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Sample records for human strongyloides stercoralis

  1. Human infection with Strongyloides stercoralis and other related Strongyloides species.

    PubMed

    Nutman, Thomas B

    2017-03-01

    The majority of the 30-100 million people infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil transmitted intestinal nematode, have subclinical (or asymptomatic) infections. These infections are commonly chronic and longstanding because of the autoinfective process associated with its unique life cycle. A change in immune status can increase parasite numbers, leading to hyperinfection syndrome, dissemination, and death if unrecognized. Corticosteroid use and HTLV-1 infection are most commonly associated with the hyperinfection syndrome. Strongyloides adult parasites reside in the small intestine and induce immune responses both local and systemic that remain poorly characterized. Definitive diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection is based on stool examinations for larvae, but newer diagnostics - including new immunoassays and molecular tests - will assume primacy in the next few years. Although good treatment options exist for infection and control of this infection might be possible, S. stercoralis remains largely neglected.

  2. Hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Villagroy Gómez, Javier; Hernández González, Mercedes; Romero Feregrino, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, which commonly produces gastrointestinal problems. If immune systems are compromised, the nematode larvae may spread and produce Strongyloides hyperinfection. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is based on the observation of larvae in coproparasitological studies. We present a case of a 49-year-oldman, VIH, who developed Strongyloides hyperinfection, diagnosed postmortem. Our patient reached the dissemination stage, which resulted in severe damage to the stomach and intestine, perforation of the intestinal wall, as well as sepsis due to the dissemination of bacteria. The diagnosis is difficult because of the low larvae excretion in stools. It is usually performed by the microscopic examination of fresh and fixed enriched stool samples. Serology was reported to be useful for screening and follow-up after treatment. This case reaffirms that HIV immunosuppression favours the dissemination of S stercoralis larvae. Thus, a search for intestinal parasites should be considered in similar cases. PMID:23203176

  3. First molecular identification and genetic diversity of Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides fuelleborni in human communities having contact with long-tailed macaques in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yahom, Sujitra; Kullawat, Jitsuda; Radomyos, Prayong; Thammasiri, Chalida; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2017-07-01

    The parasitic nematodes, Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides fuelleborni, can infect humans and non-human primates. We amplified and sequenced a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) and of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Strongyloides from humans in the study area in Thailand, where people have frequent contact with long-tailed macaques. Fresh stool samples were obtained from 213 people and were examined using the agar plate culture method. The overall prevalence of Strongyloides infection was 8.92% (19/213). From a total of 19 worms (one per infected person), 18 adult males had 18S rRNA sequences identical with that of S. stercoralis and one adult female had a sequence almost identical with that of S. fuelleborni. A median-joining network of cox1 sequences revealed nine new haplotypes from S. stercoralis, and an overall haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.9309. The single haplotype of S. fuelleborni was also new and contributed to an overall haplotype diversity for that species of 0.9842. This is the first molecular identification of S. stercoralis and S. fuelleborni in a human community having contact with long-tailed macaques in Thailand. It is also the first report of S. fuelleborni infecting a human in Thailand.

  4. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Jaleta, Tegegn G; Zhou, Siyu; Bemm, Felix M; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B; Streit, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is

  5. Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in the Immunocompromised Host

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Roshan; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode acquired in the tropics or subtropics. Most often, it causes chronic, asymptomatic infection, but a change in immune status can increase parasite numbers, leading to hyperinfection syndrome, dissemination, and death if unrecognized. Corticosteroid use is most commonly associated with hyperinfection syndrome. Diagnosis of Strongyloides infection is based on serology and serial stool examinations for larvae. The treatment of choice for chronic, asymptomatic infection is oral ivermectin. Alternative pharmacologic agents include albendazole and thiabendazole. For hyperinfection syndrome, ivermectin remains the drug of choice, though therapy duration must be individualized with the end point being complete parasite eradication. Recurrent strongyloidiasis should prompt an evaluation for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 coinfection. No test of cure is currently available, although immunoglobulin G antibody levels have been shown to decline within 6 months of successful treatment. PMID:18462583

  6. Molecular Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis Infection by PCR Detection of Specific DNA in Human Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddassani, H; Mirhendi, H; Hosseini, M; Rokni, MB; Mowlavi, Gh; Kia, Eb

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is mostly an asymptomatic infection and diagnosis of latent infections is difficult due to limitations of current parasitological and serological methods. This study was conducted to set up a PCR-based method for molecular diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection by detection of copro-DNA in stool samples. Methods A total of 782 fresh stool samples were collected and examined by agar plate culture. Among those sixteen stool samples, which confirmed to be infected with S. stercoralis were examined as positive control to set up each single and nested PCR, using two primer sets designing to amplify partial ribosomal DNA of S. stercoralis genome. Since, single PCR method yielded higher efficacy in detecting positive samples, in the second step, 30 stool samples, which found negative for S. stercoralis by agar plate culture of single stool sample, were examined by single PCR. Data analysis was performed using McNemar's χ2 test, with consideration of a P-value of <0.05 as indication of significant difference. Results In amplification of DNA extracted from stool samples, single PCR detected S. stercoralis DNA target in all 16 positive samples, while nested PCR amplified DNA in only 75% of samples. In the second step, single PCR amplified S. stercoralis extracted DNA in 5 out of 30 samples which were negative by coproculture. Conclusion Single PCR method amplifying a short (100bp) target represented more efficacies for detection of S. stercoralis in faecal examination compared to agar plate culture and nested PCR, which amplified longer target. PMID:22347284

  7. Extracellular traps are associated with human and mouse neutrophil and macrophage mediated killing of larval Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Bonne-Année, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A.; Hess, Jessica A.; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Lok, James B.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Abraham, David

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are multifaceted cells that are often the immune system’s first line of defense. Human and murine cells release extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in response to several pathogens and diseases. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is crucial to trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Aside from neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils also release ETs. We hypothesized that ETs serve as a mechanism of ensnaring the large and highly motile helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis thereby providing a static target for the immune response. We demonstrated that S. stercoralis larvae trigger the release of ETs by human neutrophils and macrophages. Analysis of NETs revealed that NETs trapped but did not kill larvae. Induction of NETs was essential for larval killing by human but not murine neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. In mice, extracellular traps were induced following infection with S. stercoralis larvae and were present in the microenvironment of worms being killed in vivo. These findings demonstrate that NETs ensnare the parasite facilitating larval killing by cells of the immune system. PMID:24642003

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Kati J; Saari, Seppo AM; Anttila, Marjukka

    2007-01-01

    Background Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice. PMID:18076758

  9. Intestinal immune cells in Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Trajman, A; MacDonald, T T; Elia, C C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis can cause a wide spectrum of disease in man, ranging from a chronic asymptomatic infection to a hyperinfective, often fatal syndrome. In rodents, spontaneous expulsion of Strongyloides spp occurs after experimental infection. Mast cells, goblet cells, and eosinophils have been identified as possible effectors of this expulsion. AIMS: To investigate intestinal histopathology and mucosal immunity in immunocompetent patients with chronic S stercoralis infection. METHODS: Jejunal biopsies were performed in 19 immunocompetent patients with a positive stool examination for S stercoralis and few or no symptoms, and in seven healthy controls. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and stained by the immunoperoxidase technique, using the following monoclonal antibodies: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, anti-T cell receptor (TcR) gamma/delta, RFD1 and RFD7 (two different macrophage markers), Ki67+ (proliferating) cells, antihuman leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and anticollagen IV. In addition, CD25+ cells, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, calprotectin containing cells, and neutrophil elastase positive cells were stained by the alkaline phosphatase method. RESULTS: Jejunal morphology and the numbers of different T cell subsets, mast cells, IgE expressing cells, eosinophils, and goblet cells were unaffected by S stercoralis infection. Conversely, the numbers of mature macrophages and dividing enterocytes in the crypts were reduced significantly. Crypt enterocytes did not express HLA-DR in both groups. The expression of HLA-DR by villus enterocytes was also comparable in patients and controls. There were no activated (CD25+) cells in the mucosa of either patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with seven healthy uninfected volunteers, a group of 19 Brazilians with clinically mild strongyloides infection showed no abnormality of mucosal structure and no increase in non-specific inflammatory cells. Likewise, there was no increase in

  10. Strongyloides stercoralis-infected dogs as a model for human disseminated strongyloidiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Aikens, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The route of migration of Strongyloides stercoralis third-stage infective larvae was explored in primary and autogenous infections in the dog. Larvae was radiolabeled by one of two means: (1) by culture of the free-living L3 stage in a nutrient medium, deficient in methionine, supplemented with ({sup 75}Se)Selenomethionine, and (2) by feeding of ({sup 75}Se)Selenomethionine-labeled bacteria to microbiverous L1 and L2 stages. Third-stage labeled larvae were then injected into 10-day-old pups either subcutaneously, to study primary migration, or into the distal ileum, to study autogenous migration. At intervals after infection pups were killed and whole body compressed organ autoradiography done on individual tissues to determine organ-specific larval transit sites. Autoradiographic recoveries were analyzed in the context of a series of mathematical models designed to test migratory route hypotheses. Postulated routes of migration for primary infections included (1) the Null Hypothesis or Scramble Route in which larvae migrate to the intestines by any available route, (2) the Classical Pulmonary Route in which larvae migrate sequentially from skin, to blood, to lungs, to the trachea, esophagus and intestines, and (3) the Head Migration Route in which larvae move from caudal to cranial sites within the skin and muscle before entering the intestines. Postulated routes for autoinfective migration reiterated 1 and 2 above. Least squares comparisons, of calculated models to observed autoradiographic distributions, led us to conclude that there was no reason to reject the simplest assumption that larvae move by any available route to the definitive site in both forms of migration. Sampling through tracheostomy sites in 14 pups for larval migrants confirmed this conclusion.

  11. Strongyloides stercoralis: Global Distribution and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Trostdorf, Ulf; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Vounatsou, Penelope; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the most neglected among the so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We reviewed studies of the last 20 years on S. stercoralis's global prevalence in general populations and risk groups. Methods/Principal Findings A literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published between January 1989 and October 2011. Articles presenting information on infection prevalence were included. A Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out to obtain country-specific prevalence estimates and to compare disease odds ratios in different risk groups taking into account the sensitivities of the diagnostic methods applied. A total of 354 studies from 78 countries were included for the prevalence calculations, 194 (62.4%) were community-based studies, 121 (34.2%) were hospital-based studies and 39 (11.0%) were studies on refugees and immigrants. World maps with country data are provided. In numerous African, Asian and South-American resource-poor countries, information on S. stercoralis is lacking. The meta-analysis showed an association between HIV-infection/alcoholism and S. stercoralis infection (OR: 2.17 BCI: 1.18–4.01; OR: 6.69; BCI: 1.47–33.8), respectively. Conclusions Our findings show high infection prevalence rates in the general population in selected countries and geographical regions. S. stercoralis infection is prominent in several risk groups. Adequate information on the prevalence is still lacking from many countries. However, current information underscore that S. stercoralis must not be neglected. Further assessments in socio-economic and ecological settings are needed and integration into global helminth control is warranted. PMID:23875033

  12. Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Alcoholic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Flavia T. F.; Souza, Joelma N.; Silva, Mônica L. S.; Inês, Elizabete J.; Soares, Neci M.

    2016-01-01

    The course of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is usually asymptomatic with a low discharge of rhabditoid larva in feces. However, the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption seem to enhance the susceptibility to infection, as shown by a fivefold higher strongyloidiasis frequency in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics. Moreover, the association between S. stercoralis infection and alcoholism presents a risk for hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis. There are several possible mechanisms for the disruption of the host-parasite equilibrium in ethanol-addicted patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. One explanation is that chronic ethanol intake stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to produce excessive levels of endogenous cortisol, which in turn can lead to a deficiency in type 2 T helper cells (Th2) protective response, and also to mimic the parasite hormone ecdysone, which promotes the transformation of rhabditiform larvae to filariform larvae, leading to autoinfection. Therefore, when untreated, alcoholic patients are continuously infected by this autoinfection mechanism. Thus, the early diagnosis of strongyloidiasis and treatment can prevent serious forms of hyperinfection in ethanol abusers. PMID:28105424

  13. Real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis-associated meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nadir, Eyal; Grossman, Tamar; Ciobotaro, Pnina; Attali, Malka; Barkan, Daniel; Bardenstein, Rita; Zimhony, Oren

    2016-03-01

    Four immunocompromised patients, immigrants from Ethiopia, presented with diverse clinical manifestations of meningitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis dissemination as determined by identification of intestinal larvae. The cerebrospinal fluid of 3 patients was tested by a validated (for stool) real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and was found positive, establishing this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship Among Strongyloides stercoralis Infection, Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection, and Cancer: A 24-Year Cohort Inpatient Study in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruhisa; Hirata, Tetsuo; Parrott, Gretchen; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Kinjo, Takeshi; Kinjo, Tetsu; Hokama, Akira; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection in the population. In addition, this study investigated the relationship between S. stercoralis infection or HTLV-1 infection and a patient's risk of developing related cancers. This is a retrospective cohort study of 5,209 patients. The prevalence of S. stercoralis infection was 5.2% among all patients. The prevalence among men (6.3%) was significantly higher than among women (3.6%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of HTLV-1 infection among this population was 13.6% and the prevalence among women (15.5%) was significantly higher than that of men (12.3%, P < 0.001). HTLV-1 seroprevalence was higher in patients with liver cancer (P = 0.003, odds ratio [OR]: 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 2.95) and in those with lymphoma other than adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) (P = 0.005, adjusted OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.36, 5.62) if compared with patients without any neoplasm. The prevalence of both S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 in the Okinawan population has been steadily decreasing over the past 24 years. HTLV-1 infection significantly increases the odds of developing liver cancer and lymphomas other than ATLL. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Effective diagnostic tests and anthelmintic treatment for Strongyloides stercoralis make community control feasible.

    PubMed

    Shield, Jennifer M; Page, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is endemic in tropical and subtropical countries, and is prevalent particularly in economically impoverished people. Although an estimated 30 to 100 million people world-wide suffer from S. stercoralis infection and it is a life-long disease, it remains a neglected tropical disease. Faecal testing for S. stercoralis is very insensitive. The prevalence of S. stercoralis in Indigenous Australians (up to 60%) is much higher than previously thought, and its prevalence in Papua New Guinea is likely to be much higher than currently believed. When S. stercoralis and the HTLV-1 virus coexist in the one person, both diseases progress more quickly than when either infection is on its own. When people become infected with S. stercoralis, they develop acute strongyloidiasis which may be life threatening. At any time during the course of the disease, if the immune system is suppressed, most often by corticosteroid drugs, infected people may develop hyperinfective strongyloidiasis and they will die unless the underlying S. stercoralis infection is effectively treated. The use of serology for diagnosis, together with ivermectin treatment, has revealed that it is possible to eradicate S. stercoralis from the patient, and serology can also define the effectiveness of treatment. The reservoir of infection is humans; the free-living stages are short-lived. Mass treatment may be effective at eliminating S. stercoralis from a community. Safe water and effective sanitation alone do not lead to elimination of S. stercoralis. Up-to-date knowledge of S. stercoralis has been revealed through the workshops of the National Strongyloides Working Group in Australia and is summarized here. Much of this information is now available on the world wide web, and the addresses of relevant web sites are given.

  16. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis on Mekong islands in southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Taisayavong, Keoka; Akkavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected helminth infection potentially that can lead to systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce. We assessed S. stercoralis infection and associated risk factors and symptoms on the Mekong islands in Southern Laos. Baermann and Kato-Katz techniques were performed on two stool samples from each individual to detect S. stercoralis larvae and concomitant helminth infections. Among 729 individuals, 41.0% were infected with S. stercoralis. Men were at higher risk than women (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.45-2.67). Urticaria and body itching was associated with S. stercoralis infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.42-4.05). Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (72.2%), Schistosoma mekongi (12.8%), and hookworm (56.1%) were very common. Few infections with Trichuris trichiura (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Taenia spp. (0.3%) were detected. The majority of helminth infections were of light intensity, with prevalences of 80.4%, 92.9%, 64.5%, 100% and 100%, for O. viverrini, hookworm, S. mekongi, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Nevertheless, heavy infection intensities were observed for O. viverrini (1.0%), S. mekongi (14.0%) and hookworm (2.9%). S. stercoralis is highly endemic on the islands of Khong district, Champasack province, Southern Laos. The national helminth control programme should take action to control this helminth infection.

  17. Real-time PCR for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in human stool samples from Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic accuracy, inter-laboratory comparison and patterns of hookworm co-infection.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Piraisoody, Nivetha; Kramme, Stefanie; Marti, Hanspeter; Silué, Kigbafori D; Panning, Marcus; Nickel, Beatrice; Kern, Winfried V; Herrmann, Mathias; Hatz, Christoph F; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Human infections with the helminth species Strongyloides stercoralis encompass a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis is cumbersome and the sensitivity of conventional stool microscopy is low. New molecular tools have been developed to increase sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR with microscopy for the detection of S. stercoralis and hookworm in human stool samples, and investigated the inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific real-time PCR in two European laboratories. Stool specimens from 256 randomly selected individuals in rural Côte d'Ivoire were examined using three microscopic techniques (i.e. Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate (KAP) and Baermann (BM)). Additionally, ethanol-fixed stool aliquots were subjected to molecular diagnosis. The prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 21.9% and 52.0%, respectively, whilst co-infections were detected in 35 (13.7%) participants. The diagnostic agreement between real-time PCR and microscopy was excellent when both KAP and BM tested positive for S. stercoralis, but was considerably lower when only one microscopic technique was positive. The sensitivity of KAP, BM and real-time PCR for detection of S. stercoralis as compared to a combination of all diagnostic techniques was 21.4%, 37.5% and 76.8%, respectively. The inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific PCR was substantial (κ=0.63, p<0.001). We conclude that a combination of real-time PCR and stool microscopy shows high accuracy for S. stercoralis diagnosis. Besides high sensitivity, PCR may also enhance specificity by reducing microscopic misdiagnosis of morphologically similar helminth larvae (i.e. hookworm and S. stercoralis) in settings where both helminth species co-exist.

  18. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) in Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Deepshikha Nag; Dhadham, Gautamy Chitiki; Shah, Anish; Baddoura, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) is a soil transmitted intestinal roundworm that has a unique ability to multiply within the human host and reinfect the human carrier by a process of autoinfection. By this property, S. stercoralis can persist as an occult infection for many decades. In situations of immunosuppression or other permissive gastrointestinal conditions, there occurs a massive increase in parasite multiplication. The parasites penetrate through the intestinal mucosa and are carried in circulation and can cause multisystem involvement. We report a case of a 76-year-old Columbian male who presented with intractable vomiting and hyponatremia who was then diagnosed to have syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The patient's symptoms improved after treatment with two doses of ivermectin and his serum sodium levels returned to normal. S. stercoralis infection should be suspected in patients from endemic regions who present with gastrointestinal symptoms and unexplained hyponatremia.

  19. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with impaired intestinal motility disorder

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Cláudia Frangioia; Cos, Lynda Dorene; Ussami, Edson Yassushi; Otoch, José Pinhata; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio

    2015-01-01

    Infection by Strongyloides stercoralis is a highly prevalent helminthiasis, which is mostly distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although a substantial number of cases are asymptomatic or paucisymtomatic, severe and life-threatening forms of this infection still occur and not infrequently is lately diagnosed. Gram-negative bacteria septicemia, which frequently accompanies the severe helminthiasis, contributes to the high mortality rate. Severe infection is invariably triggered by any imbalance in the host's immunity, favoring the auto-infective cycle, which increases the intraluminal parasite burden enormously. Clinical presentation of severe cases is varied, and diagnosis requires a high suspicion index. Acute abdomen has been reported in association with S. stercoralis infection, but intestinal necrosis is rarely found during the surgical approach. The authors report the case of a man who sought the emergency unit with recent onset abdominal pain. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with obstructive acute abdomen. Scattered adhesions and a necrotic ileal segment with a tiny perforation represented the surgical findings. The patient outcome was unfavorable and respiratory distress required an open lung biopsy. Both surgical specimens showed S. stercoralis infection. Unfortunately the patient underwent multiple organ failure and septicemia, and subsequently died. The authors call attention to the finding of intestinal necrosis and impaired intestinal motility disorder as possibilities for the diagnosis and risk factor, respectively, for a severe infection of S. stercoralis. PMID:26484331

  20. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in an HIV positive patient--a case report from RIMS, Imphal, Manipur.

    PubMed

    Pukhrambam, Pratita Devi; Rebachandra, H; Singh, Ng Brajachand; Singh, Th Nabakumar

    2010-09-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode parasite in human with free living and autoinfective cycles, is often an asymptomatic infection of the upper small intestine. If the host becomes immunocompromised, autoinfection may increase the intestinal worm burden and lead to disseminated strongyloidiasis. We report a case of a 33 year old male HIV positive patient admitted on 2/6/08 in male medical ward, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur with complaints of loose stools, pain abdomen, nausea, vomiting, generalized weakness, loss of appetite and loss of weight for past one month with fever off and on. Stool examination reveals larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient was successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 microgm/kg daily for 2 days.

  1. Strongyloides Stercoralis Infection Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients in the United States of America: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Guillamet, Laia Jimena Vazquez; Saul, Zane; Miljkovic, Goran; Vilchez, Gabriel Alejandro; Mendonca, Nikolai; Gourineni, Venkata; Lillo, Nicholas; Pinto, Marguerite; Baig, Aurangzaib; Gangcuangco, Louie Mar

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 61 Final Diagnosis: Strongyloides stercolaris-associated diarrhea Symptoms: Diarrhea • epigastric pain • nausea • weight loss Medication: Ivermectin Clinical Procedure: Colonic biopsies Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Strongyloides stercoralis infection is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions but is reported rather sporadically in temperate countries. In the USA, the highest rates of infection are from the southeastern states, predominantly among immigrants. There is paucity of case reports on S. stercoralis infection among HIV-infected patients who were born and raised in the USA. Case Report: A 61-year-old male with known HIV infection (CD4 count: 235 cells/uL, undetectable HIV RNA, on antiretroviral therapy) presented with a 3-month history of diarrhea. He was initially diagnosed to have diarrhea secondary to norovirus and later with Escherichia coli. He was treated with levofloxacin but the diarrhea persisted. Stool PCR, Clostridium difficile enzyme-linked immunoassay, cryptosporidium and giardia antigen, cyclospora and isospora smear, and fecal microscopy were all negative. Peripheral blood eosinophil count was 1,000 eosinophils/mcL. Colonic biopsies revealed fragments of S. stercoralis larvae within the crypts. The patient was treated with ivermectin with improvement of symptoms. Social history revealed that he was born and raised in the northeastern USA. He was a daily methamphetamine user and engaged in anal sex with men. He denied travel to endemic areas, except for a visit to Japan more than 30 years ago. Conclusions: Our case highlights that S. stercoralis may be an underdiagnosed/under-reported cause of chronic diarrhea among HIV-infected patients. What makes this case peculiar is that the patient was born and raised in the continental USA, absence of recent travel to endemic areas, and relatively high CD4 counts. Parasitic infections, such as S. stercoralis, should be considered among HIV

  2. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. PMID:26350449

  3. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples.

    PubMed

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. [Strongyloides stercoralis in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Yanık, Keramettin; Karadağ, Adil; Odabaşı, Hakan; Unal, Nevzat; Altıntop, Levent; Hökelek, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a nematode-borne disease caused by several Strongyloides species. This case was presented in order to indicate Strongyloidosis in immunocompromised patients with several clinical findings. A fifty-five year old male patient on corticosteroid medication for a long time because of ankylosing spondylitis was on infliximab medication for 5 years. He presented with swelling of his right foot for ten days, right shoulder stiffness and low back pain. The presence of anaemia was remarkable. S. stercoralis was reported in histological examination of endoscopic duodenal biopsy specimen. Peripheral blood smear showed 68.4% neutrophils, 17% lymphocytes, 7.5% monocytes, and 6.7% (normal range 2%-6.2) eosinophils. The level of IgE was raised: 285IU/mL (normal range 5-120IU/mL). A large number of S. stercoralis larvae were detected upon stool examination with saline and iodine mounts and the formaldehyde ether concentration method. After treatment with two cure albendazole 400 mg/day for 7 days, S. stercoralis larvae were not detected in stool examination. It is interesting that response to treatment was not observed on the first cure and the recovery was seen on the second cure. We suggest that hyperinfections should be taken into consideration in the diagnosis and treatment of immunocompromised patients with several complaints so that life-threatening effects of the nematode may be prevented.

  5. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans—Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bemm, Felix M.; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is

  6. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; White, A Clinton; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Pérez-Molina, José A; Plana, Maria N

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is a gut infection with Strongyloides stercoralis which is common world wide. Chronic infection usually causes a skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and respiratory problems, and it can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. It may be treated with ivermectin or albendazole or thiabendazole. Objectives To assess the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole) for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (24 August 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015); EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015); LILACS (August 2015); and reference lists of articles. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'strongyloid*' as a search term, reference lists, and conference abstracts. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and fixed- or random-effects models. We pooled adverse event data if the trials were sufficiently similar in their adverse event definitions. Main results We included seven trials, enrolling 1147 participants, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations (Africa, Southeast Asia, America and Europe). In trials comparing ivermectin with albendazole, parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.08; 478 participants, four trials, moderate quality evidence). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; 518 participants, four trials, low quality evidence). In trials comparing ivermectin with thiabendazole

  7. Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in HTLV-1-Associated Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Donn M.; Ramanathan, Roshan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Fedorko, Daniel P.; Janik, John E.; Morris, John C.

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a history of previously treated Strongyloides stercoralis infection received anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody therapy with alemtuzumab on a clinical trial. After an initial response, she developed ocular involvement by ATL. Alemtuzumab was stopped and high-dose corticosteroid therapy was started to palliate her ocular symptoms. Ten days later, the patient developed diarrhea, vomiting, fever, cough, skin rash, and a deteriorating mental status. She was diagnosed with disseminated S. stercoralis. Corticosteroids were discontinued and the patient received anthelmintic therapy with ivermectin and albendazole with complete clinical recovery. PMID:21474923

  8. Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis infection in HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donn M; Ramanathan, Roshan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Fedorko, Daniel P; Janik, John E; Morris, John C

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a history of previously treated Strongyloides stercoralis infection received anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody therapy with alemtuzumab on a clinical trial. After an initial response, she developed ocular involvement by ATL. Alemtuzumab was stopped and high-dose corticosteroid therapy was started to palliate her ocular symptoms. Ten days later, the patient developed diarrhea, vomiting, fever, cough, skin rash, and a deteriorating mental status. She was diagnosed with disseminated S. stercoralis. Corticosteroids were discontinued and the patient received anthelmintic therapy with ivermectin and albendazole with complete clinical recovery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Urocanic acid is a major chemoattractant for the skin-penetrating parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Daniel; Brenes, Mario; Dunipace, Seth; Schad, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Host-seeking behavior by parasitic nematodes relies heavily on chemical cues emanating from potential hosts. Nonspecific cues for Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode that infects humans and a few other mammals, include carbon dioxide and sodium chloride; however, the characteristic species specificity of this parasite suggested the existence of other, more specific cues. Here we show that the infective larva of S. stercoralis is strongly attracted to an extract of mammalian skin and that the active component in this skin extract is urocanic acid. Urocanic acid, a histidine metabolite, is particularly abundant in mammalian skin and skin secretions, suggesting that it serves as an attractant specific to mammalian hosts. The attractant activity of urocanic acid is suppressed by divalent metal ions, suggesting a possible strategy for preventing infection. PMID:17234810

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Takeshi; Nabeya, Daijiro; Nakamura, Hideta; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Atsumi, Eriko; Fuchigami, Tatsuya; Aoki, Yoichi; Fujita, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman complained of diarrhea and vomiting after receiving chemotherapy for cervical cancer in association with high doses of corticosteroids. Two months later, the patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, and numerous Strongyloides stercoralis parasites were found in the intrabronchial discharge. Ivermectin was administered daily until nematodes were no longer detected in the sputum, and the patient's condition was successfully rescued. Antibodies for human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) were positive. HTLV-1 infection and the administration of corticosteroids are known risk factors for strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. Therefore, physicians should consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of patients from endemic areas who present with gastrointestinal symptoms under these risk factors.

  11. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; White, A Clinton; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Pérez-Molina, José A; Plana, Maria N

    2016-01-18

    Strongyloidiasis is a gut infection with Strongyloides stercoralis which is common world wide. Chronic infection usually causes a skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and respiratory problems, and it can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. It may be treated with ivermectin or albendazole or thiabendazole. To assess the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole) for treating chronic strongyloides infection. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (24 August 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015); EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015); LILACS (August 2015); and reference lists of articles. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'strongyloid*' as a search term, reference lists, and conference abstracts. Randomized controlled trials of ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and fixed- or random-effects models. We pooled adverse event data if the trials were sufficiently similar in their adverse event definitions. We included seven trials, enrolling 1147 participants, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations (Africa, Southeast Asia, America and Europe).In trials comparing ivermectin with albendazole, parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.08; 478 participants, four trials, moderate quality evidence). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; 518 participants, four trials, low quality evidence).In trials comparing ivermectin with thiabendazole, there was little or no difference in parasitological cure (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.20; 467

  12. Microarray-Based Analysis of Differential Gene Expression between Infective and Noninfective Larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Roshan; Varma, Sudhir; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Myers, Timothy G.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Abraham, David; Lok, James B.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences between noninfective first-stage (L1) and infective third-stage (L3i) larvae of parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis at the molecular level are relatively uncharacterized. DNA microarrays were developed and utilized for this purpose. Methods and Findings Oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the array were designed to bind 3,571 putative mRNA transcripts predicted by analysis of 11,335 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained as part of the Nematode EST project. RNA obtained from S. stercoralis L3i and L1 was co-hybridized to each array after labeling the individual samples with different fluorescent tags. Bioinformatic predictions of gene function were developed using a novel cDNA Annotation System software. We identified 935 differentially expressed genes (469 L3i-biased; 466 L1-biased) having two-fold expression differences or greater and microarray signals with a p value<0.01. Based on a functional analysis, L1 larvae have a larger number of genes putatively involved in transcription (p = 0.004), and L3i larvae have biased expression of putative heat shock proteins (such as hsp-90). Genes with products known to be immunoreactive in S. stercoralis-infected humans (such as SsIR and NIE) had L3i biased expression. Abundantly expressed L3i contigs of interest included S. stercoralis orthologs of cytochrome oxidase ucr 2.1 and hsp-90, which may be potential chemotherapeutic targets. The S. stercoralis ortholog of fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1, successfully used in a vaccine against Ancylostoma ceylanicum, was identified among the 25 most highly expressed L3i genes. The sperm-containing glycoprotein domain, utilized in a vaccine against the nematode Cooperia punctata, was exclusively found in L3i biased genes and may be a valuable S. stercoralis target of interest. Conclusions A new DNA microarray tool for the examination of S. stercoralis biology has been developed and provides new and valuable insights regarding

  13. Review of patients with Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in a tertiary teaching hospital, Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Azira, N M S; Abdel Rahman, M Z; Zeehaida, M

    2013-06-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode infecting humans. The actual prevalence of infestation with this parasite in our setting is not well established. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the age, sex and co-morbid conditions among patients with S. stercoralis infestation as well as to study the common manifestations of strongyloidiasis in our patients. Records of patients with positive S. stercoralis larvae from January 2000 to December 2012 in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan were reviewed. Ten patients were male and two were female. Their ages ranged from 19 to 78 years old. The majority (92%) of cases, presented with intestinal symptoms and 50% with moderate to severe anaemia. Thirty percent of cases had extraintestinal manifestations such as cough, sepsis and pleural effusion. Ninety-two percent of the patients had a comorbid illness. Most patients were immunocompromised, with underlying diabetes mellitus, retroviral disease, lymphoma and steroid therapy contributing to about 58% of cases. Only 58% were treated with anti-helminthic drugs. Strongyloidiasis is present in our local setting, though the prevalence could be underestimated.

  14. RNAseq Analysis of the Parasitic Nematode Strongyloides stercoralis Reveals Divergent Regulation of Canonical Dauer Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Minot, Samuel; Berriman, Matthew; Nolan, Thomas J.; Lok, James B.

    2012-01-01

    The infectious form of many parasitic nematodes, which afflict over one billion people globally, is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i). The parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis differs from other nematode species that infect humans, in that its life cycle includes both parasitic and free-living forms, which can be leveraged to investigate the mechanisms of L3i arrest and activation. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a similar developmentally arrested larval form, the dauer, whose formation is controlled by four pathways: cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling, insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling, and biosynthesis of dafachronic acid (DA) ligands that regulate a nuclear hormone receptor. We hypothesized that homologous pathways are present in S. stercoralis, have similar developmental regulation, and are involved in L3i arrest and activation. To test this, we undertook a deep-sequencing study of the polyadenylated transcriptome, generating over 2.3 billion paired-end reads from seven developmental stages. We constructed developmental expression profiles for S. stercoralis homologs of C. elegans dauer genes identified by BLAST searches of the S. stercoralis genome as well as de novo assembled transcripts. Intriguingly, genes encoding cGMP pathway components were coordinately up-regulated in L3i. In comparison to C. elegans, S. stercoralis has a paucity of genes encoding IIS ligands, several of which have abundance profiles suggesting involvement in L3i development. We also identified seven S. stercoralis genes encoding homologs of the single C. elegans dauer regulatory TGFβ ligand, three of which are only expressed in L3i. Putative DA biosynthetic genes did not appear to be coordinately regulated in L3i development. Our data suggest that while dauer pathway genes are present in S. stercoralis and may play a role in L3i development, there are significant differences between the two species

  15. Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kinjo, Nagisa; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Fujita, Jiro

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Ryukyu University Hospital, Okinawa, Japan, between January 2004 and November 2006. Stool samples collected from 3,292 patients were examined by the direct smear method, formalin-ether sedimentation method, and agar plate culture method. The prevalence rate of B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection was 1.0 and 3.4%, respectively. The prevalence rate of B. hominis infection in patients aged >80 years old was significantly higher than that in patients <80 years old (P < 0.001). The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis infection was significantly higher in patients with B. hominis infection compared with those without (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated a prevalence rate for B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection and an association between B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of acquiring Strongyloides stercoralis infection among patients attending a tertiary hospital in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jongwutiwes, Ubonvan; Waywa, Duangdao; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Strongyloides stercoralis infection in adult patients attending Siriraj Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Thailand. Methods A case–control study was carried out between July 2008 and April 2010. Case and control were identified from 6022 patients for whom results of faecal examination were available. A case was a patient who had S. stercoralis larva detected from faecal examination. Control was randomly selected from patients without S. stercoralis larvae detected in three consecutive faecal examinations. The proportion of control to case was 2 : 1. Demographic and clinical data for the day of diagnosis and retrospectively up to 15 days preceding the date of faecal examination were reviewed from their medical records. Results Overall, 149 (2.47%) patients had S. stercoralis larvae positive. There were 105 males (70.5%), with the mean (SD) age of 53.9 (17.2) years. A total of 300 controls were selected. Male gender (odds ratio (OR)  =  2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.78–4.27)), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (OR  =  3.23, 95% CI 1.43–7.29), and eosinophilia (OR  =  1.81, 95% CI 1.33–2.47) were found to be independent risk factors associated with S. stercoralis infection in this setting. Corticosteroid or other immunosuppressive treatment, and other concomitant illnesses were not associated with increased risk of S. stercoralis infection. Conclusion In this setting, strongyloidiasis was seen more often in male patients with eosinophilia and with HIV infection. Prevention of fatal complication caused by S. stercoralis by regular faecal examination, or serology for early detection and treatment of undiagnosed S. stercoralis infection, is warranted in these high-risk patients. PMID:24766337

  17. [Duodenal Linphoma asociated to Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Two types of HTLV-1 infection].

    PubMed

    Guevara Miranda, Julissa; Guzmán Rojas, Patricia; Espinoza-Ríos, Jorge; Mejía Cordero, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Infection by the Human T- Lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-1) causes Adult T cell Leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL), being the duodenal involvement rare. Commonly, patients co-infected with HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis are seen due to the lack of TH2 response found on these patients. We describe a 48-year- old woman, from the jungle of Peru, with a family history of HTLV-1 infection, who presented with a History of chronic diarrhea and weight loss. HTLV-1 infection with ATLL and strongyloidiasis were diagnosed. Ivermectin treatment and chemotherapy were initiated, being stabilized, and discharged. We report this case because of the unusual coexistence in the duodenum of ATLL and strongyloidiasis.

  18. Possible Strongyloides stercoralis infection diagnosed by videocapsule endoscopy in an immunocompetent patient with devastating diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Xouris, Dimitrios; Vafiadis-Zoumbulis, Irene; Papaxoinis, Kostis; Bamias, Giorgos; Karamanolis, George; Vlachogiannakos, Janis; Ladas, Spiros D.

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an endemic parasitic infection of tropical areas, but it is rare in Europe. Most infected immunocompetent patients are asymptomatic, but may present with abdominal pain and diarrhea even several years after acquiring the infection. However, in immunocompromized patients, hyperinfection syndrome has a high mortality rate. Risk factors for the hyperinfection syndrome are corticosteroids and infection with human T lymphotropic virus type 1. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is usually made by identifying the larvae in the stool or in duodenal biopsies. There are only four published cases of strongyloidiasis in Greek patients, three of them were immunocompromized. In our patient videocapsule endoscopy identified rhabditiform larvae suggestive of strongyloidiasis. This case report illustrates the difficulty in establishing a diagnosis of the disease in immunocompetent patients. PMID:24713813

  19. Corticosteroid-induced asthma: a manifestation of limited hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Sen, P; Gil, C; Estrellas, B; Middleton, J R

    1995-09-01

    Inadequate therapeutic response to parenteral corticosteroids in patients with acute bronchial asthma is infrequent. We report four patients whose bronchial asthma symptoms worsened after treatment with parenteral corticosteroids. All had larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in the stool. The new attack or the exacerbation of asthma appeared to be precipitated by systemic corticosteroid administration. The paradoxic therapeutic response of asthma to glucocorticoides was the major pulmonary manifestation of Strongyloides superinfection; there was no evidence of other organ involvement. Individuals with new onset of bronchial asthma or worsening of asthmatic episodes concurrent with the use of systemic corticosteroids should have thorough investigation for possible superinfection due to Strongyloides stercoralis. This is particularly important for patients who have resided in areas where intestinal helminthic infections are endemic. Discontinuance of steroid therapy or reduction in dosage of parenteral steroids appears necessary. Treatment with thiabendazole appears to be effective in patients with limited hyperinfection syndrome.

  20. Parasitological and immunological diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Machado, Eleuza R; Teixeira, Eliane M; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria Do Rosario F; Loureiro, Zaira M; Araújo, Rogério A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with gastrointestinal cancer through parasitological and immunological tests. A total of 77 patients were evaluated, 33 with gastrointestinal cancer and 44 controls with other types of cancers. All the patients were undergoing chemotherapy and 14 (18.2%) were receiving concomitant radiotherapy. For a parasitological diagnosis, we applied the Baermann and Lutz methods. The immunological diagnosis involved the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect IgG antibodies using Strongyloides ratti antigens. The frequency of positive S. stercoralis in gastrointestinal cancer diagnosed by parasitological methods was 3 cases (9.1%), by serology it was 8 cases (24.2%). In the control group 1 case (2.3%) of S. stercoralis was diagnosed by parasitological methods and 2 cases (4.5%) by immunological tests (p<0.05). Patients with gastrointestinal cancer had a 6.7-fold greater chance of testing positive for S. stercoralis infection. Our data highlight the importance of parasitological and immunological diagnosis for S. stercoralis in patients with gastrointestinal cancer living in endemic areas of strongyloidiasis, since they have a higher risk of becoming infected with S. stercoralis than patients with other types of cancer.

  1. A modified agar plate method for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Koga, K; Kasuya, S; Khamboonruang, C; Sukhavat, K; Ieda, M; Takatsuka, N; Kita, K; Ohtomo, H

    1991-10-01

    The agar plate method is a new technique with high detection rates for coprological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. This report details modifications of the technique and establishes a standardized procedure. We recommend that all plates should be carefully observed using a microscope because macroscopic observation can lead to false negative results. It is also advisable to pour formalin solution directly into microscopically positive dishes to collect worms by sedimentation. This procedure enables one to observe worms otherwise hidden. Sealing dishes with adhesive tape prevents larvae from crawling out of the dishes, eliminating any possibility in the reduction of detection rates, and greatly improves the safety conditions for the technician performing the procedure. We consider the agar plate method to be superior to the filter paper method in detecting Strongyloides, and we believe that it will eventually become the technique of choice.

  2. Strongyloides stercoralis: Systematic Review of Barriers to Controlling Strongyloidiasis for Australian Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Adrian; Smith, Michelle L.; Judd, Jenni A.; Speare, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis infects human hosts mainly through skin contact with contaminated soil. The result is strongyloidiasis, a parasitic disease, with a unique cycle of auto-infection causing a variety of symptoms and signs, with possible fatality from hyper-infection. Australian Indigenous community members, often living in rural and remote settings, are exposed to and infected with S. stercoralis. The aim of this review is to determine barriers to control of strongyloidiasis. The purpose is to contribute to the development of initiatives for prevention, early detection and effective treatment of strongyloidiasis. Methodology/Principle Findings Systematic search reviewing research published 2012 and earlier was conducted. Research articles discussing aspects of strongyloidiasis, context of infection and overall health in Indigenous Australians were reviewed. Based on the PRISMA statement, the systematic search of health databases, Academic Search Premier, Informit, Medline, PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing and Academic was conducted. Key search terms included strongyloidiasis, Indigenous, Australia, health, and community. 340 articles were retrieved with 16 original research articles published between 1969 and 2006 meeting criteria. Review found barriers to control defined across three key themes, (1) health status, (2) socioeconomic status, and (3) health care literacy and procedures. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies five points of intervention: (1) develop reporting protocols between health care system and communities; (2) test all Indigenous Australian patients, immunocompromised patients and those exposed to areas with S. stercoralis; (3) health professionals require detailed information on strongyloidiasis and potential for exposure to Indigenous Australian people; (4) to establish testing and treatment initiatives within communities; and (5) to measure and report prevalence rates specific to communities and to act

  3. Genetic differentiation of strongyloides stercoralis from two different climate zones revealed by 18S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Pakdee, Wallop; Thaenkham, Urusa; Dekumyoy, Paron; Sa-Nguankiat, Surapol; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit

    2012-11-01

    Over 70 countries in tropical and subtropical zones are endemic areas for Strongyloides stercoralis, with a higher prevalence of the parasite often occurring in tropical regions compared to subtropical ones. In order to explore genetic variations of S. stercoralis form different climate zones, 18S ribosomal DNA of parasite specimens obtained from Thailand were sequenced and compared with those from Japan. The maximum likelihood indicates that S. stercoralis populations from these two different climate zones have genetically diverged. The genetic relationship between S. stercoralis populations is not related to the host species, but rather to moisture and temperature. These factors may directly drive genetic differentiation among isolated populations of S. stercoralis.

  4. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and severe hypoxemia from Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Sameed, Yaser Abu; Beejay, Nigel; Al Maashari, Rehab

    2015-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is a rare, yet highly fatal disorder. It occurs most commonly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ethiopian female who presented with abdominal pain and hypotension. Shortly thereafter, she developed acute respiratory failure and progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. She was found to have diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to disseminated strongyloidiasis. We discuss the clinical condition of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome presenting with severe hypoxemia and complicated by severe diffuse alveolar hemorrhage leading to death. Similar cases in the literature are also describe. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Increased sensitivity of routine laboratory detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm by agar-plate culture.

