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Sample records for human tracheal gland

  1. Neuropeptides degranulate serous cells of ferret tracheal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Gashi, A.A.; Borson, D.B.; Finkbeiner, W.E.; Nadel, J.A.; Basbaum, C.B.

    1986-08-01

    To determine whether serous or mucous cells in tracheal submucosal glands respond to the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The authors studied the peptide-induced changes in gland cell morphology accompanying release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules from tracheal explants of ferrets. Explants were labeled for 1 h in medium containing TVSO4 and washed for 3.5 additional hours. Base-line secretion in the absence of drugs declined between 1.5 and 3.5 h after the pulse. Between 2.5 and 3.5 h, the average percent change in counts per minute recovered per sample period was not significantly different from zero. Substance P and VIP added 4 h after labeling each increased greatly the release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules above base line. Bethanechol, a muscarinic-cholinergic agonist, increased secretion by an average of 142% above base line. Light and electron microscopy of the control tissues showed glands with narrow lumens and numerous secretory granules. Glands treated with SP or VIP had enlarged lumens and the serous cells were markedly degranulated. These phenomena were documented by morphometry and suggest that SP and VIP cause secretion from glands at least partially by stimulating exocytosis from serous cells.

  2. Mucus secretion by single tracheal submucosal glands from normal and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ianowski, Juan P; Choi, Jae Young; Wine, Jeffrey J; Hanrahan, John W

    2007-01-01

    Submucosal glands line the cartilaginous airways and produce most of the antimicrobial mucus that keeps the airways sterile. The glands are defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), but how this impacts airway health remains uncertain. Although most CF mouse strains exhibit mild airway defects, those with the C57Bl/6 genetic background have increased airway pathology and susceptibility to Pseudomonas. Thus, they offer the possibility of studying whether, and if so how, abnormal submucosal gland function contributes to CF airway disease. We used optical methods to study fluid secretion by individual glands in tracheas from normal, wild-type (WT) mice and from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) knockout mice (Cftrm1UNC/Cftrm1UNC; CF mice). Glands from WT mice qualitatively resembled those in humans by responding to carbachol and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), although the relative rates of VIP- and forskolin-stimulated secretion were much lower in mice than in large mammals. The pharmacology of mouse gland secretion was also similar to that in humans; adding bumetanide or replacement of HCO3− by Hepes reduced the carbachol response by ∼50%, and this inhibition increased to 80% when both manoeuvres were performed simultaneously. It is important to note that glands from CFTR knockout mice responded to carbachol but did not secrete when exposed to VIP or forskolin, as has been shown previously for glands from CF patients. Tracheal glands from WT and CF mice both had robust secretory responses to electrical field stimulation that were blocked by tetrodotoxin. It is interesting that local irritation of the mucosa using chili pepper oil elicited secretion from WT glands but did not stimulate glands from CF mice. These results clarify the mechanisms of murine submucosal gland secretion and reveal a novel defect in local regulation of glands lacking CFTR which may also compromise airway defence in CF patients. PMID:17204498

  3. Myd88 deficiency influences murine tracheal epithelial metaplasia and submucosal gland abundance

    PubMed Central

    Giangreco, Adam; Lu, Liwen; Mazzatti, Dawn J; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Nye, Emma; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Janes, Sam M

    2011-01-01

    Tracheal epithelial remodelling, excess mucus production, and submucosal gland hyperplasia are features of numerous lung diseases, yet their origins remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that NF-κB signalling may regulate airway epithelial homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether deletion of the NF-κB signalling pathway protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) influenced tracheal epithelial cell phenotype. We compared wild-type and Myd88-deficient or pharmacologically inhibited adult mouse tracheas and determined that in vivo Myd88 deletion resulted in increased submucosal gland number, secretory cell metaplasia, and excess mucus cell abundance. We also found that Myd88 was required for normal resolution after acute tracheal epithelial injury. Microarray analysis revealed that uninjured Myd88-deficient tracheas contained 103 transcripts that were differentially expressed relative to wild-type and all injured whole tracheal samples. These clustered into several ontologies and networks that are known to functionally influence epithelial cell phenotype. Comparing these transcripts to those expressed in airway progenitor cells revealed only five common genes, suggesting that Myd88 influences tracheal epithelial homeostasis through an extrinsic mechanism. Overall, this study represents the first identification of Myd88 as a regulator of adult tracheal epithelial cell phenotype. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21557220

  4. An Apical-Membrane Chloride Channel in Human Tracheal Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanism of chloride transport by airway epithelia has been of substantial interest because airway and sweat gland-duct epithelia are chloride-impermeable in cystic fibrosis. The decreased chloride permeability prevents normal secretion by the airway epithelium, thereby interfering with mucociliary clearance and contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Because chloride secretion depends on and is regulated by chloride conductance in the apical cell membrane, the patch-clamp technique was used to directly examine single-channel currents in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium. The cells contained an anion-selective channel that was not strongly voltage-gated or regulated by calcium in cell-free patches. The channel was also blocked by analogs of carboxylic acid that decrease apical chloride conductance in intact epithelia. When attached to the cell, the channel was activated by isoproterenol, although the channel was also observed to open spontaneously. However, in some cases, the channel was only observed after the patch was excised from the cell. These results suggest that this channel is responsible for the apical chloride conductance in airway epithelia.

