bacteriological investigation of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in domestic bovids from Ismailia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Selim, Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in smallholder dairy farms in Ismailia, Egypt. A total of 340 milking cows and buffaloes were sampled from 60 farms, and 50 nasal swabs were collected from consenting farm workers. Milk samples were subjected to California mastitis test (CMT) and the positive samples were examined by bacterial culture and PCR to identify etiological agents. Based on CMT, the prevalence of SCM was 71.6 % in cattle and 43.5 % in buffaloes while the prevalence was 25.2 % at cow-quarter level and 21.7 % at buffaloes-quarter level. Bacteriological analysis showed that the most frequently identified bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (38.3 %) and Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (20 %). The diagnostic sensitivity of PCR compared to bacterial culture was superior with S. aureus and Str. agalactiae detection being 41 and 22.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains occurred in 52.2 and 45 % of isolates of animals and workers, respectively. Subclinical mastitis due to S. aureus and Str. agalactiae is endemic in smallholder dairy herds in Ismailia. The occurrence of MRSA in animals and workers highlights a need for wide epidemiological studies of MRSA and adopting control strategies.

  3. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy. PMID:27983591

  4. Liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde enhances zebrafish (Danio rerio) immunity and survival when challenged with Vibrio vulnificus and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Faikoh, Elok Ning; Hong, Yong-Han; Hu, Shao-Yang

    2014-05-01

    Cinnamaldehyde, which is extracted from cinnamon, is a natural compound with activity against bacteria and a modulatory immune function. However, the antibacterial activity and immunostimulation of cinnamaldehyde in fish has not been well investigated due to the compound's poor water solubility. Thus, liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde (LEC) was used to evaluate the effects of cinnamaldehyde on in vitro antibacterial activity against aquatic pathogens and in vivo immunity and protection parameters against Vibrio vulnificus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as well as bactericidal agar plate assay results demonstrated the effective bacteriostatic and bactericidal potency of LEC against Aeromonas hydrophila, V. vulnificus, and S. agalactiae, as well as the antibiotic-resistant Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. Bacteria challenge test results demonstrated that LEC significantly enhances the survival rate and inhibits bacterial growth in zebrafish infected with A. hydrophila, V. vulnificus, and S. agalactiae. A gene expression study using a real-time PCR showed that LEC immersion-treated zebrafish had increased endogenous interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-15, IL-21, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (INF)-γ expression in vivo. After the zebrafish were infected with V. vulnificus or S. agalactiae, the LEC immersion treatment suppressed the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15, NF-κb, and TNF-α and induced IL-10 and C3b expression. These findings demonstrate that cinnamaldehyde exhibits antimicrobial activity against aquatic pathogens, even antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and immune-stimulating effects to protect the host's defenses against pathogen infection in bacteria-infected zebrafish. These results suggest that LEC could be used as an antimicrobial agent and immunostimulant to protect bacteria-infected fish in aquaculture.

  5. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-12-13

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy.

  6. [Vaginal colonization of the Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant woman in Tunisia: risk factors and susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Ferjani, A; Ben Abdallah, H; Ben Saida, N; Gozzi, C; Boukadida, J

    2006-05-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the main bacterial causes of serious infections in newborns. We have evaluated prospectively GBS vaginal colonization in pregnant women and we have tried to determine the risk factors of the colonization by GBS and the particularities of the different isolated strains. We have screened 300 pregnant women with vaginal and anal sample in a same swab. Thirty nine (13%) pregnant women are colonized by SGB, 0% in the first trimester, 10.2% in the second trimester and 17% in the third trimester. Different factors are associated significantly with GBS colonization: past history of infection in newborns, genital infection during pregnancy and parity The highest rates of resistance are found in tetracycline (97.4%), erythromycin (51.3%) and lincomycin (46.2%). All the strains were susceptible to amoxicilin and pristinamycin.

  7. The N-terminal Region of Nisin Is Important for the BceAB-Type ABC Transporter NsrFP from Streptococcus agalactiae COH1.

    PubMed

    Reiners, Jens; Lagedroste, Marcel; Ehlen, Katja; Leusch, Selina; Zaschke-Kriesche, Julia; Smits, Sander H J

    2017-01-01

    Lantibiotics are (methyl)-lanthionine-containing antimicrobial peptides produced by several Gram-positive bacteria. Some human pathogenic bacteria express specific resistance proteins that counteract this antimicrobial activity of lantibiotics. In Streptococcus agalactiae COH1 resistance against the well-known lantibiotic nisin is conferred by, the nisin resistance protein (NSR), a two-component system (NsrRK) and a BceAB-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (NsrFP). The present study focuses on elucidating the function of NsrFP via its heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis. NsrFP is able to confer a 16-fold resistance against wild type nisin as determined by growth inhibition experiments and functions as a lantibiotic exporter. Several C-terminal nisin mutants indicated that NsrFP recognizes the N-terminal region of nisin. The N-terminus harbors three (methyl)-lanthionine rings, which are conserved in other lantibiotics.

  8. Inductors and regulatory properties of the genomic island-associated fru2 metabolic operon of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Patron, Kévin; Gilot, Philippe; Rong, Vanessa; Hiron, Aurélia; Mereghetti, Laurent; Camiade, Emilie

    2017-02-01

    The fru2 metabolic operon of Streptococcus agalactiae encodes the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) enzyme II complex Fru2 (EIIB(Fru2) , EIIA(Fru2) , and EIIC(Fru2) ); Fru2 R, a transcriptional activator with PTS regulatory domains (PRDs); a d-allulose-6-phosphate 3-epimerase; a transaldolase; and a transketolase. We showed that the transcription of fru2 is induced during the stationary phase of growth in complex media and during incubation in human cerebrospinal or amniotic fluids. d-allose and d-ribose are environmental signals governing this induction. PTS(Fru2) is involved in the activation of the fru2 promoter, and the histidine-67 of EIIA(Fru2) and the cysteine-9 of EIIB(Fru2) are important for this function. The activation of fru2 is also controlled by Fru2 R. The histidine-243 in the PRD1 domain, the histidine-323 in the PRD2 domain, the cysteine-400 in the EIIB-like domain, and the histidine-549 in the EIIA-like domain are important for the function of Fru2 R. Fru2 R binds to a DNA region containing palindromic sequences upstream of the identified transcriptional start site. EIIB(Fru2) interacts physically with the C-terminal part of Fru2 R (expressing the EIIB-like and EIIA-like motifs) and with EIIA(Fru2) . We propose a model of regulation of fru2 depending on the presence of an activatory carbohydrate in the growth medium.

  9. Structure of Streptococcus agalactiae tip pilin GBS104: a model for GBS pili assembly and host interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Kim, Brandon J.; Samal, Alexandra; Macon, Kevin; Ma, Xin; Mishra, Arunima; Doran, Kelly S.; Ton-That, Hung; Narayana, Sthanam V. L.

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. In addition, a homology model of the remaining two domains of GBS104 was built and a model of full-length GBS104 was generated by combining the homology model (the N1 and N4 domains) and the crystal structure of the 75 kDa fragment (the N2 and N3 domains). This rod-shaped GBS104 model is constructed of three IgG-like domains (the N1, N2 and N4 domains) and one vWFA-like domain (the N3 domain). The N1 and N2 domains of GBS104 are assembled with distinct and remote segments contributed by the N- and C-termini. The metal-binding site in the N3 domain of GBS104 is in the closed/low-affinity conformation. Interestingly, this domain hosts two long arms that project away from the metal-binding site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, two cysteine residues that lock the N3 domain of GBS104 into the open/high-affinity conformation were introduced. Both wild-type and disulfide-locked recombinant proteins were tested for binding to extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin, and an increase in fibronectin binding affinity was identified for the disulfide-locked N3 domain, suggesting that induced conformational changes may play a possible role in receptor binding.

  10. Expression profiles of miRNAs from bovine mammary glands in response to Streptococcus agalactiae-induced mastitis.

    PubMed

    Pu, Junhua; Li, Rui; Zhang, Chenglong; Chen, Dan; Liao, Xiangxiang; Zhu, Yihui; Geng, Xiaohan; Ji, Dejun; Mao, Yongjiang; Gong, Yunchen; Yang, Zhangping

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to describe the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) from mammary gland tissues collected from dairy cows with Streptococcus agalactiae-induced mastitis and to identify differentially expressed miRNAs related to mastitis. The mammary glands of Chinese Holstein cows were challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae to induce mastitis. Small RNAs were isolated from the mammary tissues of the test and control groups and then sequenced using the Solexa sequencing technology to construct two small RNA libraries. Potential target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using the RNAhybrid software, and KEGG pathways associated with these genes were analysed. A total of 18 555 913 and 20 847 000 effective reads were obtained from the test and control groups, respectively. In total, 373 known and 399 novel miRNAs were detected in the test group, and 358 known and 232 novel miRNAs were uncovered in the control group. A total of 35 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the test group compared to the control group, including 10 up-regulated miRNAs and 25 down-regulated miRNAs. Of these miRNAs, miR-223 exhibited the highest degree of up-regulation with an approximately 3-fold increase in expression, whereas miR-26a exhibited the most decreased expression level (more than 2-fold). The RNAhybrid software predicted 18 801 genes as potential targets of these 35 miRNAs. Furthermore, several immune response and signal transduction pathways, including the RIG-I-like receptor signalling pathway, cytosolic DNA sensing pathway and Notch signal pathway, were enriched in these predicted targets. In summary, this study provided experimental evidence for the mechanism underlying the regulation of bovine mastitis by miRNAs and showed that miRNAs might be involved in signal pathways during S. agalactiae-induced mastitis.

  11. Conjugative Transfer and cis-Mobilization of a Genomic Island by an Integrative and Conjugative Element of Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Puymège, Aurore; Bertin, Stéphane; Chuzeville, Sarah; Guédon, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Putative integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), i.e., genomic islands which could excise, self-transfer by conjugation, and integrate into the chromosome of the bacterial host strain, were previously identified by in silico analysis in the sequenced genomes of Streptococcus agalactiae (M. Brochet et al., J. Bacteriol. 190:6913–6917, 2008). We investigated here the mobility of the elements integrated into the 3′ end of a tRNALys gene. Three of the four putative ICEs tested were found to excise but only one (ICE_515_tRNALys) was found to transfer by conjugation not only to S. agalactiae strains but also to a Streptococcus pyogenes strain. Transfer was observed even if recipient cell already carries a related resident ICE or a genomic island flanked by attL and attR recombination sites but devoid of conjugation or recombination genes (CIs-Mobilizable Element [CIME]). The incoming ICE preferentially integrates into the 3′ end of the tRNALys gene (i.e., the attR site of the resident element), leading to a CIME-ICE structure. Transfer of the whole composite element CIME-ICE was obtained, showing that the CIME is mobilizable in cis by the ICE. Therefore, genomic islands carrying putative virulence genes but lacking the mobility gene can be mobilized by a related ICE after site-specific accretion. PMID:23275243

  12. Conjugative transfer and cis-mobilization of a genomic island by an integrative and conjugative element of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Puymège, Aurore; Bertin, Stéphane; Chuzeville, Sarah; Guédon, Gérard; Payot, Sophie

    2013-03-01

    Putative integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), i.e., genomic islands which could excise, self-transfer by conjugation, and integrate into the chromosome of the bacterial host strain, were previously identified by in silico analysis in the sequenced genomes of Streptococcus agalactiae (M. Brochet et al., J. Bacteriol. 190:6913-6917, 2008). We investigated here the mobility of the elements integrated into the 3' end of a tRNA(Lys) gene. Three of the four putative ICEs tested were found to excise but only one (ICE_515_tRNA(Lys)) was found to transfer by conjugation not only to S. agalactiae strains but also to a Streptococcus pyogenes strain. Transfer was observed even if recipient cell already carries a related resident ICE or a genomic island flanked by attL and attR recombination sites but devoid of conjugation or recombination genes (CIs-Mobilizable Element [CIME]). The incoming ICE preferentially integrates into the 3' end of the tRNA(Lys) gene (i.e., the attR site of the resident element), leading to a CIME-ICE structure. Transfer of the whole composite element CIME-ICE was obtained, showing that the CIME is mobilizable in cis by the ICE. Therefore, genomic islands carrying putative virulence genes but lacking the mobility gene can be mobilized by a related ICE after site-specific accretion.

  13. Pathological analysis, detection of antigens, FasL expression analysis and leucocytes survival analysis in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after infection with green fluorescent protein labeled Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Wu, Jinying; Yi, Liyuan; Hou, Zengxin; Li, Wensheng

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia has not been fully described. To understand this, we investigated the clinic-pathological features of acute experimental septicemia in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after receiving an intra-peritoneal injection with S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP. Immunohistochemistry and sections of pathological tissues were used to estimate the level of damage in the head-kidney, liver, spleen and trunk-kidney. The expression of FasL was analyzed by western blotting in these samples based on their damage levels. Leucocytes were isolated from the head-kidney and incubated with S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP. Then, phagocytosis, programmed cell death and the expression of FasL were analyzed. The infected tissues showed varying degrees of necrosis and histolysis. The serous membrane of the intestine was dissolved by S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP. Antigens of S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP accumulated in different parts of the infected organs. In the head-kidney and spleen, the expression of FasL was up-regulated in parallel with increased tissue damage. After being incubated with S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP, the phagocytic capacity and ability were both very high and the expression of FasL remained high in leucocytes. S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP was able to survive for a long period of time after being engulfed by phagocytic cells. These findings offer insight into the pathogenesis of S. agalactiae infection in tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural Differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae Housekeeping and Pilus-Specific Sortases: SrtA and SrtC1

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, B.; Krishnan, V.; Rajashankar, K.R.; I-Hsiu, H.; Xin, M.; Ton-That, H.; Narayana, S.V.

    2011-10-21

    The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2) and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104). Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively. The S. agalactiae housekeeping sortase, SrtA, whose gene is present at a different location and does not catalyze pilus polymerization, was shown to be involved in cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers. To understand the structural basis of sortases involved in such diverse functions, we determined the crystal structures of S. agalactiae SrtC1 and SrtA. Both enzymes are made of an eight-stranded beta-barrel core with variations in their active site architecture. SrtA exhibits a catalytic triad arrangement similar to that in Streptococcus pyogenes SrtA but different from that in Staphylococcus aureus SrtA. In contrast, the SrtC1 enzyme contains an N-terminal helical domain and a 'lid' in its putative active site, which is similar to that seen in Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-specific sortases, although with subtle differences in positioning and composition. To understand the effect of such differences on substrate recognition, we have also determined the crystal structure of a SrtC1 mutant, in which the conserved DP(W/F/Y) motif was replaced with the sorting signal motif of GBS80, IPNTG. By comparing the structures of WT wild type SrtA and SrtC1 and the 'lid' mutant of SrtC1, we propose that structural elements within the active site and the lid may be important for defining the role of specific sortase in pili biogenesis.

  15. Update on control of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae for management of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Greg

    2012-07-01

    The primary method of spread for S agalactiae and S aureus is from cow to cow, so prevention focuses on within and between herd biosecurity to reduce or eliminate the reservoir of infection. S agalactiae is an obligate pathogen of the mammary gland, whereas S aureus is more widespread on other cow body sites and in the environment. Both organisms cause persistent infections, with S agalactiae typically causing higher SCC and bacteria counts in milk. Conventional methods of detection through culture perform well at the cow level. In bulk tanks, augmented procedures should be considered. PCR methods show promise of high sensitivity and specificity, at both the cow and bulk tank level. In developed dairy industries, prevalence of infection has decreased dramatically over the past 30 years for S agalactiae. For S aureus, the herd level of infection remains very high, although with rigorous, consistent application of control measures, within-herd prevalence has decreased. Because the milking time is the primary period for new IMI, it is the focal point of most prevention activities. Premilking and postmilking teat disinfection and proper stimulation and milk-out with adequately functioning equipment are key factors. There is growing evidence that the use of milking gloves is an integral part of contagious mastitis control and the production of high-quality milk. Treatment success is dramatically different between the 2 pathogens. For S agalactiae, eradication can be completed rapidly through a culture and treatment program with minimal culling. For S aureus, treatment success, particularly during lactation, is often disappointing and depends on cow, pathogen, and treatment factors. These factors should be reviewed prior to initiating any treatment to determine the potential for cure. Blanket dry cow therapy and strategic culling are important control procedures for contagious mastitis pathogens. Maintaining a closed herd or, at minimum, adhering to clearly defined

  16. Dominance of clonal complex 10 among the levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bacteremic patients in a Korean hospital.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyejin; Park, Yeon-Joon; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Chang, Jiyoung; Yu, Jin Kyung

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae has emerged as an important cause of invasive infection in adults. Forty-nine S. agalactiae isolates (41 from adults and 8 from neonates) were collected during a 4-year period (2010-2013) and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and levofloxacin was determined and the determinants of resistance (ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA, lnuB) were detected by PCR and mutation in gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE gene was investigated by sequence analysis. They were resolved into 14 sequence types (STs) and belonged to five clonal complexes (CCs). The distribution of CC was significantly different according to the age group; CC1 (18/41) and CC10 (13/41) was the most common among the adult isolates but CC19 (5/8) was predominant among the neonatal isolates. The resistance rate to erythromycin, clindamycin was 18.4% and 24.5%, respectively. Among the 13 strains resistant to erythromycin and/or clindamycin, two isolates harbored ermA and 10 isolates harbored ermB. The levofloxacin resistance rate was very high (32.7%) and was significantly higher in CC10 (71.4%). All the levofloxacin-resistant isolates had identical gyrA substitution (Ser81Leu) but parC substitution was different according to the CCs. The additional mutation in parE (His221Tyr) was found only in CC19. Continuous monitoring of the fluoroquinolone resistance and genotypic distribution among S. agalactiae is needed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Molecular characterization and expression of Lck in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to Streptococcus agalactiae stimulus.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Lu, Yishan; Zhu, Weiwei; Huang, Yu; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe

    2015-03-01

    Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) plays a critical role in effective signal transductions that are fundamental to T cell differentiation, proliferation, and effector functions. In this paper, the Lck gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-Lck), was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed important structural characteristics required for T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-Lck, and the deduced genomic structure of On-Lck was similar to the known Lck. In healthy Nile tilapia, the On-Lck transcripts were mainly detected in the thymus, spleen, head kidney, and gill. When immunized with inactivated S. agalactiae, the On-Lck mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in the thymus, spleen, and head kidney. Moreover, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-Lck after immunization, and the expression reached the highest level at 48 h in the spleen and thymus and at 72 h in the head kidney, respectively. This is the first report on the expression of Lck induced by intracellular bacteria vaccination in teleosts. These findings indicated that On-Lck may play an important role in the immune response to intracellular bacteria in Nile tilapia.

  18. Molecular characterization and expression of CD2 in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to Streptococcus agalactiae stimulus.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe; Nie, Pin

    2016-03-01

    The cluster of differentiation 2 (CD2), functioning as a cell adhesion and costimulatory molecule, plays a crucial role in T-cell activation. In this paper, the CD2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-CD2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed On-CD2 protein consists of two extracellular Ig-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a long proline-rich cytoplasmic tail, which is a hallmark of CD2, and several important structural characteristics required for T-cell activation were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD2. In healthy tilapia, the On-CD2 transcripts were mainly detected in the head kidney, spleen, blood and thymus. Moreover, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD2 after immunized by formalin-inactivated S. agalactiae and the expression reached the highest level at 12 h in the brain and head kidney, 48 h in the spleen, and 72 h in the thymus, respectively. This is the first report on the expression of CD2 induced by bacteria vaccination in teleosts. These findings indicated that On-CD2 may play an important role in the immune response to intracellular bacteria in Nile tilapia.

  19. Involvement of cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the branchial immune response of experimentally infected silver catfish with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, M D; Souza, C F; Doleski, P H; Moreira, K L S; da Veiga, M L; da Rocha, M I U M; Santos, R C V; Baldisserotto, B

    2017-07-12

    It has been recognized that the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems have an essential role in immune and inflammatory responses during bacterial fish pathogens, such as the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA), which are responsible for catalysis of the anti-inflammatory molecules acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine (Ado) respectively. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the immune response and inflammatory process in gills of experimentally infected Rhamdia quelen with Streptococcus agalactiae. Acetylcholinesterase activity decreased, while ACh levels increased in gills of infected animals compared to uninfected animals. On the other hand, a significant increase in ADA activity with a concomitant decrease in Ado levels was observed in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, we concluded that infection by S. agalactiae in silver catfish alters the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems, suggesting the involvement of AChE and ADA activities on immune and inflammatory responses, regulating the ACh and Ado levels. In summary, the downregulation of AChE activity exerts an anti-inflammatory profile in an attempt to reduce or prevent the tissue damage, while the upregulation of ADA activity exerts a pro-inflammatory profile, contributing to disease pathophysiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Milk protein profiles in response to Streptococcus agalactiae subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pongthaisong, Pongphol; Katawatin, Suporn; Thamrongyoswittayakul, Chaiyapas; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the milk protein profiles of normal milk and those of milk during the course of subclinical mastitis, caused by natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used to assess protein profiles and to identify the proteins. The results showed that S. agalactiae subclinical mastitis altered the protein profiles of milk. Following Mascot database matching, 11 and 12 protein types were identified in the milk collected from healthy and S. agalactiae subclinical mastitic udders, respectively. The distinct presence of the antibacterial protein cathelicidin-1 was detected in infected milk samples, which in turn was highly correlated to the severity of subclinical mastitis as represented by the milk somatic cell count (r = 0.616), but not the bacterial count. The protein profile of milk reveals changes in the host response to S. agalactiae intramammary infection; cathelicidin-1 could therefore serve as a biomarker for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

  1. Camel Streptococcus agalactiae populations are associated with specific disease complexes and acquired the tetracycline resistance gene tetM via a Tn916-like element

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Camels are the most valuable livestock species in the Horn of Africa and play a pivotal role in the nutritional sustainability for millions of people. Their health status is therefore of utmost importance for the people living in this region. Streptococcus agalactiae, a Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an important camel pathogen. Here we present the first epidemiological study based on genetic and phenotypic data from African camel derived GBS. Ninety-two GBS were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), capsular polysaccharide typing and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We analysed the GBS using Bayesian linkage, phylogenetic and minimum spanning tree analyses and compared them with human GBS from East Africa in order to investigate the level of genetic exchange between GBS populations in the region. Camel GBS sequence types (STs) were distinct from other STs reported so far. We mapped specific STs and capsular types to major disease complexes caused by GBS. Widespread resistance (34%) to tetracycline was associated with acquisition of the tetM gene that is carried on a Tn916-like element, and observed primarily among GBS isolated from mastitis. The presence of tetM within different MLST clades suggests acquisition on multiple occasions. Wound infections and mastitis in camels associated with GBS are widespread and should ideally be treated with antimicrobials other than tetracycline in East Africa. PMID:24083845

  2. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Moatamedi, Azar; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Mirshokraei, Pejhman

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6%) isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases. PMID:25568683

  3. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Moatamedi, Azar; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Mirshokraei, Pejhman

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6%) isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  4. Development of a single-dose recombinant CAMP factor entrapping poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres-based vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Yin, Jinhua; Barkema, Herman W; Chen, Liben; Shahid, Muhammad; Szenci, Otto; De Buck, Jeroen; Kastelic, John P; Han, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important contagious bovine mastitis pathogen. Although it is well controlled and even eradicated in most Northern European and North American dairy herds, the prevalence of this pathogen remains very high in China. However, research on development of a vaccine against S. agalactiae mastitis is scarce. The aims of the present study were to: (1) develop a single-dose vaccine against S. agalactiae based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MS) encapsulated CAMP factor, a conserved virulent protein encoded by S. agalactiae's cfb gene; and (2) evaluate its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a mouse model. The cfb gene was cloned and expressed in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain Trans1-T1. The CAMP factor was tested to determine a safe dose range and then encapsulated in MS of PLGA (50:50) to assess its release pattern in vitro and immune reaction in vivo. Furthermore, a mouse model and a histopathological assay were developed to evaluate bacterial burden and vaccine efficacy. In the low dosage range (<100μg), CAMP factor had no obvious toxicity in mice. The release pattern in vitro was characterized by an initial burst release (44%), followed by a sustained and slower release over 7wk. In mice immunized with either pure CAMP factor protein or PLGA-CAMP, increased antibody titers were detected in the first 2wk, whereas only PLGA-CAMP immunization induced a sustained increase of antibody titers. In mice vaccinated with PLGA-CAMP, mortality and bacteria counts were lower (compared to a control group) after S. agalactiae challenge. Additionally, no pathological lesions were detected in the vaccinated group. Therefore, PLGA-CAMP conferred protective efficacy against S. agalactiae in our mouse model, indicating its potential as a vaccine against S. agalactiae mastitis. Furthermore, the slow-release kinetics of PLGA MS warranted optimism for development of a single-dose vaccine. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by

  5. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  6. Evaluation of a Novel Chimeric B Cell Epitope-Based Vaccine against Mastitis Induced by Either Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyang; Hu, Changmin; Gong, Rui; Chen, Yingyu; Ren, Ningning; Xiao, Ganwen; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Minmin; Liu, Qin; Guo, Aizhen; Chen, Huanchun

    2011-01-01

    To construct a universal vaccine against mastitis induced by either Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus, the B cell epitopes of the surface immunogenic protein (Sip) from S. agalactiae and clumping factor A (ClfA) from S. aureus were analyzed and predicted. sip-clfA, a novel chimeric B cell epitope-based gene, was obtained by overlap PCR, and then the recombinant Sip-ClfA (rSip-ClfA) was expressed and purified. rSip-ClfA and inactivated S. agalactiae and S. aureus were formulated into different vaccines with mineral oil as the adjuvant and evaluated in mouse models. The rSip-ClfA vaccination induced immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers higher than those seen in groups immunized with inactivated bacteria. Furthermore, the response to rSip-ClfA immunization was characterized as having a dominant IgG1 subtype, whereas both bacterial immunizations produced similar levels of IgG1 and IgG2a. The antiserum capacities for opsonizing adhesion and phagocytosis were significantly greater in the rSip-ClfA immunization group than in the killed-bacterium immunization groups (P < 0.05). The immunized lactating mice were challenged with either S. agalactiae or S. aureus via the intramammary route. At 24 h postinfection, the numbers of bacteria recovered from the mammary glands in the rSip-ClfA group were >5-fold lower than those in both inactivated-bacterium groups (P < 0.01). Histopathological examination of the mammary glands showed that rSip-ClfA immunization provided better protection of mammary gland tissue integrity against both S. agalactiae and S. aureus challenges. Thus, the recombinant protein rSip-ClfA would be a promising vaccine candidate against mastitis induced by either S. agalactiae or S. aureus. PMID:21508165

  7. Evaluation of a novel chimeric B cell epitope-based vaccine against mastitis induced by either Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyang; Hu, Changmin; Gong, Rui; Chen, Yingyu; Ren, Ningning; Xiao, Ganwen; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Minmin; Liu, Qin; Guo, Aizhen; Chen, Huanchun

    2011-06-01

    To construct a universal vaccine against mastitis induced by either Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus, the B cell epitopes of the surface immunogenic protein (Sip) from S. agalactiae and clumping factor A (ClfA) from S. aureus were analyzed and predicted. sip-clfA, a novel chimeric B cell epitope-based gene, was obtained by overlap PCR, and then the recombinant Sip-ClfA (rSip-ClfA) was expressed and purified. rSip-ClfA and inactivated S. agalactiae and S. aureus were formulated into different vaccines with mineral oil as the adjuvant and evaluated in mouse models. The rSip-ClfA vaccination induced immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers higher than those seen in groups immunized with inactivated bacteria. Furthermore, the response to rSip-ClfA immunization was characterized as having a dominant IgG1 subtype, whereas both bacterial immunizations produced similar levels of IgG1 and IgG2a. The antiserum capacities for opsonizing adhesion and phagocytosis were significantly greater in the rSip-ClfA immunization group than in the killed-bacterium immunization groups (P < 0.05). The immunized lactating mice were challenged with either S. agalactiae or S. aureus via the intramammary route. At 24 h postinfection, the numbers of bacteria recovered from the mammary glands in the rSip-ClfA group were >5-fold lower than those in both inactivated-bacterium groups (P < 0.01). Histopathological examination of the mammary glands showed that rSip-ClfA immunization provided better protection of mammary gland tissue integrity against both S. agalactiae and S. aureus challenges. Thus, the recombinant protein rSip-ClfA would be a promising vaccine candidate against mastitis induced by either S. agalactiae or S. aureus.

  8. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia.

  9. Germicidal activity of a chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip and a sodium chlorite teat dip during experimental challenge with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Boddie, R L; Nickerson, S C; Adkinson, R W

    1998-08-01

    Three postmilking teat dips were tested for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in two separate studies using experimental challenge procedures that were recommended by the National Mastitis Council. The first study evaluated a barrier teat dip product containing chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide as the germicidal agent, and the second study evaluated a sodium chlorite product with a barrier component as well as a sodium chlorite product without a barrier component. The chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip reduced new intramammary infections (IMI) caused by Staph. aureus by 91.5% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 71.7%. The barrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae by 41.0 and 0%, respectively. The nonbarrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus by 65.6% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 39.1%. Teat skin and teat end conditions were evaluated before and after the second study; no deleterious effects among dipped quarters compared with control quarters were noted for the two sodium chlorite products.

  10. Genomic Diversity of Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts and Their Infectivity in Nile Tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), has a broad host range and can be pathogenic to numerous animals, including fish. GBS is most recognized for causing cattle mastitis and human neonatal meningitis, it also causes fatal meningo-encephalitis in fish. We investigat...

  11. Transcriptomic profiling analysis of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following Streptococcus agalactiae challenge.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiajie; Fu, Qiang; Ao, Qiuwei; Tan, Yun; Luo, Yongju; Jiang, Hesheng; Li, Chao; Gan, Xi

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is the primary defense mechanism against pathogen infection in teleost, which are living in pathogen-rich aquatic environment. It has been long hypothesized that the disease resistance in teleost are strongly correlated to the activities of innate immune genes. Tilapia is an important economical fish around the world, especially in China, where the production accounts for nearly half of the global production. Recently, S. agalactiae has become one of the most serious bacterial diseases in southern China, resulted in high cumulative mortality and economic loss to tilapia industry. Therefore, we sought here to characterize the expression profiles of tilapia against S. agalactiae infection at whole transcriptome level by RNA-seq technology. A total of 2822 genes were revealed significantly expressed in tilapia spleen with a general trend of induction. Notably, most of the genes were rapidly the most induced at the early timepoint. The significantly changed genes highlighted the function of pathogen attachment and recognition, antioxidant/apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and immune activation. Collectively, the induced expression patterns suggested the strong ability of tilapia to rapidly recognize the invasive bacteria, and activation of downstream immune signaling pathways to clear the bacteria and prevent the tissue damage and bacteria triggered cell apoptosis. Our results heighted important roles of novel candidate genes which were often missed in previous tilapia studies. Further studies are needed to characterize the molecular relationships between key immune genes and disease resistance, and to identify the candidate genes for molecular-assistant selection of disease-resistant broodstock and evaluation of disease prevention and treatment measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of IgD in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Pei; Wu, Zao-He; Lu, Yi-Shan; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Jian, Ji-Chang

    2016-01-01

    IgD is considered to be a recently-evolved Ig and a puzzling molecule, being previously found in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Although IgD likely plays an important role in vertebrate immune responses, the function of IgD in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is virtually unknown. In the present study, a membrane form of IgD (mIgD) heavy chains were cloned from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (designated On-mIgD). The On-mIgD heavy chain’s cDNA is composed of 3347 bp with a 31 bp of 5′-UTR, 3015 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 301 bp 3′-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 1004 amino acids (GenBank accession no: KF530821). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that On-mIgD heavy chains showed the highest similarity to Siniperca chuatsi. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that On-mIgD expression occurred predominately in head kidney, thymus, spleen, and kidney. After Streptococcus agalactiae infection, transcripts of On-mIgD increased and reached its peak at 48 h in the head kidney and thymus, and 72 h in the spleen, respectively. Taken together, these results collectively indicated that IgD could possibly have a key role to play in the immune response when bacterial infections in Nile tilapia. PMID:27005611

  13. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of IgD in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Pei; Wu, Zao-He; Lu, Yi-Shan; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Jian, Ji-Chang

    2016-03-08

    IgD is considered to be a recently-evolved Ig and a puzzling molecule, being previously found in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Although IgD likely plays an important role in vertebrate immune responses, the function of IgD in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is virtually unknown. In the present study, a membrane form of IgD (mIgD) heavy chains were cloned from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (designated On-mIgD). The On-mIgD heavy chain's cDNA is composed of 3347 bp with a 31 bp of 5'-UTR, 3015 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 301 bp 3'-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 1004 amino acids (GenBank accession no: KF530821). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that On-mIgD heavy chains showed the highest similarity to Siniperca chuatsi. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that On-mIgD expression occurred predominately in head kidney, thymus, spleen, and kidney. After Streptococcus agalactiae infection, transcripts of On-mIgD increased and reached its peak at 48 h in the head kidney and thymus, and 72 h in the spleen, respectively. Taken together, these results collectively indicated that IgD could possibly have a key role to play in the immune response when bacterial infections in Nile tilapia.

  14. Commonly used molecular epidemiology markers of Streptococcus agalactiae do not appear to predict virulence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank; Sintchenko, Vitali; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Coiera, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Several virulent clones of group B streptococcus (GBS) are known to be associated with certain serotypes and molecular epidemiological markers. It is unclear, however, whether the clinical significance of GBS can be predicted based solely on such molecular markers. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that GBS virulence can be predicted by using the molecular epidemiology markers. We examined 912 human GBS isolates in which 18 distinct molecular markers (including virulence-associated mobile genetic elements, polysaccharide capsule determinants, variants of a surface antigen and invasin, and antibiotic resistance-related genes) were characterised using multiplex PCR based reverse line blot assay. All strains were classified in clinically relevant invasive and colonising categories. Relationships between molecular markers and clinical phenotypes were tested using statistical and machine learning analyses. Classifier performance was evaluated by the area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). The distribution of serotypes was comparable with those in previous reports (Ia, 22.1%; III, 34.7%; V, 17.7%). From single marker analyses, only alp3 (which encodes a surface protein antigen, commonly associated with serotype V) showed an increased association with invasive diseases (OR = 2.93, p = 0.0003). Molecular serotype (MS) II (OR = 10.0, p = 0.0007) had a significant association with early-onset neonatal disease when compared with late-onset diseases. Predictive analysis with logistic regression and machine learning classifiers, however, only yielded weak predictive power (AUC 0.56-0.71, stratified 10-fold cross-validation) across all the subgroups. While some molecular epidemiological markers are important in defining GBS clusters, a definitive predictive relationship between the molecular markers and clinical outcomes may be lacking.

  15. Cross-Resistance to Lincosamides, Streptogramins A, and Pleuromutilins Due to the lsa(C) Gene in Streptococcus agalactiae UCN70▿

    PubMed Central

    Malbruny, Brigitte; Werno, Anja M.; Murdoch, David R.; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae UCN70, isolated from a vaginal swab obtained in New Zealand, is resistant to lincosamides and streptogramins A (LSA phenotype) and also to tiamulin (a pleuromutilin). By whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 5,224-bp chromosomal extra-element that comprised a 1,479-bp open reading frame coding for an ABC protein (492 amino acids) 45% identical to Lsa(A), a protein related to intrinsic LSA resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. Expression of this novel gene, named lsa(C), in S. agalactiae BM132 after cloning led to an increase in MICs of lincomycin (0.06 to 4 μg/ml), clindamycin (0.03 to 2 μg/ml), dalfopristin (2 to >32 μg/ml), and tiamulin (0.12 to 32 μg/ml), whereas no change in MICs of erythromycin (0.06 μg/ml), azithromycin (0.03 μg/ml), spiramycin (0.25 μg/ml), telithromycin (0.03 μg/ml), and quinupristin (8 μg/ml) was observed. The phenotype was renamed the LSAP phenotype on the basis of cross-resistance to lincosamides, streptogramins A, and pleuromutilins. This gene was also identified in similar genetic environments in 17 other S. agalactiae clinical isolates from New Zealand exhibiting the same LSAP phenotype, whereas it was absent in susceptible S. agalactiae strains. Interestingly, this extra-element was bracketed by a 7-bp duplication of a target site (ATTAGAA), suggesting that this structure was likely a mobile genetic element. In conclusion, we identified a novel gene, lsa(C), responsible for the acquired LSAP resistance phenotype in S. agalactiae. Dissection of the biochemical basis of resistance, as well as demonstration of in vitro mobilization of lsa(C), remains to be performed. PMID:21245447

  16. Cross-resistance to lincosamides, streptogramins A, and pleuromutilins due to the lsa(C) gene in Streptococcus agalactiae UCN70.

    PubMed

    Malbruny, Brigitte; Werno, Anja M; Murdoch, David R; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent

    2011-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae UCN70, isolated from a vaginal swab obtained in New Zealand, is resistant to lincosamides and streptogramins A (LS(A) phenotype) and also to tiamulin (a pleuromutilin). By whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 5,224-bp chromosomal extra-element that comprised a 1,479-bp open reading frame coding for an ABC protein (492 amino acids) 45% identical to Lsa(A), a protein related to intrinsic LS(A) resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. Expression of this novel gene, named lsa(C), in S. agalactiae BM132 after cloning led to an increase in MICs of lincomycin (0.06 to 4 μg/ml), clindamycin (0.03 to 2 μg/ml), dalfopristin (2 to >32 μg/ml), and tiamulin (0.12 to 32 μg/ml), whereas no change in MICs of erythromycin (0.06 μg/ml), azithromycin (0.03 μg/ml), spiramycin (0.25 μg/ml), telithromycin (0.03 μg/ml), and quinupristin (8 μg/ml) was observed. The phenotype was renamed the LS(A)P phenotype on the basis of cross-resistance to lincosamides, streptogramins A, and pleuromutilins. This gene was also identified in similar genetic environments in 17 other S. agalactiae clinical isolates from New Zealand exhibiting the same LS(A)P phenotype, whereas it was absent in susceptible S. agalactiae strains. Interestingly, this extra-element was bracketed by a 7-bp duplication of a target site (ATTAGAA), suggesting that this structure was likely a mobile genetic element. In conclusion, we identified a novel gene, lsa(C), responsible for the acquired LS(A)P resistance phenotype in S. agalactiae. Dissection of the biochemical basis of resistance, as well as demonstration of in vitro mobilization of lsa(C), remains to be performed.

  17. Construction of a Streptococcus agalactiae phoB mutant and evaluation of its potential as an attenuated modified live vaccine in golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaohui; Wang, Bei; Peng, Yinhui; Li, Yuan; Lu, Yishan; Huang, Yucong; Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-11-21

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive pathogen that can survive inside professional phagocytes and nonphagocytic cells to cause septicemia and meningoencephalitis in freshwater and marine fish. However, vaccines based on extracellular products (ECP) and formalin-killed whole S. agalactiae cells, as well as subunit vaccine are unable to protect fish from infection by variant serotypes S. agalactiae. The search for live attenuated vaccine with highly conserved and virulent-related genes is essential for producing a vaccine to help understand and control streptococcosis In this study, the phoB gene was cloned from pathogenic S. agalactiae TOS01 strain and the mutant strain SAΔphoB was constructed via allelic exchange mutagenesis. The results showed that the deduced amino acid of S. agalactiae TOS01 shares high similarities with other Streptococcus spp. and has high conserved response regulator receiver domain (REC) and DNA-binding effector domain of two-component system response regulators (Trans_reg_C). Cell adherence and invasion assays, challenge experiments and histopathological changes post-vaccination were performed and observed, the results showed that the mutant strain SAΔphoB has a lower adherence and invasion rate and less virulent than the wild type strain in golden pompano, and it doesn't induce clinical symptoms and obvious pathological changes in golden pompano, thereby indicating that the deletion of phoB affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. agalactiae. Golden pompano vaccinated via intraperitoneal injection SAΔphoB had the relative percent survival value of 93.1% after challenge with TOS01, demonstrating its high potential as an effective attenuated live vaccine candidate. Real-time PCR assays showed that the SAΔphoB was able to enhance the expression of immune-related genes, including MHC-I, MyD88, IL-22 and IL-10 after vaccination, indicating that the SAΔphoB is able to induce humoral and cell-mediated immune response in

  18. The use of polyethylene intramammary device in protection of the lactating bovine udder against experimental infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility of lactating bovine udder quarters fitted with a polyethylene intramammary device to infection was investigated. Following experimental challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus, the incidence of infection was significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in intramammary device-fitted quarters compared to control quarters. In general, total foremilk and strippings milk somatic cell counts for intramammary device-fitted and control quarters were not significantly (p less than 0.05) different. Differential foremilk and strippings milk somatic cell counts were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in samples from intramammary device-fitted quarters compared to control quarters. PMID:7127192

  19. Characterization of Tn5801.Sag, a variant of Staphylococcus aureus Tn916 family transposon Tn5801 that is widespread in clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Tili, Emily; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Montanari, Maria Pia; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2013-09-01

    Tn5801, originally detected in Staphylococcus aureus Mu50, is a Tn916 family element in which a unique int gene (int5801) replaces the int and xis genes in Tn916 (int916 and xis916). Among 62 tet(M)-positive tetracycline-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates, 43 harbored Tn916, whereas 19 harbored a Tn5801-like element (Tn5801.Sag, ∼20.6 kb). Tn5801.Sag was characterized (PCR mapping, partial sequencing, and chromosomal integration) and compared to other Tn5801-like elements. Similar to Tn5801 from S. aureus Mu50, tested in parallel, Tn5801.Sag was unable to undergo circularization and conjugal transfer.