    PubMed

    Jongwutiwes, S; Charoenkorn, M; Sitthichareonchai, P; Akaraborvorn, P; Putaporntip, C

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of agar-plate culture has been evaluated for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, compared with direct smear, the formalin-ether sedimentation technique and the filter-paper method. Of 1085 stool samples from the routine laboratory service at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Bangkok, 241 samples harboured S. stercoralis, 153 hookworm and 2 Rhabditis hominis. The recovery rate of S. stercoralis by agar-plate culture is significantly superior to the other methods (P < 0.005). The ratios of positive results from the methods used to the total number of S. stercoralis-positive cases were as follows: 1:1.03 by agar-plate culture, 1:1.85 by the filter-paper method, 1:1.98 by the sedimentation technique and 1:10.48 by direct stool smear. A similar trend of the efficacy ratio of each method was obtained for hookworm detection. The characteristic furrows left by hookworm larvae, and larvae and adults of S. stercoralis could be used for preliminary species identification. Daily search for furrows on agar plates for up to 6 consecutive days resulted in an increased sensitivity for diagnosis of both S. stercoralis and hookworm infections.

  6. DIAGNOSIS OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS BY SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana Martins de; Malta, Fernanda Mello; Corral, Marcelo Andreetta; Marques, Priscilla Duarte; Gottardi, Maiara; Meisel, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; Yamashiro, Juliana; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Castilho, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2016-09-22

    Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum samples were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble (AS) or a membrane fractions antigen (AM) obtained from alkaline solutions of the filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Of the 52 immunosuppressed patients, three (5.8%) were positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, compared to two patients (3.8%) and one patient (1.9%) who were detected by ELISA using the AS and the AM antigens, respectively. S. stercoralis DNA was amplified in seven (13.5%) stool samples by qPCR. These results suggest the utility of qPCR as an alternative diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in immunocompromised patients, considering the possible severity of this helminthiasis in this group of patients.

  7. DIAGNOSIS OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS BY SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS

    PubMed Central

    de PAULA, Fabiana Martins; MALTA, Fernanda Mello; CORRAL, Marcelo Andreetta; MARQUES, Priscilla Duarte; GOTTARDI, Maiara; MEISEL, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; YAMASHIRO, Juliana; PINHO, João Renato Rebello; CASTILHO, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; GONÇALVES, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; GRYSCHEK, Ronaldo César Borges; CHIEFFI, Pedro Paulo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum samples were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble (AS) or a membrane fractions antigen (AM) obtained from alkaline solutions of the filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Of the 52 immunosuppressed patients, three (5.8%) were positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, compared to two patients (3.8%) and one patient (1.9%) who were detected by ELISA using the AS and the AM antigens, respectively. S. stercoralis DNA was amplified in seven (13.5%) stool samples by qPCR. These results suggest the utility of qPCR as an alternative diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in immunocompromised patients, considering the possible severity of this helminthiasis in this group of patients. PMID:27680168

  8. Association between Strongyloides stercoralis infection and cortisol secretion in alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mônica L S; Inês, Elizabete de J; Souza, Alex Bruno da S; Dias, Victória Maria dos S; Guimarães, Cléa M; Menezes, Edimacia R; Barbosa, Larissa G; Alves, Maria Del Carmen M; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina A; Soares, Neci M

    2016-02-01

    A higher prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infections has been reported in alcoholic patients compared to nonalcoholic patients living in the same area. Excessive alcohol consumption increases the levels of endogenous corticosteroids that subsequently enhance the fecundity of S. stercoralis parthenogenetic females. These corticosteroids also enhance the transformation of rhabditiform larvae into infective filariform larvae by mimicking the effect of the ecdysteroid hormones produced by the parasite, thus leading to autoinfection. In addition, alterations in the intestinal barrier and host immune response contribute to the development of hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis in alcoholic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of S. stercoralis infections in alcoholic patients and to determine the association between S. stercoralis infection and endogenous cortisol levels. The frequency of infection was evaluated in 332 alcoholic and 92 nonalcoholic patients. The parasitological diagnosis was carried out by agar plate culture, the modified Baermann-Moraes method and spontaneous sedimentation. The immunological diagnosis was performed using an ELISA with anti-S. stercoralis IgG. The cortisol levels were measured in serum samples by ELISA. The frequency of S. stercoralis infection in alcoholic patients was 23.5% (78/332), while in nonalcoholic patients, it was 5.4% (5/92) (p<0.05). The cortisol levels were higher in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic patients (p<0.05). However, among the alcoholic patients, the cortisol levels did not differ between S. stercoralis-infected and uninfected patients (p>0.05). As demonstrated in this work, 81.3% (26/32) of patients with a high parasite load, considered as more than 11 larvae per gram of feces, presented serum cortisol levels above the normal reference value (24 mg/dL). High endogenous cortisol levels in alcoholic patients were not associated to susceptibility to S. stercoralis infection

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Takeo Province, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected helminth, affects an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. Information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce in tropical and sub-tropical resource poor countries, including Cambodia. We determined S. stercoralis infection prevalence and risk factors for infection in the general population in Southern Cambodia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and April 2011 among 2,861 participants living in 60 villages of Takeo province, using Koga-agar plate culture, the Baermann technique and the Kato-Katz technique on a single stool sample. Results Eight intestinal helminth species were diagnosed. Hookworm (31.4%) and S. stercoralis (21.0%) occurred most frequently. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection increased with age. In all age groups a higher prevalence was found among males than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4 – 2.0; P < 0.001). Participants who had a latrine at home were significantly less frequently infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4 – 0.8; P = 0.003). Muscle pain (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0 – 1.6; P = 0.028) and urticaria (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 – 1.8; P = 0.001) were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. Conclusions S. stercoralis is highly prevalent among the general Cambodian population and should no longer be neglected. Access to adequate diagnosis and treatment is urgently needed. PMID:24886763

  10. Improved Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Modified Agar Plate Cultures.

    PubMed

    Pocaterra, Leonor A; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Peñaranda, Rosaura; Rojas, Elsy; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Hernán, Aurora; Certad, Gabriela; Goldstein, Carlos; Núñez, Luz

    2017-04-01

    AbstractA modification of Koga agar plate culture was performed, consisting of a 2 × 2-cm cellophane paper centered on the agar plate to prevent bacterial contamination of the agar and daily dish examinations (days 2-5). Between January 2000 and July 2005, we examined 1,708 infection-suspected patients, of which 147 (8.6%) harbored S. stercoralis. Single modified agar plate cultures exhibited superior sensitivity (93.2%), compared with different three-sample screening methods (sensitivity-Baermann: 76.6%, formalin-ethyl acetate: 22%, and direct smear: 15.3%). Agar plate cultures stand out as helpful alternatives for improved detection and therapy monitoring in poor countries and endemic areas. Combined with Baermann methods, they provide increased probability for S. stercoralis detection.

  11. Should we look for Strongyloides stercoralis in foreign-born HIV-infected persons?

    PubMed

    Llenas-García, Jara; Fiorante, Silvana; Salto, Efrén; Maseda, Diego; Rodríguez, Violeta; Matarranz, Mariano; Hernando, Asunción; Rubio, Rafael; Pulido, Federico

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the implementation of a systematic Strongyloides stercoralis screening programme in HIV infected immigrants attending an HIV Unit in Spain. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to assess the presence of Strongyloides IgG. Patients with a positive serology were treated with ivermectin; serologic follow-up testing was performed. 237 patients were screened (65.4 % men). Origin: 64.1 % came from Latin America, 16.5 % from Sub-Saharan Africa, 9.7 % from the Caribbean, 9.7 % from other areas. Strongyloides stercolaris IgG was positive in 13 cases (5.5 %). In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with a positive Strongyloides serology were illiteracy (OR: 23.31; p = 0.009) and eosinophilia (OR: 15.44; p < 0.0001). Nine of the 13 patients positive for S. stercoralis IgG and treated with ivermectin had a follow up serologic test: 77.8 % achieved a serologic response (55.5 % seroreversion). Screening of HIV-positive immigrants may be desirable, at least in those with higher risk of hyperinfection syndrome. Serologic testing seems a useful tool in both diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.

  12. Peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD25(+) regulatory T cells in alcoholic patients with Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Steveen Rios; Covre, Luciana Polaco; Stringari, Lorenzzo Lyrio; da Penha Zago-Gomes, Maria; Gomes, Daniel Cláudio Oliveira; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2017-03-01

    An increased number of regulatory T (Treg) cells has been reported in patients with HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection, suggesting the contribution of these cells to worm survival. As Strongyloides infections have been found to be highly prevalent in chronic alcoholics, we investigated the effect of abusive ethanol ingestion on the induction of Treg cells in alcoholic patients with Strongyloides infection. Treg cells were assessed by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy non-alcoholic (control) and 14 alcoholic patients (alcoholic) without Strongyloides infection and five non-alcoholics (controlSs) and five chronic alcoholics (alcoholSs) with Strongyloides infection. The results showed significantly higher frequencies of Treg cells in the alcoholic, controlSs and alcoholSs group patients than in the control group patients. However, the frequencies of Treg cells did not differ between the alcoholSs and controlSs groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ethanol consumption induced an increase in the number of circulating Treg cells in chronic alcoholics in this study but was unable to potentiate the induction of these cells in alcoholics with Strongyloides infection.

  13. Detrimental effect of water submersion of stools on development of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Morakote, Nimit; Janwan, Penchom; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is prevalent in Thailand, yet its prevalence in the south is lower than in other parts of the country. This might be due to the long rainy season in the south resulting in stool submersion in water inhibiting worm development. In this study, the effect of water submersion of fecal samples on development of Strongyloides stercoralis was investigated. Ten ml of a 1 ∶ 5 fecal suspension were placed in 15-ml tubes, 35-mm dishes, and 90-mm dishes producing the depths of 80 mm, 11 mm and 2 mm-suspensions, respectively. The worm development was followed at 1/6, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 24, and 36 h, by determining the number of filariform larva (FL) generated from agar-plate cultures (APC). Fecal suspensions kept in tubes and 35-mm dishes showed a decline in FL yield relative to incubation time and reached zero production 14 h after incubation. In contrast, the number of FL generated from the suspension kept in 90-mm dishes remained stable up to 36 h. Cumulatively, all tubes and 35-mm dishes became negative in APC after 14 h while 90-mm dishes remained APC-positive up to 36 h. Adding more water or stool suspension to dishes resulted in a decreased number of FL. Mechanical aeration of the suspensions in tubes restored an almost normal FL yield. It appears that the atmospheric air plays a significant role in growth and development of S. stercoralis in the environment and may be one of factors which contribute to a lower prevalence of human strongyloidiasis in the south of Thailand.

  14. Recurrence of strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient with Hansen's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Joelma Nascimento; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino; Soares, Neci Matos

    2014-03-01

    In patients with immunosuppressive disorders, S. stercoralis infection may develop into a hyperinfection syndrome which, on rare occasions, may be a life-threatening condition. Therapy of S. stercoralis infection with thiabendazole has been limited, due to its numerous side effects, and has been replaced by albendazole and ivermectin. The present case report describes a case of Strongyloides Hyperinfection Syndrome (SHS) in a patient with Hansen's disease and lack of response to first-line anthelmintic treatment. A 38 year-old man was diagnosed as having borderline lepromatous leprosy. He developed Erythema Nodosum Leprosum and was treated with thalidomide and prednisone. In May 2010 he was diagnosed with S. stercoralis infection and was treated with albendazole. One year later, the stool examination showed continued presence of S. stercoralis larvae. He was treated with ivermectin (6 mg) in a double dose (given 1 month apart) which resulted in larvae excretion clearance. The absence of infection was confirmed three times during a 1 year followup period by stool examination and non-detection of anti-S. stercoralis IgG levels.

  15. Duodenal obstruction - an unusual presentation of Strongyloides stercoralis enteritis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intestinal obstruction is a poorly recognized and probably underreported complication of strongyloidiasis. We present herein an unusual case, of complete duodenal obstruction caused by S. stercoralis. Methods A systematic review of the literature examining the clinical course, diagnostic methods, and outcome of this rare complication of strongyloidiasis was performed. Results A 42-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of abdominal pain, vomit, and weight loss. An abdominal CT scan showed an obstruction of the third part of the duodenum. Segmental intestinal resection was carried out and histopathology examination revealed heavy Strongyloides stercoralis infestation. Duodenal obstruction is a rare complication of S. stercoralis infection, with only 8 cases described in the literature since 1970. Most of the patients are males, middle-aged, and the diagnosis was made by duodenal aspirate/biopsy, or analysis of surgical specimen. Conclusions Duodenal obstruction is an unusual, but potential fatal, complication of S. stercoralis infection. The large spectrum of clinical manifestation and lack of classic clinical syndrome make the final diagnosis of strongyloidiasis extremely difficult. A high index of suspicion, mainly in patients from endemic areas, is needed for correct and early diagnosis of this uncommon presentation of Strogyloides stercoralis enteritis. PMID:20698992

  16. E. coli Meningitis Presenting in a Patient with Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juliana B.; Maque, Yvan; Moquillaza, Manuel A.; Anicama, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spontaneous Escherichia coli meningitis is an infrequent condition in adults and is associated with some predisposing factors, including severe Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) infections. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old Hispanic man, with history of travelling to the jungle regions of Peru and Brazil two decades ago, and who received prednisone due to Bell's palsy for three weeks before admission, presented to the Emergency Department with diarrhea, fever, and hematochezia. A week after admission he developed drowsiness, meningeal signs, abdominal distension, and constipation. A cerebrospinal fluid culture showed extended spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli. A colonoscopy was performed and showed pancolitis. Three days after the procedure the patient became unstable and developed peritoneal signs. He underwent a laparotomy, which ended up in a total colectomy and partial proctectomy due to toxic megacolon. Three days later the patient died in the intensive care unit due to septic shock. Autopsy was performed and microscopic examination revealed the presence of multiple Strongyloides larvae throughout the body. Conclusion. Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be excluded in adults with spontaneous E. coli meningitis, especially, if gastrointestinal symptoms and history of travelling to an endemic area are present. Even with a proper diagnosis and management, disseminated strongyloidiasis has a poor prognosis. PMID:24324900

  17. Efficacy of parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in faecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Inês, Elizabete de J; Souza, Joelma N; Santos, Renata C; Souza, Eliane S; Santos, Fred L; Silva, Mônica L S; Silva, Moacir P; Teixeira, Márcia C A; Soares, Neci M

    2011-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of stool examination for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, a total of 634 stool samples from the routine laboratory service of the Pharmacia Faculty, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, were examined by agar plate culture (APC), Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation. The sensitivity of agar plate culture, calculated by combining results of all 3 methods, was 95% for S. stercoralis and 77.6% for hookwoorm. Moreover, APC had superior accuracy than Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation for S. stercoralis and hookworm diagnosis, respectively. The S. stercoralis and hookworm positive samples from the laboratory routine, obtained after the previous analysis, along with those initially selected, were used to evaluate the concordance between microscopic examination and both the type of furrows left by larvae and the time for culture positivity using the APC method. Of 115 stool samples positive for S. stercoralis and 92 positive for hookworm, 110 (95.7%) and 89 (96.7%), respectively, had concordant results for furrows and morphological characteristics. The cumulative percentage of positivity increased to 94% by the third day of observation; at this time, only 19.6% of hookworm-positive samples had positive culture plates. Analyses of 74 S. stercoralis-positive stool samples stored at 4°C for 24, 48 and 72h showed the presence of larvae in 48.6%, 28.4% and 23% of samples, respectively when re-examined by the APC. As a definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis depends on the microscopic demonstration of parasites, increasing the sensitivity of the detection requires the use of different parasitological methods, including APC.

  18. Ivermectin Treatment and Sanitation Effectively Reduce Strongyloides stercoralis Infection Risk in Rural Communities in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schindler, Christian; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability to replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and its worldwide prevalence has recently been estimated to be at least half that of hookworm. Information on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis remains scarce and modalities for its large-scale control are yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based two-year cohort study was conducted among the general population in a rural province in North Cambodia. At each survey, participants infected with S. stercoralis were treated with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW). Diagnosis was performed using a combination of the Baermann method and Koga agar plate culture on two stool samples. The cohort included participants from eight villages who were either positive or negative for S. stercoralis at baseline. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to assess risk factors for S. stercoralis infection at baseline and re-infection at follow-up. A total of 3,096 participants were examined at baseline, revealing a S. stercoralis prevalence of 33.1%. Of these participants, 1,269 were followed-up over two years. Re-infection and infection rates among positive and negative participants at baseline were 14.4% and 9.6% at the first and 11.0% and 11.5% at the second follow-up, respectively. At follow-up, all age groups were at similar risk of acquiring an infection, while infection risk significantly decreased with increasing village sanitation coverage. Conclusions/Significance Chemotherapy-based control of S. stercoralis is feasible and highly beneficial, particularly in combination with improved sanitation. The impact of community-based ivermectin treatment on S. stercoralis was high, with over 85% of villagers remaining negative one year after treatment. The integration of S. stercoralis into existing STH control programs should be considered

  19. Simultaneous Larva Migrans and Larva Currens Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Liliam Dalla; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, which penetrate the skin, go through the lymphatic circulation, and migrate to the lungs before reaching the intestines. They mature and may cause cutaneous strongyloidiasis, known as larva currens because of the quick migratory rate of the larva. The authors describe a case in which the larvae did not follow their natural lymph route, and after penetrating into the intertriginous area, they migrated to the dermis, developing larva migrans in the early phase, and later associated with the typical lesions of larva currens. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of larva in the skin biopsy. PMID:23476820

  20. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-01-01

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

  1. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-03-27

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature.

  2. Strongyloides stercoralis, Eosinophilia, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Predictive Value of Eosinophilia in the Diagnosis of S stercoralis Infection in an Endemic Community

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Russell; Thompson, Fintan; Esterman, Adrian; McDermott, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the predictive value of eosinophilia for Strongyloides stercoralis infection, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, in an endemic community. In remote communities, eosinophilia is frequently used as a proxy test for the presence of helminth infections. Past studies of eosinophilia and Strongyloides infection have been conducted in specific groups such as immigrants and refugees, or in subpopulations of nonendemic communities, rather than in endemic communities. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the relationship between eosinophilia and Strongyloides ELISA serology, as part of a study into the relationship between S stercoralis infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in an Indigenous community in northern Australia. Results. Two hundred thirty-nine adults had their eosinophil count and S stercoralis ELISA serology measured in 2012 and 2013, along with other biometric and metabolic data. Eosinophilia was found to have a relatively poor sensitivity (60.9%), specificity (71.1%), positive predictive value (54.6%), and negative predictive value (76.1%) for S stercoralis ELISA positivity in this group. However, there was a more constant relationship between eosinophilia and S Stercoralis ELISA positivity in patients with T2DM (negative predictive value 87.5%). Conclusion. This study suggests that the presence or absence of eosinophilia is not an adequate proxy test for S stercoralis infection in a community where the infection is prevalent, and that the association between eosinophilia and S stercoralis ELISA positivity is more constant in patients with T2DM. PMID:26989753

  3. Characterization of a recombinant immunodiagnostic antigen (NIE) from Strongyloides stercoralis L3-stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Varatharajalu; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Thompson, Robert W; Andersen, John F; Neva, Franklin A

    2002-01-01

    Due to the process of internal autoinfection, even chronic asymptomatic infections with Strongyloides stercoralis have the potential to become severe disseminated disease with fatal outcome. Intermittent and scanty larval excretion makes parasitologic diagnosis difficult. Serodiagnosis is helpful, but antigen preparation from infective larvae requires access to patients or immunosuppressed experimental animals. For these reasons, attention has turned to recombinant antigens for immunodiagnosis. A 31-kDa candidate antigen (NIE) derived from an L3 cDNA library is described in this report. Multiple alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of NIE showed approximately 12-18% identity with various other organisms, including 17.9% of Asp1 of Ancylostoma caninum, 12.6% of Hemonchus contortus, and 17.6% of insect venom allergen 5 of yellow jacket. By ELISA, antibodies to the purified recombinant NIE antigen were demonstrated in 87.5% of 48 sera from strongyloides-infected patients and in only 6.5% of sera from presumed normal controls. Immunoreactivity of purified NIE antigen with parasite-specific IgE from sera of strongyloides-infected patients indicated its potential use as an immediate sensitivity skin test antigen. This application of the NIE antigen was supported by its capacity to trigger release of histamine upon in vitro exposure to blood from strongyloides-infected patients and its failure to produce histamine release from blood of normal controls.

  4. Parasitological and serological diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in domesticated dogs from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Júnior, A Ferreira; Gonçalves-Pires, M R F; Silva, D A O; Gonçalves, A L R; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2006-03-15

    Canine strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis and presents a great zoonotic potential. Its confirmation, using coproparasitological methods, is difficult. The detection of serum specific antibodies, however, may facilitate the diagnosis. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of S. stercoralis through the use of parasitological methods and to detect specific antibodies to the parasite in serum samples from domestic dogs by using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) on slides and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 215 dogs of various breeds, from the cities of Uberlândia, Araxá and Campo Belo in the State of Minas Gerais, were examined and distributed according to age into the following groups: (I) 19 males and 20 females of 1-2 months old; (II) 11 males and 20 females of 2-month- to 1-year-old and (III) 41 males and 104 females, from 1 to 7 years old. Coproparasitological results showed that 63/215 (29.3%) of the dogs presented some kind of parasite, with two (0.9%) dogs (one from Araxá and the other from Uberlândia) passing S. stercoralis larvae in the feces. Serological results revealed antibodies to S. stercoralis in 45/215 (20.9%) of the dogs, with seropositivity rates of 0% (0/39) in Group I, 22.6% (7/31) in Group II, and 26.2% (38/145) in Group III. No serological cross-reactivity between S. stercoralis and hookworms or Ascaridae was found. Hookworm infections were seen in 31 dogs, but only one of these dogs (infected with both hookworm and Cystoisospora spp.) was S. stercoralis seropositive by IFAT. The present study demonstrated, for the first time, natural S. stercoralis infections in dogs diagnosed by coproparasitological and serological methods. It was concluded that the detection of specific antibodies to S. stercoralis by IFAT and ELISA may contribute to the diagnosis of canine strongyloidiasis.

  5. Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among cancer patients in a major hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zueter, AbdelRahman Mohammad; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Abdullah, Abu Dzarr; Mohamad, Norsarwany; Arifin, Norsyahida; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Noordin, Rahmah

    2014-07-01

    Strongyloidiasis is one of the most commonly neglected but clinically important parasitic infections worldwide, especially among immunocompromised patients. Evidence of infection among immunocompromised patients in Malaysia is, however, lacking. In this study, microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) infection among cancer patients in a Malaysian hospital. A total of 192 stool and serum samples were collected from cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy with or without steroid treatment at a hospital in northeastern Malaysia. Stool samples were examined for S. stercoralis using parasitological methods and real-time PCR. Serology by ELISA was performed to detect parasite-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. For comparison, IgG4- and IgG-ELISAs were also performed on the sera of 150 healthy individuals from the same area. Of the 192 samples examined, 1 (0.5%) sample was positive for S. stercoralis by microscopy, 3 (1.6%) by real-time PCR, 8 (4.2%) by IgG-ELISA, 6 (3.1%) by IgG4-ELISA, and none was positive by IgE-ELISA. In comparison, healthy blood donors had significantly lower prevalence of parasite-specific IgG (2.67%, p < 0.05) and IgG4 (2.67%, p < 0.05) responses. This study showed that laboratory testing may be considered as a diagnostic investigation for S. stercoralis among immunocompromised cancer patients.

  6. Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among cancer patients in a major hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zueter, AbdelRahman Mohammad; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Abdullah, Abu Dzarr; Mohamad, Norsarwany; Arifin, Norsyahida; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Noordin, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Strongyloidiasis is one of the most commonly neglected but clinically important parasitic infections worldwide, especially among immunocompromised patients. Evidence of infection among immunocompromised patients in Malaysia is, however, lacking. In this study, microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) infection among cancer patients in a Malaysian hospital. METHODS A total of 192 stool and serum samples were collected from cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy with or without steroid treatment at a hospital in northeastern Malaysia. Stool samples were examined for S. stercoralis using parasitological methods and real-time PCR. Serology by ELISA was performed to detect parasite-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. For comparison, IgG4- and IgG-ELISAs were also performed on the sera of 150 healthy individuals from the same area. RESULTS Of the 192 samples examined, 1 (0.5%) sample was positive for S. stercoralis by microscopy, 3 (1.6%) by real-time PCR, 8 (4.2%) by IgG-ELISA, 6 (3.1%) by IgG4-ELISA, and none was positive by IgE-ELISA. In comparison, healthy blood donors had significantly lower prevalence of parasite-specific IgG (2.67%, p < 0.05) and IgG4 (2.67%, p < 0.05) responses. CONCLUSION This study showed that laboratory testing may be considered as a diagnostic investigation for S. stercoralis among immunocompromised cancer patients. PMID:25091885

  7. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis: Detection of parasite-derived DNA in urine.

    PubMed

    Lodh, Nilanjan; Caro, Reynaldo; Sofer, Shterna; Scott, Alan; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Shiff, Clive

    2016-11-01

    Detecting infections of Strongyloides stercoralis is arduous and has low sensitivity. Clinically this is a major problem because chronic infections may disseminate in the host and lead to a life threatening condition. Epidemiologically, S. stercoralis is often missed in surveys as it is difficult to identify by standard stool examination procedures. We present, for the first time, evidence that the infection can be detected in filtered urine samples collected and processed in the field and subsequently assayed for the presence of parasite DNA. Urine specimens (∼40mL) were collected from 125 test and control individuals living in rural and peri-urban regions of Northern Argentina. From the same individuals, fresh stool specimens were processed using three different copropological methods. Urine specimens were filtered in the field through a 12.5cm Whatman No. 3 filter. The filters were dried and packed individually in sealable plastic bags with desiccant and shipped to a laboratory where DNA was recovered from the filter and PCR-amplified with primers specific to a dispersed repetitive sequence. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection by stool culture and direct examination was 35/125 (28%), In contrast, PCR-based detection of parasite-specific trans-renal DNA in urine indicated that 56/125 (44.8%) carried the parasite. Of the patients that tested positive for urine-based parasite DNA, approximately half also tested positive in their stool specimens. There were 6.4% of cases where parasite larvae were seen in the stool but no DNA was amplified from the urine. As proof of principle, DNA amplification from urine residue reveals significantly more cases of S. stercoralis infection than the current standard stool examination techniques. Additional work is required to establish the relative utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine-based analysis compared to parasitological and nucleic acid detection from stool for clinical and epidemiological detection for S

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis in common vegetables and herbs in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zeehaida, M; Zairi, N Z; Rahmah, N; Maimunah, A; Madihah, B

    2011-04-01

    Transmission of soil-transmitted helminthes infection is by faecal oral route, and is influenced by food preference. Kelantanese love to consume ulam which are raw vegetables and herbs. Some of the herbs grow on grounds with high humidity and are abundant near drainage areas, these are also places with higher likelihood of harbouring viable parasite ova. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of soiltransmitted helminthes in vegetables, herbs and fruits found in our local setting. The results by microscopy showed that there was no helminthes ovum or protozoan parasite in the samples. However, Strongyloides stercoralis rhabdatiform larvae were identified in water samples used to wash pegaga, kesum and water spinach, and the number of larvae observed were 152, 9 and 16 respectively. Analysis by real-time PCR confirmed the microscopic observation of this helminth. This study highlighted that vegetables and herbs are likely sources of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Thus vegetable sellers as well as the food handlers are the two important groups who are at high risk of acquiring the infection.

  9. High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P = 0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at

  10. High prevalence and spatial distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8; P=0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic

  11. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION AMONG THE ELDERLY IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Naves, Maria Margarida; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Little is known about the frequency of intestinal parasites in the elderly due to a lack of attention given to the occurrence of these infections among older adults. This study compares the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites between elderly living in nursing homes (n = 100) and those noninstitutionalized (n = 100) from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, associated with data of epidemiological and socio-demographic conditions. Through coproparasitological examination of both groups, enteroparasites were detected in 15 of 200 individuals examined (7.5%; CI: 5.1- 9.9). S. stercoralis was the most frequent parasite 10/200 (5%; CI: 4.2-5.8), being significantly higher in males and in individuals with autonomy for daily living activities. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of parasites between the two groups compared. In conclusion, S. stercoralis infection was highly prevalent in elderly patients and it does not depend on whether the individual was institutionalized or not. PMID:24037284

  12. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-06-02

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient.

  13. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Maleewong Intapan, Pewpan; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient. PMID:26035061

  14. [Factors associated with strongyloides stercoralis infection in an endemic area in Peru].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Julio; Marcos, Luis; Terashima, Angélica; Alvarez, Héctor; Samalvides, Frine; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the epidemiological factors and clinical symptoms associated with Strongyloides stercoralis infection, we carried out a descriptive study with a control group in the District of Chanchamayo, Province of Chanchamayo, Junin, Peru. Group I (n = 50) represented those individuals with strongyloidosis and group II (n = 50) were those who tested negative for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods. Epidemiological variables significantly associated with group I were: bathing in the river 3-4 times per week, consuming non-drinking water, defecating in the field; and with group II: drinking boiled water, wearing sneakers and living in houses with cement floor. The clinical symptoms of epigastric pain, daily abdominal pain, semi liquid feces, liquid feces, daily defecation frequency, urticaria and nausea were significantly associated with group 1; whereas more solid feces and defecating every other day were significantly associated with group II. Among individuals under the age of 20 there was a higher percentage of malnutrition according to the weight-age index in group I (p = 0.045). We conclude that infection by S. stercoralis should be suspected in persons from tropical areas who are in frequent contact with rivers or streams or live close to watercourses, who have gastroenterological or dermatological symptoms or who are malnourished, especially if they are children or adolescents.

  15. Cutaneous manifestations of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in an HIV-seropositive patient.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephanie J; Cohen, Philip R; MacFarlane, Deborah F; Grossman, Marc E

    2011-01-01

    white cell count of 7/microL (100% lymphocytes), a decreased glucose level of 53 mg/dL, and a decreased protein level of 33 mg/dL. The cerebrospinal fluid culture was now positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to cefotaxime. The patient was started on imipenem. On day 34 of his admission, the patient became tachypneic with complaints of dyspnea. A chest roentgenogram revealed bilateral patchy infiltrates. He was transferred to the intensive care unit and intubated for hypoxemic respiratory failure (arterial blood gas values on 6 L of oxygen: pH, 7.46; bicarbonate, 23; and oxygen saturation, 37). That evening, the patient was also noted to have diffuse petechiae and purpura in a reticulated pattern over his abdomen (Figure 1A and 1B), most heavily concentrated in the periumbilical region, extending to the axillae and upper thighs. A 3x3-mm punch biopsy from abdominal skin demonstrated Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in the dermis (Figure 2A and 2B). His sputum specimen was teeming with adult S stercoralis worms (Figure 3) and, subsequently, numerous S stercoralis larvae were observed not only from the bronchoalveolar lavage but also from the nasogastric fluid specimen. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of disseminated strongyloidiasis. On hospital day 35, the patient was doing poorly and was started on thiabendazole (1250 mg twice daily for 28 days). Nine days later, ivermectin (4.5 mg once daily for 3 days for 2 courses) was also added. He continued to clinically deteriorate. The patient died 31 days after systemic antihelminthic treatment was initiated.

  16. A Fatal Strongyloides Stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome in a Patient With Chronic kidney Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ting-Ting; Yang, Qing; Yu, Mei-Hong; Wang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is a rare but fatal disease, which occurs commonly in immunocompromised patients. Strongyloidiasis among patients with chronic kidney disease is rarely reported.A 55-year-old Chinese male presented to hospital with diarrhea and abdominal pain. He developed acute respiratory failure and progressed to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage owing to disseminated strongyloidiasis immediately. The bronchoalveolar lavage revealed filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.This patient was diagnosed with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. Although albendazole, mechanical ventilator support, fluid resuscitation, vasopressor support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hydrocortisone, and broadspectrum antimicrobials were actively used, the patient eventually died.Similar cases in patients with chronic kidney disease in the literature are also reviewed. Through literature review, we recommend that strongyloidiasis should be routinely investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease who will undergo immunosuppressive therapy.

  17. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Simba Khamis, I; Mgeni, Ali F; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-11-01

    A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2%) was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0%) in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6%) and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%). A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  18. Toward Understanding the Functional Role of Ss-riok-1, a RIO Protein Kinase-Encoding Gene of Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wang; Lok, James B.; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Gasser, Robin B.; Fang, Fang; Lei, Wei-Qiang; Fang, Rui; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Hu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Some studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammals have shown that RIO protein kinases (RIOKs) are involved in ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle progression and development. However, there is a paucity of information on their functions in parasitic nematodes. We aimed to investigate the function of RIOK-1 encoding gene from Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode parasitizing humans and dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings The RIOK-1 protein-encoding gene Ss-riok-1 was characterized from S. stercoralis. The full-length cDNA, gDNA and putative promoter region of Ss-riok-1 were isolated and sequenced. The cDNA comprises 1,828 bp, including a 377 bp 5′-UTR, a 17 bp 3′-UTR and a 1,434 bp ORF encoding a protein of 477 amino acids containing a RIOK-1 signature motif. The genomic sequence of the Ss-riok-1 coding region is 1,636 bp in length and has three exons and two introns. The putative promoter region comprises 4,280 bp and contains conserved promoter elements, including four CAAT boxes, 12 GATA boxes, eight E-boxes (CANNTG) and 38 TATA boxes. The Ss-riok-1 gene is transcribed throughout all developmental stages with the highest transcript abundance in the infective third-stage larva (iL3). Recombinant Ss-RIOK-1 is an active kinase, capable of both phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation. Patterns of transcriptional reporter expression in transgenic S. stercoralis larvae indicated that Ss-RIOK-1 is expressed in neurons of the head, body and tail as well as in pharynx and hypodermis. Conclusions/Significance The characterization of the molecular and the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the encoding gene provide first clues as to functions of RIOKs in the biological processes of parasitic nematodes. PMID:25101874

  19. Comparative Genomics of Gene Expression in the Parasitic and Free-Living Nematodes Strongyloides stercoralis and Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mitreva, Makedonka; McCarter, James P.; Martin, John; Dante, Mike; Wylie, Todd; Chiapelli, Brandi; Pape, Deana; Clifton, Sandra W.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Waterston, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Although developmental timing of gene expression is used to infer potential gene function, studies have yet to correlate this information between species. We analyzed 10,921 ESTs in 3311 clusters from first- and infective third-stage larva (L1, L3i) of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis and compared the results to Caenorhabditis elegans, a species that has an L3i-like dauer stage. In the comparison of S. stercoralis clusters with stage-specific expression to C. elegans homologs expressed in either dauer or nondauer stages, matches between S. stercoralis L1 and C. elegans nondauer-expressed genes dominated, suggesting conservation in the repertoire of genes expressed during growth in nutrient-rich conditions. For example, S. stercoralis collagen transcripts were abundant in L1 but not L3i, a pattern consistent with C. elegans collagens. Although a greater proportion of S. stercoralis L3i than L1 genes have homologs among the C. elegans dauer-specific transcripts, we did not uncover evidence of a robust conserved L3i/dauer `expression signature.' Strikingly, in comparisons of S. stercoralis clusters to C. elegans homologs with RNAi knockouts, those with significant L1-specific expression were more than twice as likely as L3i-specific clusters to match genes with phenotypes. We also provide functional classifications of S. stercoralis clusters. PMID:14762059

  20. Tribendimidine and Albendazole for Treating Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia spp.: Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Background Tribendimidine is an anthelminthic drug with a broad spectrum of activity. In 2004 the drug was approved by Chinese authorities for human use. The efficacy of tribendimidine against soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) has been established, and new laboratory investigations point to activity against cestodes and Strongyloides ratti. Methodology/Principal Findings In an open-label randomized trial, the safety and efficacy of a single oral dose of albendazole or tribendimidine (both drugs administered at 200 mg for 5- to 14-year-old children, and 400 mg for individuals ≥15 years) against soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Taenia spp. were assessed in a village in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. The analysis was on a per-protocol basis and the trial is registered with controlled-trials.com (number ISRCTN01779485). Both albendazole and tribendimidine were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides and, moderately, against hookworm. The efficacy against T. trichiura was low. Among 57 individuals who received tribendimidine, the prevalence of S. stercoralis was reduced from 19.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 54.5%, p = 0.107), and that of Taenia spp. from 26.3% to 8.8% (observed cure rate 66.7%, p = 0.014). Similar prevalence reductions were noted among the 66 albendazole recipients. Taking into account “new” infections discovered at treatment evaluation, which were most likely missed pre-treatment due to the lack of sensitivity of available diagnostic approaches, the difference between the drug-specific net Taenia spp. cure rates was highly significant in favor of tribendimidine (p = 0.001). No significant adverse events of either drug were observed. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that single-dose oral tribendimidine can be employed in settings with extensive intestinal polyparasitism, and its efficacy against A. lumbricoides and hookworm was

  1. Strongyloides stercoralis infection increases the likelihood to detect Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in peripheral blood in Chagas disease patients.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Piron, Maria; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Sauleda, Silvia; Molina-Morant, Daniel; Moure, Zaira; Molina, Israel

    2017-09-04

    In a previous study performed by our group, Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with Chagas disease was associated with higher proportion of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection in peripheral blood. The aim of the study was to confirm this association in a larger cohort of patients. Cross-sectional study of all patients with Chagas disease diagnosed from 2005 to 2015 during blood donation at the Catalan Blood Bank. Demographic data and T. cruzi RT-PCR were collected. S. stercoralis infection diagnosis was based on a serological test. Two hundred and two blood donors were included. T. cruzi RT-PCR was positive in 72 (35.6%) patients, and S. stercoralis serology was positive in 22 (10.9%) patients. Patients with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR than those with negative serology (54.5% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.050), and the difference increased when taking a serological index cut-off of 2.5, which increases the specificity of the test to detect a confirmed strongyloidiasis (60% vs. 33%, P = 0.017). Patients with Chagas disease with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR in peripheral blood than those with negative serology, which reflects the potential immunomodulatory effects of S. stercoralis in T. cruzi co-infected patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Side Benefits of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis on Strongyloides stercoralis Prevalence on Pemba Island, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Barda, Beatrice; Albonico, Marco; Buonfrate, Dora; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-06-19

    Strongyloides stercoralis, although endemic in many countries, is not included in helminth control programs. Few data are available on the prevalence and morbidity linked to this infection. We compared data from two studies conducted in 1998 and 2013 on Pemba Island, Tanzania, involving 525 and 509 schoolchildren, respectively. In 1998, the diagnostic method used was Harada Mori, whereas in 2013 diagnosis was made by both Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The prevalence registered was 41% in 1998 and 7% in 2013. This data suggest that the prevalence of S. stercoralis on Pemba was significantly reduced 7 years after the last ivermectin administration for preventive chemotherapy and underlines the importance and impact of large-scale preventive chemotherapy, which often goes beyond its actual target. Preventive chemotherapy with ivermectin should be recommended in areas where S. stercoralis is endemic.

  3. Evaluation of real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm as diagnostic tool in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Khieu, Virak; Panning, Marcus; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Kramme, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths such as Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) is challenging due to irregular larval and egg output in infected individuals and insensitive conventional diagnostic procedures. Sensitive novel real-time PCR assays have been developed. Our study aimed to evaluate the real-time PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for detection of Strongyloides spp. and hookworms in a random stool sample of 218 asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia. Overall prevalence of 17.4% (38/218) and 34.9% (76/218) were determined by real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and hookworms, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of S. stercoralis specific real-time PCR as compared to the combination of Baermann/Koga Agar as gold standard were 88.9% and 92.7%, respectively. For hookworm specific real-time PCR a sensitivity of 78.9% and specificity of 78.9% were calculated. Co-infections were detectable by PCR in 12.8% (28/218) of individuals. S. stercoralis real-time PCR applied in asymptomatic cases showed a lower sensitivity compared to studies undertaken with symptomatic patients with the same molecular tool, yet it proved to be a valid supplement in the diagnosis of STH infection in Cambodia.

  4. Seroprevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among HTLV-I infected blood donors in Barcelona, Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Piron, Maria; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Sauleda, Silvia; Molina, Israel

    2017-09-20

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with HTLV-I infection may lead to severe clinical manifestations. The aim of the present study is to determine the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis infection among blood donors who tested positive for HTLV-I infection. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain) in 2016. Serum samples from HTLV-I positive patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2015 were retrieved from the Blood Bank, and S. stercoralis serology was performed. Thirty six serum samples from HTLV-I positive patients were retrieved from the Blood Bank. The blood samples came from 36 blood donors, and most of them were born in Latin America (75%), being Peru the most frequent country (11 participants). S. stercoralis serology was positive in one patient, corresponding to a prevalence of 2.8% (3.4% if we exclude donors coming from European countries, where the risk of S. stercoralis infection is highly unlikely). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Soluble extract from the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis induces CXCR2 dependent/IL-17 independent neutrophil recruitment

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Amy E.; Redding, Kevin M.; Hess, Jessica A.; Lok, James B.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Abraham, David

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment via CXCR2 is required for innate and adaptive protective immunity to the larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanism of CXCR2-mediated neutrophil recruitment to S. stercoralis. Mice deficient in the receptor for IL-17A and IL-17F, upstream mediators of CXCR2 ligand production, were infected with S. stercoralis larvae; there was no difference in larval survival, neutrophil recruitment, or production of CXCR2 ligands compared with wild type mice. In vivo and in vitro stimulation of neutrophils with S. stercoralis soluble extract resulted in significant neutrophil recruitment. In vitro assays demonstrated that the recruitment functioned through both chemokinesis and chemotaxis, was specific for CXCR2, and was a G protein coupled response involving tyrosine kinase and PI3K. Finally, neutrophil stimulation with S. stercoralis soluble extract induced release of the CXCR2 ligands MIP-2 and KC from neutrophils, thereby potentially enhancing neutrophil recruitment. PMID:21315175

  6. [Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Spanish regional hospital: Not just an imported disease].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Tenza, María Isabel; Ruiz-Maciá, José Antonio; Navarro-Cots, María; Gregori-Colomé, Joan; Cepeda-Rodrigo, José María; Llenas-García, Jara

    2016-10-12

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection is more prevalent in tropical regions but autochthonous cases have been reported in Spain, mainly in La Safor (Valencia). The objective is to describe the strongyloidiasis cases registered in a regional hospital of Alicante province (Spain) and to determine if they were autochthonous cases. Retrospective study of all diagnosed cases of strongyloidiasis in Vega Baja Hospital (Orihuela, Alicante) between January 1999 and March 2016. A total of 10 cases were found, four of which were autochthonous cases. Two of them presented with a hyper-infection syndrome, with a fatal outcome. All autochthonous cases were in patients ≥69years old with gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and/or respiratory symptoms. Serology was positive in the 8 cases studied. Larvae were found in histopathological samples of the gastrointestinal tract of three patients. We communicate the first autochthonous cases of strongyloidiasis in the region of Vega Baja. Screening programs should be implemented, especially in immunosuppressed patients or patients under chronic corticosteroid treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis using recombinant antigen-based serologies in a community-wide study in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Krolewiecki, Alejandro J; Ramanathan, Roshan; Fink, Valeria; McAuliffe, Isabel; Cajal, Silvana P; Won, Kimberly; Juarez, Marisa; Di Paolo, Adriana; Tapia, Laura; Acosta, Norma; Lee, Rogan; Lammie, Patrick; Abraham, David; Nutman, Thomas B

    2010-10-01

    The serodiagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on crude antigen (CrAg-ELISA), while useful, has been limited by the reliance on crude parasite extracts. Newer techniques such as the luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay (LIPS), based on a 31-kDa recombinant antigen (termed NIE) from S. stercoralis and/or the recombinant antigen S. stercoralis immunoreactive antigen (SsIR), or the NIE-ELISA have shown promise in controlled settings. We compared each of these serologic assays in individuals from both regions of the world in which S. stercoralis is endemic and those in which it is not. A comprehensive stool evaluation (sedimentation concentration, Baermann concentration with charcoal cultures, agar plate, and Harada-Mori) and four different serologic techniques using CrAg-ELISA or recombinant NIE-ELISA as well as LIPS using NIE alone or in combination with a second recombinant antigen (NIE/SsIR-LIPS) were compared among individuals with parasitologically proven infection (n = 251) and healthy controls from regions of the world in which the infection is nonendemic (n = 11). Accuracy was calculated for each assay. The prevalence of S. stercoralis infection was 29.4% among Argentinean stool samples (n = 228). Sedimentation concentration and Baermann were the most sensitive stool-based methods. NIE-LIPS showed the highest sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (100%) of the serologic assays. The calculated negative predictive value was highest for both the NIE-LIPS and CrAg-ELISA (>97%) irrespective of disease prevalence. No cross-reactivity with soil-transmitted helminths was noted. NIE-LIPS compares favorably against the current CrAg-ELISA and stool evaluation, providing additional accuracy and ease of performance in the serodiagnosis of S. stercoralis infections irrespective of disease prevalence.