  5. Human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell sheets with bellows graft for rapid tracheal epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Hun; Park, Ju Young; Nam, Inn-Chul; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kim, Choung-Soo; Jung, Jin Woo; Jang, Jinah; Lee, Hyungseok; Choi, Yeongjin; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Rapid functional epithelial regeneration on the luminal surface is essential when using artificial tracheal grafts to repair tracheal defects. In this study, we imposed human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell (hTMSC) sheets for tracheal epithelial regeneration, and then assessed their potential as a new clinical cell source. In vitro, hTMSCs sheets showed high capacity to differentiate into tracheal epithelium. We fabricated a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) tracheal graft by indirect three-dimensional (3D) printing technique and created a composite construct by transplanting the hTMSC sheets to its luminal surface of the tracheal graft, then applied this tissue-engineered tracheal graft to non-circumferential tracheal reconstruction in a rabbit model. 4 weeks after implantation, the luminal surface of tissue-engineered tracheal graft was covered by a mature and highly-ciliated epithelium, whereas tracheal grafts without hTMSC sheets were covered by only a thin, immature epithelium. Therefore, hTMSC sheets on the luminal surface of a tissue-engineered tracheal graft can accelerate the tracheal epithelial regeneration, and the tissue-engineered tracheal graft with hTMSC sheets provides a useful clinical alternative for tracheal epithelial regeneration.

  6. [Secretagogue action of glyceryl guaiacolate in tracheal submucosal glands (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Yanaura, S; Takeda, H; Misawa, M

    1982-01-01

    The effects of glyceryl guaiacolate on secretory activities of tracheal secretory cells and on behavior of mucus glycoprotein in these cells were investigated histologically and histochemically using isolated canine trachea. Following glyceryl guaiacolate treatment, the number of total glycoprotein-containing goblet cells (GC) did not change. The numbers of acid glycoprotein (AGP)-, neutral glycoprotein (NGP)-, and sulphated glycoprotein (SGP)-containing GC were also unaltered in a concentration range of 10(-7) to 10(-4)M. On the other hand the acinar inner diameter of the submucosal gland (SG) and the acinar inner diameter to wall ratio significantly increased, while thickness of acinus significantly decreased with 10(-6), 10(-5) and 10(-4)M glyceryl guaiacolate. AGP and SGP contents in glandular cells markedly decreased, while the ratio of the numbers of AGP- to NGP-containing glandular cell were the same, suggesting that glyceryl guaiacolate does not change the quality of mucus glycoprotein in GC and SG. Glyceryl guaiacolate produced a marked increase in total saccharide, protein, and N-acetylhexosamine concentrations in the incubation fluid. These findings suggest that glyceryl guaiacolate has no influence on the secretory activity of GC, but markedly stimulates the activity of SG. The secretagogue effect of the agent would be ascribable to stimulation of mucus discharge, but not stimulation of mucus synthesis. PMID:7061026

  7. Repair and regeneration of tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    HEGAB, AHMED E.; NICKERSON, DEREK W.; HA, VI LUAN; DARMAWAN, DAPHNE O.; GOMPERTS, BRIGITTE N.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective The heterotopic syngeneic tracheal transplant mouse model is an acute hypoxic-ischemic injury model that undergoes complete repair and regeneration. We hypothesized that the repair and regeneration process of the surface epithelium and submucosal glands would occur in a reproducible pattern that could be followed by the expression of specific markers of epithelial cell types. Methods We used the syngeneic heterotopic tracheal transplant model to develop a temporal and spatial map of cellular repair and regeneration by examining the tracheal grafts at post-transplant days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14. We used pulsed BrdU and immunofluorescent staining to identify and follow proliferating and repairing cell populations. Results We confirmed the reproducibility of the injury and repair in the model and we found a distinct sequence of reappearance of the various stem/ progenitor and differentiated cell populations of the tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands. In the initial phase, the basal and duct cells that survived the injury proliferated to re-epithelialize the basement membrane with K5 and K14 expressing cells. Then these cells proliferated further and differentiated to restore the function of the epithelium. During this repair process, TROP-2 marked all repairing submucosal gland tubules and ducts. Non-CCSP-expressing serous cells were found to differentiate 4–5 days before Clara, mucus and ciliated cells. Conclusions Improving our understanding of the reparative process of the airway epithelium will allow us to identify cell-specific mechanisms of repair that could be used as novel therapeutic approaches for abnormal repair leading to airway diseases. PMID:22617027

  8. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Wronski, A; Arendt, L M; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Although mouse models have provided invaluable information on the mechanisms of mammary gland development, anatomical and developmental differences between human and mice limit full understanding of this fundamental process. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland by injecting immortalized human breast stromal cells into the cleared murine mammary fat pad enables the growth and development of human mammary epithelial cells or tissue. This facilitates the characterization of human mammary gland development or tumorigenesis by utilizing the mouse mammary fat pad. Here we describe the process of isolating human mammary stromal and epithelial cells as well as their introduction into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice.

  9. Muscarinic receptors: evidence for a nonuniform distribution in tracheal smooth muscle and exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Basbaum, C.B.; Grillo, M.A.; Widdicombe, J.H.

    1984-02-01

    Muscarinic receptor distribution in smooth muscle, exocrine glands, and epithelium of the ferret trachea was determined using (3H)propylbenzilylcholine mustard ((3H)PrBCM) binding and autoradiography. Specific, atropine-sensitive (3H)PrBCM binding was quantified autoradiographically in the trachealis muscle (approximately 21 binding sites/microns2), surface epithelium (approximately 6 binding sites/microns2), and submucosal glands (approximately 5 binding sites/microns2). Serous and mucous cells in the glands did not differ in receptor density. Binding sites on gland and epithelial cells were associated with basolateral membranes. In the trachealis muscle, a gradient in receptor density was observed, with outer layers of muscle containing 3 to 10 times more receptors per unit area than inner layers. Receptor distribution in both glands and muscle paralleled the distribution of cholinergic axons. However, at the light microscope level, there was no evidence for the presence of receptor ''hot spots'' related to the position of individual axons. The parallelism in the distribution of axons and receptors suggests the possibility of neural control of the genesis and/or maintenance of receptor distribution in these tissues.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Pure Human Airway Gland Mucus Reveals a Large Component of Protective Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Nam Soo; Evans, Idil Apak T.; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Park, Il-Ho; Engelhardt, John F.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to innate immunity and protect the lungs by secreting mucus, which is required for mucociliary clearance and which also contains antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proteolytic and anti-oxidant proteins. We stimulated glands in tracheal trimmings from three lung donors and collected droplets of uncontaminated mucus as they formed at the gland orifices under an oil layer. We analyzed the mucus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis identified 5486 peptides and 441 proteins from across the 3 samples (269–319 proteins per subject). We focused on 269 proteins common to at least 2 0f 3 subjects, of which 102 (38%) had protective or innate immunity functions. While many of these have long been known to play such roles, for many others their cellular protective functions have only recently been appreciated in addition to their well-studied biologic functions (e.g. annexins, apolipoproteins, gelsolin, hemoglobin, histones, keratins, and lumican). A minority of the identified proteins are known to be secreted via conventional exocytosis, suggesting that glandular secretion occurs via multiple mechanisms. Two of the observed protective proteins, major vault protein and prohibitin, have not been observed in fluid from human epithelial cultures or in fluid from nasal or bronchoalveolar lavage. Further proteomic analysis of pure gland mucus may help clarify how healthy airways maintain a sterile environment. PMID:25706550