  20. High prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae from vaginas of women in Taiwan and its mechanisms of macrolide and quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Tsung; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), is the most common pathogen causing infections among perinatal women and neonatal babies. Nonetheless, there are few studies on the occurrence of GBS among the pregnant women and the mechanisms of GBS resistance to quinolones and macrolides in Taiwan. GBS were isolated from vaginas of the pregnant and non-pregnant symptomatic women in Taiwan. The prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and mechanisms of resistance against erythromycin and quinolone of total 188 isolates were studied. The isolation rate of GBS from pregnant women was significantly higher at 21.8% compare with the non-pregnant women of 13.2%. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the 188 GBS isolates revealed a high non-susceptible rate for erythromycin (50.0%) while the rate for levofloxacin was only 4.8%. Among 94 erythromycin non-susceptible GBS isolates, ermB gene was detected 83.1% (59/71) for those GBS that were non-susceptible to both clindamycin and tetracycline, which was significantly higher than GBS that are susceptible to clindamycin but resistant to tetracycline at 43.8% (7/16). No ermA or mef gene was detected in any isolate. Mutations were detected in the parC and gyrA genes in 14 out of 18 levofloxacin non-susceptible isolates. The predominant mutation type was the combination of Ser79Tyr in parC and Ser81Leu mutations in gyrA. GBS is the most common isolated pathogens in vaginal infections in Taiwan, resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin is higher than the rate observed for other regions of the world, while the resistance rate for levofloxacin was relatively lower in Taiwan. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of Sophora flavescens on non-specific immune response of tilapia (GIFT Oreochromis niloticus) and disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-rui; Gong, Qing-fang; Fang, Hong; Liang, Wan-wen; Chen, Ming; He, Rui-jie

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the effect of a diet supplemented with the Chinese traditional herbal medicine Sophora flavescens on the immunity and disease resistance of an Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain. Experimental diets containing 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.100%, 0.200%, and 0.400% S. flavescens, as well as a control group without S. flavescens were used. We tested the non-specific humoral immune responses (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement) and cellular immune responses (reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species production and myeloperoxidase), as well as disease resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae. S. flavescens supplementation at all dose significantly enhanced serum lysozyme, antiprotease, and natural hemolytic complement activity. Similarly, all S. flavescens doses enhanced cellular myeloperoxidase activity. The increased production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen intermediates by peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in most of the treatment groups throughout the test period. The fish fed 0.100% S. flavescens had a percent mortality of 21.1% and a relative percent survival of 73.3% compared with the group fed the basal diet during the S. agalactiae challenge. The results suggest that S. flavescens can be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish immunity and disease resistance against S. agalactiae.

  2. Characterization of a new CAMP factor carried by an integrative and conjugative element in Streptococcus agalactiae and spreading in Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Chuzeville, Sarah; Puymège, Aurore; Madec, Jean-Yves; Haenni, Marisa; Payot, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Genetic exchanges between Streptococci occur frequently and contribute to their genome diversification. Most of sequenced streptococcal genomes carry multiple mobile genetic elements including Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) that play a major role in these horizontal gene transfers. In addition to genes involved in their mobility and regulation, ICEs also carry genes that can confer selective advantages to bacteria. Numerous elements have been described in S. agalactiae especially those integrated at the 3' end of a tRNA(Lys) encoding gene. In strain 515 of S. agalactiae, an invasive neonate human pathogen, the ICE (called 515_tRNA(Lys)) is functional and carries different putative virulence genes including one encoding a putative new CAMP factor in addition to the one previously described. This work demonstrated the functionality of this CAMP factor (CAMP factor II) in Lactococcus lactis but also in pathogenic strains of veterinary origin. The search for co-hemolytic factors in a collection of field strains revealed their presence in S. uberis, S. dysgalactiae, but also for the first time in S. equisimilis and S. bovis. Sequencing of these genes revealed the prevalence of a species-specific factor in S. uberis strains (Uberis factor) and the presence of a CAMP factor II encoding gene in S. bovis and S. equisimilis. Furthermore, most of the CAMP factor II positive strains also carried an element integrated in the tRNA(Lys) gene. This work thus describes a CAMP factor that is carried by a mobile genetic element and has spread to different streptococcal species.

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of an oral DNA vaccine encoding Sip of Streptococcus agalactiae from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus delivered by live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Huang, L Y; Wang, K Y; Xiao, D; Chen, D F; Geng, Y; Wang, J; He, Y; Wang, E L; Huang, J L; Xiao, G Y

    2014-05-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207 was used as a carrier for a reconstructed DNA vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae. A 1.02 kb DNA fragment, encoding for a portion of the surface immunogenic protein (Sip) of S. agalactiae was inserted into pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sip was transfected in EPC cells to detect the transient expression by an indirect immunofluorescence assay, together with Western blot analysis. The pVAX1-sip was transformed by electroporation into SL7207. The stability of pVAX1-sip into Salmonella was over 90% after 50 generations with antibiotic selection in vitro while remained stable over 80% during 35 generations under antibiotic-free conditions. The LD50 of SL/pVAX1-sip was 1.7 × 10(11) CFU/fish by intragastric administration which indicated a quite low virulence. Tilapias were inoculated orally at 10(8) CFU/fish, the recombinant bacteria were found present in intestinal tract, spleens and livers and eventually eliminated from the tissues 4 weeks after immunization. Fish immunized at 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/fish with different immunization times caused various levels of serum antibody and an effective protection against lethal challenge with the wild-type strain S. agalactiae. Integration studies showed that the pVAX1-sip did not integrate with tilapia chromosomes. The DNA vaccine SL/pVAX1-sip was proved to be safe and effective in protecting tilapias against S. agalactiae infection.

  4. Recurrent Streptococcus agalactiae Toxic Shock Syndrome Triggered by a Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Masataka; Takazono, Takahiro; Tashiro, Masato; Saijo, Tomomi; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Yamamoto, Kazuko; Nakamura, Shigeki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Sawai, Toyomitsu; Nishino, Tomoya; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by group B streptococcus (GBS) is a rare, but lethal disease. We experienced a 45-year-old woman with pustular psoriasis who developed toxic shock-like syndrome during infliximab treatment. Surprisingly, similar episodes recurred three times in one year with restarting of infliximab treatments. In the third episode, GBS were detected in blood, urine, and vaginal secretion cultures. These episodes of shock syndrome were possibly due to GBS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent streptococcal toxic shock syndrome possibly caused by GBS which was induced by anti-TNF-α inhibitor therapy. The restarting of biological agents in patients with a history of toxic shock syndrome should therefore be avoided as much as possible. PMID:27803422

  5. Evidence for the Sialylation of PilA, the PI-2a Pilus-Associated Adhesin of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain NEM316

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Eric; Mallet, Adeline; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Chaze, Thibault; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Oliva, Giulia; Oliveira, Liliana; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (or Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a commensal bacterium present in the intestinal and urinary tracts of approximately 30% of humans. We and others previously showed that the PI-2a pilus polymers, made of the backbone pilin PilB, the tip adhesin PilA and the cell wall anchor protein PilC, promote adhesion to host epithelia and biofilm formation. Affinity-purified PI-2a pili from GBS strain NEM316 were recognized by N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc, also known as sialic acid) specific lectins such as Elderberry Bark Lectin (EBL) suggesting that pili are sialylated. Glycan profiling with twenty different lectins combined with monosaccharide composition by HPLC suggested that affinity-purified PI-2a pili are modified by N-glycosylation and decorated with sialic acid attached to terminal galactose. Analysis of various relevant mutants in the PI-2a pilus operon by flow-cytometry and electron microscopy analyses pointed to PilA as the pilus subunit modified by glycosylation. Double labeling using PilB antibody and EBL lectin, which specifically recognizes N-acetylneuraminic acid attached to galactose in α-2, 6, revealed a characteristic binding of EBL at the tip of the pilus structures, highly reminiscent of PilA localization. Expression of a secreted form of PilA using an inducible promoter showed that this recombinant PilA binds specifically to EBL lectin when produced in the native GBS context. In silico search for potentially glycosylated asparagine residues in PilA sequence pointed to N427 and N597, which appear conserved and exposed in the close homolog RrgA from S. pneumoniae, as likely candidates. Conversion of these two asparagyl residues to glutamyl resulted in a higher instability of PilA. Our results provide the first evidence that the tip PilA adhesin can be glycosylated, and suggest that this modification is critical for PilA stability and may potentially influence interactions with the host. PMID:26407005

  6. Molecular characterization and expression of CD2BP2 in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to Streptococcus agalactiae stimulus.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Lu, Yishan; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe

    2014-09-10

    CD2BP2 (CD2 cytoplasmic tail binding protein 2), one of several proteins interacting with the cytoplasmic tail of CD2, plays a crucial role in CD2-triggered T cell activation and nuclear splicing. The studies on CD2BP2 have tended to be confined to a few mammals, and little information is available to date regarding fish CD2BP2. In this paper, a CD2BP2 gene (On-CD2BP2) was cloned from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Sequence analysis showed that the full length of On-CD2BP2 cDNA was 1429 bp, containing a 5'untranslated region (UTR) of 111 bp, a 3'-UTR of 193 bp and an open reading frame of 1125 bp which is encoding 374 amino acids. Two important structural features, a GYF domain and a consensus motif GPFXXXXMXXWXXXGYF were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD2BP2, and the deduced genomic structure of On-CD2BP2 was similar to the known CD2BP2. The mRNA expression of On-CD2BP2 in various tissues of Nile tilapia was analyzed by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR. In healthy Nile tilapia, the On-CD2BP2 transcripts were mainly detected in the head kidney and spleen. While vaccinated with inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae, the On-CD2BP2 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in the head kidney, spleen and brain 48 h post immunization. Moreover, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD2BP2 after immunization and the expression reached the highest level at 24h in the brain and 48 h in the head kidney and spleen. This is the first report of proving the presence of a CD2BP2 ortholog in fish, and investigating its tissue distribution and expression profile in response to bacterial stimulus. These findings indicated that On-CD2BP2 may play an important role in the immune response to bacteria in Nile tilapia.

  7. Streptococcus agalactiae in Brazil: serotype distribution, virulence determinants and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Vanusa G; Alves, Valéria M N; Olendzki, André N; Dias, Cicero A G; de Bastos, Alessandra F A; Santos, Gianni O; de Amorin, Efigênia L T; Sousa, Meireille  B; Santos, Rosemary; Ribeiro, Patricia C S; Fontes, Cleuber F; Andrey, Marco; Magalhães, Kedma; Araujo, Ana A; Paffadore, Lilian F; Marconi, Camila; Murta, Eddie F C; Fernandes, Paulo C; Raddi, Maria S G; Marinho, Penélope S; Bornia, Rita B G; Palmeiro, Jussara K; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Pinto, Tatiana C A; Botelho, Ana Caroline N; Teixeira, Lúcia M; Fracalanzza, Sérgio Eduardo L

    2014-06-12

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a major cause of neonatal sepsis and is also associated with invasive and noninvasive infections in pregnant women and non-pregnant adults, elderly and patients with underlying medical conditions. Ten capsular serotypes have been recognized, and determination of their distribution within a specific population or geographical region is important as they are major targets for the development of vaccine strategies. We have evaluated the characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from individuals with infections or colonization by this microorganism, living in different geographic regions of Brazil. A total of 434 isolates were identified and serotyped by conventional phenotypic tests. The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method. Genes associated with resistance to erythromycin (ermA, ermB, mefA) and tetracycline (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO) as well as virulence-associated genes (bac, bca, lmb, scpB) were investigated using PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to examine the genetic diversity of macrolide-resistant and of a number of selected macrolide-susceptible isolates. Overall, serotypes Ia (27.6%), II (19.1%), Ib (18.7%) and V (13.6%) were the most predominant, followed by serotypes IV (8.1%) and III (6.7%). All the isolates were susceptible to the beta-lactam antimicrobials tested and 97% were resistant to tetracycline. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were found in 4.1% and 3% of the isolates, respectively. Among the resistance genes investigated, tetM (99.3%) and tetO (1.8%) were detected among tetracycline-resistant isolates and ermA (39%) and ermB (27.6%) were found among macrolide-resistant isolates. The lmb and scpB virulence genes were detected in all isolates, while bac and bca were detected in 57 (13.1%) and 237 (54.6%) isolates, respectively. Molecular typing by PFGE showed that resistance to erythromycin was associated with a variety of clones

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from crossbred dairy cows with clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Regassa, Fekadu; Araya, Mengistu

    2012-08-01

    Following the rapidly expanding dairy enterprise, mastitis has remained the most economically damaging disease. The objective of this study was mainly to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Combretum molle (R.Br.Ex.G.Don) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) against antibiotic-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis using agar disc diffusion method. The leaf and bark extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus at concentrations of 3 mg/ml while the stem and seed extract did not show any bioactivity. Although both leaf and bark extracts were handled in the same manner, the antibacterial activity of the bark extract against the bacterial strains had declined gradually to a lower level as time advanced after extraction. The leaf extract had sustained bioactivity for longer duration. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the leaf extract is not obviously different between S. aureus and S. agalactiae. Also, there was no difference in susceptibility to the leaf extract between the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive bacteria. Further phytochemical and in vivo efficacy and safety studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic value of the plant against bovine mastitis.

  9. Novel Aspects of the Z and R3 Antigens of Streptococcus agalactiae Revealed by Immunological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Maeland, Johan A.; Lyng, Randi V.; Mavenyengwa, Rooyen T.

    2013-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are important human and bovine pathogens which can be classified by a variety of phenotype- and gene-based techniques. The capsular polysaccharide and strain-variable, surface-anchored proteins are particularly important phenotypic markers. In an earlier study, a previously unrecognized protein antigen called Z was described. It was expressed by 27.2% of GBS strains from Zimbabwe, usually in combination with R3 protein expression. In this study, a putative Z-specific antiserum actually contained antibodies against two different antigens named Z1 and Z2; Z1 was >250 kDa in molecular mass. Z1, Z2, and R3 generated multiple stained bands on Western blots and showed similar chromatographic characteristics with respect to molecular mass, aggregate formation, and charge. Of 28 reference and prototype GBS strains examined, 8/28 (28.5%) isolates expressed one, two, or all three of the Z1, Z2, and R3 antigens; 4/28 expressed all three antigens; 2/28 expressed Z2 and R3; 1/28 expressed Z1 only; and 1/28 expressed R3 only. Twenty (71.5%) of the 28 isolates expressed none of the three antigens. Expression of one or more of these antigens was shown by isolates of the capsular polysaccharide types Ia, Ib, V, and IX and NT strains and occurred in combination with expression of various other strain-variable and surface-localized protein antigens. When used as serosubtype markers, Z1, Z2, and R3 affected existing GBS serotype designations for some of the isolates. For instance, the R3 reference strain Prague 10/84 (ATCC 49447) changed serotype markers from V/R3 to V/R3, Z1, and Z2. Other isolates may change correspondingly, implying consequences for GBS serotyping and research. PMID:23408530

  10. Novel aspects of the Z and R3 antigens of Streptococcus agalactiae revealed by immunological testing.

    PubMed

    Maeland, Johan A; Radtke, Andreas; Lyng, Randi V; Mavenyengwa, Rooyen T

    2013-04-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are important human and bovine pathogens which can be classified by a variety of phenotype- and gene-based techniques. The capsular polysaccharide and strain-variable, surface-anchored proteins are particularly important phenotypic markers. In an earlier study, a previously unrecognized protein antigen called Z was described. It was expressed by 27.2% of GBS strains from Zimbabwe, usually in combination with R3 protein expression. In this study, a putative Z-specific antiserum actually contained antibodies against two different antigens named Z1 and Z2; Z1 was >250 kDa in molecular mass. Z1, Z2, and R3 generated multiple stained bands on Western blots and showed similar chromatographic characteristics with respect to molecular mass, aggregate formation, and charge. Of 28 reference and prototype GBS strains examined, 8/28 (28.5%) isolates expressed one, two, or all three of the Z1, Z2, and R3 antigens; 4/28 expressed all three antigens; 2/28 expressed Z2 and R3; 1/28 expressed Z1 only; and 1/28 expressed R3 only. Twenty (71.5%) of the 28 isolates expressed none of the three antigens. Expression of one or more of these antigens was shown by isolates of the capsular polysaccharide types Ia, Ib, V, and IX and NT strains and occurred in combination with expression of various other strain-variable and surface-localized protein antigens. When used as serosubtype markers, Z1, Z2, and R3 affected existing GBS serotype designations for some of the isolates. For instance, the R3 reference strain Prague 10/84 (ATCC 49447) changed serotype markers from V/R3 to V/R3, Z1, and Z2. Other isolates may change correspondingly, implying consequences for GBS serotyping and research.

  11. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ann E; Autran, Chloe A; Szyszka, Alexandra; Escajadillo, Tamara; Huang, Mia; Godula, Kamil; Prudden, Anthony R; Boons, Geert-Jan; Lewis, Amanda L; Doran, Kelly S; Nizet, Victor; Bode, Lars

    2017-07-07

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide the development of the immune system of the infant and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce the risk of infection. In the course of our studies of HMO-microbial interactions, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel HMO property to directly inhibit the growth of GBS independent of host immunity. By separating different HMO fractions through multidimensional chromatography, we found the bacteriostatic activity to be confined to specific non-sialylated HMOs and synergistic with a number of conventional antibiotic agents. Phenotypic screening of a GBS transposon insertion library identified a mutation within a GBS-specific gene encoding a putative glycosyltransferase that confers resistance to HMOs, suggesting that HMOs may function as an alternative substrate to modify a GBS component in a manner that impairs growth kinetics. Our study uncovers a unique antibacterial role for HMOs against a leading neonatal pathogen and expands the potential therapeutic utility of these versatile molecules. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Serotype IV Streptococcus agalactiae ST-452 has arisen from large genomic recombination events between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17 lineages.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rinaudo, C Daniela; Donati, Claudio; Barucco, Mara; Torricelli, Giulia; Edwards, Morven S; Baker, Carol J; Margarit, Imma; Rosini, Roberto

    2016-07-14

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes life-threatening infections in newborns and adults with chronic medical conditions. Serotype IV strains are emerging both among carriers and as cause of invasive disease and recent studies revealed two main Sequence Types (STs), ST-452 and ST-459 assigned to Clonal Complexes CC23 and CC1, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of 70 type IV GBS and subsequent phylogenetic analysis elucidated the localization of type IV isolates in a SNP-based phylogenetic tree and suggested that ST-452 could have originated through genetic recombination. SNPs density analysis of the core genome confirmed that the founder strain of this lineage originated from a single large horizontal gene transfer event between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17. Indeed, ST-452 genomes are composed by two parts that are nearly identical to corresponding regions in ST-24 (CC23) and ST-291 (CC17). Chromosome mapping of the major GBS virulence factors showed that ST-452 strains have an intermediate yet unique profile among CC23 and CC17 strains. We described unreported large recombination events, involving the cps IV operon and resulting in the expansion of serotype IV to CC23. This work sheds further light on the evolution of GBS providing new insights on the recent emergence of serotype IV.

  13. Serotype IV Streptococcus agalactiae ST-452 has arisen from large genomic recombination events between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17 lineages

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rinaudo, C. Daniela; Donati, Claudio; Barucco, Mara; Torricelli, Giulia; Edwards, Morven S.; Baker, Carol J.; Margarit, Imma; Rosini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes life-threatening infections in newborns and adults with chronic medical conditions. Serotype IV strains are emerging both among carriers and as cause of invasive disease and recent studies revealed two main Sequence Types (STs), ST-452 and ST-459 assigned to Clonal Complexes CC23 and CC1, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of 70 type IV GBS and subsequent phylogenetic analysis elucidated the localization of type IV isolates in a SNP-based phylogenetic tree and suggested that ST-452 could have originated through genetic recombination. SNPs density analysis of the core genome confirmed that the founder strain of this lineage originated from a single large horizontal gene transfer event between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17. Indeed, ST-452 genomes are composed by two parts that are nearly identical to corresponding regions in ST-24 (CC23) and ST-291 (CC17). Chromosome mapping of the major GBS virulence factors showed that ST-452 strains have an intermediate yet unique profile among CC23 and CC17 strains. We described unreported large recombination events, involving the cps IV operon and resulting in the expansion of serotype IV to CC23. This work sheds further light on the evolution of GBS providing new insights on the recent emergence of serotype IV. PMID:27411639

  14. Streptococcus pyogenes in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Malmström, Johan; Karlsson, Christofer; Nordenfelt, Pontus; Ossola, Reto; Weisser, Hendrik; Quandt, Andreas; Hansson, Karin; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars; Björck, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a major bacterial pathogen and a potent inducer of inflammation causing plasma leakage at the site of infection. A combination of label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategies were used to measure how the intracellular proteome homeostasis of S. pyogenes is influenced by the presence of human plasma, identifying and quantifying 842 proteins. In plasma the bacterium modifies its production of 213 proteins, and the most pronounced change was the complete down-regulation of proteins required for fatty acid biosynthesis. Fatty acids are transported by albumin (HSA) in plasma. S. pyogenes expresses HSA-binding surface proteins, and HSA carrying fatty acids reduced the amount of fatty acid biosynthesis proteins to the same extent as plasma. The results clarify the function of HSA-binding proteins in S. pyogenes and underline the power of the quantitative mass spectrometry strategy used here to investigate bacterial adaptation to a given environment. PMID:22117078

  15. Effects of some dietary crude plant extracts on the growth and gonadal maturity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and their resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae infection.

    PubMed

    Kareem, Zana H; Abdelhadi, Yasser M; Christianus, Annie; Karim, Murni; Romano, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    A 90-day feeding trial was conducted on the growth performance, feeding efficacy, body indices, various hematological and plasma biochemical parameters, and histopathological examination of the gonads from male and female Nile tilapia fingerlings when fed different crude plant extracts from Cinnamomum camphora, Euphorbia hirta, Azadirachta indica, or Carica papaya at 2 g kg(-1) compared to a control diet. This was followed by a 14-day challenge to Streptococcus agalactiae. All treatments were triplicated, and each treatment consisted of 30 fish. Results showed that C. papaya extracts were the most effective at delaying gonadal maturation to both male and female tilapia, as well as significantly increasing (P < 0.05) growth performance compared to the control treatment. Similarly, dietary C. camphora and E. hirta extracts also significantly improved growth, while no significant growth effect was detected between the A. indica and control treatments (P > 0.05). Further, crude body lipid was lower in the C. camphora, E. hirta and C. papaya treatments, but was only significantly lower for the E. hirta treatment compared to the control. Meanwhile, none of the hematological or biochemical parameters were significantly affected, although plasma ALT was significantly lower for tilapia fed A. indica compared to the control. After the 14-day bacterial challenge, tilapia fed C. camphora supplementation had significantly higher survival, compared to the control, but was not significantly higher than the other supplemented diets. Results indicate that dietary C. papaya extract can significantly promote growth and delay gonadal maturation to both male and female tilapia, while C. camphora was the most effective prophylactic to S. agalactiae and may be a cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to antibiotics.

  16. Comprehensive identification and profiling of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) microRNAs response to Streptococcus agalactiae infection through high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Gan, Zhen; Cai, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhongliang; Yu, Dapeng; Lin, Ziwei; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are a kind of small non-coding RNAs that participate in various biological processes. Deregulated microRNA expression is associated with several types of diseases. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important commercial fish species in China. To identify miRNAs and investigate immune-related miRNAs of O. niloticus, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to identify and analyze miRNAs from tilapia infected with Streptococcus agalactiae at a timescale of 72 h divided into six different time points. The results showed that a total of 3009 tilapia miRNAs were identified, including in 1121 miRNAs which have homologues in the currently available databases and 1878 novel miRNAs. The expression levels of 218 tilapia miRNAs were significantly altered at 6 h-72 h post-bacterial infection (pi), and these miRNAs were therefore classified as differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs. For the 1121 differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs target 41961 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that some target genes of tilapia miRNAs were grouped mainly into the categories of apoptotic process, signal pathway, and immune response. This is the first report of comprehensive identification of O. niloticus miRNAs being differentially regulated in spleen in normal conditions relating to S. agalactiae infection. This work provides an opportunity for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA regulation in O. niloticus host-pathogen interactions.

  17. Development and efficacy of feed-based recombinant vaccine encoding the cell wall surface anchor family protein of Streptococcus agalactiae against streptococcosis in Oreochromis sp.

    PubMed

    Nur-Nazifah, M; Sabri, M Y; Siti-Zahrah, A

    2014-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the antibody responses and protective capacity of an inactivated recombinant vaccine expressing the cell wall surface anchor family protein of Streptococcus agalactiae following oral vaccination against streptococcosis in tilapia. Tilapia were vaccinated orally with 10(6) CFU/mL of the recombinant vaccine incorporated in feed (feed-based recombinant vaccine) (vaccinated group or Group 1), 10(6) CFU/mL of pET-32 Ek/LIC vector without cell wall surface anchor family protein (control group or Group 2), 10(6) CFU/mL of formalin-killed cells of S. agalactiae vaccine incorporated in feed was also prepared (feed-based vaccine) (vaccinated group or Group 3), and unvaccinated control group or Group 4 (fed with commercial pellets). During the course of study, serum, mucus and gut lavage fluid were collected to evaluate the antibody levels via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that tilapia immunized with the feed-based recombinant vaccine developed a strong and significantly (P < 0.05) higher IgM antibody response in serum, mucus and gut lavage fluid samples compared to groups 2, 3 and 4. Following heat intervenes and intraperitoneal challenge, the rate of survivors (RPS) was 70% for the vaccinated group, and 0% for the rest of the groups. Therefore, the study revealed that the feed-based recombinant vaccine significantly provides high protection against high dose challenge in heat stress environment and enhances the production of the mucosal and humoral immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from infected cultured tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Thailand: Nine-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Dangwetngam, Machalin; Suanyuk, Naraid; Kong, Fanrong; Phromkunthong, Wutiporn

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) infection remains a major problem associated with high mortality of cultured tilapia worldwide. The present study reports the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of GBS isolated from infected tilapia cultured in Thailand. One hundred and forty-four GBS isolates were identified by biochemical, serological and molecular analyses. Of these 144 GBS isolates, 126 were serotype Ia and 18 were serotype III. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 144 GBS isolates were determined by the disc diffusion method. Most GBS isolates were susceptible to lincomycin, norfloxacin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol, but resistant to oxolinic acid, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. However, 17 isolates displayed an oxytetracycline-resistant phenotype and harboured the tet(M) gene. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 17 oxytetracycline-resistant GBS isolates, and then minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of these isolates were evaluated. Oxytetracyline-resistant isolates were found to be susceptible to ampicillin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol, with the MIC and MBC ranging from ≤ 0.125 to 0.5 μg ml- 1 and ≤ 0.125 to 2 μg ml- 1, respectively. Moreover, all 17 oxytetracycline-resistant isolates demonstrated resistance to trimethoprim, oxolinic acid, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole and oxytetracycline, with the MIC and MBC ranging from 16 to ≥ 128 μg ml- 1 and ≥ 128 μg ml- 1, respectively. These findings are useful information for antibiotic usage in fish aquaculture.

  19. An in silico model for identification of small RNAs in whole bacterial genomes: characterization of antisense RNAs in pathogenic Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Christophe; du Merle, Laurence; Caliot, Marie Elise; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Le Bouguénec, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of small non-coding ribonucleic acids (sRNA) among the large volume of data generated by high-throughput RNA-seq or tiling microarray analyses remains a challenge. Thus, there is still a need for accurate in silico prediction methods to identify sRNAs within a given bacterial species. After years of effort, dedicated software were developed based on comparative genomic analyses or mathematical/statistical models. Although these genomic analyses enabled sRNAs in intergenic regions to be efficiently identified, they all failed to predict antisense sRNA genes (asRNA), i.e. RNA genes located on the DNA strand complementary to that which encodes the protein. The statistical models enabled any genomic region to be analyzed theorically but not efficiently. We present a new model for in silico identification of sRNA and asRNA candidates within an entire bacterial genome. This model was successfully used to analyze the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Streptococcus agalactiae. In both bacteria, numerous asRNAs are transcribed from the complementary strand of genes located in pathogenicity islands, strongly suggesting that these asRNAs are regulators of the virulence expression. In particular, we characterized an asRNA that acted as an enhancer-like regulator of the type 1 fimbriae production involved in the virulence of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. PMID:22139924

  20. RNA-Seq revealed the impairment of immune defence of tilapia against the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae with simulated climate warming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Liu, Peng; Wan, Zi Yi; Huang, Shu Qing; Wen, Yan Fei; Lin, Grace; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-08-01

    Global warming is one of the causes of disease outbreaks in fishes. Understanding its mechanisms is critical in aquaculture and fisheries. We used tilapia to study the effects of a high temperature on the infection of a bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae using RNA-Seq. We found that the dissolved oxygen level in water at 32 °C is lower than at 22 °C, and tilapia infected with the pathogen died more rapidly at 32 °C. The gene expression profiles showed significant differences in fish raised under different conditions. We identified 126 and 576 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 4 and 24 h post infection at 22 °C, respectively, whereas at 32 °C, the data were 312 and 1670, respectively. Almost all responding pathways at 22 °C were involved in the immune responses, whereas at 32 °C, the enriched pathways were not only involved in immune responses but also involved in oxygen and energy metabolisms. We identified significant signals of immunosuppression of immune responses at 32 °C. In addition, many of the enriched transcription factors and DEGs under positive selection were involved in immune responses, oxygen and/or energy metabolisms. Our results suggest that global warming could reduce the oxygen level in water and impair the defence of tilapia against bacterial infection.

  1. Integrated analysis neurimmiRs of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae, a pathogen causing meningoencephalitis in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Gan, Zhen; Wang, Zhongliang; Yu, Dapeng; Lin, Ziwei; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNA molecules and play important roles in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including in immune response. Recent years have witnessed considerable amount of research interest in studies on miRNA-mediated modulation gene function during neuroinflammation. Here, we evaluated Streptococcus agalactiae infected tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) brain for the expression profile of miRNAs, potential functions and their correlation with genes involved in inflammatory pathways. A total of 1981 miRNAs were identified, including in 486 miRNAs which have homologues in the currently available databases and 1945 novel miRNAs. The expression levels of 547 miRNAs were significantly altered at 6 h-48 h post-bacterial infection, and these miRNAs were therefore classified as differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs. Real-time PCR were implemented for 14 miRNAs co-expressed in five samples, and agreement was confirmed between the high-throughput sequencing and real-time PCR data. For the 486 differentially expressed miRNAs target 41,820 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that some target genes of miRNAs were grouped mainly into the categories of apoptotic, signal pathwayand immune response. This is the first report of comprehensive identification of teleost miRNAs being differentially regulated in brain in normal conditions relating to bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of the Streptococcus agalactiae virulence-associated protease CspA in a soluble, active form utilizing the Gram-positive host, Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Daniel; Bryan, Joshua D

    2008-09-10

    The heterologous expression of streptococcal genes in common Gram-negative hosts may be complicated by low-level expression, toxicity to the host, formation of inclusion bodies, and mislocalization of the encoded proteins. Biochemical study of the Streptococcus agalactiae virulence-associated cell-envelope protease (CEP) CspA, as well as other CEPs, has been limited by the lack of effective expression systems. In this study, we present a simple strategy to express cspA as a catalytically active exoprotein. A recombinant allele of cspA, cspADeltaCWA, was engineered to eliminate the dispensable cell-wall anchor. The cspADeltaCWA allele was expressed in the Gram-positive organism, Lactococcus lactis, using an established, plasmid-based, nisin-inducible expression system. After induction, nearly all of the exoprotein observable by SDS-PAGE corresponded to CspADeltaCWA. CspADeltaCWA-containing medium exhibited similar fibrinolytic activity as whole cells of GBS, indicating the recombinant protein was active. Characterization of CspADeltaCWA indicated that like some other CEPs, it is N-terminally processed, exists predominantly as a dimer, and has the ability to cleave itself at its C-terminus. Taken together, this work presents an efficient strategy for expression of cspA that could be applied to other streptococcal proteins that are not amenable to expression using common Gram-negative hosts.

  3. Increasing of temperature induces pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae and the up-regulation of inflammatory related genes in infected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-08-06

    Temperature strongly affects the health of aquatic poikilotherms. In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), elevated water temperatures increase the severity of streptococcosis. Here we investigated the effects of temperature on the vulnerability and inflammatory response of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci; GBS). At 35 and 28 °C, GBS took 4 and 7h, respectively to reach the log-phase and, when incubated with tilapia whole blood, experienced survival rates of 97% and 2%, respectively. The hemolysis activity of GBS grown at 35 °C was five times higher than that of GBS grown at 28 °C. GBS expressed cylE (β-hemolysin/cytolysin), cfb (CAMP factor) and PI-2b (pili-backbone) much more strongly at 35 °C than at 28 °C. Challenging Nile tilapia reared at 35 and 28 °C with GBS resulted in accumulated mortalities of about 85% and 45%, respectively. At 35 °C, infected tilapia exhibited tremendous inflammatory responses due to a dramatic up-regulation (30-40-fold) of inflammatory-related genes (cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1β and TNF-α) between 6 and 96 h-post infection. These results suggest that the increase of GBS pathogenicity to Nile tilapia induced by elevated temperature is associated with massive inflammatory responses, which may lead to acute mortality.

  4. Evaluation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor and memory in adult rats survivors of the neonatal meningitis by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Lemos, Joelson C; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Carradore, Mirelle M; Moreira, Ana Paula; Collodel, Allan; Zanatta, Jessiele R; Valvassori, Samira S; Quevedo, João

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major cause of severe morbidity and mortality in neonates and young infants, causing sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis. The survivors from this meningitis can suffer serious long-term neurological consequences, such as, seizures, hearing loss, learning and memory impairments. Neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) control the neuronal cell death during the brain development and play an important role in neuronal differentiation, survival and growth of neurons. Neonate Wistar rats, received either 10μL of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of GBS suspension at a concentration of 1×10(6)cfu/mL. Sixty days after induction of meningitis, the animals underwent behavioral tests, after were killed and the hippocampus and cortex were retired for analyze of the BDNF and NGF levels. In the open-field demonstrated no difference in motor, exploratory activity and habituation memory between the groups. The step-down inhibitory avoidance, when we evaluated the long-term memory at 24h after training session, we found that the meningitis group had a decrease in aversive memory when compared with the long-term memory test of the sham group. BDNF levels decreased in hippocampus and cortex; however the NGF levels decreased only in hippocampus. These findings suggest that the meningitis model could be a good research tool for the study of the biological mechanisms involved in the behavioral alterations secondary to GBS meningitis.

  5. Macrolide resistance gene erm(TR) and erm(TR)-carrying genetic elements in Streptococcus agalactiae: characterization of ICESagTR7, a new composite element containing IMESp2907.

    PubMed

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Marini, Emanuela; Brenciani, Andrea; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate macrolide-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates harbouring erm(TR), an erm(A) gene subclass, with emphasis on their erm(TR)-carrying genetic elements. Four erm(TR)-carrying elements have been described to date: three closely related (ICE10750-RD.2, Tn1806 and ICESp1108) in Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes, respectively; and one completely different (IMESp2907, embedded in ICESp2906 to form ICESp2905) in S. pyogenes. Seventeen macrolide-resistant erm(TR)-positive S. agalactiae isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Their erm(TR)-carrying elements were explored by analysing the distinctive recombination genes of known erm(TR)-carrying integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and by PCR mapping. The new genetic context and organization of IMESp2907 in S. agalactiae were explored using several experimental procedures and in silico analyses. Five isolates harboured ICE10750-RD.2/Tn1806, five isolates harboured ICESp1108 and five isolates bore unknown erm(TR)-carrying elements. The remaining two isolates, exhibiting identical serotypes and pulsotypes, harboured IMESp2907 in a new genetic environment, which was further investigated in one of the two isolates, SagTR7. IMESp2907 was circularizable in S. agalactiae, as described in S. pyogenes. The new IMESp2907 junctions were identified based on its site-specific integration; the att sites were almost identical to those in S. pyogenes. In strain SagTR7, erm(TR)-carrying IMESp2907 was embedded in an erm(TR)-less internal element related to ICE10750-RD.2/Tn1806, which, in turn, was embedded in an ICESde3396-like element. The resulting whole ICE, ICESagTR7 (∼129 kb), was integrated into the chromosome downstream of the rplL gene, and was excisable in circular form and transferable by conjugation. This is the first study exploring erm(TR)-carrying genetic elements in S. agalactiae. © The Author 2015. Published by

  6. Characterization and expression analysis of the transferrin gene in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and its upregulation in response to Streptococcus agalactiae infection.

    PubMed

    Poochai, Watsida; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Srisapoome, Prapansak; Unajak, Sasimanas; Areechon, Nontawith

    2014-10-01

    In this study, full-length tilapia transferrin (OnTF) isolated from liver cDNA of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was found to have an open reading frame of 2,091-bp encoding 696 amino acid residues. Two additional amino acids: Gly(369) and Gly(370) were observed compared with the reported Nile tilapia transferrin protein sequence. Pre-mature protein has a predicted molecular weight of 78.2 kDa, while mature protein is 73.28 kDa in size. Comparative sequence analysis with transferrin from other species revealed two major putative iron-binding domains designated as the N-lobe and the C-lobe in accordance with the transferrin protein characteristics. The predicted tertiary structure of tilapia transferrin confirmed the presence of iron and anion-binding sites on both lobes that are conserved among transferrins from other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed significantly higher expression of tilapia transferrin gene in liver than in other tissues (p < 0.05). Transferrin expression in tilapia experimentally infected with 10(6) and 10(8) colony-forming units mL(-1) of Streptococcus agalactiae was significantly upregulated at 24 and 12 h post-infection (hpi), respectively, and decreased afterward. Iron-deficiency in serum of bacterially infected fish was detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. The expression pattern of the transferrin gene and the iron levels of infected tilapia in this study were consistent with the function of transferrin in innate immunity.