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A.; Lee, Roland R.; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection. PMID:26195463

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease.

    PubMed

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A; Lee, Roland R; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2015-10-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection.

  10. Genome-Wide Analyses of Individual Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea) Provide Insights into Population Structure and Reproductive Life Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Myo Pa Pa Thet Hnin Htwe; Afrin, Tanzila; Nagayasu, Eiji; Tanaka, Ryusei; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Win, Kyu Kyu; Hirata, Tetsuo; Htike, Wah Win; Fujita, Jiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, which is transmitted through soil, infects 30–100 million people worldwide. S. stercoralis reproduces sexually outside the host as well as asexually within the host, which causes a life-long infection. To understand the population structure and transmission patterns of this parasite, we re-sequenced the genomes of 33 individual S. stercoralis nematodes collected in Myanmar (prevalent region) and Japan (non-prevalent region). We utilised a method combining whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing techniques to detect 298,202 variant positions (0.6% of the genome) compared with the reference genome. Phylogenetic analyses of SNP data revealed an unambiguous geographical separation and sub-populations that correlated with the host geographical origin, particularly for the Myanmar samples. The relatively higher heterozygosity in the genomes of the Japanese samples can possibly be explained by the independent evolution of two haplotypes of diploid genomes through asexual reproduction during the auto-infection cycle, suggesting that analysing heterozygosity is useful and necessary to infer infection history and geographical prevalence. PMID:28033376

  11. Regulation of Life Cycle Checkpoints and Developmental Activation of Infective Larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis by Dafachronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Adeiye A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Wang, Zhu; Kliewer, Steven A.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Lok, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The complex life cycle of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis leads to either developmental arrest of infectious third-stage larvae (iL3) or growth to reproductive adults. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, analogous determination between dauer arrest and reproductive growth is governed by dafachronic acids (DAs), a class of steroid hormones that are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12. Biosynthesis of DAs requires the cytochrome P450 (CYP) DAF-9. We tested the hypothesis that DAs also regulate S. stercoralis development via DAF-12 signaling at three points. First, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA stimulated 100% of post-parasitic first-stage larvae (L1s) to develop to free-living adults instead of iL3 at 37°C, while 69.4±12.0% (SD) of post-parasitic L1s developed to iL3 in controls. Second, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA prevented post-free-living iL3 arrest and stimulated 85.2±16.9% of larvae to develop to free-living rhabditiform third- and fourth-stages, compared to 0% in the control. This induction required 24–48 hours of Δ7-DA exposure. Third, we found that the CYP inhibitor ketoconazole prevented iL3 feeding in host-like conditions, with only 5.6±2.9% of iL3 feeding in 40 μM ketoconazole, compared to 98.8±0.4% in the positive control. This inhibition was partially rescued by Δ7-DA, with 71.2±16.4% of iL3 feeding in 400 nM Δ7-DA and 35 μM ketoconazole, providing the first evidence of endogenous DA production in S. stercoralis. We then characterized the 26 CYP-encoding genes in S. stercoralis and identified a homolog with sequence and developmental regulation similar to DAF-9. Overall, these data demonstrate that DAF-12 signaling regulates S. stercoralis development, showing that in the post-parasitic generation, loss of DAF-12 signaling favors iL3 arrest, while increased DAF-12 signaling favors reproductive development; that in the post-free-living generation, absence of DAF-12 signaling is crucial for iL3 arrest

  12. Comparison between PCR and larvae visualization methods for diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis out of endemic area: A proposed algorithm.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Silvia A; Ruybal, Paula; Solana, María Elisa; López, Carlota; Berini, Carolina A; Alba Soto, Catalina D; Cappa, Stella M González

    2016-05-01

    Underdiagnosis of chronic infection with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis may lead to severe disease in the immunosuppressed. Thus, we have set-up a specific and highly sensitive molecular diagnosis in stool samples. Here, we compared the accuracy of our polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method with that of conventional diagnostic methods for chronic infection. We also analyzed clinical and epidemiological predictors of infection to propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis useful for the clinician. Molecular and gold standard methods were performed to evaluate a cohort of 237 individuals recruited in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Subjects were assigned according to their immunological status, eosinophilia and/or history of residence in endemic areas. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis by PCR on the first stool sample was achieved in 71/237 (29.9%) individuals whereas only 35/237(27.4%) were positive by conventional methods, requiring up to four serial stool samples at weekly intervals. Eosinophilia and history of residence in endemic areas have been revealed as independent factors as they increase the likelihood of detecting the parasite according to our study population. Our results underscore the usefulness of robust molecular tools aimed to diagnose chronic S. stercoralis infection. Evidence also highlights the need to survey patients with eosinophilia even when history of an endemic area is absent.

  13. The Transcriptome Analysis of Strongyloides stercoralis L3i Larvae Reveals Targets for Intervention in a Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Garg, Gagan; Bernal, Dolores; Ranganathan, Shoba; Forment, Javier; Ortiz, Javier; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla; Dominguez, M. Victoria; Pedrola, Laia; Martinez-Blanch, Juan; Sotillo, Javier; Trelis, Maria; Toledo, Rafael; Esteban, J. Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is one of the most neglected diseases distributed worldwide with endemic areas in developed countries, where chronic infections are life threatening. Despite its impact, very little is known about the molecular biology of the parasite involved and its interplay with its hosts. Next generation sequencing technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly address these questions. Principal Findings Here we present the first transcriptome of the third larval stage of S. stercoralis using 454 sequencing coupled with semi-automated bioinformatic analyses. 253,266 raw sequence reads were assembled into 11,250 contiguous sequences, most of which were novel. 8037 putative proteins were characterized based on homology, gene ontology and/or biochemical pathways. Comparison of the transcriptome of S. strongyloides with those of other nematodes, including S. ratti, revealed similarities in transcription of molecules inferred to have key roles in parasite-host interactions. Enzymatic proteins, like kinases and proteases, were abundant. 1213 putative excretory/secretory proteins were compiled using a new pipeline which included non-classical secretory proteins. Potential drug targets were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the present dataset should provide a solid foundation for future fundamental genomic, proteomic and metabolomic explorations of S. stercoralis, as well as a basis for applied outcomes, such as the development of novel methods of intervention against this neglected parasite. PMID:22389732

  14. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case–control study, February 2013 to July 2014

    PubMed Central

    Buonfrate, Dora; Baldissera, Mara; Abrescia, Fabrizio; Bassetti, Matteo; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Giobbia, Mario; Mascarello, Marta; Rodari, Paola; Scattolo, Novella; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case–control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here 1,351 were cases and 1,350 controls; 86% were Italians, 48% women. Italians testing positive were in 8% (97/1,137) cases and 1% (13/1,178) controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5–14.8), while positive immigrants were in 17% (36/214) cases and in 2% (3/172) controls (aOR 9.6; 95% CI: 2.9–32.4). Factors associated with a higher risk of infection for all study participants were eosinophilia (p < 0.001) and immigration (p = 0.001). Overall, strongyloidiasis was nine-times more frequent in individuals with eosinophilia than in those with normal eosinophil count. PMID:27525375

  15. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case-control study, February 2013 to July 2014.

    PubMed

    Buonfrate, Dora; Baldissera, Mara; Abrescia, Fabrizio; Bassetti, Matteo; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Giobbia, Mario; Mascarello, Marta; Rodari, Paola; Scattolo, Novella; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2016-08-04

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case-control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here 1,351 were cases and 1,350 controls; 86% were Italians, 48% women. Italians testing positive were in 8% (97/1,137) cases and 1% (13/1,178) controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-14.8), while positive immigrants were in 17% (36/214) cases and in 2% (3/172) controls (aOR 9.6; 95% CI: 2.9-32.4). Factors associated with a higher risk of infection for all study participants were eosinophilia (p < 0.001) and immigration (p = 0.001). Overall, strongyloidiasis was nine-times more frequent in individuals with eosinophilia than in those with normal eosinophil count. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence.

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato–Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR Methods for the Detection of Light-Intensity Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis Infections in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A.; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A.; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato–Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato–Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato–Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

  18. Investigation of Strongyloides stercoralis Seroprevalence in Individuals Who Grow Vegetables and Gather Mushroom in Muğla Province in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksoy Gökmen, Ayşegül; Çaylak, Selmin; Citil, Burak Ekrem; Sözen, Hamdi; Şahin, Cem; Yula, Erkan; Kaya, Selçuk; Demirci, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of Strongyloides stercoralis in individuals who live in rural areas in the towns near Mugla and have contact with humid soil and gather saffron milk cap mushroom in autumn, and to obtain epidemiological data in our region. A total of 281 volunteers were included; 192 of them were the individuals who only gather mushroom, only work in the garden, or gather mushroom as well as work in the garden, while 89 had no contact with the soil. Totally, 281 sera were tested for the presence of S. stercoralis-IgG antibodies by ELISA technique, using a commercial kit (DRG® Diagnostics Strongyloides IgG ELISA EIA-4208; Germany). One of 281 volunteers (0.3 %) was found positive for S. stercoralis-IgG antibodies, while the other 280 volunteers (99.7 %) were found negative. Thirty-seven, 33, and 43 of 192 volunteers reported wearing only boots, only gloves, and both boots and gloves, respectively. Seventy-nine of 192 volunteers reported wearing neither boots nor gloves. This preliminary study is the first study that involves the individuals with soil contact in our country, and it was concluded that this study will offer an insight into the other studies on S. stercoralis.

  19. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasites among Institutionalized Mentally Disabled Individuals in Rasht, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    SAEIDINIA, Amin; TAVAKOLI, Ilnaz; NAGHIPOUR, Mohammad Reza; RAHMATI, Behnaz; GHAVAMI LAHIJI, Hossein; SALKHORI, Omid; ASHRAFI, Keyhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to determine the status of strongyloidiasis in mentally disabled population in the institutional places in Rasht City, the capital of Guilan Province, northern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 institutions for mentally retarded population in Rasht in 2013. Before collecting the samples, a questionnaire was filled out for each participant by an expert person. A single stool sample was obtained from each of the 173 subjects and examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration technique and agar plate culture method. Results: A total of 173 mentally disabled individuals aged 2–57 (25.69±11.56) yr old were studied. Stool examination showed that 51 (29.5%) cases were infected with at least one parasite. Of 173 studied cases only 10 (5.8%) individuals were infected with pathogenic parasites, of which 2 (1.2%) cases were infected with Strongyloides stercoralis and 8 (4.6%) with Giardia lamblia. On the other hand, 42 (24.3%) of the studied population were infected with non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (n=29, 16.8%), Entamoeba coli (n=16, 9.2%) and Endolimax nana (n=4, 2.3%). Mixed protozoal infections were observed in 8 (4.6%) individuals. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis in mentally disabled individuals in Rasht was somewhat higher than those of normal population of the province. The same picture was seen when the prevalence of G. lamblia and non-pathogenic protozoa in normal and mentally disabled populations were compared. PMID:28127364

  20. Albendazole Stimulates the Excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis Larvae in Stool Specimens and Enhances Sensitivity for Diagnosis of Strongyloidiasis▿

    PubMed Central

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in stimulation of excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in stool by oral administration of a single dose of 400 mg albendazole to strongyloidiasis patients. This result overcame the false-negative results of stool examination due to low larval numbers. Stool samples were collected from 152 asymptomatic strongyloidiasis patients in the morning, prior to eating. After breakfast, they were given a dose of 400 mg albendazole, and stool samples were collected the following morning. Agar plate culture (APC), modified formalin-ether concentration technique (MFECT), and direct-smear (DS) methods were used to examine stool specimens within 3 h after defecation. The results before and after albendazole was taken were compared. All APCs that were positive became negative after albendazole administration, while MFECT showed a 1.4- to 18.0-fold increase in larval numbers in 97.4% (148/152) of the samples. The DSs were positive in 3 out of 3 smears at a larval number of ≥45 larvae per g (lpg) of stool, and in 1or 2 out of 3 smears at a larval number between 35 and 44 lpg. At a larval number of <35 lpg, the DS became negative. Interestingly 90.5% (19/21) of the samples that were negative by all methods before albendazole administration became positive by MFECT after the treatment. Thus, MFECT can be effectively used for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis with prior administration of albendazole to the subject. PMID:20844212

  1. Inactivation of strongyloides stercoralis filariform larvae in vitro by six Jamaican plant extracts and three commercial anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R D; Williams, L A; Lindo, J F; Terry, S I; Mansingh, A

    1990-12-01

    In vitro bioassay of (a) aqueous methanol extracts (AME) of the green leaves of mimosa (Mimosa pudica), love weed (Cuscuta americana), vervine (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis), chicken weed (Salvia serotina) and breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis); (b) methanol-water fraction (MWF) of breadfruit leaves, and (c) commercially available drugs albendazole, thiabendazole and levamisole were assayed for nematode inactivating potential, using filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Test larvae were obtained from a 10-day-old charcoal coproculture. Bioassays were conducted in Locke's solution, using 100 larvae in each of three replicates. Inactivation was recorded microscopically at 1, 3, 6 and 12 hours, then every 24 hours up to 5 days' incubation. It50 (time for inactivation of 50% of larvae) values read: levamisole and mimosa extract less than 1 hour; love weed extract, approximately 2 hours; breadfruit (MWF), 9.5 hours; chicken weed, 20 hours; albendazole, 35 hours; breadfruit (AME), 49 hours; thiabendazole, 74 hours and vervine extract, 81.5 hours. It95 values followed a similar, trend, and were approximately double the It50 measures. A potential role for locally available natural products in the treatment of strongyloidiasis is highlighted.

  2. High prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in school-aged children in a rural highland of north-western Ethiopia: the role of intensive diagnostic work-up.

    PubMed

    Amor, Aranzazu; Rodriguez, Esperanza; Saugar, José M; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Yizengaw, Endalew; Zewdie, Derejew; Ayehubizu, Zimman; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Echazú, Adriana; Krolewieki, Alejandro J; Aparicio, Pilar; Herrador, Zaida; Anegagrie, Melaku; Benito, Agustín

    2016-12-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiases (hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) are extremely prevalent in school-aged children living in poor sanitary conditions. Recent epidemiological data suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis is highly unreported. However, accurate data are essential for conducting interventions aimed at introducing control and elimination programmes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 396 randomly selected school-aged children in Amhara region in rural area in north-western Ethiopia, to assess the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal helminths. We examined stools using three techniques: conventional stool concentration; and two S. stercoralis-specific methods, i.e. the Baermann technique and polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic accuracy of these three methods was then compared. There was an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.5%, with distribution differing according to school setting. Soil-transmitted helminths were recorded in 69.2%. Prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 20.7 and 54.5%, respectively, and co-infection was detected in 16.3% of cases. Schistosoma mansoni had a prevalence of 15.7%. Prevalence of S. stercoralis was shown 3.5% by the conventional method, 12.1% by the Baermann method, and 13.4% by PCR, which thus proved to be the most sensitive. Our results suggest that S. stercoralis could be overlooked and neglected in Ethiopia, if studies of soil-transmitted helminths rely on conventional diagnostic techniques alone. A combination of molecular and stool microscopy techniques yields a significantly higher prevalence. In view of the fact that current control policies for triggering drug administration are based on parasite prevalence levels, a comprehensive diagnostic approach should instead be applied to ensure comprehensive control of helminth infections.

  3. Modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in active and latent tuberculosis by coexistent Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    PubMed

    George, Parakkal Jovvian; Pavan Kumar, Nathella; Jaganathan, Jeeva; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Shen, Kui; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2015-12-01

    Helminth infections are known to induce modulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB). However, the role of helminth infections in modulating systemic cytokine responses in active and latent tuberculosis (LTB) is not known. To define the systemic cytokine levels in helminth-TB coinfection, we measured the circulating plasma levels of Type 1, Type 2, Type 17, other pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in individuals with active TB (ATB) with or without coexistent Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infection by multiplex ELISA. Similarly, we also measured the same cytokine levels in individuals with LTB with or without concomitant Ss infection in a cross-sectional study. Our data reveal that individuals with ATB or LTB and coexistent Ss infection have significantly lower levels of Type 1 (IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2) and Type 17 (IL-17A and IL-17F) cytokines compared to those without Ss infection. In contrast, those with ATB and LTB with Ss infection have significantly higher levels of the regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGFβ), and those with LTB and Ss infection also have significantly higher levels of Type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) as well. Finally, those with LTB (but not ATB) exhibit significantly lower levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNα, IFNβ, IL-6, IL-12 and GM-CSF). Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the systemic cytokine responses in ATB and LTB and indicate that coincident helminth infections might influence pathogenesis of TB infection and disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Strongyloides stercoralis in stool that uses a visual detection method with SYTO-82 fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Watts, Matthew R; James, Gregory; Sultana, Yasmin; Ginn, Andrew N; Outhred, Alexander C; Kong, Fanrong; Verweij, Jaco J; Iredell, Jonathan R; Chen, Sharon C-A; Lee, Rogan

    2014-02-01

    An assay to detect Strongyloides stercoralis in stool specimens was developed using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Primers were based on the 28S ribosomal subunit gene. The reaction conditions were optimized and SYTO-82 fluorescent dye was used to allow real-time and visual detection of the product. The product identity was confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion, cloning, and sequence analysis. The assay was specific when tested against DNA from bacteria, fungi and parasites, and 30 normal stool samples. Analytical sensitivity was to < 10 copies of target sequence in a plasmid and up to a 10(-2) dilution of DNA extracted from a Strongyloides ratti larva spiked into stool. Sensitivity was increased when further dilutions were made in water, indicative of reduced reaction inhibition. Twenty-seven of 28 stool samples microscopy and polymerase chain reaction positive for S. stercoralis were positive with the LAMP method. On the basis of these findings, the assay warrants further clinical validation.

  5. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding ( sup 75 Se)selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A. )

    1989-10-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. When the {sup 75}Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood.

  6. cGMP and NHR Signaling Co-regulate Expression of Insulin-Like Peptides and Developmental Activation of Infective Larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Bart, Stephen M.; Lok, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The infectious form of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i), which is morphologically similar to the developmentally arrested dauer larva in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We hypothesize that the molecular pathways regulating C. elegans dauer development also control L3i arrest and activation in S. stercoralis. This study aimed to determine the factors that regulate L3i activation, with a focus on G protein-coupled receptor-mediated regulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway signaling, including its modulation of the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS) pathway. We found that application of the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP potently activated development of S. stercoralis L3i, as measured by resumption of feeding, with 85.1±2.2% of L3i feeding in 200 µM 8-bromo-cGMP in comparison to 0.6±0.3% in the buffer diluent. Utilizing RNAseq, we examined L3i stimulated with DMEM, 8-bromo-cGMP, or the DAF-12 nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) ligand Δ7-dafachronic acid (DA)—a signaling pathway downstream of IIS in C. elegans. L3i stimulated with 8-bromo-cGMP up-regulated transcripts of the putative agonistic insulin-like peptide (ILP) -encoding genes Ss-ilp-1 (20-fold) and Ss-ilp-6 (11-fold) in comparison to controls without stimulation. Surprisingly, we found that Δ7-DA similarly modulated transcript levels of ILP-encoding genes. Using the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, we demonstrated that 400 nM Δ7-DA-mediated activation (93.3±1.1% L3i feeding) can be blocked using this IIS inhibitor at 100 µM (7.6±1.6% L3i feeding). To determine the tissues where promoters of ILP-encoding genes are active, we expressed promoter::egfp reporter constructs in transgenic S. stercoralis post-free-living larvae. Ss-ilp-1 and Ss-ilp-6 promoters are active in the hypodermis and neurons and the Ss-ilp-7 promoter is active in the intestine and a

  7. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J

    2016-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes.

  8. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

    PubMed

    Echazú, Adriana; Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A; Cajal, Silvana P; Cimino, Ruben O; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2017-10-09

    Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001) after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001). After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001) and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009). Hookworm' infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  9. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Martin Moreira, Juan; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections.

  10. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  11. A PCR-Based Molecular Detection of Strongyloides stercoralisin Human Stool Samples from Tabriz City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghasemikhah, Reza; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Shariatzadeh, Seyed Ali; Shahbazi, Abbas; Hazratian, Teymour

    2017-03-27

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode causing serious infections in immunocompromised patients. In chronically infected patients, the low parasitic content as well as the resemblance of the larvae to several other species make diagnosis basedonmorphology difficult. In the present study, a PCR-based method targeting the internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS2) of the rDNA region was examined for the molecular detection of S. stercoralis infection from the stool samples. A total of 1800 patients were included. Three fresh stool samples were collected per patient, and S. stercoralis isolates were identified by the morphological method. A subset of isolates was later used in the PCR-based method as positive controls. Additionally, negative and no-template controls were included. Data analysis was accomplished using an x² test. Ap-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In total, fivestool samples were found to be infected with S. stercoralis using the morphology method. PCR method detected S. stercoralis DNA target from all of the fiveDNA samples extracted from positive fecal samples.

  12. [Prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection in household dogs].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Muraoka, Noboru; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2003-06-01

    A total of 1,505 household dogs were investigated for the prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection by fecal examination in relation to their fecal conditions, rearing environments, origins, age, sex and breed. Strongyloides spp. infection was demonstrated in 29 of 1,505 (1.93%) dogs. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected in 28 dogs, and Strongyloides planiceps was detected in one dog. The rate of Strongyloides spp. infection was higher in dogs reared indoors, originated from pet shops/breeding kennels and aged 1-6 months. The infected rate was higher in dogs excreting soft feces. No significant sex-related difference was observed in Strongyloides spp. infection. The rate was high in Pomeranians and low in mongrels. The detection of S. stercolaris in dogs reared indoors will involve a serious problem in public health, because the parasite has zoonoitic potential. It suggests that a positive sanitary instruction against a dog's owner and a worker in pet shops/breeding kennels seems necessary for prevention of transmission from dogs to humans. Furthermore, the reliable treatment for dogs infected with S. stercoralis seems to be important.

  13. Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome and VRE pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Abu Omar, Mohannad; Abu Ghanimeh, Mouhanna; Kim, Sola; Howell, Gregory

    2017-01-16

    Immunocompromised patients have high risk of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. One of these infections is those caused by Strongyloides stercoralis Immunocompromised patients are at risk of hyperinfection syndrome which is characterised with more systemic manifestation and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This can be complicated by coinfection with enteric organisms, specifically Gram-negative. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci which are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. Even though enterococci can cause serious infections in multiple sites, they are a rare cause of pneumonia. We present a case of disseminated strongyloides with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus causing pneumonia. The patient had a complicated course with respiratory failure and septic shock. He died eventually due to his severe infections. After a literature review, we could not find a similar case of coinfection of disseminated strongyloides with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus pneumonia in immune-compromised patients. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. The Genomic Basis of Parasitism in the Strongyloides Clade of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Vicky L.; Tsai, Isheng J.; Coghlan, Avril; Reid, Adam J.; Holroyd, Nancy; Foth, Bernardo J.; Tracey, Alan; Cotton, James A.; Stanley, Eleanor J.; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Brooks, Karen; Harsha, Bhavana; Kajitani, Rei; Kulkarni, Arpita; Harbecke, Dorothee; Nagayasu, Eiji; Nichol, Sarah; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Quail, Michael A.; Randle, Nadine; Xia, Dong; Brattig, Norbert W.; Soblik, Hanns; Ribeiro, Diogo M.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Itoh, Takehiko; Denver, Dee R.; Grant, Warwick; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Lok, James B.; Murayama, Haruhiko; Wastling, Jonathan; Streit, Adrian; Kikuchi, Taisei; Viney, Mark; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Soil transmitted nematodes, including Strongyloides, cause one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases. Here we compare the genomes of four Strongyloides spp., including the human pathogen S. stercoralis, and their close relatives that are facultatively parasitic (Parastrongyloides trichosuri) and free-living (Rhabditophanes sp). A significant paralogous expansion of key gene families – astacin-like and SCP/TAPS coding gene families – is associated with the evolution of parasitism in this clade. Exploiting the unique Strongyloides life cycle we compare the transcriptome of its parasitic and free-living stages and find that these same genes are upregulated in the parasitic stages, underscoring their role in nematode parasitism. PMID:26829753

  15. Molecular identification of the causative agent of human strongyloidiasis acquired in Tanzania: dispersal and diversity of Strongyloides spp. and their hosts.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Fujita, Shiho; Nguema, Pierre Philippe Mbehang; Nobusue, Kenichi; Miyagi, Kei; Kooriyama, Takanori; Takenoshita, Yuji; Noda, Shohei; Sato, Akiko; Morimoto, Azusa; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Nishida, Toshisada

    2010-09-01

    In order to identify the causative agent of imported strongyloidiasis found in a Japanese mammalogist, who participated in a field survey in Tanzania, the hyper-variable region IV (HVR-IV) of 18S ribosomal DNA and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were analyzed and compared with Strongyloides fuelleborni collected from apes and monkeys of Africa and Japan, and S. stercoralis from humans, apes and dogs. The HVR-IV and cox1 of the patient's worms were identical to or only slightly differed from those of worms parasitic in Tanzanian chimpanzees and yellow baboons, demonstrating that the patient acquired the infection during her field survey in Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis with the maximum-likelihood method largely divided isolates of S. fuelleborni into three groups, which corresponded to geographical localities but not to host species. Meanwhile, isolates of S. stercoralis were grouped by the phylogenetic analysis into dog-parasitic and primate-parasitic clades, and not to geographical regions. It is surmised that subspeciation has occurred in S. fuelleborni during the dispersal of primates in Africa and Asia, while worldwide dispersal of S. stercoralis seems to have occurred more recently by migration and the activities of modern humans.

  16. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Thamsborg, Stig M; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered in young animals. Dogs are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis while cats are infected with different species according to geographical location (Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides tumefaciens, Strongyloides planiceps and perhaps S. stercoralis). In contrast to the other species, lactogenic transmission is not a primary means of infection in dogs, and S. stercoralis is the only species considered zoonotic. Strongyloides papillosus in calves has been linked to heavy fatalities under conditions of high stocking density. Strongyloides westeri and Strongyloides ransomi of horses and pigs, respectively, cause only sporadic clinical disease. In conclusion, these infections are generally of low relative importance in livestock and equines, most likely due to extensive use of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics and/or improved hygiene. Future prevalence studies need to include molecular typing of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes.

  17. Strongyloides hyperinfection following hematopoietic stem cell transplant in a patient with HTLV-1-associated T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Jonathan D; Arbefeville, Sophie S; Vercellotti, Gregory; Ferrieri, Patricia; Green, Jaime S

    2017-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis has the potential to cause accelerated autoinfection in immunocompromised hosts. Screening tests for strongyloidiasis may be falsely negative in the setting of immunosuppression. We report a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in a patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated T-cell leukemia early after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The diagnosis was made by stool ova and parasite examination, despite a negative screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of anticipated prolonged neutropenia, an extended course of treatment was utilized. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The use of isoenzyme electrophoresis in the taxonomy of Strongyloides.

    PubMed

    Viney, M E; Ashford, R W

    1990-02-01

    The limited usefulness of traditional taxonomic methods combined with the discovery of a Strongyloides parasitic in man in Papua New Guinea (PNG) that resembles S. fuelleborni, a parasite of man and other primates in tropical Africa, has precipitated the need to apply new methods to the taxonomy of the genus. In this study isoenzyme electrophoresis has been used on Strongyloides isolates of many different origins. Cluster analysis of the data suggested that existence of three main groups within the material considered, consisting of (1) isolates of S. stercoralis, (2) isolates from PNG domestic animals, and (3) isolates from PNG man and African non-human primates. The taxonomic implications of these groups are considered.

  19. Strong-LAMP: A LAMP Assay for Strongyloides spp. Detection in Stool and Urine Samples. Towards the Diagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis Starting from a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Gandasegui, Javier; Bajo Santos, Cristina; López-Abán, Julio; Saugar, José María; Rodríguez, Esperanza; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis, the chief causative agent of human strongyloidiasis, is a nematode globally distributed but mainly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Chronic infection is often clinically asymptomatic but it can result in severe hyperinfection syndrome or disseminated strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised patients. There is a great diversity of techniques used in diagnosing the disease, but definitive diagnosis is accomplished by parasitological examination of stool samples for morphological identification of parasite. Until now, no molecular method has been tested in urine samples as an alternative to stool samples for diagnosing strongyloidiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a new molecular LAMP assay in a well-established Wistar rat experimental infection model using both stool and, for the first time, urine samples. The LAMP assay was also clinically evaluated in patients´ stool samples. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool and urine samples were obtained daily during a 28-day period from rats infected subcutaneously with different infective third-stage larvae doses of S. venezuelensis. The dynamics of parasite infection was determined by daily counting the number of eggs per gram of feces from day 1 to 28 post-infection. A set of primers for LAMP assay based on a DNA partial sequence in the 18S rRNA gene from S. venezuelensis was designed. The set up LAMP assay (namely, Strong-LAMP) allowed the sensitive detection of S. venezuelensis DNA in both stool and urine samples obtained from each infection group of rats and was also effective in S. stercoralis DNA amplification in patients´ stool samples with previously confirmed strongyloidiasis by parasitological and real-time PCR tests. Conclusions/Significance Our Strong-LAMP assay is an useful molecular tool in research of a strongyloidiasis experimental infection model in both stool and urine samples. After further validation, the Strong-LAMP could also be potentially

  20. Strongyloides Hyperinfection Syndrome Combined with Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alsaeed, Mohammed; Ballool, Sulafa; Attia, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    The mortality in Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS) is alarmingly high. This is particularly common in bone marrow, renal, and other solid organ transplant (SOT) patients, where figures may reach up to 50–85%. Immunosuppressives, principally corticosteroids, are the primary triggering factor. In general, the clinical features of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection are nonspecific; therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy. Although recurrent Gram-negative sepsis and meningitis have been previously reported, the combination of both cytomegalovirus (CMV) and strongyloidiasis had rarely been associated. We here describe a patient who survived SHS with recurrent Escherichia coli (E. coli) urosepsis and CMV infection. PMID:27703835

  1. IMMUNODIAGNOSIS OF HUMAN STRONGYLOIDIASIS: USE OF SIX DIFFERENT ANTIGENIC FRACTIONS FROM Strongyloides venezuelensis PARASITIC FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    CORRAL, Marcelo Andreetta; de PAULA, Fabiana Martins; GOTTARDI, Maiara; MEISEL, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; CASTILHO, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; GONÇALVES, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; CHIEFFI, Pedro Paulo; GRYSCHEK, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to evaluate six different antigenic fractions from Strongyloides venezuelensis parasitic females for the immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Soluble and membrane fractions from S. venezuelensis parasitic females were prepared in phosphate-buffered saline (SSF and SMF, respectively), Tris-HCl (TSF and TMF, respectively), and an alkaline buffer (ASF and AMF, respectively). Serum samples obtained from patients with strongyloidiasis or, other parasitic diseases, and healthy individuals were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Soluble fractions SSF, TSF, and ASF showed 85.0%, 75.0%, and 80.0% sensitivity and 93.1%, 93.1%, and 87.5% specificity, respectively. Membrane fractions SMF, TMF, and AMF showed 80.0%, 75.0%, and 85.0% sensitivity, and 95.8%, 90.3%, and 91.7% specificity, respectively. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the fractions obtained from parasitic females, especially the SSF and SMF, could be used as alternative antigen sources in the serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. PMID:26603231

  2. Genetic characterization of Strongyloides spp. from captive, semi-captive and wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Central and East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Labes, E M; Nurcahyo, W; Wijayanti, N; Deplazes, P; Mathis, A

    2011-09-01

    Orangutans (Pongo spp.), Asia's only great apes, are threatened in their survival due to habitat loss, hunting and infections. Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides may represent a severe cause of death in wild and captive individuals. In order to better understand which Strongyloides species/subspecies infect orangutans under different conditions, larvae were isolated from fecal material collected in Indonesia from 9 captive, 2 semi-captive and 9 wild individuals, 18 captive groups of Bornean orangutans and from 1 human working with wild orangutans. Genotyping was done at the genomic rDNA locus (part of the 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1, ITS1) by sequencing amplicons. Thirty isolates, including the one from the human, could be identified as S. fuelleborni fuelleborni with 18S rRNA gene identities of 98·5-100%, with a corresponding published sequence. The ITS1 sequences could be determined for 17 of these isolates revealing a huge variability and 2 main clusters without obvious pattern with regard to attributes of the hosts. The ITS1 amplicons of 2 isolates were cloned and sequenced, revealing considerable variability indicative of mixed infections. One isolate from a captive individual was identified as S. stercoralis (18S rRNA) and showed 99% identity (ITS1) with S. stercoralis sequences from geographically distinct locations and host species. The findings are significant with regard to the zoonotic nature of these parasites and might contribute to the conservation of remaining orangutan populations.

  3. Life Cycle Stage-resolved Proteomic Analysis of the Excretome/Secretome from Strongyloides ratti—Identification of Stage-specific Proteases*

    PubMed Central

    Soblik, Hanns; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Mitreva, Makedonka; Renard, Bernhard Y.; Kirchner, Marc; Geisinger, Frank; Steen, Hanno; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of biomolecules, including proteins, are excreted and secreted from helminths and contribute to the parasite's successful establishment, survival, and reproduction in an adverse habitat. Excretory and secretory proteins (ESP) are active at the interface between parasite and host and comprise potential targets for intervention. The intestinal nematode Strongyloides spp. exhibits an exceptional developmental plasticity in its life cycle characterized by parasitic and free-living generations. We investigated ESP from infective larvae, parasitic females, and free-living stages of the rat parasite Strongyloides ratti, which is genetically very similar to the human pathogen, Strongyloides stercoralis. Proteomic analysis of ESP revealed 586 proteins, with the largest number of stage-specific ESP found in infective larvae (196), followed by parasitic females (79) and free-living stages (35). One hundred and forty proteins were identified in all studied stages, including anti-oxidative enzymes, heat shock proteins, and carbohydrate-binding proteins. The stage-selective ESP of (1) infective larvae included an astacin metalloproteinase, the L3 Nie antigen, and a fatty acid retinoid-binding protein; (2) parasitic females included a prolyl oligopeptidase (prolyl serine carboxypeptidase), small heat shock proteins, and a secreted acidic protein; (3) free-living stages included a lysozyme family member, a carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme, and saponin-like protein. We verified the differential expression of selected genes encoding ESP by qRT-PCR. ELISA analysis revealed the recognition of ESP by antibodies of S. ratti-infected rats. A prolyl oligopeptidase was identified as abundant parasitic female-specific ESP, and the effect of pyrrolidine-based prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors showed concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effects on female motility. The characterization of stage-related ESP from Strongyloides will help to further understand the interaction of

  4. Discordances Between Serology and Culture for Strongyloides in an Ethiopian Adopted Child With Multiple Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Sulleiro, Elena; Zarzuela, Francesc; Ruiz, Edurne; Clavería, Isabel; Espasa, Mateu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: infectious diseases screening of international adoptees is complex because of the concurrence of different pathogens in a child at same time. We describe an international adopted child born at Ethiopia infected by 5 different pathogens (Hymenolepis nana, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura), 2 of them S. stercoralis and E. histolytica with a capacity to develop severe clinical complications if not detected promptly with appropriate diagnosis tests. Concerns of the patient: according to the screening protocol a stool sample is always processed for culture addressed to find out protozoan and helminthic pathogens but not specifically for S. stercoralis. Only, when eosinophilia is detected 3 serial stool samples are collected to rule out intestinal parasitic infection including S. stercoralis. Interventions: in our case, S. stercoralis would not have been detected if we had followed the protocol because eosinophilia was absent and its specific serology was negative. Fortunately, the initial inclusion of the feces charcoal culture for S. stercoralis allowed us to detect this infection. Outcomes: discordances between direct methods such as culture and indirect as serology or antigen test forces us to be very cautious before ruling out S. stercoralis or E. histolytica infection, respectively. Also, if a child from tropical areas has persistent symptoms (such as diarrhea or fever) that have not been treated we have to rule out other infections that have not been detected yet. Main lessons: The introduction of different sequencing tests and the insistence to find out pathogens such as S. stercoralis or E. histolytica was determinant to be able to cure this symptomatic child and to prevent potential severe clinical forms in case of immunosuppression. PMID:26962825

  5. Dexamethasone Effects in the Strongyloides venezuelensis Infection in A Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eleuza R.; Carlos, Daniela; Sorgi, Carlos A.; Ramos, Simone G.; Souza, Daniela I.; Soares, Edson G.; Costa-Cruz, Julia M.; Ueta, Marlene T.; Aronoff, David M.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids on the immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice. Balb/c mice were infected with S. venezuelensis and treated with Dexamethasone (Dexa) or vehicle. Dexa treatment increased circulating blood neutrophil numbers and inhibited eosinophil and mononuclear cell accumulation in the blood, bronchoalveolar, and peritoneal fluid compared with control animals. Moreover, Dexa decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-12 production in the lungs and circulating immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgE antibody levels while increasing the overall parasite burden in the feces and intestine. Dexa treatment enhanced the fertility of female nematodes relative to untreated and infected mice. In summary, the alterations in the immune response induced by Dexa resulted in a blunted, aberrant immune response associated with increased parasite burden. This phenomenon is similar to that observed in S. stercoralis-infected humans who are taking immunosuppressive or antiinflammatory drugs, including corticosteroids. PMID:21633034

  6. Strongyloides Hyperinfection in a Renal Transplant Patient: Always Be on the Lookout

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, Murtaza; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Iván

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old Vietnamese man with chronic kidney disease secondary to adult polycystic kidney disease. He had been a prisoner of war before undergoing a successful cadaveric renal transplant in the United States. He presented to clinic one year after the transplant with gross hematuria, productive cough, intermittent chills, and weight loss. Long standing peripheral eosinophilia of 600–1200/μL triggered further evaluation. A wet mount of stool revealed Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. A computed tomography (CT) of chest showed findings suggestive of extension of the infection to the lungs. The patient was treated with a three-week course of ivermectin with complete resolution of signs, symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and the positive IgG serology. Strongyloides infection in renal transplant patient is very rare and often presents with hyperinfection, associated with high mortality rates. The American Transplant Society recommends pretransplant screening with stool examination and Strongyloides stercoralis antibody in recipients and donors from endemic areas or with eosinophilia. It is imperative that healthcare professionals involved in the care of these individuals be cognizant of these recommendations as it is a very preventable and treatable entity. PMID:28316848

  7. Discordances Between Serology and Culture for Strongyloides in an Ethiopian Adopted Child With Multiple Parasitic Infections: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Sulleiro, Elena; Zarzuela, Francesc; Ruiz, Edurne; Clavería, Isabel; Espasa, Mateu

    2016-03-01

    infectious diseases screening of international adoptees is complex because of the concurrence of different pathogens in a child at same time. We describe an international adopted child born at Ethiopia infected by 5 different pathogens (Hymenolepis nana, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura), 2 of them S. stercoralis and E. histolytica with a capacity to develop severe clinical complications if not detected promptly with appropriate diagnosis tests.Concerns of the patient: according to the screening protocol a stool sample is always processed for culture addressed to find out protozoan and helminthic pathogens but not specifically for S. stercoralis. Only, when eosinophilia is detected 3 serial stool samples are collected to rule out intestinal parasitic infection including S. stercoralis. in our case, S. stercoralis would not have been detected if we had followed the protocol because eosinophilia was absent and its specific serology was negative. Fortunately, the initial inclusion of the feces charcoal culture for S. stercoralis allowed us to detect this infection. discordances between direct methods such as culture and indirect as serology or antigen test forces us to be very cautious before ruling out S. stercoralis or E. histolytica infection, respectively. Also, if a child from tropical areas has persistent symptoms (such as diarrhea or fever) that have not been treated we have to rule out other infections that have not been detected yet.Main lessons: The introduction of different sequencing tests and the insistence to find out pathogens such as S. stercoralis or E. histolytica was determinant to be able to cure this symptomatic child and to prevent potential severe clinical forms in case of immunosuppression.

  8. Comparison of S. stercoralis Serology Performed on Dried Blood Spots and on Conventional Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Fabio; Buonfrate, Dora; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Caicedo, Cintia; Rizzi, Eleonora; Guevara, Angel G.; Vicuña, Yosselin; Huerlo, Francisco R.; Perandin, Francesca; Bisoffi, Zeno; Anselmi, Mariella

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dried blood spots (DBS) are used for epidemiological surveys on infectious diseases in settings where limited resources are available. In fact, DBS can help to overcome logistic difficulties for the collection, transport and storage of biological specimens. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of Strongyloides stercoralis serology performed on DBS. Methods: A survey was proposed to children attending a school in the village of Borbon, Ecuador, and to their parents/guardians. Each participant gave consent to the collection of both serum and DBS specimens. DBS absorbed on filter papers were analyzed with a commercially available ELISA test for S. stercoralis antibodies, as well as with standard serology. The agreement between the two methods was assessed through the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The study sample was composed of 174 children and 61 adults, for a total of 235 serum and 235 DBS samples. The serology was positive in 31/235 (13%) serum samples, and in 27/235 (11%) DBS: 4 samples resulted discordant (positive at standard serology). Cohen’s kappa coefficient was 0.921 (95% CI 0.845 – 0.998), indicating a high rate of concordance. Conclusion: DBS are suitable for in field-surveys requiring serological testing for S. stercoralis. PMID:27877170

  9. Persistent eosinophilia and Strongyloides infection in Montagnard refugees after presumptive albendazole therapy.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Neela D; Shah, J Jina; Corey, G Ralph; Stout, Jason E

    2009-08-01

    Chronic helminth infections are common in refugee populations and may persist years after immigration. Asymptomatic Strongyloides stercoralis infection raises particular concern because of its potential for complications in immunosuppressed patients. We examined 172 Montagnard refugees resettled to Wake County, North Carolina from 2002 through 2003. Refugees were pretreated with albendazole for five days and screened for health conditions after arrival. Eosinophilia was present in 41 of 171 refugees at the first blood draw. Only 1 of 172 had a stool helminth (Fasciola) identified by microscopy. On repeat testing, 13 people had persistent eosinophilia. Results of serologic analysis for Strongyloides were available in 24 persons. Eosinophil counts decreased significantly after treatment with ivermectin in nine refugees (P = 0.039). Persistent eosinophilia, likely caused by Strongyloides infection, was common in this cohort of Montagnard refugees. Clinicians should understand the limitations of stool microscopy in diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, the limited effectiveness of albendazole in treating strongyloidiasis, and the importance of following-up refugees with persistent eosinophilia.

  10. Stage-specific excretory-secretory small heat shock proteins from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti--putative links to host's intestinal mucosal defense system.