  11. Temperature effect on the ciliary beat frequency of human nasal and tracheal ciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Clary-Meinesz, C F; Cosson, J; Huitorel, P; Blaive, B

    1992-01-01

    Even though all human respiratory cilia are similar in structure, they experience a wide range of temperatures between the initial part of the nasal fossae which behave as heat exchangers and the inferior part of the trachea, particularly when we inhale exceedingly cold or hot air. The ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells from human nasal mucosa and from bronchial mucosa averages 8 Hz when measured at room temperature. In the present study we compared the ciliary beat frequency of human cells from nasal and tracheal mucosa brushings at different temperatures from 5 degrees C to 50 degrees C using two different techniques, ex vivo and in vitro: ex vivo in culture medium less than 24 h after sampling and in vitro after demembranation and reactivation according to a standard procedure developed in our laboratory. Measuring the ATP-reactivated ciliary beat frequency allowed us to check the thermal parameters of the dynein ATPase and all the axonemal machinery. No significant difference in frequency was observed between nasal fossae cilia and tracheal cilia when comparing extreme temperatures in both experimental procedures. PMID:1305479

  12. Meibomian gland dysfunction. I. Keratin protein expression in normal human and rabbit meibomian glands.

    PubMed

    Jester, J V; Nicolaides, N; Smith, R E

    1989-05-01

    The expression of keratin proteins from meibomian glands and their correlation with skin epidermal keratins were determined. Keratin proteins were localized in both human and rabbit meibomian glands by indirect immunofluorescence using mouse monoclonal antibodies AE1, AE2 and AE3, which are known to react with human epidermal keratins as well as with keratins from other sources. Keratin proteins from rabbit meibomian glands were further isolated and characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot using mouse monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3. Meibomian glands from human and rabbit showed similar immunofluorescent staining with each monoclonal antibody. AE1 antibody, which stains human basal epithelial cells of skin, stains all duct epithelial cells in the human but only the superficial duct epithelial cells in the rabbit meibomian gland. AE2 antibody, which stains human suprabasal epithelial cells of skin and is a marker for fully keratinized epithelia, stains the suprabasal epithelial cells of the central duct and ductules in both the human and rabbit meibomian gland. AE3 antibody, which stains all human epithelial cells of skin, stains all epithelial cells of the duct and ductules, as well as the basal epithelial cells of the acinus in both the human and rabbit meibomian gland. Keratins isolated from whole rabbit meibomian glands contained a 65-67 kD and 58 kD AE3-positive, and a 56.5 kD and 50 kD AE1-positive keratin protein. Expression of 65-67 kD/56.5 kD keratin proteins, and the immunofluorescent staining of the duct epithelium by the AE2 antibody, indicate that the meibomian gland duct epithelium is committed to the process of keratinization.

  13. Morphological Features of the Porcine Lacrimal Gland and Its Compatibility for Human Lacrimal Gland Xenografting

    PubMed Central

    Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations. PMID:24069265

  14. Dynamic OCT of sweat glands of human finger tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ohmi, Masato; Fuji, Toshie

    2006-02-01

    Dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated for dynamic study of sweat glands of human finger tip using the all-optical-fiber imaging system. Stress-induced and physical activation of sweat glands can be observed clearly in time-sequential OCT images. The method for image data acquisition is presented as well as the experimental results.

  15. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David A.; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Hatton, Mark P.; Liu, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. Results. Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. Conclusions. Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland. PMID:24867579

  16. Tracheal collapse.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, C S

    1991-06-01

    Tracheal collapse, one form of tracheal obstruction, is classically described as occurring in middle-aged or older toy breed dogs with a history of chronic "goose-honk" cough. Many dogs with tracheal collapse fit this description, but others are young and may wheeze, hack, or have no cough at all. Patients with a history and physical examination compatible with tracheal collapse are definitively diagnosed based on the findings of the following respiratory tract examinations: inspiratory/expiratory radiographs, fluoroscopy, culture and susceptibility, and a thorough endoscopic evaluation. Prosthetic ring tracheoplasty relieves many of the signs of tracheal obstruction but does not cure the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are expected to give the dog a better quality life. Following prosthetic ring tracheoplasty, most dogs are more active, breathe easier, cough less, and require less medical treatment for respiratory disease.

  17. Human kallikrein 8 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, Mark R; Tsai, Sam; Jackson-Boeters, Linda; Daley, Thomas D; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2008-09-01

    The human kallikrein 8 protein (KLK8) is expressed in many normal tissues including esophagus, skin, testis, tonsil, kidney, breast, and salivary gland, and is found in biological fluids including breast milk, amniotic fluid, seminal fluid and serum. It has also been shown to be a biomarker and prognostic factor for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether KLK8 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues. Pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas NOS of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors show high levels of expression of KLK8.