  7. The effects of dietary kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate on serum immune parameters, resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae and growth performance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Van Doan, Hien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Tapingkae, Wanaporn; Khamtavee, Pimporn

    2017-03-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of dietary kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate (LWMSA) (singular or combined) on non-specific immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish with average weight of 18.60 ± 0.04 g were supplied and randomly stocked in sixteen glass tanks (150 L) at density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed experimental diets as follows: 0 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Control, Diet 1), 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Diet 2), 40 g kg(-1) kefir (Diet 3), and 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA + 40 g kg(-1) kefir (Diet 4) for 50 days. At the end of the feeding trial, serum lysozyme (SL), phagocytosis (PI), respiratory burst (RB), and alternative complement (ACH50) activities as well as growth performance were measured. Singular and combined administration of kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate (LMWSA) significantly increased serum SL, PI, RB, and ACH50 activities compared control group (P < 0.05); the highest innate immune responses were observed in fish fed combinational diet (kefir + LMWSA) (P < 0.05). The results of experimental challenge revealed significantly higher resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae in fish fed supplemented diets and the highest post challenge survival rate was observed in synbiotic diet (P < 0.05). Similar results obtained in case of growth parameters. Feeding on supplemented diet significantly improved SGR and FCR and the highest growth parameters was observed in fish fed synbiotic diet (P < 0.05). These finding revealed that combined administration of dietary kefir and LMWSA can be considered for improving immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolated Streptococcus agalactiae tricuspid endocarditis in elderly patient without known predisposing factors: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Leila; Charfeddine, Salma; Kammoun, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) tricuspid infective endocarditis is a very rare clinical entity. It affects intravenous drug users, pregnant, postpartum women, and the elderly. We report the case of a 68-year-old patient without known predisposing factors who presented a GBS tricuspid endocarditis treated by penicillin and aminoglycosides with no response. The patient was operated with a good evolution. Our case is the 25th reported in the literature. GBS disease is increasing in the elderly and is mainly associated to comorbid conditions. Tricuspid infective endocarditis with Group B streptococcus predominantly presents as a persistent fever with respiratory symptoms due to pulmonary embolism. Therefore, it requires a medicosurgical treatment and close follow-up. PMID:27053903

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women. First study in a province of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, P; Pegels, E; Laczeski, M; Quiroga, M; Vergara, M

    2013-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections. Our purpose was to characterize GBS colonization in pregnant women, current serotypes, resistance phenotypes and genes associated with virulence. In Misiones, Argentina, there are no previous data on this topic. Vaginal-rectal swabs from 3125 pregnant women were studied between 2004 and 2010. GBS strains were identified by conventional and serological methods (Phadebact Strep B Test, ETC International, Bactus AB, Sweden). Serotypes were detected using Strep-B Latex (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark). Resistance phenotypes were determined by the double-disk test. Genes were studied by PCR. Maternal colonization was 9.38%. Resistance to erythromycin was 11.6%, and the constitutive phenotype was the predominant one. Serotype Ia was the most frequent, whereas serotypes IV, VI, VII and VIII were not detected. The lmb, bca and hylB genes were detected in more than 79% of the strains. In this study, the colonization rate with GBS and the serotype distribution were compared with studies reported in other areas of the country. The high resistance to erythromycin in Misiones justifies performing antibiotic susceptibility testing. The serotype distribution, the genes encoding putative virulence factors, and the patterns of resistance phenotypes of GBS may vary in different areas. They thus need to be evaluated in each place to devise strategies for prevention.

  10. A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Munari, F.M.; De-Paris, F.; Salton, G.D.; Lora, P.S.; Giovanella, P.; Machado, A.B.M.P.; Laybauer, L.S.; Oliveira, K.R.P.; Ferri, C.; Silveira, J.L.S.; Laurino, C.C.F.C.; Xavier, R.M.; Barth, A.L.; Echeverrigaray, S.; Laurino, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method) to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ≥36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively). The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity. PMID:24031826

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women. First study in a province of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, P; Pegels, E; Laczeski, M; Quiroga, M; Vergara, M

    2013-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections. Our purpose was to characterize GBS colonization in pregnant women, current serotypes, resistance phenotypes and genes associated with virulence. In Misiones, Argentina, there are no previous data on this topic. Vaginal-rectal swabs from 3125 pregnant women were studied between 2004 and 2010. GBS strains were identified by conventional and serological methods (Phadebact Strep B Test, ETC International, Bactus AB, Sweden). Serotypes were detected using Strep-B Latex (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark). Resistance phenotypes were determined by the double-disk test. Genes were studied by PCR. Maternal colonization was 9.38%. Resistance to erythromycin was 11.6%, and the constitutive phenotype was the predominant one. Serotype Ia was the most frequent, whereas serotypes IV, VI, VII and VIII were not detected. The lmb, bca and hylB genes were detected in more than 79% of the strains. In this study, the colonization rate with GBS and the serotype distribution were compared with studies reported in other areas of the country. The high resistance to erythromycin in Misiones justifies performing antibiotic susceptibility testing. The serotype distribution, the genes encoding putative virulence factors, and the patterns of resistance phenotypes of GBS may vary in different areas. They thus need to be evaluated in each place to devise strategies for prevention. PMID:24159312

  12. Modification of the CpsA Protein Reveals a Role in Alteration of the Streptococcus agalactiae Cell Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Hannah M.; Hanson, Brett R.; Runft, Donna L.; Lin, Qian; Firestine, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial cell envelope is a crucial first line of defense for a systemic pathogen, with production of capsular polysaccharides and maintenance of the peptidoglycan cell wall serving essential roles in survival in the host environment. The LytR-CpsA-Psr proteins are important for cell envelope maintenance in many Gram-positive species. In this study, we examined the role of the extracellular domain of the CpsA protein of the zoonotic pathogen group B Streptococcus in capsule production and cell wall integrity. CpsA has multiple functional domains, including a DNA-binding/transcriptional activation domain and a large extracellular domain. We demonstrated that episomal expression of extracellularly truncated CpsA causes a dominant-negative effect on capsule production when expressed in the wild-type strain. Regions of the extracellular domain essential to this phenotype were identified. The dominant-negative effect could be recapitulated by addition of purified CpsA protein or a short CpsA peptide to cultures of wild-type bacteria. Changes in cell wall morphology were also observed when the dominant-negative peptide was added to wild-type cultures. Fluorescently labeled CpsA peptide could be visualized bound at the mid-cell region near the division septae, suggesting a novel role for CpsA in cell division. Finally, expression of truncated CpsA also led to attenuation of virulence in zebrafish models of infection, to levels below that of a cpsA deletion strain, demonstrating the key role of the extracellular domain in virulence of GBS. PMID:25644003

  13. Characterization of Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Diseased Farmed and Wild Marine Fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast, Latin America, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Wang, Rui; Wiles, Judy; Baumgartner, Wes; Green, Christopher; Plumb, John; Hawke, John

    2015-06-01

    We examined Lancefield serogroup B Streptococcus isolates recovered from diseased, cultured hybrid Striped Bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis × White Bass M. chrysops) and wild and cultured Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis from coastal waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf coast) and compared those isolates to strains from tilapias Oreochromis spp. reared in Mississippi, Thailand, Ecuador, and Honduras and to the original Gulf coast strain identified by Plumb et al. ( 1974 ). The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic, biochemical, and antibiotic susceptibility analyses. Genetic analysis was performed using partial sequence comparison of (1) the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; (2) the sipA gene, which encodes a surface immunogenic protein; (3) the cspA gene, which encodes a cell surface-associated protein; and (4) the secY gene, which encodes components of a general protein secretion pathway. Phylogenies inferred from sipA, secY, and cspA gene sequence comparisons were more discriminating than that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The U.S. Gulf coast strains showed a high degree of similarity to strains from South America and Central America and belonged to a unique group that can be distinguished from other group B streptococci. In agreement with the molecular findings, biochemical and antimicrobial resistance analyses demonstrated that the isolates recovered from the U.S. Gulf coast and Latin America were more similar to each other than to isolates from Thailand. Three laboratory challenge methods for inducing streptococcosis in Gulf Killifish were evaluated-intraperitoneal (IP) injection, immersion (IMM), and immersion plus abrasion (IMMA)-using serial dilutions of S. agalactiae isolate LADL 97-151, a representative U.S. Gulf coast strain. The dose that was lethal to 50% of test fish by 14 d postchallenge was approximately 2 CFU/fish via IP injection. In contrast, the fish that were challenged via IMM or IMMA presented cumulative mortality

  14. Killing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus), Haemophilus ducreyi, and vaginal Lactobacillus by 3-O-octyl-sn-glycerol.

    PubMed

    Moncla, B J; Pryke, K; Isaacs, Charles E

    2008-04-01

    The microbicide candidate octylglycerol inactivates sexually transmitted bacterial pathogens at concentrations which spare normal vaginal flora (lactobacillus). Standard minimum microbicidal concentration assays and time-kill assays revealed the drug concentrations and times required for inactivation. Octylglycerol concentrations must exceed the binding capacity of any human serum albumin to be effective.

  15. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    PubMed

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points.

  16. Multicenter Study of the Mechanisms of Resistance and Clonal Relationships of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates Resistant to Macrolides, Lincosamides, and Ketolides in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J. J.; Andreu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Macrolide, lincosamide, and ketolide mechanisms of resistance and clonal relationships were characterized in a collection of 79 resistant group B streptococcus isolates obtained from neonates or pregnant women. The erm(B), erm(TR), and mef(A) genes were present in 62%, 30.4%, and 3.8% of the isolates, respectively. There was considerable clonal diversity among them. PMID:15917563

  17. Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov., isolated from the human throat.

    PubMed

    Huch, Melanie; De Bruyne, Katrien; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Bub, Achim; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Watzl, Bernhard; Snauwaert, Isabel; Franz, Charles M A P; Vandamme, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The novel, Gram-stain-positive, ovoid, lactic acid bacterial isolates LMG 27205, LMG 27206, LMG 27207(T) and MRI-F 18 were obtained from throat samples of healthy humans. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that these isolates belong to the genus Streptococcus, specifically the Streptococcus mitis group, with Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus mitis as the nearest neighbours (99.45 and 98.56 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the respective type strains). Genotypic fingerprinting by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), DNA-DNA hybridizations, comparative sequence analysis of pheS, rpoA and atpA and physiological and biochemical tests revealed that these bacteria formed a taxon well separated from its nearest neighbours and other species of the genus Streptococcus with validly published names and, therefore, represent a novel species, for which the name Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 27207(T) ( = DSM 26920(T)) as the type strain.

  18. Evaluation of methods for identification and determination of the taxonomic status of strains belonging to the Streptococcus porcinus-Streptococcus pseudoporcinus complex isolated from animal, human, and dairy sources.

    PubMed

    Shewmaker, Patricia Lynn; Steigerwalt, Arnold G; Whitney, Anne M; Morey, Roger E; Graziano, James C; Facklam, Richard R; Musser, Kimberlee A; Merquior, Vânia L C; Teixeira, Lucia M

    2012-11-01

    Ninety-seven animal, human, and dairy Streptococcus porcinus or Streptococcus pseudoporcinus isolates in the CDC Streptococcus strain collection were evaluated on the basis of DNA-DNA reassociation, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to determine their taxonomic status, characteristics for species differentiation, antimicrobial susceptibility, and relevance of clinical source. Nineteen of the 97 isolates (1 human, 18 swine) were identified as S. porcinus. The remaining 72 human isolates and 6 dairy isolates were identified as S. pseudoporcinus. The use of 16S rRNA or rpoB gene sequencing was required to differentiate S. porcinus from S. pseudoporcinus. The human and dairy S. pseudoporcinus isolates were biochemically distinct from each other as well as distinct by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing. Therefore, we propose the subspecies denominations S. pseudoporcinus subsp. hominis subsp. nov. for the human isolates and S. pseudoporcinus subsp. lactis subsp. nov. for the dairy isolates. Most strains were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested, with the exception of tetracycline. Two strains of each species were also resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin and carried the erm(A) (S. pseudoporcinus) or the erm(B) (S. porcinus) gene. S. porcinus was identified from a single human isolate recovered from a wound in an abattoir worker. S. pseudoporcinus was primarily isolated from the genitourinary tract of women but was also associated with blood, placental, and wound infections. Isolates reacting with group B antiserum and demonstrating wide beta-hemolysis should be suspected of being S. pseudoporcinus and not S. agalactiae.

  19. Group B Streptococcus Interactions with Human Meningeal Cells and Astrocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Alkuwaity, Khalil; Taylor, Alexander; Heckels, John E.; Doran, Kelly S.; Christodoulides, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of life-threatening neonatal meningitis and survivors often suffer permanent neurological damage. How this organism interacts with the meninges and subsequently with astrocytes that constitute the underlying cortical glia limitans superficialis is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we demonstrate dose-dependent adherence of GBS over time to human meningioma cells and fetal astrocytes in vitro, which was not influenced by expression of either β-haemolysin/cytolysin (β-h/c) toxin, different capsule serotypes or by absence of capsule (p>0.05). Internalization of GBS by both cell types was, however, a slow and an infrequent event (only 0.02–0.4% of associated bacteria were internalised by 9 h). Expression of β-h/c toxin did not play a role in invasion (p>0.05), whereas capsule expression lead to a reduction (p<0.05) in the numbers of intracellular bacteria recovered. GBS strains induced cytotoxicity as demonstrated by the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme release by 9 h and by viable staining. Increasing levels of meningioma cell death correlated with bacterial growth and the phenotype of β-h/c toxin production, i.e. from weakly, to normo- to hyper-haemolytic. However, cytotoxicity was significantly greater (p<0.05) towards astrocytes, and infection with initial MOI≥0.003 induced 70–100% LDH release. By comparing wild-type (β-h/c+) and mutant (ΔcylE β-h/c−) strains and β-h/c toxin extracts and by using the surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in cytotoxicity inhibition experiments, β-h/c toxin was demonstrated as principally responsible for cell death. Conclusions/Significance This study has described key events in the interactions of GBS with meningeal cells and astrocytes in vitro and a major virulence role for β-h/c toxin. Understanding the mechanisms involved will help to identify potential therapies for improving patient

  20. First isolation of Streptococcus downei from human dental plaques.

    PubMed

    Yoo, So Young; Kim, Kwan-Joong; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Hwang, Ho-Keel; Min, Byung-Moo; Choe, Son-Jin; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2005-08-15

    In this study, we isolated four bacterial strains grown on mitis-salivarius sucrose bacitracin agar. The strains had similar biochemical characteristics to biotypes I or II of mutans streptococci. The four isolates were identified as Streptococcus downei by 16S rDNA and dextranase gene (dex) sequencing as well as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeting dex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation and identification of S. downei from dental plaque in humans. The results suggest that S. downei can inhabit the human oral cavity.

  1. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus mitis caused by accidental human bite.

    PubMed

    Bastug, Aliye; Kislak, Sumeyye; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Koksal, Asude; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Ünlü, Ramazan Erkin; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem

    2016-01-31

    Human bite wounds are more prone to infection than animal bites, which may cause necrotizing soft tissue infections such as myositis, fasciitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms may be responsible, including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus spp. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by serious tissue destruction and systemic toxicity with high morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with Streptococcus mitis associated necrotizing fasciitis on the upper extremity resulting from an accidental human bite, which caused nearly fatal infection. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment should be given after a human bite to prevent infection. If the infection signs and symptoms develop, rapid diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic and surgical therapy should be administered immediately. Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus, usually known as a relatively benign oral streptococcus. To our knowledge, this is the first necrotizing fasciitis case due to Streptococcus mitis after human bite.

  2. Genomics of Streptococcus salivarius, a major human commensal.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Christine; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Renault, Pierre; Guédon, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The salivarius group of streptococci is of particular importance for humans. This group consists of three genetically similar species, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus vestibularis and Streptococcus thermophilus. S. salivarius and S. vestibularis are commensal organisms that may occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans, whereas S. thermophilus is a food bacterium widely used in dairy production. We developed Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and comparative genomic analysis to confirm the clear separation of these three species. These analyses also identified a subgroup of four strains, with a core genome diverging by about 10%, in terms of its nucleotide sequence, from that of S. salivarius sensu stricto. S. thermophilus species displays a low level of nucleotide variability, due to its recent emergence with the development of agriculture. By contrast, nucleotide variability is high in the other two species of the salivarius group, reflecting their long-standing association with humans. The species of the salivarius group have genome sizes ranging from the smallest (∼ 1.7 Mb for S. thermophilus) to the largest (∼ 2.3 Mb for S. salivarius) among streptococci, reflecting genome reduction linked to a narrow, nutritionally rich environment for S. thermophilus, and natural, more competitive niches for the other two species. Analyses of genomic content have indicated that the core genes of S. salivarius account for about two thirds of the genome, indicating considerable variability of gene content and differences in potential adaptive features. Furthermore, we showed that the genome of this species is exceptionally rich in genes encoding surface factors, glycosyltransferases and response regulators. Evidence of widespread genetic exchanges was obtained, probably involving a natural competence system and the presence of diverse mobile elements. However, although the S. salivarius strains studied were isolated from several human body-related sites

  3. Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB). PMID:22666370

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of immunomodulation by moderate hypoxia in S. agalactiae vaccinated Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Gallage, Sanchala; Katagiri, Takayuki; Endo, Masato; Maita, Masashi

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major bacterial pathogen in tilapia aquaculture. Vaccines are known to provide protection but S. agalactiae clearance in tilapia can be reduced by marginal environmental conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine S. agalactiae clearance in vaccinated Nile tilapia under moderate hypoxic (55± 5% DO) and normoxic (85 ± 5%DO) conditions. Fish were acclimatized to either moderate hypoxia or normoxia and immunized with formalin-inactivated S. agalactiae. Fish were experimentally challenged with S. agalactiae at 30 days post-vaccination. Serum antibody titer was significantly higher in vaccinated fish kept under normoxic condition compared to the moderate hypoxic condition at fifteen and thirty days post-vaccination. The cumulative mortality following challenge was significantly reduced in vaccinated fish kept under normoxic condition compared to those in moderate hypoxic condition reflecting that pre-challenge antibody titer may correlate with survival of fish. Blood and tissue pathogen burden detection of S. agalactiae studies revealed that culturable S. agalactiae cells could not be detected in the blood of normoxic vaccinated fish at all the sampling points. In contrast, fish vaccinated in moderate hypoxic condition had considerable number of culturable S. agalactiae cells in their blood up to 5 days following challenge. Phagocytosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were lowered by moderate hypoxia in vitro. Furthermore, presence of specific antibodies and higher specific antibody level in the serum increased phagocytosis, ROS production and lowered intracellular survival of S. agalactiae in head kidney leukocytes. Overall this study has highlighted that S. agalactiae clearance in vaccinated Nile tilapia is modulated by moderate hypoxia. One of the possible explanations for this might be less efficient phagocytic activities due to low oxygen availability and lower specific

  5. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by cellular extracts of human intestinal lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, K; Miyakawa, H; Hasegawa, A; Takazoe, I; Kawai, Y

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro growth of Streptococcus mutans was completely inhibited by water-soluble extracts from cells of various intestinal lactic acid bacteria identified as Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus equinus, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus salivarius. The growth inhibition was dependent on the concentrations of the extracts. In contrast, the extracts did not inhibit the growth of the major indigenous intestinal lactic acid bacteria isolated from humans. These lactic acid bacteria were not acutely toxic in mice. PMID:4030098

  6. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    PubMed

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, A. M.; Humrighouse, B. W.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324T, 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496T, and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300T. A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844T = CCUG 67100T = LMG 28801T. PMID:26763962

  8. Cytosolic Replication of Group A Streptococcus in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Alan M.; Thurston, Teresa L. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As key components of innate immune defense, macrophages are essential in controlling bacterial pathogens, including group A Streptococcus (GAS). Despite this, only a limited number of studies have analyzed the recovery of GAS from within human neutrophils and macrophages. Here, we determined the intracellular fate of GAS in human macrophages by using several quantitative approaches. In both U937 and primary human macrophages, the appearance over time of long GAS chains revealed that despite GAS-mediated cytotoxicity, replication occurred in viable, propidium iodide-negative macrophages. Whereas the major virulence factor M1 did not contribute to bacterial growth, a GAS mutant strain deficient in streptolysin O (SLO) was impaired for intracellular replication. SLO promoted bacterial escape from the GAS-containing vacuole (GCV) into the macrophage cytosol. Up to half of the cytosolic GAS colocalized with ubiquitin and p62, suggesting that the bacteria were targeted by the autophagy machinery. Despite this, live imaging of U937 macrophages revealed proficient replication of GAS after GCV rupture, indicating that escape from the GCV is important for growth of GAS in macrophages. Our results reveal that GAS can replicate within viable human macrophages, with SLO promoting GCV escape and cytosolic growth, despite the recruitment of autophagy receptors to bacteria. PMID:27073088

  9. Differentiation of human and animal strains of Streptococcus dysgalactiae by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bert, F; Branger, C; Poutrel, B; Lambert-Zechovsky, N

    1997-05-01

    The genetic diversity among 54 human isolates and 33 animal isolates belonging to the species Streptococcus dysgalactiae (20 alpha-haemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 23 Streptococcus equisimilis, 43 group G streptococci and one group L streptococcus) was evaluated by macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA with SmaI and resolution by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This technique revealed a high degree of intraspecies polymorphism, leading to the differentiation of 80 distinct banding patterns, and identified the presence of two major clusters, one containing isolates of human origin and the other isolates of animal origin. These results suggest than human and animal isolates of S.dysgalactiae are genetically distinct, and support the recent proposal of the subspecies S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis for human isolates. The heterogeneity revealed within isolates from the same host type indicates that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a powerful epidemiological tool for studying S. dysgalactiae infections.

  10. Epidemiological relationship of human and swine Streptococcus suis isolates.

    PubMed

    Tarradas, C; Luque, I; de Andrés, D; Abdel-Aziz Shahein, Y E; Pons, P; González, F; Borge, C; Perea, A

    2001-06-01

    Two cases of meningitis due to Streptococcus suis in humans are reported here. A butcher and an abattoir worker were referred to a health centre in Castellón (Spain) with fever and symptoms of meningitis. After adequate treatment, a slight hipoacusia persisted as sequelae in both cases. Colonies of S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ were isolated from cerebroespinal fluid. Epidemiological studies showed that both workers had in common the handling of pork meat of slaughtered healthy pigs from three closed farms. A study of the tonsils from apparently healthy, slaughtered pigs was carried out. A total of 234 tonsillar samples were obtained and 81 strains of S. suis were isolated from them. Serotype 2 appeared to be the most frequent (50.6%), and the analysis for phenotype showed a high percentage of tonsillar strains with the phenotype MRP+EF+ (35.9%). The humans and 28 tonsillar swine strains showed a similar profile (S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+). A total of 26 of the swine isolates were analysed by ribotyping using EcoRI. The human strains showed the same six-band hybridization pattern that shared five bands with the pattern most frequently shown by most of the tonsillar N. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ strains, differing only in the lightest, faintest band which was slightly less anodical in human (> or = 1.8 kb) than in swine (approximately 1.8 kb). From these results, both groups of strains, humans and porcine, showed differences; how can these differences in the pattern of ribotyping be explained if they should have the same origin? Is it possible that they have undergone an adaptation to the new host or perhaps the modification is due to other unknown causes? Further studies in this area are required in order to answer these questions.

  11. Adaptation of Group A Streptococcus to Human Amniotic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Green, Nicole M.; Guo, Nina; Bongiovanni, Ann M.; Witkin, Steven S.; Musser, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Background For more than 100 years, group A Streptococcus has been identified as a cause of severe and, in many cases, fatal infections of the female urogenital tract. Due to advances in hospital hygiene and the advent of antibiotics, this type of infection has been virtually eradicated. However, within the last three decades there has been an increase in severe intra- and post-partum infections attributed to GAS. Methodology We hypothesized that GAS alters its transcriptome to survive in human amniotic fluid (AF) and cause disease. To identify genes that were up or down regulated in response to growth in AF, GAS was grown in human AF or standard laboratory media (THY) and samples for expression microarray analysis were collected during mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic, and stationary growth phases. Microarray analysis was performed using a custom Affymetrix chip and normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates were collected at each growth point. Ratios of AF/THY above a 2-fold change and P-value <0.05 were considered significant. Principal Findings The majority of changes in the GAS transcriptome involved down regulation of multiple adhesins and virulence factors and activation of the stress response. We observed significant changes in genes involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and in the nucleotide de novo synthesis pathway. Conclusions/Significance Our work provides new insight into how pathogenic bacteria respond to their environment to establish infection and cause disease. PMID:20352104

  12. Effect of Streptococcus pneumoniae on human respiratory epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Steinfort, C; Wilson, R; Mitchell, T; Feldman, C; Rutman, A; Todd, H; Sykes, D; Walker, J; Saunders, K; Andrew, P W

    1989-07-01

    A total of 11 of 15 Streptococcus pneumoniae culture filtrates and all five bacterial autolysates produced by cell death in the stationary phase caused slowed ciliary beating and disruption of the surface integrity of human respiratory epithelium in organ culture. This effect was inhibited by cholesterol and was heat labile and reduced by standing at room temperature but was stable at -40 degrees C. The activity was detected at the late stationary phase of culture and was associated with the presence of hemolytic activity. Gel filtration of a concentrated culture filtrate and autolysate both yielded a single fraction of approximately 50 kilodaltons which slowed ciliary beating and were the only fractions with hemolytic activity. Rabbit antiserum to pneumolysin, a sulfhydryl-activated hemolytic cytotoxin released by S. pneumoniae during autolysis, neutralized the effect of the culture filtrate on respiratory epithelium. Both native and recombinant pneumolysin caused ciliary slowing and epithelial disruption. Electron microscopy showed a toxic effect of pneumolysin on epithelial cells: cytoplasmic blebs, mitochondrial swelling, cellular extrusion, and cell death, but no change in ciliary ultrastructure. Recombinant pneumolysin (10 micrograms/ml) caused ciliary slowing in the absence of changes in cell ultrastructure. Release of pneumolysin in the respiratory tract during infection may perturb host defenses, allowing bacterial proliferation and spread.

  13. Structural genomics studies of human caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanfen; Nan, Jie; Li, Dan; Brostromer, Erik; Wang, Zixi; Liu, Cong; Hou, Qiaoming; Fan, Xuexin; Ye, Zhaoyang; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2014-09-01

    Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the primary causative agent of human dental caries. To better understand this pathogen at the atomic structure level and to establish potential drug and vaccine targets, we have carried out structural genomics research since 2005. To achieve the goal, we have developed various in-house automation systems including novel high-throughput crystallization equipment and methods, based on which a large-scale, high-efficiency and low-cost platform has been establish in our laboratory. From a total of 1,963 annotated open reading frames, 1,391 non-membrane targets were selected prioritized by protein sequence similarities to unknown structures, and clustered by restriction sites to allow for cost-effective high-throughput conventional cloning. Selected proteins were over-expressed in different strains of Escherichia coli. Clones expressed soluble proteins were selected, expanded, and expressed proteins were purified and subjected to crystallization trials. Finally, protein crystals were subjected to X-ray analysis and structures were determined by crystallographic methods. Using the previously established procedures, we have so far obtained more than 200 kinds of protein crystals and 100 kinds of crystal structures involved in different biological pathways. In this paper we demonstrate and review a possibility of performing structural genomics studies at moderate laboratory scale. Furthermore, the techniques and methods developed in our study can be widely applied to conventional structural biology research practice.

  14. Role of human milk oligosaccharides in Group B Streptococcus colonisation.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Al-Khalidi, Asmaa; Jaiteh, Mustapha; Clarke, Edward; Hyde, Matthew J; Modi, Neena; Holmes, Elaine; Kampmann, Beate; Mehring Le Doare, Kirsty

    2016-08-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The major risk factor for GBS disease is maternal and subsequent infant colonisation. It is unknown whether human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) protect against GBS colonisation. HMO production is genetically determined and linked to the Lewis antigen system. We aimed to investigate the association between HMOs and infant GBS colonisation between birth and postnatal day 90. Rectovaginal swabs were collected at delivery, as well as colostrum/breast milk, infant nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs at birth, 6 days and days 60-89 postpartum from 183 Gambian mother/infant pairs. GBS colonisation and serotypes were determined using culture and PCR. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterise the mother's Lewis status and HMO profile in breast milk. Mothers who were Lewis-positive were significantly less likely to be colonised by GBS (X (2)=12.50, P<0.001). Infants of Lewis-positive mothers were less likely GBS colonised at birth (X (2)=4.88 P=0.03) and more likely to clear colonisation between birth and days 60-89 than infants born to Lewis-negative women (P=0.05). There was no association between Secretor status and GBS colonisation. In vitro work revealed that lacto-N-difucohexaose I (LNDFHI) correlated with a reduction in the growth of GBS. Our results suggest that HMO such as LNDFHI may be a useful adjunct in reducing maternal and infant colonisation and hence invasive GBS disease. Secretor status offers utility as a stratification variable in GBS clinical trials.

  15. Role of human milk oligosaccharides in Group B Streptococcus colonisation

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Al-Khalidi, Asmaa; Jaiteh, Mustapha; Clarke, Edward; Hyde, Matthew J; Modi, Neena; Holmes, Elaine; Kampmann, Beate; Mehring Le Doare, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The major risk factor for GBS disease is maternal and subsequent infant colonisation. It is unknown whether human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) protect against GBS colonisation. HMO production is genetically determined and linked to the Lewis antigen system. We aimed to investigate the association between HMOs and infant GBS colonisation between birth and postnatal day 90. Rectovaginal swabs were collected at delivery, as well as colostrum/breast milk, infant nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs at birth, 6 days and days 60–89 postpartum from 183 Gambian mother/infant pairs. GBS colonisation and serotypes were determined using culture and PCR. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterise the mother's Lewis status and HMO profile in breast milk. Mothers who were Lewis-positive were significantly less likely to be colonised by GBS (X2=12.50, P<0.001). Infants of Lewis-positive mothers were less likely GBS colonised at birth (X2=4.88 P=0.03) and more likely to clear colonisation between birth and days 60–89 than infants born to Lewis-negative women (P=0.05). There was no association between Secretor status and GBS colonisation. In vitro work revealed that lacto-N-difucohexaose I (LNDFHI) correlated with a reduction in the growth of GBS. Our results suggest that HMO such as LNDFHI may be a useful adjunct in reducing maternal and infant colonisation and hence invasive GBS disease. Secretor status offers utility as a stratification variable in GBS clinical trials. PMID:27588204

  16. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Patras, Kathryn A.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D.; Tagg, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  17. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus salivarius PS4, a strain isolated from human milk.

    PubMed

    Martín, Virginia; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a commensal species commonly found in the human oropharyngeal tract. Some strains of this species have been developed for use as oral probiotics, while others have been associated with a variety of opportunistic human infections. Here, we report the complete sequence of strain PS4, which was isolated from breast milk of a healthy woman.

  19. Streptococcus iniae, a Human and Animal Pathogen: Specific Identification by the Chaperonin 60 Gene Identification Method

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Swee Han; Driedger, David; Gillett, Sandra; Low, Donald E.; Hemmingsen, Sean M.; Amos, Mayben; Chan, David; Lovgren, Marguerite; Willey, Barbara M.; Shaw, Carol; Smith, John A.

    1998-01-01

    It was recently reported that Streptococcus iniae, a bacterial pathogen of aquatic animals, can cause serious disease in humans. Using the chaperonin 60 (Cpn60) gene identification method with reverse checkerboard hybridization and chemiluminescent detection, we identified correctly each of 12 S. iniae samples among 34 aerobic gram-positive isolates from animal and clinical human sources. PMID:9650992

  20. Genome Sequence of the Human Abscess Isolate Streptococcus intermedius BA1.

    PubMed

    Planet, Paul J; Rampersaud, Ryan; Hymes, Saul R; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis A; Narechania, Apurva; Daugherty, Sean C; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Desalle, Robert; Ravel, Jacques; Ratner, Adam J

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a human pathogen with a propensity for abscess formation. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of S. intermedius strain BA1, an isolate from a human epidural abscess. This sequence provides insight into the biology of S. intermedius and will aid investigations of pathogenicity.

  1. Genome Sequence of the Human Abscess Isolate Streptococcus intermedius BA1

    PubMed Central

    Planet, Paul J.; Rampersaud, Ryan; Hymes, Saul R.; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis A.; Narechania, Apurva; Daugherty, Sean C.; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; DeSalle, Robert; Ravel, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a human pathogen with a propensity for abscess formation. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of S. intermedius strain BA1, an isolate from a human epidural abscess. This sequence provides insight into the biology of S. intermedius and will aid investigations of pathogenicity. PMID:23405291

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius PS4, a Strain Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Virginia; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Fernández, Leónides

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a commensal species commonly found in the human oropharyngeal tract. Some strains of this species have been developed for use as oral probiotics, while others have been associated with a variety of opportunistic human infections. Here, we report the complete sequence of strain PS4, which was isolated from breast milk of a healthy woman. PMID:22843595

  3. Integrative Conjugative Elements and Related Elements Are Major Contributors to the Genome Diversity of Streptococcus agalactiae▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Brochet, Mathieu; Couvé, Elisabeth; Glaser, Philippe; Guédon, Gérard; Payot, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-five putative integrative conjugative elements and related elements were identified at 15 locations in the eight sequenced genomes of Streptococcus agalactiae. Twelve are composite, likely resulting from site-specific accretions. Circular forms were detected for five elements. Macroarray analysis confirmed their high plasticity and wide distribution in S. agalactiae. PMID:18708498

  4. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine. PMID:24386196

  5. Comparative genomics analysis of Streptococcus isolates from the human small intestine reveals their adaptation to a highly dynamic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine.

  6. Differentiation between Streptococcus gallolyticus Strains of Human Clinical and Veterinary Origins and Streptococcus bovis Strains from the Intestinal Tracts of Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Devriese, Luc A.; Vandamme, Peter; Pot, Bruno; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Kersters, Karel; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    1998-01-01

    Strains formerly identified as Streptococcus bovis were allotted to two groups by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of whole-cell proteins. Strains from humans with infections, mostly patients with endocarditis, and strains from pigeons with septicemia clustered with the recently described species Streptococcus gallolyticus. The original S. bovis type strain and strains exclusively from ruminants formed the second cluster. The findings indicate that S. gallolyticus is more likely to be involved in human and animal infections than S. bovis. Growth characteristics and several biochemical reactions were found to be useful in the differentiation of S. gallolyticus from S. bovis. PMID:9817865

  7. Analysis of beta-hemolysis in human blood agars by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Safaei, Akbar; Bazargani, Abdollah; Motamadi, Marjan; Kharazi, Mahboobeh; Mostaghni, Setareh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Ghaedi, Hamid; Afsarian, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of human blood agar media (HuBA) in identifying Streptococcus pyogenes by hemolysis analysis. We analyze several factors that might affect the accuracy of HuBA media for microbial analysis, including incubation time, blood group, Rh factor and presence of antistreptolysin-o.

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Human Oral Microbiome Commensals, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 and S. salivarius ATCC 27945.

    PubMed

    Butler, Robert R; Soomer-James, Jahna T A; Frenette, Michel; Pombert, Jean-François

    2017-06-15

    Streptococcus salivarius strains are significant contributors to the human oral microbiome. Some possess unique fimbriae that give them the ability to coaggregate and colonize particular oral structures. We present here the complete genomes of Streptococcus salivarius Lancefield K(-)/K(+) strains ATCC 25975 and ATCC 27945, which can and cannot, respectively, produce fimbriae. Copyright © 2017 Butler et al.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract.

    PubMed

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-02-04

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides. Copyright © 2016 Mignolet et al.

  10. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus urinary tract infection depends on bacterial strain and β-hemolysin/cytolysin that mediates cytotoxicity, cytokine synthesis, inflammation and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie Y.; Sullivan, Matthew J.; Ipe, Deepak S.; Smith, Joshua P.; Cripps, Allan W.; Ulett, Glen C.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause urinary tract infection (UTI) including cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). The early host-pathogen interactions that occur during S. agalactiae UTI and subsequent mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, we define the early interactions between human bladder urothelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and mouse bladder using uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) 807 and ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) 834 strains. UPSA 807 adhered, invaded and killed bladder urothelial cells more efficiently compared to ABSA 834 via mechanisms including low-level caspase-3 activation, and cytolysis, according to lactate dehydrogenase release measures and cell viability. Severe UPSA 807-induced cytotoxicity was mediated entirely by the bacterial β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-H/C) because an β-H/C-deficient UPSA 807 isogenic mutant, UPSA 807ΔcylE, was not cytotoxic in vitro; the mutant was also significantly attenuated for colonization in the bladder in vivo. Analysis of infection-induced cytokines, including IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo revealed that cytokine and chemokine responses were dependent on expression of β-H/C that also elicited severe bladder neutrophilia. Thus, virulence of UPSA 807 encompasses adhesion to, invasion of and killing of bladder cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses that elicit neutrophil infiltration, and β-H/C-mediated subversion of innate immune-mediated bacterial clearance from the bladder. PMID:27383371

  11. Evolution of the core and pan-genome of Streptococcus: positive selection, recombination, and genome composition

    PubMed Central

    Lefébure, Tristan; Stanhope, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Background The genus Streptococcus is one of the most diverse and important human and agricultural pathogens. This study employs comparative evolutionary analyses of 26 Streptococcus genomes to yield an improved understanding of the relative roles of recombination and positive selection in pathogen adaptation to their hosts. Results Streptococcus genomes exhibit extreme levels of evolutionary plasticity, with high levels of gene gain and loss during species and strain evolution. S. agalactiae has a large pan-genome, with little recombination in its core-genome, while S. pyogenes has a smaller pan-genome and much more recombination of its core-genome, perhaps reflecting the greater habitat, and gene pool, diversity for S. agalactiae compared to S. pyogenes. Core-genome recombination was evident in all lineages (18% to 37% of the core-genome judged to be recombinant), while positive selection was mainly observed during species differentiation (from 11% to 34% of the core-genome). Positive selection pressure was unevenly distributed across lineages and biochemical main role categories. S. suis was the lineage with the greatest level of positive selection pressure, the largest number of unique loci selected, and the largest amount of gene gain and loss. Conclusion Recombination is an important evolutionary force in shaping Streptococcus genomes, not only in the acquisition of significant portions of the genome as lineage specific loci, but also in facilitating rapid evolution of the core-genome. Positive selection, although undoubtedly a slower process, has nonetheless played an important role in adaptation of the core-genome of different Streptococcus species to different hosts. PMID:17475002

  12. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Deeley, Kathleen B.; Callahan, Nicholas F.; Noel, Jacqueline B.; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M.; Schulhof, Louise P.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults. PMID:21731912

  13. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Deeley, Kathleen B; Callahan, Nicholas F; Noel, Jacqueline B; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M; Schulhof, Louise P; Desensi, Rebecca S; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M; Brandon, Carla A; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A; Mereb, Juan C; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults.

  14. Infection of human keratinocytes by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.

    PubMed

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Mafalda N; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. To unravel if bovine SDSD isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine SDSD strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy indicate a high adherence and internalization of SDSD isolates to human cells, suggesting for the first time the ability of bovine isolates to infect human cells.

  15. Group B Streptococcus surface proteins as major determinants for meningeal tropism.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Asmaa; Bellais, Samuel; Tardieux, Isabelle; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Poyart, Claire

    2012-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), a normal constituent of the intestinal microbiota is the major cause of human neonatal infections and a worldwide spread 'hypervirulent' clone, GBS ST-17, is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. Adhesion to epithelial and endothelial cells constitutes a key step of the infectious process. Therefore GBS surface-anchored proteins are obvious potential adhesion mediators of barrier crossing and determinant of hypervirulence. This review addresses the most recent molecular insights gained from studies on GBS surface proteins proven to be involved in the crossing of the brain-blood barrier and emphasizes on the specificity of a hypervirulent clone that displays meningeal tropism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Bacteriophage Lysin with Broad Lytic Activity Protects against Mixed Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Gilmer, Daniel B.; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; Euler, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GrAS]) cause serious and sometimes fatal human diseases. They are among the many Gram-positive pathogens for which resistance to leading antibiotics has emerged. As a result, alternative therapies need to be developed to combat these pathogens. We have identified a novel bacteriophage lysin (PlySs2), derived from a Streptococcus suis phage, with broad lytic activity against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), Streptococcus suis, Listeria, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), S. pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis, group G streptococci (GGS), group E streptococci (GES), and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PlySs2 has an N-terminal cysteine-histidine aminopeptidase (CHAP) catalytic domain and a C-terminal SH3b binding domain. It is stable at 50°C for 30 min, 37°C for >24 h, 4°C for 15 days, and −80°C for >7 months; it maintained full activity after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. PlySs2 at 128 μg/ml in vitro reduced MRSA and S. pyogenes growth by 5 logs and 3 logs within 1 h, respectively, and exhibited a MIC of 16 μg/ml for MRSA. A single, 2-mg dose of PlySs2 protected 92% (22/24) of the mice in a bacteremia model of mixed MRSA and S. pyogenes infection. Serially increasing exposure of MRSA and S. pyogenes to PlySs2 or mupirocin resulted in no observed resistance to PlySs2 and resistance to mupirocin. To date, no other lysin has shown such notable broad lytic activity, stability, and efficacy against multiple, leading, human bacterial pathogens; as such, PlySs2 has all the characteristics to be an effective therapeutic. PMID:23571534

  17. Group B Streptococcus and the Vaginal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Geoffrey H; Randis, Tara M; Desai, Purnahamsi V; Sapra, Katherine J; Ma, Bing; Gajer, Pawel; Humphrys, Michael S; Ravel, Jacques; Gelber, Shari E; Ratner, Adam J

    2017-09-15

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is an important neonatal pathogen and emerging cause of disease in adults. The major risk factor for neonatal disease is maternal vaginal colonization. However, little is known about the relationship between GBS and vaginal microbiota. Vaginal lavage samples from nonpregnant women were tested for GBS, and amplicon-based sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V3-V4 region was performed. Four hundred twenty-eight of 432 samples met the high-quality read threshold. There was no relationship between GBS carriage and demographic characteristics, α-diversity, or overall vaginal microbiota community state type (CST). Within the non-Lactobacillus-dominant CST IV, GBS positive status was significantly more prevalent in CST IV-A than CST IV-B. Significant clustering by GBS status was noted on principal coordinates analysis, and 18 individual taxa were found to be significantly associated with GBS carriage by linear discriminant analysis. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, 4 taxa were positively associated with GBS, and 6 were negatively associated. Vaginal microbiota CST and α-diversity are not related to GBS status. However, specific microbial taxa are associated with colonization of this important human pathogen, highlighting a potential role for the microbiota in promotion or inhibition of GBS colonization.