    PubMed

    Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Geisinger, Frank; Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Soblik, Hanns; Steen, Hanno; Mitreva, Makedonka; Erttmann, Klaus D; Perbandt, Markus; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W

    2011-09-01

    In a search for molecules involved in the interaction between intestinal nematodes and mammalian mucosal host cells, we performed MS to identify excretory-secretory proteins from Strongyloides ratti. In the excretory-secretory proteins of the parasitic female stage, we detected, in addition to other peptides, peptides homologous with the Caenorhabditis elegans heat shock protein (HSP)-17, named Sra-HSP-17.1 (∼ 19 kDa) and Sra-HSP-17.2 (∼ 18 kDa), with 49% amino acid identity. The full-length cDNAs (483 bp and 474 bp, respectively) were identified, and the genomic organization was analyzed. To allow further characterization, the proteins were recombinantly expressed and purified. Profiling of transcription by quantitative real-time-PCR and of protein by ELISA in various developmental stages revealed parasitic female-specific expression. Sequence analyses of both the DNA and amino acid sequences showed that the two proteins share a conserved α-crystallin domain and variable N-terminals. The Sra-HSP-17s showed the highest homology with the deduced small HSP sequence of the human pathogen Strongyloides stercoralis. We observed strong immunogenicity of both proteins, leading to strong IgG responses following infection of rats. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the binding of Sra-HSP-17s to the monocyte-macrophage lineage but not to peripheral lymphocytes or neutrophils. A rat intestinal epithelial cell line showed dose-dependent binding to Sra-HSP-17.1, but not to Sra-HSP-17.2. Exposed monocytes released interleukin-10 but not tumor necrosis factor-α in response to Sra-HSP-17s, suggesting the possible involvement of secreted female proteins in host immune responses. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  11. Development of a Sensitive and Specific Antigen-Detection System for Strongyloides Stercoralis and Hookworm Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    for up to thirty years attached to the mucosa of the small intestine, where they feed (mostly on blood) and deposit eggs which are passed with the stool...Blood loss and number of attached hookworms can both be shown to correlate with the number of eggs per gram of stool. The eggs hatch ex vivo and the...cycle find their way to the small intestine, where they attach to the mucosa, mature and begin laying eggs . Large numbers of larvae migrating through the

  12. Human strongyloidiasis in AIDS era: its zoonotic importance.

    PubMed

    Singh, S

    2002-03-01

    Human strongyloidiasis is caused by a nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Many species cause strongyloidiasis in animals. The parasite has predilection to one host only but the host specificity is not strict. When animal species infects humans there is intense allergic reaction in the form of cutaneous larva currens and larva migrans. Therefore, strongyloidiasis in strict terms is a zoonotic disease. The strongyloides species have three stages. The parasitic form inside the host, the free form stage in the soil or water that moults to infective third stage. The later infects the host through skin and migrate to the heart and lung and finally swallowed back to cause intestinal infection. However, in some cases intense pulmonary manifestations may take place. The Strongyloides stercoralis has unique feature of moulting from parasitic form to infective stage within the body, rather than coming out and forming free living stage and causing autoinfection. This may lead to latent infection for indefinite period in an immunocompetant person but fatal hyper or disseminated infection in immunocompromised person like patients of AIDS, organ transplant recipients, cancer and other patients put on immunosuppressive therapy, in whom it can involve any organ of the body. Because this group of patients in last few years have increased tremendously in Africa and South-East Asia, more and more cases of strongyloidiasis are being reported in english literature. The diagnosis of intestinal strongyloidiasis is made by repeated stool smear examinations and in extraintestinal strongyloidiasis the appropriate specimen is examined for the rhabditiform larvae. Recently serological tests have also been developed that can be used for epidemiological purposes. The drug of choice for the treatment of strongyloidiasis remains thiabendazole but due to its unacceptable side effects other medicines like albendazole and ivermectine are being used more frequently. The prevention of the infection is

  13. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  14. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community.

  15. New trends in diagnosis and treatment of chronic intestinal strongyloidiasis stercoralis in Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Morsy, Ayman T A; Sadek, Gehan S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2006-12-01

    Strongyloidiasis, caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, is diagnosis considered as a challenge to clinician and laboratory technician. Because the auto-infective larvae are difficult to eradicate, one regimen dose may be in-sufficient and re-treatment of patients on two occasions, at 1 and 2 months after the initial treatment dose was recommended. This re-treatment regimen has yet to be proven in clinical trials. This study was performed on 24 patients who completed the study and having Strongyloides larvae in their stool obtained from Mansoura University Hospitals. Each stool sample was examined by direct saline smear, the formalin-ether sedimentation technique and agar plate culture. Patients were treated with Mirazid double course for a month to be followed up by stool examination by traditional method and agar plate culture for three consecutive months. In this study five cases out of 24 were asymptomatic (20.8%). Symptoms include abdominal manifestations as nausea and vomiting (16.7%), epi-gastric pain and nausea (12.5%), generalized abdominal pain (12.5%), chronic diarrhea (16.7%), irregular bowel habit (8.3%), and urticaria with abdominal pain (4.2%). Agar plate culture gave 100% positivity, even in cases were negative by coprological methods either direct smear and/or sedimenttation technique. All cases were cured by Mirazid given for one month except three resistant cases. Only one case responded to repeated course of Mirazid, while the other two cases still had larvae in their stool by agar culture plate. On combined therapy of both Mirazid and Mebendazole, larvae could be eliminated from their stool as approved by agar plate culture.

  16. Gelatin particle indirect agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis using Strongyloides venezuelensis antigen.

    PubMed

    Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Sato, Yoshiya; Aguilar, Jose Luis; Terashima, Angelica; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2003-01-01

    Routine microscopical examination of stool specimens for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is insensitive and serological methods using Strongyloides stercoralis antigen are at present not available for field studies. We evaluated 2 techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gelatin particle indirect agglutination (GPIA), using an antigen obtained from the rodent parasite, S. venezuelensis. Fifty-four Peruvian patients with different clinical forms of strongyloidiasis were studied: 12 asymptomatic, 31 symptomatic, and 11 hyperinfection cases. Our results demonstrate that both ELISA and GPIA using S. venezuelensis antigen are useful for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, with sensitivities of 74.1% and 98.2%, respectively and a specificity of 100% for both techniques. We found that GPIA is a highly sensitive test for patients with suspected chronic infection and/or hyperinfection. In the hyperinfection cases, significantly lower concentrations of specific immunoglobulin antibodies and eosinophils (P < 0.001) were found compared with the asymptomatic and symptomatic cases.

  17. Stage-specific excretory/secretory small heat shock proteins from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti: putative links to host’s intestinal mucosal defense system

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Geisinger, Frank; Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Soblik, Hanns; Steen, Hanno; Mitreva, Makedonka; Erttmann, Klaus D.; Perbandt, Markus; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In search of molecules involved in the interaction of intestinal nematodes and mammalian mucosal host cells, we performed mass spectrometry to identify excretory/secretory proteins (ESP) from Strongyloides ratti. In addition to other peptides, we detected in the ESP of parasitic female stage peptides homologous to the Caenorhabditis elegans heat shock protein-17, named Sra-HSP-17.1 (~19 kDa) and Sra-HSP-17.2 (~ 18 kDa) with 49% amino acid identity. The full-length cDNAs (483 bp and 474 bp, respectively) were identified and the genomic organization analyzed. To allow further characterization, the proteins were recombinantly expressed and purified. Profiling of transcription by qRT-PCR and of protein by ELISA in various developmental stages revealed parasitic female-specific expression. The sequence analysis of both DNA and amino acid sequence showed two genes share a conserved alpha-crystallin domain and variable N-terminals. The Sra-HSP-17 proteins showed the highest homology to the deduced small heat-shock protein sequence of the human pathogen S. stercoralis. We observed strong immunogenicity of both proteins, leading to high IgG responses following infection of rats. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the binding of Sra-HSP-17s to the monocytes/macrophage lineage but not to peripheral lymphocytes or neutrophils. A rat intestinal epithelial cell line showed dose dependent binding to Sra-HSP-17.1, but not to Sra-HSP-17.2. Exposed monocytes released IL-10 but not TNF-alpha in response to Sra-HSP-17s, suggesting a possible involvement of secreted female proteins in host immune responses. PMID:21762402

  18. Maltreatment of Strongyloides infection: Case series and worldwide physicians-in-training survey

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R.; Stauffer, William M.; Hendel-Paterson, Brett R.; Rocha, Jaime Luís Lopes; Seet, Raymond Chee-Seong; Summer, Andrea P.; Nield, Linda S.; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Walker, Patricia F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is an important cause of mortality from intestinal helminth infection in developed countries. The persistence of infection, increasing international travel, lack of familiarity by healthcare providers, and potential for iatrogenic hyperinfection, all make strongyloidiasis an important emerging infection. Design & Methods Two studies were performed. A retrospective chart review of Strongyloides stercoralis cases identified through microbiology laboratory records from 1993–2002 was conducted. Subsequently, 363 resident physicians in 15 training programs worldwide were queried with a case scenario of strongyloidiasis presenting an immigrant with wheezing and eosinophilia. The evaluation focused on resident recognition and diagnostic recommendations. Results In 151 strongyloidiasis cases, stool ova and parasite sensitivity is poor (51%), and eosinophilia (>5% or >400 cells/μL) commonly present (84%). Diagnosis averaged 56 months (Intra-quartile range: 4 to 72 months) after immigration. Presenting complaints were non-specific, although 10% presented with wheezing. Hyperinfection occurred in five patients prescribed corticosteroids with two deaths. Treatment errors occurred more often among providers unfamiliar with immigrant health (Relative Risk of Error: 8.4; 95% CI: 3.4 to 21.0; P<0.001). When presented a hypothetical case scenario, U.S. physicians-in-training had poor recognition (9%) of the need for parasite screening and frequently advocated empiric corticosteroids (23%). International trainees had superior recognition at 56% (P<0.001). Among U.S. trainees, 41% were unable to choose any parasite causing pulmonary symptoms. Conclusions Strongyloidiasis is present in U.S. patients. Diagnostic consideration should occur with appropriate exposure, non-specific symptoms including wheezing, or eosinophilia (>5% relative or >400 eosinophils/μL). U.S. residents’ helminth knowledge is

  19. Strongyloidiasis and Infective Dermatitis Alter Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 Clonality in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas A.; Cook, Lucy; Laydon, Daniel J.; Hlela, Carol; Verdonck, Kristien; Alvarez, Carolina; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Clark, Daniel; Farré, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achiléa; Asquith, Becca; Taylor, Graham P.; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic Virus-1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong by driving clonal proliferation of infected T-cells. HTLV-1 causes a neuroinflammatory disease and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Strongyloidiasis, a gastrointestinal infection by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, and Infective Dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH), appear to be risk factors for the development of HTLV-1 related diseases. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the HTLV-1-infected T-cell population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). A newly developed biodiversity estimator called “DivE” was used to estimate the total number of clones in the blood. We found that the major determinant of proviral load in all subjects without leukemia/lymphoma was the total number of HTLV-1-infected clones. Nevertheless, the significantly higher proviral load in patients with strongyloidiasis or IDH was due to an increase in the mean clone abundance, not to an increase in the number of infected clones. These patients appear to be less capable of restricting clone abundance than those with HTLV-1 alone. In patients co-infected with Strongyloides there was an increased degree of oligoclonal expansion and a higher rate of turnover (i.e. appearance and disappearance) of HTLV-1-infected clones. In Strongyloides co-infected patients and those with IDH, proliferation of the most abundant HTLV-1+ T-cell clones is independent of the genomic environment of the provirus, in sharp contrast to patients with HTLV-1 infection alone. This implies that new selection forces are driving oligoclonal proliferation in Strongyloides co-infection and IDH. We conclude that strongyloidiasis and IDH increase the risk of development of HTLV-1-associated diseases by increasing the rate of infection of new clones and the abundance of existing HTLV-1+ clones. PMID:23592987

  20. Strongyloidiasis and infective dermatitis alter human T lymphotropic virus-1 clonality in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas A; Cook, Lucy; Laydon, Daniel J; Hlela, Carol; Verdonck, Kristien; Alvarez, Carolina; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Clark, Daniel; Farré, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achiléa; Asquith, Becca; Taylor, Graham P; Bangham, Charles R M

    2013-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic Virus-1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong by driving clonal proliferation of infected T-cells. HTLV-1 causes a neuroinflammatory disease and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Strongyloidiasis, a gastrointestinal infection by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, and Infective Dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH), appear to be risk factors for the development of HTLV-1 related diseases. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the HTLV-1-infected T-cell population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). A newly developed biodiversity estimator called "DivE" was used to estimate the total number of clones in the blood. We found that the major determinant of proviral load in all subjects without leukemia/lymphoma was the total number of HTLV-1-infected clones. Nevertheless, the significantly higher proviral load in patients with strongyloidiasis or IDH was due to an increase in the mean clone abundance, not to an increase in the number of infected clones. These patients appear to be less capable of restricting clone abundance than those with HTLV-1 alone. In patients co-infected with Strongyloides there was an increased degree of oligoclonal expansion and a higher rate of turnover (i.e. appearance and disappearance) of HTLV-1-infected clones. In Strongyloides co-infected patients and those with IDH, proliferation of the most abundant HTLV-1⁺ T-cell clones is independent of the genomic environment of the provirus, in sharp contrast to patients with HTLV-1 infection alone. This implies that new selection forces are driving oligoclonal proliferation in Strongyloides co-infection and IDH. We conclude that strongyloidiasis and IDH increase the risk of development of HTLV-1-associated diseases by increasing the rate of infection of new clones and the abundance of existing HTLV-1⁺ clones.

  1. Enterococcal meningitis in association with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sukhwani, Kalpesh S; Bansal, Nitin; Soni, Mamta; Ramamurthy, Anand; Gopalakrishnan, Ram

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Strongyloidiasis can cause hyperinfection or disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host, and is an important factor linked to enterococcal bacteremia and meningitis. Case reports We report two cases highlighting the importance of suspecting Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in patients with enterococcal meningitis. Conclusion Our cases highlight the importance of suspecting Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in cases of community acquired enterococcal bacteremia and meningitis. PMID:28331839

  2. STRONGYLOIDES INFECTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS IN THE ISTHMIAN CANAL ZONE

    PubMed Central

    Darling, S. T.

    1911-01-01

    From a study of strongyloides infections in man and animals in this region, it has been determined, in confirmation of the view of Grassi, Calmette, and others, that they are not causative factors in the production of diarrhea. The mother worm, however, burrows into the mucosa and deposits her ova there. Certain tissue reactions take place and are evidenced by the cellular proliferation in those portions of the intestines occupied by the nematodes. In animals, there is an associated anemia, not positively attributable to the strongyloides, but, on the other hand, not attributable to any other cause. It is possible that S. stercoralis may cause some degree of anemia in man. The amount is indeterminable in this region among hospital cases on account of the associated hookworm disease or malaria. Portals of entry for various microörganisms are made by the female mother worm and her larvæ in the small intestine, and, while no case of general bacterial infection has been proved to have arisen in this way, its occurrence is possible and highly probable. In the cultures of strongyloides of man, there is among natives, who presumably are infected with purely tropical strains, a very marked predominance of development by the indirect or sexually differentiated mode, in some cases, an absolutely pure culture of the indirect mode larvæ being obtained. There are, however, natives, cultures from whose stools contain from a single filariform larva of the direct phase up to a very definite predominance of this mode. Cultures from natives of the temperate zones contain a marked predominance of the direct phase larvæ. The presence of the filariform (direct mode), larva is perhaps best accounted for by its being an attempt at more perfect parasitism (Stiles). From a correlation of culture study with the results of a histological examination of the invaded mucosa, this explanation of the derivation of the two phases is suggested. The mother worm in the intestinal tract has two

  3. Human contact influences the foraging behaviour and parasite community in long-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    Wenz-Mücke, Alexandra; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Petney, Trevor N; Taraschewski, Horst

    2013-05-01

    Human–wildlife interactions have reached unprecedented levels, and humans are influencing the earth’s ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than ever before. This situation is cause for serious concern, especially since disease interactions between wildlife and humans have been recognized as major conservation threats. In this study, long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, from 2 forest parks located in north-eastern Thailand were investigated to determine the influence of habitat modification by humans on helminth parasite associations in non-human primates. Macaque populations with contact to anthropogenically modified environments were compared with sylvatic groups in nearby natural environments. In order to test for human–non-human primate transmission of parasites, the local human populations were also examined. Humans were infected with a number of potentially pathogenic parasites, including Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis. However, eggs of these helminths were not detected in macaque feces. Thus, no direct parasite transfer from humans to non-human primates could be confirmed. However, macaque groups with more frequent contact with human modified habitats, and a higher portion of human-provided food in their diet, had significantly higher prevalences and intensities of Strongyloides fuelleborni and of an intestinal fluke (probably Haplorchis sp.) than sylvatic groups. Positive correlations were found between the time foraging on the ground and infection with S. fuelleborni, and the amount of human-provided food and intestinal fluke infection. Human alteration of habitat and associated modifications in nonhuman primate behaviour are likely to play a role in determining the occurrence, prevalence and intensity of zoonotic helminth infection of wild non-human primates.

  4. Central Nervous System Strongyloidiasis and Cryptococcosis in an HIV-Infected Patient Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Mónica; Flores, Paúl; Ahumada, Víctor; Vázquez-Vázquez, Lorena; Alvarado-de la Barrera, Claudia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome with central nervous system involvement, in a patient with late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection starting antiretroviral therapy, in whom Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Cryptococcus neoformans were isolated antemortem from cerebrospinal fluid. Our patient was not from an endemic region for the parasite, so strongyloidiasis was not originally suspected. For this reason, we conclude that Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be suspected in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in order to avoid potential fatal outcomes. PMID:22924046

  5. Structural and functional characterization of a novel scFv anti-HSP60 of Strongyloides sp.

    PubMed Central

    Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; de Almeida Araújo Santos, Fabiana; Fujimura, Patrícia Tiemi; Caneiro, Ana Paula; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Phage display is a powerful technology that selects specific proteins or peptides to a target. We have used Phage Display to select scFv (single-chain variable fragment) clones from a combinatorial library against total proteins of Strongyloides venezuelensis. After scFv characterization, further analysis demonstrated that this recombinant fragment of antibody was able to bind to an S. venezuelensis antigenic fraction of ~65 kDa, present in the body periphery and digestive system of infective larvae (L3), as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Mass spectrometry results followed by bioinformatics analysis showed that this antigenic fraction was a heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of Strongyloides sp. The selected scFv was applied in serodiagnosis by immune complexes detection in serum samples from individuals with strongyloidiasis using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showing sensitivity of 97.5% (86.84–99.94), specificity of 98.81 (93.54–99.97), positive likelihood ratio of 81.60 and an area under the curve of 0.9993 (0.9973–1.000). Our study provided a novel monoclonal scFv antibody fragment which specifically bound to HSP60 of Strongyloides sp. and was applied in the development of an innovative serodiagnosis method for the human strongyloidiasis. PMID:25994608

  6. A microarray analysis of gene expression in the free-living stages of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Fiona J; Barker, Gary LA; Hughes, Louise; Wilkes, Clare P; Coghill, Jane; Viney, Mark E

    2006-01-01

    Background The nematode Strongyloides ratti has two adult phases in its lifecycle: one obligate, female and parasitic and one facultative, dioecious and free-living. The molecular control of the development of this free-living generation remains to be elucidated. Results We have constructed an S. ratti cDNA microarray and used it to interrogate changes in gene expression during the free-living phase of the S. ratti life-cycle. We have found very extensive differences in gene expression between first-stage larvae (L1) passed in faeces and infective L3s preparing to infect hosts. In L1 stages there was comparatively greater expression of genes involved in growth. We have also compared gene expression in L2 stages destined to develop directly into infective L3s with those destined to develop indirectly into free-living adults. This revealed relatively small differences in gene expression. We find little evidence for the conservation of transcription profiles between S. ratti and S. stercoralis or C. elegans. Conclusion This is the first multi-gene study of gene expression in S. ratti. This has shown that robust data can be generated, with consistent measures of expression within computationally determined clusters and contigs. We find inconsistencies between EST representation data and microarray hybridization data in the identification of genes with stage-specific expression and highly expressed genes. Many of the genes whose expression is significantly different between L1 and iL3s stages are unknown beyond alignments to predicted genes. This highlights the forthcoming challenge in actually determining the role of these genes in the life of S. ratti. PMID:16784522

  7. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy.

    PubMed

    van Tong, Hoang; Brindley, Paul J; Meyer, Christian G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-02-01

    Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Eosinophilia: A poor predictor of Strongyloides infection in refugees

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Prenilla; Yanow, Stephanie K; Kowalewska-Grochowska, Kinga T

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada resettles 10,000 to 12,000 refugees annually. Despite this being a highly vulnerable population, there are little Canadian data on subclinical tropical diseases harboured in this population over the past 20 years. OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence and predictors of Strongyloides infection in refugees arriving in Edmonton, Alberta. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all refugees seen at the New Canadians Clinic between March 2009 and April 2010 was performed. Demographic, symptom and physical examination data were collected from the charts. Laboratory results were obtained from the electronic laboratory records. RESULTS: A total of 350 subjects were studied. The overall seroprevalence of strongyloidiasis was 4.6%. Equivocal results were found in 6.3%. In the positive group, the majority were male (62.5%); 75% were born in Africa (P=0.004) and 81.2% lived in refugee camps in Africa (P=0.002). Eosinophilia was present in 25% of the positive subjects (P=0.05), in none of the equivocal group and in 8.7% of the negative group. DISCUSSION: Persistent asymptomatic Strongyloides infection is maintained for years through autoinfection. Traditionally, eosinophilia was used as one of the key tools to diagnose chronic but stable diseases, but it was shown to have a poor predictive value for strongyloidiasis in returning expatriates as well as in those presenting with a disseminated form of the disease. It is important to raise awareness of the severe limitations of eosinophilia as a marker for strongyloidiasis when managing patients who either are immunocompromised, or about to start immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that eosinophilia is a poor predictor of seropositivity and, thus, Strongyloides infection. Residence in Africa (birth/refugee camps) proved to be a significantly better predictor of Strongyloides seropositivity. PMID:24421809

  9. Sub-acute intestinal obstruction by Strongyloides stercolaris.

    PubMed

    al-Bahrani, Z R; al-Saleem, T; al-Gailani, M A

    1995-01-01

    Strongyloides stercolaris infestation is rather rare in Iraq. Individuals with infection confined to the intestinal tract are often asymptomatic. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss and other non-specific complaints. The diagnosis depends upon repeated examination of stool and duodenal aspirate. Two cases presenting as sub-acute intestinal obstruction and mimicking primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL) on presentation are presented. Differentiation between the two conditions regarding presenting features, barium studies and pathology are discussed.

  10. First report of human intestinal sarcocystosis in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Khieu, Virak; Marti, Hanspeter; Chhay, Saomony; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Human intestinal sarcocystosis (HIS), caused by Sarcocystis species, is acquired by eating undercooked meat from sarcocyst-containing cattle (S. hominis, S. heydorni) and pigs (S. suihominis). We report on the detection of human intestinal Sarcocystis infections in a cross-sectional survey of Strongyloides stercoralis in early 2014, in Rovieng District, Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Among 1081 participants, 108 (10.0%) were diagnosed with Sarcocystis spp. oocysts in stool samples. Males had a significantly higher risk of infection than females (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9, p=0.001). None of the reported symptoms (abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, muscle pain and itching skin) occurring in the two weeks preceding the examinations were associated with a Sarcocystis infection. Many Sarcocystis cases were found among those who had participated in a wedding celebration and Chinese New Year festivities, where they had consumed raw or insufficiently cooked beef (83.3%) and pork (38.9%) based dishes. This report documents the first HIS cases in Cambodia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fontanet, A L; Sahlu, T; Rinke de Wit, T; Messele, T; Masho, W; Woldemichael, T; Yeneneh, H; Coutinho, R A

    2000-04-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239, randomly selected individuals, aged 15-54 years, living on a sugar estate in central Ethiopia. Intestinal parasites were identified in faecal samples (one/subject) using direct, concentration, and (for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae) Baermann methods. HIV serological status was determined using ELISA, with ELISA-positive samples confirmed as positive by western blotting. Most (70.1%) of the subjects were infected with at least one intestinal parasite and 3.1% were seropositive (but asymptomatic) for HIV. The intestinal parasites identified in the study population were amoebic parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/Enta. dispar) (24.6%), hookworms (23.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Trichuris trichiura (19.5%), S. stercoralis (13.0%), Taenia saginata (4.5%), Giardia lamblia (3.0%), and Enterobius vermicularis (1.3%). Overall, the HIV-positives were no more or less likely to carry intestinal parasites than the HIV-negatives (76.2% v. 69.9%; P > 0.05). However, when each parasite was considered separately, amoebic parasites were found to be more common in the HIV-positives than the HIV-negatives (43.7% v. 24.0%; P < 0.05). This difference remained significant in a multivariate analysis, after controlling for the socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants. In conclusion, there was moderate interaction between intestinal parasites and HIV at the asymptomatic stage of HIV infection. The observed association between amoebic and HIV infections requires confirmation in a prospective study, allowing for the analysis of biological mechanisms involved in the association.

  12. Strongyloides stercoralis: a field-based survey of mothers and their preschool children using ELISA, Baermann and Koga plate methods reveals low endemicity in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J R; Pleasant, J; Oguttu, D; Adriko, M; Galimaka, R; Ruggiana, A; Kazibwe, F; Kabatereine, N B

    2008-09-01

    To ascertain the current status of strongyloidiasis in mothers and their preschool children, a field-based survey was conducted in western Uganda using a combination of diagnostic methods: ELISA, Baermann concentration and Koga agar plate. The prevalence of other soil-transmitted helminthiasis and intestinal schistosomiasis were also determined. In total, 158 mothers and 143 children were examined from five villages within Kabale, Hoima and Masindi districts. In mothers and children, the general prevalence of strongyloidiasis inferred by ELISA was approximately 4% and approximately 2%, respectively. Using the Baermann concentration method, two parasitologically proven cases were encountered in an unrelated mother and child, both of whom were sero-negative for strongyloidiasis. No infections were detected by Koga agar plate method. The general level of awareness of strongyloidiasis was very poor ( < 5%) in comparison to schistosomiasis (51%) and ascariasis (36%). Strongyloidiasis is presently at insufficient levels to justify inclusion within a community treatment programme targeting maternal and child health. Better epidemiological screening is needed, however, especially identifying infections in HIV-positive women of childbearing age. In the rural clinic setting, further use of the Baermann concentration method would appear to be the most immediate and pragmatic option for disease diagnosis.

  13. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244

  14. Molecular paleoparasitological hybridization approach as effective tool for diagnosing human intestinal parasites from scarce archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples.

  15. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-01-14

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed.

  16. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  17. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Laos: a community-wide cross-sectional study of humans and dogs in a mass drug administration environment.

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Elliot, Aileen; Pallant, Louise; Sripa, Banchob; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a community cross-sectional survey of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans and dogs in four provinces in northern Laos. We collected and tested human and dog fecal samples and analyzed results against sociodemographic data. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.7-28.4%), 41.5% (95% CI = 38.8-44.1%), 46.3% (95% CI = 43.3-49.0%), and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.4-10.4%), respectively. We observed strong heterogeneity for helminthiasis by ethnicity, province, and wealth status, which coincided with a risk profile demonstrating that Mon-Khmer persons and the poorest households are highly vulnerable. Necator americanus was the dominant hookworm species infecting humans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the only Ancylostoma species detected. Hookworm prevalence in village dogs was 94%, and the dominant species was A. ceylanicum. Necator americanus was also detected in dogs. It appears that dogs have a role in human hookworm transmission and warrant further investigation.

  18. Molecular identification of the strongyloid nematode Oesophagostomum aculeatum in the Asian wild elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Phuphisut, O; Maipanich, W; Pubampen, S; Yindee, M; Kosoltanapiwat, N; Nuamtanong, S; Ponlawat, A; Adisakwattana, P

    2016-07-01

    The transmission of zoonoses by wildlife, including elephants, is a growing global concern. In this study, we screened for helminth infections among Asian wild elephants (Elephas maximus) of the Salakpra Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanchanaburi, Thailand. Elephant faecal samples (45) were collected from the sanctuary grounds during January through November 2013 and assayed individually using the tetranucleotide microsatellite technique. Microscopic examination indicated a high prevalence of strongylids (93.0%) and low prevalences of trichurids (2.3%) and ascarids (2.3%). To identify the strongylid species, small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were amplified from copro-DNA and compared with sequences in GenBank. The generated SSU-rDNA sequences comprised five distinct haplotypes that were closely related to Oesophagostomum aculeatum. A phylogenetic analysis that incorporated related nematodes yielded a tree separated into two main clades, one containing our samples and human and domestic animal hookworms and the other consisting of Strongyloides. The present results indicate that O. aculeatum in local elephants is a potential source of helminthiasis in human and domestic animals in this wild-elephant irrupted area.

  19. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Bart J.; Cheng, Allen C.; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Holt, Deborah C.; Page, Wendy; Shield, Jennifer; Gundjirryirr, Roslyn; Mulholland, Eddie; Ward, Linda; Andrews, Ross M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35–60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs) delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community. Methods Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10–42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus. Findings We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants) at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818) at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%), falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297) to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157) at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any

  20. Comparison between the effect of Lawsonia inermis and flubendazole on Strongyloides species using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Khadiga Ahmed; Ibrahim, Ayman Nabil; Ahmed, Mona Abdel-Fattah; Hetta, Mona Hafez

    2016-06-01

    Strongyloides species is a helminth of worldwide distribution primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. It is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability for autoinfection so; it may lead to severe systemic manifestations especially in immunosuppressed patients. Chemotherapy is currently considered the best therapeutic option for strongyloidiasis but some drugs are expensive and others have side effects as nausea, diarrhea and headache. Strongyloides larva is resistant to most chemical agents so, search for plant extracts may provide other effective but less expensive treatment. Lawsonia inermis Linn, popularly known as Henna, has been proven to have antihelminthic, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The current study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Lawsonia inermis on Strongyloides spp. In vitro using scanning electron microscopy. Fifty Strongyloides species. larvae and free living females were incubated with different concentrations of Lawsonia (1, 10, 100 mg/ml), for different incubation periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) in comparison to the same concentrations of flubendazole at the same different time points. The results showed that Lawsonia inermis in a concentration of 10 mg/ml incubated with Strongyloides spp. female for 24 h affected the parasite cuticular surface in the form of transverse and longitudinal fissures and transverse depression in comparison to no cuticular change with flubendazole (100 mg/ml). This suggests that Lawsonia inermis may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for strongyloidiasis.

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Amphimerus spp. liver fluke infection in Humans.

    PubMed

    Cevallos, William; Calvopiña, Manuel; Nipáz, Victoria; Vicente-Santiago, Belén; López-Albán, Julio; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Guevara, Ángel; Muro, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Amphimerus spp. is a liver fluke that infects humans and domestic animals. It is highly prevalent in some Ecuadorian communities. Currently, diagnosis is based on the microscopic observation of eggs in faeces, but this has variable sensitivity. More sensitive methods are needed for diagnostic testing. The main objective of this work was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using crude antigens from Amphimerus spp. adult worms to detect anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera. Crude somatic antigens were obtained from adult Amphimerus spp. worms. Human sera from 119 patients were tested: 48 from individuals with a confirmed Amphimerus spp. infection, 78 from non-infected Ecuadorians living in the endemic region, 60 from persons living in non-endemic areas (20 Ecuadorians, 20 Europeans, and 20 Africans), and 33 who had other parasitic and non-parasitic infections. Results were analysed using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.967. The accuracy of the ELISA was high. The sensitivity was 85.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 80.3-89.7%] and the specificity was 71.0% (95% CI: 65.2-76.8%). Some cross reactivity was detected against Paragonimus mexicanus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosomiasis, Taenia solium, Strongyloides stercoralis, Mansonella spp., and Vampirolepis nana. We have developed the first ELISA technique that detects anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera with good sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. However, more specific antigens are needed to further enhance performance of this assay. Regardless, this ELISA test could be useful for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of human Amphimerus spp. infections.

  2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Amphimerus spp. liver fluke infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cevallos, William; Calvopiña, Manuel; Nipáz, Victoria; Vicente-Santiago, Belén; López-Albán, Julio; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Guevara, Ángel; Muro, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Amphimerus spp. is a liver fluke that infects humans and domestic animals. It is highly prevalent in some Ecuadorian communities. Currently, diagnosis is based on the microscopic observation of eggs in faeces, but this has variable sensitivity. More sensitive methods are needed for diagnostic testing. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this work was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using crude antigens from Amphimerus spp. adult worms to detect anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera. METHODS Crude somatic antigens were obtained from adult Amphimerus spp. worms. Human sera from 119 patients were tested: 48 from individuals with a confirmed Amphimerus spp. infection, 78 from non-infected Ecuadorians living in the endemic region, 60 from persons living in non-endemic areas (20 Ecuadorians, 20 Europeans, and 20 Africans), and 33 who had other parasitic and non-parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Results were analysed using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.967. The accuracy of the ELISA was high. The sensitivity was 85.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 80.3-89.7%] and the specificity was 71.0% (95% CI: 65.2-76.8%). Some cross reactivity was detected against Paragonimus mexicanus, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosomiasis, Taenia solium, Strongyloides stercoralis, Mansonella spp., and Vampirolepis nana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We have developed the first ELISA technique that detects anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera with good sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. However, more specific antigens are needed to further enhance performance of this assay. Regardless, this ELISA test could be useful for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of human Amphimerus spp. infections. PMID:28443982

  3. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms.

  4. F-actin accumulates in the vulva of female Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    PubMed

    Silva, C V; Gonçalves, A L R; Cruz, L; Cruz, M C; Ueta, M T; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the actin cytoskeleton architecture in female Strongyloides venezuelensis and thus to investigate the distribution and concentration of actin, female worms were labelled with phalloidin-rhodamine and visualized under confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that filamentous actin accumulates in the vulva and the concentration of F-actin at this site suggests its important role, especially during oviposition, in the life cycle of S. venezuelensis.

  5. Advances in developing molecular-diagnostic tools for strongyloid nematodes of equids: fundamental and applied implications.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Robin B; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Chilton, Neil B; Beveridge, Ian

    2004-02-01

    Infections of equids with parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida (subfamilies Strongylinae and Cyathostominae) are of major veterinary importance. In last decades, the widespread use of drugs against these parasites has led to problems of resistance within the Cyathostominae, and to an increase in their prevalence and intensity of infection. Novel control strategies, based on improved knowledge of parasite biology and epidemiology, have thus become important. However, there are substantial limitations in the understanding of fundamental biological and systematic aspects of these parasites, which have been due largely to limitations in their specific identification and diagnosis using traditional, morphological approaches. Recently, there has been progress in the development of DNA-based approaches for the specific identification of strongyloids of equids for systematic studies and disease diagnosis. The present article briefly reviews information on the classification, biology, pathogenesis, epidemiology of equine strongyloids and the diagnosis of infections, highlights knowledge gaps in these areas, describes recent advances in the use of molecular techniques for the genetic characterisation, specific identification and differentiation of strongyloids of equids as a basis for fundamental investigations of the systematics, population biology and ecology.

  6. Strongyloides appendicitis: unusual etiology in two siblings with chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Komenaka, Ian K; Wu, George C H; Lazar, Eric L; Cohen, Jason A

    2003-09-01

    Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute surgical disease in children and young adults. Parasites, however, are one of the uncommon etiologies. An 8-year-old girl and her 7-year-old sister presented with more than 2 months of chronic abdominal pain that became worse over a 1-week period before presentation. The 2 sisters presented 1 month apart. Both had similar symptomatology and physical examination findings. At operation, the surgical findings included an inflamed appendix with a cross section of the parasite Strongyloides. Strongyloides appendicitis has occurred almost exclusively in areas endemic to the parasite. Its environment is more common outside the United States but occasionally is seen in the Southeast region and in institutionalized individuals. The presentation of acute exacerbation of chronic abdominal pain coupled with the pathologic finding of Strongyloides in an acutely inflamed appendix, should alert the clinician of other possible cases. This increased index of suspicion will allow more prompt diagnosis and help avoid the morbidity of delayed operation.

  7. Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi and other intestinal helminths in children from Papua New Guinea: associations with nutritional status and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    King, Sarah E; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined the prevalence and intensity of Strongyloides fuelleborni kellyi and other intestinal helminths in children 5 years of age or under living near Kanabea, Papua New Guinea. Of 179 samples, 27% of the children tested positive for Strongyloides, with 81% of these children being a year or less in age. Overall, 68% of the children had one or more infections including Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm (Necator americanus) as well as Strongyloides. Egg counts in the stools ranged from 100 to 98,300 eggs/ml for Strongyloides, 100 to 59,200 eggs/ml for Ascaris and 100 to 3400 eggs/ml for hookworm. There were significant associations between Strongyloides intensity and weight for age and weight for height such that children with higher intensities had, on average, lower z-scores. Relationships between the prevalence of helminth infections and socioeconomic factors were also observed. Logistic regression models showed that children living farther away from Kanabea (more than 2 hours' walking distance), in smaller households (5 or less people) and with uneducated mothers best predict children with Strongyloides. Two of these variables also predicted the presence of hookworm: maternal education and household size. However, in contrast to Strongyloides, a larger household size (6 or more people) was significantly associated with the presence of hookworm. House type was associated with the prevalence of Ascaris, with children living in houses with tin roofs being less likely to have Ascaris than those living in traditional houses. In addition, maternal education was associated with Ascaris intensity in those children with infection, such that the mean intensities were greater in children of uneducated mothers.

  8. Parasitiosis in handicapped children in an Egyptian blind asylum.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Aboul Noor, Mohamad F; Hegazi, Mamdouh M

    2008-04-01

    Examination of visually handicapped children and their serving staff revealed in a descending order Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Cryptospodium parvum, Tricocephalus trichura and Strongyloides stercoralis. Head lice were encountered. But, neither blood parasites nor protozoan infective agent in water for human consumption.

  9. Detection of parasite-specific IgG and IgA in paired serum and saliva samples for diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis in northern Paraná state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bosqui, Larissa R; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia R; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do Rosário F; Custodio, Luiz Antonio; de Menezes, Maria Cláudia N D; Murad, Valter A; de Paula, Fabiana M; Pavanelli, Wander R; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Costa, Idessania N

    2015-10-01

    Human strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis that can be fatal, especially in immunosuppressed patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate parasite-specific IgG and IgA levels using S. venezuelensis third-stage (L3) infective larvae alkaline extract as a heterologous antigen by ELISA in paired serum and saliva samples with improved sensitivity and specificity. Individuals from northern Paraná state, Brazil were divided into three groups: 30 patients copropositive for S. stercoralis (Group I); 30 clinically healthy individuals (Group II); and 30 patients copropositive for other parasites (Group III). The area under ROC curve (AUC), an overall index of diagnostic accuracy, and Kappa index were calculated. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Kruskal-Wallis test. Probability (p) values of <0.05 were regarded as significant. In Group I, IgG was detected in 96.7% serum and in 6.7% saliva samples. IgG was not detected in Group II. In Group III, cross-reactivity was observed for serum IgG in 26.7% and in 6.7% for saliva samples. In Group I, IgA was detected in 76.7% serum and 56.7% saliva samples. In Group II, 3.3% were positive for IgA in serum, whereas IgA was not detected in any saliva samples. Group III showed 6.7% serum and 26.7% saliva-positive samples. The sensitivity values for detection of IgG and IgA in serum samples were 96.7% and 76.7%, respectively. In saliva samples, the sensitivity values for detection of IgG and IgA were 6.7% and 56.7%, respectively. The specificity value was 100% for the detection of IgG in serum and for detection of IgG and IgA in saliva, and 96.7% for detection of IgA in serum samples. The proper choice of immunological diagnosis to supplement parasitological methods is essential to estimate the true prevalence of the parasite, and will permit analysis of population immune response profiles, particularly in northern Paraná state, where there are no previous

  10. Exposure of medical staff to Strongyloides stercolaris from a patient with disseminated strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Nagasawa, Toshiro; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2006-08-01

    We examined whether medical staff were infected with Strongyloides stercolaris through exposure to the body substances of a patient with disseminated strongyloidiasis. The patient excreted a large number of S. stercolaris organisms in respiratory secretions and stool-like excretions from a nasogastric tube. Blood tests in six physicians and three nurses, who were highly suspected of having had contact with the substances without appropriate protection during medical care of the patient for about 1 week, showed no increase of eosinophiles or IgG antibodies against S. stercolaris. We conclude that adherence to the standard precautions is sufficient for preventing the nosocomial transmission of this organism.

  11. First report of Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda, Strongyloididae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae) in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karina R; Faciulli, Paula; Paparotto, Telma; Takahira, Regina K; Lopes, Raimundo S; da Silva, Reinaldo J

    2009-12-01

    The present study reports the first case of infection by Strongyloides sp. in Leopardus tigrinus in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Feces of the infected L. tigrinus specimen were cultivated in sterilized equine feces and a cat (Felis catus domesticus) was experimentally infected with three thousand infective L3 subcutaneous route, in order to identify the Strongyloides species involved in the parasitism. Parthenogenetic females recovered from the experimental animals were analyzed but comparison between the biometric data found and the data in the literature did not enable identification of the species. This is the first report on the occurrence of Strongyloides sp. in L. tigrinus.

  12. Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) from the intestine of feral nutrias (Myocastor coypus) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Oh, Mihyeon; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-10-01

    Surveys on helminthic fauna of the nutria, Myocastor coypus, have seldom been performed in the Republic of Korea. In the present study, we describe Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) recovered from the small intestine of feral nutrias. Total 10 adult nutrias were captured in a wetland area in Gimhae-si (City), Gyeongsangnam-do (Province) in April 2013. They were transported to our laboratory, euthanized with ether, and necropsied. About 1,300 nematode specimens were recovered from 10 nutrias, and some of them were morphologically observed by light and scanning electron microscopies. They were 3.7-4.7 (4.0±0.36) mm in length, 0.03-0.04 (0.033) mm in width. The worm dimension and other morphological characters, including prominent lips of the vulva, blunted conical tail, straight type of the ovary, and 8-chambered stoma, were all consistent with S. myopotami. This nematode fauna is reported for the first time in Korea.

  13. Development of free-living stages of Strongyloides ratti under different temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Maki; Uga, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the Strongyloides species have two different developmental courses-direct and indirect development-and selection of these courses is affected by various environmental factors. This study examined the effect of temperature on the development of first-stage larvae (L1s) of Strongyloides ratti, to clarify how larvae adapt and survive at unsuitable temperatures. It was revealed that L1s cultured at 4 or 10 °C for 120 h could not develop because of growth arrest or delay. However, L1s could develop after transfer to culture at 25 °C for 48 h. Although larvae cultured at 25 °C take indirect development, larvae subjected to low-temperature stimulation (at 4 or 10 °C) take direct development into infective third-stage larvae (L3s), and only 1 min of low-temperature stimulation was sufficient to induce direct development. Morphological study of low-temperature-stimulated L3s revealed that those stimulated at 4 °C (L3-4) showed less development, but those stimulated at 10 °C (L3-10) developed as well as the control (no low-temperature stimulation). Furthermore, we revealed that L3-10 showed similar infectivity to the control when they were injected subcutaneously into rats as the final host, which indicated that L3-10 grew normally. We conclude that S. ratti has a survival strategy of growth arrest or delay if excreted in cold conditions. Moreover, even if they start development after transfer to suitable conditions, they memorize low-temperature stimulation, which leads them to direct development thereafter so that they can immediately infect the final host.

  14. Epidemiological Characteristics of Strongyloidiasis in Inhabitants of Indigenous Communities in Borneo Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Halim, Noor Amira Abdul; Rajoo, Yamuna; Lim, Yvonne Al; Ambu, Stephen; Rajoo, Komalaveni; Chang, Tey Siew; Woon, Lu Chan; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological study on strongyloidiasis in humans is currently lacking in Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among the inhabitants of longhouse indigenous communities in Sarawak. A single stool and blood sample were collected from each participant and subjected to microscopy, serological and molecular techniques. Five species of intestinal parasites were identified by stool microscopy. None of the stool samples were positive for S. stercoralis. However, 11% of 236 serum samples were seropositive for strongyloidiasis. Further confirmation using molecular technique on stool samples of the seropositive individuals successfully amplified 5 samples, suggesting current active infections. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult males and tended to increase with age. S. stercoralis should no longer be neglected in any intestinal parasitic survey. Combination of more than 1 diagnostic technique is necessary to increase the likelihood of estimating the 'true' prevalence of S. stercoralis.