  18. Human kallikrein 13 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Jackson-Boeters, L; Daley, T D; Diamandis, E P

    2006-01-01

    The human kallikrein 13 protein (hK13) is expressed in many normal tissues. Petraki et al have previously described presence of hK13 in salivary gland tissue, localized to duct epithelia and some acinar cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether hK13 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues. Pleomorphic adenomas (PA), adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA), acinic cell carcinomas (ACI), mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (ANOS) of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors show high levels of expression of hK13. Overall, staining in PA was significantly less than that seen in normal salivary gland tissue. PLGA, ACC and ANOS each stained significantly more than normal salivary gland tissue while MEC and ACI did not. Ductal cells and cells lining duct-like structures showed a higher intensity of staining than non-ductal cells in most tumors. Tumors which exhibited only non-ductal cells also exhibited cytoplasmic staining. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high expression of hK13 in several common salivary gland tumors.

  19. Frequency of varicella zoster virus DNA in human adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Badani, Hussain; White, Teresa; Schulick, Nicole; Raeburn, Christopher D; Topkaya, Ibrahim; Gilden, Don; Nagel, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in ganglionic neurons derived from neural crest cells. Because the adrenal gland also contains medullary chromaffin cells of neural crest origin, we examined human adrenal glands and medullary chromaffin cell tumors (pheochromocytomas) for VZV and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We found VZV, but not HSV-1, DNA in 4/63 (6 %) normal adrenal glands. No VZV transcripts or antigens were detected in the 4 VZV DNA-positive samples. No VZV or HSV-1 DNA was found in 21 pheochromocytomas.

  20. Increased TGF-β: a drawback of tracheal occlusion in human and experimental congenital diaphragmatic hernia?

    PubMed

    Vuckovic, Aline; Herber-Jonat, Susanne; Flemmer, Andreas W; Ruehl, Ina M; Votino, Carmela; Segers, Valérie; Benachi, Alexandra; Martinovic, Jelena; Nowakowska, Dorota; Dzieniecka, Monika; Jani, Jacques C

    2016-02-15

    Survivors of severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) present significant respiratory morbidity despite lung growth induced by fetal tracheal occlusion (TO). We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms would involve changes in lung extracellular matrix and dysregulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway, a key player in lung development and repair. Pulmonary expression of TGF-β signaling components, downstream effectors, and extracellular matrix targets were evaluated in CDH neonates who died between birth and the first few weeks of life after prenatal conservative management or TO, and in rabbit pups that were prenatally randomized for surgical CDH and TO vs. sham operation. Before tissue harvesting, lung tissue mechanics in rabbits was measured using the constant-phase model during the first 30 min of life. Human CDH and control fetal lungs were also collected from midterm onwards. Human and experimental CDH did not affect TGF-β/Smad2/3 expression and activity. In human and rabbit CDH lungs, TO upregulated TGF-β transcripts. Analysis of downstream pathways indicated increased Rho-associated kinases to the detriment of Smad2/3 activation. After TO, subtle accumulation of collagen and α-smooth muscle actin within alveolar walls was detected in rabbit pups and human CDH lungs with short-term mechanical ventilation. Despite TO-induced lung growth, mediocre lung tissue mechanics in the rabbit model was associated with increased transcription of extracellular matrix components. These results suggest that prenatal TO increases TGF-β/Rho kinase pathway, myofibroblast differentiation, and matrix deposition in neonatal rabbit and human CDH lungs. Whether this might influence postnatal development of sustainably ventilated lungs remains to be determined. PMID:26637634

  1. Ambroxol inhibits rhinovirus infection in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Nadine, Lusamba Kalonji; Ota, Chiharu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2014-04-01

    The mucolytic drug ambroxol hydrochloride reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the frequency of exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the inhibitory effects of ambroxol on rhinovirus infection, the major cause of COPD exacerbations, have not been studied. We examined the effects of ambroxol on type 14 rhinovirus (RV14) infection, a major RV group, in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. RV14 infection increased virus titers and cytokine content in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells. Ambroxol (100 nM) reduced RV14 titers and cytokine concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells after RV14 infection, in addition to reducing susceptibility to RV14 infection. Ambroxol also reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the receptor for RV14, and the number of acidic endosomes from which RV14 RNA enters the cytoplasm. In addition, ambroxol reduced the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the nucleus. These results suggest that ambroxol inhibits RV14 infection partly by reducing ICAM-1 and acidic endosomes via the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Ambroxol may modulate airway inflammation by reducing the production of cytokines in rhinovirus infection.

  2. Ambroxol inhibits rhinovirus infection in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Nadine, Lusamba Kalonji; Ota, Chiharu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2014-04-01

    The mucolytic drug ambroxol hydrochloride reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the frequency of exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the inhibitory effects of ambroxol on rhinovirus infection, the major cause of COPD exacerbations, have not been studied. We examined the effects of ambroxol on type 14 rhinovirus (RV14) infection, a major RV group, in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. RV14 infection increased virus titers and cytokine content in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells. Ambroxol (100 nM) reduced RV14 titers and cytokine concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells after RV14 infection, in addition to reducing susceptibility to RV14 infection. Ambroxol also reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the receptor for RV14, and the number of acidic endosomes from which RV14 RNA enters the cytoplasm. In addition, ambroxol reduced the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the nucleus. These results suggest that ambroxol inhibits RV14 infection partly by reducing ICAM-1 and acidic endosomes via the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Ambroxol may modulate airway inflammation by reducing the production of cytokines in rhinovirus infection. PMID:23856970

  3. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  4. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  9. Immunopathological study of neuropeptide expression in human salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Deguchi, H; Nakahata, A; Kurashima, C; Hirokawa, K