  18. Streptococcus massiliensis in the human mouth: a phylogenetic approach for the inference of bacterial habitats.

    PubMed

    Póntigo, F; Silva, C; Moraga, M; Flores, S V

    2015-12-29

    Streptococcus is a diverse bacterial lineage. Species of this genus occupy a myriad of environments inside humans and other animals. Despite the elucidation of several of these habitats, many remain to be identified. Here, we explore a methodological approach to reveal unknown bacterial environments. Specifically, we inferred the phylogeny of the Mitis group by analyzing the sequences of eight genes. In addition, information regarding habitat use of species belonging to this group was obtained from the scientific literature. The oral cavity emerged as a potential, previously unknown, environment of Streptococcus massiliensis. This phylogeny-based prediction was confirmed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. We propose employing a similar approach, i.e., use of bibliographic data and molecular phylogenetics as predictive methods, and species-specific PCR as confirmation, in order to reveal other unknown habitats in further bacterial taxa.

  19. Potential Factors Enabling Human Body Colonization by Animal Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Strains.

    PubMed

    Ciszewski, Marcin; Szewczyk, Eligia M

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a pyogenic, Lancefield C or G streptococcal pathogen. Until recently, it has been considered as an exclusive animal pathogen. Nowadays, it is responsible for both animal infections in wild animals, pets, and livestock and human infections often clinically similar to the ones caused by group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). The risk of zoonotic infection is the most significant in people having regular contact with animals, such as veterinarians, cattlemen, and farmers. SDSE is also prevalent on skin of healthy dogs, cats, and horses, which pose a risk also to people having contact with companion animals. The main aim of this study was to evaluate if there are features differentiating animal and human SDSE isolates, especially in virulence factors involved in the first stages of pathogenesis (adhesion and colonization). Equal groups of human and animal SDSE clinical strains were obtained from superficial infections (skin, wounds, abscesses). The presence of five virulence genes (prtF1, prtF2, lmb, cbp, emm type) was evaluated, as well as ability to form bacterial biofilm and produce BLIS (bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances) which are active against human skin microbiota. The study showed that the presence of genes coding for fibronectin-binding protein and M protein, as well as BLIS activity inhibiting the growth of Corynebacterium spp. strains might constitute the virulence factors which are necessary to colonize human organism, whereas they are not crucial in animal infections. Those virulence factors might be horizontally transferred from human streptococci to animal SDSE strains, enabling their ability to colonize human organism.

  20. Intravitreal Ampicillin Sodium for Antibiotic-Resistant Endophthalmitis: Streptococcus uberis First Human Intraocular Infection Report

    PubMed Central

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Rascón-Vargas, Dulce; Mieler, William F.; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment with intravitreal ampicillin sodium of a postoperative endophthalmitis case due to Streptococcus uberis; an environmental pathogen commonly seen in mastitis cases of lactating cows. Methods. Case Report. A 52-year-old, Hispanic diabetic patient who suddenly developed severe pain and severe loss of vision, following vitrectomy. Results. The patient was diagnosed with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to a highly resistant strain of Streptococcus uberis that did not respond to intravitreal antibiotics. He was treated with an air-fluid interchange, anterior chamber washout, intravitreal ampicillin sodium (5 mg/0.1 mL), and silicon oil tamponade (5000 ck). The eye was anatomically stabilized, though there was no functional recovery. Conclusion. Streptococcus uberis is an uncommon pathogen to the human eye, which has unique features that help the strain in developing resistance to antibiotics. While treatment with intravitreal ampicillin is feasible, there are still concerns about its possible toxicity. PMID:20706679

  1. Naturally occurring disseminated group B streptococcus infections in postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Katherine A; Hish, Gerald A; Selles, Lindsi A; Chowdhury, Mahboob A; Wiggins, Roger C; Dysko, Robert C; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2013-02-01

    Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae, GBS) is a gram-positive commensal and occasional opportunistic pathogen of the human vaginal, respiratory, and intestinal tracts that can cause sepsis, pneumonia, or meningitis in human neonates, infants, and immunosuppressed persons. We report here on a spontaneous outbreak of postnatal GBS-associated disease in rats. Ten of 26 (38.5%) 21- to 24-d-old rat pups died or were euthanized due to a moribund state in a colony of rats transgenic for the human diphtheria toxin receptor on a Munich-Wistar-Frömter genetic background. Four pups had intralesional coccoid bacteria in various organs without accompanying inflammation. GBS was isolated from the liver of 2 of these pups and from skin abscesses in 3 littermates. A connection with the transgene could not be established. A treatment protocol was evaluated in the remaining breeding female rats. GBS is a potentially clinically significant spontaneous infection in various populations of research rats, with some features that resemble late-onset postnatal GBS infection in human infants.

  2. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Streptococcus canis Confirms the Zoonotic Origin of Human Infections and Reveals Genetic Exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, M. D.; Matos, S. C.; Pomba, C.; Lübke-Becker, A.; Wieler, L. H.; Preziuso, S.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection. PMID:23345291

  3. Multilocus sequence analysis of Streptococcus canis confirms the zoonotic origin of human infections and reveals genetic exchange with Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    PubMed

    Pinho, M D; Matos, S C; Pomba, C; Lübke-Becker, A; Wieler, L H; Preziuso, S; Melo-Cristino, J; Ramirez, M

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcus canis is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes human infections. Isolates recovered from infections of animals (n = 78, recovered from 2000 to 2010 in three European countries, mainly from house pets) and humans (n = 7, recovered from 2006 to 2010 in Portugal) were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and emm typing. S. canis isolates presented considerable variability in biochemical profiles and 16S rRNA. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was low, with the most significant being tet(M)- and tet(O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. MLST analysis revealed a polyclonal structure of the S. canis population causing infections, where the same genetic lineages were found infecting house pets and humans and were disseminated in distinct geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. canis was a divergent taxon of the sister species Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and found evidence of acquisition of genetic material by S. canis from S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PFGE confirmed the MLST findings, further strengthening the similarity between animal and human isolates. The presence of emm-like genes was restricted to a few isolates and correlated with some MLST-based genetic lineages, but none of the human isolates could be emm typed. Our data show that S. canis isolates recovered from house pets and humans constitute a single population and demonstrate that isolates belonging to the main genetic lineages identified have the ability to infect the human host, providing strong evidence for the zoonotic nature of S. canis infection.

  4. Exploring internal features of 16S rRNA gene for identification of clinically relevant species of the genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus is an economically important genus as a number of species belonging to this genus are human and animal pathogens. The genus has been divided into different groups based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The variability observed among the members of these groups is low and it is difficult to distinguish them. The present study was taken up to explore 16S rRNA gene sequence to develop methods that can be used for preliminary identification and can supplement the existing methods for identification of clinically-relevant isolates of the genus Streptococcus. Methods 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the isolates of S. dysgalactiae, S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. bovis, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, S. thermophilus and S. anginosus were analyzed with the purpose to define genetic variability within each species to generate a phylogenetic framework, to identify species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. Results The framework based analysis was used to segregate Streptococcus spp. previously identified upto genus level. This segregation was validated using species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. 43 uncharacterized Streptococcus spp. could be identified using this approach. Conclusions The markers generated exploring 16S rRNA gene sequences provided useful tool that can be further used for identification of different species of the genus Streptococcus. PMID:21702978

  5. Transmission of Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection from Horses to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Susanne B.; Suomala, Päivi; Karhukorpi, Jari; Vuorinen, Sakari; Koivula, Irma; Väisänen, Tia; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Autio, Tiina; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a zoonotic pathogen for persons in contact with horses. In horses, S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen, but human infections associated with S. zooepidemicus are often severe. Within 6 months in 2011, 3 unrelated cases of severe, disseminated S. zooepidemicus infection occurred in men working with horses in eastern Finland. To clarify the pathogen’s epidemiology, we describe the clinical features of the infection in 3 patients and compare the S. zooepidemicus isolates from the human cases with S. zooepidemicus isolates from horses. The isolates were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing of the szP gene. Molecular typing methods showed that human and equine isolates were identical or closely related. These results emphasize that S. zooepidemicus transmitted from horses can lead to severe infections in humans. As leisure and professional equine sports continue to grow, this infection should be recognized as an emerging zoonosis. PMID:23777752

  6. Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR-Cas9 Systems Enable Specific Editing of the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Maximilian; Lee, Ciaran M; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Davis, Timothy H; Cradick, Thomas J; Siksnys, Virginijus; Bao, Gang; Cathomen, Toni; Mussolino, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) based on the type II CRISPR-Cas9 system of Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) have been widely used for genome editing in experimental models. However, the nontrivial level of off-target activity reported in several human cells may hamper clinical translation. RGN specificity depends on both the guide RNA (gRNA) and the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) recognized by the Cas9 protein. We hypothesized that more stringent PAM requirements reduce the occurrence of off-target mutagenesis. To test this postulation, we generated RGNs based on two Streptococcus thermophilus (St) Cas9 proteins, which recognize longer PAMs, and performed a side-by-side comparison of the three RGN systems targeted to matching sites in two endogenous human loci, PRKDC and CARD11. Our results demonstrate that in samples with comparable on-target cleavage activities, significantly lower off-target mutagenesis was detected using St-based RGNs as compared to the standard Sp-RGNs. Moreover, similarly to SpCas9, the StCas9 proteins accepted truncated gRNAs, suggesting that the specificities of St-based RGNs can be further improved. In conclusion, our results show that Cas9 proteins with longer or more restrictive PAM requirements provide a safe alternative to SpCas9-based RGNs and hence a valuable option for future human gene therapy applications. PMID:26658966

  7. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  8. Distribution of Streptococcus mutans biotypes in five human populations.

    PubMed

    Keene, H J; Shklair, I L; Mickel, G J; Wirthlin, M R

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of S mutans biotypes in five geographically separated human populations was investigated. Samples of dental plaque were obtained from recruits at the US Naval Training Center in Orlando, Fl (N=49) in San Diego, Calif (N=25), and in Great Lakes, Ill (N=194), and from a sample of Hawaiian school children (N=55) and Saudi Arabian Navy personnel (N-217). Cultural and biochemical methods were used for the isolation and identification of the five different biotypes of S mutans which correlate with Bratthall's serotypes a through e. Geographic differences in S mutans biotype distribution were most apparent when the Saudi Arabian sample was compared to the other four groups. Single and multiple biotypes were observed in each group. Multiple biotypes occurred most frequently in the Saudi Arabians. Biotypes a and b were rarely observed; c was the most common in each of the populations; and d and e were more prevalent in the Saudi Arabians than in the other groups. Because of the multifactorial nature of dental caries, caution should be exercised in the interpretation of population differences in caries experience that seem to be associated with differences in S mutans-type distribution.

  9. Genomic signatures of human and animal disease in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Lucy A; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Wang, Jinhong; Peters, Sarah E; Corander, Jukka; Jombart, Thibaut; Baig, Abiyad; Howell, Kate J; Vehkala, Minna; Välimäki, Niko; Harris, David; Chieu, Tran Thi Bich; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Campbell, James; Schultsz, Constance; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Langford, Paul R; Rycroft, Andrew N; Wren, Brendan W; Farrar, Jeremy; Baker, Stephen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Holden, Matthew T G; Tucker, Alexander W; Maskell, Duncan J

    2015-03-31

    Streptococcus suis causes disease in pigs worldwide and is increasingly implicated in zoonotic disease in East and South-East Asia. To understand the genetic basis of disease in S. suis, we study the genomes of 375 isolates with detailed clinical phenotypes from pigs and humans from the United Kingdom and Vietnam. Here, we show that isolates associated with disease contain substantially fewer genes than non-clinical isolates, but are more likely to encode virulence factors. Human disease isolates are limited to a single-virulent population, originating in the 1920, s when pig production was intensified, but no consistent genomic differences between pig and human isolates are observed. There is little geographical clustering of different S. suis subpopulations, and the bacterium undergoes high rates of recombination, implying that an increase in virulence anywhere in the world could have a global impact over a short timescale.

  10. Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Streptococcus equi evolution: the role of CRISPRs.

    PubMed

    Waller, Andrew S; Robinson, Carl

    2013-12-01

    The host-restricted bacterium Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of equine strangles, the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide. The disease is characterized by abscessation of the lymph nodes of the head and neck, leading to significant welfare and economic cost. S. equi is believed to have evolved from an ancestral strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus, an opportunistic pathogen of horses and other animals. Comparison of the genome of S. equi strain 4047 with those of S. zooepidemicus identified examples of gene loss due to mutation and deletion, and gene gain through the acquisition of mobile genetic elements that have probably shaped the pathogenic specialization of S. equi. In particular, deletion of the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) locus in the ancestor of S. equi may have predisposed the bacterium to acquire and incorporate new genetic material into its genome. These include four prophages and a novel integrative conjugative element. The virulence cargo carried by these mobile genetic elements is believed to have shaped the ability of S. equi to cause strangles. Further sequencing of S. zooepidemicus has highlighted the diversity of this opportunistic pathogen. Again, CRISPRs are postulated to influence evolution, balancing the need for gene gain over genome stability. Analysis of spacer sequences suggest that these pathogens may be susceptible to a limited range of phages and provide further evidence of cross-species exchange of genetic material among Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

  11. Human salivary aggregation in Streptococcus intermedius type g strains: relationship with IgA.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taihei

    2004-06-01

    Bacterial aggregation is an important step in elimination from the human body to protect against infection. Streptococcus intermedius K1K aggregates in human saliva. In this study, the salivary agglutinin was identified. The aggregation level was very strong in sonic-treated saliva and 1-microm filtrate. Preincubation of human saliva with anti-human alpha chain serum or anti-human whole saliva serum completely inhibited aggregation, but preincubation with anti-human micro chain serum or anti-Fc fragment of human IgG serum had no effect. Agglutinin of human saliva that could aggregate the strain K1K was purified using DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and Sephacryl S200HR gel filtration. Purified salivary agglutinin was characterized with electrophoresis and immunological techniques, indicating that purified material was IgA. Bacterial aggregation was dependent on the presence of calcium. Saliva filtrate specimens from eight healthy men and eight women showed different aggregation activities. Three men and one woman had little activity. These data show that the present bacterial aggregation was an immunoreaction between IgA in saliva and the bacteria dependent on the levels of calcium. In addition, the IgA in human saliva related with possible calcium-dependent antigen(s) on the surface of strain K1K.

  12. The Transcriptional Regulator CpsY Is Important for Innate Immune Evasion in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Luis A.; Valdes, Kayla M.; Sundar, Ganesh S.; Belew, Ashton T.; Islam, Emrul; Berge, Jacob; Curry, Patrick; Chen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As an exclusively human pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus [GAS]) has specifically adapted to evade host innate immunity and survive in multiple tissue niches, including blood. GAS can overcome the metabolic constraints of the blood environment and expresses various immunomodulatory factors necessary for survival and immune cell resistance. Here we present our investigation of one such factor, the predicted LysR family transcriptional regulator CpsY. The encoding gene, cpsY, was initially identified as being required for GAS survival in a transposon-site hybridization (TraSH) screen in whole human blood. CpsY is homologous with transcriptional regulators of Streptococcus mutans (MetR), Streptococcus iniae (CpsY), and Streptococcus agalactiae (MtaR) that regulate methionine transport, amino acid metabolism, resistance to neutrophil-mediated killing, and survival in vivo. Our investigation indicated that CpsY is involved in GAS resistance to innate immune cells of its human host. However, GAS CpsY does not manifest the in vitro phenotypes of its homologs in other streptococcal species. GAS CpsY appears to regulate a small set of genes that is markedly different from the regulons of its homologs. The differential expression of these genes depends on the growth medium, and CpsY modestly influences their expression. The GAS CpsY regulon includes known virulence factors (mntE, speB, spd, nga [spn], prtS [SpyCEP], and sse) and cell surface-associated factors of GAS (emm1, mur1.2, sibA [cdhA], and M5005_Spy0500). Intriguingly, the loss of CpsY in GAS does not result in virulence defects in murine models of infection, suggesting that CpsY function in immune evasion is specific to the human host. PMID:27993974

  13. Case report: two human Streptococcus suis infections in Borneo, Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rajahram, Giri Shan; Hameed, Ahneez Abdul; Menon, Jayaram; William, Timothy; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Yeo, Tsin Wen

    2017-03-04

    Streptococcus Suis (S.suis) is increasingly being recognised as a potentially preventable emerging zoonotic infection in humans with a global distribution. It is a major cause of meningitis especially among those in contact with pigs and has also been associated with a toxic shock syndrome. We report the first two human cases from Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia which expands the global reach of this important pathogen. Here, we illustrate their epidemiological risk factors, clinical presentation and resulting sequelae of both patients. The continued public health threat of zoonotic infections such as S.suis, highlights the need for accurate epidemiological surveillance, regulation of pig farming, slaughtering and continued advocacy of best practices for pork preparation and consumption.

  14. Characterization of the duodenase-1 gene and its associations with resistance to Streptococuus agalactiae in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yubang; Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-08-01

    Tilapia is a group of cultured teleost fishes whose production is threatened by some diseases. Identification of DNA markers associated with disease resistance in candidate genes may facilitate to accelerate the selection of disease resistance. The gene encoding a duodenase, which can trigger immune response, has not been studied in fish. We characterized the cDNA of duodenase-1 gene of hybrid tilapia. Its ORF is 759 bp, encoding a serine protease of 252 amino acids. This gene consisted of five exons and four introns. Its expression was detected in all 10 tissues examined, and it was highly expressed in the intestine and kidney. After a challenge with the bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus agalactiae, its expression was up-regulated significantly in the intestine, liver and spleen. We identified seven SNPs in the gene and found that four of them were significantly associated with the resistance to S. agalactiae (P < 0.05). The CGTCC haplotype, CAGTC/CGGTC and CGTCC/CGTCC diplotype were significantly associated with the resistance to S. agalactiae (P = 0.00, 0.04 and < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, one SNP was associated significantly with growth traits (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the duodenase-1 gene plays an important role in the resistance to S. agalactiae in tilapia. The SNP markers in the duodenase-1 gene associated with resistance to the bacterial pathogen, may facilitate the selection of tilapia resistant to the bacterial disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel IgG-Degrading Enzymes of the IgdE Protease Family Link Substrate Specificity to Host Tropism of Streptococcus Species.

    PubMed

    Spoerry, Christian; Hessle, Pontus; Lewis, Melanie J; Paton, Lois; Woof, Jenny M; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Recently we have discovered an IgG degrading enzyme of the endemic pig pathogen S. suis designated IgdE that is highly specific for porcine IgG. This protease is the founding member of a novel cysteine protease family assigned C113 in the MEROPS peptidase database. Bioinformatical analyses revealed putative members of the IgdE protease family in eight other Streptococcus species. The genes of the putative IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. porcinus, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus were cloned for production of recombinant protein into expression vectors. Recombinant proteins of all four IgdE family proteases were proteolytically active against IgG of the respective Streptococcus species hosts, but not against IgG from other tested species or other classes of immunoglobulins, thereby linking the substrate specificity to the known host tropism. The novel IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi showed IgG subtype specificity, i.e. IgdE from S. agalactiae and S. pseudoporcinus cleaved human IgG1, while IgdE from S. equi was subtype specific for equine IgG7. Porcine IgG subtype specificities of the IgdE family proteases of S. porcinus and S. pseudoporcinus remain to be determined. Cleavage of porcine IgG by IgdE of S. pseudoporcinus is suggested to be an evolutionary remaining activity reflecting ancestry of the human pathogen to the porcine pathogen S. porcinus. The IgG subtype specificity of bacterial proteases indicates the special importance of these IgG subtypes in counteracting infection or colonization and opportunistic streptococci neutralize such antibodies through expression of IgdE family proteases as putative immune evasion factors. We suggest that IgdE family proteases might be valid vaccine targets against streptococci of both human and veterinary medical concerns and could also be of therapeutic as well as biotechnological use.

  16. Isolation and biochemical characterization of mutacin VSM43 isolated from human oral Streptococcus mutans VSM43.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Samia; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2003-07-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. Streptococcus mutans VSM43 isolated from human clinical oral cavity was screened for the production of mutacin. It can inhibit the growth of other mutans streptococci, many other gram-positives and some gram-negative bacteria. Average size of the inhibitory zone ranged between 12-20mm. The inhibitory activity could not be related to organic acids, bacteriophages and hydrogen peroxide. Mutacin VSM43 was protease sensitive, remained active within a pH range of 2-8, and lost activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 30 min. Mutacin VSM43 was dialyzable through dialysis membrane (pore size 12,000 Da). A titre of 1280 arbitrary/activity units per ml (AU/mL) was shown against Staphylococcus aureus AB211. Lacuna frequency percentage (LF%) against Streptococcus mutans VSMD and Staphylococcus aureus AB211 was 37% and 49% respectively. We are convinced mutacin VSM43 may be a parallel candidate for use against dental caries.

  17. Effect on polymorphonuclear cell function of a human-specific cytotoxin, intermedilysin, expressed by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Macey, M G; Whiley, R A; Miller, L; Nagamune, H

    2001-10-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the normal flora of the mouth but is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with purulent infections at oral and nonoral sites. Intermedilysin (ILY) has been shown to be a cytolysin capable of generating pores in the cell membrane of erythrocytes demonstrable by electron microscopy. This effect has been shown to be specific for human cells. Since polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) are the main cell involved in innate immunity we investigated the effect of purified intermedilysin from Streptococcus intermedius on PMN function. Active ILY at a concentration of 40 ng/microl caused a significant decrease in the number of intact PMNs after 60 min. The active cytolysin, when compared with heat-inactivated ILY, did not appear to be chemotactic for the PMNs but did cause an increase in intracellular calcium, with increased cell surface CD11b expression, metabolic burst, and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. These findings may have implications for the role of ILY in deep-seated abscesses.

  18. Prophylactic effect of human lactoferrin against Streptococcus mutans bacteremia in lactoferrin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Senthil Kumar; Fine, Daniel H; Velliyagounder, Kabilan

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary agent of dental caries, which is often detected in transient bacteremia. Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein showing antibacterial activities against several Streptococcus species. We reported here the prophylactic effect of human lactoferrin (hLF) in a lactoferrin knockout mouse (LFKO-/-) bacteremic model. The hLF treatment significantly cleared S. mutans from the blood and organs of bacteremic mice when compared to the non-hLF treated mice. Further, analysis of serum cytokines, spleen and liver cytokine mRNA levels revealed that hLF prophylaxis modulates their release differently when compared to the non-hLF treated group. C-reactive protein level (P = 0.003) also decreased following hLF prophylaxis in S. mutans induced bacteremic mice. Additional quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that hLF prophylaxis significantly decreased the expression level of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MPO and iNOS in spleen and liver. These results suggested that the hLF protects the host against S. mutans-induced experimental bacteremia.

  19. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia.

  20. Human bacterial arthritis caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Jan; Hungerer, Sven; Werle, Regina; Militz, Matthias; Bühren, Volker

    2010-09-01

    Septic arthritis caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus is a rare event in humans. Of the four cases reported in the literature, only two patients had direct animal contact, and the portal of entry remained unclear in all cases. We report herein the case of a patient who suffered a purulent arthritis of the left shoulder caused by S. zooepidemicus, successfully treated in our department. A diagnostic FDG-PET-CT scan ruled out other foci of infection, but detected a hyperkeratotic plantar chronic soft tissue lesion of the left foot, acquired in a paragliding accident 10 years earlier. The fact that the patient habitually took care of his horses barefoot in boots, identifies the cutaneous portal of entry as most likely. To our knowledge this is the first report of a septic arthritis caused by S. zooepidemicus where a cutaneous entry route is described.

  1. Assessment and characterization of biofilm formation among human isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    PubMed

    Genteluci, Gabrielle Limeira; Silva, Ligia Guedes; Souza, Maria Clara; Glatthardt, Thaís; de Mattos, Marcos Corrêa; Ejzemberg, Regina; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Ferreira-Carvalho, Bernadete Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    The capacity to form biofilm is considered a protective mechanism that allows the bacteria to survive and proliferate in hostile environments, facilitating the maintenance of the infectious process. Recently, biofilm has become a topic of interest in the study of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). Although GAS has not been associated with infection on medical implants, the presence of microcolonies embedded in an extracellular matrix on infected tissues has been reported. Despite the similarity between GAS and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), there are no studies in the literature describing the production of biofilm by SDSE. In this work, we assessed and characterized biofilm development among SDSE human isolates of group C. The in vitro data showed that 59.3% of the 118 isolates tested were able to form acid-induced biofilm on glass, and 28% formed it on polystyrene surfaces. More importantly, biofilm was also formed in a foreign body model in mice. The biofilm structure was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Long fibrillar-like structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the expression of a pilus associated gene of SDSE was increased for in vitro sessile cells compared with planktonics, and when sessile cells were collected from biofilms formed in the animal model compared with that of in vitro model. Results obtained from the immunofluorescence microscopy indicated the biofilm was immunogenic. Our data also suggested a role for proteins, exopolysaccharide and extracellular DNA in the formation and accumulation of biofilm by SDSE.

  2. Immunomodulatory Properties of Streptococcus and Veillonella Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Wells, Jerry M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The human small intestine is a key site for interactions between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system. Here we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of representative species of commonly dominant small-intestinal microbial communities, including six streptococcal strains (four Streptococcus salivarius, one S. equinus, one S. parasanguinis) one Veillonella parvula strain, one Enterococcus gallinarum strain, and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as a bench mark strain on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. The different streptococci induced varying levels of the cytokines IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-12p70, while the V. parvula strain showed a strong capacity to induce IL-6. E. gallinarum strain was a potent inducer of cytokines and TLR2/6 signalling. As Streptococcus and Veillonella can potentially interact metabolically and frequently co-occur in ecosystems, immunomodulation by pair-wise combinations of strains were also tested for their combined immunomodulatory properties. Strain combinations induced cytokine responses in dendritic cells that differed from what might be expected on the basis of the results obtained with the individual strains. A combination of (some) streptococci with Veillonella appeared to negate IL-12p70 production, while augmenting IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α responses. This suggests that immunomodulation data obtained in vitro with individual strains are unlikely to adequately represent immune responses to mixtures of gut microbiota communities in vivo. Nevertheless, analysing the immune responses of strains representing the dominant species in the intestine may help to identify immunomodulatory mechanisms that influence immune homeostasis. PMID:25479553

  3. Streptococcus suis in invasive human infections in Poland: clonality and determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Bojarska, A; Molska, E; Janas, K; Skoczyńska, A; Stefaniuk, E; Hryniewicz, W; Sadowy, E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform an analysis of Streptococcus suis human invasive isolates, collected in Poland by the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. Isolates obtained from 21 patients during 2000-2013 were investigated by phenotypic tests, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), analysis of the TR9 locus from the multilocus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SmaI-digested DNA. Determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysed by sequencing. All isolates represented sequence type 1 (ST1) and were suggested to be serotype 2. PFGE and analysis of the TR9 locus allowed the discrimination of four and 17 types, respectively. Most of the isolates were haemolysis- and DNase-positive, and around half of them formed biofilm. Genes encoding suilysin, extracellular protein factor, fibronectin-binding protein, muramidase-released protein, surface antigen one, enolase, serum opacity factor and pili were ubiquitous in the studied group, while none of the isolates carried sequences characteristic for the 89K pathogenicity island. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, gentamicin, linezolid, vancomycin and daptomycin. Five isolates (24 %) were concomitantly non-susceptible to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline, and harboured the tet(O) and erm(B) genes; for one isolate, lsa(E) and lnu(B) were additionally detected. Streptococcus suis isolated in Poland from human invasive infections belongs to a globally distributed clonal complex of this pathogen, enriched in virulence markers. This is the first report of the lsa(E) and lnu(B) resistance genes in S. suis.

  4. Human Monocytes Promote Th1 and Th17 Responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae ▿

    PubMed Central

    Olliver, Marie; Hiew, Jeffni; Mellroth, Peter; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Bergman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis in children. Human immunity to pneumococcal infections has been assumed to depend on anticapsular antibodies. However, recent findings from murine models suggest that alternative mechanisms, dependent on T helper cells, are also involved. Although the immunological events in which T helper cells contribute to acquired immunity have been studied in mice, little is known about how these responses are generated in humans. Therefore, we examined bacterial and host factors involved in the induction of Th1 and Th17 responses, using a coculture model of human monocytes and CD4+ T cells. We show that monocytes promote effector cytokine production by memory T helper cells, leading to a mixed Th1/Th17 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]/interleukin-17 [IL-17]) profile. Both T helper cytokines were triggered by purified pneumococcal peptidoglycan; however, the balance between the two immune effector arms depended on bacterial viability. Accordingly, live pneumococci triggered a Th1-biased response via monocyte production of IL-12p40, whereas heat-killed pneumococci triggered a Th17 response through TLR2 signaling. An increased understanding of human T helper responses is essential for the development of novel pneumococcal vaccines designed to elicit cell-mediated immunity. PMID:21788380

  5. Pili mediate specific adhesion of Streptococcus pyogenes to human tonsil and skin.

    PubMed

    Abbot, Emily L; Smith, Wendy D; Siou, Gerard P S; Chiriboga, Carlos; Smith, Rebecca J; Wilson, Janet A; Hirst, Barry H; Kehoe, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    Very little is known about the biological functions of pili that have recently been found to be expressed by important Gram-positive pathogens such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Streptococcus agalacticae, S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. Using various ex vivo tissue and cellular models, here we show that pili mediate adhesion of serotype M1 S. pyogenes strain SF370 to both human tonsil epithelium and primary human keratinocytes, which represent the two main sites of infection by this human-specific pathogen. Mutants lacking minor pilus subunits retained the ability to express cell-surface pili, but these were functionally defective. In contrast to above, pili were not required for S. pyogenes adhesion to either immortalized HEp-2 or A549 cells, highlighting an important limitation of these extensively used adhesion/invasion models. Adhering bacteria were internalized very effectively by both HEp-2 and A549 cells, but not by tonsil epithelium or primary keratinocytes. While pili acted as the primary adhesin, the surface M1 protein clearly enhanced adhesion to tonsil, but surprisingly, had the opposite effect on adhesion to keratinocytes. These studies provide clear evidence that S. pyogenes pili display an adhesive specificity for clinically relevant human tissues and are likely to play a critical role in the initial stages of infection.

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Terao, Yutaka; Mori-Yamaguchi, Yuka; Domon, Hisanori; Sakaue, Yuuki; Yagi, Tetsuya; Nishino, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Nizet, Victor; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacterium, is a major cause of invasive infection-related diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis. In blood, erythrocytes are considered to be an important factor for bacterial growth, as they contain abundant nutrients. However, the relationship between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes remains unclear. We analyzed interactions between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes, and found that iron ion present in human erythrocytes supported the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, another major Gram-positive sepsis pathogen, while it partially inhibited pneumococcal growth by generating free radicals. S. pneumoniae cells incubated with human erythrocytes or blood were subjected to scanning electron and confocal fluorescence microscopic analyses, which showed that the bacterial cells adhered to and invaded human erythrocytes. In addition, S. pneumoniae cells were found associated with human erythrocytes in cultures of blood from patients with an invasive pneumococcal infection. Erythrocyte invasion assays indicated that LPXTG motif-containing pneumococcal proteins, erythrocyte lipid rafts, and erythrocyte actin remodeling are all involved in the invasion mechanism. In a neutrophil killing assay, the viability of S. pneumoniae co-incubated with erythrocytes was higher than that without erythrocytes. Also, H2O2 killing of S. pneumoniae was nearly completely ineffective in the presence of erythrocytes. These results indicate that even when S. pneumoniae organisms are partially killed by iron ion-induced free radicals, they can still invade erythrocytes. Furthermore, in the presence of erythrocytes, S. pneumoniae can more effectively evade antibiotics, neutrophil phagocytosis, and H2O2 killing. PMID:24194877

  7. Variation in Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptibility to human antimicrobial peptides may mediate intraspecific competition

    PubMed Central

    Habets, Michelle G. J. L.; Rozen, Daniel E.; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a facultative pathogen inhabiting the nasopharynx of humans where it is exposed to a range of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of the innate immune response. It is possible therefore that the susceptibility of strains to AMPs plays a role in determining their ability to colonize, and furthermore, that AMPs could mediate competitive interactions between co-colonizing genotypes. However, little is known about patterns of natural variation in AMP susceptibility of S. pneumoniae, and it is unclear whether the susceptibilities of an isolate to multiple human AMPs are correlated. We tested this by characterizing the susceptibility of 31 S. pneumoniae natural isolates to human neutrophil peptide (HNP-1) (α-defensin) and LL-37 (cathelicidin). We observed significant variation in susceptibility between isolates to both AMPs, and in the majority of isolates, susceptibilities to HNP-1 and LL-37 were uncorrelated. Clinical isolates were more susceptible to AMPs than were carriage isolates. The polysaccharide capsule of S. pneumoniae is thought to protect cells against AMPs. However, serotype alone could not explain the observed variation in susceptibility suggesting that genetic background plays an equally important role. We tested directly whether AMPs could mediate competition between isolates using competition experiments in the presence and absence of AMPs. These experiments demonstrated that AMPs could indeed reverse the outcome of competition between selected isolates. AMP-mediated competition could therefore contribute to the maintenance of intraspecific genetic diversity in S. pneumoniae. PMID:22764166

  8. Genome mining unveils widespread natural product biosynthetic capacity in human oral microbe Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liwei; Hao, Tingting; Xie, Zhoujie; Horsman, Geoff P; Chen, Yihua

    2016-11-21

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen causing human dental caries. As a Gram-positive bacterium with a small genome (about 2 Mb) it is considered a poor source of natural products. Due to a recent explosion in genomic data available for S. mutans strains, we were motivated to explore the natural product production potential of this organism. Bioinformatic characterization of 169 publically available genomes of S. mutans from human dental caries revealed a surprisingly rich source of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. Anti-SMASH analysis identified one nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster, seven polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters and 136 hybrid PKS/NRPS gene clusters. In addition, 211 ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) clusters and 615 bacteriocin precursors were identified by a combined analysis using BAGEL and anti-SMASH. S. mutans harbors a rich and diverse natural product genetic capacity, which underscores the importance of probing the human microbiome and revisiting species that have traditionally been overlooked as "poor" sources of natural products.

  9. Clonal dissemination of human isolates of Streptococcus suis serotype 14 in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kerdsin, Anusak; Oishi, Kazunori; Sripakdee, Saowalak; Boonkerd, Nitsara; Polwichai, Pitimol; Nakamura, Shota; Uchida, Ryuichi; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Dejsirilert, Surang

    2009-11-01

    Most cases of Streptococcus suis infection in humans are caused by serotype 2 strains, and only a few cases caused by other serotypes have been reported. Among 177 human isolates of S. suis in Thailand, 12 (6.8 %) were identified as being of serotype 14, and an occurrence of sporadic S. suis serotype 14 infection was noted during 2006-2008, particularly in northern Thailand. Clinical presentations of the 12 patients (median age 62.9 years) included meningitis (58.3 %), septic arthritis (25 %) and sepsis (16.7 %). These clinical features were similar to those previously reported for S. suis infections, except that there were no fatal cases. All of the 12 serotype 14 strains belonged to the multilocus sequence types (ST) 105 (n=11) and the novel ST127 (n=1). Molecular typing by PFGE revealed four different pulsotypes, including an identical pattern for nine ST105 strains and three closely related patterns for two ST105 strains and one ST127 strain. Our PFGE data suggested clonal dissemination of ST105 strains in Thailand. Because serotype 14 is becoming a more common cause of S. suis infections in humans, diagnostic tests for serotype 14 should be performed in South-East Asian countries.

  10. Genome mining unveils widespread natural product biosynthetic capacity in human oral microbe Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liwei; Hao, Tingting; Xie, Zhoujie; Horsman, Geoff P.; Chen, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen causing human dental caries. As a Gram-positive bacterium with a small genome (about 2 Mb) it is considered a poor source of natural products. Due to a recent explosion in genomic data available for S. mutans strains, we were motivated to explore the natural product production potential of this organism. Bioinformatic characterization of 169 publically available genomes of S. mutans from human dental caries revealed a surprisingly rich source of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. Anti-SMASH analysis identified one nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster, seven polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters and 136 hybrid PKS/NRPS gene clusters. In addition, 211 ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) clusters and 615 bacteriocin precursors were identified by a combined analysis using BAGEL and anti-SMASH. S. mutans harbors a rich and diverse natural product genetic capacity, which underscores the importance of probing the human microbiome and revisiting species that have traditionally been overlooked as “poor” sources of natural products. PMID:27869143

  11. Impact of a Food Safety Campaign on Streptococcus suis Infection in Humans in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Dan; Kerdsin, Anusak; Akeda, Yukihiro; Chiranairadul, Piphat; Loetthong, Phacharaphan; Tanburawong, Nutchada; Areeratana, Prasanee; Puangmali, Panarat; Khamisara, Kasean; Pinyo, Wirasinee; Anukul, Rapeepun; Samerchea, Sutit; Lekhalula, Punpong; Nakayama, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kouji; Hirose, Masayo; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Dejsirilert, Surang; Oishi, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    AbstractStreptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen in swine and humans that causes sepsis and meningitis. Our previous study in Thailand showed that the prevalence of S. suis infection in humans, especially in northern areas of Thailand, and the transmission of the pathogen occurred mainly through the consumption of traditional raw pork products. Considering the high incidence proportion and mortality rate of the disease as an important public health problem, we implemented a food safety campaign in the Phayao Province in northern Thailand in 2011. We evaluated the effects of a food safety campaign by comparing the sociodemographic, clinical, and bacteriological characteristics of cases before and after the campaign. The follow-up study showed a marked decrease of the incidence proportion in the first 2 years, indicating the effectiveness of the campaign. In the third year, however, the incidence proportion slightly increased again, indicating the existence of deep-rooted cultural behaviors and the necessity of continuous public health intervention. Furthermore, epidemiological analysis of the cases made it possible to estimate the infectivity of the pathogen via the oral route of infection. In the present study, we showed the effectiveness of the food safety campaign for controlling the S. suis infection, and we present a role model public health intervention for prevalent areas affected by S. suis infection in humans.

  12. Streptococcal Adhesin P (SadP) contributes to Streptococcus suis adhesion to the human intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; Willemse, Niels; Zaccaria, Edoardo; Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen, causing meningitis and septicemia. We previously demonstrated that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an entry site for zoonotic S. suis infection. Here we studied the contribution of Streptococcal adhesin Protein (SadP) to host-pathogen interaction at GIT level. Methods SadP expression in presence of Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IEC) was compared with expression of other virulence factors by measuring transcript levels using quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). SadP variants were identified by phylogenetic analysis of complete DNA sequences. The interaction of SadP knockout and complementation mutants with IEC was tested in vitro. Results Expression of sadP was significantly increased in presence of IEC. Sequence analysis of 116 invasive strains revealed five SadP sequence variants, correlating with genotype. SadP1, present in zoonotic isolates of clonal complex 1, contributed to binding to both human and porcine IEC and translocation across human IEC. Antibodies against the globotriaosylceramide Gb3/CD77 receptor significantly inhibited adhesion to human IEC. Conclusion SadP is involved in the host-pathogen interaction in the GIT. Differences between SadP variants may determine different affinities to the Gb3/CD77 host-receptor, contributing to variation in adhesion capacity to host IEC and thus to S. suis zoonotic potential. PMID:28407026

  13. Liamocin oil from Aureobasidium pullulans has antibacterial activity with specificity for species of Streptococcus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liamocin oil from Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 50380 was tested for antibacterial activity. Liamocins inhibited growth of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. uberis, S. mitis, S. infantarius, and S. mutans, with minimum inhibitory concentrations from 20 'g/ml to 78 'g/ml. Enterococcus faecalis was less sus...