  15. Epidemiological Characteristics of Strongyloidiasis in Inhabitants of Indigenous Communities in Borneo Island, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Halim, Noor Amira Abdul; Rajoo, Yamuna; Lim, Yvonne AL; Ambu, Stephen; Rajoo, Komalaveni; Chang, Tey Siew; Woon, Lu Chan; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological study on strongyloidiasis in humans is currently lacking in Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among the inhabitants of longhouse indigenous communities in Sarawak. A single stool and blood sample were collected from each participant and subjected to microscopy, serological and molecular techniques. Five species of intestinal parasites were identified by stool microscopy. None of the stool samples were positive for S. stercoralis. However, 11% of 236 serum samples were seropositive for strongyloidiasis. Further confirmation using molecular technique on stool samples of the seropositive individuals successfully amplified 5 samples, suggesting current active infections. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult males and tended to increase with age. S. stercoralis should no longer be neglected in any intestinal parasitic survey. Combination of more than 1 diagnostic technique is necessary to increase the likelihood of estimating the ‘true’ prevalence of S. stercoralis. PMID:27853126

  16. Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) from the Intestine of Feral Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Oh, Mihyeon; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Surveys on helminthic fauna of the nutria, Myocastor coypus, have seldom been performed in the Republic of Korea. In the present study, we describe Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) recovered from the small intestine of feral nutrias. Total 10 adult nutrias were captured in a wetland area in Gimhae-si (City), Gyeongsangnam-do (Province) in April 2013. They were transported to our laboratory, euthanized with ether, and necropsied. About 1,300 nematode specimens were recovered from 10 nutrias, and some of them were morphologically observed by light and scanning electron microscopies. They were 3.7-4.7 (4.0±0.36) mm in length, 0.03-0.04 (0.033) mm in width. The worm dimension and other morphological characters, including prominent lips of the vulva, blunted conical tail, straight type of the ovary, and 8-chambered stoma, were all consistent with S. myopotami. This nematode fauna is reported for the first time in Korea. PMID:25352703

  17. Evaluation of gastrointestinal transit after infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Anjos-Ramos, L; Gama, L A; Mati, V L T; Corá, L A; Fujiwara, R T; Americo, M F

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to correlate the gastrointestinal transit profile in rats, evaluated by a biomagnetic technique, in response to infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Eggs per gram, intestinal number of worms and fecundity, and also gastric emptying time, cecum arrival time, small intestinal transit time and stool weight were determined. Assessments occurred at 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days post infection (dpi) with three infective loads (400, 2000, and 10,000 L). Gastric emptying was faster (p=0.0001) and the intestinal transit was significantly slower (p=0.001) during the infection time course. Also, linear mixed-effects models showed significantly changes in small intestinal transit after three parasite load over time. Cecum arrival was not influenced by infection time course or parasite load. As indirect effect, stool weight decreased accompanied a strong oviposition peak at 9 dpi in 400 L and 2000 L. In several motor function instances, neuromuscular dysfunction persists after mucosal inflammation has decreased. Our approach could be very helpful to evaluate gastrointestinal motor abnormalities in vivo after parasite infection. Despite parasitological data progressively decreased after 15 dpi, small intestinal transit worse over time and according to burden.

  18. daf-7 and the development of Strongyloides ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri.

    PubMed

    Crook, Matt; Thompson, Fiona J; Grant, Warwick N; Viney, Mark E

    2005-02-01

    daf-7 is a key ligand in one of the three pathways that control dauer larva development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Given the similarities between dauer larvae of free-living nematodes and third stage infective larvae of animal parasitic nematodes, we hypothesised that daf-7 may be involved in the development of these infective larvae. To investigate this, we cloned daf-7 orthologues from Strongyloides ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri and analysed their RNA level by semi-quantitative RT-PCR during the S. ratti and P. trichosuri life cycles and in a range of in vitro and in vivo conditions. We found that, in both species, the RNA level of daf-7 was low in free-living stages but peaked in the infective L3 (iL3) stage with little or no expression in the parasitic stages. This contrasts with the daf-7 RNA level in C. elegans, which peaks in L1, decreases thereafter, and is absent in dauer larvae. The RNA level of daf-7 in infective larvae was reduced by larval penetration of host skin or development in the host, but not by a shift to the body temperature of the host.

  19. Mucosal mast cells are indispensable for the timely termination of Strongyloides ratti infection.

    PubMed

    Reitz, M; Brunn, M-L; Rodewald, H-R; Feyerabend, T B; Roers, A; Dudeck, A; Voehringer, D; Jönsson, F; Kühl, A A; Breloer, M

    2017-03-01

    Mast cells and basophils are innate immune cells with overlapping functions that contribute to anti-helminth immunity. Mast cell function during helminth infection was previously studied using mast cell-deficient Kit-mutant mice that display additional mast cell-unrelated immune deficiencies. Here, we use mice that lack basophils or mucosal and connective tissue mast cells in a Kit-independent manner to re-evaluate the impact of each cell type during helminth infection. Neither mast cells nor basophils participated in the immune response to tissue-migrating Strongyloides ratti third-stage larvae, but both cell types contributed to the early expulsion of parasitic adults from the intestine. The termination of S. ratti infection required the presence of mucosal mast cells: Cpa3(Cre) mice, which lack mucosal and connective tissue mast cells, remained infected for more than 150 days. Mcpt5(Cre) R-DTA mice, which lack connective tissue mast cells only, and basophil-deficient Mcpt8(Cre) mice terminated the infection after 1 month with wild-type kinetics despite their initial increase in intestinal parasite burden. Because Cpa3(Cre) mice showed intact Th2 polarization and efficiently developed protective immunity after vaccination, we hypothesize that mucosal mast cells are non-redundant terminal effector cells in the intestinal epithelium that execute anti-helminth immunity but do not orchestrate it.

  20. Optimizing culture conditions for free-living stages of the nematode parasite Strongyloides ratti.

    PubMed

    Dulovic, Alex; Puller, Vadim; Streit, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    The rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti (S. ratti) has recently emerged as a model system for various aspects of parasite biology and evolution. In addition to parasitic parthenogenetic females, this species can also form facultative free-living generations of sexually reproducing adults. These free-living worms are bacteriovorous and grow very well when cultured in the feces of their host. However, in fecal cultures the worms are rather difficult to find for observation and experimental manipulation. Therefore, it has also been attempted to raise S. ratti on Nematode Growth Media (NGM) plates with Escherichia coli OP50 as food, exactly as described for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whilst worms did grow on these plates, their longevity and reproductive output compared to fecal cultures were dramatically reduced. In order to improve the culture success we tested other plates occasionally used for C. elegans and, starting from the best performing one, systematically varied the plate composition, the temperature and the food in order to further optimize the conditions. Here we present a plate culturing protocol for free-living stages of S. ratti with strongly improved reproductive success and longevity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pelodera (syn. Rhabditis) strongyloides as a cause of dermatitis – a report of 11 dogs from Finland

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Seppo AM; Nikander, Sven E

    2006-01-01

    Background Pelodera (Rhabditis) strongyloides is a small saprophytic nematode that lives in decaying organic matter. On rare occasions, it can invade the mammalian skin, causing a pruritic, erythematous, alopecic and crusting dermatitis on skin sites that come into contact with the ground. Diagnosis of the disease is based on case history (a dog living outdoors on damp straw bedding) with characteristic skin lesions and on the demonstration of typical larvae in skin scrapings or biopsy. Pelodera (rhabditic) dermatitis cases have been reported mainly from Central European countries and the United States. Case presentation During 1975–1999, we verified 11 canine cases of Pelodera dermatitis in Finland. The cases were confirmed by identifying Pelodera larvae in scrapings. Biopsies for histopathology were obtained from three cases, and typical histopathological lesions (epidermal hyperplasia, epidermal and follicular hyperkeratosis, folliculitis and furunculosis with large numbers of nematode larvae of 25–40 μm of diameter within hair follicles) were present. The Pelodera strongyloides dermatitica strain from the first verified case in Finland has been maintained in ordinary blood agar in our laboratory since 1975. Light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were employed to obtain detailed morphological information about the causative agent. The rhabditiform oesophagus at all developmental stages, the morphology of the anterior end of the nematode, copulatory bursa and spicules of the male and the tail of the female were the most important morphological features for identifying P. strongyloides. Conclusion These cases show that Pelodera dermatitis occurs in Finland, and also farther north than described earlier in the literature. This condition should be considered when a dog living outdoors has typical skin lesions situated at sites in contact with the ground as the main presenting clinical feature. The fastest and easiest way to confirm

  2. Strongyloides stercolaris infection mimicking a malignant tumour in a non-immunocompromised patient. Diagnosis by bronchoalveolar cytology

    PubMed Central

    Mayayo, E; Gomez-Aracil, V; Azua-Blanco, J; Azua-Romeo, J; Capilla, J; Mayayo, R

    2005-01-01

    Autoinfective strongyloidiasis is often fatal in immunosuppressed patients or in immunocomprised hosts. An interesting case of Strongyloides stercolaris hyperinfection was seen in an immunocompetent patient. This report describes a case of fatal strogyloidiasis in a 79 year old man, who had suffered gastrointestinal discomfort for years, and who presented because of respiratory illness. A chest radiograph showed an irregular mass close to the mediastinum and interstitial infiltrates, but blood eosinophilia was not observed. Cytological examination of the samples obtained from bronchial aspiration and brushing identified several filariform larvae. Thus, cytology was essential for the correct diagnosis in this patient and is a very reliable method to diagnose lung parasitosis. PMID:15790710

  3. Strongyloides stercolaris infection mimicking a malignant tumour in a non-immunocompromised patient. Diagnosis by bronchoalveolar cytology.

    PubMed

    Mayayo, E; Gomez-Aracil, V; Azua-Blanco, J; Azua-Romeo, J; Capilla, J; Mayayo, R

    2005-04-01

    Autoinfective strongyloidiasis is often fatal in immunosuppressed patients or in immunocomprised hosts. An interesting case of Strongyloides stercolaris hyperinfection was seen in an immunocompetent patient. This report describes a case of fatal strogyloidiasis in a 79 year old man, who had suffered gastrointestinal discomfort for years, and who presented because of respiratory illness. A chest radiograph showed an irregular mass close to the mediastinum and interstitial infiltrates, but blood eosinophilia was not observed. Cytological examination of the samples obtained from bronchial aspiration and brushing identified several filariform larvae. Thus, cytology was essential for the correct diagnosis in this patient and is a very reliable method to diagnose lung parasitosis.

  4. Effect of different stages of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the parasite burden and immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in co-infected mice.

    PubMed

    de Rezende, Michelle Carvalho; Araújo, Emília Souza; Moreira, João Marcelo Peixoto; Rodrigues, Vanessa Fernandes; Rodrigues, Jailza Lima; Pereira, Cíntia A de Jesus; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Multiple schistosome and soil-transmitted nematode infections are frequently reported in human populations living in tropical areas of developing countries. In addition to exposure factors, the host immune response plays an important role in helminth control and morbidity in hosts with multiple infections; however, these aspects are difficult to evaluate in human populations. In the current study, female Swiss mice were simultaneously co-infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis and Schistosoma mansoni or infected with St. venezuelensis at 2, 4, or 14 weeks after Sc. mansoni infection. The simultaneously infected mice showed a similar parasite burden for St. venezuelensis compared with mono-infected mice. In contrast, there was a significant reduction of St. venezuelensis burden (primarily during the migration of the larvae) in mice that were previously infected with Sc. mansoni at the acute or chronic phase. Independent of the stage of Sc. mansoni infection, the St. venezuelensis co-infection was capable of inducing IL-4 production in the small intestine, increasing the IgE concentration in the serum and increasing eosinophilia in the lungs and intestine. This result suggests that the nematode infection stimulates local type 2 immune responses independently of the schistosomiasis stage. Moreover, previous Sc. mansoni infection stimulated early granulocyte infiltration in the lungs and trematode-specific IgM and IgG1 production that recognized antigens from St. venezuelensis infective larvae; these immune responses would act in the early control of St. venezuelensis larvae. Our data suggest that the effect of multiple helminth infections on host susceptibility and morbidity largely depends on the species of parasite and the immune response.

  5. Duplications and Positive Selection Drive the Evolution of Parasitism-Associated Gene Families in the Nematode Strongyloides papillosus

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Praveen; Jaleta, Tegegn G.; Streit, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplication is a major mechanism playing a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity and in the generation of novel traits. By comparing parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes, a recent study found that the evolution of parasitism in Strongyloididae is associated with a large expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families. To gain novel insights into the developmental processes in the sheep parasite Strongyloides papillosus, we sequenced transcriptomes of different developmental stages and sexes. Overall, we found that the majority of genes are developmentally regulated and have one-to-one orthologs in the diverged S. ratti genome. Together with the finding of similar expression profiles between S. papillosus and S. ratti, these results indicate a strong evolutionary constraint acting against change at sequence and expression levels. However, the comparison between parasitic and free-living females demonstrates a quite divergent pattern that is mostly due to the previously mentioned expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families. More detailed phylogenetic analysis of both gene families shows that most members date back to single expansion events early in the Strongyloides lineage and have undergone subfunctionalization resulting in clusters that are highly expressed either in infective larvae or in parasitic females. Finally, we found increased evidence for positive selection in both gene families relative to the genome-wide expectation. In summary, our study reveals first insights into the developmental transcriptomes of S. papillosus and provides a detailed analysis of sequence and expression evolution in parasitism-associated gene families. PMID:28338804

  6. Duplications and positive selection drive the evolution of parasitism associated gene families in the nematode Strongyloides papillosus.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Praveen; Jaleta, Tegegn G; Streit, Adrian; Rödelsperger, Christian

    2017-03-02

    Gene duplication is one major mechanism playing a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity and in the generation of novel traits. By comparing parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes, a recent study found that the evolution of parasitism in Strongyloididae is associated with a large expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families.To gain novel insights into the developmental processes in the sheep parasite Strongyloides papillosus, we sequenced transcriptomes of different developmental stages and sexes. Overall, we found that the majority of genes are developmentally regulated and have one-to-one orthologs in the diverged S. ratti genome. Together with the finding of similar expression profiles between S. papillosus and S. ratti, these results indicate a strong evolutionary constraint acting against change at sequence and expression levels. However, the comparison between parasitic and free-living females demonstrates a quite divergent pattern that is mostly due to the previously mentioned expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families. More detailed phylogenetic analysis of both gene families shows that most members date back to single expansion events early in the Strongyloides lineage and have undergone subfunctionalization resulting in clusters that are highly expressed either in infective larvae or in parasitic females. Finally, we found increased evidence for positive selection in both gene families relative to the genome-wide expectation.In summary, our study reveals first insights into the developmental transcriptomes of S. papillosus and provides a detailed analysis of sequence and expression evolution in parasitism associated gene families.

  7. How to become a parasite without sex chromosomes: a hypothesis for the evolution of Strongyloides spp. and related nematodes.

    PubMed

    Streit, Adrian

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic lifestyles evolved many times independently. Just within the phylum Nematoda animal parasitism must have arisen at least four times. Switching to a parasitic lifestyle is expected to lead to changes in various life history traits including reproductive strategies. Parasitic nematode worms of the genus Strongyloides represent an interesting example to study these processes because they are still capable of forming facultative free-living generations in between parasitic ones. The parasitic generation consists of females only, which reproduce parthenogenetically. The sex in the progeny of the parasitic worms is determined by environmental cues, which control a, presumably ancestral, XX/XO chromosomal sex determining system. In some species the X chromosome is fused with an autosome and one copy of the X-derived sequences is removed by sex-specific chromatin diminution in males. Here I propose a hypothesis for how today's Strongyloides sp. might have evolved from a sexual free-living ancestor through dauer larvae forming free-living and facultative parasitic intermediate stages.

  8. Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Getrude Shepelo; Gitau, George Karuoya; Mulei, Charles Matiku; Vanleeuwen, John; Richards, Shauna; Wichtel, Jeff; Uehlinger, Fabienne; Mainga, Omwando

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal diseases are among the leading causes of calf morbidity and mortality in Kenya and elsewhere. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in calves on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya. These infections have been associated with economic losses by decreased growth rates, decreased productivity, and increased susceptibility to other diseases. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted on 109 farms in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya, where 220 calf fecal samples (each calf at 4 and 6 weeks of age) from 110 calves (1 set of twins) were collected and analyzed for Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and helminth parasites. Results: Eimeria oocysts, Cryptosporidia oocysts, and Strongyloides eggs were detected in the fecal samples examined, but no Giardia cysts were found. The overall period prevalence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 42.7% (47/110), 13.6% (15/110), and 5.4% (6/110), respectively. The prevalence at 4 weeks of age for Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 30.0% (33/110), 8.2% (9/110), and 3.7% (4/109), respectively, while the prevalence at 6 weeks of age was 20.2% (22/109), 6.5% (7/107), and 2.7% (3/110), respectively. There was, however, no significant difference in the prevalence at 4 and 6 weeks (p>0.05). Conclusion: Findings from this study show that Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides, are prevalent in the study area and indicate the need to adopt optimal management practices to control infections in calves. PMID:27047207

  9. Identification of human intestinal parasites affecting an asymptomatic peri-urban Argentinian population using multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Rubén O; Jeun, Rebecca; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Pamela S; Vargas, Paola; Echazú, Adriana; Bryan, Patricia E; Nasser, Julio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-07-17

    In resource-limited countries, stool microscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths and/or intestinal protozoa). However, sensitivity and specificity is low. Improved diagnosis of intestinal parasites is especially important for accurate measurements of prevalence and intensity of infections in endemic areas. The study was carried out in Orán, Argentina. A total of 99 stool samples from a local surveillance campaign were analyzed by concentration microscopy and McMaster egg counting technique compared to the analysis by multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This study compared the performance of qPCR assay and stool microscopy for 8 common intestinal parasites that infect humans including the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and the protozoa Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica, and investigated the prevalence of polyparasitism in an endemic area. qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites as compared to stool microscopy except T. trichiura. Species-specific primers and probes were able to distinguish between A. duodenale (19.1%) and N. americanus (36.4%) infections. There were 48.6% of subjects co-infected with both hookworms, and a significant increase in hookworm DNA for A. duodenale versus N. americanus (119.6 fg/μL: 0.63 fg/μL, P < 0.001) respectively. qPCR outperformed microscopy by the largest margin in G. lamblia infections (63.6% versus 8.1%, P < 0.05). Polyparasitism was detected more often by qPCR compared to microscopy (64.7% versus 24.2%, P < 0.05). Multi-parallel qPCR is a quantitative molecular diagnostic method for common intestinal parasites in an endemic area that has improved diagnostic accuracy compared to stool microscopy. This first time use of multi-parallel qPCR in Argentina has demonstrated the high

  10. Intestinal mast cells and eosinophils in relation to Strongyloides ratti adult expulsion from the small and large intestines of rats.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Kadosaka, T; Kimura, E; Takagi, H; Kondo, S; Itoh, M

    2013-04-01

    Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of 'ordinary' adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by 'immune-resistant' adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5-7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.

  11. Strongyloides cebus (Nematoda: Strongyloididae) in Lagothrix cana (Primates: Atelidae) from the Brazilian Amazon: aspects of clinical presentation, anatomopathology, treatment, and parasitic biology.

    PubMed

    Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2013-12-01

    Abstract :  Seven cases of parasitism by Strongyloides cebus were identified in Lagothrix cana from Brazil. Aspects of the clinical presentation, treatment, pathology, and parasitic biology of these infections are described. Moderate to severe disease was observed, requiring hospitalization of 3 primates, and diarrhea was the most common clinical sign described. One L. cana individual died, for which ulcerative enteritis was the major finding upon histopathological analysis. The use of ivermectin in these atelids was safe and effective against the parasite. Parallel attempts to experimentally infect gerbils with the parasite failed. Lagothrix cana is presented as a new host for S. cebus. The evidence that Strongyloides infections are common in nonhuman primates under free-living conditions, and even more prevalent in captive animals, likely represents a neglected problem.

  12. Loss of surface coat by Strongyloides ratti infective larvae during skin penetration: evidence using larvae radiolabelled with /sup 67/gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, D.I.; Northern, C.; Warwick, A.; Lovegrove, F.T.

    1984-10-01

    The optimal conditions for labelling infective larvae of Strongyloides ratti with /sup 67/Ga citrate were determined. Radiolabelled larvae were injected s.c. into normal and previously infected rats. The distribution of radioactivity in these animals was compared with that in rats infected subcutaneously with a similar dose of free /sup 67/Ga by using a gamma camera linked to a computer system. Whereas free /sup 67/Ga was distributed throughout the body and excreted via the hepatobiliary system, the bulk of radioactivity in rats injected with radiolabelled larvae remained at the injection sites. Direct microscopical examination of these sites, however, revealed only minimal numbers of worms. When rats were infected percutaneously with radiolabelled larvae, it was found that most radioactivity remained at the surface, despite penetration of worms. When infective larvae were exposed to CO/sub 2/ in vitro and examined carefully by light microscopy, loss of an outer coat was observed. It was concluded that infective larvae lose an outer coat on skin penetration.

  13. Multifunctional Thioredoxin-Like Protein from the Gastrointestinal Parasitic Nematodes Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis Affects Mucosal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hansmann, Jan; Winter, Dominic; Schramm, Guido; Erttmann, Klaus D.; Liebau, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The cellular redox state is important for the regulation of multiple functions and is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and antioxidant defense. In the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of Strongyloides ratti and Trichuris suis sequences for thioredoxin (Trx) and Trx-like protein (Trx-lp) were identified. To characterize the antioxidant Trx-lp and its interaction with the parasite's mucosal habitat, S. ratti and T. suis Trx-lps were cloned and recombinantly expressed. The primary antioxidative activity was assured by reduction of insulin and IgM. Further analysis applying an in vitro mucosal 3D-cell culture model revealed that the secreted Trx-lps were able to bind to monocytic and intestinal epithelial cells and induce the time-dependent release of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-22, and TSLP. In addition, the redox proteins also possessed chemotactic activity for monocytic THP-1 cells and fostered epithelial wound healing activity. These results confirm that the parasite-secreted Trx-lps are multifunctional proteins that can affect the host intestinal mucosa. PMID:27872753

  14. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; da Costa, Antônio Paulino; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis. PMID:28380118

  15. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Costa, Antônio Paulino da; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-04-03

    Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.

  16. Diverse Host-Seeking Behaviors of Skin-Penetrating Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Castelletto, Michelle L.; Gang, Spencer S.; Okubo, Ryo P.; Tselikova, Anastassia A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Platzer, Edward G.; Lok, James B.; Hallem, Elissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Skin-penetrating parasitic nematodes infect approximately one billion people worldwide and are responsible for some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. The infective larvae of skin-penetrating nematodes are thought to search for hosts using sensory cues, yet their host-seeking behavior is poorly understood. We conducted an in-depth analysis of host seeking in the skin-penetrating human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, and compared its behavior to that of other parasitic nematodes. We found that Str. stercoralis is highly mobile relative to other parasitic nematodes and uses a cruising strategy for finding hosts. Str. stercoralis shows robust attraction to a diverse array of human skin and sweat odorants, most of which are known mosquito attractants. Olfactory preferences of Str. stercoralis vary across life stages, suggesting a mechanism by which host seeking is limited to infective larvae. A comparison of odor-driven behavior in Str. stercoralis and six other nematode species revealed that parasite olfactory preferences reflect host specificity rather than phylogeny, suggesting an important role for olfaction in host selection. Our results may enable the development of new strategies for combating harmful nematode infections. PMID:25121736

  17. Severe strongyloidiasis complicated by meningitis and hydrocephalus in an HTLV-1 carrier with increased proviral load.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masao; Futami, Atsushi; Takahira, Kenichiro; Kodaira, Makoto; Tanaka, Tokutaro; Kuriki, Ken; Hori, Eitaro

    2003-12-01

    We report a 47-year-old Japanese man who was a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carrier with strongyloidiasis, and who was born in an area endemic for both Strongyloides stercoralis ( S. stercoralis) and HTLV-1. He presented with edema of both legs. Laboratory examination on admission revealed hypoalbuminemia, and S. stercoralis rhabditiform larvae were found by stool microscopy. Purulent meningitis, which was suspected to be due to disseminated strongyloidiasis, developed during the first and second treatment for S. stercoralis infection. After the meningitis was alleviated, hydrocephalus with gait disturbance developed, and these features were attenuated by a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Impaired immunity and increased HTLV-1 proviral load, with an increased titer of HTLV-1 antibody, were observed in this patient. These results suggest that HTLV-1 proviral load and/or antibody titer of HTLV-1 can be used for the identification of carriers who are at increased risk of developing severe strongyloidiasis among those patients who are infected with both S. stercoralis and HTLV-1.

  18. Effects of infection intensity with Strongyloides papillosus and albendazole treatment on development of oxidative/nitrosative stress in sheep.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Blagoje; Borozan, Sunčica; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Stojanović, Srđan

    2012-05-25

    The objective of this study was to estimate and evaluate oxidative/nitrosative stress parameters in sheep infected with Strongyloides papillosus and after antihelminthic treatment with albendazole (ABZ). This parasite, especially during development stages can seriously damage parenchaematous organs during migration within the host. The presence of parasites leads to increased productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It is also well known that certain drugs can be very harmful for the delicate oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium, provoking oxidative stress during their biotransformation. ABZ is a broad spectrum antihelminthic drug, frequently used in veterinary medicine for therapy of parasitic infections. The current research was performed on female Württemberg sheep (n=48). The distribution of parasites in sheep was evaluated using the native smear coprological technique, by sedimentation and flotation methods, revealing the presence of S. papillosus. The degree of infection intensity per sheep was quantitatively established by the method of McMaster, the animals having been divided into three groups according to the intensity of infection; mild, moderate and high. The control group consisted of sheep negative to the parasites. After determining the type of parasite infection, the sheep were treated with ABZ, per orally, in single doses of 5mg/kg per body weight. Sampling of feces for parasitological and blood for biochemical assaying was performed on the 0 and 21st day after treatment with ABZ. The oxidative stress parameters were measured for catalase activity (CAT), the red cell membrane damage by level of malondialdehyde (MDA), while carbonyl and thiol plasma protein group concentrations were used as indicators of the degree of protein oxidative modification. The activity of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and relative distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH(1)-LDH(5)) activity were determined electrophoretically. The

  19. [Morphology and biometry of eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp. Grassi, 1879 (Rhabditoidea: Strongyloididae), a gastrointestinal parasite of Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae), in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Lima, Sueli de S; Bessa, Elisabeth Cristina de A

    2006-01-01

    An important method to diagnose and study the helminthofauna of wild animals is to examine the host's feces to find eggs and larvae, seeking to identify the parasites and study their morphobiology. The objective of the present work is to provide morphological and biometric data on the eggs and larvae of Strongyloides sp., a capybara gastrointestinal parasite. Using the technique of Gordon and Whitlock, simple flotation and the modified Baermann examination, capybara fecal samples were selected based on a criterion of the highest proportion of eggs and larvae in the initial development stages, for morphometric description of eggs, L1, L2 and L3 of Strongyloides sp. From past reports of parasitism in Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, we suspect that the eggs and larvae in this study are of Strongyloides chapini Sandground, 1925, which constitutes the first description of these stages for this species of nematode. Nevertheless, the morphology and biometry data of these stages demonstrate that they are similar to those of other species of the Strongyloides genus.

  20. Cockroaches and flies in mechanical transmission of medical important parasites in Khaldyia Village, El-Fayoum, Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb

    2012-04-01

    The role of non-blood sucking insects in dissemination of human parasites was investigated in Khaldyia Village, Al-Fayoum Governorate over during the summer of 2011. A total of 278 American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and 508 house flies Musca domestica var. vicina were collected. The insects were collected indoors and outdoors. Flies were abundant in defecation areas and around houses. The recovered zoonotic parasites identified were cysts of Entamoeba histolytica Cryptosporidium parvum and Balantidium coli, and eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunale, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris trichura as well as larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  1. [Pulmonary strongyloidiasis].

    PubMed

    Lozada, Heiler; Daza, Jorge E

    2016-10-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, which can be asymptomatic and means a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, severe malnutrition and coinfection with HTLV-1 virus. The parasite has the potential to produce and multiply internal autoinfection in humans, thus an hyperinfection can be developed. A case of pulmonary infection by this parasite is presented in this study, infection which advanced into a respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic support in an intensive care unit. The standard treatment combined with ivermectin and albendazole was provided, achieving an appropriate response.

  2. An unusual cause of alveolar hemorrhage post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sachin; Jain, Amit; Fanning, Tina V; Couriel, Daniel R; Jimenez, Carlos A; Eapen, Georgie A

    2006-04-07

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is being increasingly used in cancer therapy. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, an early complication of stem cell transplant, results from bacterial, viral and fungal infections, coagulopathy, and engraftment syndrome, or can be idiopathic. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in stem cell transplant patients has been rarely reported. We describe an unusual cause of alveolar hemorrhage post hematopoietic stem cell transplant due to Strongyloides hyperinfection. Therapy with parenteral ivermectin and thiabendazole was initiated but the patient deteriorated and died of respiratory failure and septic shock. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection is an unusual cause of alveolar hemorrhage early after hematopoietic stem cell transplant with very high mortality.

  3. Human Intestinal Parasite Burden and Poor Sanitation in Rural Alabama.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Megan L; McAtee, Shannon; Bryan, Patricia E; Jeun, Rebecca; Ward, Tabitha; Kraus, Jacob; Bottazzi, Maria E; Hotez, Peter J; Flowers, Catherine C; Mejia, Rojelio

    2017-09-05

    Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted. Lowndes County, Alabama, was chosen as the study site given previous high hookworm burdens, degree of poverty, and use of open-sewage systems. Participants were interviewed, and stool, serum, and soil samples were tested for nine intestinal parasites using a multiparallel quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays . We found that, among 24 households, 42.4% reported exposure to raw sewage within their home, and from 55 stool samples, 19 (34.5%) tested positive for N. americanus, four (7.3%) for Strongyloides stercoralis, and one (1.8%) for Entamoeba histolytica. Stool tested positive for N. americanus contained low levels of parasite DNA (geometric mean 0.0302 fg/µL). Soil studies detected one (2.9%) Cryptosporidium species, and Toxocara serology assay detected one (5.2%) positive in this population. Individuals living in this high-risk environment within the United States continue to have stool samples positive for N. americanus. Gastrointestinal parasites known to be endemic to developing countries are identifiable in American poverty regions, and areas with lower disease burden are more likely to be identified by using qPCR.

  4. Advocating for both Environmental and Clinical Approaches to Control Human Strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Beknazarova, Meruyert; Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-09-30

    Strongyloidiasis is an underestimated disease caused by the soil-transmitted parasite of the genus Strongyloides. It is prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities and it is estimated that global infection could be as high as 370 million people. This paper explores current methods of strongyloidiasis treatment, which rely on administration of anthelminthic drugs. However these drugs cannot prevent reinfection and drug resistance has already been observed in veterinary models. This highlights the need for a combined approach for controlling Strongyloides that includes both clinical treatment and environmental control methods. Currently, nematicides are widely used to control plant parasites. The review suggests that due to the species' similarity and similar modes of action, these nematicides could also be used to control animal and human parasitic nematodes in the environment.

  5. Advocating for both Environmental and Clinical Approaches to Control Human Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Beknazarova, Meruyert; Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an underestimated disease caused by the soil-transmitted parasite of the genus Strongyloides. It is prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities and it is estimated that global infection could be as high as 370 million people. This paper explores current methods of strongyloidiasis treatment, which rely on administration of anthelminthic drugs. However these drugs cannot prevent reinfection and drug resistance has already been observed in veterinary models. This highlights the need for a combined approach for controlling Strongyloides that includes both clinical treatment and environmental control methods. Currently, nematicides are widely used to control plant parasites. The review suggests that due to the species’ similarity and similar modes of action, these nematicides could also be used to control animal and human parasitic nematodes in the environment. PMID:27706031

  6. Influence of physico-chemistry and mineralogy on the occurrence of geohelminths in geophagic soils from selected communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and their possible implication on human health.

    PubMed

    Sumbele, Irene U; Ngole, Veronica Mpode; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E

    2014-01-01

    Geophagic soils from selected communities in Eastern Cape, South Africa were characterised to determine their properties and geohelminth content. The soils were coarse-textured with cation exchange capacity values ranging from 6.35 to 18.94 cmol (+)/kg. Quartz was the dominant mineral in the samples with SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3(t) having the highest concentrations among major element oxides. The soil properties, mineralogical composition, and low amounts of particle binding substances may favour the survival of geohelminth ova in the soils. Seven of the samples contained at least one of the following geohelminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis. The presence of these geohelminths in the soils was attributed to agricultural and sanitary practices inherent in the communities and the soil properties. Communities need to be sensitised on the importance of safe sanitary and animal husbandry practices to reduce the prevalence of helminth infection among geophagists.

  7. Streptococcus gallolyticus meningitis in adults: report of five cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van Samkar, A; Brouwer, M C; Pannekoek, Y; van der Ende, A; van de Beek, D

    2015-12-01

    We describe the incidence and patient characteristics of Streptococcus gallolyticus meningitis. We identified S. gallolyticus meningitis in a nationwide cohort of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all reported adult cases in the literature. Five cases were identified (0.3%) in a cohort of 1561 episodes of bacterial meningitis. In one patient, bowel disease (colon polyps) was identified as a predisposing condition for S. gallolyticus infection, whereas no patients were diagnosed with endocarditis. In a combined analysis of our patients and 37 reported in the literature, we found that the median age was 59 years. Predisposing factors were present in 21 of 42 patients (50%), and mainly consisted of immunosuppressive therapy (seven patients), cancer (four patients), and alcoholism (four patients). Colon disease was identified in 15 of 24 patients (63%) and endocarditis in five of 27 patients (18%). Co-infection with Strongyloides stercoralis was identified in 14 of 34 patients (41%), ten of whom were infected with human immunodeficiency virus or human T-lymphotropic virus. Outcomes were described for 37 patients; eight died (22%) and one (3%) had neurological sequelae. S. gallolyticus is an uncommon cause of bacterial meningitis, with specific predisposing conditions. When it is identified, consultation with a cardiologist and gastroenterologist is warranted to rule out underlying endocarditis or colon disease. Stool examinations for Strongyloides stercoralis should be performed in patients who have travelled to or originate from endemic areas.

  8. An extended proof of migration routes of immature parasites inside hosts: pathways of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Strongyloides ratti in the rat are mutually exclusive.

    PubMed

    Tindall, N R; Wilson, P A

    1990-04-01

    Rigorous proofs applicable to the routes of migration of Strongyloides ratti and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis skin-penetrating juveniles inside the rat are extended. By applying the inequality principle (Tindall & Wilson, 1988) it was confirmed with a probability of error of 1 in 10(10) that N. brasiliensis larvae applied to the skin passed through the lungs on their way to the intestine. Taking the analysis further, migrating larvae of S. ratti or N. brasiliensis were extracted from the nose or lungs, respectively, of donor rats and transferred to recipients by stomach tube to assay their ability to colonize the intestine. Results showed that (a) changes undergone by each parasite in its proven, specific transit site were essential before larvae could establish in the intestines of recipients, (b) these changes could be monitored by morphological criteria, and [corrected] (c) these changes were not completed until larvae had been in the nose or lung for a significant period. It follows from (c) that anywhere in the body of the host, termed a 'nursery', that supports a substantial amount of this mandatory development must be detectable by the conventional procedure of sampling at autopsy. Conversely, absence of parasites judged by sampling at autopsy is positive proof that a site is not a nursery when sampling is timed in relation to reliable estimates of overall kinetics (Tindall & Wilson, 1990), and with control information on the efficiency of sampling. Comparative data from sampling at autopsy using the same extraction techniques for both species met these criteria: they demonstrated that no part of the head of the rat was a nursery for N. brasiliensis, and that the lung did not serve in this capacity for S. ratti.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Human Onchocerciasis and Tetanus Vaccination: Impact on the Postvaccination Antitetanus Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Philip J.; Espinel, Ivan; Wieseman, Moira; Paredes, Wilson; Espinel, Mauricio; Guderian, Ronald H.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether helminth infections may affect the efficacy of vaccines by impairing the immune response to nonparasite vaccine antigens, we compared the antibody responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) after tetanus vaccination in 193 subjects with Onchocerca volvulus infection with 85 comparable noninfected controls. After vaccination, the proportions of subjects in each group attaining protective levels of antitetanus antibodies were similar (96.9% infected versus 97.6% noninfected). Postvaccination increases in antitetanus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the predominant IgG isotype, IgG1, were equivalent in both groups, as were increases in specific IgG4 and IgE; however, significantly greater increases in specific IgG2 (P < 0.05) and IgG3 (P < 0.001) were observed in the noninfected group. Stratification of the O. volvulus-infected group into two groups representing light and heavy infections revealed a significantly impaired antitetanus IgG response in those with heavy infections compared to those with light infections (P < 0.01) or no infection (P < 0.05). The impact of concurrent intestinal helminth infections on the antitetanus response was also examined; an increased IgG4/IgE ratio was seen in those infected with Strongyloides stercoralis (P < 0.05) and when all helminth infections were combined as a single group (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that concurrent infection with O. volvulus does not prevent the development of a protective antitetanus response, although heavier O. volvulus infections are able to alter the magnitude of this response, and concurrent helminth infections (O. volvulus and intestinal helminths) may alter TT-specific antibody isotype responses. PMID:10531253

  10. Fungal, Viral, and Parasitic Pneumonias Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Skalski, Joseph H; Limper, Andrew H

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory illness is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The spectrum of pulmonary disease that can affect patients with HIV is wide and includes opportunistic infection with many fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms. This article reviews the clinical presentation; approach to diagnosis; and management of fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias that can develop in patients with HIV including respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma, and Strongyloides. Because clinical symptoms and radiographic patterns are often insensitive at distinguishing these pulmonary infections, this review particularly focuses on specific host risk factors and diagnostic testing to consider when approaching HIV patients with respiratory illness.

  11. A Case of Strongyloidiasis: An Immigrant Healthcare Worker Presenting with Fatigue and Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Alexa; Aung, Khin N.; Lois, William; Hasan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode parasite classified as a soil-transmitted helminth, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Strongyloides stercoralis can remain dormant for decades after the initial infection. Case We describe a patient who was diagnosed with Strongyloides stercoralis infection three weeks after a left inguinal hernia repair and discuss approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Conclusions Physicians in the United States often miss opportunities to identify patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Symptoms may be vague and screening tests have limitations. We review current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of chronic intestinal strongyloidiasis in immigrant patients who have significant travel history to tropical regions and discuss the clinical features and management of the infection. PMID:28744381

  12. Pharmacological effects of ivermectin, an antiparasitic agent for intestinal strongyloidiasis: its mode of action and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takanori

    2003-12-01

    Ivermectin is an oral semi-synthetic lactone anthelmintic agent derived from avermectins isolated from fermentation products of Streptomyces avermitilis. Ivermectin showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on motility of a free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). There exist specific binding sites having a high affinity for ivermectin in the membrane fraction of C. elegans, and a strong positive correlation was detected between the affinity for these binding sites and the suppressive effect on motility of C. elegans in several ivermectin-related substances. These results suggested that the binding to these binding sites is important for the nematocidal activity of ivermectin. In oocytes of Xenopus laevis injected with the Poly (A)(+) RNA of C. elegans, expression of a chloride channel, which is irreversibly activated by ivermectin, was recognized. The pharmacological properties of this channel suggest that the ivermectin-sensitive channel is a glutamate-activated chloride channel. As to the glutamate-activated chloride channel, two subtypes (GluCl-alpha and GluCl-beta) were cloned, suggesting these subtypes constitute the glutamate-activated chloride channel. These findings suggest that ivermectin binds to glutamate-activated chloride channels existing in nerve or muscle cells of nematode with a specific and high affinity, causing hyperpolarization of nerve or muscle cells by increasing permeability of chloride ion through the cell membrane, and as a result, the parasites are paralyzed to death. In experimental infections in sheep and cattle, ivermectin exhibited potent dose-dependent anthelmintic effects on Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Oesphagostomum, and Dictyocaulus. Anthelmintic effects were reported also in dogs, horses, and humans infected with Strongyloides. In the clinical Phase III trial in Japan, 50 patients infected with Strongyloides stercoralis were administered approx. 200 microg/kg of ivermectin to

  13. Verminous myelitis in a pit bull puppy.

    PubMed

    Snook, Eric R; Baker, David G; Bauer, Rudy W

    2009-05-01

    A 10-week-old, male pit bull dog presented to the referring veterinarian with hind limb paresis and epaxial muscle atrophy. No spinal lesions were identified at gross necropsy; however, histologically there was marked granulomatous myelitis in the spinal cord between T13 and L2 with occasional, intralesional nematode larvae. Based on morphologic characteristics, the nematode larvae were identified as Strongyloides spp., possibly Strongyloides stercoralis.

  14. A comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Duedu, Kwabena O; Yarnie, Elizabeth A; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Attah, Simon K; Donkor, Eric S; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2014-11-25

    Consuming raw vegetables offers essential nutrients that one may not get when such vegetables are usually cooked. However, eating them raw may pose a great risk for transmissions of pathogens. Such risks may be influenced by the sources of the vegetables and washing techniques used. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and diversity of parasitic pathogens associated with vegetables sold at the two types of markets in Ghana and compare effectiveness of various washing techniques. We purchased two batches of samples of cabbage, sweet bell pepper, carrot, lettuce, tomato and onion within a two week interval. The vegetables were washed by three methods and the wash solution was concentrated and analyzed for parasites. The prevalent parasites detected were Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (43%) and Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst (16%). Others present were Hookworm ova, Entamoeba histolytica cysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts, Entamoeba coli cysts, Trichuris trichiuria ova, Enterobius vermicularis ova, Isospora belli oocysts and Fasciolopsis buski ova. Contamination was highest in lettuce (61%) and cabbage and the least contaminated was tomato (18%). Contamination of vegetables sold at the open-aired markets was about ten-times that of the supermarkets. In Ghana, the large open-aired markets are the most patronized and serve as a supply point for most corner shops and stalls. The results thus highlight the potential of fresh vegetables serving as a major source of food-borne disease outbreaks and the contribution of open-aired markets to their transmission. Urgent public education on handling of fresh vegetables is recommended.

  15. [Detection of intestinal parasites from dogs in Tochigi-City in 1979 and 1991].

    PubMed

    Asano, K; Iwashita, E; Asano, R; Hokari, S; Arashima, Y; Kawano, K

    1992-10-01

    To clarify whether sanitary and hygienic conditions surrounding humans and pet animals have improved or not, we examined feces from dogs for intestinal parasites in Tochigi in 1979 and 1991. Intestinal parasites were detected from 109 of the 262 dogs (41.9%) in 1979 and 86 of the 260 dogs (32.8%) in 1991. Among the parasites. Ancylostoma caninum, Tirchuris vulpis and Toxocara canis were most commonly detected, and their detection rates were higher in 1979. On the contrary, Dipylidium caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, Isospora spp., which are important causes of human diseases, were detected at higher rates in 1991. In the dogs of outdoor feeding, the detection rates of parasites were markedly decreased, but slightly increased in the dogs of indoor feeding in 1991. These results suggest that sanitary conditions surrounding pet animals have not been sufficiently improved, in spite of the fact that humans are in more contact with their pet animals.