    1990-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of anti-neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and anti-Leu-7 on formalin-fixed sections of human salivary gland neoplasms was determined by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. In addition, neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin, and substance P, in human salivary gland neoplasms were expressed, whereas other polypeptides, including glucagon, cholecystokinin, leu-enkephalin and calcitonin, were absent. When 182 paraffin-embedded examples of human salivary gland tumors, including 112 benign and 70 malignant neoplasms, were examined immunohistochemically, positive immunoreactivity was observed in: 51 cases with NSE (59%) and 46 cases with Leu-7 (54%) of 86 pleomorphic adenomas; 11 cases with Leu-7 (61%) of 18 Warthin's tumors; 7 cases with Leu-7 (58%) of 12 acinic cell carcinomas; 5 cases with NSE (31%) of 16 adenoid cystic carcinomas; 5 cases with NSE (42%) and 4 cases with Leu-7 (33%) of 12 adenocarcinomas; 4 cases with NSE (25%) and 6 cases with Leu-7 (38%) of 16 undifferentiated carcinomas. The other tumors, such as oxyphilic adenomas, basal cell adenomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, were nonreactive. Neuropeptides were observed in the neoplastic epithelial cells of certain tumors such as Warthin's tumors, acinic cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. These findings suggest the possibility that cells of neuroendocrine origin, present in certain neoplastic salivary gland epithelia may play a significant role in the histogenesis of human salivary gland neoplasms.

  10. Human kallikrein 6 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Jackson-Boeters, L; Daley, T D; Diamandis, E P

    2006-03-01

    Human kallikrein 6 (hK6), also known as zyme/protease M/neurosin), is expressed in many normal glandular tissues. The aim of this study was to determine whether hK6 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), using an immunohistochemical method. Pleomorphic adenomas (PA), adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. Cells lining duct-like structures and non-duct-like cells were scored. Only in PA of minor salivary gland origin was overall staining higher in duct-like than in non-duct-like cells. In all other tumors exhibiting both types of cells, hK6 staining was similar in both duct-like and non-duct-like cells. Tumors that exhibited non-duct-like cells only also exhibited cytoplasmic staining. Results of this study show that salivary gland tumors express hK6, apparently downregulated in comparison with normal salivary gland tissue, and that this expression is not specific for any of the tumors studied.

  11. Tulobuterol inhibits rhinovirus infection in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaya, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Nadine, Lusamba; Kubo, Hiroshi; Ryoichi, Nagatomi

    2013-01-01

    A transdermal patch preparation of the β2 agonist tulobuterol has been designed to yield sustained β2 agonistic effects and has been used as a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) in Japan. LABAs reduce the frequency of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma. However, inhibitory effects of LABAs on the replication of rhinovirus (RV), the major cause of exacerbations, have not been demonstrated. To examine the effects of tulobuterol on RV replication and on the production of the replication-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, human tracheal epithelial cells were infected with a major group RV, type 14 rhinovirus (RV14). Tulobuterol reduced the RV14 titers and RNA levels; the concentrations of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, in the supernatants; and susceptibility to RV14 infection. Tulobuterol reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the receptor for RV14, and the number of acidic endosomes in the cells in which RV14 RNA enters the cytoplasm. Tulobuterol inhibited the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) proteins in nuclear extracts. A selective β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, ICI 118551 [erythro-dl-1-(7-methylindan-4-yloxy)-3-isopropylaminobutan-2-ol], reversed the inhibitory effects of tulobuterol on the RV14 titers and RNA levels, the susceptibility to RV14 infection, cytokine production, and ICAM-1 expression. Tulobuterol may inhibit RV replication by reducing ICAM-1 expression and acidic endosomes and modulate airway inflammation during RV replication. PMID:24303127

  12. Hochu-ekki-to inhibits rhinovirus infection in human tracheal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaya, M; Sasaki, T; Yasuda, H; Inoue, D; Suzuki, T; Asada, M; Yoshida, M; Seki, T; Iwasaki, K; Nishimura, H; Nakayama, K

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: A traditional Japanese herbal medicine, hochu-ekki-to, has been used for the symptomatic treatment of the common cold and to reduce the frequency of colds in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the inhibitory effects of hochu-ekki-to on infection by rhinovirus (RV), the major cause of common colds, have not been studied. Experimental approach: Human tracheal epithelial cells in culture were infected with a major group rhinovirus-RV14. Virus output and viral RNA were measured along with interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α), mRNA for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and acidic endosomes in cells. Key results: RV14 infection increased virus titers, the content of cytokines in supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells. Hochu-ekki-to decreased virus output, RV14 RNA in the cells, susceptibility to RV infection and supernatant cytokine concentrations after RV14 infection. Hochu-ekki-to reduced mRNA for ICAM-1, the receptor for RV14, the concentration of the soluble form of ICAM-1 and the number and fluorescence intensity of acidic endosomes in the cells, from which RV RNA enters into the cytoplasm, at RV14 infection. Glycyrrhizin, one of the chemical constituents of hochu-ekki-to, reduced supernatant virus titers dose-dependently. Conclusion and implications: Hochu-ekki-to inhibited RV14 infection by decreasing ICAM-1 and by blocking entry of viral RNA into the cytoplasm from the endosomes, in airway epithelial cells. Glycyrrhizin may be partly responsible for inhibition of RV infection by hochu-ekki-to. Hochu-ekki-to could modulate airway inflammation by reducing production of cytokines in RV infections. PMID:17310142

  13. Changes in Gene Expression in Human Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohui; Richards, Stephen M.; Lo, Kristine; Hatton, Mark; Fay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) may be the leading cause of dry eye syndrome throughout the world. However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying the pathogenesis of this disease is unclear. This study was conducted to identify meibomian gland genes that may promote the development and/or progression of human MGD. Methods. Lid tissues were obtained from male and female MGD patients and age-matched controls after eyelid surgeries (e.g., to correct entropion or ectropion). Meibomian glands were isolated and processed for RNA extraction and the analysis of gene expression. Results. The results show that MGD is associated with significant alterations in the expression of almost 400 genes in the human meibomian gland. The levels of 197 transcripts, including those encoding various small proline-rich proteins and S100 calcium-binding proteins, are significantly increased, whereas the expression of 194 genes, such as claudin 3 and cell adhesion molecule 1, is significantly decreased. These changes, which cannot be accounted for by sex differences, are accompanied by alterations in many gene ontologies (e.g., keratinization, cell cycle, and DNA repair). The findings also show that the human meibomian gland contains several highly expressed genes that are distinct from those in an adjacent tissue (i.e., conjunctival epithelium). Conclusions. The results demonstrate that MGD is accompanied by multiple changes in gene expression in the meibomian gland. The nature of these alterations, including the upregulation of genes encoding small proline-rich proteins and S100 calcium-binding proteins, suggest that keratinization plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MGD. PMID:21372006

  14. Precursors of hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human mammary gland is capable of de novo synthesis of glucose and galactose (hexoneogenesis); however, the carbon source is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of acetate, glutamine, lactate and glycerol as potential carbon sources for hexoneogenesis. Healthy breast...