  14. Characterization of a Streptococcus suis tet(O/W/32/O)-Carrying Element Transferable to Major Streptococcal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Mingoia, Marina; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Ripa, Sandro; Varaldo, Pietro E.

    2012-01-01

    Mosaic tetracycline resistance determinants are a recently discovered class of hybrids of ribosomal protection tet genes. They may show different patterns of mosaicism, but their final size has remained unaltered. Initially thought to be confined to a small group of anaerobic bacteria, mosaic tet genes were then found to be widespread. In the genus Streptococcus, a mosaic tet gene [tet(O/W/32/O)] was first discovered in Streptococcus suis, an emerging drug-resistant pig and human pathogen. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of a tet(O/W/32/O) gene-carrying mobile element from an S. suis isolate. tet(O/W/32/O) was detected, in tandem with tet(40), in a circular 14,741-bp genetic element (39.1% G+C; 17 open reading frames [ORFs] identified). The novel element, which we designated 15K, also carried the macrolide resistance determinant erm(B) and an aminoglycoside resistance four-gene cluster including aadE (streptomycin) and aphA (kanamycin). 15K appeared to be an unstable genetic element that, in the absence of recombinases, is capable of undergoing spontaneous excision under standard growth conditions. In the integrated form, 15K was found inside a 54,879-bp integrative and conjugative element (ICE) (50.5% G+C; 55 ORFs), which we designated ICESsu32457. An ∼1.3-kb segment that apparently served as the att site for excision of the unstable 15K element was identified. The novel ICE was transferable at high frequency to recipients from pathogenic Streptococcus species (S. suis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae), suggesting that the multiresistance 15K element can successfully spread within streptococcal populations. PMID:22710115

  15. Streptococcus pyogenes Triggers Activation of the Human Contact System by Streptokinase

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, Ramona; Rosenheinrich, Maik; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Severe invasive infectious diseases remain a major and life-threatening health problem. In serious cases, a systemic activation of the coagulation cascade is a critical complication that is associated with high mortality rates. We report here that streptokinase, a group A streptococcal plasminogen activator, triggers the activation of the human contact system. Activation of contact system factors at the surface of the Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M49 is dependent on streptokinase and plasminogen. Our results also show that secreted streptokinase is an efficient contact system activator, independent from a contact surface. This results in the processing of high-molecular-weight kininogen and the release of bradykinin, a potent vascular mediator. We further investigated whether the ability of 50 different clinical S. pyogenes isolates to activate the contact system is associated with an invasive phenotype. The data reveal that isolates from invasive infections trigger an activation of the contact system more potently than strains isolated from noninvasive infections. The present study gives new insights into the mechanisms by which S. pyogenes triggers the human contact system and stresses the function of soluble and surface located plasmin exploited as a group A streptococcal virulence factor through the action of streptokinase. PMID:25987706

  16. Evidence for an immunological relationship between Streptococcus mutans and human cardiac tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, M; Machardy, S M; Sheppard, A J; Woods, N C

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, indirect immunofluorescence, and radioimmunoassay were used to demonstrate that antisera from rabbits immunized with some strains of Streptococcus mutans contain antibodies that cross-react with human cardiac tissue. These rabbits were sensitized to a shocking dose of human heart antigen, and anaphylactic deaths were sometimes produced. Myocarditis was also a result of the immunization procedure. Data obtained with all five techniques were comparable. Cross-reactivity could be associated with three antigens designated ID, IF, and HL. Antigens ID and IF were major immunogens of S. mutans Ingbritt, but HL antibodies were produced only after hyperimmunization. Corss-reactivity was of an immunological nature and not the result of nonspecific factors such as bacterial Fc reactive components or antibody elicited to growth medium constituents. These findings support the hypothesis that immunization with S. mutans can induce autoimmune reactions and indicate that antigens must be selected with caution before formulating any dental caries vaccine. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6991419

  17. Group A Streptococcus exploits human plasminogen for bacterial translocation across epithelial barrier via tricellular tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Higashino, Miharu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2016-01-29

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen responsible for local suppurative and life-threatening invasive systemic diseases. Interaction of GAS with human plasminogen (PLG) is a salient characteristic for promoting their systemic dissemination. In the present study, a serotype M28 strain was found predominantly localized in tricellular tight junctions of epithelial cells cultured in the presence of PLG. Several lines of evidence indicated that interaction of PLG with tricellulin, a major component of tricellular tight junctions, is crucial for bacterial localization. A site-directed mutagenesis approach revealed that lysine residues at positions 217 and 252 within the extracellular loop of tricellulin play important roles in PLG-binding activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that PLG functions as a molecular bridge between tricellulin and streptococcal surface enolase (SEN). The wild type strain efficiently translocated across the epithelial monolayer, accompanied by cleavage of transmembrane junctional proteins. In contrast, amino acid substitutions in the PLG-binding motif of SEN markedly compromised those activities. Notably, the interaction of PLG with SEN was dependent on PLG species specificity, which influenced the efficiency of bacterial penetration. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism by which GAS exploits host PLG for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions.

  18. A hemolytic pigment of Group B Streptococcus allows bacterial penetration of human placenta.

    PubMed

    Whidbey, Christopher; Harrell, Maria Isabel; Burnside, Kellie; Ngo, Lisa; Becraft, Alexis K; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Aravind, L; Hitti, Jane; Waldorf, Kristina M Adams; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2013-06-03

    Microbial infection of the amniotic fluid is a significant cause of fetal injury, preterm birth, and newborn infections. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important human bacterial pathogen associated with preterm birth, fetal injury, and neonatal mortality. Although GBS has been isolated from amniotic fluid of women in preterm labor, mechanisms of in utero infection remain unknown. Previous studies indicated that GBS are unable to invade human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), which represent the last barrier to the amniotic cavity and fetus. We show that GBS invades hAECs and strains lacking the hemolysin repressor CovR/S accelerate amniotic barrier failure and penetrate chorioamniotic membranes in a hemolysin-dependent manner. Clinical GBS isolates obtained from women in preterm labor are hyperhemolytic and some are associated with covR/S mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that hemolytic and cytolytic activity of GBS is due to the ornithine rhamnolipid pigment and not due to a pore-forming protein toxin. Our studies emphasize the importance of the hemolytic GBS pigment in ascending infection and fetal injury.

  19. Curcumin suppresses Streptococcus mutans adherence to human tooth surfaces and extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Choi, B; Jin, E-J; Yoon, Y; Choi, K-H

    2012-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the key causative agent of caries and infective endocarditis. The first step in biofilm development and the consequent initiation of further disease is bacterial adherence to host cell surfaces. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of curcumin on S. mutans adherence to extracellular matrices and tooth surfaces. The effect of curcumin on the ability of S. mutans to adhere to glass surfaces coated with collagen and fibronectin was tested in order to determine whether the decrease of the bacterial adhesion by curcumin is achieved by hindering the bacteria in adhering to collagen and/or fibronectin. Also, human teeth inoculated with S. mutans were treated with curcumin in vitro in order to assess the relevance of the anti-adhesive effect to oral conditions in vivo. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at which curcumin completely inhibited bacterial growth was 128 μg/mL. The addition of curcumin below the MIC diminished bacterial adherence onto both collagen- and fibronectin-coated glass surfaces and human tooth surfaces. It appears that the anti-adhesive effect of curcumin against S. mutans is mediated through collagen and fibronectin. These results support the widespread use of curcumin as a food-based antimicrobial agent.

  20. Group A Streptococcus exploits human plasminogen for bacterial translocation across epithelial barrier via tricellular tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Higashino, Miharu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen responsible for local suppurative and life-threatening invasive systemic diseases. Interaction of GAS with human plasminogen (PLG) is a salient characteristic for promoting their systemic dissemination. In the present study, a serotype M28 strain was found predominantly localized in tricellular tight junctions of epithelial cells cultured in the presence of PLG. Several lines of evidence indicated that interaction of PLG with tricellulin, a major component of tricellular tight junctions, is crucial for bacterial localization. A site-directed mutagenesis approach revealed that lysine residues at positions 217 and 252 within the extracellular loop of tricellulin play important roles in PLG-binding activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that PLG functions as a molecular bridge between tricellulin and streptococcal surface enolase (SEN). The wild type strain efficiently translocated across the epithelial monolayer, accompanied by cleavage of transmembrane junctional proteins. In contrast, amino acid substitutions in the PLG-binding motif of SEN markedly compromised those activities. Notably, the interaction of PLG with SEN was dependent on PLG species specificity, which influenced the efficiency of bacterial penetration. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism by which GAS exploits host PLG for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. PMID:26822058

  1. Intermedilysin, a novel cytotoxin specific for human cells secreted by Streptococcus intermedius UNS46 isolated from a human liver abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Nagamune, H; Ohnishi, C; Katsuura, A; Fushitani, K; Whiley, R A; Tsuji, A; Matsuda, Y

    1996-01-01

    A novel cytotoxin (intermedilysin) specific for human cells was identified as a cytolytic factor of Streptococcus intermedius UNS46 isolated from a human liver abscess. Intermedilysin caused human cell death with membrane blebs. Intermedilysin was purified from UNS46 culture medium by means of gel filtration and hydrophobic chromatography. The purified toxin was resolved into major and minor bands of 54 and 53 kDa, respectively, by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These proteins reacted with an antibody against intermedilysin. Five internal peptide fragments of intermedilysin were sequenced and found to have 42 to 71% homology with the thiol-activated cytotoxin pneumolysin. However, the action of intermedilysin differed from that of thiol-activated cytotoxins, especially in terms of a lack of activation by dithiothreitol and resistance to treatments with N-ethylmaleimide and 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), although cholesterol inhibited the toxin activity. Intermedilysin was potently hemolytic on human erythrocytes but was 100-fold less effective on chimpanzee and cynomolgus monkey erythrocytes. Intermedilysin was not hemolytic in nine other animal species tested. Since human erythrocytes treated with trypsin were far less sensitive to intermedilysin than were the intact cells, a cell membrane protein(s) may participate in the intermedilysin action. These data demonstrated that intermedilysin is distinguishable from all known bacterial cytolysins. PMID:8757839

  2. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus

  3. Serine-Rich Repeat Adhesins Contribute to Streptococcus gordonii-Induced Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun Byeol; Kim, Sun Kyung; Seo, Ho Seong; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the induction of immunity by recognition, capture, process, and presentation of antigens from infectious microbes. Streptococcus gordonii is able to cause life-threatening systemic diseases such as infective endocarditis. Serine-rich repeat (SRR) glycoproteins of S. gordonii are sialic acid-binding adhesins mediating the bacterial adherence to the host and the development of infective endocarditis. Thus, the SRR adhesins are potentially involved in the bacterial adherence to DCs and the maturation and activation of DCs required for the induction of immunity to S. gordonii. Here, we investigated the phenotypic and functional changes of human monocyte-derived DCs treated with wild-type S. gordonii or the SRR adhesin-deficient mutant. The mutant poorly bound to DCs and only weakly increased the expression of CD83, CD86, MHC class II, and PD-L1 on DCs compared with the wild-type. In addition, the mutant induced lower levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 than the wild-type in DCs. When DCs sensitized with the mutant were co-cultured with autologous T cells, they induced weaker proliferation and activation of T cells than DCs stimulated with the wild-type. Blockade of SRR adhesin with 3′-sialyllactose markedly reduced S. gordonii binding and internalization, causing attenuation of the bacterial immunostimulatory potency in DC maturation. Collectively, our results suggest that SRR adhesins of S. gordonii are important for maturation and activation of DCs. PMID:28408901

  4. Human T-Cell Responses to the Glucosyltransferases of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Jean-San; You, Chiou-Mien; Hu, Chung-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported differential humoral responses to glucosyltransferases (GTFs), with significantly higher saliva and serum antibody levels to GtfD than to GtfB or GtfC. To test the hypothesis that cellular immune responses to these molecules also may differ, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and T-cell proliferative responses in young adults and children with distinct genetic backgrounds were determined using purified recombinant GtfC and GtfD. PBMCs from all of the volunteers responded to GtfC and -D, but responses were directed predominantly towards GtfD and were major histocompatibility class II antigen dependent. A predominant T-cell response to GtfD, over GtfC, was detectable at various antigen concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 μg/ml and correlated with the differential serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and salivary IgA antibody responses to the GTFs. Therefore, in naturally sensitized humans, Streptococcus mutans GTFs stimulate differential humoral and cellular immune responses, with the secreted form of GtfD eliciting a stronger response than the cell wall-associated form of GtfC. PMID:11238236

  5. Human T-cell responses to the glucosyltransferases of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Chia, J S; You, C M; Hu, C Y; Chiang, B L; Chen, J Y

    2001-03-01

    We previously reported differential humoral responses to glucosyltransferases (GTFs), with significantly higher saliva and serum antibody levels to GtfD than to GtfB or GtfC. To test the hypothesis that cellular immune responses to these molecules also may differ, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and T-cell proliferative responses in young adults and children with distinct genetic backgrounds were determined using purified recombinant GtfC and GtfD. PBMCs from all of the volunteers responded to GtfC and -D, but responses were directed predominantly towards GtfD and were major histocompatibility class II antigen dependent. A predominant T-cell response to GtfD, over GtfC, was detectable at various antigen concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 microg/ml and correlated with the differential serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and salivary IgA antibody responses to the GTFs. Therefore, in naturally sensitized humans, Streptococcus mutans GTFs stimulate differential humoral and cellular immune responses, with the secreted form of GtfD eliciting a stronger response than the cell wall-associated form of GtfC.

  6. Antigenicity of a synthetic peptide from glucosyltransferases of Streptococcus mutans in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, J S; Lin, S W; Yang, C S; Chen, J Y

    1997-01-01

    Human salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum IgG antibodies to the Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) and to a synthetic peptide of 19 amino acids from a conserved region in the Gtfs (residues 435 to 453) were determined in young adults by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Varying levels of antibody to Gtfs were detected in saliva or serum, with significantly higher levels of antibody to GtfD than to GtfB/C or GtfC. Anti-Gtf IgA levels in saliva did not correlate with those of IgG in serum. Caries-free (CF) volunteers exhibited significantly higher salivary IgA antibody levels to the peptide and to GtfB/C or GtfC than did the caries-active (CA) subjects. Preincubation of CF saliva and serum with the peptide inhibited the antibodies to the Gtfs in a dose-dependent manner, whereas preincubation of the samples from the CA group resulted in only partial inhibition. Our results indicated that this 19-amino-acid peptide includes one of the major B-cell epitopes of Gtfs and that CF individuals have higher titers of antibodies than CA subjects. PMID:9038329

  7. Selection of oral microbial adhesion antagonists using biotinylated Streptococcus sanguis and a human mixed oral microflora.

    PubMed

    Guan, Y H; de Graaf, T; Lath, D L; Humphreys, S M; Marlow, I; Brook, A H

    2001-02-01

    A microtitre assay has been developed using hydroxyapatite-coated wells and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904 at 10(7) cells per ml. A number of models representing toothpaste and mouthwash usage were adopted to detect the anti-adherent efficacy of a polyvinylmethylether maleic acid copolymer (PVM/MA), polyoxypropylene/polyoxyethylene block copolymer (PO/EO), two casein-derived peptides and selected silicones. The results not only confirmed the anti-adherence property of the selected components but also indicated possible molecular interactions leading to the observed performance. To account for the diversity of oral microbial cells in vivo, a further testing system was developed. This involved submerging a hydroxyapatite disc in a mixed culture of human salivary microbial cells, and exposing it to different treatments using the active component either in an aqueous dispersion or in a toothpaste. The effect of toothpastes containing PO/EO, dimethicone copoyol or PVM/MA was investigated over a 4-h incubation with microflora. These tests showed that in a toothpaste formulation the anti-adherent efficacy may be reduced when compared with an aqueous dispersion containing the same or nearly the same concentration of the active component.

  8. Streptococcus mutans dextransucrase: stimulation by phospholipids from human sera and oral fluids.

    PubMed Central

    Schachtele, C F; Harlander, S K; Bracke, J W; Ostrum, L C; Maltais, J A; Billings, R J

    1978-01-01

    Serum, gingival crevicular fluid, and parotid, submandibular, and labial minor gland saliva from four individuals stimulated glucan formation from sucrose by the Streptococcus mutans strain 6715 dextransucrase (EC 2.4.1.5). At final dilutions of 1:10 all of the fluids stimulated crude enzyme preparations approximately 1.8-fold. The fluids stimulated the purified water-insoluble glucan-synthesizing form of the dextransucrase approximately 3.2-fold and the water-soluble glucan-producing form of the enzyme approximately 2.4-fold. The fluids all contained concentrations of stimulatory material that could be reduced to undetectable levels only after dilutions of greater than 1:1,000. The increased rates of glucan formation caused by the fluids and dextran were additive, indicating that stimulation by the fluids was primarily due to interactions with entities other than glucan primer molecules. In contrast, the elevated levels of glucan formation in the presence of the fluids was not further enhanced by the addition of lysophosphatidylcholine. Lysophosphatidylcholine purified from parotid and submandibular saliva by solvent extraction and thin-layer chromatography stimulated the dextransucrase as effectively as egg yolk lysophosphatidylcholine. Thus, phospholipids normally found in human oral fluids can enhance the activity of an enzyme believed to be directly associated with the cariogenic potential of S. mutans. PMID:365766

  9. Deciphering Key Residues Involved in the Virulence-promoting Interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Human Plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Christophe; Terrasse, Rémi; Thielens, Nicole M; Vernet, Thierry; Gaboriaud, Christine; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie

    2017-02-10

    Bacterial pathogens recruit circulating proteins to their own surfaces, co-opting the host protein functions as a mechanism of virulence. Particular attention has focused on the binding of plasminogen (Plg) to bacterial surfaces, as it has been shown that this interaction contributes to bacterial adhesion to host cells, invasion of host tissues, and evasion of the immune system. Several bacterial proteins are known to serve as receptors for Plg including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cytoplasmic enzyme that appears on the cell surface in this moonlighting role. Although Plg typically binds to these receptors via several lysine-binding domains, the specific interactions that occur have not been documented in all cases. However, identification of the relevant residues could help define strategies for mitigating the virulence of important human pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp). To shed light on this question, we have described a combination of peptide-spot array screening, competition and SPR assays, high-resolution crystallography, and mutational analyses to characterize the interaction between SpGAPDH and Plg. We identified three SpGAPDH lysine residues that were instrumental in defining the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the interaction. Altogether, the integration of the data presented in this work allows us to propose a structural model for the molecular interaction of the SpGAPDH-Plg complex.

  10. Genotypic Profile of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 and Clinical Features of Infection in Humans, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kerdsin, Anusak; Dejsirilert, Surang; Puangpatra, Parichart; Sripakdee, Saowalak; Chumla, Koranan; Boonkerd, Nitsara; Polwichai, Pitimol; Tanimura, Susumu; Takeuchi, Dan; Nakayama, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Shota; Akeda, Yukihiro; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations between clinical features of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infections in humans in Thailand and genotypic profiles of isolates, we conducted a retrospective study during 2006–2008. Of 165 patients for whom bacterial cultures of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or both were positive for S. suis serotype 2, the major multilocus sequence types (STs) found were ST1 (62.4%) and ST104 (25.5%); the latter is unique to Thailand. Clinical features were examined for 158 patients. Infections were sporadic; case-fatality rate for adults was 9.5%, primarily in northern Thailand. Disease incidence peaked during the rainy season. Disease was classified as meningitis (58.9%) or nonmeningitis (41.1%, and included sepsis [35.4%] and others [5.7%]). Although ST1 strains were significantly associated with the meningitis category (p<0.0001), ST104 strains were significantly associated with the nonmeningitis category (p<0.0001). The ST1 and ST104 strains are capable of causing sepsis, but only the ST1 strains commonly cause meningitis. PMID:21529392

  11. Regulatory Rewiring Confers Serotype-Specific Hyper-Virulence in the Human Pathogen Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric W.; Danger, Jessica L.; Ramalinga, Anupama B.; Horstmann, Nicola; Shelburne, Samuel A.; Sumby, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phenotypic heterogeneity is commonly observed between isolates of a given pathogen. Epidemiological analyses have identified that some serotypes of the group A Streptococcus (GAS) are non-randomly associated with particular disease manifestations. Here, we present evidence that a contributing factor to the association of serotype M3 GAS isolates with severe invasive infections is the presence of a null mutant allele for the orphan kinase RocA. Through use of RNAseq analysis, we identified that the natural rocA mutation present within M3 isolates leads to the enhanced expression of more than a dozen immunomodulatory virulence factors, enhancing phenotypes such as hemolysis and NAD+ hydrolysis. Consequently, an M3 GAS isolate survived human phagocytic killing at a level 13-fold higher than a rocA complemented derivative, and was significantly more virulent in a murine bacteremia model of infection. Finally, we identified that RocA functions through the CovR/S two-component system as levels of phosphorylated CovR increase in the presence of functional RocA, and RocA has no regulatory activity following covR or covS mutation. Our data are consistent with RocA interfacing with the CovR/S two-component system, and that the absence of this activity in M3 GAS potentiates the severity of invasive infections caused by isolates of this serotype. PMID:26192205

  12. Human lactoferrin protects against Streptococcus mutans-induced caries in mice.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, S K; Markowitz, K; Fine, D H; Velliyagounder, K

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the importance of human lactoferrin (hLF) in an experimental caries induced by Streptococcus mutans in a lactoferrin-knockout (LFKO(-/-)) mouse model compared with C576J/BL wild-type (WT) mice. The WT and LFKO(-/-) mice were infected with S. mutans (1 × 10(8) cells) and/or sham infection. Furthermore, the effect of hLF administration was evaluated in LFKO(-/-) mice infected with S. mutans. Mice were assessed for colonization, salivary pH, and caries development. The results showed that the lactoferrin-knockout infected (LFKO(-/-) I) mice had significantly higher colonization with S. mutans (P = 0.02), lower salivary pH (P = 0.01), and more carious lesions (P = 0.01) when compared to wild-type infected (WTI) mice. In addition, the administration of hLF did not show any evidence of S. mutans colonization as well as carious lesions (P = 0.001) in LFKO(-/-) I mice when compared to untreated LFKO(-/-) I mice. These results show that endogenous LF protects against S. mutans-induced caries and that exogenous hLF can exert a protective effect against caries development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Gene expression platform for synthetic biology in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Robin A; Kuipers, Oscar P; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2015-03-20

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a bacterium that owes its success to complex gene expression regulation patterns on both the cellular and the population level. Expression of virulence factors enables a mostly hazard-free presence of the commensal, in balance with the host and niche competitors. Under specific circumstances, changes in this expression can result in a more aggressive behavior and the reversion to the invasive form as pathogen. These triggering conditions are very difficult to study due to the fact that environmental cues are often unknown or barely possible to simulate outside the host (in vitro). An alternative way of investigating expression patterns is found in synthetic biology approaches of reconstructing regulatory networks that mimic an observed behavior with orthogonal components. Here, we created a genetic platform suitable for synthetic biology approaches in S. pneumoniae and characterized a set of standardized promoters and reporters. We show that our system allows for fast and easy cloning with the BglBrick system and that reliable and robust gene expression after integration into the S. pneumoniae genome is achieved. In addition, the cloning system was extended to allow for direct linker-based assembly of ribosome binding sites, peptide tags, and fusion proteins, and we called this new generally applicable standard "BglFusion". The gene expression platform and the methods described in this study pave the way for employing synthetic biology approaches in S. pneumoniae.

  14. The human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor binds to Streptococcus pneumoniae via domains 3 and 4.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling; Lamm, Michael E; Li, Hongmin; Corthesy, Blaise; Zhang, Jing-Ren

    2003-11-28

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a major cause of bacterial pneumonia, middle ear infection (otitis media), sepsis, and meningitis. Our previous study demonstrated that the choline-binding protein A (CbpA) of S. pneumoniae binds to the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and enhances pneumococcal adhesion to and invasion of cultured epithelial cells. In this study, we sought to determine the CbpA-binding motif on pIgR by deletional analysis. The extra-cellular portion of pIgR consists of five Ig-like domains (D1-D5), each of which contains 104-114 amino acids and two disulfide bonds. Deletional analysis of human pIgR revealed that the lack of either D3 or D4 resulted in the loss of CbpA binding, whereas complete deletions of domains D1, D2, and D5 had undetectable impacts. Subsequent analysis showed that domains D3 and D4 together were necessary and sufficient for the ligand-binding activity. Furthermore, CbpA binding of pIgR did not appear to require Ca2+ or Mg2+. Finally, treating pIgR with a reducing agent abolished CbpA binding, suggesting that disulfide bonding is required for the formation of CbpA-binding motif(s). These results strongly suggest a conformational CbpA-binding motif(s) in the D3/D4 region of human pIgR, which is functionally separated from the IgA-binding site(s).

  15. Population-Based Study of Streptococcus suis Infection in Humans in Phayao Province in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Dan; Kerdsin, Anusak; Pienpringam, Anupong; Loetthong, Phacharaphan; Samerchea, Sutit; Luangsuk, Pakkinee; Khamisara, Kasean; Wongwan, Nithita; Areeratana, Prasanee; Chiranairadul, Piphat; Lertchayanti, Suwat; Petcharat, Sininat; Yowang, Amara; Chaiwongsaen, Phanupong; Nakayama, Tatsuya; Akeda, Yukihiro; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Dejsirilert, Surang; Oishi, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis infection in humans has received increasing worldwide recognition. Methods and Findings A prospective study of S. suis infection in humans was conducted in Phayao Province in northern Thailand to determine the incidence and the risk behaviors of the disease in this region in 2010. Thirty-one cases were confirmed. The case fatality rate was 16.1%, and the estimated incidence rate was 6.2 per 100,000 in the general population. The peak incidence occurred in May. The median age of the patients was 53 years and 64.5% were men. Consumption of raw pork products was confirmed in 22 cases and the median incubation period (range) was 2 days (0–11) after consumption of raw pork products. Isolates from 31 patients were confirmed as serotype 2 in 23 patients (74.2%) and serotype 14 in eight patients (25.8%). The major sequence types (STs) were ST1 (n = 20) for serotype 2 and ST105 (n = 8) for serotype 14. The epidemiological analysis suggested three possible clusters, which included 17 cases. In the largest possible cluster of 10 cases in Chiang Kham and its neighboring districts in May, the source of infection in four cases was identified as a raw pork dish served at the same restaurant in this district. Microbiological analysis confirmed that three of four cases associated with consumption of raw pork at this restaurant were attributable to an identical strain of serotype 2 with ST1 and pulsotype A2. Conclusions Our data suggest a high incidence rate of S. suis infection in the general population in Phayao Province in 2010 and confirm a cluster of three cases in 31 human cases. Food safety control should be strengthened especially for raw pork products in northern Thailand. PMID:22363601

  16. Co-Transcriptomes of Initial Interactions In Vitro between Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Human Pleural Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Claire J.; del Mar Cendra, Maria; Watson, Alastair; Auger, Jean-Philippe; Pandey, Anish; Tighe, Paddy; Christodoulides, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a major causative organism of empyema, an inflammatory condition occurring in the pleural sac. In this study, we used human and Spn cDNA microarrays to characterize the transcriptional responses occurring during initial contact between Spn and a human pleural mesothelial cell line (PMC) in vitro. Using stringent filtering criteria, 42 and 23 Spn genes were up-and down-regulated respectively. In particular, genes encoding factors potentially involved in metabolic processes and Spn adherence to eukaryotic cells were up-regulated e.g. glnQ, glnA, aliA, psaB, lytB and nox. After Spn initial contact, 870 human genes were differentially regulated and the largest numbers of significant gene expression changes were found in canonical pathways for eukaryotic initiation factor 2 signaling (60 genes out of 171), oxidative phosphorylation (32/103), mitochondrial dysfunction (37/164), eIF4 and p70S6K signaling (28/142), mTOR signaling (27/182), NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response (20/177), epithelial adherens junction remodeling (11/66) and ubiquitination (22/254). The cellular response appeared to be directed towards host cell survival and defense. Spn did not activate NF-kB or phosphorylate p38 MAPK or induce cytokine production from PMC. Moreover, Spn infection of TNF-α pre-stimulated PMC inhibited production of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by >50% (p<0.01). In summary, this descriptive study provides datasets and a platform for examining further the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of empyema. PMID:26566142

  17. Adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to human airway epithelial cells exposed to urban particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Naseem; Ezzati, Majid; Hall, Lucinda; Dickson, Iain; Kirwan, Michael; Png, Ken M Y; Mudway, Ian S; Grigg, Jonathan

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies report an association between pneumonia and urban particulate matter (PM) less than 10 microns (μm) in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)). Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. To date, the mechanism whereby urban PM enhances vulnerability to S pneumoniae infection is unclear. Adhesion of S pneumoniae to host cells is a prerequisite for infection. Host-expressed proteins, including the receptor for platelet-activating factor (PAFR), are co-opted by S pneumoniae to adhere to lower airway epithelial cells. To define whether inhalable urban PM enhances the adhesion of S pneumoniae to airway epithelial cells. A549 cells were cultured with PM(10) from Leicester (United Kingdom [UK]) and PM(10) and PM less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) from Accra (Ghana), then infected with S pneumoniae strain D39. Pneumococcal adhesion to human primary bronchial epithelial cells was also assessed. Bacterial adhesion was determined by quantitative culture and confocal microscopy. The role of oxidative stress was assessed by N-acetyl cysteine, and the role of PAFR was assessed by mRNA transcript level, receptor expression, and receptor blocking. PM(10) (UK) increased S pneumoniae adhesion to both A549 airway epithelial cells and human primary bronchial epithelial cells. PM(10) (Ghana) and PM(2.5) (Ghana) also increased adhesion. Culture of A549 cells by PM(10) (UK) increased PAFR mRNA transcript level and PAFR expression. PM(10) (UK)-stimulated adhesion to A549 cells was attenuated by a PAFR blocker and N-acetyl cysteine. Urban PM increases adhesion of S pneumoniae to human airway epithelial cells. PM-stimulated adhesion is mediated by oxidative stress and PAFR. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genomic Evidence for the Evolution of Streptococcus equi: Host Restriction, Increased Virulence, and Genetic Exchange with Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain; Steward, Karen F.; Webb, Katy; Ainslie, Fern; Jourdan, Thibaud; Bason, Nathalie C.; Holroyd, Nancy E.; Mungall, Karen; Quail, Michael A.; Sanders, Mandy; Simmonds, Mark; Willey, David; Brooks, Karen; Aanensen, David M.; Spratt, Brian G.; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Kehoe, Michael; Chanter, Neil; Bentley, Stephen D.; Robinson, Carl; Maskell, Duncan J.; Parkhill, Julian; Waller, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The continued evolution of bacterial pathogens has major implications for both human and animal disease, but the exchange of genetic material between host-restricted pathogens is rarely considered. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is a host-restricted pathogen of horses that has evolved from the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus). These pathogens share approximately 80% genome sequence identity with the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We sequenced and compared the genomes of S. equi 4047 and S. zooepidemicus H70 and screened S. equi and S. zooepidemicus strains from around the world to uncover evidence of the genetic events that have shaped the evolution of the S. equi genome and led to its emergence as a host-restricted pathogen. Our analysis provides evidence of functional loss due to mutation and deletion, coupled with pathogenic specialization through the acquisition of bacteriophage encoding a phospholipase A2 toxin, and four superantigens, and an integrative conjugative element carrying a novel iron acquisition system with similarity to the high pathogenicity island of Yersinia pestis. We also highlight that S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes share a common phage pool that enhances cross-species pathogen evolution. We conclude that the complex interplay of functional loss, pathogenic specialization, and genetic exchange between S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes continues to influence the evolution of these important streptococci. PMID:19325880

  19. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health. PMID:25946041

  20. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M; Guédon, Eric; Lapaque, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Required for Fitness of Group A Streptococcus in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Le Breton, Yoann; Mistry, Pragnesh; Valdes, Kayla M.; Quigley, Jeffrey; Kumar, Nikhil; Tettelin, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) is a strict human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases. Although GAS genome sequences are available, functional genomic analyses have been limited. We developed a mariner-based transposon, osKaR, designed to perform Transposon-Site Hybridization (TraSH) in GAS and successfully tested its use in several invasive serotypes. A complex osKaR mutant library in M1T1 GAS strain 5448 was subjected to negative selection in human blood to identify genes important for GAS fitness in this clinically relevant environment. Mutants underrepresented after growth in blood (output pool) compared to growth in rich media (input pool) were identified using DNA microarray hybridization of transposon-specific tags en masse. Using blood from three different donors, we identified 81 genes that met our criteria for reduced fitness in blood from at least two individuals. Genes known to play a role in survival of GAS in blood were found, including those encoding the virulence regulator Mga (mga), the peroxide response regulator PerR (perR), and the RofA-like regulator Ralp-3 (ralp3). We also identified genes previously reported for their contribution to sepsis in other pathogens, such as de novo nucleotide synthesis (purD, purA, pyrB, carA, carB, guaB), sugar metabolism (scrB, fruA), zinc uptake (adcC), and transcriptional regulation (cpsY). To validate our findings, independent mutants with mutations in 10 different genes identified in our screen were confirmed to be defective for survival in blood bactericidal assays. Overall, this work represents the first use of TraSH in GAS to identify potential virulence genes. PMID:23297387

  2. Molecular analysis of yogurt containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    García-Albiach, Raimundo; Pozuelo de Felipe, María José; José, María; de Felipe, Pozuelo; Angulo, Santiago; Morosini, María-Isabel; Bravo, Daniel; Baquero, Fernando; del Campo, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Yogurt has traditionally been considered a probiotic-carrier food with health-promoting effects. Despite the universal assumption of this assertion, several researchers have evaluated the real capability of the yogurt bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus to survive and proliferate in the human intestine and have found contradictory results. This double-blind crossover study assessed the qualitative and quantitative effects of fresh and heat-treated yogurt on bacterial intestinal microbiota from healthy subjects. The subjects were divided into experimental (n=63) and control (n=16) groups. The experimental group consumed fresh and heat-treated yogurt for 15 d according to a crossover design with a washout period of 2 wk. Three different fecal samples per individual were recovered: at baseline, after fresh yogurt intake, and after heat-treated yogurt intake. Qualitative changes in microbiota were studied by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) with universal and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) 16S-rRNA primers. Quantitative changes in LAB, Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacteroides groups were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A particular DGGE stable band pattern was observed in each sample. No significant qualitative differences were detected in any fecal sample. However, a significantly higher density of LAB and C. perfringens and a significant decrease in the density of Bacteroides was observed after consumption of both types of yogurt. Microbiota density was not significantly different between the fresh and heat-treated yogurt groups, except for LAB, which was significantly greater in the fresh yogurt group. The main change in human microbiota observed after yogurt consumption was an increase in the density of LAB and C. perfringens to the detriment of Bacteroides. Bacterial changes were not different after the consumption of fresh and heat-treated yogurt.

  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae Enhances Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, D. Tien; Louwen, Rogier; Elberse, Karin; van Amerongen, Geert; Yüksel, Selma; Luijendijk, Ad; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are important causative agents of respiratory tract infections. Both pathogens are associated with seasonal disease outbreaks in the pediatric population, and can often be detected simultaneously in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis or pneumonia. It has been described that respiratory virus infections may predispose for bacterial superinfections, resulting in severe disease. However, studies on the influence of bacterial colonization of the upper respiratory tract on the pathogenesis of subsequent respiratory virus infections are scarce. Here, we have investigated whether pneumococcal colonization enhances subsequent HRSV infection. We used a newly generated recombinant subgroup B HRSV strain that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein and pneumococcal isolates obtained from healthy children in disease-relevant in vitro and in vivo model systems. Three pneumococcal strains specifically enhanced in vitro HRSV infection of primary well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface, whereas two other strains did not. Since previous studies reported that bacterial neuraminidase enhanced HRSV infection in vitro, we measured pneumococcal neuraminidase activity in these cultures but found no correlation with the observed infection enhancement in our model. Subsequently, a selection of pneumococcal strains was used to induce nasal colonization of cotton rats, the best available small animal model for HRSV. Intranasal HRSV infection three days later resulted in strain-specific enhancement of HRSV replication in vivo. One S. pneumoniae strain enhanced HRSV both in vitro and in vivo, and was also associated with enhanced syncytium formation in vivo. However, neither pneumococci nor HRSV were found to spread from the upper to the lower respiratory tract, and neither pathogen was transmitted to naive cage mates by direct contact. These results demonstrate

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae Enhances Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D Tien; Louwen, Rogier; Elberse, Karin; van Amerongen, Geert; Yüksel, Selma; Luijendijk, Ad; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Duprex, W Paul; de Swart, Rik L

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are important causative agents of respiratory tract infections. Both pathogens are associated with seasonal disease outbreaks in the pediatric population, and can often be detected simultaneously in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis or pneumonia. It has been described that respiratory virus infections may predispose for bacterial superinfections, resulting in severe disease. However, studies on the influence of bacterial colonization of the upper respiratory tract on the pathogenesis of subsequent respiratory virus infections are scarce. Here, we have investigated whether pneumococcal colonization enhances subsequent HRSV infection. We used a newly generated recombinant subgroup B HRSV strain that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein and pneumococcal isolates obtained from healthy children in disease-relevant in vitro and in vivo model systems. Three pneumococcal strains specifically enhanced in vitro HRSV infection of primary well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface, whereas two other strains did not. Since previous studies reported that bacterial neuraminidase enhanced HRSV infection in vitro, we measured pneumococcal neuraminidase activity in these cultures but found no correlation with the observed infection enhancement in our model. Subsequently, a selection of pneumococcal strains was used to induce nasal colonization of cotton rats, the best available small animal model for HRSV. Intranasal HRSV infection three days later resulted in strain-specific enhancement of HRSV replication in vivo. One S. pneumoniae strain enhanced HRSV both in vitro and in vivo, and was also associated with enhanced syncytium formation in vivo. However, neither pneumococci nor HRSV were found to spread from the upper to the lower respiratory tract, and neither pathogen was transmitted to naive cage mates by direct contact. These results demonstrate

  5. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Verma, Amit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. PMID:25097796

  6. In vitro and in vivo cell invasion and systemic spreading of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the sheep infection model

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shivanand; Hegde, Shrilakshmi; Spergser, Joachim; Brunthaler, René; Rosengarten, Renate; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2014-01-01

    Generally regarded as extracellular pathogens, molecular mechanisms of mycoplasma persistence, chronicity and disease spread are largely unknown. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an economically important pathogen of small ruminants, causes chronic infections that are difficult to eradicate. Animals continue to shed the agent for several months and even years after the initial infection, in spite of long antibiotic treatment. However, little is known about the strategies that M. agalactiae employs to survive and spread within an immunocompetent host to cause chronic disease. Here, we demonstrate for the first time its ability to invade cultured human (HeLa) and ruminant (BEND and BLF) host cells. Presence of intracellular mycoplasmas is clearly substantiated using differential immunofluorescence technique and quantitative gentamicin invasion assays. Internalized M. agalactiae could survive and exit the cells in a viable state to repopulate the extracellular environment after complete removal of extracellular bacteria with gentamicin. Furthermore, an experimental sheep intramammary infection was carried out to evaluate its systemic spread to organs and host niches distant from the site of initial infection. Positive results obtained via PCR, culture and immunohistochemistry, especially the latter depicting the presence of M. agalactiae in the cytoplasm of mammary duct epithelium and macrophages, clearly provide the first formal proof of M. agalactiae's capability to translocate across the mammary epithelium and systemically disseminate to distant inner organs. Altogether, the findings of these in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that M. agalactiae is capable of entering host cells and this might be the strategy that it employs at a population level to ward off the host immune response and antibiotic action, and to disseminate to new and safer niches to later egress and once again proliferate upon the return of favorable conditions to cause persistent chronic infections

  7. In vitro and in vivo cell invasion and systemic spreading of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the sheep infection model.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shivanand; Hegde, Shrilakshmi; Spergser, Joachim; Brunthaler, René; Rosengarten, Renate; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2014-11-01

    Generally regarded as extracellular pathogens, molecular mechanisms of mycoplasma persistence, chronicity and disease spread are largely unknown. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an economically important pathogen of small ruminants, causes chronic infections that are difficult to eradicate. Animals continue to shed the agent for several months and even years after the initial infection, in spite of long antibiotic treatment. However, little is known about the strategies that M. agalactiae employs to survive and spread within an immunocompetent host to cause chronic disease. Here, we demonstrate for the first time its ability to invade cultured human (HeLa) and ruminant (BEND and BLF) host cells. Presence of intracellular mycoplasmas is clearly substantiated using differential immunofluorescence technique and quantitative gentamicin invasion assays. Internalized M. agalactiae could survive and exit the cells in a viable state to repopulate the extracellular environment after complete removal of extracellular bacteria with gentamicin. Furthermore, an experimental sheep intramammary infection was carried out to evaluate its systemic spread to organs and host niches distant from the site of initial infection. Positive results obtained via PCR, culture and immunohistochemistry, especially the latter depicting the presence of M. agalactiae in the cytoplasm of mammary duct epithelium and macrophages, clearly provide the first formal proof of M. agalactiae's capability to translocate across the mammary epithelium and systemically disseminate to distant inner organs. Altogether, the findings of these in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that M. agalactiae is capable of entering host cells and this might be the strategy that it employs at a population level to ward off the host immune response and antibiotic action, and to disseminate to new and safer niches to later egress and once again proliferate upon the return of favorable conditions to cause persistent chronic infections.