  16. Occurrence of strongyloidiasis among patients with HTLV-1/2 seen at the outpatient clinic of the Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Belém, State of Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Karen Cristini Yumi Ogawa; Costa, Carlos Araújo da; Ferreira, Louise de Souza Canto; Martins, Luisa Carício; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Batista, Evander de Jesus Oliveira; Sousa, Maisa Silva de

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation and coinfection with HTLV-1/2 in Belém, Brazil. S. stercoralis was investigated in stool samples obtained from individuals infected with HTLV-1/2 and their uninfected relatives. The frequency of S. stercoralis was 9% (9/100), including six patients infected with HTLV-1 (14.3%), two patients infected with HTLV-2 (11.1%), and one uninfected relative. Two cases of hyperinfestation by S. stercoralis were characterized as HTLV-1. These results support the need for the routine investigation of S. stercoralis in patients with HTLV-1, in an attempt to prevent the development of severe forms of strongyloidiasis.

  17. Health Data Concerning Ecuador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-01-27

    vironment and’the lack of footgear contribute to the spread. Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis are the parasites...cooperation with the Ecuadorian National Services is an un- failing characteristic of all International Cooperation Administration activities. f. United Nations

  18. Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of Ivermectin and Fenbendazole for Treating Captive-Born Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Coinfected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Mason V; Thomas, Jennifer E; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; Cullin, Cassandra O; White, Gary L; Wydysh, Emily C; Wolf, Roman F

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole (IVM–FBZ) for treating captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura, 2 common nematode parasites of these NHP. Infected baboons were treated for a total of 9 wk with ivermectin (400 μg/kg IM twice weekly) and fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO once daily for 3 d; 3 rounds of treatment, 21 d apart). Five baboons naturally infected with both S. fülleborni and T. trichiura (n = 4) or S. fülleborni alone (n = 1) received the combination therapy; an additional baboon infected with both parasites served as a nontreated control. The efficacy of IVM–FBZ was measured as the reduction in fecal egg counts of S. fülleborni and T. trichiura as determined by quantitative fecal flotation examination after treatment of baboons with IVM–FBZ. All baboons treated with IVM–FBZ stopped shedding S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs by 8 d after treatment and remained negative for at least 161 d. The nontreated control baboon shed S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs throughout the study period. Our results indicate that the IVM–FBZ regimen was efficacious for treating olive baboons infected with S. fülleborni and T. trichiura. PMID:28905715

  19. Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of Ivermectin and Fenbendazole for Treating Captive-Born Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Coinfected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Mason V; Thomas, Jennifer E; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; Cullin, Cassandra O; White, Gary L; Wydysh, Emily C; Wolf, Roman F

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole (IVM-FBZ) for treating captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura, 2 common nematode parasites of these NHP. Infected baboons were treated for a total of 9 wk with ivermectin (400 μg/kg IM twice weekly) and fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO once daily for 3 d; 3 rounds of treatment, 21 d apart). Five baboons naturally infected with both S. fülleborni and T. trichiura (n = 4) or S. fülleborni alone (n = 1) received the combination therapy; an additional baboon infected with both parasites served as a nontreated control. The efficacy of IVM-FBZ was measured as the reduction in fecal egg counts of S. fülleborni and T. trichiura as determined by quantitative fecal flotation examination after treatment of baboons with IVM-FBZ. All baboons treated with IVM-FBZ stopped shedding S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs by 8 d after treatment and remained negative for at least 161 d. The nontreated control baboon shed S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs throughout the study period. Our results indicate that the IVM-FBZ regimen was efficacious for treating olive baboons infected with S. fülleborni and T. trichiura.

  20. Strongyloides ratti: transplantation of adults recovered from the small intestine at different days after infection into the colon of naive and infection-primed Wistar rats, and the effect of antioxidant treatment on large intestinal parasitism.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Takagi, H; Kadosaka, T; Nagaoka, F; Kondo, S; Itoh, M; Honda, S; Kimura, E

    2011-07-01

    Strongyloides ratti (Nagoya strain) is unique in that a portion of adults parasitizing the small intestine withstands 'worm expulsion', which starts at around day 8 post-infection (p.i.) by host immunity, and establishes in the large intestine after day 19 p.i. To investigate the mechanism, adults obtained from the small intestine at day 7 or 19 p.i. were transplanted into the colon of infection-primed immune rats. Adults obtained at day 7 p.i. were rejected quickly, whereas those obtained at day 19 p.i. could establish infection. Moreover, the body length and the number of intrauterine eggs increased in the large intestine. In a separate experiment, large intestinal parasitism was abolished by the treatment of host rats with an anti-oxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole. These results indicate that small intestinal adults between days 7 and 19 p.i. acquired the ability to parasitize the large intestine of immune rats, and that free radicals produced by the host may have played a significant role in the process.

  1. Cutaneous manifestation of disseminated strongyloidiasis in a patient coinfected with HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Arch, Emily L; Schaefer, Jochen T; Dahiya, Anjali

    2008-12-15

    Strongyloidiasis is a potentially lethal parasitic infection. Coinfection of a patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) can lead to a more severe disease course and treatment-refractoriness. Here we report a patient coinfected with HTLV-I and Strongyloides stercoralis who developed disseminated, treatment-resistant disease. The patient presented with serpiginous, nonpalpable, purpuric streaks on the abdomen and proximal lower extremities. A biopsy of this eruption demonstrating filariform larvae in the dermis was consistent with disseminated strongyloidiasis. The patient's immune dysregulation due to HTLV-I positivity likely contributed to her development of disseminated disease. Awareness of the interaction between HTLV-I and strongyloidiasis has important implications in terms of prognosis and treatment. Recognition of the cutaneous manifestations of disseminated disease can facilitate diagnosis and implementation of appropriate therapy.

  2. The Nuclear Receptor DAF-12 Regulates Nutrient Metabolism and Reproductive Growth in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu; Stoltzfus, Jonathan; You, Young-jai; Ranjit, Najju; Tang, Hao; Xie, Yang; Lok, James B.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Kliewer, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate nutrient response is essential for growth and reproduction. Under favorable nutrient conditions, the C. elegans nuclear receptor DAF-12 is activated by dafachronic acids, hormones that commit larvae to reproductive growth. Here, we report that in addition to its well-studied role in controlling developmental gene expression, the DAF-12 endocrine system governs expression of a gene network that stimulates the aerobic catabolism of fatty acids. Thus, activation of the DAF-12 transcriptome coordinately mobilizes energy stores to permit reproductive growth. DAF-12 regulation of this metabolic gene network is conserved in the human parasite, Strongyloides stercoralis, and inhibition of specific steps in this network blocks reproductive growth in both of the nematodes. Our study provides a molecular understanding for metabolic adaptation of nematodes to their environment, and suggests a new therapeutic strategy for treating parasitic diseases. PMID:25774872

  3. Determining intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in inmates from Kajang Prison, Selangor, Malaysia for improved prison management.

    PubMed

    Angal, Lorainne; Mahmud, Rohela; Samin, Sajideh; Yap, Nan-Jiun; Ngui, Romano; Amir, Amirah; Ithoi, Init; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-10-29

    The prison management in Malaysia is proactively seeking to improve the health status of the prison inmates. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are widely distributed throughout the world and are still gaining great concern due to their significant morbidity and mortality among infected humans. In Malaysia, there is a paucity of information on IPIs among prison inmates. In order to further enhance the current health strategies employed, the present study aims to establish firm data on the prevalence and diversity of IPIs among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals in a prison, an area in which informed knowledge is still very limited. Samples were subjected to microscopy examination and serological test (only for Strongyloides). Speciation for parasites on microscopy-positive samples and seropositive samples for Strongyloides were further determined via polymerase chain reaction. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. A total of 294 stool and blood samples each were successfully collected, involving 131 HIV positive and 163 HIV negative adult male inmates whose age ranged from 21 to 69-years-old. Overall prevalence showed 26.5% was positive for various IPIs. The IPIs detected included Blastocystis sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Trichuris trichiura. Comparatively, the rate of IPIs was slightly higher among the HIV positive inmates (27.5%) than HIV negative inmates (25.8%). Interestingly, seropositivity for S. stercoralis was more predominant in HIV negative inmates (10.4%) compared to HIV-infected inmates (6.9%), however these findings were not statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Blastocystis, Strongyloides, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. These data will enable the health care providers and prison management staff to understand the trend and epidemiological situations in HIV/parasitic co-infections in a prison. This information will further

  4. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in human settlement areas of Mole National Park, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sadie J; Brashares, Justin S; Walsh, Chesley; Milbers, Katherine; Kilroy, Cailean; Chapman, Colin A

    2012-08-01

    Fecal samples from 55 free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Mole National Park, Ghana, were collected 22 June-7 July 2008 and analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. This is the first survey of baboon gastrointestinal parasites in Ghana and provides baseline data for this area. Ninety-three percent of samples were infected, leaving 7% with no parasites observed. Of those infected, there was a 76% prevalence of strongyles, 53% Strongyloides spp., 11% Abbreviata caucasica , 62% prevalence of Balantidium coli (trophozoites and cysts identified), 4% Entomeba hystolytica/dispar, and 47% unidentified protozoan parasites. Of the strongyle infections, 9% were identified as Oesophagostamum sp. One sample contained an unidentified spirurid nematode that resembled Gongylonema sp. Mole has a mixed forest-savanna habitat, and baboons frequently range into human areas, which makes them subject to parasites from each habitat and multiple sources of exposure. We found a high prevalence of nematode parasites, consistent with a wet or cooler forest environment, or high rates of fecal contamination. The presence of Strongyloides sp., E. hystolitica/dispar, and B. coli suggest potential public health risk from baboons, but molecular identification of these parasites, and documentation of their presence in local human populations, would be necessary to confirm zoonotic transmission.

  5. Eosinophilia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam, and diagnostic work-up are unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis.

  6. Eosinophilia in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam and diagnostic work-up is unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis. PMID:26126686

  7. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica; Carrillo, Eugenia; Molina, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). Results Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). Conclusions We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated

  8. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica; Carrillo, Eugenia; Molina, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated with significantly higher proportion of positive T

  9. Strongyloidiasis: a case with acute pancreatitis and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Makker, Jasbir; Balar, Bhavna; Niazi, Masooma; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-03-21

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil transmitted helminth infection, affects millions with varying prevalence worldwide. A large number of affected hosts are asymptomatic. Symptoms pertaining to pulmonary and gastrointestinal involvement may be present. Manifestations of involvement beyond lung and intestine can be seen with dissemination of infection and lethal hyperinfection. Immunosuppression secondary to use of steroids or other immunosuppressants and coexistence of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 are the known risk factors for dissemination and hyperinfection. Diagnostic modalities comprise stool examination, serology and molecular testing. Stool tests are inexpensive but are limited by low sensitivity, whereas serologic and molecular tests are more precise but at the expense of higher cost. Treatment with Ivermectin or Albendazole as an alternative is safe and efficacious. We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis secondary to Strongyloides. High index of suspicion in patients specifically from endemic countries of origin and lack of other common etiologies of acute pancreatitis may help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this potentially fatal infection.

  10. Strongyloidiasis: A case with acute pancreatitis and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jasbir; Balar, Bhavna; Niazi, Masooma; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil transmitted helminth infection, affects millions with varying prevalence worldwide. A large number of affected hosts are asymptomatic. Symptoms pertaining to pulmonary and gastrointestinal involvement may be present. Manifestations of involvement beyond lung and intestine can be seen with dissemination of infection and lethal hyperinfection. Immunosuppression secondary to use of steroids or other immunosuppressants and coexistence of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 are the known risk factors for dissemination and hyperinfection. Diagnostic modalities comprise stool examination, serology and molecular testing. Stool tests are inexpensive but are limited by low sensitivity, whereas serologic and molecular tests are more precise but at the expense of higher cost. Treatment with Ivermectin or Albendazole as an alternative is safe and efficacious. We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis secondary to Strongyloides. High index of suspicion in patients specifically from endemic countries of origin and lack of other common etiologies of acute pancreatitis may help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this potentially fatal infection. PMID:25805946

  11. Gastrointestinal symbionts of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau with respect to habitat fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Sá, Rui M; Petrášová, Jana; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Profousová, Ilona; Petrželková, Klára J; Sousa, Cláudia; Cable, Joanne; Bruford, Michael W; Modrý, David

    2013-10-01

    One of the major factors threatening chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Guinea-Bissau is habitat fragmentation. Such fragmentation may cause changes in symbiont dynamics resulting in increased susceptibility to infection, changes in host specificity and virulence. We monitored gastrointestinal symbiotic fauna of three chimpanzee subpopulations living within Cantanhez National Park (CNP) in Guinea Bissau in the areas with different levels of anthropogenic fragmentation. Using standard coproscopical methods (merthiolate-iodine formalin concentration and Sheather's flotation) we examined 102 fecal samples and identified at least 13 different symbiotic genera (Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, Blastocystis spp., Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba butschlii, Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnili, Bertiella sp., Probstmayria gombensis, unidentified strongylids, Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni, and Trichuris sp.). The symbiotic fauna of the CNP chimpanzees is comparable to that reported for other wild chimpanzee populations, although CNP chimpanzees have a higher prevalence of Trichuris sp. Symbiont richness was higher in chimpanzee subpopulations living in fragmented forests compared to the community inhabiting continuous forest area. We reported significantly higher prevalence of G. intestinalis in chimpanzees from fragmented areas, which could be attributed to increased contact with humans and livestock. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Differences in the Importance of Mast Cells, Basophils, IgE, and IgG versus That of CD4(+) T Cells and ILC2 Cells in Primary and Secondary Immunity to Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kaori; Karasuyama, Hajime; Kabashima, Kenji; Kubo, Masato; Galli, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    There is evidence that mast cells, basophils, and IgE can contribute to immune responses to parasites; however, the relative levels of importance of these effector elements in parasite immunity are not fully understood. Previous work in Il3-deficient and c-kit mutant Kit(W/W-v) mice indicated that interleukin-3 and c-Kit contribute to expulsion of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis during primary infection. Our findings in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice and two types of mast cell-deficient mice that have normal c-kit ("Hello Kitty" and MasTRECK mice) confirmed prior work in Kit(W/W-v) mice that suggested that mast cells play an important role in S. venezuelensis egg clearance in primary infections. We also assessed a possible contribution of basophils in immune responses to S. venezuelensis By immunohistochemistry, we found that numbers of basophils and mast cells were markedly increased in the jejunal mucosa during primary infections with S. venezuelensis Studies in basophil-deficient Mcpt8(DTR) mice revealed a small but significant contribution of basophils to S. venezuelensis egg clearance in primary infections. Studies in mice deficient in various components of immune responses showed that CD4(+) T cells and ILC2 cells, IgG, FcRγ, and, to a lesser extent, IgE and FcεRI contribute to effective immunity in primary S. venezuelensis infections. These findings support the conclusion that the hierarchy of importance of immune effector mechanisms in primary S. venezuelensis infection is as follows: CD4(+) T cells/ILC2 cells, IgG, and FcRγ>mast cells>IgE and FcεRI>basophils. In contrast, in secondary S. venezuelensis infection, our evidence indicates that the presence of CD4(+) T cells is of critical importance but mast cells, antibodies, and basophils have few or no nonredundant roles. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. The effect of electron transport (ET) inhibitors and thiabendazole on the fumarate reductase (FR) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) of Strongyloides ratti infective (L3) larvae.

    PubMed

    Armson, A; Grubb, W B; Mendis, A H

    1995-02-01

    The fumarate reductase (FR) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities of isolated submitochondrial particles (SMPs) prepared from axenised L3 larvae of S. ratti were characterised with respect to their response to a selected range of inhibitors. Rotenone (a specific inhibitor of electron transport Complex I) inhibited the S. ratti FR (EC50 = 3.0 x 10(-7) M) but not SDH. This strongly suggests that the S. ratti FR is functionally linked with the S. ratti ET-Complex I. 2-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, an inhibitor of ET-Complex II) inhibited FR (EC50 = 2.6 x 10(-5) M) and SDH (EC50 = 2.8 x 10(-5) M) with similar effectiveness. Sodium malonate (substrate analogue of succinate) had a greater affinity for SDH (EC50 = 6.8 x 10(-4) M), than FR (EC50 = 1.9 x 10(-2) M). Sodium fumarate was ca. 8-fold more effective in inhibiting the S. ratti FR (EC50 = 6.0 x 10(-4) M) than SDH (EC50 = 4.8 x 10(-3) M). The S. ratti FR was more sensitive to inhibition by thiabendazole (TBZ; EC50 = 4.6 x 10(-4) M) than SDH (EC50 > 1.0 x 10(-3) M), suggesting that one of the sites-of-action of TBZ to be the FR of S. ratti mitochondria. More potent inhibitors of S. ratti FR, if developed, may prove to be effective chemotherapeutic agents in the management of human strongloidiasis.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  15. Strongyloidiasis in the immunocompetent: an overlooked infection

    PubMed Central

    Tachamo, Niranjan; Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj; Karmacharya, Paras

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Most cases are asymptomatic; however, symptomatic patients may present with a wide range of non-specific cutaneous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal symptoms posing a diagnostic dilemma and delay in diagnosis. We report a case of a 58-year-old female who presented with months of generalized pruritus and abdominal discomfort along with persistent eosinophilia due to strongyloidiasis, which completely resolved with treatment. PMID:27609726

  16. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    PubMed Central

    Amin, O M

    1988-01-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made. PMID:3341504

  17. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M

    1988-03-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made.

  18. Neuroparasitic infections: nematodes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M D; Zunt, J R

    2005-09-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system--Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.--is reviewed.

  19. The Epidemiology of Infectious Gastroenteritis Related Reactive Arthritis in U.S. Military Personnel: A Case-Control Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-13

    Campylobacter [11-15], Salmonella [16-19], Shigella[4,20], and Yersinia[21,22]. Other ReA case reports have implicated asymptomatic enteric infections[23...enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)[10,24], Cryptosporidium spp [25,26], Giardia lamblia[27], Strongyloides stercoralis[28], and possibly Schistosoma...after Salmonella among medical doctors - study of an outbreak. Journal of Rheumatology 1993, 20:845-848. 17.Inman RD, Johnston ME, Hodge M, Falk J

  20. Intestinal Parasite Infections in Symptomatic Children Attending Hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Catrin E.; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. Methods In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Principal Findings We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation. PMID

  1. Human, Humanities, Humanitarian, Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Kenneth A.; Adams, Samuel H.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the development of secular humanism in education and calls for educators to present their students with a "real" picture of the world, including the values upon which the Unites States was founded. (FL)

  2. Prevalence of strongyloidiasis in Latin America: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Buonfrate, D; Mena, M A; Angheben, A; Requena-Mendez, A; Muñoz, J; Gobbi, F; Albonico, M; Gotuzzo, E; Bisoffi, Z

    2015-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is rarely recognized as a major public health issue, probably because its burden is largely underestimated. We reviewed the literature (both PubMed and 'grey' literature) about the prevalence of strongyloidiasis in Latin America, an area of presumable high endemicity. There were finally 88 papers involved in the analysis, covering the period between 1981 and 2011. Studies were heterogeneous in several aspects, such as the populations screened and the diagnostic methods used. Most of the studies relied on direct coproparasitological examination, which has low sensitivity for the detection of S. stercoralis larvae. The following countries presented areas of high prevalence (>20%): Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil. Globally, for most of the included countries it was not possible to define reliable data because of paucity and/or inadequacy of studies. S. stercoralis requires specific diagnostic methods for its detection; therefore, surveys should be specifically designed in order to avoid underestimation of the infection.

  3. Hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is known to occur in immunocompetent individuals while hyperinfection and dissemination occurs in selective immunosuppressed hosts particularly those on corticosteroid therapy. We report two cases of hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in renal transplant recipients and document endoscopic and pathological changes in the involved small bowel. One patient presented with features of dehydration and malnutrition while another developed ileal obstruction and strangulation, requiring bowel resection. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed erythematous and thickened duodenal mucosal folds. Histopathological examination of duodenal biopsies revealed S. stercoralis worms, larvae and eggs embedded in mucosa and submucosa. Wet mount stool preparation showed filariform larvae of S. stercoralis in both cases. Patients were managed with anthelmintic therapy (ivermectin/albendazole) and concurrent reduction of immunosuppression. Both patients had uneventful recovery. Complicated strongyloidiasis should be suspected in immunocompromised hosts who present with abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea, particularly in endemic areas. PMID:25150235

  4. [Enteroparasite determination in Lactuca sativa from farms dedicated to its production in Pasto, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Polo, Giovanni Andrés; Benavides, Carmenza Janneth; Astaiza, Juan Manuel; Vallejo, Dario Antonio; Betancourt, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Currently, vegetables like lettuce are widely recommended as part of the daily diet given their high nutritional value; however, while consumers feel attracted to the benefits provided by the vegetable, they may also be exposed to parasitic intestinal infections. To determine the presence or absence of enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in the rural area in the municipality of Pasto, and to analyze associated factors based on the characterization of the lands. We conducted a descriptive double blind cross-sectional study. We took a total of 105 samples from 21 properties from June to December, 2013, and we processed them by sedimentation and flotation tests. Additionally, the owners were surveyed in order to obtain information about the possible variables influencing the occurrence of enteroparasites. We detected contamination in 100% of the lettuce samples and we found parasite eggs and larvae as follows: 95.25% with Entamoeba spp. cysts; 71.43% with Isospora spp. oocysts; 61.90% with Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (L3); 28.57% with Toxocara spp. eggs, and 4.76% with Eimeria spp. oocysts. Using the chi-square test we found association between Entamoeba spp. and ditches (p=0.008), dogs (p=0.008) and septic tanks (p=0.029); between Isospora spp. and compost (p=0.0001), dogs (p=0.0001) and slugs (p=0.002); between S. stercoralis and handling (p=0.003), and between Toxocara spp. and no use of biodigesters (p= 0.002). We found contamination with enteroparasites in lettuce samples from growing areas in the municipality of Pasto with animal and human sources as their main reservoirs, although others were present in the environment.

  5. Enteric pathogens of food sellers in rural Gambia with incidental finding of Myxobolus species (Protozoa: Myxozoa).

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Richard S; Barbé, Barbara; Jacobs, Jan; Jallow, Amadou T; Camara, Karamo C; Colley, Musa; Wegmüller, Rita; Jassey, Babucarr; Cham, Yorro; Baldeh, Ignatius; Prentice, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Ongoing surveillance of enteric pathogens of public health significance among casual food sellers is undertaken in many resource-limited countries. We report the results of a survey in Kiang West province, The Gambia, and provide an exemplar methodology for such surveys in resource-limited laboratories. Unpreserved, unrefrigerated stool samples were subjected to Salmonella, Shigella and agar plate culture for rhabditoid nematodes. Direct microscopy, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration and iron-hematoxylin staining was performed later, following preservation. Of 128 specimens received, no Shigella spp. was recovered, while four serovars of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, including Chandans, were isolated. Pathogenic parasitic infections were Necator americanus 10/128 (7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3/128 (2.8%), Blastocystis species 45/128 (35.1%), Entamoeba histolytica complex 19/128 (14.8%) and Giardia intestinalis 4/128 (3.1%). A single case each of Hymenolepis diminuta and S. mansoni infection were detected. In one participant, myxozoan spores identical to those of Myxobolus species were found. Rare parasitoses and serovars of Salmonella enterica may occur relatively commonly in rural Africa. This paper describes intestinal pathogens found in a cohort of food sellers in such a setting. Furthermore, it describes two parasites rarely recovered from humans and demonstrates the need for methods other than microscopy to detect S. stercoralis infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Canine fecal contamination in a metropolitan area (Milan, north-western Italy): prevalence of intestinal parasites and evaluation of health risks.

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Di Cerbo, Anna Rita; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Genchi, Marco; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS-) based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas) were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%), Toxocara canis (1.72%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%), Ancylostomatidae (0.43%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%). Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%), followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%). Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection.

  7. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2009-12-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors.

  8. Helminths as an alternative therapy for intestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Aytan Miranda; Baptista, Daniel Machado

    2017-09-07

    Animal models and clinical studies have shown that helminth infections exert immunomodulatory activity, altering intestinal permeability and providing a potential beneficial action on autoimmune and inflammatory disorders in human beings, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease. This is consistent with the theory that intestinal microbiota is responsible for shaping human immunological responses. With the arrival of the immunobiologic era and the use of antibodies, we propose a distinctive pathway for treating patients with IBD and celiac disease. We have some evidence about the safety and tolerability of helminth use, but evidence about their impact on disease activity is lacking. Using worms to treat diseases could be a possible way to lower treatment costs, since the era of immunobiologic agents is responsible for a significant rise in expenses. Some questions remain to be investigated regarding the use of helminths in intestinal disease, such as the importance of the specific species of helminths used, appropriate dosing regimens, optimal timing of treatment, the role of host genetics, diet, environment, and the elucidation of the exact mechanisms of action. One promising approach is the use of helminth-derived anti-inflammatory molecules as drugs. Yet there are still many challenges with this method, especially with regard to safety. Studies on intestinal permeability point to Strongyloides stercoralis as a useful nematode for these purposes.

  9. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea.

  10. Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  11. Myxobolus sp., Another Opportunistic Parasite in Immunosuppressed Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ligia I.; López, Myriam C.; Murcia, Martha I.; Nicholls, Santiago; León, Frecia; Guío, Olga Lucia; Corredor, Augusto

    2001-01-01

    During a study of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, a parasite belonging to the phylum Myxozoa, recently described from human samples, was identified in one sample. When this parasite was stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method, the features of the spores were identified: they were pyriform in shape, had thick walls, and had one suture and two polar capsules, with each one having four or five coils. The suture and two polar capsules were observed with the chromotrope-modified stain. The number of stools passed was more than 30 per day, but oocysts of Isospora belli were also found. Upon reexamination of some formalin- or merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde-preserved samples an identical parasite was found in another sample from a patient presenting with diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and eggs of Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides were also found in this sample. Given that both patients were also infected with other pathogens that cause diarrhea, the possible pathogenic role of this parasite could not be established. The probable route of infection also could not be established. PMID:11326017

  12. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy): Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Di Cerbo, Anna Rita; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Genchi, Marco; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS-) based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas) were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%), Toxocara canis (1.72%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%), Ancylostomatidae (0.43%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%). Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%), followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%). Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection. PMID:25478583

  13. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Gordana; Duthaler, Urs; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed. PMID:25516827

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil: frequency and zoonotic risk.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Fernanda Melo; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Calado, Andréa Maria Campos; Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Ramos, Ingrid Carla do Nascimento; Tenório, Rodrigo Ferreira Lima; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-04-12

    Gastrointestinal helminths are considered to be the most common parasites affecting cats worldwide. Correct diagnosis of these parasites in animals living in urban areas is pivotal, especially considering the zoonotic potential of some species (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.). In this study, a copromicroscopic survey was conducted using fecal samples (n = 173) from domestic cats living in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were examined through the FLOTAC technique and the overall results showed positivity of 65.31% (113/173) among the samples analyzed. Coinfections were observed in 46.01% (52/113) of the positive samples. The most common parasites detected were Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris sp., Dipylidium caninum and Cystoisospora sp. From an epidemiological point of view, these findings are important, especially considering that zoonotic parasites (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.) were the nematodes most frequently diagnosed in this study. Therefore, the human population living in close contact with cats is at risk of infection caused by the zoonotic helminths of these animals. In addition, for the first time the FLOTAC has been used to diagnosing gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil.

  15. Assessment of parasitic pollution in the coastal seawater of Gaza city

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The main objective of the study was the assessment of the prevalence and the identification of species of human gastrointestinal parasites as an indicator of the pollution of the seashore of Gaza City. Methods The investigation was conducted by analysis of the parasitic contamination of seawater along the study area. A total of 52 samples of seawater were analyzed during the summer period; from June to October 2011. The study area was divided into six zones (A, B, C, D, E and F) according to specific criteria such as the presence of the wastewater discharge points and other geographical characteristics. Results The results show that about 48% of the seawater samples from the shoreline region of Gaza City were contaminated with parasites. Zones A, B and D (mouth of Wadi Gaza, Al Sheikh Ejleen discharge and Al Shalehat discharge points respectively) have the highest level of parasitic contamination, while, zones C and E (From Al-Baydar restaurant to Khalel Alwazer Mosque and the basin of the Gaza marina respectively) had a lower level of contamination and zone F (From the northern part of the Gaza marina to the Intelligence Building) was uncontaminated. The parasitic species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia lamblia, Strongyloides stercoralis, Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium parvum. Conclusions The present study revealed a high level of contamination with parasites at most of the points which were investigated along the Gaza City coast line. PMID:24410999

  16. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic parasites in HIV-positive and negative patients with diarrhoea in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gomez Morales, M A; Atzori, C; Ludovisi, A; Rossi, P; Scaglia, M; Pozio, E

    1995-06-01

    A survey on intestinal parasites in a rural area of Tanzania revealed the presence of eight protozoa and seven helminths in 287 subjects (81.8%). The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides was higher in HIV-negative than in HIV-positive patients (P < 0.01; P < 0.04) (25.1% and 12.5% for E. histolytica; 10.5% and 3.7% for A. lumbricoides). On the other hand, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalence was higher in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative patients (P < 0.01). The prevalence of these two opportunistic protozoa was also higher in AIDS patients than in HIV-positive patients without AIDS. Specific anti-C. parvum IgG were detected by ELISA in 18% and 56% of HIV-negative and positive patients, respectively, confirming the high number of contacts between this parasite and humans. Specific anti-Encephalitozoon cuniculi and anti-Encephalitozoon hellem IgG were detected by IFA in 18% and 19% of subjects, respectively, without any correlation with HIV and malaria infections.

  17. [Children enteroparasitosis in north east Argentine urban area].

    PubMed

    Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces.

  18. Geophagy (Soil-eating) in relation to Anemia and Helminth infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Saathoff, Elmar; Antelman, Gretchen; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2009-01-01

    Geophagy, the regular and deliberate consumption of soil, is prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the associations of geophagy with anemia and helminth infection among 971 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women in Tanzania. About 29% of pregnant women regularly consumed soil. Occupation, marital status, and gestational age were associated with geophagy. Ascaris lumbricoides infection was associated with the prevalence of geophagy (adjusted-prevalence ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-2.40); however, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis showed no association. Anemia and red blood cell characteristics suggestive of iron deficiency were strongly correlated with geophagy at baseline. In longitudinal analyses, we found evidence suggesting that soil consumption may be associated with an increased risk of anemia (adjusted-relative risk 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98-1.36) and a lower hemoglobin concentration (adjusted-mean difference -3.8 g/L; 95% CI [-7.3, -0.4]). Pregnant women should be informed about the potential risks associated with soil consumption.

  19. [Intestinal parasitoses in the Mahajanga region, west coast of Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Buchy, P

    2003-03-01

    A study on human intestinal parasites was carried out from November 1996 until January 1997, in Mahajanga's hospital, on the western coast of Madagascar. We collected the faeces from 401 patients and the sera from 112 of them. Faecal examination using direct examination and MIF method revealed that 67.6% of the stools contained at least one parasite. The frequency of the protozoa was high (47.7%). The prevalence of the nematodosis reached 23.4%. Hymenolepis nana, Taenia saginata or solium and Schistosoma mansoni were less frequent (respectively 2.5%, 0.75% and 3.7%). More than 50% of the sera contained antibodies anti-Ascaris lumbricoides and anti-Strongyloides stercoralis. Serology by IFI using Schistosoma antigen was positive in 15.2% of the cases. The serological and microscopical exams showed that Entamoeba histolytica was present in this region and that amoebiasis should be considered as one of the etiologies of diarrhoea. The study pointed out also the frequency of the transmitted fecal infections. Preventive measures as water distribution, sanitary installations, hygiene education should be implemented.

  20. Helminth infection is not associated with faster progression of HIV disease in coinfected adults in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael; Kizza, Moses; Watera, Christine; Quigley, Maria A; Rowland, Samantha; Hughes, Peter; Whitworth, James A G; Elliott, Alison M

    2004-11-15

    We studied a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in Uganda who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy, to explore the impact of helminths on HIV progression in areas where antiretrovirals are not available. A total of 663 patients were screened for helminths, treated presumptively with albendazole and selectively with praziquantel, and monitored for 6 months. Blood samples were analyzed for CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 RNA. Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Mansonella perstans were the most prevalent helminths. Helminth infection was not associated with higher viral load, lower CD4+ cell count, or faster decrease in CD4+ cell count preceding antihelminthic therapy. The effect of coinfection on HIV disease progression varied with species. CD4+ cell counts were highest in subjects with hookworm and Mansonella perstans infection. For most helminths, effective treatment was associated with greater decrease in CD4+ cell count than in those in whom infection was still present at follow-up. A highly significant decrease in viral load at 6 months was seen in patients with persistent Mansonella perstans infection at follow-up. Mortality was lower in subjects with hookworm infection at enrollment. Helminth infection was not associated with more-advanced HIV disease or faster disease progression. Antihelminthic therapy may not be beneficial in slowing HIV progression in coinfected adults.

  1. Prevalence and Types of Coinfections in Sleeping Sickness Patients in Kenya (2000/2009)

    PubMed Central

    Kagira, J. M.; Maina, N.; Njenga, J.; Karanja, S. M.; Karori, S. M.; Ngotho, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of coinfections in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients was investigated using a retrospective data of hospital records at the National Sleeping Sickness Referral Hospital in Alupe, Kenya. A total of 31 patients, 19 males and 12 females, were diagnosed with HAT between the years 2000 and 2009. The observed co-infections included malaria (100%), helminthosis (64.5%), typhoid (22.5%), urinary tract infections (16.1%), HIV (12.9%), and tuberculosis (3.2%). The species of helminthes observed included Ancylostoma duodenale (38.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (45.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis (9.7%), and Taenia spp. (3.2%). The patients were also infected with Entamoeba spp. (32.3%) and Trichomonas hominis (22.6%) protozoan parasites. The main clinical signs observed at the point of admission included headache (74.2%), fever (48.4%), sleep disorders (45.2%), and general body pain (41.9%). The HAT patients were treated with suramin (early stage, 9/31) and melarsoprol (late stage, 22/31). In conclusion, the study has shown that HAT patients have multiple co-infections which may influence the disease pathogenesis and complicate management of HAT. PMID:21915184

  2. Patterns of parasitic infections in faecal samples from stray cat populations in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Abu-Madi, M A; Al-Ahbabi, D A; Al-Mashhadani, M M; Al-Ibrahim, R; Pal, P; Lewis, J W

    2007-09-01

    The parasite fauna of stray cat populations, comprising mainly helminth parasites, is described for the first time from the arid environment of the Qatar peninsula. During the winter and summer months of 2005, 824 faecal samples were examined from six sites in Qatar. Up to seven species of parasites were identified, six of which were nematodes - Strongyloides stercoralis as the most prevalent (18.4%), followed by Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (7.5%), Toxocara cati (6.1%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (5.9%) and Physaloptera sp. (4.8%) and Toxascaris leonina (0.7%) - and one sporozoan species, Isospora felis (0.5%). Unidentified cestode eggs were also recovered from 10.7% of samples examined. The parasite species were found to be highly overdispersed in faecal samples from all sites, whereas the prevalence and intensity of infections were influenced by site and season. Infection levels tended to be higher during the winter season, especially in the case of A. abstrusus and A. tubaeforme, when conditions of temperature and humidity were more favourable for the development of egg and/or larval stages of parasites compared with the extremely hot and dry summer months. The results are discussed in relation to the distribution of the cat population in the vicinity of Doha and its outskirts and the potential threat of parasite transmission to human communities in Qatar.

  3. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Minori, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice), the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far. PMID:28210503

  4. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    PubMed Central

    Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel; Ariza, Liana; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2008-01-01

    Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans), mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp.), and lice (Trichodectes canis); and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%). Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases. PMID:19068110

  5. Expanded infectious diseases screening program for Hispanic transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, M A; Caicedo, J C; Stosor, V; Ison, M G

    2010-08-01

    Most guidelines for pre-transplant screening recommend enhanced screening among patients with potential exposure to such pathogens as Strongyloides stercoralis and Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. The incidence of these diseases in the Hispanic immigrant population has not been extensively studied. Transplant candidates who were evaluated by our program's Hispanic Transplant Program were referred for expanded infectious disease screening including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, S. stercoralis, Leishmania, and T. cruzi. Between December 2006 and December 2008, 83 patients were screened. Most were from Mexico but we also screened patients from Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Peru. Most patients lived in urban locations before moving to the United States. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was found in 20%, and 6.7% had serologic evidence of S. stercoralis infection. These patients underwent treatment of latent infection without difficulty. To date, 14 patients have undergone living-donor kidney transplantation. Two of these patients had positive Leishmania titers and are being followed clinically, 1 was treated for S. stercoralis, and 2 were treated for LTBI pre-transplant. All have done well without evidence of screened pathogens an average of 348 days (range 65-766 days) post transplant. Expanded screening identifies endemic infections in the Hispanic immigrant population that can be treated before transplant, thereby minimizing post-transplant infectious complications.

  6. High rate of strongyloidosis infection, out of endemic area, in patients with eosinophilia and without risk of exogenous reinfections.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Silvia A; Durán, Pablo A; Lasala, María B; González-Cappa, Stella M

    2010-06-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis chronic infections are usually asymptomatic and underestimated. We used direct fresh stool examination, Ritchie's method, and agar plate culture for diagnosis in patients with eosinophilia and previous residence in endemic areas. The frequency of strongyloidosis detected among these patients was high: 21 of 42 were positive. Among them, 10 were positive only by agar plate culture. After ivermectin treatment, patients resulted negative for parasitological tests and reduced their eosinophil counts. Half of the submitted patients that were followed 4-12 months after treatment remained negative without eosinophilia, except one who showed an eosinophil ascending curve before reappearance of larvae in stools. The high frequency of strongyloidosis found in this group emphasizes the relevance of including this parasitosis among differential diagnosis in patients with eosinophilia and past risk of S. stercoralis infection to prevent disseminated infections secondary to corticoid therapy.

  7. High Rate of Strongyloidosis Infection, Out of Endemic Area, in Patients with Eosinophilia and without Risk of Exogenous Reinfections

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Silvia A.; Durán, Pablo A.; Lasala, María B.; González-Cappa, Stella M.

    2010-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis chronic infections are usually asymptomatic and underestimated. We used direct fresh stool examination, Ritchie's method, and agar plate culture for diagnosis in patients with eosinophilia and previous residence in endemic areas. The frequency of strongyloidosis detected among these patients was high: 21 of 42 were positive. Among them, 10 were positive only by agar plate culture. After ivermectin treatment, patients resulted negative for parasitological tests and reduced their eosinophil counts. Half of the submitted patients that were followed 4–12 months after treatment remained negative without eosinophilia, except one who showed an eosinophil ascending curve before reappearance of larvae in stools. The high frequency of strongyloidosis found in this group emphasizes the relevance of including this parasitosis among differential diagnosis in patients with eosinophilia and past risk of S. stercoralis infection to prevent disseminated infections secondary to corticoid therapy. PMID:20519604

  8. [Parasitic diseases in pediatric cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Bialek, R

    2005-11-01

    Parasitic infections are rare events in pediatric oncology. Transmission routes and diseases of most parasites do not differ significantly from those seen in otherwise healthy children. However, latent asymptomatic infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxoplasma gondii might exacerbate during immunosuppression. Screening in asymptomatic patients is often unsuccessful due to the low sensitivity of available assays except in toxoplasmosis. This article provides the recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) and the German Society for Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (GPOH) for the appropriate diagnostic procedures and antiparasitic treatment immunocompromised patients.

  9. Cryptosporidiosis in a tertiary care hospital in Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Nagamani, K; Rajkumari, A

    2001-01-01

    Enteric protozoal parasitic infection has become an important cause of morbidity in children and adults. In the developing countries the association of Cryptosporidium with acute and persistent diarrhoea has been striking. Stool samples from 1002 patients (800 adults and 202 children) suffering from diarrhoea or other gastrointestinal symptoms were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by modified Ziehl Neelsen stained smears. C. parvum was detected in 2.99% of children and 0.12% adults. Other parasites detected were E. histolytica (6.18%), G. lamblia (1.49%), A. lumbricoides (1.49%), hookworm (1.39%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.39%), and Taenia (0.09%).

  10. Ivermectin: pharmacology and application in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Dourmishev, Assen L; Dourmishev, Lyubomir A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-12-01

    Ivermectin is a synthetic derivative of the antiparasitic class of compounds known as avermectins. It is a macrolide endectocide with activity against both endoparasites with cutaneous tropism (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ancylostoma braziliense, Cochliomyia hominivorax, Dermatobia hominis, Filaria bancrofti, Wucheria malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa-loa) and ectoparasites such as Sarcoptes scabies, Pediculus humanus, Demodex folliculorum, and Cheyletiella sp. Ivermectin is of great interest in the treatment of patients with different forms of scabies, head lice, demodecidosis, cutaneous larva migrans, cutaneous larva currens, myiasis, and filariasis.

  11. Strongyloidiasis in Canadian Far East war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Eileen M.; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Robertson, William B.; Black, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A survey was done of Canadians who had been interned by the Japanese during World War II to assess the prevalence of latent infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in this group. Packages containing three mail-in kits and a questionnaire were sent to 992 men, 694 (70%) of whom responded. Larvae were found in the stool specimens of four of the respondents. Examination of stool specimens after formalin-ether concentration was the most successful method of detecting Strongyloides larvae. The Baermann concentration technique yielded negative results in all four men. Three of the four cases of strongyloidiasis were detected after sampling of three fecal specimens. In the fourth case additional specimens were requested on the basis of data derived from the questionnaire. The most frequently cited clinical manifestations were abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea and rashes. PMID:4052898

  12. Effect of ivermectin on allergy-type manifestations in occult strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Rampur, Lahari; Jariwala, Sunit P; Hudes, Golda; Rosenstreich, David L; de Vos, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of helminths have been well described. However, there is a relative lack of literature regarding the link between parasites and allergic diseases. A number of patients with allergic symptoms have positive serologic test results for Strongyloides stercoralis. To identify patients with allergy-type symptoms and coexisting Strongyloides infection and to analyze the effect of Strongyloides eradication therapy with ivermectin on these symptoms. The medical records of our allergy clinic sites were reviewed for Strongyloides test results between January 2011 and October 2014. Each allergy-type symptom was assessed separately with regard to improvement after ivermectin therapy. Among the 1,446 patients who had Strongyloides serologic tests ordered, 127 (8.8%) had positive test results. Eighty-four patients had follow-up data regarding allergy-type symptoms after ivermectin treatment. Among these, 52 patients (61.9%) reported skin-related problems (pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, and/or rash). Forty-nine patients (58.3%) had asthma, and 73.8% had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although respiratory symptoms typically did not respond to ivermectin treatment, 24 of 48 patients (50%) with skin symptoms reported a significant subjective improvement of symptoms after ivermectin treatment. Peripheral eosinophil counts significantly decreased after ivermectin treatment from 450 to 200/μL (P < .001). Serologic testing for strongyloides may be indicated for patients with allergy-type symptoms and a suggestive exposure history. Patients with strongyloidiasis and primarily cutaneous symptoms experienced significant symptomatic improvement after ivermectin therapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human See, Human Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A human demonstrator showed human children and captive chimpanzees how to drag food or toys closer using a rakelike tool. One side of the rake was less efficient than the other for dragging. Chimps tried to reproduce results rather than methods while children imitated and used the more efficient rake side. Concludes that imitation leads to…

  14. More Human than Human.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  15. [Larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  16. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-03-11

    Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were collected from two central open-aired markets (namely; Elshaabi and Central markets) during November 2011 to May 2012. The samples were microscopically examined for detection of parasitic life forms using standardized parasitological techniques for protozoans and helminthes worms. Of the 260 fresh vegetable samples, 35 (13.5 %) were microscopically positive for intestinal parasites whereas 7/50 (14 %) of water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were found positives. Remarkably, high level of contamination in fresh vegetable samples was recorded in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) 36.4 % (4/11) while cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were not contaminated. The identified protozoans and helminthes were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, T. trichiura and hookworms. The most predominant parasite encountered was E. histolytica/dispar (42.9 %) whereas both T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides (2.9 %) were the least detected parasites. None of the fresh vegetables had single parasitic contamination. The highest percentages found in water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) was for Strongyloides larvae 60 % (3/5). It is worth-mentioned that the rate of contamination in Elshaabi market was higher compared with Central market. However, there was no significant correlation between the type of vegetables and existence of parasites in both markets and a high significant

  17. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  18. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  19. Humanizing the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dennis

    1983-01-01

    Reviews some of the steps taken at Shoreline Community College to develop cooperative programs involving vocational and academic faculty, including the creation of a Humanities Advisory Council. Briefly describes some of the cooperative programs, e.g., symposia on critical issues in higher education, guest lectures, and high school outreach. (AYC)

  20. [Parasitic diarrhea in children].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, D

    2003-12-01

    In many areas, Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are found together and their microscopic appearance is identical. Biochemical tests which can show cell wall differences are often falsely negative and the only possible way is to treat with metronidazole when amoebiasis is suspected. In case of clinical failure of metronidazole, a bacterial diarrhea is frequently found. Giardia is an other protozoa frequently found in stools of children in endemic areas. Diarrheas due to Giardia are possible in normal children and frequent in malnourished. They can determine severe atrophy of jejunal mucosa and must be treated. Cryptoridiosis is frequently asymptomatic but induces diarrhea in malnourished children. Diarrhea due to helminths is rare and only Strongyloides stercoralis induces severe diarrhea in malnourished child and must be treated in emergency with Ivermectin to avoid dissemination. In immune deficiency induced by corticosteroid treatment or cancer chemotherapy, a prophylactic treatment with Ivermectin against Strongyloides stercoralis must be given in endemic areas or after return, and probably also with metronidazole against Giardia.