  15. Ozone exposure of human tracheal epithelial cells inactivates cyclooxygenase and increases 15-HETE production.

    PubMed

    Alpert, S E; Walenga, R W

    1995-12-01

    We assessed the immediate and prolonged effects of ozone on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism by primary cultured human tracheal epithelial (TE) cells. TE monolayers were exposed at a gas-fluid interface to air or 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 ppm ozone (15 min air, then 45 min air/ozone), and serially collected effluents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and/or high-performance liquid chromatography. Release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and AA, but not 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) or its metabolites, was detected from cultures prelabeled with [14C]AA. PGE2 production, measured by immunoassay, was nearly constant during air exposure. In contrast, PGE2 increased two- to threefold during the first 15-min exposure to all concentrations of ozone, but then progressively declined to 78 +/- 17, 57 +/- 12 (P < or = 0.05), and 45 +/- 15% (P < or = 0.05) of air controls after exposure to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 ppm ozone. Ozone did not induce a new spectrum of AA metabolites; only PGE2, lesser amounts of PGF2 alpha, and 15-HETE were present in media and cell extracts of air- or ozone-exposed cultures provided with 30 microM exogenous AA. However, cyclooxygenase (CO) activity (PGE2 produced from 30 microM AA) decreased to 82 +/- 9, 53 +/- 8 (P < or = 0.05), and 28 +/- 6% (P < or = 0.05) vs. controls after 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 ppm ozone, whereas 15-HETE production was unimpaired. When cells exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone were maintained for up to 6 h in 5% CO2-air, spontaneous PGE2 production remained decreased and recovery of CO activity was extremely slow. TLC analysis of lipid extracts from [14C]AA-labeled cells revealed a nearly twofold increase in free intracellular 15-HETE, and hydrolysis of phospholipids demonstrated increased esterified 15-HETE. Exposure of human TE cells to ozone leads to a transient increase followed by prolonged decrease in PGE2 production and increased intracellular retention of 15-HETE. Loss of the bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties

  16. Morphology of human suprarenal glands: a parameter for comparison.

    PubMed

    Anand, M K; Anand, C; Choudhry, R; Sabharwal, A

    1998-01-01

    Forty suprarenal glands were studied, 20 being dissected from aborted fetuses of 9 to 36 weeks' gestation and 20 obtained from human cadavers of ages 1 day to 60 years. All the specimens were from a Northern India population. The side and shape of each suprarenal gland was noted and documented. The length, breadth, thickness and volume of each gland were measured and tabulated in terms of age. The mean length, breadth and thickness in fetuses of 9-36 weeks were found to be 1.4 cm, 1 cm and 0.45 cm respectively. In the postnatal age group the measurements were 4.5 cm, 2.08 cm and 0.66 cm respectively. The commonest shape of the suprarenal glands on left side was semilunar but on the right side it was highly variable: triangular, tetrahedral, inverted Y or V shaped. On comparison of the gross measurements with available ultrasound and CT scan data it was found that both the length and thickness in the population studied were greater than reported in the literature. A knowledge of these variations is very important in diagnosis of abnormalities of the suprarenal gland, of which tumoral enlargement is rather common.

  17. Analysis of tracheal noise of forced human expiration according to clinical experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenbaum, V. I.; Pochekutova, I. A.

    2004-09-01

    The analysis of tracheal noise of forced expiration is one of the promising methods for the diagnosis of bronchial patency disorders, which are a sign of such widespread diseases as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis. The aim of this study is the verification and refinement of the acoustic model of forced expiration (Korenbaum et al., 1998) on the basis of a statistical analysis of clinical experimental data. A sample of 127 volunteers (from 18 to 74 years old) is used as an experimental statistical model: 34 persons suffering from bronchial asthma, 21 persons suffering from chronic obstructive bronchitis, 29 healthy persons, and 43 persons liable to developing the aforementioned diseases. The following parameters are analyzed: the total duration of noise of forced expiration at the trachea, the duration of wheeze of forced expiration with frequencies from 400 to 600 Hz, and the presence of narrowband high-frequency (over 600 700 Hz) spectral components at the end of forced expiration and during the whole expiration process. Reliable differences in the parameters of tracheal noise are revealed in the groups under study. The high prognostic value (a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 86%) of the parameters of tracheal noise of forced expiration, which were suggested a priori as the diagnostic parameters on the basis of the acoustic model (Korenbaum et al., 1998), indirectly confirms the adequacy of this model. The biomechanical-pathophysiological interpretation of the occurrence of acoustic deviations in the experimental sample groups provides an opportunity to relate the parameters of tracheal noise of forced expiration to the degree of mechanical nonuniformity of the lungs.

  18. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-11-15

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland.

  19. Anatomy of the human mammary gland: Current status of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Geddes, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy of the gland, resulting in remodeling of the gland into a milk-secretory organ. Pubertal and post-pubertal development of the breast in females aids in preparing it to assume a functional state during pregnancy and lactation. Remarkably, this organ has the capacity to regress to a resting state upon cessation of lactation, and then undergo the same cycle of expansion and regression again in subsequent pregnancies during reproductive life. This plasticity suggests tight hormonal regulation, which is paramount for the normal function of the gland. This review presents the current status of knowledge of the normal macro- and micro-anatomy of the human mammary gland and the distinct changes it undergoes during the key developmental stages that characterize it, from embryonic life through to post-menopausal age. In addition, it discusses recent advances in our understanding of the normal function of the breast during lactation, with special reference to breastmilk, its composition, and how it can be utilized as a tool to advance knowledge on normal and aberrant breast development and function. Finally, anatomical and molecular traits associated with aberrant expansion of the breast are discussed to set the basis for future comparisons that may illuminate the origin of breast cancer.