  8. Characterization of host immunity during persistent vaginal colonization by Group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Patras, K A; Rösler, B; Thoman, M L; Doran, K S

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which colonizes the vaginal tract in 10-30% of women. Colonization is transient in nature, and little is known about the host and bacterial factors controlling GBS persistence. Gaining insight into these factors is essential for developing therapeutics to limit maternal GBS carriage and prevent transmission to the susceptible newborn. In this work, we have used human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells, and our established mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, to characterize key host factors that respond during GBS colonization. We identify a GBS strain that persists beyond a month in the murine vagina, whereas other strains are more readily cleared. Correspondingly, we have detected differential cytokine production in human cell lines after challenge with the persistent strain vs. other GBS strains. We also demonstrate that the persistent strain more readily invades cervical cells compared with vaginal cells, suggesting that GBS may potentially use the cervix as a reservoir to establish long-term colonization. Furthermore, we have identified interleukin-17 production in response to long-term colonization, which is associated with eventual clearance of GBS. We conclude that both GBS strain differences and concurrent host immune responses are crucial in modulating vaginal colonization.

  9. Characterization of host immunity during persistent vaginal colonization by Group B Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Patras, Kathryn A.; Rösler, Berenice; Thoman, Marilyn L.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which colonizes the vaginal tract in 10–30% of women. Colonization is transient in nature, and little is known about the host and bacterial factors controlling GBS persistence. Gaining insight into these factors is essential for developing therapeutics to limit maternal GBS carriage and prevent transmission to the susceptible newborn. In this work, we have used human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells, and our established mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, to characterize key host factors that respond during GBS colonization. We identify a GBS strain that persists beyond a month in the murine vagina, whereas other strains are more readily cleared. Correspondingly, we have detected differential cytokine production in human cell lines after challenge with the persistent strain versus other GBS strains. We also demonstrate that the persistent strain more readily invades cervical cells compared to vaginal cells, suggesting that GBS may potentially use the cervix as a reservoir to establish long-term colonization. Furthermore, we have identified IL-17 production in response to long-term colonization, which is associated with eventual clearance of GBS. We conclude that both GBS strain differences and concurrent host immune responses are crucial in modulating vaginal colonization. PMID:25850655

  10. Assessment of the interaction of human complement regulatory proteins with group A Streptococcus. Identification of a high-affinity group A Streptococcus binding site in FHL-1.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Caballero, D; Albertí, S; Vivanco, F; Sánchez-Corral, P; Rodríguez de Córdoba, S

    2000-04-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), the most frequent bacterial cause of suppurative infections in humans, expresses on the cell surface M proteins with capacity to bind factor H, FHL-1 and C4b binding protein (C4BP). This has been interpreted as a mechanism developed by this pathogen to decrease phagocytosis by macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells. We report the analysis of the capacity to bind factor H, FHL-1 and C4BP of 69 clinical isolates from 19 different serotypes. We show that strains binding complement regulators (30/69) belong to specific M serotypes. Of these, M18 strains are relatively frequent and interact with all three complement regulators simultaneously. However, the most virulent M1 and M3 strains did not bind complement regulators in our assays. The relevance of the interaction between complement regulators and S. pyogenes was analyzed using different approaches with the conclusion that under physiological conditions only FHL-1 and C4BP bind to streptococci. We show that FHL-1 presents a higher binding affinity for S. pyogenes than factor H because it carries a hydrophobic, high-affinity, GAS binding site in addition to the heparin binding site in SCR7. Using synthetic peptides we provide evidence that the high-affinity GAS binding site in FHL-1 involves the hydrophobic tail (Ser-Phe-Thr-Leu) that distinguishes FHL-1 from factor H.

  11. Resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae and S. agalatiae Ib is heritable but not correlated

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) are an important source of protein with an ecomonic value approaching US $8 billion yearly. Streptococcal disease, caused by Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae (both Gram positive bacteria), is an emerging or re-emerging disease negatively affecting tilapia aquaculture w...

  12. Response of Fatty Acid Synthesis Genes to the Binding of Human Salivary Amylase by Streptococcus gordonii

    PubMed Central

    Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.; Vickerman, M. Margaret; Gill, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii, an important primary colonizer of dental plaque biofilm, specifically binds to salivary amylase via the surface-associated amylase-binding protein A (AbpA). We hypothesized that a function of amylase binding to S. gordonii may be to modulate the expression of chromosomal genes, which could influence bacterial survival and persistence in the oral cavity. Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis was performed to detect genes in S. gordonii strain CH1 that were differentially expressed in response to the binding of purified human salivary amylase versus exposure to purified heat-denatured amylase. Selected genes found to be differentially expressed were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Five genes from the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) cluster were highly (10- to 35-fold) upregulated in S. gordonii CH1 cells treated with native amylase relative to those treated with denatured amylase. An abpA-deficient strain of S. gordonii exposed to amylase failed to show a response in FAS gene expression similar to that observed in the parental strain. Predicted phenotypic effects of amylase binding to S. gordonii strain CH1 (associated with increased expression of FAS genes, leading to changes in fatty acid synthesis) were noted; these included increased bacterial growth, survival at low pH, and resistance to triclosan. These changes were not observed in the amylase-exposed abpA-deficient strain, suggesting a role for AbpA in the amylase-induced phenotype. These results provide evidence that the binding of salivary amylase elicits a differential gene response in S. gordonii, resulting in a phenotypic adjustment that is potentially advantageous for bacterial survival in the oral environment. PMID:22247133

  13. Preceding human metapneumovirus infection increases adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and severity of murine pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shen-Hao; Liao, Sui-Ling; Wong, Kin-Sun; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2016-04-01

    Coinfection with respiratory virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been frequently reported in several epidemiologic studies. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of preceding human metapneumovirus (hMPV) inoculation on subsequent pneumococcal infection. Hep-2 and A549 cells were infected with hMPV then inoculated with S. pneumoniae. Bacterial adhesion was measured using colony forming unit and cytometric-fluorescence assays. In vivo bacterial adhesion was examined in hMPV-infected mice after inoculation of fluorescence-conjugated S. pneumoniae. Pulmonary inflammation (bacterial titers, cytokine levels, and histopathology) of hMPV-infected mice was investigated after inoculation with S. pneumoniae. In vitro results of bacterial infection with S. pneumoniae on A549 and Hep-2 monolayer cells showed that even though cellular adherence was variable among different serotypes, there was significantly enhanced bacterial adherence in A549 cells with preceding hMPV infection. In addition, in vivo study of hMPV-infected mice showed increased adhesion of S. pneumoniae on the bronchial epithelium with delayed bacterial clearance and exacerbated histopathology. Furthermore, mice with preceding hMPV infection showed repressed recruitment of airway neutrophils with decreased expression of neutrophil chemoattractants during pneumococcal infection. These results suggest that hMPV-infected airway cells, especially the lower airway epithelium, express increased adherence with S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, hMPV-infected mice showed impaired recruitment of airway neutrophils, possibly leading to delayed bacterial clearance and exacerbated pulmonary inflammation, after secondary infection with pneumococcal isolates. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Laser radiation effects on Mycoplasma agalactiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, Cerasela Z.; Grigoriu, Constantin; Dinescu, Maria; Pascale, Florentina; Popovici, Adrian; Gheorghescu, Lavinia; Cismileanu, Ana; Avram, Eugenia

    2002-08-01

    The biological effects of the laser radiation emitted by the Nd:YAG laser (second harmonic, wavelength 532 nm /fluence 32 mJ/cm2/pulse duration 6 ns) on the Mycoplasma agalactiae bacterium were studied. The radiation was found to intensify the multiplication of the bacteria irradiated in TRIS buffer (0.125 M), without however affecting the proteinic composition of the cell membrane. When the bacteria were irradiated in their growth medium (PPLO broth) being later cultivated on a solid medium (PPLO agar), the exclusive presence of the atypical colonies (granular and T-like ones) was noticed.

  15. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Isolated From Infections in Dogs and Humans: Are Current Subspecies Identification Criteria accurate?

    PubMed

    Ciszewski, Marcin; Zegarski, Kamil; Szewczyk, Eligia M

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a pyogenic species pathogenic both for humans and animals. Until recently, it has been considered an exclusive animal pathogen causing infections in wild as well as domestic animals. Currently, human infections are being reported with increasing frequency, and their clinical picture is often similar to the ones caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Due to the fact that S. dysgalactiae is a heterogeneous species, it was divided into two subspecies: S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD). The first differentiation criterion, described in 1996, was based on strain isolation source. Currently applied criteria, published in 1998, are based on hemolysis type and Lancefield group classification. In this study, we compared subspecies identification results for 36 strains isolated from clinical cases both in humans and animals. Species differentiation was based on two previously described criteria as well as MALDI-TOF and genetic analyses: RISA and 16S rRNA genes sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were also determined according to CLSI guidelines. The results presented in our study suggest that the subspecies differentiation criteria previously described in the above two literature positions seem to be inaccurate in analyzed group of strains, the hemolysis type on blood agar, and Lancefield classification should not be here longer considered as criteria in subspecies identification. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests indicate emerging of multiresistant human SDSE strains resistant also to vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline, which might pose a substantial problem in treatment.

  16. Variation in the attachment of Streptococcus pneumoniae to human pharyngeal epithelial cells after treatment with S-carboxymethylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Suer, Eda; Sayrac, Suha; Sarinay, Elif; Ozturk, Hakan Emre; Turkoz, Mustafa; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Nagatake, Tsuyoshi; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2008-08-01

    S-carboxymethylcysteine (S-CMC) is a mucolytic agent that can prevent respiratory infection by decreasing the attachment of respiratory pathogens to human pharyngeal epithelial cells (HPECs). Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory infections. A previous study revealed that treatment of S. pneumoniae with S-CMC caused a decrease in the attachment of this bacterium to HPECs. In the present study we found that the effect of S-CMC varied according to hosts and strains. S-CMC treatment altered the surface structure of S. pneumoniae, resulting in a decrease of attachment, without affecting the virulence of the bacteria.

  17. Effect of partially hydrolyzed soluble glucan produced by glucosyltrasferases of Streptococcus mutans on stimulating human T cell.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inwook; Jung, Changhwa; Han, Yeook; Lee, Eunjoo H

    2006-01-01

    Soluble glucan, which was obtained from action of glucosyltransferases (GTFs) of Streptococcus mutans on sucrose, was partially hydrolyzed by acetic acid and examined for human T lymphoblast (MOLT-4) stimulating activity. Addition of the partially hydrolyzed glucan (15-60 microg/ml) stimulated human T cell (39-65%) in a dose dependant manner according to MTT assay. Production of interleukine-2 (IL-2) and interleukine-2 receptor (IL-2R) from T cell was increased by 44.5 and 25%, respectively, by addition of partially hydrolyzed glucan (15 microg/ml). These results indicate that stimulation of human T cells by hydrolyzed glucan is probably caused by its effects on stimulating gene expression of IL-2 and IL-2R of human T cell.

  18. Influence of Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 on Ear and Oral Cavity Health in Humans: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Katarina; Kriksic, Valentina; Kovacevic, Irena; Kovacevic, Dujo

    2017-06-01

    Traditionally, probiotics are linked to the good health of the intestine and most clinical studies focus on that field. Evidence of oral probiotic use for ear and oral cavity disease prevention with impact on human health is limited. This work reviews existing studies and literature on Streptococcus salivarius K12 as an oral probiotic and effects of S. salivarius K12 on human ear and oral cavity human health. The studies were accessed via database searches: MEDLINE, PubMed, and Elsevier. The search included/focused on/encompassed publications from 2003 to 2016 with keywords related to K12 Streptococcus salivarius, bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) K12, probiotic K12 salivarius, and K12 probiotic health effects. Only a small amount of studies was identified: the total of 68 studies was identified, 35 of which were relevant after screening, and 9 were included in the final analysis. Very little literature is available about the association/correlation between/connection/interrelation of S. salivarius K12 with/and human ear and oral cavity health. S. salivarius K12 may have a role in reducing the occurrence and/or severity of secretory otitis media (SOM) and also in prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children. Research highlights that S. salivarius K12 has shown promising results in treatment of halitosis, but data are still deficient. Further studies need to be initiated to improve understanding of the association of oral probiotic S. salivarius K12 with human ear and oral cavity health.

  19. Genetic diversity and virulence properties of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from different sources.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Imperi, Monica; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Pataracchia, Marco; Creti, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    A recent increase in virulence of pathogenic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has been widely proposed. Such an increase may be partly explained by the acquisition of new virulence traits by horizontal gene transfer from related streptococci such as Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS). A collection of 54 SDSE strains isolated in Italy in the years 2000-2010 from different sources (paediatric throat carriage, invasive and non-invasive diseases) was characterized by emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The virulence repertoire was evaluated by PCR for the presence of GAS superantigen (spe) genes, the streptolysin S (sagA) gene, the group G fibronectin-binding protein (gfbA) gene and GAS-GBS alpha-like protein family (alp) genes; moreover, the ability to invade human epithelial cells was investigated. Resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin was assessed. The combined use of emm typing and PFGE proved to be a reliable strategy for the epidemiological analysis of SDSE isolates. The most frequent emm types were the same as those more frequently reported in other studies, thus indicating the diffusion of a limited number of a few successful emm types fit to disseminate in humans. The speG gene was detected in SDSE strains of different genetic backgrounds. Erythromycin resistance determined by the erm(T) gene, and the unusual, foggy MLSB phenotype, observed in one and seven strains, respectively, have never previously, to our knowledge, been reported in SDSE. Moreover, a new member of the alp family was identified. The identification of new antibiotic and virulence determinants, despite the small size of the sample analysed, shows the importance of constant attention to monitoring the extent of lateral gene transfer in this emerging pathogen.

  20. Validation of an Immunodiagnostic Assay for Detection of 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype-Specific Polysaccharides in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Huijts, Susanne M.; Wu, Kangjian; Souza, Victor; Passador, Sherry; Tinder, Chunyan; Song, Esther; Elfassy, Arik; McNeil, Lisa; Menton, Ronald; French, Roger; Callahan, Janice; Webber, Chris; Gruber, William C.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Jansen, Kathrin U.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the clinical diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in bacteremic and nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a Luminex technology-based multiplex urinary antigen detection (UAD) diagnostic assay was developed and validated. The UAD assay can simultaneously detect 13 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capturing serotype-specific S. pneumoniae polysaccharides (PnPSs) secreted in human urine. Assay specificity is achieved by capturing the polysaccharides with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on spectrally unique microspheres. Positivity for each serotype was based on positivity cutoff values calculated from a standard curve run on each assay plate together with positive- and negative-control urine samples. The assay is highly specific, since significant signals are detected only when each PnPS was paired with its homologous MAb-coated microspheres. Validation experiments demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision. The UAD assay and corresponding positivity cutoff values were clinically validated by assessing 776 urine specimens obtained from patients with X-ray-confirmed CAP. The UAD assay demonstrated 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity using samples obtained from patients with bacteremic, blood culture-positive CAP. Importantly, the UAD assay identified Streptococcus pneumoniae (13 serotypes) in a proportion of individuals with nonbacteremic CAP, a patient population for which the pneumococcal etiology of CAP was previously difficult to assess. Therefore, the UAD assay provides a specific, noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tool to support vaccine efficacy as well as epidemiological evaluation of pneumococcal disease, including CAP, in adults. PMID:22675155

  1. Validation of an immunodiagnostic assay for detection of 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-specific polysaccharides in human urine.

    PubMed

    Pride, Michael W; Huijts, Susanne M; Wu, Kangjian; Souza, Victor; Passador, Sherry; Tinder, Chunyan; Song, Esther; Elfassy, Arik; McNeil, Lisa; Menton, Ronald; French, Roger; Callahan, Janice; Webber, Chris; Gruber, William C; Bonten, Marc J M; Jansen, Kathrin U

    2012-08-01

    To improve the clinical diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in bacteremic and nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a Luminex technology-based multiplex urinary antigen detection (UAD) diagnostic assay was developed and validated. The UAD assay can simultaneously detect 13 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capturing serotype-specific S. pneumoniae polysaccharides (PnPSs) secreted in human urine. Assay specificity is achieved by capturing the polysaccharides with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on spectrally unique microspheres. Positivity for each serotype was based on positivity cutoff values calculated from a standard curve run on each assay plate together with positive- and negative-control urine samples. The assay is highly specific, since significant signals are detected only when each PnPS was paired with its homologous MAb-coated microspheres. Validation experiments demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision. The UAD assay and corresponding positivity cutoff values were clinically validated by assessing 776 urine specimens obtained from patients with X-ray-confirmed CAP. The UAD assay demonstrated 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity using samples obtained from patients with bacteremic, blood culture-positive CAP. Importantly, the UAD assay identified Streptococcus pneumoniae (13 serotypes) in a proportion of individuals with nonbacteremic CAP, a patient population for which the pneumococcal etiology of CAP was previously difficult to assess. Therefore, the UAD assay provides a specific, noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tool to support vaccine efficacy as well as epidemiological evaluation of pneumococcal disease, including CAP, in adults.

  2. Transduction of the Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage Φm46.1, carrying resistance genes mef(A) and tet(O), to other Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Giovanetti, Eleonora; Brenciani, Andrea; Morroni, Gianluca; Tiberi, Erika; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Mingoia, Marina; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2014-01-01

    Φm46.1 - Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage carrying mef(A) and tet(O), respectively, encoding resistance to macrolides (M phenotype) and tetracycline - is widespread in S. pyogenes but has not been reported outside this species. Φm46.1 is transferable in vitro among S. pyogenes isolates, but no information is available about its transferability to other Streptococcus species. We thus investigated Φm46.1 for its ability to be transduced in vitro to recipients of different Streptococcus species. Transductants were obtained from recipients of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus suis. Retransfer was always achieved, and from S. suis to S. pyogenes occurred at a much greater frequency than in the opposite direction. In transductants Φm46.1 retained its functional properties, such as inducibility with mitomycin C, presence both as a prophage and as a free circular form, and transferability. The transductants shared the same Φm46.1 chromosomal integration site as the donor, at the 3' end of a conserved RNA uracil methyltransferase (rum) gene, which is an integration hotspot for a variety of genetic elements. No transfer occurred to recipients of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus salivarius, even though rum-like genes were also detected in the sequenced genomes of these species. A largely overlapping 18-bp critical sequence, where the site-specific recombination process presumably takes place, was identified in the rum genes of all recipients, including those of the species yielding no transductants. Growth assays to evaluate the fitness cost of Φm46.1 acquisition disclosed a negligible impact on S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and S. gordonii transductants and a noticeable fitness advantage in S. suis. The S. suis transductant also displayed marked overexpression of the autolysin-encoding gene atl.

  3. Essential Genes in the Core Genome of the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Le Breton, Yoann; Belew, Ashton T.; Valdes, Kayla M.; Islam, Emrul; Curry, Patrick; Tettelin, Hervé; Shirtliff, Mark E.; El-Sayed, Najib M.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) remains a major public health burden worldwide, infecting over 750 million people leading to over 500,000 deaths annually. GAS pathogenesis is complex, involving genetically distinct GAS strains and multiple infection sites. To overcome fastidious genetic manipulations and accelerate pathogenesis investigations in GAS, we developed a mariner-based system (Krmit) for en masse monitoring of complex mutant pools by transposon sequencing (Tn-seq). Highly saturated transposant libraries (Krmit insertions in ca. every 25 nucleotides) were generated in two distinct GAS clinical isolates, a serotype M1T1 invasive strain 5448 and a nephritogenic serotype M49 strain NZ131, and analyzed using a Bayesian statistical model to predict GAS essential genes, identifying sets of 227 and 241 of those genes in 5448 and NZ131, respectively. A large proportion of GAS essential genes corresponded to key cellular processes and metabolic pathways, and 177 were found conserved within the GAS core genome established from 20 available GAS genomes. Selected essential genes were validated using conditional-expression mutants. Finally, comparison to previous essentiality analyses in S. sanguinis and S. pneumoniae revealed significant overlaps, providing valuable insights for the development of new antimicrobials to treat infections by GAS and other pathogenic streptococci. PMID:25996237

  4. Structure of amylase-binding protein A of Streptococcus gordonii: a potential receptor for human salivary α-amylase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ashish; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Ramasubbu, Narayanan; Gooley, Paul R

    2015-06-01

    Amylase-binding protein A (AbpA) of a number of oral streptococci is essential for the colonization of the dental pellicle. We have determined the solution structure of residues 24-195 of AbpA of Streptococcus gordonii and show a well-defined core of five helices in the region of 45-115 and 135-145. (13) Cα/β chemical shift and heteronuclear (15) N-{(1) H} NOE data are consistent with this fold and that the remainder of the protein is unstructured. The structure will inform future molecular experiments in defining the mechanism of human salivary α-amylase binding and biofilm formation by streptococci. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  5. Conserved patterns hidden within group A Streptococcus M protein hypervariability recognize human C4b-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Buffalo, Cosmo Z.; Bahn-Suh, Adrian J.; Hirakis, Sophia P.; Biswas, Tapan; Amaro, Rommie E.; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho

    2016-09-05

    No vaccine exists against group A Streptococcus (GAS), a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. A severe hurdle is the hypervariability of its major antigen, the M protein, with >200 different M types known. Neutralizing antibodies typically recognize M protein hypervariable regions (HVRs) and confer narrow protection. In stark contrast, human C4b-binding protein (C4BP), which is recruited to the GAS surface to block phagocytic killing, interacts with a remarkably large number of M protein HVRs (apparently ~90%). Such broad recognition is rare, and we discovered a unique mechanism for this through the structure determination of four sequence-diverse M proteins in complexes with C4BP. The structures revealed a uniform and tolerant ‘reading head’ in C4BP, which detected conserved sequence patterns hidden within hypervariability. Our results open up possibilities for rational therapies that target the M–C4BP interaction, and also inform a path towards vaccine design.

  6. Structure of amylase-binding protein A of Streptococcus gordonii: A potential receptor for human salivary α-amylase enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Ashish; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Ramasubbu, Narayanan; Gooley, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Amylase-binding protein A (AbpA) of a number of oral streptococci is essential for the colonization of the dental pellicle. We have determined the solution structure of residues 24–195 of AbpA of Streptococcus gordonii and show a well-defined core of five helices in the region of 45–115 and 135–145. 13Cα/β chemical shift and heteronuclear 15N-{1H} NOE data are consistent with this fold and that the remainder of the protein is unstructured. The structure will inform future molecular experiments in defining the mechanism of human salivary α-amylase binding and biofilm formation by streptococci. PMID:25739638

  7. Detection of Multiple Parallel Transmission Outbreak of Streptococcus suis Human Infection by Use of Genome Epidemiology, China, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Du, Pengcheng; Zheng, Han; Zhou, Jieping; Lan, Ruiting; Ye, Changyun; Jing, Huaiqi; Jin, Dong; Cui, Zhigang; Bai, Xuemei; Liang, Jianming; Liu, Jiantao; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis sequence type 7 emerged and caused 2 of the largest human infection outbreaks in China in 1998 and 2005. To determine the major risk factors and source of the infections, we analyzed whole genomes of 95 outbreak-associated isolates, identified 160 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and classified them into 6 clades. Molecular clock analysis revealed that clade 1 (responsible for the 1998 outbreak) emerged in October 1997. Clades 2–6 (responsible for the 2005 outbreak) emerged separately during February 2002–August 2004. A total of 41 lineages of S. suis emerged by the end of 2004 and rapidly expanded to 68 genome types through single base mutations when the outbreak occurred in June 2005. We identified 32 identical isolates and classified them into 8 groups, which were distributed in a large geographic area with no transmission link. These findings suggest that persons were infected in parallel in respective geographic sites. PMID:27997331

  8. High rates of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance among OBGYN isolates of group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    DiPersio, Linda P; DiPersio, Joseph R

    2006-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility testing on 200 Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated during a 4-year period from vaginal/rectal specimens demonstrated a very high resistance rate for both erythromycin (54%) and clindamycin (33%). Methylase genes erm(B) and erm(TR) and efflux genes mef(E) and mef(A) were detected. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed evidence of both clonal spread and multiclonal dissemination of resistant strains. All but 3 of 200 isolates were susceptible to telithromycin.

  9. Experimentally induced bovine abortion with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp bovis.

    PubMed

    Stalheim, O H; Proctor, S J

    1976-08-01

    Two pregnant cows aborted 11 and 18 days after Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp bovis was inoculated into the amniotic fluids. The placentas were retained. The fetuses (approx 100 and 150 days of age) were decomposed; M agalactiae subsp bovis was recovered from several tissues of the fetuses, the placentas, and fetal fluids. The same organism was given by intraperitoneal injection to 2 other pregnant (130 and 180 days, respectively) cows. At necropsy of the latter 36 days later, placentitis was severe; M agalactiae subsp bovis was recovered from the placentas of both cows and from the fetus of 1 cow. Control cows given sterile mycoplasma cultural medium by intraamnion or intraperitoneal injection did not abort and were not infected. When first recovered from the bovine placenta and fetus, M agalactiae subsp bovis grew slowly in liquid medium and assumed bizarre colonial morphology on solidified medium. Colonies were small (0.1 to 0.5 mm) and dark and lacked halos, but they reacted specifically in the direct fluorescent antibody test with equine M agalactiae subsp bovis antiserum. After 1 or 2 subcultures, the isolates grew at a normal rate and displayed their usual colonial morphology.

  10. Multiplex PCR-based identification of Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies from dogs.

    PubMed

    Moriconi, M; Acke, E; Petrelli, D; Preziuso, S

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus canis (S. canis), Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies (S. dysgalactiae subspecies) are β-haemolytic Gram positive bacteria infecting animals and humans. S. canis and S. zooepidemicus are considered as two of the major zoonotic species of Streptococcus, while more research is needed on S. dysgalactiae subspecies bacteria. In this work, a multiplex-PCR protocol was tested on strains and clinical samples to detect S. canis, S. dysgalactiae subspecies and S. equi subspecies bacteria in dogs. All strains were correctly identified as S. canis, S. equi subspecies or S. dysgalactiae subspecies by the multiplex-PCR. The main Streptococcus species isolated from symptomatic dogs were confirmed S. canis. The multiplex-PCR protocol described is a rapid, accurate and efficient method for identifying S. canis, S. equi subspecies and S. dysgalactiae subspecies in dogs and could be used for diagnostic purposes and for epidemiological studies.

  11. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Wongsawan, Kanreuthai; Takenami, Naoki; Pruksakorn, Sumalee; Fongcom, Achara; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Khanthawa, Banyong; Supajatura, Volaluk; Takai, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig's blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4%) and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) and only 12.9% were in mrp (-) epf (-) sly (+) genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2.

  12. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Wongsawan, Kanreuthai; Takenami, Naoki; Pruksakorn, Sumalee; Fongcom, Achara; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Khanthawa, Banyong; Supajatura, Volaluk; Takai, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig's blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4%) and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp+epf−sly− and only 12.9% were in mrp−epf−sly+ genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp+epf−sly− genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2. PMID:24734186

  13. Selective acylation of plasma membrane proteins of Mycoplasma agalactiae: the causal agent of agalactia.

    PubMed

    Le Hénaff, M; Guéguen, M M; Fontenelle, C

    2000-01-01

    Revealed by in vivo labeling with (14)C-palmitic acid, about 15 acylated proteins were identified in the plasma membrane of Mycoplasma agalactiae (type strain PG2), including the major component p40. Triton X-114 phase partitioning and Western blotting demonstrated the amphiphilic properties of the acyl proteins and showed that they were also antigenic components. Chemical analyses of fatty acids bound to proteins revealed the following selectivity order within acylation: stearic acid (18:0) > linoleic acid (18:2c) approximately palmitic acid (16:0) > oleic acid (18:1c) > myristic acid (14:0), with 16:0 and 18:1c preferred for the O-acylation and 18:0 for the N-acylation. The ratio [O-ester- + amide-bound acyl chains]/O-ester-linked chains being close to 1.4 as well as the presence of S-glycerylcysteine suggest that acyl proteins in M. agalactiae are true lipoproteins containing N-acyl diacyl glycerylcysteine, probably processed by a mechanism analogous to that described for Gram-negative eubacteria.

  14. Different Genetic Elements Carrying the tet(W) Gene in Two Human Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus suis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Claudio; Princivalli, Maria Stella; Brenciani, Andrea; Varaldo, Pietro E.; Facinelli, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    The genetic support for tet(W), an emerging tetracycline resistance determinant, was studied in two strains of Streptococcus suis, SsCA and SsUD, both isolated in Italy from patients with meningitis. Two completely different tet(W)-carrying genetic elements, sharing only a tet(W)-containing segment barely larger than the gene, were found in the two strains. The one from strain SsCA was nontransferable, and aside from an erm(B)-containing insertion, it closely resembled a genomic island recently described in an S. suis Chinese human isolate in sequence, organization, and chromosomal location. The tet(W)-carrying genetic element from strain SsUD was transferable (at a low frequency) and, though apparently noninducible following mitomycin C treatment, displayed a typical phage organization and was named ΦSsUD.1. Its full sequence was determined (60,711 bp), the highest BLASTN score being Streptococcus pyogenes Φm46.1. ΦSsUD.1 exhibited a unique combination of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes. Besides tet(W), it contained a MAS (macrolide-aminoglycoside-streptothricin) fragment with an erm(B) gene having a deleted leader peptide and a cadC/cadA cadmium efflux cassette. The MAS fragment closely resembled the one recently described in pneumococcal transposons Tn6003 and Tn1545. These resistance genes found in the ΦSsUD.1 phage scaffold differed from, but were in the same position as, cargo genes carried by other streptococcal phages. The chromosome integration site of ΦSsUD.1 was at the 3′ end of a conserved tRNA uracil methyltransferase (rum) gene. This site, known to be an insertional hot spot for mobile elements in S. pyogenes, might play a similar role in S. suis. PMID:21115784

  15. PCR detection of Bifidobacterium strains and Streptococcus thermophilus in feces of human subjects after oral bacteriotherapy and yogurt consumption.

    PubMed

    Brigidi, Patrizia; Swennen, Erwin; Vitali, Beatrice; Rossi, Maddalena; Matteuzzi, Diego

    2003-03-25

    Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium infantis Y1 and Bifidobacterium breve Y8 strains were identified and enumerated by PCR assay in human fecal samples after intake of the pharmaceutical preparation VSL-3 or yogurt. ThI/ThII primer set, specific for S. thermophilus, was selected testing its specificity against several strains of enterococci, streptococci and other genera colonizing the human intestine. A culture-independent PCR protocol, developed in this study, allowed to directly detect and enumerate S. thermophilus in human feces, excluding culture-based techniques or time consuming DNA isolation and purification procedures. Intestinal persistence of S. thermophilus was studied in feces of 10 healthy subjects given VSL-3 or yogurt. Streptococcal population was detected after 3 days of administration and persisted for 6 days after the treatment suspension. In the same trial, the colonization kinetics of B. infantis Y1 and B. breve Y8 were studied by amplification of colonies with the strain-specific primer sets InfY-BV.L/R and BreY-BV.R/L, showing a host-dependent transient colonization behaviour. PCR analysis of feces from 10 patients affected by inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and treated with VSL-3 for 2 months showed a colonization pattern of S. thermophilus, B. infantis Y1 and B. breve Y8 similar to that observed with the healthy subjects.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Streptococcus suis Strains Isolated from Pigs and Humans as Revealed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot-Hérault, Florence; Marois, Corinne; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Kobisch, Marylène

    2002-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 123 Streptococcus suis strains of capsular types 2, 1/2, 3, 7, and 9, isolated from pigs in France and from humans in different countries, was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA restricted with SmaI. The method was highly discriminative (D = 0.98), results were reproducible, and the PFGE analysis was easy to interpret. Among all S. suis strains, 74 PFGE patterns were shown. At 60% homology, three groups (A, B, and C) were identified, and at 69% homology, eight subgroups (a to h) were observed. Strains isolated from diseased pigs or from humans were statistically clustered in group B, especially in subgroup d. By contrast, S. suis strains isolated from clinically healthy pigs were preferentially included in subgroup b of group A. Relationships could be established between capsular types 1/2, 3, and 9 and groups A, e, and B, respectively. S. suis strains isolated from humans were homogeneous, and a very high level of association between these strains and four DNA patterns was observed. The PFGE used in this study is a very useful tool for evaluating the genetic diversity of S. suis strains, and it would be used for epidemiological investigations. PMID:11825980

  17. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs and humans as revealed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Berthelot-Hérault, Florence; Marois, Corinne; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Kobisch, Marylène

    2002-02-01

    The genetic diversity of 123 Streptococcus suis strains of capsular types 2, 1/2, 3, 7, and 9, isolated from pigs in France and from humans in different countries, was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA restricted with SmaI. The method was highly discriminative (D = 0.98), results were reproducible, and the PFGE analysis was easy to interpret. Among all S. suis strains, 74 PFGE patterns were shown. At 60% homology, three groups (A, B, and C) were identified, and at 69% homology, eight subgroups (a to h) were observed. Strains isolated from diseased pigs or from humans were statistically clustered in group B, especially in subgroup d. By contrast, S. suis strains isolated from clinically healthy pigs were preferentially included in subgroup b of group A. Relationships could be established between capsular types 1/2, 3, and 9 and groups A, e, and B, respectively. S. suis strains isolated from humans were homogeneous, and a very high level of association between these strains and four DNA patterns was observed. The PFGE used in this study is a very useful tool for evaluating the genetic diversity of S. suis strains, and it would be used for epidemiological investigations.

  18. Genetic Manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (The Group A Streptococcus, GAS)

    PubMed Central

    Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutagenesis, and genetic complementation. PMID:24510894

  19. Genetic manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS).

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S

    2013-10-02

    Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe, often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutagenesis, and genetic complementation.

  20. Lethal pneumonia in a captive juvenile chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) due to human-transmitted human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Szentiks, Claudia A; Köndgen, Sophie; Silinski, Sandra; Speck, Stephanie; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2009-08-01

    During an outbreak of respiratory disease in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) also staff members showed non-specific upper respiratory signs. One infant female chimpanzee with severe respiratory symptoms died despite immediate medical treatment and was submitted for necropsy. Routine post mortem, histological and bacteriological examinations were conducted. Additionally lung tissue samples form the chimpanzee and swab samples from the staff members and the other primates were examined by PCR. A severe catarrhal to purulent bronchopneumonia and an interstitial pneumonia were found and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) as well as Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in lung samples by PCR. Swab samples from one animal keeper revealed the same HRSV sequence as of the chimpanzee. Therefore, it is suggested that the outbreak of respiratory disease within a zoological institution was due to transmission of HRSV between both human and primates.

  1. Identification, antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of the human emerging pathogen Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Palmieri, Claudio; Marini, Emanuela; Pompilio, Arianna; Crocetta, Valentina; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Creti, Roberta; Facinelli, Bruna

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to retrospectively identify 22Streptococcus bovis clinical strains based on the new taxonomy, as well as to investigate their antibiotic-resistance and clonality. Strains were identified by Phoenix100 system, 16S rRNA sequencing, and two MALDI-TOF MS platforms (Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS). Antibiotic resistance was determined both phenotypically and genotypically, and clonality was assessed by PFGE. Most of strains (63.6%) were isolated from urine, and diabetes was the most common underlying disease (31.8%). Phoenix100 system revealed all strains belonged to biotype II, and 16S rRNA sequencing identified all strains as S. gallolyticus subsp pasteurianus (SGSP). Although both MALDI-TOF MS systems correctly identified isolates to the species level, only Bruker Biotyper accurately identified to the subspecies level. Erythromycin-resistant strains (31.8%) were also clindamycin-resistant and positive for erm(B). Strains resistant to tetracycline (68.2%) were also resistant to erythromycin. PFGE showed high genetic variability identifying 17 different pulsotypes, most of which single.

  2. S-carboxymethylcysteine inhibits adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae to human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of respiratory infections that utilizes platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) for firm adherence to host cells. The mucolytic agent S-carboxymethylcysteine (S-CMC) has been shown to exert inhibitory effects against infection by several respiratory pathogens including S. pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, clinical studies have implicated the benefits of S-CMC in preventing exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is considered to be related to respiratory infections. In this study, to assess whether the potency of S-CMC is attributable to inhibition of pneumococcal adherence to host cells, an alveolar epithelial cell line stimulated with interleukin-1α was used as a model of inflamed epithelial cells. Despite upregulation of PAFR by inflammatory activation, treatment with S-CMC efficiently inhibited pneumococcal adherence to host epithelial cells. In order to gain insight into the inhibitory mechanism, the effects of S-CMC on PAFR expression were also investigated. Following treatment with S-CMC, PAFR expression was reduced at both mRNA and post-transcriptional levels. Interestingly, S-CMC was also effective in inhibiting pneumococcal adherence to cells transfected with PAFR small interfering RNAs. These results indicate S-CMC as a probable inhibitor targeting numerous epithelial receptors that interact with S. pneumoniae.