  1. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abah, A. E.; Arene, F. O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  2. Intestinal strongyloidiasis and hyperinfection syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vadlamudi, Raja S; Chi, David S; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2006-01-01

    In spite of recent advances with experiments on animal models, strongyloidiasis, an infection caused by the nematode parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, has still been an elusive disease. Though endemic in some developing countries, strongyloidiasis still poses a threat to the developed world. Due to the peculiar but characteristic features of autoinfection, hyperinfection syndrome involving only pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems, and disseminated infection with involvement of other organs, strongyloidiasis needs special attention by the physician, especially one serving patients in areas endemic for strongyloidiasis. Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms, or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. Th2 cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity and mucosal immunity have been shown to have protective effects against this parasitic infection especially in animal models. Any factors that suppress these mechanisms (such as intercurrent immune suppression or glucocorticoid therapy) could potentially trigger hyperinfection or disseminated infection which could be fatal. Even with the recent advances in laboratory tests, strongyloidiasis is still difficult to diagnose. But once diagnosed, the disease can be treated effectively with antihelminthic drugs like Ivermectin. This review article summarizes a case of strongyloidiasis and various aspects of strongyloidiasis, with emphasis on epidemiology, life cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis, clinical manifestations of the disease, corticosteroids and strongyloidiasis, diagnostic aspects of the disease, various host defense pathways against strongyloidiasis, and available treatment options. PMID:16734908

  3. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state.

  4. Humanity and human DNA.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Genetics has marked the second half of the 20th century by addressing such formidable problems as the identification of our genes and their role, their interaction with the environment, and even their therapeutic uses. The identification of genes raises questions about differences between humans and non-humans, as well as about the evolution towards trans-humanism and post-humanism. In practise, however, the main question concerns the limits of prenatal genetic diagnosis, not only on account of the seriousness of the affections involved but also because of the choice to be made between following-up the medical indication and engaging in a systematic public health strategy aimed at eliminating children with certain handicaps. History reminds us that genetic science has already been misused by political forces influenced by the ideas of eugenics, particularly in the Nazi period. We may wonder whether it is reasonable to formulate a judgement on the life of a child yet to be born, merely on the basis of a DNA analysis. My experience as a practising geneticist and my involvement in French politics forces me to stress the dangers of a new eugenics hiding behind a medical mask. As demonstrated by epigenetics, human beings cannot be reduced to their DNA alone. In our society, one of the problems concerns individuals whose lives may be considered by some as simply not worth living. Another problem is the place and the social significance of the handicapped amongst us. Fortunately, recent progresses in gene therapy, biotherapy, and even pharmacology, appear to be opening up promising therapeutic perspectives. We should bear in mind that the chief vocation of medical genetics, which fully belongs to the art of medicine, is to heal and to cure. This is precisely where genetics should concentrate its efforts software.

  5. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route

    PubMed Central

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O.; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A.; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6–5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). Conclusions Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should

  6. [Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren of Nikki and Pèrèrè, two northeastern towns of Benin].

    PubMed

    Ibikounlé, M; Gbédjissi, L G; Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Batcho, W; Kindé-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-08-01

    Infection with schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and the burden of disease associated with parasites is enormous. A study was performed to determine the transmission and prevalence of human schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school children of Nikki and Perere, two north eastern towns of Benin, bordering Republic of Nigeria. Parasitological investigations by urine filtration and Kato-Katz conducted on 1,344 school children indicated a mean prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni 48.44% and 0%, respectively, in the children of Nikki area and 45.24% and 4.11% in Perere area. Only schoolchildren of Sonon locality were infected by S. mansoni with a mean prevalence rate of 36.24%. KatoKatz tests releaved five species of soil-transmitted helminths: Ankylostoma duodenale (8.16% and 6.73%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.26% and 2.30%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.09% and 1.97%), Trichuris trichiura (1.97% and 1.90%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.04% and 0.99%), respectively, in the schoolchildren of Nikki and Perere areas. The malacological investigations carried out in the freshwater points of each visited locality highlighted the presence of four species of freshwater snails known as intermediate host of schistosome: Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, B. globosus and B. truncatus.Two B. globosus and B. pfeifferi collected in Sonon locality were naturally infected by schistosome, indicated the importance of their two species of snail in schistosome transmission cycle.

  7. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route.

    PubMed

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2015-09-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6-5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should be highlighted in the recommendations for the

  8. Detection of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with HIV/AIDS by using a simplified iron hematoxylin technique.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana Alves; Cimerman, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Studies strongly indicate Dientamoeba fragilis as one of the causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of D. fragilis associated with the causes of diarrhea in 82 HIV/ AIDS patients hospitalized at the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas from September 2006 to November 2008. In total, 105 samples were collected from 82 patients. Unprotected sex was the most frequent cause of HIV infection (46.3%), followed by the use of injectable or non-injectable drugs (14.6%). Patients presented with viral loads of 49-750,000 copies/ mL (average: 73,849 ± 124,850 copies/mL) and CD4 counts ranging of 2-1,306 cells/mm³ (average: 159 ± 250 cells/mm³). On an average, the odds of obtaining a positive result by using the other techniques (Hoffman, Pons and Janer or Lutz; Ritchie) were 2.7 times higher than the chance of obtaining a positive result by using the simplified iron hematoxylin method. Significant differences were found between the methods (p = 0.003). The other techniques can detect a significantly greater amount of parasites than the simplified iron hematoxylin method, especially with respect to Isospora belli, Cryptosporidium sp., Schistosoma mansoni, and Strongyloides stercoralis, which were not detected using hematoxylin. Endolimax nana and D. fragilis were detected more frequently on using hematoxylin, and the only parasite not found by the other methods was D. fragilis.

  9. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among HIV seropositive patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections are aggravating the incidence and progression of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) more especially in the developing countries. This study was conducted to assess the common gastrointestinal and urinary infections among HIV/AIDS patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Ghana between April and December 2008. Findings This work reports on gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among 500 HIV seropositive and 300 HIV seronegative patients. There was a 35% (175/500) prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV seropositive patients compared to 4.3% (13/300) in HIV seronegative patients. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium accounted for 19% (95/500) and 14% (70/500) respectively, while Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm together accounted for 2% (10/500) of intestinal parasitic infections among the HIV seropositive patients. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in urinary parasitic infection between HIV seropositive 1% (2/500) and seronegative patients 0.7% (2/300). Most, 60 (86%) out of 70, of the urinary tract infection among the HIV seropositive patients was due to bacteria with E. coli being the most predominant isolate, 28 (47%) out of 60. There was no significant difference in infections based on age and gender. Conclusion G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium were the most common gastrointestinal parasites detected while bacteria accounted for majority of the urinary tract infections among the HIV seropositive patients at the hospital. PMID:22909315

  10. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae.

  11. A simple modification of the Baermann method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Chavarría, F; Avendaño, L

    2001-08-01

    The diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infections is routinely made by microscopic observation of larvae in stool samples, a low sensitivity method, or by other, most effective methods, such as the Baermann or agar culture plate methods. We propose in this paper a practical modification of Baermann method. One hundred and six stool samples from alcoholic patients were analyzed using the direct smear test, agar culture plate method, the standard Baermann method, and its proposed modification. For this modification the funnel used in the original version of the method is substituted by a test tube with a rubber stopper, perforated to allow insertion of a pipette tip. The tube with a fecal suspension is inverted over another tube containing 6 ml of saline solution and incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 2 h. The saline solution from the second tube is centrifuged and the pellet is observed microscopically. Larva of S. stercoralis were detected in six samples (5.7%) by the two versions of the Baermann method. Five samples were positive using the agar culture plate method, and only in two samples the larva were observed using direct microscopic observation of fecal smears. Cysts of Endolimax nana and Entamoeba histolytica/dyspar were also detected in the modification of Baermann method. Data obtained by the modified Baermann method suggest that this methodology may helps concentrate larvae of S. stercoralis as efficiently as the original method.

  12. Anthelmintic Therapy Modifies the Systemic and Mycobacterial Antigen-Stimulated Cytokine Profile in Helminth-Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukthi; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are known to modulate cytokine responses in latent tuberculosis (LTB). However, very few studies have examined whether this modulation is reversible upon anthelmintic therapy. We measured the systemic and mycobacterial (TB) antigen-stimulated levels of type 1, type 2, type 17, and regulatory cytokines in individuals with LTB and with or without coexistent Strongyloides stercoralis infection before and after anthelmintic therapy. Our data reveal that individuals with LTB and coexistent S. stercoralis infection have significantly lower levels of systemic and TB antigen-stimulated type 1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin-2 [IL-2]) and type 17 (IL-17A and/or IL-17F) cytokines and significantly higher levels of systemic but not TB antigen-stimulated type 2 (IL-4 and IL-5) and regulatory (transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]) cytokines. Anthelmintic therapy resulted in significantly increased systemic levels of type 1 and/or type 17 cytokines and in significantly decreased systemic levels of type 2 and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) cytokines. In addition, anthelmintic therapy resulted in significantly increased TB antigen-stimulated levels of type 1 cytokines only. Our data therefore confirm that the modulation of systemic and TB antigen-stimulated cytokine responses in S. stercoralis-LTB coinfection is reversible (for the most part) by anthelmintic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Strongyloidiasis detected by the agar plate culture method among patients infected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Urdez-Hernández, E; Jiménez-Galán, S; Antonio-Manríquez, M; DE León-Juárez, E A; Terrazas-Estrada, J J; Hernández-García, M C; García-Zaldívar, P; Estrada-Aguilera, A

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate the rate of strongyloidiasis among HIV/AIDS patients, stools and duodenal juice were examined using the agar plate culture method. From January to June 1993, a total of 60 HIV/AIDS patients were required for duodenal aspirate and three serial samples of freshly passed stools. Stools and duodenal aspirate were dispensed on an agar plate culture; after incubation at 28 degrees C during 48 h, screening of plates was made at 10 x. The presence of furrows and worms of short buccal chamber and prominent genital primordium were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis. Most patients were men (91.7%); their mean age, of 33.9 years (SD +/- 10.6); their median CD4(+) T-cells count, of 105/microL (range of 12 to 646). S. stercoralis was detected in three patients (5%). In duodenal juice, the three patients showed the parasite, but in feces, only two (3.3%). In these two individuals, the worms were found in feces by agar culture and Faust's concentration method. The rate of S. stercoralis in feces of HIV/AIDS individuals (3.3%) by agar culture method was similar to that formerly reported from the general Mexican population (2.9%) using standard concentration procedures. Hence, in this immunocompromised population of a low prevalence city, there was no advantage to using an agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis.

  14. [Intestinal parasitosis prevalence in outpatients and inpatients of Cã Granda IRCCS Foundation - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico of Milan: data comparison between 1984-1985 and 2007-2009].

    PubMed

    Grande, Romualdo; Ranzi, Maria Luisa; Restelli, Antonella; Maraschini, Anna; Perego, Luisa; Torresani, Erminio

    2011-03-01

    This paper evaluates the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in a specific population over three years (2007-2009). The results were compared with published data collected from the same population in 1984-1985. During a survey from January 1st 2007 to December 31(st) 2009 a total of 2962 inpatients and outpatients were evaluated in our facility (IRCCS Foundation - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico) for ova and protozoa stool examination (OPE) over three specimens collected alternatively for three days. 614 inpatients and outpatients were evaluated for the Graham Test (GT) over three slides collected for three days (day by day). Sixty inpatients and outpatients were also sampled for agar culture for detecting Strongyloides larvae in faeces. OPE revealed 13.26% of the patients positive for parasites; TG revealed 8.14% were positive. Overall, 16.66% of the patients were positive for Strongyloides larvae agar culture. Of the OPE trial group, only 4.2% were positive for real pathogen parasites. 1.78% of the total was affected by several parasites. Apart from the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Taenia spp, which was unchanged, all other levels fell compared with the 1984 - 1985 results. New pathogens, namely Hymenolepis nana and Schistosoma mansoni, were detected during 2007-2009 period. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most frequently diagnosed helminth in 2007-2009 as in the previous time period.

  15. Human Augmentics: augmenting human evolution.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Robert V; Leigh, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Human Augmentics (HA) refers to technologies for expanding the capabilities, and characteristics of humans. One can think of Human Augmentics as the driving force in the non-biological evolution of humans. HA devices will provide technology to compensate for human biological limitations either natural or acquired. The strengths of HA lie in its applicability to all humans. Its interoperability enables the formation of ecosystems whereby augmented humans can draw from other realms such as "the Cloud" and other augmented humans for strength. The exponential growth in new technologies portends such a system but must be designed for interaction through the use of open-standards and open-APIs for system development. We discuss the conditions needed for HA to flourish with an emphasis on devices that provide non-biological rehabilitation.

  16. Human Parvoviruses.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jianming; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S

    2017-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  18. Teaching humanism.

    PubMed

    Stern, David T; Cohen, Jordan J; Bruder, Ann; Packer, Barbara; Sole, Allison

    2008-01-01

    As the "passion that animates authentic professionalism," humanism must be infused into medical education and clinical care as a central feature of medicine's professionalism movement. In this article, we discuss a current definition of humanism in medicine. We will also provide detailed descriptions of educational programs intended to promote humanism at a number of medical schools in the United States (and beyond) and identify the key factors that make these programs effective. Common elements of programs that effectively teach humanism include: (1) opportunities for students to gain perspective in the lives of patients; (2) structured time for reflection on those experiences; and (3) focused mentoring to ensure that these events convert to positive, formative learning experiences. By describing educational experiences that both promote and sustain humanism in doctors, we hope to stimulate the thinking of other medical educators and to disseminate the impact of these innovative educational programs to help the profession meet its obligation to provide the public with humanistic physicians.

  19. Human cloning and human dignity.

    PubMed

    Birnbacher, Dieter

    2005-03-01

    Judging from the official documents dealing with the moral and legal aspects of human reproductive cloning there seems to be a nearly worldwide consensus that reproductive cloning is incompatible with human dignity. The certainty of this judgement is, however, not matched by corresponding arguments. Is the incompatibility of reproductive with human dignity an ultimate moral intuition closed to further argument? The paper considers several ways by which the intuition might be connected with more familiar applications of the concept of human dignity, and argues that there is no such connection. It concludes that the central objections to human reproductive cloning are not objections relating to dignity but objections relating to risk, especially the risks imposed on children born in the course of testing the method's safety.

  20. Human rights

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J Enoch

    1977-01-01

    What are human rights? In this article Enoch Powell, MP (a former Conservative Minister of Health), approaches this question through a critical discussion of Article 25 (I) of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Professor R S Downie in his accompanying commentary analyses Mr Powell's statements and takes up in particular Mr Powell's argument that claiming rights for one person entails compulsion on another person. In Professor Downie's view there is nothing in Article 25 (I) that cannot embody acceptable moral rights, the commonly accepted interpretation of that Article of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights which many people think is wholly acceptable. PMID:604483

  1. Overcoming Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiliano, Louis; Davis, Robert Leonard

    1979-01-01

    Humanism cheats students because it gives them false ideas about their abilities and encourages them to aspire to unrealistic levels of achievement. It also reduces the level of performance that should be expected of teachers and paraprofessionals. (Author/IRT)

  2. Human expunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  3. Human otoacariasis.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, K S Gangadhara; Rajeshwari, A

    2007-09-01

    Accidental entry of foreign bodies into the ear canal is very common. Animate foreign bodies constitute upto 14% of cases, majority being the cockroaches. Not many cases of ticks entering into human ears are found in the scientific literature. Even the available reports are from South Africa, Nepal, Malaysia, Chile and Srilanka. This Indian study discusses the occurence, clinical features, the methods adopted in the removal and the complications of tick infestation of human ear. A total of 144 cases of ticks entering the human ears were studied over a period of two years from Jan 2004 to Dec 2005. This report represents one of the largest recorded series of human otoacariasis available in the Indian literature.

  4. Human babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Rożej-Bielicka, Wioletta; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Gołąb, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging parasitic, anthropo-zoonotic tick-borne disease, seldom diagnosed in humans. Caused by Protozoa, Babesia (also called Piroplasma) intraerytrocytic piriform microorganism. Infection of vertebrates is transmitted by ticks. Out of more than 100 Babesia species/genotypes described so far, only some were diagnosed in infected humans, mostly B. microti, B. divergens and B. venatorum (Babesia sp. EU1). Infection in humans is often asymptomatic or mild but is of a particular risk for asplenic individuals, those with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and elderly. Infections transmitted with blood and blood products raise concerns in hemotherapy. Epidemiological situation of babesiosis varies around the world. In Europe, no increase in the number of cases was reported, but in the USA its prevalence is increasing and extension of endemic areas is observed. The aim of this publication is to describe the problems connected with the current epidemiological situation, diagnosis and treatment of human babesiosis with regard to clinical status of patients.

  5. Human Cloning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-20

    not believe that noncoital, asexual reproduction , such as cloning, would be considered a fundamental right by the Supreme Court. A ban on human...society by “crossing the boundary from sexual to asexual reproduction , thus approving in principle the genetic manipulation and control of nascent human... reproductive cloning and, by a vote of 10 to 7, a four-year moratorium on cloning for medical research purposes. The ethical issues surrounding reproductive

  6. Human intestinal parasites in primary school children in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kabatereine, N B; Kemijumbi, J; Kazibwe, F; Onapa, A W

    1997-05-01

    A cross sectional survey on intestinal parasite infections was carried out in 5,313 pupils between the ages of ten and fifteen years in 98 primary schools in Kampala. The aim was to identify the types and distribution of intestinal parasites and to estimate the prevalence in school children. Trichuris trichiura (28%), Ascaris lumbricoides (17%) and hookworms (12.9%) were common infections among the children. Other less commonly found parasites were S.mansoni, Strongyloides stercolaris, Taenia sp, Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli and E. histolytica. Refuse dumps are probably a significant source of transmission of intestinal helminthic infections in Kampala.

  7. Human Endomucin

    PubMed Central

    Samulowitz, Ulrike; Kuhn, Annegret; Brachtendorf, Gertrud; Nawroth, Roman; Braun, Attila; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Böcker, Werner; Vestweber, Dietmar

    2002-01-01

    Endomucin is a typical sialomucin that we recently identified on the surface of mouse endothelial cells and on putative hematopoetic clusters of the dorsal aorta in the embryo. We have generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the extracellular part of human endomucin and polyclonal antibodies against the cytoplasmic part. Using immunohistochemistry endomucin was specifically detected on endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels of all analyzed human tissues. In addition, the polyclonal antibodies stained the epithelium of the epidermis as well as epithelial and myoepithelial cells of the eccrine and apocrine glands in the skin. This nonendothelial staining could only be seen with a subset of mAbs if the staining procedure was amplified. Although high endothelial venules (HEVs) were not significantly stained with mAbs against endomucin, the polyclonal antibodies clearly detected endomucin on HEVs in lymphatic organs of the mouse and human, suggesting HEV-specific glycosylation affecting recognition by the mAbs. Indeed, endomucin isolated from human and mouse lymphoid organs carried the MECA-79 epitope that defines a set of L-selectin ligands on HEVs called peripheral node addressins. We conclude that human and mouse endomucin are endothelial sialomucins with the potential to function as L-selectin ligands. PMID:12000719

  8. Human monkeypox.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K

    2014-01-01

    Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus with a presentation similar to smallpox. Clinical differentiation of the disease from smallpox and varicella is difficult. Laboratory diagnostics are principal components to identification and surveillance of disease, and new tests are needed for a more precise and rapid diagnosis. The majority of human infections occur in Central Africa, where surveillance in rural areas with poor infrastructure is difficult but can be accomplished with evidence-guided tools and educational materials to inform public health workers of important principles. Contemporary epidemiological studies are needed now that populations do not receive routine smallpox vaccination. New therapeutics and vaccines offer hope for the treatment and prevention of monkeypox; however, more research must be done before they are ready to be deployed in an endemic setting. There is a need for more research in the epidemiology, ecology, and biology of the virus in endemic areas to better understand and prevent human infections.

  9. [Humanized childbirth].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2005-06-01

    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  10. Human Interface to Netcentricity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    to human communication involves communications initiated by applications or devices for human consumption. Examples include intelligent agents...AKO) are all examples of human to machine communication. • Human to Human: Human to human communication in a net-centric environment can be...the discussion will center on providing options for improving human to human communication . It is our position that an emphasis on human to human

  11. Human Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  12. Humanizing Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the history and the mathematics used by Newton and Leibniz in their invention of calculus. The exploration of this topic is intended to show students that mathematics is a human invention. Suggestions are made to help teachers incorporate the mathematics and the history into their own lessons. (Contains 3…

  13. Classical Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donn; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot course in humanities team-taught by three teachers, two from a senior high-school and one from a junior high-school, in Brookfield, Wisconsin. The specific subject matter is Greek and Roman culture. The curriculum is outlined and the basic reading list is included. (CLK)

  14. Nothing Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  15. Humanizing Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Abraham

    The task of humanizing Shakespeare for high school seniors is not simple but may be done in a variety of ways, all intended to arouse student interest, curiosity, respect, and fondness for the Bard. Gimmicks such as bulletin board signs, pictures, maps, charts, and writings attract attention, as do letters to local newspapers reporting informally…

  16. Human Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  17. Humanizing Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the history and the mathematics used by Newton and Leibniz in their invention of calculus. The exploration of this topic is intended to show students that mathematics is a human invention. Suggestions are made to help teachers incorporate the mathematics and the history into their own lessons. (Contains 3…

  18. Nothing Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  19. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  20. Human Mind in Human Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furth, Hans G.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that mind and mental objects form a societal mental structure enabling children to assimilate the society and become co-constructing members. Cites evidence that competence to create mental objects, symbols, and meanings separated from action is the evolutionary evolved human capacity for society and culture. Vygotsky's "natural"…

  1. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  2. Humane reproduction.

    PubMed

    1974-03-01

    Discusses social, economic, and humane considerations in population control. Mental health aspects of controlled fertility are considered in relation to the family's psychosocial and material resources, the effects of reproduction on the individual the family, and community, and the advantages and disadvantages of controlled reproduction. A distinction between family planning and population control is outlined. It is suggested that there is hardly a single more effective tool for preventing psychological disorders than the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. Analyses of educational and medical services and methods of birth control are presented. A comprehensive neighborhood health station, which would consolidate these services, is suggested. It is concluded that humane programs of reproduction would lead to a reconciliation of biological drives with a responsible concern for the quality of life.

  3. Human Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Inman, Verne T.

    1966-01-01

    The development of bipedal plantigrade progression is a purely human, and apparently learned, accomplishment. Experimental findings confirm the hypothesis that the human body will integrate the motion of various segments of the body and control the activity of muscles to minimize energy expenditure. Movements which are integrated for this purpose include vertical displacement of the body, horizontal rotation of the pelvis, mediolateral pelvic tilt, flexion of the knee, plantar flexion of the ankle and foot, lateral displacement of the torso and rotation of the shoulder girdle. Raising and lowering the body results in gains and losses of potential energy, and acceleration and deceleration result in gains and losses of kinetic energy. The motions are so co-ordinated that a transfer of energy back and forth from kinetic to potential occurs during walking, which tends to minimize total energy expenditure as well as muscle work. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5942660

  4. HTLV-I infection in the South West Indian Ocean islands, particularly in La Réunion and the Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Bovet, P; Vitrac, D; Schooneman, F; Hollanda, J; Malvy, D; Gaüzère, B-A

    2013-10-01

    Data on HTLV-I are scarce in several Southwest Indian Ocean islands except for La Réunion and The Seychelles. The two cases of HTLV-I have been confirmed by Western-Blot in La Réunion, among blood donors. In Seychelles (87 400 inhabitants in 2012), where blood donors and some other cases are screened, HTLV-I was confirmed with a line immune assay in 43 persons and at least 10-20 patients are known to have tropical spastic paraparesia or adult T-cell lymphoma associated with HTLV-I. In the south-west Indian Ocean, a possibly important other issue may be co-infection of HTLV-1 with the Strongyloides stercoralis roundworm, which is endemic in all countries of the region and which can sometimes lead to severe symptomatic infestation.

  5. Intestinal parasitic infection among five interior communities at upper Rejang River, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sagin, D D; Mohamed, M; Ismail, G; Jok, J J; Lim, L H; Pui, J N F

    2002-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection among five interior communities at Bakun Valley, upper Rejang River, Sarawak, Malaysia, was investigated as part of a public health impact assessment of the proposed US$ 3 billion Bakun Hydroelectric Project. Coproparasitological examination of 355 stool samples from 7 of 16 villages representing 5 of 7 tribes in the area revealed infection rate of 41%. A higher infection rate was found among the settled Kayans (56%) than the seminomadic Penans (29%). Infection rate was high (68%) among children less than 14 years old. Trichuris trichiura accounted for more than 90% of all infections; less common were Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis. Polyparasitism was found in 8% of the individuals surveyed with dual infection due to T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides being more common than dual infection with T. trichiura and hookworm. Women had higher infection rates (57%) than men (33%).

  6. Decreasing intestinal parasites in recent Northern California refugees.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alicia H; Perry, Sharon; Du, Jenny N T; Agunbiade, Abdulkareem; Polesky, Andrea; Parsonnet, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the overseas presumptive treatment of intestinal parasites with albendazole to include refugees from the Middle East. We surveyed the prevalence of helminths and protozoa in recent Middle Eastern refugees (2008-2010) in comparison with refugees from other geographical regions and from a previous survey (2001-2004) in Santa Clara County, California. Based on stool microscopy, helminth infections decreased, particularly in Middle Eastern refugees (0.1% versus 2.3% 2001-2004, P = 0.01). Among all refugees, Giardia intestinalis was the most common protozoan found. Protozoa infections also decreased somewhat in Middle Eastern refugees (7.2%, 2008-2010 versus 12.9%, 2001-2004, P = 0.08). Serology for Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. identified more infected individuals than stool exams. Helminth infections are increasingly rare in refugees to Northern California. Routine screening stool microscopy may be unnecessary in all refugees.

  7. [Intestinal parasitosis in pre-school children from Tarapoto].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J; Calderón, J

    1991-01-01

    We examined stool specimens from 110 children (Pre Scholar) from the suburb "9 de Abril" Tarapoto (Perú). The diagnostic techniques were: direct smear, Faust floaty concentration, Willis floating and Graham's tape. 98 percent had intestinal parasitosis, without sexual differences. The most common parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides 68%, Trichuris trichiura 44%, Enterobius vermicularis 28%, Hymenolepis nana 21% and Strongyloides stercoralis 16%. Monoparasitosis was present in 44% and biparasitosis 42%. The most frequent association was Ascaris-Trichuris. The clinical findings were hyporexia, borborygms, bruxismo, abdominal pain and diarrhea. 60% received irregular treatment and without laboratory stool tests. In this suburb there's not garbage dump, drainage and the drinkable water is very contaminated; the deficient hygiene worsen the soul contamination. We consider that the elimination of these situations and health education are better than the medicine use.

  8. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work.

  9. [Geohelminths].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Cabello-Úbeda, Alfonso; Petkova-Saiz, Elizabet; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people in in rural areas and deprived tropical and subtropical regions are infected by soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis. Large migratory flows have made their worldwide distribution easier. Besides being debilitating and producing a significant mortality, they cause high morbidity, leading to physical and intellectual impairment in millions of children who live in poverty. Along with the use of benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole), large-scale international campaigns for treatment and prevention have decreased the number of affected individuals. However, re-infestations and benzimidazole-resistance are frequent, so there needs to be awareness about the importance and consequences of these neglected parasites.

  10. Appendicitis and infections of the appendix.

    PubMed

    Lamps, Laura W

    2004-05-01

    The pathologic spectrum of the acutely inflamed appendix encompasses a wide range of infectious and noninfectious entities. The appendix suffers alone in some of these disorders, and in others may be involved through extension from other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the appendix is the most commonly resected and examined intraabdominal organ, the pathogenesis and etiology of acute nonspecific appendicitis (the most common diagnosis made in this organ) remains enigmatic. This review encompasses the pathology, pathogenesis, and bacteriology of acute appendicitis, as well as controversial issues such as the diagnosis of chronic appendicitis and the significance of a morphologically unremarkable appendectomy specimen in the clinical context of appendicitis. In addition, the pathologic features, pertinent diagnostic techniques, and clinical significance of several specific bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections affecting the appendix are presented, including adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, Yersinia species, actinomycosis, Mycobacteria species, histoplasmosis, pinworms, schistosomiasis, and Strongyloides stercoralis.

  11. Nematodes parasites of the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) in the seasonally dry tropical highlands of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raul; López-González, Carlos A; Jones, Robert W

    2011-06-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) is the most abundant and opportunistic wild canid in Mexico. However, the parasites of this canid in Mexico are poorly known, and an intensive parasite survey is lacking. A survey of gray fox parasitological feces was conducted in El Cimatario National Park, a protected area representative of the seasonally dry, tropical highlands of Mexico. Feces were collected in six 1-km-length transects during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2004. The coproparasitoscopical survey registered nine species of nematodes, typical of wild and domestic canids such as Strongyloides stercoralis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Dioctophyme renale, Trichuris vulpis, Trichuris sp., and Capillaria sp. Ecological factors such as temperature and humidity appear to play a more important role in the establishment of these species of parasites in this protected area than the presence of domestic dogs.

  12. Symptomatic chronic strongyloidiasis in children following treatment for solid organ malignancies: case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Norsarwany, M; Abdelrahman, Z; Rahmah, N; Ariffin, N; Norsyahida, A; Madihah, B; Zeehaida, M

    2012-09-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.

  13. A British Second World War veteran with disseminated strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Gill, G V; Beeching, N J; Khoo, S; Bailey, J W; Partridge, S; Blundell, J W; Luksza, A R

    2004-06-01

    A case is described of a 78-year-old British veteran of the Second World War (1939-45) who was stationed in Southeast Asia and who developed a recurrent pneumonia with blood eosinophilia. He was treated with steroids, and eventually died with a severe Pseudomonas pneumonia. Just prior to death, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were identified in his sputum, and a specific serum ELISA test was later positive. At autopsy no other organs were involved, but bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found. Longstanding (57 years) chronic strongyloidiasis in a veteran who served in Southeast Asia but who was not a prisoner of war is very unusual. The pattern of dissemination was also not that of a true hyperinfection syndrome, and the case demonstrates the continued need for diagnostic vigilance amongst former soldiers who were based in the Far East.

  14. Strongyloidiasis in a diabetic patient accompanied by gastrointestinal stromal tumor: cause of eosinophilia unresponsive to steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Jeon, Jin; Koh, Young-Il; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2015-04-01

    We report here a case of strongyloidiasis in a 72-year-old diabetic patient (woman) accompanied by gastrointestinal stromal tumor receiving imatinib therapy, first diagnosed as hypereosinophilic syndrome and treated with steroids for uncontrolled eosinophilia. She suffered from lower back pain and intermittent abdominal discomfort with nausea and diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. After post-operative imatinib treatment eosinophilia persisted, so that steroid therapy was started under an impression of hypereosinophilic syndrome. In spite of 6 months steroid therapy, eosinophilia persisted. Stool examination was performed to rule out intestinal helminth infections. Rhabditoid larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were detected and the patient was diagnosed as strongyloidiasis. This diagnosis was confirmed again by PCR. The patient was treated with albendazole for 14 days and her abdominal pain and diarrhea improved. This case highlights the need for thorough investigation, including molecular approaches, to test for strongyloidiasis before and during steroid therapies.

  15. Human genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    This text provides full and balanced coverage of the concepts requisite for a thorough understanding of human genetics. Applications to both the individual and society are integrated throughout the lively and personal narrative, and the essential principles of heredity are clearly presented to prepare students for informed participation in public controversies. High-interest, controversial topics, including recombinant DNA technology, oncogenes, embryo transfer, environmental mutagens and carcinogens, IQ testing, and eugenics encourage understanding of important social issues.

  16. Human evolution.

    PubMed

    Wood, B

    1996-12-01

    The common ancestor of modern humans and the great apes is estimated to have lived between 5 and 8 Myrs ago, but the earliest evidence in the human, or hominid, fossil record is Ardipithecus ramidus, from a 4.5 Myr Ethiopian site. This genus was succeeded by Australopithecus, within which four species are presently recognised. All combine a relatively primitive postcranial skeleton, a dentition with expanded chewing teeth and a small brain. The most primitive species in our own genus, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, are little advanced over the australopithecines and with hindsight their inclusion in Homo may not be appropriate. The first species to share a substantial number of features with later Homo is Homo ergaster, or 'early African Homo erectus', which appears in the fossil record around 2.0 Myr. Outside Africa, fossil hominids appear as Homo erectus-like hominids, in mainland Asia and in Indonesia close to 2 Myr ago; the earliest good evidence of 'archaic Homo' in Europe is dated at between 600-700 Kyr before the present. Anatomically modern human, or Homo sapiens, fossils are seen first in the fossil record in Africa around 150 Kyr ago. Taken together with molecular evidence on the extent of DNA variation, this suggests that the transition from 'archaic' to 'modern' Homo may have taken place in Africa.

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566) against Laboratory Models of Human Intestinal Nematode Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tritten, Lucienne; Silbereisen, Angelika; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. Methodology A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. Principal Findings Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC50 = 1.7 µg/ml), a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC50 = 78.7 µg/ml), whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively). Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg) and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg) in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively). In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg) and albendazole (600 mg/kg), respectively. Conclusions/Significance Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  18. Human suffering.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    10 measures of quality of life are used to rank 141 countries in the International Human Suffering Index (HSI). The Index differentiates between extreme, high, moderate, and minimal levels of human suffering. Social welfare is the sum of 10 measures: life expectancy, daily caloric intake, clean drinking water, infant immunization, secondary school enrollment, gross national product per capita, the rate of inflation, communication technology (i.e., telephones), political freedom, and civil rights. Each measure is ranked between 0 and 10. The highest score indicates the greatest country stress, with the worst possible score being 100. About 1 billion people live in desperate poverty. Living conditions are the worst in Mozambique (93), followed by Somalia, Afghanistan, Haiti, and Sudan. Most of these countries also have high population growth. The most comfortable countries are Denmark (1), the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, and Canada, which have low population growth. Total scores of 75 or greater (extreme human suffering) occur in 27 countries (20 in Africa, 16 in Asia, and Haiti) with 8% of the world's population (432 million people). High human suffering scores range between 50 and 74 and include 56 countries (24 in Africa, 16 in Asia, 15 in the Western Hemisphere, and 1 in Oceania) with 3.5 billion people. The number of countries in this grouping increased from 44 countries with 58% of world population in 1987. Moderate suffering scores range from 25-49. Countries with moderate suffering number 34 countries (9 in Europe, 13 in Asia, 8 in the Western Hemisphere, and 2 in Oceania and 2 in Africa) with 11.8% of world population (636 million). Over the preceding 5-year period the number of countries increased from 29 countries with 10% of world population. Minimal human suffering occurs in 24 countries (17 in Europe, Israel and Japan in Asia; Canada, the US, and Barbados in the Western Hemisphere; and Australia and New Zealand in Oceania) with 14.8% of world

  19. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  20. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  1. Human Heredity: Genetic Mechanisms in Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Discussed are some of the uncertainties in human genetic mechanisms that are often presented as dogma in Biology textbooks. Presented is a brief historical background and illustrations involving chromosome abnormality in humans and linkage studies in humans. (CW)

  2. Human Heredity: Genetic Mechanisms in Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Discussed are some of the uncertainties in human genetic mechanisms that are often presented as dogma in Biology textbooks. Presented is a brief historical background and illustrations involving chromosome abnormality in humans and linkage studies in humans. (CW)

  3. Human schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Colley, Daniel G; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Secor, W Evan; King, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis—or bilharzia—is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flukes of the genus Schistosoma. By conservative estimates, at least 230 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma spp. Adult schistosome worms colonise human blood vessels for years, successfully evading the immune system while excreting hundreds to thousands of eggs daily, which must either leave the body in excreta or become trapped in nearby tissues. Trapped eggs induce a distinct immune-mediated granulomatous response that causes local and systemic pathological effects ranging from anaemia, growth stunting, impaired cognition, and decreased physical fitness, to organ-specific effects such as severe hepatosplenism, periportal fibrosis with portal hypertension, and urogenital inflammation and scarring. At present, preventive public health measures in endemic regions consist of treatment once every 1 or 2 years with the isoquinolinone drug, praziquantel, to suppress morbidity. In some locations, elimination of transmission is now the goal; however, more sensitive diagnostics are needed in both the field and clinics, and integrated environmental and health-care management will be needed to ensure elimination. PMID:24698483

  4. Human schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Colley, Daniel G; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Secor, W Evan; King, Charles H

    2014-06-28

    Human schistosomiasis--or bilharzia--is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flukes of the genus Schistosoma. By conservative estimates, at least 230 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma spp. Adult schistosome worms colonise human blood vessels for years, successfully evading the immune system while excreting hundreds to thousands of eggs daily, which must either leave the body in excreta or become trapped in nearby tissues. Trapped eggs induce a distinct immune-mediated granulomatous response that causes local and systemic pathological effects ranging from anaemia, growth stunting, impaired cognition, and decreased physical fitness, to organ-specific effects such as severe hepatosplenism, periportal fibrosis with portal hypertension, and urogenital inflammation and scarring. At present, preventive public health measures in endemic regions consist of treatment once every 1 or 2 years with the isoquinolinone drug, praziquantel, to suppress morbidity. In some locations, elimination of transmission is now the goal; however, more sensitive diagnostics are needed in both the field and clinics, and integrated environmental and health-care management will be needed to ensure elimination.

  5. Human Astroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pintó, Rosa M.; Guix, Susana

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human astroviruses (HAtVs) are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that were discovered in 1975. Astroviruses infecting other species, particularly mammalian and avian, were identified and classified into the genera Mamastrovirus and Avastrovirus. Through next-generation sequencing, many new astroviruses infecting different species, including humans, have been described, and the Astroviridae family shows a high diversity and zoonotic potential. Three divergent groups of HAstVs are recognized: the classic (MAstV 1), HAstV-MLB (MAstV 6), and HAstV-VA/HMO (MAstV 8 and MAstV 9) groups. Classic HAstVs contain 8 serotypes and account for 2 to 9% of all acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Infections are usually self-limiting but can also spread systemically and cause severe infections in immunocompromised patients. The other groups have also been identified in children with gastroenteritis, but extraintestinal pathologies have been suggested for them as well. Classic HAstVs may be grown in cells, allowing the study of their cell cycle, which is similar to that of caliciviruses. The continuous emergence of new astroviruses with a potential zoonotic transmission highlights the need to gain insights on their biology in order to prevent future health threats. This review focuses on the basic virology, pathogenesis, host response, epidemiology, diagnostic assays, and prevention strategies for HAstVs. PMID:25278582

  6. The cost-effectiveness of ivermectin vs. albendazole in the presumptive treatment of strongyloidiasis in immigrants to the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Muennig, P.; Pallin, D.; Challah, C.; Khan, K.

    2004-01-01

    The presumptive treatment of parasitosis among immigrants with albendazole has been shown to save both money and lives, primarily via a reduction in the burden of Strongyloides stercoralis. Ivermectin is more effective than albendazole, but is also more expensive. This coupled with confusion surrounding the cost-effectiveness of guiding therapy based on eosinophil counts has led to disparate practices. We used the newly arrived year 2000 immigrant population as a hypothetical cohort in a decision analysis model to examine the cost-effectiveness of various interventions to reduce parasitosis among immigrants. When the prevalence of S. stercoralis is greater than 2%, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of all presumptive treatment strategies were similar. Ivermectin is associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1700 dollars per QALY gained for treatment with 12 mg ivermectin relative to 5 days of albendazole when the prevalence is 10%. Any presumptive treatment strategy is cost-effective when compared with most common medical interventions. PMID:15635962

  7. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool specimens from each of 1083 children. The sensitivities were compared using the McNemar paired test. Using the combined outcome of the 3 different stool tests as the standard, Kato-Katz had lower sensitivity than Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests for Ascaris lumbricoides (85.1% vs. 95.1%, p = 0.03), Hymenolepis nana (77.7% vs. 97.9%, p < 0.01), Trichuris trichura (41.7% vs. 100%, p = 0.01), hookworm (0% vs. 100%, p = 0.01), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0% vs. 88%, p < 0.01). Kato-Katz demonstrated significantly lower sensitivity, missing most T. trichiura, hookworm, and S. stercoralis infections. The combination of Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests enables the detection of more intestinal helminths infections in post-deworming low prevalence areas.

  8. Screening of living organ donors for endemic infections: Understanding the challenges and benefits of enhanced screening.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Amanda; Ison, Michael G

    2016-11-14

    Living organ donor candidates are screened for medical and psychosocial contraindications to donation. One important goal of this process is to prevent donor-derived infectious diseases transmissions. These transmissions are exceptionally rare, but have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network now requires each recovery hospital to develop a protocol for evaluating living donors for tuberculosis and other geographically-defined endemic pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative pathogen of Chagas' disease), Strongyloides stercoralis, and West Nile Virus (WNV), in addition to universal screening for blood-borne pathogens. Enhanced screening requirements were developed in response to the changing epidemiology and endemicity of these diseases, as well as recent case reports of donor-derived disease transmission. Living organ donor disease screening presents a number of unique challenges to clinicians and policy-makers, including deciding which donors to test, which testing modality to use, when to test, and appropriate interpretation of results. This review will analyze the epidemiology of T. cruzi, S. stercoralis, and WNV, the assays available for screening for these diseases, and the subsequent impact on the living organ donor process . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. [Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.