  20. Engineered cartilaginous tubes for tracheal tissue replacement via self-assembly and fusion of human mesenchymal stem cell constructs

    PubMed Central

    Dikina, Anna D.; Strobel, Hannah A.; Lai, Bradley P.; Rolle, Marsha W.; Alsberg, Eben

    2015-01-01

    There is a critical need to engineer a neotrachea because currently there are no long-term treatments for tracheal stenoses affecting large portions of the airway. In this work, a modular tracheal tissue replacement strategy was developed. High-cell density, scaffold-free human mesenchymal stem cell-derived cartilaginous rings and tubes were successfully generated through employment of custom designed culture wells and a ring-to-tube assembly system. Furthermore, incorporation of transforming growth factor-β1-delivering gelatin microspheres into the engineered tissues enhanced chondrogenesis with regard to tissue size and matrix production and distribution in the ring- and tube-shaped constructs, as well as luminal rigidity of the tubes. Importantly, all engineered tissues had similar or improved biomechanical properties compared to rat tracheas, which suggests they could be transplanted in a small animal model for airway defects. The modular, bottom up approach used to grow stem cell-based cartilaginous tubes in this report is a promising platform to engineer complex organs (e.g., trachea), with control over tissue size and geometry, and has the potential to be used to generate autologous tissue implants for human clinical applications. PMID:25818451

  1. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes in human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takayoshi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Kakuo, Shingo; Hachiya, Akira; Kitahara, Takashi; Aiba, Setsuya; Zouboulis, Christos C; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-09-01

    Androgens are well known to influence sebum synthesis and secretion. Various factors related to androgen biosynthesis are expressed in human sebaceous glands. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis of human skin specimens from 43 subjects indicated that various androgen-producing and -metabolizing enzymes were functionally localized to sebocytes accumulating lipid droplets and that the exclusive expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-HSD2 (HSD17B2)) in sebaceous glands was negatively correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (PPARG)), which also significantly changed in an age-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that the changes of 17β-HSD2 expression in human immortalized sebocytes (SZ95) influenced the expressions of sebogenesis-related factors. In addition, the overexpression of 17β-HSD2 in SZ95 significantly increased the androstenedione production and markedly decreased the amounts of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone when DHEA was added externally. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is well known to induce sebum secretion and the onset and/or aggravation of acne, was increased by the addition of testosterone in the presence of IGF1 in hamster sebocytes. These results all indicated that local androgen biosynthesis and metabolism in human sebaceous glands could play a pivotal role in sebum synthesis and secretion. PMID:24938708

  2. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  3. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  4. The pineal gland in human beings: relevance to pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, A

    1993-12-01

    Several facts suggest that the pineal gland must have a significant role in human beings: the presence of melatonin secretion from infancy to old age; a circadian secretory pattern similar to that found in animal species in which this gland has well-defined functions; its responsiveness to light; and the presence of melatonin receptors in the hypothalamus. Despite the importance of the pineal gland and melatonin in the reproductive activity of all nonprimate vertebrate species studied, the relationship of melatonin secretion to the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in human beings remains presumptive. Some data suggest a possible pineal-reproductive connection throughout the human lifespan, but new research approaches are needed for a better definition of this connection during normal development and in disorders of the reproductive axis. In addition, recent studies that have applied strictly defined techniques to unravel the masking effects of various behavioral and environmental factors suggest that the pineal gland and melatonin have a fundamental role in the regulation of the human biologic clock. Melatonin concentrations in blood or urine may become a useful marker of the circadian rhythm in disorders of rhythms. Moreover, administration of melatonin in physiologic or pharmacologic doses may have an important application in suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis as a contraceptive, and in therapy for disorders of biologic rhythms. Among the latter, of particular interest to the pediatric population will be the potential application of melatonin treatment in establishing or reestablishing circadian rhythms in infants and children maintained for long periods under artificial light conditions, as encountered in intensive care units, and in the treatment of sleep and other rhythm disorders associated with developmental delay or blindness. Further research and approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will be required

  5. Nicotine induces DNA damage in human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Kampfinger, Katja; Friehs, Gudrun; Köhler, Christian; Hagen, Rudolf; Richter, Elmar; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2009-01-10

    The tobacco alkaloid nicotine is responsible for addiction to tobacco and supposed to contribute to tobacco carcinogensis, too. Recently, genotoxic effects of nicotine have been reported in human cells from blood and upper aerodigestive tract. Because of nicotine accumulation in saliva, the study of possible in vitro genotoxic effects of nicotine have been extended to human salivary gland cells. Specimens of parotid glands of 10 tumor patients were obtained from tumor-free tissue. Single cells were prepared by enzymatic digestion immediately after surgery and exposed for 1h to 0.125-4.0mM of nicotine. Possible genotoxic effects were determined by the Comet assay using the % DNA in tail (DT) as a reliable indicator of DNA damage. Nicotine induced a significant dose-dependent increase of DNA migration in parotid gland single-cells. The mean DT was 1.12-fold (0.125mM) to 2.24-fold (4.0mM) higher compared to control. The lowest concentration eliciting significant DNA damage within 1h, 0.25mM nicotine, is only 10-fold higher than maximal concentrations of nicotine reported in saliva after unrestricted smoking. Although conclusive evidence for a carcinogenic potential of nicotine is still lacking, the safety of long-term nicotine replacement therapy should be carefully monitored. PMID:18852035