  3. Transcriptome Remodeling Contributes to Epidemic Disease Caused by the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Beres, Stephen B.; Kachroo, Priyanka; Nasser, Waleed; Olsen, Randall J.; Zhu, Luchang; Flores, Anthony R.; de la Riva, Ivan; Paez-Mayorga, Jesus; Jimenez, Francisco E.; Cantu, Concepcion; Vuopio, Jaana; Jalava, Jari; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Corander, Jukka; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Di Luca, Maria Chiara; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A.; Raiford, Annessa; Jenkins, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT For over a century, a fundamental objective in infection biology research has been to understand the molecular processes contributing to the origin and perpetuation of epidemics. Divergent hypotheses have emerged concerning the extent to which environmental events or pathogen evolution dominates in these processes. Remarkably few studies bear on this important issue. Based on population pathogenomic analysis of 1,200 Streptococcus pyogenes type emm89 infection isolates, we report that a series of horizontal gene transfer events produced a new pathogenic genotype with increased ability to cause infection, leading to an epidemic wave of disease on at least two continents. In the aggregate, these and other genetic changes substantially remodeled the transcriptomes of the evolved progeny, causing extensive differential expression of virulence genes and altered pathogen-host interaction, including enhanced immune evasion. Our findings delineate the precise molecular genetic changes that occurred and enhance our understanding of the evolutionary processes that contribute to the emergence and persistence of epidemically successful pathogen clones. The data have significant implications for understanding bacterial epidemics and for translational research efforts to blunt their detrimental effects. PMID:27247229

  4. SpeB of Streptococcus pyogenes Differentially Modulates Antibacterial and Receptor Activating Properties of Human Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Egesten, Arne; Olin, Anders I.; Linge, Helena M.; Yadav, Manisha; Mörgelin, Matthias; Karlsson, Anna; Collin, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    Background CXC chemokines are induced by inflammatory stimuli in epithelial cells and some, like MIG/CXCL9, IP–10/CXCL10 and I–TAC/CXCL11, are antibacterial for Streptococcus pyogenes. Methodology/Principal Findings SpeB from S. pyogenes degrades a wide range of chemokines (i.e. IP10/CXCL10, I-TAC/CXCL11, PF4/CXCL4, GROα/CXCL1, GROβ/CXCL2, GROγ/CXCL3, ENA78/CXCL5, GCP-2/CXCL6, NAP-2/CXCL7, SDF-1/CXCL12, BCA-1/CXCL13, BRAK/CXCL14, SRPSOX/CXCL16, MIP-3α/CCL20, Lymphotactin/XCL1, and Fractalkine/CX3CL1), has no activity on IL-8/CXCL8 and RANTES/CCL5, partly degrades SRPSOX/CXCL16 and MIP-3α/CCL20, and releases a 6 kDa CXCL9 fragment. CXCL10 and CXCL11 loose receptor activating and antibacterial activities, while the CXCL9 fragment does not activate the receptor CXCR3 but retains its antibacterial activity. Conclusions/Significance SpeB destroys most of the signaling and antibacterial properties of chemokines expressed by an inflamed epithelium. The exception is CXCL9 that preserves its antibacterial activity after hydrolysis, emphasizing its role as a major antimicrobial on inflamed epithelium. PMID:19274094

  5. The Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes Releases Lipoproteins as Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Garibaldi, Manuela; Aprea, Susanna; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Doro, Francesco; Becherelli, Marco; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tani, Chiara; Tavarini, Simona; Mora, Marirosa; Teti, Giuseppe; D'Oro, Ugo; Nuti, Sandra; Soriani, Marco; Margarit, Immaculada; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido; Norais, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are attractive vaccine candidates because they represent a major class of cell surface-exposed proteins in many bacteria and are considered as potential pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensed by Toll-like receptors with built-in adjuvanticity. Although Gram-negative lipoproteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about Gram-positive lipoproteins. We isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes a large amount of lipoproteins organized in vesicles. These vesicles were obtained by weakening the bacterial cell wall with a sublethal concentration of penicillin. Lipid and proteomic analysis of the vesicles revealed that they were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol and almost exclusively composed of lipoproteins. In association with lipoproteins, a few hypothetical proteins, penicillin-binding proteins, and several members of the ExPortal, a membrane microdomain responsible for the maturation of secreted proteins, were identified. The typical lipidic moiety was apparently not necessary for lipoprotein insertion in the vesicle bilayer because they were also recovered from the isogenic diacylglyceryl transferase deletion mutant. The vesicles were not able to activate specific Toll-like receptor 2, indicating that lipoproteins organized in these vesicular structures do not act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In light of these findings, we propose to name these new structures Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. The Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes Releases Lipoproteins as Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles*

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Garibaldi, Manuela; Aprea, Susanna; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Doro, Francesco; Becherelli, Marco; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tani, Chiara; Tavarini, Simona; Mora, Marirosa; Teti, Giuseppe; D'Oro, Ugo; Nuti, Sandra; Soriani, Marco; Margarit, Immaculada; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido; Norais, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are attractive vaccine candidates because they represent a major class of cell surface-exposed proteins in many bacteria and are considered as potential pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensed by Toll-like receptors with built-in adjuvanticity. Although Gram-negative lipoproteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about Gram-positive lipoproteins. We isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes a large amount of lipoproteins organized in vesicles. These vesicles were obtained by weakening the bacterial cell wall with a sublethal concentration of penicillin. Lipid and proteomic analysis of the vesicles revealed that they were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol and almost exclusively composed of lipoproteins. In association with lipoproteins, a few hypothetical proteins, penicillin-binding proteins, and several members of the ExPortal, a membrane microdomain responsible for the maturation of secreted proteins, were identified. The typical lipidic moiety was apparently not necessary for lipoprotein insertion in the vesicle bilayer because they were also recovered from the isogenic diacylglyceryl transferase deletion mutant. The vesicles were not able to activate specific Toll-like receptor 2, indicating that lipoproteins organized in these vesicular structures do not act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In light of these findings, we propose to name these new structures Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles. PMID:26018414

  7. Identification of a human immunodominant B-cell epitope within the immunoglobulin A1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    De Paolis, Francesca; Beghetto, Elisa; Spadoni, Andrea; Montagnani, Francesca; Felici, Franco; Oggioni, Marco R; Gargano, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background The IgA1 protease of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a proteolytic enzyme that specifically cleaves the hinge regions of human IgA1, which dominates most mucosal surfaces and is the major IgA isotype in serum. This protease is expressed in all of the known pneumococcal strains and plays a major role in pathogen's resistance to the host immune response. The present work was focused at identifying the immunodominant regions of pneumococcal IgA1 protease recognized by the human antibody response. Results An antigenic sequence corresponding to amino acids 420–457 (epiA) of the iga gene product was identified by screening a pneumococcal phage display library with patients' sera. The epiA peptide is conserved in all pneumococci and in two out of three S. mitis strains, while it is not present in other oral streptococci so far sequenced. This epitope was specifically recognized by antibodies present in sera from 90% of healthy adults, thus representing an important target of the humoral response to S. pneumoniae and S. mitis infection. Moreover, sera from 68% of children less than 4 years old reacted with the epiA peptide, indicating that the human immune response against streptococcal antigens occurs during childhood. Conclusion The broad and specific recognition of the epiA polypeptide by human sera demonstrate that the pneumococcal IgA1 protease contains an immunodominant B-cell epitope. The use of phage display libraries to identify microbe or disease-specific antigens recognized by human sera is a valuable approach to epitope discovery. PMID:18088426

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from swine in France and from humans in different countries between 1996 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Marie, J; Morvan, H; Berthelot-Hérault, F; Sanders, P; Kempf, I; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Jouy, E; Kobisch, M

    2002-08-01

    The susceptibility of 135 Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs (n = 110) and from humans (n = 25) to 13 antimicrobial agents was studied by microdilution and disc diffusion methods using Mueller-Hinton Agar II (MH) supplemented with either defibrinated sheep blood (MHSB) or horse serum (MHHS). Results were similar for both methods used except for penicillin G whose zone diameters were reduced with MHSB compared with MHHS. When MH was supplemented with sheep blood, 39% of S. suis strains classified as penicillin susceptible by MHHS microdilution showed intermediate susceptibility. Nearly all strains were susceptible to penicillin G (except by disc diffusion in MHSB), amoxicillin, ceftiofur, florfenicol, gentamicin and bacitracin. The least active antimicrobial agents were doxycycline and macrolides/lincosamides. High-level resistance (MIC > 500 mg/L or zone diameters < 10 mm) to streptomycin and kanamycin was detected in only a few strains. The virulence of strains did not seem to be related to antimicrobial resistance because no statistical difference was reported between the proportion of resistant strains of S. suis isolated from pigs with meningitis, septicaemia and arthritis, and those from tonsils and nasal cavities. However, significant differences were found in the proportions of macrolide- or doxycycline-resistant strains between S. suis serotype 2 and other serotypes. The results of antibiotic susceptibility testing presented in this study indicate that beta-lactams can be used in empirical treatment of human and pig S. suis infections in France.

  9. Inhibition of Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells in vitro by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a prerequisite for pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia and otitis media. Probiotic bacteria can influence disease outcomes through various mechanisms, including inhibition of pathogen colonization. Here, we examine the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on S. pneumoniae colonization of human epithelial cells using an in vitro model. We investigated the effects of LGG administered before, at the same time as, or after the addition of S. pneumoniae on the adherence of four pneumococcal isolates. Results LGG significantly inhibited the adherence of all the pneumococcal isolates tested. The magnitude of inhibition varied with LGG dose, time of administration, and the pneumococcal isolate used. Inhibition was most effective when a higher dose of LGG was administered prior to establishment of pneumococcal colonization. Mechanistic studies showed that LGG binds to epithelial cells but does not affect pneumococcal growth or viability. Administration of LGG did not lead to any significant changes in host cytokine responses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that LGG can inhibit pneumococcal colonization of human epithelial cells in vitro and suggest that probiotics could be used clinically to prevent the establishment of pneumococcal carriage. PMID:23561014

  10. Human Antibodies to PhtD, PcpA, and Ply Reduce Adherence to Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Murine Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Surendran, Naveen; Ochs, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells (HECs) is the first step in pathogenesis leading to infections. We sought to determine the role of human antibodies against S. pneumoniae protein vaccine candidates PhtD, PcpA, and Ply in preventing adherence to lung HECs in vitro and mouse nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization in vivo. Human anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply antibodies were purified and Fab fragments generated. Fabs were used to test inhibition of adherence of TIGR4 and nonencapsulated strain RX1 to A549 lung HECs. The roles of individual proteins in adherence were tested using isogenic mutants of strain TIGR4. Anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply human antibodies were assessed for their ability to inhibit NP colonization in vivo by passive transfer of human antibody in a murine model. Human antibodies generated against PhtD and PcpA caused a decrease in adherence to A549 cells (P < 0.05). Anti-PhtD but not anti-PcpA antibodies showed a protective role against mouse NP colonization. To our surprise, anti-Ply antibodies also caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in S. pneumoniae colonization. Our results support the potential of PhtD, PcpA, and Ply protein vaccine candidates as alternatives to conjugate vaccines to prevent non-serotype-specific S. pneumoniae colonization and invasive infection. PMID:25245804

  11. Biotyping, serotyping and phage typing of Streptococcus faecalis isolated from dental plaque in the human mouth.

    PubMed

    Smyth, C J; Matthews, H; Halpenny, M K; Brandis, H; Colman, G

    1987-02-01

    Thirty Streptococcus faecalis isolates from mixed dental plaque samples were classified into four groups on the basis of biotype, tetracycline susceptibility, phage type and serotype combinations. The organisms were from patients on haemodialysis, from staff of the dialysis unit, and from controls. Three biotypes were distinguished by seven biochemical tests: production of acid from inositol, sucrose and xylose; rapid or delayed production of acid from sorbitol; gelatin liquefaction; and production of alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase. With a set of eight typing antisera for S. faecalis, 15 strains were non-typable, 12 were serotype 1 and three were serotype 19. With a set of 17 bacteriophages specific for S. faecalis, all of the oral isolates were typable; 40% were lysotype I1 and the remainder lysotype V6b. On the basis of biotype-serotype-phage-type combinations, indications of possible spread of strains between haemodialysis patients and dialysis unit staff were obtained. Biotyping and serotyping of 13 German isolates of S. faecalis of phage type I1 from four clinical sources and tripartite typing of three control strains provided additional evidence for the potential of biotyping in distinguishing between strains of identical serotype and phage type. One oral isolate of S. faecium was of phage type XX. None of the oral isolates of S. faecalis, of which 14 exhibited delayed sorbitol fermentation, reacted with group-G streptococcal grouping reagents or antiserum. Slow sorbitol fermentation does not appear to be a definitive phenotypic marker for S. faecalis strains possessing antigens that react with both group-D and group-G grouping reagents.

  12. Age-dependent preference in human antibody responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae polypeptide antigens.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, S; Dagan, R; Shani-Sekler, M; Grossman, N; Fleminger, G; Friger, M; Nebenzahl, Y Mizrachi

    2002-02-01

    Vulnerability to Streptococcus pneumoniae is most pronounced in children. The microbial virulence factors and the features of the host immune response contributing to this phenomenon are not completely understood. In the current study, the humoral immune response to separated Strep. pneumoniae surface proteins and the ability to interfere with Strep. pneumoniae adhesion to cultured epithelial cells were analysed in adults and in children. Sera collected from healthy adults recognized Strep. pneumoniae separated lectin and nonlectin surface proteins in Western blot analysis and inhibited on average 80% of Strep. pneumoniae adhesion to epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, sera longitudinally collected from healthy children attending day care centres from 18 months of age and over the course of the following 2 years revealed: (a) development of antibodies to previously unrecognized Strep. pneumoniae surface proteins with age; (b) a quantitative increase in antibody responses, measured by densitometry, towards separated Strep. pneumoniae surface proteins with age; and (c) inhibition of Strep. pneumoniae adhesion to epithelial cells, which was 50% on average at 18 months of age, increased significantly to an average level of 80% inhibition at 42 months of age equalling adult sera inhibitory values. The results obtained in the current study, from the longitudinally collected sera from healthy children with documented repeated Strep. pneumoniae colonization, show that repeated exposures are insufficient to elicit an immune response to Strep. pneumoniae proteins at 18 months of age. This inability to recognize Strep. pneumoniae surface proteins may stem from the inefficiency of T-cell-dependent B-cell responses at this age and/or from the low immunogenicity of the proteins.

  13. Age-dependent preference in human antibody responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae polypeptide antigens

    PubMed Central

    LIFSHITZ, S; DAGAN, R; SHANI-SEKLER, M; GROSSMAN, N; FLEMINGER, G; FRIGER, M; NEBENZAHL, Y MIZRACHI

    2002-01-01

    Vulnerability to Streptococcus pneumoniae is most pronounced in children. The microbial virulence factors and the features of the host immune response contributing to this phenomenon are not completely understood. In the current study, the humoral immune response to separated Strep. pneumoniae surface proteins and the ability to interfere with Strep. pneumoniae adhesion to cultured epithelial cells were analysed in adults and in children. Sera collected from healthy adults recognized Strep. pneumoniae separated lectin and nonlectin surface proteins in Western blot analysis and inhibited on average 80% of Strep. pneumoniae adhesion to epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, sera longitudinally collected from healthy children attending day care centres from 18 months of age and over the course of the following 2 years revealed: (a) development of antibodies to previously unrecognized Strep. pneumoniae surface proteins with age; (b) a quantitative increase in antibody responses, measured by densitometry, towards separated Strep. pneumoniae surface proteins with age; and (c) inhibition of Strep. pneumoniae adhesion to epithelial cells, which was 50% on average at 18 months of age, increased significantly to an average level of 80% inhibition at 42 months of age equalling adult sera inhibitory values. The results obtained in the current study, from the longitudinally collected sera from healthy children with documented repeated Strep. pneumoniae colonization, show that repeated exposures are insufficient to elicit an immune response to Strep. pneumoniae proteins at 18 months of age. This inability to recognize Strep. pneumoniae surface proteins may stem from the inefficiency of T-cell-dependent B-cell responses at this age and/or from the low immunogenicity of the proteins. PMID:11876760

  14. The FAD synthetase from the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: a bifunctional enzyme exhibiting activity-dependent redox requirements.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, María; Lira-Navarrete, Erandi; Serrano, Ana; Marcuello, Carlos; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Lostao, Anabel; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Medina, Milagros; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta

    2017-08-08

    Prokaryotic bifunctional FAD synthetases (FADSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of FMN and FAD, whereas in eukaryotes two enzymes are required for the same purpose. FMN and FAD are key cofactors to maintain the flavoproteome homeostasis in all type of organisms. Here we shed light to the properties of the hitherto unstudied bacterial FADS from the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpnFADS). As other members of the family, SpnFADS catalyzes the three typical activities of prokaryotic FADSs: riboflavin kinase (RFK), ATP:FMN:adenylyltransferase (FMNAT), and FAD pyrophosphorylase (FADpp). However, several SpnFADS biophysical properties differ from those of other family members. In particular; i) the RFK activity is not inhibited by the riboflavin (RF) substrate, ii) the FMNAT and FADSpp activities require flavin substrates in the reduced state, iii) binding of adenine nucleotide ligands is required for the binding of flavinic substrates/products and iv) the monomer is the preferred state. Collectively, our results add interesting mechanistic differences among the few prokaryotic bifunctional FADSs already characterized, which might reflect the adaptation of the enzyme to relatively different environments. In a health point of view, differences among FADS family members provide us with a framework to design selective compounds targeting these enzymes for the treatment of diverse infectious diseases.

  15. Proportional distribution and relative adherence of Streptococcus miteor (mitis) on various surfaces in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Liljemark, W F; Gibbons, R J

    1972-11-01

    A group of streptococci possessing the characteristics of Streptococcus miteor (S. mitis) was found to predominate on nonkeratinized human oral mucosa. These organisms averaged from 76 to 89% of the total flora cultivable on anaerobically incubated blood agar plates from cheek, lip, and ventral tongue surfaces. They averaged 34, 40, and 18% of the streptococci in dental plaque, in saliva, and on the tongue dorsum, respectively. Their ability to adhere to oral surfaces was studied by introducing mixtures of streptomycin-resistant strains of S. miteor, S. salivarius, and S. mutans into the mouths of volunteers. Samples of oral surfaces taken 1 hr later indicated S. miteor adhered far better than the other streptococci to buccal mucosa and to teeth, but S. salivarius showed a higher affinity to the tongue dorsum. Glucose-grown cells of S. mutans adhered feebly to all oral surfaces studied and were rapidly cleared from the mouth. Cells of S. miteor and S. salivarius present naturally in saliva adhered to cleaned teeth comparable to in vitro cultivated strains. Electron microscopy of cells of S. miteor attached to buccal epithelial cells obtained from germfree rats indicated that the organisms possessed a fibrillar "fuzzy" coat which appeared to mediate their attachment to the epithelial cell membrane. This "fuzzy" coat was removed by treatment with trypsin, and it appears to be similar to that previously observed on cells of S. pyogenes and S. salivarius.

  16. LDL acts as an opsonin enhancing the phagocytosis of group A Streptococcus by monocyte and whole human blood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lulei; Liu, Ling; Yang, Jinli; Li, Yuxin; Bai, Wencheng; Liu, Na; Li, Wenlong; Gao, Yumin; Xu, Liping; Liu, Zhi; Han, Runlin

    2016-04-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) binds to group A Streptococcus (GAS) through Sc11 protein, and scavenger receptor CD36 of monocyte mediates the endocytosis of native or modified LDL. Therefore, we hypothesized that LDL might be an opsonin enhancing the phagocytosis of LDL-bound GAS by monocyte. The results showed that LDL could significantly promote U937 cell to phagocytose M28 (ATCC BAA1064) and M41 (ATCC 12373, AM41)-type GAS, and the phagocytosis rates were significantly increased, compared with LDL-free group. LDL, however, did not enhance the phagocytosis of M41 (CMCC 32198, CM41) or M6 (ATCC BAA946)-type GAS since these two strains did not bind to LDL. CD36 was the major scavenger receptor mediating the uptake of LDL-bound GAS by monocyte U937 cells since anti-CD36 antibody abolished the phagocytosis of LDL-opsonized GAS but anti-CD4 antibody did not. Most of AM41-type GAS cells were killed in human blood, whereas only a few CM41-type cells were phagocytosed. Moreover, recombinant Scl1 (rScl1) derived from M41-type GAS could significantly decrease the opsonophagocytosis of AM41 but not CM41-type GAS because the rScl1 competitively blocked the binding of AM41-type GAS to LDL. Therefore, our findings suggest that LDL may be an opsonin to enhance CD36-dependent opsonic phagocytosis of GAS by monocyte.

  17. A Multi-Serotype Approach Clarifies the Catabolite Control Protein A Regulon in the Major Human Pathogen Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    DebRoy, Sruti; Saldaña, Miguel; Travisany, Dante; Montano, Andrew; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Horstmann, Nicola; Yao, Hui; González, Mauricio; Maass, Alejandro; Latorre, Mauricio; Shelburne, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is a highly conserved, master regulator of carbon source utilization in gram-positive bacteria, but the CcpA regulon remains ill-defined. In this study we aimed to clarify the CcpA regulon by determining the impact of CcpA-inactivation on the virulence and transcriptome of three distinct serotypes of the major human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS). CcpA-inactivation significantly decreased GAS virulence in a broad array of animal challenge models consistent with the idea that CcpA is critical to gram-positive bacterial pathogenesis. Via comparative transcriptomics, we established that the GAS CcpA core regulon is enriched for highly conserved CcpA binding motifs (i.e. cre sites). Conversely, strain-specific differences in the CcpA transcriptome seems to consist primarily of affected secondary networks. Refinement of cre site composition via analysis of the core regulon facilitated development of a modified cre consensus that shows promise for improved prediction of CcpA targets in other medically relevant gram-positive pathogens. PMID:27580596

  18. Identification of 88 regulatory small RNAs in the TIGR4 strain of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Acebo, Paloma; Martin-Galiano, Antonio J.; Navarro, Sara; Zaballos, Ángel; Amblar, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia and a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children and the elderly. Genome sequencing of several pneumococcal strains revealed valuable information about the potential proteins and genetic diversity of this prevalent human pathogen. However, little is known about its transcriptional regulation and its small regulatory noncoding RNAs. In this study, we performed deep sequencing of the S. pneumoniae TIGR4 strain RNome to identify small regulatory RNA candidates expressed in this pathogen. We discovered 1047 potential small RNAs including intragenic, 5′- and/or 3′-overlapping RNAs and 88 small RNAs encoded in intergenic regions. With this approach, we recovered many of the previously identified intergenic small RNAs and identified 68 novel candidates, most of which are conserved in both sequence and genomic context in other S. pneumoniae strains. We confirmed the independent expression of 17 intergenic small RNAs and predicted putative mRNA targets for six of them using bioinformatics tools. Preliminary results suggest that one of these six is a key player in the regulation of competence development. This study is the biggest catalog of small noncoding RNAs reported to date in S. pneumoniae and provides a highly complete view of the small RNA network in this pathogen. PMID:22274957

  19. Analysis of the prophages carried by human infecting isolates provides new insight into the evolution of Group B Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Diene, Seydina M; Barbera, Laurie; Courtier-Martinez, Luka; Lafont, Louise; Ouachée, Alice; Valentin, Anne-Sophie; Santos, Sandra Dos; Quentin, Roland; François, Patrice

    2017-09-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) emerged in the 1970s as a major cause of neonatal infections, and has been increasingly associated with infections in adults since the 1990s. Prophages have been suspected to have driven these epidemiological trends. We have characterized the prophages harboured by 275 human GBS isolates belonging to the major lineages. We applied whole genome sequencing (WGS) to 14 isolates representative of the diversity within GBS species, located and identified their prophages. Using prediction tools, we searched for prophage elements potentially involved with the ability of GBS to infect humans. Using the data obtained by WGS, we designed a PCR-based tool and studied the prophage content of 275 isolates. WGS of the 14 isolates revealed 22 prophages (i) distributed into six groups (A-F), (ii) similar to phages and prophages from GBS and non-GBS streptococci recovered from livestock, and (iii) carrying genes encoding factors previously associated with host adaptation and virulence. PCR-based detection of prophages revealed the presence of at least one prophage in 72.4% of the 275 isolates and a significant association between neonatal infecting isolates and prophages C, and between adult infecting isolates and prophages A. Our results suggest that prophages (possibly animal-associated) have conditioned bacterial adaptation and ability to cause infections in neonates and adults, and support a role of lysogeny with the emergence of GBS as a pathogen in human. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thi Hoa; Tran, Thi Bich Chieu; Tran, Thi Thu Nga; Nguyen, Van Dung; Campbell, James; Pham, Hong Anh; Huynh, Huu Tho; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; Bryant, Juliet E; Tran, Tinh Hien; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-03-28

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542) of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542) carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%). 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged.

  1. Slaughterhouse Pigs Are a Major Reservoir of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capable of Causing Human Infection in Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Ngo Thi; Chieu, Tran Thi Bich; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Van; Campbell, James; Anh, Pham Hong; Huu Tho, Huynh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542) of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542) carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%). 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged. PMID:21464930

  2. Genetic loci of Mycoplasma agalactiae involved in systemic spreading during experimental intramammary infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shivanand; Zimmermann, Martina; Flöck, Martina; Brunthaler, Rene; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2016-10-20

    Mycoplasmas are amongst the most successful pathogens of both humans and animals yet the molecular basis of mycoplasma pathogenesis is poorly understood. This is partly due to the lack of classical virulence factors and little similarity to common bacterial pathogenic determinants. Using Mycoplasma agalactiae as a model we initiated research in this direction by screening a transposon mutant library in the natural sheep host using a negative selection method. Having successfully identified putative factors involved in the colonization of local infection and lymphogenic sites, the current study assessed mutants unable to spread systemically in sheep after experimental intramammary infection. Analysis of distant body sites for complete absence of mutants via SSM PCR revealed that additional set of genes, such as pdhB, oppC, oppB, gtsB, MAG1890, MAG5520 and MAG3650 are required for systemic spreading apart from those that were necessary for initial colonization. Additional in vitro studies with the mutants absent at these systemic sites confirmed the potential role of some of the respective gene products concerning their interaction with host cells. Mutants of pdhB, oppC and MAG4460 exhibited significantly slower growth in the presence of HeLa cells in MEM medium. This first attempt to identify genes exclusively required for systemic spreading provides a basis for further in-depth research to understand the exact mechanism of chronicity and persistence of M. agalactiae.

  3. Amoxicillin is effective against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in a mouse pneumonia model simulating human pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Abgueguen, Pierre; Azoulay-Dupuis, Esther; Noel, Violaine; Moine, Pierre; Rieux, Veronique; Fantin, Bruno; Bedos, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    High-dose oral amoxicillin (3 g/day) is the recommended empirical outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in many European guidelines. To investigate the clinical efficacy of this treatment in CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with MICs of amoxicillin > or =2 microg/ml, we used a lethal bacteremic pneumonia model in leukopenic female Swiss mice with induced renal failure to replicate amoxicillin kinetics in humans given 1 g/8 h orally. Amoxicillin (15 mg/kg of body weight/8 h subcutaneously) was given for 3 days. We used four S. pneumoniae strains with differing amoxicillin susceptibility and tolerance profiles. Rapid bacterial killing occurred with an amoxicillin-susceptible nontolerant strain: after 4 h, blood cultures were negative and lung homogenate counts under the 2 log(10) CFU/ml detection threshold (6.5 log(10) CFU/ml in controls, P < 0.01). With an amoxicillin-intermediate nontolerant strain, significant pulmonary bacterial clearance was observed after 24 h (4.3 versus 7.9 log(10) CFU/ml, P < 0.01), and counts were undetectable 12 h after treatment completion. With an amoxicillin-intermediate tolerant strain, 24-h bacterial clearance was similar (5.4 versus 8.3 log(10) CFU/ml, P < 0.05), but 12 h after treatment completion, lung homogenates contained 3.3 log(10) CFU/ml. Similar results were obtained with an amoxicillin-resistant and -tolerant strain. Day 10 survival rates were usually similar across strains. Amoxicillin with pharmacokinetics simulating 1 g/8 h orally in humans is bactericidal in mice with pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae for which MICs were 2 to 4 microg/ml. The killing rate depends not only on resistance but also on tolerance of the S. pneumoniae strains.

  4. The antimicrobial resistance patterns and associated determinants in Streptococcus suis isolated from humans in southern Vietnam, 1997-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Systematic data on the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. suis strains isolated from human cases are lacking. We studied antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance determinants in S. suis isolated from patients with meningitis in southern Vietnam. Methods S. suis strains isolated between 1997 and 2008 were investigated for their susceptibility to six antimicrobial agents. Strains were screened for the presence and expression of tetracycline and erythromycin resistance determinants and the association of tet(M) genes with Tn916- like transposons. The localization of tetracycline resistance gene tet(L) was determined by pulse field gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting. Results We observed a significant increase in resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol, which was concurrent with an increase in multi-drug resistance. In tetracycline resistance strains, we identified tet(M), tet(O), tet(W) and tet(L) and confirmed their expression. All tet(M) genes were associated with a Tn916-like transposon. The co-expression of tet(L) and other tetracycline resistance gene(s) encoding for ribosomal protection protein(s) was only detected in strains with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tetracycline of ≥ 64 mg/L Conclusions We demonstrated that multi-drug resistance in S. suis causing disease in humans in southern Vietnam has increased over the 11-year period studied. We report the presence and expression of tet(L) in S. suis strains and our data suggest that co-expression of multiple genes encoding distinct mechanism is required for an MIC ≥ 64 mg/L to tetracycline. PMID:21208459

  5. A lacticin 3147 enriched food ingredient reduces Streptococcus mutans isolated from the human oral cavity in saliva.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, E B; O'Riordan, B; Morgan, S M; Whelton, H; O'Mullane, D M; Ross, R P; Hill, C

    2006-06-01

    To isolate and characterise Streptococcus mutans from Irish saliva samples and to assess their sensitivity to a food-grade preparation of the lantibiotic, lacticin 3147, produced by Lactococcus lactis DPC3147. Saliva samples collected from children with varying oral health status were screened on Mitis Salivarius agar for the presence of pathogenic streptococci. Following selective plating, 16S rDNA sequencing and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), 15 distinct strains of Strep. mutans were identified. These were grouped according to their relative sensitivity to lacticin 3147 which ranged from 0.78 to 6.25%; relative to a sensitive indicator strain, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis HP. Inhibition of indicator Strep. mutans strains from sensitive, intermediate and tolerant groupings were assessed in microtitre plate assays with increasing concentrations of lacticin 3147. The concentration of lacticin 3147 required to give 50% growth inhibition correlated with their relative sensitivities (as assayed by well diffusion methodology) and ranged from 1280 to 5120 AU ml(-1). Concentrated preparations of lacticin 3147 caused a rapid killing of Strep. mutans strains in broth. Moreover, in human saliva deliberately spiked with Strep. mutans, the pathogen was eliminated (initial inoculum of 10(5)) in the presence of 40,000 AU ml(-1) of lacticin 3147. Furthermore, a food-grade lacticin 3147 spray dried powder ingredient was assessed for the inhibition of Strep. mutans in human saliva, spiked with a strain of intermediate sensitivity, resulting in up to a 4-log reduction in counts after 20 min. A food grade preparation of lacticin 3147 was effective in the inhibition of oral Strep. mutans. The inhibition of oral streptococci by food grade preparations of lacticin 3147 may offer novel opportunities for the development of lacticin 3147 as an anti-cariogenic agent particularly in the area of functional foods for the improvement of oral health.

  6. Bacterial Superantigens Promote Acute Nasopharyngeal Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a Human MHC Class II-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Katherine J.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T.; Xu, Stacey X.; Mazzuca, Delfina M.; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L.; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P. Patrick; Haeryfar, S. M. Mansour; McCormick, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as ‘trademark’ virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC –II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms. PMID:24875883

  7. BsaB, a novel adherence factor of group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengmei; Wessels, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, peripartum infections in women, and invasive infections in chronically ill or elderly individuals. GBS can be isolated from the gastrointestinal or genital tracts of up to 30% of healthy adults, and infection is thought to arise from invasion from a colonized mucosal site. Accordingly, bacterial surface components that mediate attachment of GBS to host cells or the extracellular matrix represent key factors in the colonization and infection of the human host. We identified a conserved GBS gene of unknown function that was predicted to encode a cell wall-anchored surface protein. Deletion of the gene and a cotranscribed upstream open reading frame (ORF) in GBS strain 515 reduced bacterial adherence to VK2 vaginal epithelial cells in vitro and reduced GBS binding to fibronectin-coated microtiter wells. Expression of the gene product in Lactococcus lactis conferred the ability to adhere to VK2 cells, to fibronectin and laminin, and to fibronectin-coated ME-180 cervical epithelial cells. Expression of the recombinant protein in L. lactis also markedly increased biofilm formation. The adherence function of the protein, named bacterial surface adhesin of GBS (BsaB), depended both on a central BID1 domain found in bacterial intimin-like proteins and on the C-terminal portion of the BsaB protein. Expression of BsaB in GBS, like that of several other adhesins, was regulated by the CsrRS two-component system. We conclude that BsaB represents a newly identified adhesin that participates in GBS attachment to epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix.

  8. Identification of major Streptococcus suis serotypes 2, 7, 8 and 9 isolated from pigs and humans in upper northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nutravong, Thitima; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Jiwakanon, Netchanok; Wongchanthong, Wanlaya; Dejsirilerts, Surang; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infections occur in many provinces of north-eastern Thailand, knowledge concerning the prevalence of the common S. suis serotypes (1, 1/2, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 14 and 16) among healthy and diseased pigs in upper northeastern Thailand remains limited. This study investigated S. suis isolates from pigs (healthy and diseased) and also from humans using 11 conventional biochemical tests, 16S rDNA PCR and sequence analysis and multiplex PCR genotyping of porcine cps and gdh. Thirty-three isolates were obtained between 2009 and 2012 from blood or cerebrospinal fluid of patients from northeastern Thailand previously diagnosed with S. suis infection, based on clinical symptoms and laboratory diagnosis using 11 biochemical tests and PCR detection of 16S rDNA and cps. Eleven S. suis isolates were obtained between 2006 and 2009 from diseased pigs with clinical signs and laboratory diagnoses. In addition, 43 isolates obtained from 741 nasal swab cultures of slaughtered pigs between 2011 and 2012 were included. All three methods showed similar sensitivity in detection of S. suis from clinical and diseased pig specimens, although in healthy pigs, the 11 conventional biochemical methods yielded 2.3% false positives, and the gdh PCR detection method exhibited 31% false negatives. S. suis was present among healthy pigs in 8 of 10 provinces in upper northeastern Thailand, giving an average prevalence of 5.7% (range 1%-17%) using conventional methods together with 16S rDNA PCR assay. False positives by conventional methods were due to species with similar phenotypes, such as viridian streptococci, and are not statistically different from those obtained with the 16S rDNA PCR method, and the false negatives using gdh PCR assay will require further investigation. As S. suis was recovered from both diseased and healthy pigs, raw or undercooked pork products should be considered unsafe for handling or consumption in these regions of Thailand.

  9. In vitro biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae as a predictor of post-vaccination emerging serotypes colonizing the human nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Mirian; Araújo-Bazán, Lidia; García, Ernesto; Moscoso, Miriam

    2014-04-01

    The increasing use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been accompanied by the rise of non-vaccine serotypes colonizing the human nasopharynx. The vast majority of infections are caused by microorganisms that grow in biofilms. It has recently been shown that the formation of Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms in vivo and in vitro is hindered by the presence of capsular polysaccharide. The biofilm-forming capacity of pneumococcal clinical isolates with different types of capsular polysaccharide and various isogenic transformants was examined. Strains of serotypes 19A and 19F, but not 19B and 19C, formed ≥ 80% of the quantity of biofilm associated with a non-encapsulated control strain. Strains of serogroup 6 also showed significant biofilm-forming capacity. The capsules of serotypes 19A and 19F, and serogroup 6 contain the disaccharides α-D-Glcp-(1→2)-α-L-Rhap-(1→ and α-D-Glcp-(1→3)-α-L-Rhap-(1→. Serotype 18A and serotypes 18B/18C have very similar capsular disaccharides: α-D-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-β-L-Rhap-(1→ and α-D-Glcp-(1→3)-β-L-Rhap-(1→ respectively. However, the strains of serogroup 18 showed impaired biofilm formation. These results indicate that the chemical composition/structure of the capsular polysaccharide is crucial to the biofilm-forming capacity of pneumococcal serotypes. Testing of the in vitro biofilm-forming ability of isogenic transformants expressing different capsular polysaccharides may help predict the emergence of colonizing, non-vaccine serotypes. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Increased Age, but Not Parity Predisposes to Higher Bacteriuria Burdens Due to Streptococcus Urinary Tract Infection and Influences Bladder Cytokine Responses, Which Develop Independent of Tissue Bacterial Loads

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew J.; Carey, Alison J.; Leclercq, Sophie Y.; Tan, Chee K.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). In addition, aged mice exhibited significantly higher bacteriuria burdens at 48 h compared to young mice, confirming a divergent pattern of bacterial colonization in the urinary tract of aged and young mice. Multiparous mice, in contrast, exhibited significantly lower urinary titres of S. agalactiae compared to age-matched nulliparous mice suggesting that parity enhances the ability of the host to control S. agalactiae bacteriuria. Additionally, we show that both age and parity alter the expression levels of several key regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important the immune response to UTI, including Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12(p40), and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, we demonstrate that other cytokines, including IL-17 are induced significantly in the S. agalactiae-infected bladder regardless of age and parity status. Collectively, these findings show that the host environment plays an important role in influencing the severity of S. agalactiae UTI; infection dynamics, particularly in the context of bacteriuria, depend on age and parity, which also affect the nature of innate immune responses to infection. PMID:27936166

  11. Increased Age, but Not Parity Predisposes to Higher Bacteriuria Burdens Due to Streptococcus Urinary Tract Infection and Influences Bladder Cytokine Responses, Which Develop Independent of Tissue Bacterial Loads.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew J; Carey, Alison J; Leclercq, Sophie Y; Tan, Chee K; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). In addition, aged mice exhibited significantly higher bacteriuria burdens at 48 h compared to young mice, confirming a divergent pattern of bacterial colonization in the urinary tract of aged and young mice. Multiparous mice, in contrast, exhibited significantly lower urinary titres of S. agalactiae compared to age-matched nulliparous mice suggesting that parity enhances the ability of the host to control S. agalactiae bacteriuria. Additionally, we show that both age and parity alter the expression levels of several key regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important the immune response to UTI, including Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12(p40), and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, we demonstrate that other cytokines, including IL-17 are induced significantly in the S. agalactiae-infected bladder regardless of age and parity status. Collectively, these findings show that the host environment plays an important role in influencing the severity of S. agalactiae UTI; infection dynamics, particularly in the context of bacteriuria, depend on age and parity, which also affect the nature of innate immune responses to infection.

  12. The Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Pneumolysin from Streptococcus pneumoniae Binds to Lipid Raft Microdomains in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sidney D.; Sanders, Melissa E.; Tullos, Nathan A.; Stray, Stephen J.; Norcross, Erin W.; McDaniel, Larry S.; Marquart, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen responsible for causing several human diseases including pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. Pneumococcus is also a major cause of human ocular infections and is commonly isolated in cases of bacterial keratitis, an infection of the cornea. The ocular pathology that occurs during pneumococcal keratitis is partly due to the actions of pneumolysin (Ply), a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by pneumococcus. The lytic mechanism of Ply is a three step process beginning with surface binding to cholesterol. Multiple Ply monomers then oligomerize to form a prepore. The prepore then undergoes a conformational change that creates a large pore in the host cell membrane, resulting in cell lysis. We engineered a collection of single amino acid substitution mutants at residues (A370, A406, W433, and L460) that are crucial to the progression of the lytic mechanism and determined the effects that these mutations had on lytic function. Both PlyWT and the mutant Ply molecules (PlyA370G, PlyA370E, PlyA406G, PlyA406E, PlyW433G, PlyW433E, PlyW433F, PlyL460G, and PlyL460E) were able to bind to the surface of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) with similar efficiency. Additionally, PlyWT localized to cholesterol-rich microdomains on the HCEC surface, however, only one mutant (PlyA370G) was able to duplicate this behavior. Four of the 9 mutant Ply molecules (PlyA370E, PlyW433G, PlyW433E, and PlyL460E) were deficient in oligomer formation. Lastly, all of the mutant Ply molecules, except PlyA370G, exhibited significantly impaired lytic activity on HCECs. The other 8 mutants all experienced a reduction in lytic activity, but 4 of the 8 retained the ability to oligomerize. A thorough understanding of the molecular interactions that occur between Ply and the target cell, could lead to targeted treatments aimed to reduce the pathology observed during pneumococcal keratitis. PMID:23577214

  13. Role of Vpma phase variation in Mycoplasma agalactiae pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Baumgartner, Martina; Gamper, Erika; Innerebner, Carmen; Zimmermann, Martina; Schilcher, Franz; Tichy, Alexander; Winter, Petra; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other bacterial pathogens, the molecular mechanisms of mycoplasma pathogenicity are largely unknown. Several studies in the past have shown that pathogenic mycoplasmas are equipped with sophisticated genetic systems that allow them to undergo high-frequency surface antigenic variations. Although never clearly proven, these variable mycoplasma surface components are often implicated in host immune evasion and adaptation. Vpma surface lipoproteins of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae are encoded on a genomic pathogenicity island–like locus and are considered as one of the well-characterized model systems of mycoplasma surface antigenic variation. The present study assesses the role of these phase-variable Vpmas in the molecular pathogenesis of M. agalactiae by testing the wild-type strain PG2 in comparison with the xer1-disrupted Vpma ‘phase-locked’ mutants in sheep infection models. The data clearly illustrate that although Xer1 recombinase is not a virulence factor of M. agalactiae and Vpma phase variation is not necessary for establishing an infection, it might critically influence the survival and persistence of the pathogen under natural field conditions, mainly due to a better capacity for dissemination and evoking systemic responses. This is the first study where mycoplasma ‘phase-locked’ mutants are tested in vivo to elucidate the role of phase variation during infection. PMID:22809092

  14. Evaluation of hyaluronan from different sources: Streptococcus zooepidemicus, rooster comb, bovine vitreous, and human umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Shiedlin, Aviva; Bigelow, Russell; Christopher, William; Arbabi, Saman; Yang, Laura; Maier, Ronald V; Wainwright, Norman; Childs, Alice; Miller, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Sodium hyaluronate (HA) is widely distributed in extracellular matrixes and can play a role in orchestrating cell function. Consequently, many investigators have looked at the effect of exogenous HA on cell behavior in vitro. HA can be isolated from several sources (e.g., bacterial, rooster comb, umbilical cord) and therefore can possess diverse impurities. This current study compares the measured impurities and the differences in biological activity between HA preparations from these sources. It was demonstrated that nucleic acid and protein content was highest in human umbilical cord and bovine vitreous HA and was low in bacterial and rooster comb HA. Macrophages exposed to human umbilical cord HA produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-alpha relative to control or bacterial-derived HA. These results indicate that the source of HA should be considered due to differences in the amounts and types of contaminants that could lead to widely different behaviors in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Colonization and cariogenic potential in hamsters of the bacterium Streptococcus sanguis isolated from human dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Westergren, G; Emilson, C G

    1982-01-01

    Strains of Strep. sanguis, freshly isolated from human dental plaque, were successfully implanted into albino hamsters. Transmission of the organisms from infected to uninfected animals occurred naturally. The transfer was as effective between unrelated hamsters as between dams and their offspring. Three of the strains tested did not cause caries in hamsters. Laboratory strains of Strep. sanguis did not colonize the hamsters. Two morphological variants of Strep. sanguis with different abilities to adhere to whale dentine in vitro, could infect hamsters; the more adhering phenotype was detected earlier and more frequently.