  10. Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in an Immunodeficient Patient (Pemphigus Vulgaris) Due to Corticosteroid Therapy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    NAJJARI, Mohsen; EBRAHIMIPOUR, Mohammad; KAHEH, Amir; KARIMAZAR, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a frequent misdiagnosed parasitic infection in the world that caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. In Iran, the disease is predominantly reported from warm and humid climate provinces. The patient was a 54-yr-old man, originated from Khuzestan Province with a history of pemphigus and diabetes that was treated with high-dose of corticosteroid drugs before admission in a non-private hospital in Shiraz, Iran in 2014. After different primary diagnosis and administrating of several drugs, endoscopy and histopatholgical biopsy revealed a massive S. stercoralis infection in the duodenal mucosa and gastric wall. In spite treating with anti-helminthic drugs in the last days, due to using different steroid drugs, clinical manifestations of the patient were exacerbated and he was expired on the seventeenth day due to severe dyspnea. Physicians’ awareness and using various diagnosis methods like serology, endoscopy, and biopsy should be considered in the endemic areas. In suspicious cases, anthelmintic drugs should be started before the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:28127349

  11. Strongyloidiasis in Latin American immigrants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ostera, G; Blum, J; Cornejo, C; Burgula, S; Jeun, R; Bryan, P E; Mejia, R

    2017-03-01

    The United States of America (USA) has the largest international population of any nation in the world. Immigrants from Latin American countries, where intestinal parasites are endemic, comprise more than half of this population. This study aims to determine the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, a potentially deadly parasitic infection, in foreign-born individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Washington, DC, to determine the seroprevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection using an NIE-ELISA IgG antibody assay. Multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in stool samples of NIE-ELISA-positive patients to investigate possible polyparasitism. The NIE-ELISA assay detected an S. stercoralis prevalence of 4.2% in a group of 119 volunteers. Combining NIE-ELISA and qPCR detected a parasite prevalence of 5.0%. Our results underscore the relevance of systematic testing for gastrointestinal parasites in individuals from endemic regions. It also makes a case for a survey in the USA to identify immigrants' risk for strongyloidiasis and other gastrointestinal parasitic infections.

  12. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  13. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  14. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  15. [Strongyloides stercolaris in a Patient With Rheumatoid Arthritis Undergoing Treatment With Etanercept].

    PubMed

    Revuelta Evrard, Eva; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Gallego Flores, Adela; Sánchez Trenado, Asunción; Rubio Caja, Carmen

    2008-03-01

    Biologic therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis leads to a series of secondary effects and complications which are ever more frequent and increasingly complicate both the management as well as the associated comorbidity. We present the case of a patient who had one of theses associated complications.

  16. Building artificial humans to understand humans.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    If we could build an android as a very humanlike robot, how would we humans distinguish a real human from an android? The answer to this question is not so easy. In human-android interaction, we cannot see the internal mechanism of the android, and thus we may simply believe that it is a human. This means that a human can be defined from two perspectives: one by organic mechanism and the other by appearance. Further, the current rapid progress in artificial organs makes this distinction confusing. The approach discussed in this article is to create artificial humans with humanlike appearances. The developed artificial humans, an android and a geminoid, can be used to improve understanding of humans through psychological and cognitive tests conducted using the artificial humans. We call this new approach to understanding humans android science.

  17. Diagnosis of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in the Era of Preventive Chemotherapy: Effect of Multiple Stool Sampling and Use of Different Diagnostic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mgeni, Ali F.; Khamis, I. Simba; Steinmann, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth infections are common throughout the tropics and subtropics and they disproportionately affect the poorest of the poor. In view of a growing global commitment to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis, there is a need to elucidate the effect of repeated stool sampling and the use of different diagnostic methods in areas targeted for preventive chemotherapy that are characterized by low-infection intensities. In this study, we focused on schoolchildren on Unguja Island, Zanzibar, an area where anthelminthic drugs have been repeatedly administered over the past decade. Methodology/Principal Findings Three serial stool samples from each of 342 schoolchildren were examined using the Kato-Katz (K-K), Koga agar plate (KAP), and Baermann (BM) techniques. These methods were used individually or in combination for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides (K-K), Trichuris trichiura (K-K), hookworm (K-K and KAP), and Strongyloides stercoralis (KAP and BM). The examination of multiple stool samples instead of a single one resulted in an increase of the observed prevalence; e.g., an increase of 161% for hookworm using the K-K method. The diagnostic sensitivity of single stool sampling ranged between 20.7% for BM to detect S. stercoralis and 84.2% for K-K to diagnose A. lumbricoides. Highest sensitivities were observed when different diagnostic approaches were combined. The observed prevalences for T. trichiura, hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and S. stercoralis were 47.9%, 22.5%, 16.5%, and 10.8% after examining 3 stool samples. These values are close to the ‘true’ prevalences predicted by a mathematical model. Conclusion/Significance Rigorous epidemiologic surveillance of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the era of preventive chemotherapy is facilitated by multiple stool sampling bolstered by different diagnostic techniques. PMID:18982057

  18. Distribution and Risk Factors for Plasmodium and Helminth Co-infections: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Children in Bagamoyo District, Coastal Region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nahya; Knopp, Stefanie; Lweno, Omar; Abdul, Ummi; Mohamed, Ali; Schindler, Tobias; Rothen, Julian; Masimba, John; Kwaba, Denis; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Althaus, Fabrice; Abdulla, Salim; Tanner, Marcel; Daubenberger, Claudia; Genton, Blaise

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasmodium and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are a major public health problem, particularly among children. There are conflicting findings on potential association between these two parasites. This study investigated the Plasmodium and helminth co-infections among children aged 2 months to 9 years living in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1033 children. Stool, urine and blood samples were examined using a broad set of quality controlled diagnostic methods for common STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura), schistosoma species and Wuchereria bancrofti. Blood slides and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) were utilized for Plasmodium diagnosis. Results Out of 992 children analyzed, the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 13% (130/992), helminth 28.5% (283/992); 5% (50/992) had co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth. The prevalence rate of Plasmodium, specific STH and co-infections increased significantly with age (p < 0.001), with older children mostly affected except for S. stercoralis monoinfection and co-infections. Spatial variations of co-infection prevalence were observed between and within villages. There was a trend for STH infections to be associated with Plasmodium infection [OR adjusted for age group 1.4, 95% CI (1.0–2.1)], which was more marked for S. stercoralis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.1–4.3). Age and not schooling were risk factors for Plasmodium and STH co-infection. Conclusion The findings suggest that STH and Plasmodium infections tend to occur in the same children, with increasing prevalence of co-infection with age. This calls for an integrated approach such as using mass chemotherapy with dual effect (e.g., ivermectin) coupled with improved housing, sanitation and hygiene for the control of both parasitic infections. PMID:25837022

  19. Distribution and risk factors for Plasmodium and helminth co-infections: a cross-sectional survey among children in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Salim, Nahya; Knopp, Stefanie; Lweno, Omar; Abdul, Ummi; Mohamed, Ali; Schindler, Tobias; Rothen, Julian; Masimba, John; Kwaba, Denis; Mohammed, Alisa S; Althaus, Fabrice; Abdulla, Salim; Tanner, Marcel; Daubenberger, Claudia; Genton, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Plasmodium and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are a major public health problem, particularly among children. There are conflicting findings on potential association between these two parasites. This study investigated the Plasmodium and helminth co-infections among children aged 2 months to 9 years living in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1033 children. Stool, urine and blood samples were examined using a broad set of quality controlled diagnostic methods for common STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura), schistosoma species and Wuchereria bancrofti. Blood slides and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) were utilized for Plasmodium diagnosis. Out of 992 children analyzed, the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 13% (130/992), helminth 28.5% (283/992); 5% (50/992) had co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth. The prevalence rate of Plasmodium, specific STH and co-infections increased significantly with age (p < 0.001), with older children mostly affected except for S. stercoralis monoinfection and co-infections. Spatial variations of co-infection prevalence were observed between and within villages. There was a trend for STH infections to be associated with Plasmodium infection [OR adjusted for age group 1.4, 95% CI (1.0-2.1)], which was more marked for S. stercoralis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.1-4.3). Age and not schooling were risk factors for Plasmodium and STH co-infection. The findings suggest that STH and Plasmodium infections tend to occur in the same children, with increasing prevalence of co-infection with age. This calls for an integrated approach such as using mass chemotherapy with dual effect (e.g., ivermectin) coupled with improved housing, sanitation and hygiene for the control of both parasitic infections.

  20. Human Rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

  1. Severe Strongyloidiasis with Negative Serology after Corticosteroid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Abraham, Thomas; Williams, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 77 Final Diagnosis: Deere strongyloidiasis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • apetite loss • diarrhea Medication: Prednisolon Clinical Procedure: Upper endoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Strongyloidiasis usually presents as a chronic and limited disease, but in some immunocompromised patients it may become a life-threatening disease. Case Report: A 77-year-old Haitian male, with history of temporal arteritis on 40 mg of oral prednisone presented complaining of decreased oral intake, epigastric pain, and non-bloody diarrhea. He had bi-temporal wasting and a distended abdomen but without guarding or tenderness. Laboratory examination included mild leukocytosis, anemia, negative HIV antibody, negative parasite stool exam, and negative serology for Giardia and Strongyloides. CT of the abdomen showed multiple distended loops, without obstruction. During the admission he had a 4 g hemoglobin drop and a positive occult blood test, requiring blood transfusions, IV pantoprazole, and upper endoscopy. Findings included severe duodenitis, blunted villi, and intramucosal and luminal helminthic worms and eggs. Pathology showed Strongyloides stercoralis infection, confirmed by subsequent PCR. He was given 1 day of 15 mg oral ivermectin, diarrhea resolved, and was discharged with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube because of the persistent lack of appetite. Conclusions: Given the persistent nature of strongyloidiasis and its high susceptibility to ivermectin, it potentially would be worth consider treating high-risk patients in the appropriate clinical and epidemiological setting, irrespective of screening test results, in order to avoid false-negative result consequences. PMID:25690926

  2. [Human papillomaviruses].

    PubMed

    Gross, G

    2003-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect exclusively the basal cells of the skin and of mucosal epithelia adjacent to the skin such as the mouth, the upper respiratory tract, the lower genital tract and the anal canal. HPV does not lead to a viremia. Basically there are three different types of HPV infection: Clinically visible lesions, subclinical HPV infections and latent HPV infections. Distinct HPV types induce morphologically and prognostically different clinical pictures. The most common HPV associated benign tumor of the skin is the common wart. Infections of the urogenitoanal tract with specific HPV-types are recognised as the most frequent sexually transmitted viral infections. So-called "high-risk" HPV-types (HPV16, 18 and others) are regarded by the world health organisation as important risk-factors for the development of genital cancer (mainly cervical cancer), anal cancer and upper respiratory tract cancer in both genders. Antiviral substances with a specific anti-HPV effect are so far unknown. Conventional therapies of benign skin warts and of mucosal warts are mainly nonspecific. They comprise tissue-destroying therapies such as electrocautery, cryotherapy and laser. In addition cytotoxic substances such as podophyllotoxin and systemic therapy with retinoids are in use. Systemically and topically administered immunotherapies represent a new approach for treatment. Both interferons and particularly the recently developed imiquimod, an interferon-alpha and cytokine-inductor lead to better results and are better tolerated then conventional therapies. HPV-specific vaccines have been developed in the last 5 years and will be used in future for prevention and treatment of benign and malignant HPV-associated tumors of the genitoanal tract in both sexes.

  3. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  4. Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia solium, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Madinga, Joule; Polman, Katja; Kanobana, Kirezi; van Lieshout, Lisette; Brienen, Eric; Praet, Nicolas; Kabwe, Constantin; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-07-01

    Helminth co-infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of co-infections with Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis. Building on a previous community-based study on human cysticercosis in Malanga village, we investigated co-infections with Taenia solium, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma spp and associated risk factors in a random subsample of 330 participants. Real time PCR assays were used to detect DNA of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), T. solium and Schistosoma in stool samples and Schistosoma DNA in urine samples. Serum samples were tested for T. solium cysticercosis using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were applied to assess associations of single and co-infections with common risk factors (age, sex, area, hygiene) as well as pair wise associations between helminth species. Overall, 240 (72.7%) participants were infected with at least one helminth species; 128 (38.8%) harbored at least two helminth species (16.1% with STHs-Schistosoma, 14.5% with STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and 8.2% with Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infections). No significant associations were found between Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection and any of the risk factors studied. Males (OR=2 (95%CI=1.1-5), p=0.03) and open defecation behavior (OR=3.8 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.04) were associated with higher odds of STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection. Village districts that were found at high risk of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis were also at high risk of co-infection with STHs and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis (OR=3.2 (95%CI=1.1-7.8), p=0.03). Significant pair-wise associations were found between T. solium cysticerci and Necator americanus (OR=2.2 (95%CI=1.2-3.8), p<0.01) as well as Strongyloides stercoralis (OR=2.7 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.02). These findings show that co

  5. Prevalence and clinical relevance of helminth co-infections among tuberculosis patients in urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hella, Jerry; Said, Khadija; Kamwela, Lujeko; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Maroa, Thomas; Chiryamkubi, Magreth; Mhalu, Grace; Schindler, Christian; Reither, Klaus; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Gagneux, Sébastien; Fenner, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Background Helminth infections can negatively affect the immunologic host control, which may increase the risk of progression from latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease and alter the clinical presentation of TB. We assessed the prevalence and determined the clinical relevance of helminth co-infection among TB patients and household contact controls in urban Tanzania. Methodology Between November 2013 and October 2015, we enrolled adult (≥18 years) sputum smear-positive TB patients and household contact controls without TB during an ongoing TB cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We used Baermann, FLOTAC, Kato-Katz, point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen, and urine filtration to diagnose helminth infections. Multivariable logistic regression models with and without random effects for households were used to assess for associations between helminth infection and TB. Principal findings A total of 597 TB patients and 375 household contact controls were included. The median age was 33 years and 60.2% (585/972) were men. The prevalence of any helminth infection among TB patients was 31.8% (190/597) and 25.9% (97/375) among controls. Strongyloides stercoralis was the predominant helminth species (16.6%, 161), followed by hookworm (9.0%, 87) and Schistosoma mansoni (5.7%, 55). An infection with any helminth was not associated with TB (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.80, p = 0.22), but S. mansoni infection was (aOR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.03–4.45, p = 0.040). Moreover, S. mansoni infection was associated with lower sputum bacterial load (aOR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.38–5.26, p = 0.004) and tended to have fewer lung cavitations (aOR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.12–1.16, p = 0.088). Conclusions/Significance S. mansoni infection was an independent risk factor for active TB and altered the clinical presentation in TB patients. These findings suggest a role for schistosomiasis in modulating the pathogenesis of human TB

  6. Humane Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Eileen S.; Westerlund, Stuart R.

    This booklet traces the historical development of human education as it has been instilled into the young people of America from colonial times to the present and provides a future prognosis of humaneness in the schools. Humane education promotes humane behavior and is an important part of the humane movement in the United States, although until…

  7. [Parasitological fecal studies of equids, dogs, cats and hedgehogs during the years 1984-1991].

    PubMed

    Epe, C; Ising-Volmer, S; Stoye, M

    1993-11-01

    The results of the coproscopical examinations in horses, dogs, cats and hedgehogs between 1984 and 1991 are presented. In 9192 samples from horses 55.5% stages of strongylids, 4.0% of Parascaris equorum, 2.2% of anoplocephalids, 1.6% Strongyloides westeri, 0.7% of Oxyuris equi, 0.6% of Eimeria leuckarti, 0.2% of Fasciola hepatica and 0.04% of Dictyocaulus arnfieldi were found. In 48.0% of the 46 samples from donkeys eggs from strongylids were detected, in 17.4% larvae from Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, in 2.2% eggs from Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum and oocysts from Eimeria leuckarti, respectively. In 3329 samples of dogs 6.9% developmental stages of Toxocara canis, 6.0% of Giardia spp., 4.2% of Isospora spp., 3.0% of Sarcocystis spp., 2.5% each of ancylostomids and Trichuris vulpis, 1.1% of Toxascaris leonina and 1.1% of Dipylidium canium, up to 1.0% of taeniids, 0.6% of each Mesocestoides spp. and Metastrongylidae, 0.3% of Strongyloides stercoralis and 0.2% of Capillaria spp. and Hammondia heydorni were detected. In 9.5% of the 1147 samples of cats eggs from Toxocara mystax were found, in 4.7% eggs of taeniids, in 4.6% cysts of Isospora spp., in 2.4% of Giardia spp., in 1.4% eggs of Dipylidium caninum, in 1.0% of Capillaria spp. and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, in 0.6% development stages of Toxoplasma gondii, in 0.5% of ancylostomids and in 0.3% of Sarcocystis spp. and Opisthorchis felineus. In 1175 samples of hedgehogs 48.8% eggs of Capillaria spp., 35.9% of Crenosoma striatum, 17.9% oocysts of Isospora spp., 2.3% eggs of Brachylaemus erinacei were found.

  8. Human Research Risk Management

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) investigates and mitigates the highest risks to human health and per...

  9. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  10. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  11. Visualizing Humans by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the problems and techniques involved in visualizing humans in a three-dimensional scene. Topics discussed include human shape modeling, including shape creation and deformation; human motion control, including facial animation and interaction with synthetic actors; and human rendering and clothing, including textures and…

  12. Special Section: Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  13. Cooperation in human teaching.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Ann Cale

    2015-01-01

    Kline's evolutionary analysis of teaching provides welcome reframing for cross-species comparisons. However, theory based on competition cannot explain the transmission of human cultural elements that were collectively created. Humans evolved in a cultural niche and teaching-learning coevolved to transmit culture. To study human cultural variation in teaching, we need a more articulated theory of this distinctively human engagement.

  14. The Humanities: Interconnections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on a wide range of interdisciplinary themes and ideas for humanities instruction, the 17 articles in this journal issue discuss the following topics: (1) literature, humanities, and the adult learner; (2) the role of the humanities in educating for a democracy; (3) humanities in the marketplace; (4) literature versus "great books" in high…

  15. What Are the Humanities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Francis

    A working definition of the humanities and characteristics of a liberally educated person are specified. The humanities embrace areas of human knowledge that possess these elements: central concern for human beings rather than for the processes of nature or the structures of society; primary focus on the individual rather than on the group;…

  16. Visualizing Humans by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the problems and techniques involved in visualizing humans in a three-dimensional scene. Topics discussed include human shape modeling, including shape creation and deformation; human motion control, including facial animation and interaction with synthetic actors; and human rendering and clothing, including textures and…

  17. Human Research Program Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of HRP is to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Human Research Program was designed to meet the needs of human space exploration, and understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions.

  18. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  19. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    PubMed

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth.

  20. Training Humans for the Human Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    TRAINING HUMANS FOR THE HUMAN DOMAIN Dr. Steve Tatham Mr. Keir Giles U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE ~~~ ~O.L STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Training Humans for the Human Domain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  1. Economics of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  2. Mice with human livers.

    PubMed

    Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections.

  3. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija

    2005-09-01

    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  4. Values for Human-to-Human Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines "values" and lists the eight values (stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, rationalism, literacy and learning, equity of access, privacy, democracy) derived by the author in an earlier work. Gives a brief history of the evolution of human-to-human reference service and discusses its future. Relates each of the author's eight values…

  5. Development of Ss-NIE-1 Recombinant Antigen Based Assays for Immunodiagnosis of Strongyloidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Rascoe, Lisa N.; Price, Courtney; Shin, Sun Hee; McAuliffe, Isabel; Priest, Jeffrey W.; Handali, Sukwan

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a widely distributed parasite that infects 30 to 100 million people worldwide. In the United States strongyloidiasis is recognized as an important infection in immigrants and refugees. Public health and commercial reference laboratories need a simple and reliable method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis to identify and treat cases and to prevent transmission. The recognized laboratory test of choice for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is detection of disease specific antibodies, most commonly using a crude parasite extract for detection of IgG antibodies. Recently, a luciferase tagged recombinant protein of S. stercoralis, Ss-NIE-1, has been used in a luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) to detect IgG and IgG4 specific antibodies. To promote wider adoption of immunoassays for strongyloidiasis, we used the Ss-NIE-1 recombinant antigen without the luciferase tag and developed ELISA and fluorescent bead (Luminex) assays to detect S. stercoralis specific IgG4. We evaluated the assays using well-characterized sera from persons with or without presumed strongyloidiasis. The sensitivity and specificity of Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA were 95% and 93%, respectively. For the IgG4 Luminex assay, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 95%, respectively. Specific IgG4 antibody decreased after treatment in a manner that was similar to the decrease of specific IgG measured in the crude IgG ELISA. The sensitivities of the Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA and Luminex assays were comparable to the crude IgG ELISA but with improved specificities. However, the Ss-NIE-1 based assays are not dependent on native parasite materials and can be performed using widely available laboratory equipment. In conclusion, these newly developed Ss-NIE-1 based immunoassays can be readily adopted by public health and commercial reference laboratories for routine screening and clinical diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in refugees and immigrants in the United States. PMID

  6. Indicators: Human Disturbance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human disturbance is a measure of the vulnerability of aquatic resources to a variety of harmful human activities such as tree removal, road building, construction near shorelines/streambanks, and artificial hardening of lakeshores with retaining walls.

  7. Telling the Human Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Miles

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  8. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  9. Human assisted robotic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  10. Human genomic variation

    PubMed Central

    Disotell, Todd R

    2000-01-01

    The recent completion and assembly of the first draft of the human genome, which combines samples from several ethnically diverse males and females, provides preliminary data on the extent of human genetic variation. PMID:11178257

  11. Human bites (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  13. Human Melioidosis, Malawi, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Katangwe, Thembi; Purcell, Janet; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Denis, Brigitte; Montgomery, Jacqui; Alaerts, Maaike; Heyderman, Robert Simon; Dance, David A.B.; Kennedy, Neil; Feasey, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A case of human melioidosis caused by a novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei occurred in a child in Malawi, southern Africa. A literature review showed that human cases reported from the continent have been increasing. PMID:23735189

  14. Telling the Human Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Miles

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  15. Mining human antibody repertoires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become drugs of choice for the management of an increasing number of human diseases. Human antibody repertoires provide a rich source for human mAbs. Here we review the characteristics of natural and non-natural human antibody repertoires and their mining with non-combinatorial and combinatorial strategies. In particular, we discuss the selection of human mAbs from naïve, immune, transgenic and synthetic human antibody repertoires using methods based on hybridoma technology, clonal expansion of peripheral B cells, single-cell PCR, phage display, yeast display and mammalian cell display. Our reliance on different strategies is shifting as we gain experience and refine methods to the efficient generation of human mAbs with superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:20505349

  16. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... outside of the body. To Learn More About HPV Human Papillomavirus Vaccine More in For Women Medication ...

  17. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  18. Pathfinder: Humans in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the Pathfinder program. Information is given on human exploration of the solar system, technical requirements interfaces, program objectives, space suits, human performance, man-machine systems, space habitats, life support systems, and artificial gravity

  19. Human productivity program definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The optimization of human productivity on the space station within the existing resources and operational constraints is the aim of the Human Productivity Program. The conceptual objectives of the program are as follows: (1) to identify long lead technology; (2) to identify responsibility for work elements; (3) to coordinate the development of crew facilities and activities; and (4) to lay the foundation for a cost effective approach to improving human productivity. Human productivity work elements are also described and examples are presented.

  20. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Humanities in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendler, Helen

    1982-01-01

    In order that the humanities survive in America and that they find a place in the American community, learning should begin with arts. It is by the natural reciprocity between the arts and the humanities that the humanities can be made most accessible in the community. (MLW)

  2. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  3. Humanities in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendler, Helen

    1982-01-01

    In order that the humanities survive in America and that they find a place in the American community, learning should begin with arts. It is by the natural reciprocity between the arts and the humanities that the humanities can be made most accessible in the community. (MLW)

  4. Monogenic human obesity.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2008-01-01

    We and others have identified several single gene defects that disrupt the molecules in the leptinmelanocortin pathway causing severe obesity in humans. In this review, we consider these human monogenic obesity syndromes and discuss how far the characterisation of these patients has informed our understanding of the physiological role of leptin and the melanocortins in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  5. Expanding Human Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyean, Beverly-Colleene

    1983-01-01

    The human brain is capable of mastering skills far beyond those it is now used for. Three questions about the further evolution of human intelligence are raised: What will be the next step in human intelligence? How is the next step manifesting itself? How can we prepare for those changes? (IS)

  6. Whose Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  7. [Eugenics and human cloning].

    PubMed

    Boloz, W

    2001-01-01

    Because of legislative bans there are still no reports of human cloning. However eager public debate is currently running, concerning medical, legal, social and ethical aspects of human cloning. Arguments for and against human cloning are presented. An important argument against cloning is the danger of eugenic tendencies connected with cloning, which could lead to genetic discrimination.

  8. A Human Rights Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  9. Whose Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  10. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  11. A Human Rights Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  12. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  13. Robotics of human movements.

    PubMed

    van der Smagt, Patrick; Grebenstein, Markus; Urbanek, Holger; Fligge, Nadine; Strohmayr, Michael; Stillfried, Georg; Parrish, Jonathon; Gustus, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    The construction of robotic systems that can move the way humans do, with respect to agility, stability and precision, is a necessary prerequisite for the successful integration of robotic systems in human environments. We explain human-centered views on robotics, based on the three basic ingredients (1) actuation; (2) sensing; and (3) control, and formulate detailed examples thereof.

  14. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  15. Human Rights Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrano, Elias, Comp.

    This document provides information about 25 programs/brochures which focus on human rights topics. Specific topics include: (1) counselor preparation; (2) multicultural awareness; (3) abuse and neglect; (4) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; (5) self-awareness; (6) human rights awareness and human rights of students; (7) cultural diversity; (8)…

  16. The Virtual Physiological Human

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Peter V.; Diaz, Vanessa; Hunter, Peter; Kohl, Peter; Viceconti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human is synonymous with a programme in computational biomedicine that aims to develop a framework of methods and technologies to investigate the human body as a whole. It is predicated on the transformational character of information technology, brought to bear on that most crucial of human concerns, our own health and well-being.

  17. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-09

    Performance Human Aspects of Operations in Military Environments Dr. Ray Perez (Navy) Dr. Todd Nelson (AF) Dr. Mike LaFiandra (Army) Dr. Liz Bowman...Interfaces and Cognitive Processes Human Aspects of Operations in Military Environments Protection, Sustainment, and Warfighter Performance Right Person...mission command and tactical intelligence human - agent teaming  Personalized, integrated assessments and training to improve performance

  18. Rethinking medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  19. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  20. Humanism in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, S

    1993-09-01

    Emergency medicine has not yet appropriated "humanism" as a term of its own. Medical humanism needs to be interpreted in a way that is consistent with the practical goals of emergency medicine. In this essay, humanism in emergency medicine is defined by identifying the dehumanizing aspects of sudden illness and exploring of ways for sustaining the humanity of emergency department patients. Excerpts from Dr Oliver Sacks' autobiographical work A Leg to Stand On give voice to the human needs created by sudden illness and its treatment.

  1. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  2. Human rights and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2008-05-01

    In the first part of this article we survey the concept of human rights from a philosophical perspective and especially in relation to the "right to healthcare". It is argued that regardless of meta-ethical debates on the nature of rights, the ethos and language of moral deliberation associated with human rights is indispensable to any ethics that places the victim and the sufferer in its centre. In the second part we discuss the rise of the "right to privacy", particularly in the USA, as an attempt to make the element of personal free will dominate over the element of basic human interest within the structure of rights and when different rights seem to conflict. We conclude by discussing the relationship of human rights with moral values beyond the realm of rights, mainly human dignity, free will, human rationality and response to basic human needs.

  3. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  4. Human research subjects as human research workers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Holly Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme governing human subjects research is counter-intuitively less protective than the labor and employment laws applicable to many workers. This Article relies on analogical and legal reasoning to demonstrate that this should not be the case; in a number of ways, human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. Like other workers protected under worklaw, biomedical research subjects often have interests that diverge from those in positions of control but little bargaining power for change. Bearing these important similarities in mind, the question becomes whether there is any good reason to treat subjects and protected workers differently as a matter of law. With regard to unrestricted payment, eligibility for a minimum wage, compensation for injury, and rights to engage in concerted activity, the answer is no and human subjects regulations ought to be revised accordingly.

  5. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  6. [The embryo, the human and the humanized].

    PubMed

    Roa, A

    1992-03-01

    Since the moment of fecundation the human embryo is endowed with the properties of unity and uniqueness and its existence is therefore inviolable. Disputing arguments against this thesis are analyzed. Recent views of some biologists negate the human character to the embryo since the essence of a human being would be its cultural nature and ability to communicate. However, the embryo contains all the genetic information that will allow him to develop the ability to communicate. Any attempt to separate the 3 moments of time, past present and future is a definitive violation of ethics. A basic foundation of ethics is that present and future are implicit in the past and vice-versa. Finally, the idea that the unwanted child is not a cultural being should be discarded.

  7. Chimeras and human dignity.

    PubMed

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2008-12-01

    Discussions about whether new biomedical technologies threaten or violate human dignity are now common. Indeed, appeals to human dignity have played a central role in national and international debates about whether to allow particular kinds of biomedical investigations. The focus of this paper is on chimera research. I argue here that both those who claim that particular types of human-nonhuman chimera research threaten human dignity and those who argue that such threat does not exist fail to make their case. I first introduce some of the arguments that have been offered supporting the claim that the creation of certain sorts of chimeras threatens or violates human dignity. I next present opponents' assessments of such arguments. Finally I critically analyze both the critics' and the supporters' claims about whether chimera research threatens human dignity.

  8. Human Performance in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  9. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION OFFICE HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION REQUIREMENTS POCKET GUIDE SEPTEMBER 2009 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE SEP 2009 2. REPORT TYPE Pocket Guide 3. DATES...COVERED 00-09-2009 to 00-12-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Human Systems Integration Requirements Pocket Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  10. Human hemoglobin genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  11. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  12. The psychology of humanness.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures.

  13. Human target acquisition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  14. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  15. [Human physiology: kidney].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  16. Competent human research personnel.

    PubMed

    Arford, Patricia H; Knowles, Marilyn B; Sneed, Nancee V

    2008-12-01

    The process of conducting human research is highly regulated, rigorous, detailed oriented, potentially harmful, and, hopefully, beneficial. Health professionals learn how to critique, design, analyze, and apply human research but have minimal education in how to conduct human research. Successful completion of a 24-hour course was mandated for research support personnel to enhance the protection of human subjects, improve the integrity of data collected, and ensure cost-effective results. Routine audits demonstrated that the course substantially improved the documentation of the informed consent process, source documentation, protocol adherence, and regulatory compliance.

  17. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  18. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  19. Human Mind Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  20. [Human science and medicine].

    PubMed

    Caporale, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Objective of Human Science teaching is to develop Knowledge and ability for rational analysis of bio-medical problems. The relationship between doctor and patient must be founded on dialogue, cooperation, understanding, on respect of human rights: life, health, physical integrity, privacy, autonomy, freedom and liability to guide ethical choices in clinical experience and rediscover anthropological significance of Medicine.

  1. Portraits of Human Greatness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Anselm's Coll., Manchester, NH.

    Examined is the Humanities Program at St. Anselm College, a two-year program of readings and lectures ordered chronologically from ancient to contemporary times--from the age of Classical Greek thought and the Old Testament to the twentieth century. The first year of the Humanities Program is organized in eight units on general modes of…

  2. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-10-01

    Infant rotavirus vaccination provides for herd immunity Nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine protects humans against malaria Personalized brain cancer vaccine enters phase 2 trial Novel implantable therapeutic cancer vaccine to be tested in humans Clostridium difficile vaccine candidate successful in phase 1 CDC reports strong uptake of HPV vaccine in boys Whooping cough outbreak in Texas.

  3. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  4. Human Powered Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  5. Human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, J S; Keating, A; Hozumi, N

    1997-01-01

    Human gene therapy and its application for the treatment of human genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, cancer, and other diseases, are discussed. Gene therapy is a technique in which a functioning gene is inserted into a human cell to correct a genetic error or to introduce a new function to the cell. Many methods, including retroviral vectors and non-viral vectors, have been developed for both ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer into cells. Vectors need to be developed that efficiently transfer genes to target cells, and promoter systems are required that regulate gene expression according to physiologic needs of the host cell. There are several safety and ethical issues related to manipulating the human genome that need to be resolved. Current gene therapy efforts focus on gene insertion into somatic cells only. Gene therapy has potential for the effective treatment of genetic disorders, and gene transfer techniques are being used for basic research, for example, in cancer, to examine the underlying mechanism of disease. There are still many technical obstacles to be overcome before human gene therapy can become a routine procedure. The current human genome project provides the sequences of a vast number of human genes, leading to the identification, characterization, and understanding of genes that are responsible for many human diseases.

  6. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  7. The great human expansion.

    PubMed

    Henn, Brenna M; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Feldman, Marcus W

    2012-10-30

    Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today's human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth's habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the "serial founder effect." In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution.

  8. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  9. Investigating the Human Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducote, Richard L.; Peterson, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    A project entitled "Investigating the Human Experience," which was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, enables the College of DuPage to conduct a series of free films in various off-campus facilities. Documentaries and recent TV specials are shown, followed by a group discussion moderated by an instructor from the…

  10. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  11. Environment and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; And Others

    As a conference report, the booklet is primarily devoted to abstracts of papers presented at a Conference on Environment and Humanities held in Tallahassee, Florida, April 25-27, 1976. Dr. Huston Smith of Syracuse University, the main speaker, addressed the issue of "Humanities and Environmental Awareness." Other topics discussed…

  12. Evaluating the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  13. Quantification of human responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  14. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect public health and safeguard the environment. Risk assessment is an integral part of this mission in that it identifies and characterizes environmentally related human health problems. The Human Health Re...

  15. Being Human in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Dorothy J.; Fahey, Brian W.

    The structure of humanness as the unique and essential being of the individual, constantly emerging through experience and the actualization of human potential within the sports environment, is the central theme of this book. Sport is defined broadly to include all forms of physical activity experiences. Each chapter represents an inquiry unique…

  16. Methods in human cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 4, discusses the various techniques used in the study human cytogenetics. The methods are discussed in historical order, from direct methods to tissue culture techniques, prenatal studies, meiotic studies, sex chromatin techniques, banding techniques, prophase banding and replication studies. Nomenclature of human chromosomes and quantitative methods are also mentioned. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  17. The Humanities' Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey Galt

    2009-01-01

    Why should society support the humanities when so many people are suffering from the effects of the economic crisis? What claim do the humanities, or scholarship generally, have on increasingly limited resources? Shouldn't such pursuits be considered luxuries at a time when people should be focusing on essentials? The alleviation of human…

  18. The human genome project

    SciTech Connect

    Yager, T.D.; Zewert, T.E.; Hood, L.E. )

    1994-04-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a coordinated worldwide effort to precisely map the human genome and the genomes of selected model organisms. The first explicit proposal for this project dates from 1985 although its foundations (both conceptual and technological) can be traced back many years in genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology. The HGP has matured rapidly and is producing results of great significance.

  19. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  20. Quantifying Human Performance Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askren, William B.; Regulinski, Thaddeus L.

    Human performance reliability for tasks in the time-space continuous domain is defined and a general mathematical model presented. The human performance measurement terms time-to-error and time-to-error-correction are defined. The model and measurement terms are tested using laboratory vigilance and manual control tasks. Error and error-correction…

  1. Annotated Humanities Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Richard R.; Applebee, Arthur

    The humanities programs offered in 1968 by 227 United States secondary schools are listed alphabetically by state, including almost 100 new programs not annotated in the 1967 listing (see TE 000 224). Each annotation presents a brief description of the approach to study used in the particular humanities course (e.g., American Studies, Culture…

  2. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  3. Humanism within Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adult learning connects it to almost all other facets of human endeavor. Consequently, the future of adult education depends, to a large extent on who participates and the quality of such participation. Quality participation, when teamed with environments committed to a concern for humanity, launches opportunities for varied…

  4. Human Dignity Through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlie, Arthur L.

    A major educational need, as assessed by a committee of teachers, students, and community members, is to recognize acceptance of human dignity as the ultimate value in decision making. This concept provides a basis for the elementary and secondary social studies program. Although the concept of human dignity was promoted with the signing of the…

  5. Human Simulated Diving Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.

    1979-01-01

    This report details several simulated divinq experiments on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The experiment demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)

  6. Introduction to human factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  7. Environment and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; And Others

    As a conference report, the booklet is primarily devoted to abstracts of papers presented at a Conference on Environment and Humanities held in Tallahassee, Florida, April 25-27, 1976. Dr. Huston Smith of Syracuse University, the main speaker, addressed the issue of "Humanities and Environmental Awareness." Other topics discussed…

  8. Humanism within Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adult learning connects it to almost all other facets of human endeavor. Consequently, the future of adult education depends, to a large extent on who participates and the quality of such participation. Quality participation, when teamed with environments committed to a concern for humanity, launches opportunities for varied…

  9. Human-System Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-10

    Computing, this multidisciplinary field exploits advances in cognitive research together with those in computer science and related areas to optimize the...deep understanding of human cognition, perception, and/or locomotion; the relevant areas of computer science ; and the nature of the human activity to be

  10. Evaluating the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  11. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect public health and safeguard the environment. Risk assessment is an integral part of this mission in that it identifies and characterizes environmentally related human health problems. The Human Health Re...

  12. The Humanities' Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey Galt

    2009-01-01

    Why should society support the humanities when so many people are suffering from the effects of the economic crisis? What claim do the humanities, or scholarship generally, have on increasingly limited resources? Shouldn't such pursuits be considered luxuries at a time when people should be focusing on essentials? The alleviation of human…

  13. Assessment of Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  14. Vaccination against human papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Claudia Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus infection is common and causes different manifestations. This infection is a public health concern because it has been associated with genital tract malignant diseases among men and women. Currently two vaccines are available to prevent the human papillomavirus infection and its associated diseases. PMID:24488402

  15. Portraits of Human Greatness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Anselm's Coll., Manchester, NH.

    Examined is the Humanities Program at St. Anselm College, a two-year program of readings and lectures ordered chronologically from ancient to contemporary times--from the age of Classical Greek thought and the Old Testament to the twentieth century. The first year of the Humanities Program is organized in eight units on general modes of…

  16. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  17. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  18. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  19. Implications for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, L

    1979-01-01

    To analyze the implications for human health, the toxicologist requires four sets of data: the results of toxicity and other studies in animals; quantitative data on actual or potential human exposure; whatever information is available on effects of exposure in man; and the statistical extrapolations from the dose-response relationships in animals to the (usually) much lower levels of human exposure. Professional expertise in toxicology is essential to assess the nature and severity of the toxic effects observed in animals, including such characteristics as potential for progression, irreversibility and production of incapacity. Given sufficient data, an estimate can be arrived at of the likelihood that such effects will be elicited in human populations of differing susceptibilities. The criteria by which the overall implications for human health can be judged comprise both the direct effects on man, as well as the indirect consequences stemming from environmental impacts. PMID:540600

  20. Beliefs about Human Extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a web-based survey about futures issues. Among many questions, respondents were asked whether they believe humans will become extinct. Forty-five percent of the almost 600 respondents believe that humans will become extinct. Many of those holding this believe felt that humans could become extinct within 500-1000 years. Others estimated extinction 5000 or more years into the future. A logistic regression model was estimated to explore the bases for this belief. It was found that people who describe themselves a secular are more likely to hold this belief than people who describe themselves as being Protestant. Older respondents and those who believe that humans have little control over their future also hold this belief. In addition, people who are more apt to think about the future and are better able to imagine potential futures tend to also believe that humans will become extinct.

  1. Dogs catch human yawns.

    PubMed

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  2. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  3. Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

  4. Human fetal thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Polak, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The early steps of thyroid development that lead to its function in the human fetus and subsequently the further maturation that allows the human fetus to secrete thyroxine (T4) in a significant amount are reviewed here. We underline the importance of the transfer of T4 from the pregnant woman to her fetus, which contributes at all stages of the pregnancy to fetal thyroid function and development. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the temporal and structural correlation of thyroid hormone synthesis with folliculogenesis supported the concept that structural and functional maturations are closely related. Human thyroid terminal differentiation follows a precisely timed gene expression program. The crucial role of the sodium/iodine symporter for the onset of thyroid function in the human fetus is shown. Fetal T4 is detected by the eleventh week of gestation and progressively increases throughout. The pattern of thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in the course of pregnancy is given from fetal blood sampling data, and the mechanisms governing this maturation in the human fetus are discussed. Finally an example of primary human fetal thyroid dysfunction, such as in Down syndrome, is given. The understanding of the physiology of the human fetal thyroid function is the basis for fetal medicine in the field of thyroidology.

  5. Archaea on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  6. Propelling medical humanities in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  7. Human Plasma Protein C

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent protein, which exists in bovine plasma as a precursor of a serine protease. In this study, protein C was isolated to homogeneity from human plasma by barium citrate adsorption and elution, ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, dextran sulfate agarose chromatography, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Human protein C (Mr = 62,000) contains 23% carbohydrate and is composed of a light chain (Mr = 21,000) and a heavy chain (Mr = 41,000) held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain has an amino-terminal sequence of Ala-Asn-Ser-Phe-Leu- and the heavy chain has an aminoterminal sequence of Asp-Pro-Glu-Asp-Gln. The residues that are identical to bovine protein C are underlined. Incubation of human protein C with human α-thrombin at an enzyme to substrate weight ratio of 1:50 resulted in the formation of activated protein C, an enzyme with serine amidase activity. In the activation reaction, the apparent molecular weight of the heavy chain decreased from 41,000 to 40,000 as determined by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. No apparent change in the molecular weight of the light chain was observed in the activation process. The heavy chain of human activated protein C also contains the active-site serine residue as evidenced by its ability to react with radiolabeled diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Human activated protein C markedly prolongs the kaolin-cephalin clotting time of human plasma, but not that of bovine plasma. The amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of human activated protein C were completely obviated by prior incubation of the enzyme with diisopropyl fluorophosphate. These results indicate that human protein C, like its bovine counterpart, exists in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease by limited proteolysis with attendant anticoagulant activity. Images PMID:468991

  8. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  9. Human Resource Accounting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    I AD-RI54 787 HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 1/2 F MONTEREY CR J C MARTINS DEC 84 1UNCLASSIFIED /G 5/9 NL -~~ .. 2. . L...Monterey, California JUN1im THESISG HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING by Joaquim C. Martins LLJ.. December 1984 Thesis Advisor: R.A. McGonigal Approved for...REPORT & PECRI00 COVERED Master’s Thesis; Human Resource Accounting Dcme 94- ’ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR(*) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER

  10. Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan

    2012-08-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

  11. Human exposure to aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  12. Aluminium in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Use Index (Future)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values indicate little disturbance of natural land cover. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  14. Introduction to human factors.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides an introduction to "human factors engineering," an applied science that seeks to optimize usability and safety of systems. Human factors engineering pursues this goal by aligning system design with the perceptual, cognitive, and physical capabilities of users. Human factors issues loom large in the diabetes management domain because patients and health care professionals interact with a complex variety of systems, including medical device hardware and software, which are themselves embedded within larger systems of institutions, people, and processes. Usability considerations must be addressed in these systems and devices to ensure safe and effective diabetes management.

  15. Human pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  16. Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Block, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dally, W.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Joyce, G.; Kimble, H. J.; Lewis, N.; Max, C.; Prince, T.; Schwitters, R.; Weinberger, P.; Woodin, W. H.

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  17. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    McBride, Alison A

    2017-10-19

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an ancient group of viruses with small, double-stranded DNA circular genomes. They are species-specific and have a strict tropism for mucosal and cutaneous stratified squamous epithelial surfaces of the host. A subset of these viruses has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of several human cancers. Here, we review the biology, natural history, evolution and cancer association of the oncogenic HPVs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an ancient group of viruses with small, double-stranded DNA circular genomes. They are species-specific and have a strict tropism for mucosal and cutaneous stratified squamous epithelial surfaces of the host. A subset of these viruses has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of several human cancers. Here, we review the biology, natural history, evolution and cancer association of the oncogenic HPVs. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human oncogenic viruses’. PMID:28893940

  19. Sulfatases and human disease.

    PubMed

    Diez-Roux, Graciana; Ballabio, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Sulfatases are a highly conserved family of proteins that cleave sulfate esters from a wide range of substrates. The importance of sulfatases in human metabolism is underscored by the presence of at least eight human monogenic diseases caused by the deficiency of individual sulfatases. Sulfatase activity requires a unique posttranslational modification, which is impaired in patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) due to a mutation of the sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). Here we review current knowledge and future perspectives on the evolution of the sulfatase gene family, on the role of these enzymes in human metabolism, and on new developments in the therapy of sulfatase deficiencies.

  20. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.