  16. Role of human major histocompatibility complex DQ molecules in superantigenicity of streptococcus-derived protein.

    PubMed Central

    Esaki, Y; Fukui, Y; Sudo, T; Yamamoto, K; Inamitsu, T; Nishimura, Y; Hirokawa, K; Kimura, A; Sasazuki, T

    1994-01-01

    Antigenicity of peptic extract from type 12 group A streptococci (PEAST12) for T cells was examined in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transgenic mice. PEAST12 was mitogenic for murine T cells when antigen-presenting cells were obtained from human MHC (HLA)-DQ4 alpha beta transgenic mice or from DQ6 alpha beta transgenic mice but was not mitogenic in DR alpha transgenic, DR51 alpha beta transgenic, E alpha transgenic, or nontransgenic mice. In addition, PEAST12 showed mitogenicity for murine T cells in DQ4 alpha singly transgenic mice but not in DQ4 beta singly transgenic mice. T-cell stimulation by PEAST12 was unrestricted by but dependent on the expression of HLA-DQ molecules on antigen-presenting cells, and PEAST12 selectively activated T-cell receptor V beta 11-, V beta 15-, and V beta 18-positive T cells in mice. We propose that PEAST12 contains a superantigen which binds preferentially to the alpha-chain of HLA-DQ molecules. The well-known phenomenon that peptic extracts from group A streptococci are mitogenic in humans but not in mice is likely due to structural differences in MHC class II molecules between these two species of mammals. Images PMID:8132329

  17. Synthesis of Recombinant P48 of Mycoplasma agalactiae by Site Directed Mutagenesis and its Immunological Characterization.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Pawanjit Singh; Singh, Satparkash; Kathiresan, S; Kumar, Ramesh; Bhanot, Vandna; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2017-01-02

    Contagious agalactia caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae is an economically important disease of sheep and goats and has been prevalent worldwide including India. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the membrane protein P48 of M. agalactiae for specific diagnosis of disease. For this, p48 gene of the organism was amplified by PCR and subjected to site directed mutagenesis to convert three TGA codons to TGG's and, subsequently, cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pPRO EX HTb. Purified recombinant P48 protein reacted to anti-P48 serum in western blotting, which confirmed its immunogenic nature. Furthermore, the immune-blotting of the cell lysates from various Indian isolates of M. agalactiae against anti-P48 serum resulted in a single band at ∼ 48 kDa among all isolates, indicating the conserved nature of P48 antigen in M. agalactiae. Also, the cross reactivity of P48 antigen among various Mycoplasma spp. was checked by western blotting which revealed reactivity only with M. agalactiae and M. bovis. Hence, this antigen could be exploited to differentiate M. agalactiae from other pathogenic Mycoplasma species except M. bovis. However, the inability of P48 to distinguish M. agalactiae from M. bovis does not downgrade the significance of P48 as the two species are usually host specific.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Mycoplasma agalactiae Reveals the Presence of an Endemic Clone in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates from Spain were genetically characterized to investigate their genomic diversity and to better understand their relationship to isolates from other countries. Molecular typing revealed a high genomic homogeneity in Spanish M. agalactiae isolates, which clearly shows the circulation of one endemic clonal population. PMID:23224102

  19. Group B Streptococcus Induces Neutrophil Recruitment to Gestational Tissues and Elaboration of Extracellular Traps and Nutritional Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kothary, Vishesh; Doster, Ryan S.; Rogers, Lisa M.; Kirk, Leslie A.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Romano-Keeler, Joann; Haley, Kathryn P.; Manning, Shannon D.; Aronoff, David M.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection. The advent of animal models of chorioamnionitis provides a powerful tool to study host-pathogen relationships in vivo and ex vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response elicited by GBS and evaluate how antimicrobial strategies elaborated by these innate immune cells affect bacteria. Our work using a mouse model of GBS ascending vaginal infection during pregnancy reveals that clinically isolated GBS has the capacity to invade reproductive tissues and elicit host immune responses including infiltration of PMNs within the choriodecidua and placenta during infection, mirroring the human condition. Upon interacting with GBS, murine neutrophils elaborate DNA-containing extracellular traps, which immobilize GBS and are studded with antimicrobial molecules including lactoferrin. Exposure of GBS to holo- or apo-forms of lactoferrin reveals that the iron-sequestration activity of lactoferrin represses GBS growth and viability in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data indicate that the mouse model of ascending infection is a useful tool to recapitulate human models of GBS infection during pregnancy. Furthermore, this work reveals that neutrophil extracellular traps ensnare GBS and repress bacterial growth via deposition of antimicrobial molecules, which drive nutritional immunity via metal sequestration strategies. PMID:28217556

  20. Cathelicidin LL-37 in severe Streptococcus pyogenes soft tissue infections in humans.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Linda; Thulin, Pontus; Sendi, Parham; Hertzén, Erika; Linder, Adam; Akesson, Per; Low, Donald E; Agerberth, Birgitta; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2008-08-01

    Severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis and severe cellulitis, caused by group A streptococci (GAS) are rapidly progressing life-threatening infections characterized by massive bacterial loads in the tissue even late after the onset of infection. Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the innate host defense, and cathelicidins have been shown to protect against murine necrotic skin infections caused by GAS. However, it has been demonstrated that the streptococcal cysteine protease SpeB proteolytically inactivates the human cathelicidin LL-37 in vitro. Here we have investigated the expression of LL-37 and its interaction with GAS and SpeB during acute severe soft tissue infections by analyses of patient tissue biopsy specimens. The results showed large amounts of LL-37, both the proform (hCAP18) and the mature peptide, in the tissue. Confocal microscopy identified neutrophils as the main source of the peptide. A distinct colocalization between the bacteria and LL-37 could be noted, and bacterial loads showed positive correlation to the LL-37 levels. Areas with high LL-37 levels coincided with areas with large amounts of SpeB. Confocal microscopy confirmed strong colocalization of GAS, SpeB, and LL-37 at the bacterial surface. Taken together, the findings of this study provide in vivo support of the hypothesis that SpeB-mediated inactivation of LL-37 at the streptococcal surface represents a bacterial resistance mechanism at the infected tissue site in patients with severe GAS tissue infections.

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae, le transformiste.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Calum; Campo, Nathalie; Bergé, Matthieu J; Polard, Patrice; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Natural genetic transformation, which was discovered in this species, involves internalization of exogenous single-stranded DNA and its incorporation into the chromosome. It allows acquisition of pathogenicity islands and antibiotic resistance and promotes vaccine escape via capsule switching. This opinion article discusses how recent advances regarding several facets of pneumococcal transformation support the view that the process has evolved to maximize plasticity potential in this species, making the pneumococcus le transformiste of the bacterial kingdom and providing an advantage in the constant struggle between this pathogen and its host.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

  3. Group G Streptococcus bacteremia in recurrent cellulitis.

    PubMed

    di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Patriarca, Maria Martina; Trevisan, Giusto

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, group G Streptococcus has been reported with increasing frequency as the cause of a variety of human infections. Underlying host factors such as immunosuppression, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis may be predisposing conditions leading to infection. Toxic involvement and post-streptococcal sequalae, once believed to be exclusive to infections caused by group A Streptococcus, are now known to occur following acute group G Streptococcus and group C Streptococcus infections. We report on a case of group G Streptococcus bacteremia and recurrent cellulitis with toxic involvement. Patient blood cultures were always negative for β-hemolytic Streptococci in all the recurrences, except during the last one. Antibiotic therapy based on antibiogram quickly resolved the infection. A regimen of intramuscular injection of 1.2 million units of benzathine penicillin every 15 days for one year prevented recurrences of cellulitis.

  4. Mycoplasma agalactiae Induces Cytopathic Effects in Infected Cells Cultured In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shrilakshmi; Hegde, Shivanand Manjunath; Rosengarten, Renate; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is the etiological agent of the contagious agalactia syndrome in sheep and goats and causes significant economic losses worldwide. Yet the mechanism of pathogenesis is largely unknown. Even whole-genome sequence analysis of its pathogenic type strain did not lead to any conclusions regarding its virulence or pathogenicity factors. Although inflammation and tissue destruction at the local site of M. agalactiae infection are largely considered as effects of the host immune response, the direct effect of the agent on host cells is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of M. agalactiae infection on the quality and viability of host cells in vitro. Changes in cell morphology including cell elongation, cytoplasm shrinkage and membrane blebbing were observed in infected HeLa cells. Chromatin condensation and increased caspase-3 cleavage in infected HeLa cells 48 h after infection suggests an apoptosis-like phenomenon in M. agalactiae-infected cells. In compliance with these results, decreased viability and cell lysis of M. agalactiae-infected HeLa cells was also observed. Measurement of the amount of LDH released after M. agalactiae infection revealed a time- and dose-dependent increase in HeLa cell lysis. A significant decrease in LDH released after gentamicin treatment of infected cells confirmed the major role of cytadherent M. agalactiae in inducing host cell lysis. This is the first study illustrating M. agalactiae’s induction of cytopathic effects in infected HeLa cells. Further detailed investigation of infected host tissue for apoptotic markers might demonstrate the association between M. agalactiae-induced host cell lysis and the tissue destruction observed during M. agalactiae natural infection. PMID:27662492

  5. Pattern of infection and antibiotic activity among Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from adults in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malek-Jafarian, Masoumeh; Hosseini, Fatemeh-Sadat; Ahmadi, Abodol-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the main causes of sexually transmitted diseases is group B β- hemolytic streptococci (GBS) multiplying in the genital tracts. Penicillin is the most common drug for the treatment of infections caused by these bacteria, but in patients suffering from Penicillin allergy, Erythromycin and Clindamycin are used as alternative therapeutic drugs against GBS. Recently, resistance to these drugs has been reported more often. In this study, efforts have been made to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of GBS. Methods: Modified Christie Atkins Munch-Petersen (CAMP) test was conducted on over 2400 samples of urine and discharge taken from vagina, urethra and prostate. The drug sensitivity was performed by double disk sensitivity tests to Bacitracin, Trimethoprim, and Sulfamethoxazole and then the resistant samples were investigated by E-test to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) value. Results: Twenty-three vaginal and 10 urethral discharge, 27urine and 6 prostatic secretion samples were GBS positive. The most symbiotic microorganisms with GBS were strains of Enterococci (90%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25%) and Candida albicans (6%). The disk diffusion method showed 18 cases with Penicillin resistance (MIC: 1.5 mg/ml). Conclusion: Taken together, GBS carriers’ rate in this study was found 20.65% (8.24% men and 12.4% women). Furthermore, findings showed high-level resistance to Erythromycin and Clindamycin. PMID:26989743

  6. [Epididymo-orchitis in a newborn: rare illness revealing late-onset Streptococcus agalactiae meningitis].

    PubMed

    Goirand, M; Berthaud, R; Al Ikhtiar, I; Lachtar, M; Montoro, J; Walter-Nicolet, E

    2014-02-01

    Acute scrotum is unusual during the neonatal period. Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency aimed at salvaging the affected testis. Epididymo-orchitis is the main differential diagnosis, but few cases have been described in the newborn. Here, we report the case of a late-preterm infant who presented with late-onset group B streptococcal sepsis revealed by unilateral epididymo-orchitis.

  7. Real-time PCR for detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Diep, To Song; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Campbell, James; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and is the main cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adult patients in Vietnam. We developed an internally controlled real-time PCR for detection of S. suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples targeted at the cps2J gene. Sensitivity and specificity in culture-confirmed clinical samples were 100%. The PCR detected S. suis serotype 2 infection in 101 of 238 (42.4%) prospectively collected CSF samples, of which 55 (23%) were culture positive. Culture-negative but PCR-positive CSF samples were significantly associated with the use of antimicrobial agents before admission. S. suis serotype 2 infection was more common than infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis combined. Our results strikingly illustrate the additional diagnostic value of PCR in patients who are pretreated with antimicrobial agents and demonstrate the extremely high prevalence of S. suis infections among Vietnamese adult patients with bacterial meningitis. PMID:21767702

  8. Inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway in human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Kaci, Ghalia; Lakhdari, Omar; Doré, Joël; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M; Delorme, Christine

    2011-07-01

    Streptococcus salivarius exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and monocytes. Strains were screened using a reporter clone, HT-29/kB-luc-E, induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Supernatant from each strain downregulated NF-κB activation. The two most efficient strains produced an active metabolite (<3 kDa) which was able to downregulate the secretion of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8).

  9. Inhibition of the NF-κB Pathway in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Commensal Streptococcus salivarius ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kaci, Ghalia; Lakhdari, Omar; Doré, Joël; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M.; Delorme, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and monocytes. Strains were screened using a reporter clone, HT-29/kB-luc-E, induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Supernatant from each strain downregulated NF-κB activation. The two most efficient strains produced an active metabolite (<3 kDa) which was able to downregulate the secretion of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). PMID:21602373

  10. Polar Invasion and Translocation of Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus suis in a Novel Human Model of the Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Schwerk, Christian; Papandreou, Thalia; Schuhmann, Daniel; Nickol, Laura; Borkowski, Julia; Steinmann, Ulrike; Quednau, Natascha; Stump, Carolin; Weiss, Christel; Berger, Jürgen; Wolburg, Hartwig; Claus, Heike; Vogel, Ulrich; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease in humans. Discussed as entry sites for pathogens into the brain are the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Although human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) constitute a well established human in vitro model for the blood-brain barrier, until now no reliable human system presenting the BCSFB has been developed. Here, we describe for the first time a functional human BCSFB model based on human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP), which display typical hallmarks of a BCSFB as the expression of junctional proteins and formation of tight junctions, a high electrical resistance and minimal levels of macromolecular flux when grown on transwell filters. Importantly, when challenged with the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis or the human pathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis the HIBCPP show polar bacterial invasion only from the physiologically relevant basolateral side. Meningococcal invasion is attenuated by the presence of a capsule and translocated N. meningitidis form microcolonies on the apical side of HIBCPP opposite of sites of entry. As a functionally relevant human model of the BCSFB the HIBCPP offer a wide range of options for analysis of disease-related mechanisms at the choroid plexus epithelium, especially involving human pathogens. PMID:22253884

  11. Contribution of the RgfD Quorum Sensing Peptide to rgf Regulation and Host Cell Association in Group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert E; Knupp, David; Al Safadi, Rim; Rosenau, Agnѐs; Manning, Shannon D

    2017-01-06

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a common inhabitant of the genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal tract in up to 40% of healthy adults; however, this opportunistic pathogen is able to breach restrictive host barriers to cause disease and persist in harsh and changing conditions. This study sought to identify a role for quorum sensing, a form of cell to cell communication, in the regulation of the fibrinogen-binding (rgfBDAC) two-component system and the ability to associate with decidualized endometrial cells in vitro. To do this, we created a deletion in rgfD, which encodes the putative autoinducing peptide, in a GBS strain belonging to multilocus sequence type (ST)-17 and made comparisons to the wild type. Sequence variation in the rgf operon was detected in 40 clinical strains and a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism was detected in rgfD in all of the ST-17 genomes that resulted in a truncation. Using qPCR, expression of rgf operon genes was significantly decreased in the ST-17 ΔrgfD mutant during exponential growth with the biggest difference (3.3-fold) occurring at higher cell densities. Association with decidualized endometrial cells was decreased 1.3-fold in the mutant relative to the wild type and rgfC expression was reduced 22-fold in ΔrgfD following exposure to the endometrial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that this putative quorum sensing molecule is important for attachment to human tissues and demonstrate a role for RgfD in GBS pathogenesis through regulation of rgfC.

  12. Contribution of the RgfD Quorum Sensing Peptide to rgf Regulation and Host Cell Association in Group B Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Robert E.; Knupp, David; Al Safadi, Rim; Rosenau, Agnѐs; Manning, Shannon D.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a common inhabitant of the genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal tract in up to 40% of healthy adults; however, this opportunistic pathogen is able to breach restrictive host barriers to cause disease and persist in harsh and changing conditions. This study sought to identify a role for quorum sensing, a form of cell to cell communication, in the regulation of the fibrinogen-binding (rgfBDAC) two-component system and the ability to associate with decidualized endometrial cells in vitro. To do this, we created a deletion in rgfD, which encodes the putative autoinducing peptide, in a GBS strain belonging to multilocus sequence type (ST)-17 and made comparisons to the wild type. Sequence variation in the rgf operon was detected in 40 clinical strains and a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism was detected in rgfD in all of the ST-17 genomes that resulted in a truncation. Using qPCR, expression of rgf operon genes was significantly decreased in the ST-17 ΔrgfD mutant during exponential growth with the biggest difference (3.3-fold) occurring at higher cell densities. Association with decidualized endometrial cells was decreased 1.3-fold in the mutant relative to the wild type and rgfC expression was reduced 22-fold in ΔrgfD following exposure to the endometrial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that this putative quorum sensing molecule is important for attachment to human tissues and demonstrate a role for RgfD in GBS pathogenesis through regulation of rgfC. PMID:28067833

  13. Identification of non-streptococcal organisms from human dental plaque grown on the Streptococcus-selective medium mitis-salivarius agar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Si Young

    2015-02-01

    Mitis-salivarius (MS) agar has been used widely in microbial epidemiological studies because oral viridans streptococci can be selectively grown on this medium. Even though the previous findings reported the limited selecting power of MS agar for streptococcus strains, the identities of non-streptococcal strains from human oral samples which can grow on this medium are not clear yet. In this study, we identified non-streptococcal organisms grown on MS agar plates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Eighty bacterial colonies on MS plates were isolated from plaque samples, and bacterial identification was achieved with the rapid ID 32 Strep system and mini API reader. The bacterial colonies identified as non-streptococci by the API system were selected for further identification. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and verified using DNA sequencing analysis for identification. Sequences were compared with those of reference organisms in the genome database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Among the 11 isolated non-streptococcal strains on MS plates, 3 strains were identified as Actinomyces naeslundii, 7 strains were identified as Actinomyces oris and 1 strain were identified as Actinomyces sp. using Blastn. In this study, we showed that some oral Actinomyces species can grow on Streptococcus-selective MS agar plates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure of a conjugative element in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.N.; Priebe, S.D.; Guild, W.R.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have cloned and mapped a 69-kilobase (kb) region of the chromosome of Streptococcus pneumoniae DP1322, which carries the conjugative Omega(cat-tet) insertion from S. pneumoniae BM6001. This element proved to be 65.5 kb in size. Location of the junctions was facilitated by cloning a preferred target region from the wild-type strain Rx1 recipient genome. This target site was preferred by both the BM6001 element and the cat-erm-tet element from Streptococcus agalactiae B109. Within the BM6001 element cat and tet were separated by 30 kb, and cat was flanked by two copies of a sequence that was also present in the recipient strain Rx1 DNA. Another sequence at least 2.4 kb in size was found inside the BM6001 element and at two places in the Rx1 genome. Its role is unknown. The ends of the BM6001 element appear to be the same as those of the B109 element, both as seen after transfer to S. pneumoniae and as mapped by others in pDP5 after transposition in Streptococcus faecalis. No homology is seen between the ends of the BM6001 element and no evidence found suggesting that it ever circularizes.

  15. Dynamics of fecal microbial communities in children with diarrhea of unknown etiology and genomic analysis of associated Streptococcus lutetiensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes extracted from fecal samples provide insights into the dynamics of fecal microflora. This potentially gives valuable etiological information for patients whose conditions have been ascribed to unknown pathogens, which cannot be accomplished using routine culture methods. We studied 33 children with diarrhea who were admitted to the Children’s Hospital in Shanxi Province during 2006. Results Nineteen of 33 children with diarrhea could not be etiologically diagnosed by routine culture and polymerase chain reaction methods. Eleven of 19 children with diarrhea of unknown etiology had Streptococcus as the most dominant fecal bacterial genus at admission. Eight of nine children whom three consecutive fecal samples were collected had Streptococcus as the dominant fecal bacterial genus, including three in the Streptococcus bovis group and three Streptococcus sp., which was reduced during and after recovery. We isolated strains that were possibly from the S. bovis group from feces sampled at admission, which were then identified as Streptococcus lutetiensis from one child and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus from two children. We sequenced the genome of S. lutetiensis and identified five antibiotic islands, two pathogenicity islands, and five unique genomic islands. The identified virulence genes included hemolytic toxin cylZ of Streptococcus agalactiae and sortase associated with colonization of pathogenic streptococci. Conclusions We identified S. lutetiensis and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus from children with diarrhea of unknown etiology, and found pathogenic islands and virulence genes in the genome of S. lutetiensis. PMID:23782707

  16. Conserved patterns hidden within group A Streptococcus M protein hypervariability are responsible for recognition of human C4b-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Buffalo, Cosmo Z.; Bahn-Suh, Adrian J.; Hirakis, Sophia P.; Biswas, Tapan; Amaro, Rommie E.; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho

    2016-01-01

    No vaccine exists against group A Streptococcus (GAS), a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. A severe hurdle is the hypervariability of its major antigen, the M protein, with >200 different M types known. Neutralizing antibodies typically recognize M protein hypervariable regions (HVRs) and confer narrow protection. In stark contrast, human C4b-binding protein (C4BP), which is recruited to the GAS surface to block phagocytic killing, interacts with a remarkably large number of M protein HVRs (apparently ~90%). Such broad recognition is rare, and we discovered a unique mechanism for this through structure determination of four sequence-diverse M proteins in complex with C4BP. The structures revealed a uniform and tolerant ‘reading head’ in C4BP, which detected conserved sequence patterns hidden within hypervariability. Our results open up possibilities for rational therapies targeting the M-C4BP interaction, and also inform a path towards vaccine design. PMID:27595425

  17. Population structure of Streptococcus oralis

    PubMed Central

    Do, Thuy; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Gilbert, Steven C.; Clark, Douglas; Wade, William G.; Beighton, David

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus oralis is a member of the normal human oral microbiota, capable of opportunistic pathogenicity; like related oral streptococci, it exhibits appreciable phenotypic and genetic variation. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for S. oralis was developed and the resultant data analysed to examine the population structure of the species. Analysis of 113 isolates, confirmed as belonging to the S. oralis/mitis group by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, characterized the population as highly diverse and undergoing inter- and intra-species recombination with a probable clonal complex structure. ClonalFrame analysis of these S. oralis isolates along with examples of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae grouped the named species into distinct, coherent populations and did not support the clustering of S. pseudopneumoniae with S. mitis as reported previously using distance-based methods. Analysis of the individual loci suggested that this discrepancy was due to the possible hybrid nature of S. pseudopneumoniae. The data are available on the public MLST website (http://pubmlst.org/soralis/). PMID:19423627

  18. Temporal and spatial association of Streptococcus suis infection in humans and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome outbreaks in pigs in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, V T L; Thanh, L V; Phu, V D; Trinh, D T; Inui, K; Tung, N; Oanh, N T K; Trung, N V; Hoa, N T; Bryant, J E; Horby, P W; Kinh, N V; Wertheim, H F L

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in pigs are associated with increased susceptibility of pigs to secondary bacterial infections, including Streptococcus suis - an important zoonotic pathogen causing bacterial meningitis in humans. This case-control study examined the association between human S. suis infection and PRRS outbreaks in pigs in northern Vietnam. We included 90 S. suis case-patients and 183 non-S. suis sepsis controls from a referral hospital in Hanoi in 2010, a period of major PRRS epizootics in Vietnam. PRRS exposure was determined using data from the National Centre of Veterinary Diagnosis. By univariate analysis, significantly more S. suis patients were reported residing in or adjacent to a PRRS district compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 2·82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·35-5·89 and OR 3·15, 95% CI 1·62-6·15, respectively]. Only residency in adjacent districts remained significantly associated with risk of S. suis infection after adjusting for sex, occupation, and eating practices. SaTScan analysis showed a possible cluster of S. suis infection in humans around PRRS confirmed locations during the March-August period. The findings indicate an epidemiological association between PRRS in pigs and S. suis infections in humans. Effective strategies to strengthen control of PRRS in pigs may help reduce transmission of S. suis infection to humans.

  19. Construction of the first shuttle vectors for gene cloning and homologous recombination in Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Marenda, Marc; Rosengarten, Renate; Jechlinger, Wolfgang; Citti, Christine

    2005-12-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide ruminant pathogen that causes significant economic losses by inflicting contagious agalactia in sheep and goats. The development of efficient control strategies requires a better understanding of the mycoplasma factors that promote successful infection. However, lack of genetic tools has been a major impediment in studying the pathogenic mechanisms of M. agalactiae. This study describes the identification and cloning of the M. agalactiae origin of replication (oriC) in order to construct the first shuttle vectors for targeted gene disruption, gene complementation and expression studies. Additionally, this report provides the first evidence of the occurrence of homologous recombination and the functionality of heterologous tetM determinant in this pathogen.

  20. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma agalactiae strains isolated from dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Paterna, A; Sánchez, A; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; De la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Amores, J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to several antimicrobials of 28 isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae obtained from goats in a region (southeastern Spain) where contagious agalactia is endemic. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 12 antimicrobials of the quinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, and tetracycline families was determined. The antimicrobials with the lowest MIC were enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tylosin, and doxycycline, all with MIC90 (concentration at which growth of 90% of the isolates is inhibited) <1 µg/mL. Norfloxacin (a quinolone) showed a wide MIC range (0.1-12.8 µg/mL), suggesting a resistance mechanism toward this antimicrobial that was not elicited by enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (the other quinolones tested). Erythromycin showed the highest MIC90 such that its use against Mycoplasma agalactiae is not recommended. Finally, Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates obtained from goat herds with clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia featured higher MIC90 and MIC50 (concentration at which growth of 50% of the isolates is inhibited) values for many of the antimicrobials compared with isolates from asymptomatic animals. The relationship between the extensive use of antimicrobials in herds with clinical contagious agalactia and variations in MIC requires further study.

  1. Tissue-specific IL-10 secretion profile from term human fetal membranes stimulated with pathogenic microorganisms associated with preterm labor in a two-compartment tissue culture system.

    PubMed

    Zaga-Clavellina, Verónica; Flores-Espinosa, Pilar; Pineda-Torres, Montzerrat; Sosa-González, Irma; Vega-Sánchez, Rodrigo; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Espejel-Núñez, Aurora; Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Maida-Claros, Rolando; Estrada-Juárez, Higinio; Chávez-Mendoza, Angel

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 is a cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties that plays pivotal roles in immune recognition and maintenance of pregnancy, limiting the harmful effects of pro-inflammatory modulators. The aim of this work was to characterize the contribution of amnion and choriodecidua regions of the human fetal membranes in the production of IL-10 after selective stimulation with Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Pre-labor human fetal membranes were cultured in a two-compartment tissue culture system and stimulated with 1 × 10(6) CFU/ml of each pathogen added to either the amniotic or choriodecidual region or both. Candida albicans and G. vaginalis were the pathogens most effective in inducing IL-10 secretion, increasing 20 and 10 times, respectively, the levels of this cytokine in the choriodecidual compartment. Stimulation with S. agalactiae was effective only in the choriodecidual region, increasing two times IL-10 concentration. Synthesis and secretion of IL-10 in response to three different pathogens associated with intrauterine infection and preterm birth are differential and depend on the nature of the microorganism and initial contact region.

  2. Human Disease Isolates of Serotype M4 and M22 Group A Streptococcus Lack Genes Required for Hyaluronic Acid Capsule Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Anthony R.; Jewell, Brittany E.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Beres, Stephen B.; Musser, James M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes human pharyngitis and invasive infections and frequently colonizes individuals asymptomatically. Many lines of evidence generated over decades have shown that the hyaluronic acid capsule is a major virulence factor contributing to these infections. While conducting a whole-genome analysis of the in vivo molecular genetic changes that occur in GAS during longitudinal human pharyngeal interaction, we discovered that serotypes M4 and M22 GAS strains lack the hasABC genes necessary for hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis. Using targeted PCR, we found that all 491 temporally and geographically diverse disease isolates of these two serotypes studied lack the hasABC genes. Consistent with the lack of capsule synthesis genes, none of the strains produced detectable hyaluronic acid. Despite the lack of a hyaluronic acid capsule, all strains tested multiplied extensively ex vivo in human blood. Thus, counter to the prevailing concept in GAS pathogenesis research, strains of these two serotypes do not require hyaluronic acid to colonize the upper respiratory tract or cause abundant mucosal or invasive human infections. We speculate that serotype M4 and M22 GAS have alternative, compensatory mechanisms that promote virulence. PMID:23131832

  3. Binding of Human Fibrinogen to MRP Enhances Streptococcus suis Survival in Host Blood in a αXβ2 Integrin-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Pian, Yaya; Li, Xueqin; Zheng, Yuling; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-05-27

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2), an important zoonotic pathogen, induces strong systemic infections in humans; sepsis and meningitis are the most common clinical manifestations and are often accompanied by bacteremia. However, the mechanisms of S. suis 2 survival in human blood are not well understood. In our previous study, we identified muramidase-released protein (MRP), a novel human fibrinogen (hFg)-binding protein (FBP) in S. suis 2 that is an important epidemic infection marker with an unknown mechanism in pathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that the N-terminus of MRP (a.a. 283-721) binds to both the Aα and Bβ chains of the D fragment of hFg. Strikingly, the hFg-MRP interaction improved the survival of S. suis 2 in human blood and led to the aggregation and exhaustion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) via an αXβ2 integrin-dependent mechanism. Other Fg-binding proteins, such as M1 (GAS) and FOG (GGS), also induced PMNs aggregation; however, the mechanisms of these FBP-hFg complexes in the evasion of PMN-mediated innate immunity remain unclear. MRP is conserved across highly virulent strains in Europe and Asia, and these data shed new light on the function of MRP in S. suis pathogenesis.

  4. Binding of Human Fibrinogen to MRP Enhances Streptococcus suis Survival in Host Blood in a αXβ2 Integrin-dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Yaya; Li, Xueqin; Zheng, Yuling; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2), an important zoonotic pathogen, induces strong systemic infections in humans; sepsis and meningitis are the most common clinical manifestations and are often accompanied by bacteremia. However, the mechanisms of S. suis 2 survival in human blood are not well understood. In our previous study, we identified muramidase-released protein (MRP), a novel human fibrinogen (hFg)-binding protein (FBP) in S. suis 2 that is an important epidemic infection marker with an unknown mechanism in pathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that the N-terminus of MRP (a.a. 283–721) binds to both the Aα and Bβ chains of the D fragment of hFg. Strikingly, the hFg-MRP interaction improved the survival of S. suis 2 in human blood and led to the aggregation and exhaustion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) via an αXβ2 integrin-dependent mechanism. Other Fg-binding proteins, such as M1 (GAS) and FOG (GGS), also induced PMNs aggregation; however, the mechanisms of these FBP-hFg complexes in the evasion of PMN-mediated innate immunity remain unclear. MRP is conserved across highly virulent strains in Europe and Asia, and these data shed new light on the function of MRP in S. suis pathogenesis. PMID:27231021

  5. The role of the plasmalogen in the cross-reaction between group A streptococcus and human myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Kasp-Grochowska, E.; Glynn, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Ethanol-soluble mycardial material which reacts with anti-streptococcal sera in a number of immunological tests has been isolated and identified as ethanolamine plasmalogen. The reactions of cardiac plasmalogen with antistreptococcal sera was specific and could be inhibited by streptococcus-derived materials. Guinea-pigs sensitized to streptococci gave positive skin reactions when challenged with myocardial plasmalogen. The pattern of the immunofluorescent staining given by antiplasmalogen sera was very much like that given by antistreptococcal sera. Nevertheless, the plasmalogen failed to compete for tissue-bound myocardial antigens when tried as an inhibitor of the immunofluorescent staining of myocardium either by antistreptococcal sera or by antiplasmalogen sera. A hypothesis of the role of the plasmalogen in the formation of complexes between streptococci and myocardium-derived material in the initiation of autoimmune processes is presented. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:334233

  6. Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Regianne Umeko; Taiete, Tiago; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing), classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis. PMID:24031748

  7. Streptococcus suis infection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  8. Tonsillar application of killed Streptococcus mutans induces specific antibodies in rabbit saliva and blood plasma without inducing a cross-reacting antibody to human cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuizumi, T; Inoue, H; Tsujisawa, T; Uchiyama, C

    1997-01-01

    When Streptococcus mutans cells are injected into the skeletal muscle of rabbits, an antibody against human cardiac muscle, as well as an anti-S. mutans antibody, is induced in blood plasma. Our previous study showed that when sheep erythrocytes are applied to palatine tonsils, an antibody against the applied cells is induced both in blood plasma and saliva. This antibody has no activity against cardiac muscle. It is not clear, however, if S. mutans application to the tonsils evokes an antibody response against cardiac muscle. In this study, we immunized rabbits against S. mutans or Streptococcus sobrinus by tonsillar application or by intramuscular injection every 3 days for 6 weeks. Tonsillar applications of formalin-killed cells of S. mutans induced saliva immunoglobulin A (IgA) and blood plasma IgG to the applied cells. In contrast, intramuscular injection of such cells induced only blood plasma IgG. When the route of immunization was intramuscular injection, antibodies in blood plasma cross-reacted with cardiac muscle. By enzyme-immunohistochemistry and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion tests, no cross-reaction to cardiac muscle was observed with the antibody in saliva or in blood plasma after the tonsillar applications. Western blotting of the S. mutans antigen showed that blood plasma from rabbits injected with S. mutans reacted with antigens of 46, 52, 62, and 85 kDa, while that from rabbits subjected to tonsillar application of S. mutans did not react with these bands. Similar results were obtained for S. sobrinus applications. Thus, tonsillar applications of mutants group streptococci induce antibodies differing in antigen specificity and do not induce any cross-reacting antibody to cardiac muscle. PMID:9353033

  9. Evaluation of safety and human tolerance of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Burton, J P; Cowley, S; Simon, R R; McKinney, J; Wescombe, P A; Tagg, J R

    2011-09-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is naturally a predominant member of the human oropharynx and the commercial probiotic strain K12 has been consumed for more than a decade. The present study examines the health responses of human volunteers to oral ingestion of high doses of S. salivarius K12. A randomized group of 53 subjects received a dose of 1 × 10(10)cfu S. salivarius K12 (N=25) or placebo (N=28) for 28 days, followed by a 28-day wash out period. Blood, urine and saliva samples were collected at baseline and following treatment and analyzed, while the oral and gastrointestinal tolerance of the subjects to the dosing regimen was determined by use of questionnaires. Adverse events (AE)s were recorded for both groups. No statistically significant differences between the probiotic and placebo treated groups were detected in either the blood clinical chemistry or hematology results (P>0.05). The questionnaire responses of the subjects indicated that both treatments were well tolerated. The frequency and intensity of AEs was similar in the two groups. This data demonstrates that the daily ingestion of S. salivarius K12 over a 28-day period does not adversely affect the human host and supports the safety of its oral delivery in a food-based carrier. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Passive protection of mice against Streptococcus pneumoniae challenge by naturally occurring and vaccine-induced human anti-PhtD antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Roger H; Ming, Marin; Williams, Kimberley; Hopfer, Robert; Gurunathan, Sanjay; Gallichan, Scott; Tang, Mei; Ochs, Martina M

    2015-01-01

    Currently marketed Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines are based on polysaccharide capsular antigens from the most common strains. Pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD) is a conserved surface protein that is being evaluated as a candidate for a vaccine with improved serotype coverage. Here, we measured the functional activity of human anti-PhtD antibodies in a passive protection model wherein mice were challenged with a lethal dose of S. pneumoniae by intravenous injection. This functional activity was compared with anti-PhtD antibody concentrations measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate the 50% protective dose (ED50). Anti-PhtD antibodies affinity purified from pooled normal human sera passively protected mice with an ED50 of 1679 ELISA units/ml (95% confidence interval, 1420–1946). Sera from subjects injected with aluminum-adjuvanted PhtD in a phase I trial had similar activity per unit of antibody (ED50 = 1331 ELISA units/ml [95% confidence interval, 762–2038]). Vaccine-induced activity in the passive protection model was blocked by pre-incubation with recombinant PhtD but not by a control S. pneumoniae antigen (LytB). These results show that human anti-PhtD antibodies, whether naturally acquired or induced by the PhtD candidate vaccine, are functional. This supports the development of the PhtD candidate as part of a broadly protective pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:25912273

  11. Passive protection of mice against Streptococcus pneumoniae challenge by naturally occurring and vaccine-induced human anti-PhtD antibodies.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Roger H; Ming, Marin; Williams, Kimberley; Hopfer, Robert; Gurunathan, Sanjay; Gallichan, Scott; Tang, Mei; Ochs, Martina M

    2015-01-01

    Currently marketed Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines are based on polysaccharide capsular antigens from the most common strains. Pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD) is a conserved surface protein that is being evaluated as a candidate for a vaccine with improved serotype coverage. Here, we measured the functional activity of human anti-PhtD antibodies in a passive protection model wherein mice were challenged with a lethal dose of S. pneumoniae by intravenous injection. This functional activity was compared with anti-PhtD antibody concentrations measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate the 50% protective dose (ED50). Anti-PhtD antibodies affinity purified from pooled normal human sera passively protected mice with an ED50 of 1679 ELISA units/ml (95% confidence interval, 1420-1946). Sera from subjects injected with aluminum-adjuvanted PhtD in a phase I trial had similar activity per unit of antibody (ED50 = 1331 ELISA units/ml [95% confidence interval, 762-2038]). Vaccine-induced activity in the passive protection model was blocked by pre-incubation with recombinant PhtD but not by a control S. pneumoniae antigen (LytB). These results show that human anti-PhtD antibodies, whether naturally acquired or induced by the PhtD candidate vaccine, are functional. This supports the development of the PhtD candidate as part of a broadly protective pneumococcal vaccine.

  12. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains isolated in Argentina (South America) are different from those recovered in North America and present a higher risk for humans

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Monica; Xu, Jianguo; Zielinski, Gustavo; Auger, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent causing meningitis and septicemia/septic shock. Strains are usually virulent (Eurasia) or of intermediate/low virulence (North America). Very few data regarding human and swine isolates from South America are available. Case presentation: Seventeen new human S. suis cases in Argentina (16 serotype 2 strains and a serotype 5 strain) are reported. Alongside, 14 isolates from pigs are analyzed: 12 from systemic disease, one from lungs and one from tonsils of a healthy animal. All human serotype 2 strains and most swine isolates are sequence type (ST) 1, as determined by multilocus sequence typing and present a mrp+/epf+/sly+ genotype typical of virulent Eurasian ST1 strains. The remaining two strains (recovered from swine lungs and tonsils) are ST28 and possess a mrp+/epf−/sly− genotype typical of low virulence North American strains. Representative human ST1 strains as well as one swine ST28 strain were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing and compared with genomes from GenBank. ST1 strains clustered together with three strains from Vietnam and this cluster is close to another one composed of 11 strains from the United Kingdom. Conclusion: Close contact with pigs/pork products, a good surveillance system, and the presence of potentially virulent Eurasian-like serotype 2 strains in Argentina may be an important factor contributing to the higher number of human cases observed. In fact, Argentina is now fifth among Western countries regarding the number of reported human cases after the Netherlands, France, the UK and Poland. PMID:28348788

  13. A Fishy Tale: a Man with Empyema Caused by Streptococcus halichoeri

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, veterinary laboratories in the United Kingdom reported a novel Lancefield group B streptococcus, Streptococcus halichoeri, in seals. We report a case of Streptococcus halichoeri causing postoperative empyema in a patient. A search of the literature revealed that this is the first case of S. halichoeri ever reported in humans. PMID:24478513

  14. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Streptococcus