  6. Effects of Age and Dysfunction on Human Meibomian Glands

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Chyong Jy; Massei, Salina; Lin, Gloria; Nabavi, Cameron; Tao, Jeremiah; Brown, Donald J.; Paugh, Jerry R.; Jester, James V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify age-related changes in human meibomian glands that may be associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods Excess eyelid tissue from 36 patients (age range, 18–95 years, 19 female, 17 male) who underwent canthoplasty procedures were used. Dermatologic history, age, and presence of MGD were recorded. Samples were frozen, sectioned, and stained with specific antibodies against peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ(PPARγ) to identify meibocyte differentiation, Ki67 nuclear antigen to identify cycling cells, and CD45 to identify inflammatory cell infiltration. Results Staining for PPARγ showed cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in the 2 youngest subjects (ages, 18 and 44 years). Older individuals (>60 years) showed predominantly nuclear staining, with cytoplasmic staining limited to the basal acinar cells in 17 of 31 subjects. The number of Ki67 positively stained basal cells were significantly elevated in the younger compared with older subjects based on linear regression analysis (r2= 0.35; P <.001). There was also a significant correlation between MG expression grade and CD45 cell infiltration (r =0.414; P =.05). Conclusions These results indicate that aging human meibomian glands show decreased meibocyte differentiation and cell cycling that is associated with the development of MGD. Findings also suggest that altered PPARγ signaling may lead to acinar atrophy and development of an age-related hyposecretory MGD. Clinical Relevance Meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye are common age-related eyelid disorders. Understanding the underlying mechanism of MGD may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat this disease. PMID:21482872

  7. Human kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) and human kallikrein 5 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Tsai, S; Jackson-Boeters, L; Daley, T D; Diamandis, E P

    2006-01-01

    The human kallikrein 5 protein (hK5) is expressed in many normal tissues, most notably in skin, breast, salivary gland and esophagus. It has also been shown to be a potential biomarker for breast, ovarian and testicular cancer. Human kallikrein 3 (hK3; prostate-specific antigen) is the most useful marker for adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to determine whether hK3 and hK5 are expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues. Pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors do not show high levels of expression of hK5. Staining was most prominent in keratinizing epithelia in pleomorphic adenomas. hK3 is not expressed in salivary gland tumors.

  8. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J H; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P

    2016-03-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) stem/progenitor cells and demonstrate at the single cell level in vitro self-renewal and differentiation into multilineage organoids. We also show in vivo functionality, long-term engraftment, and functional restoration in a xenotransplantation model. Indeed, transplanted human salisphere-derived cells restored saliva production and greatly improved the regenerative potential of irradiated SGs. Further selection for c-Kit expression enriched for cells with enhanced regenerative potencies. Interestingly, interaction of transplanted cells with the recipient SG may also be involved in functional recovery. Thus, we show for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia. PMID:26887347

  9. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  10. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  11. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  12. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  13. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  14. WISP-2 expression in human salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kouzu, Yukinao; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Kato, Masaki; Higo, Morihiro; Nimura, Yoshinori; Harada, Koji; Numata, Tsutomu; Seki, Naohiko; Sato, Mitsunobu; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to disclose detailed genetic mechanisms in salivary gland tumors (SGTs) for development of novel independent marker. We constructed an in-house cDNA microarray carrying 2,201 cDNA clones derived from SGT and oral squamous cell carcinoma cDNA libraries. Four cell lines that originated from the SGT-derived cell lines were analyzed using this microarray system. The genes identified by our microarray system were further analyzed at the mRNA or protein expression level in other types of human cancer cell lines and clinical samples (ten normal salivary glands [NSGs], eleven pleomorphic adenomas, ten adenoid cystic carcinomas and three adenocarcinomas). Two up-regulated genes and six down-regulated genes were identified in common when compared with the control RNA. Of the up-regulated genes, WISP-2, which plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis, was selected for further analyses. We found a higher expression of the WISP-2 gene in the SGT-derived cell lines compared with other types of human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, WISP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels in NSGs were significantly higher than those in SGTs. These results suggest that WISP-2 could be a reliable independent marker and that down-regulation or loss of the WISP-2 gene may be associated with the development of SGTs.

  15. Evaluations of thyme extract effects in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cell lines and in human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Marinelli; Romilde, Iannarelli; Beatrice, Morelli Maria; Matteo, Valisi; Giovanna, Nicotra; Consuelo, Amantini; Claudio, Cardinali; Giorgio, Santoni; Filippo, Maggi; Massimo, Nabissi

    2016-08-25

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is used traditionally to prepare herbal remedies possessing expectorant, mucolytic, antitussive and antispasmodic properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a standardized hydroalcoholic extract of thyme on primary human airway (bronchial/tracheal) epithelial cell lines in a model of lung inflammation induced by LPS. In addition, the effects of thyme extract on human lung cancer cell line (H460) were analysed. Thyme extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties by reducing the NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 transcription factors protein levels followed by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta and IL-8), and Muc5ac secretion in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cells. Moreover, the extract showed cytotoxic effects on H460 cancer cells, modulated the release of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 proteins. Taken together, these results substantiated the traditional uses of thyme in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thyme extract might be an effective treatment of chronic diseases based on inflammatory processes when hypersecretion of mucus overwhelms the ciliary clearance and obstructs airways, causing morbidity and mortality. Moreover thyme extract, evaluated in H460 lung cancer cell line, demonstrated to induce cell cytotoxicity in addition to reduce inflammatory cell signals.

  16. Evaluations of thyme extract effects in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cell lines and in human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Marinelli; Romilde, Iannarelli; Beatrice, Morelli Maria; Matteo, Valisi; Giovanna, Nicotra; Consuelo, Amantini; Claudio, Cardinali; Giorgio, Santoni; Filippo, Maggi; Massimo, Nabissi

    2016-08-25

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is used traditionally to prepare herbal remedies possessing expectorant, mucolytic, antitussive and antispasmodic properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a standardized hydroalcoholic extract of thyme on primary human airway (bronchial/tracheal) epithelial cell lines in a model of lung inflammation induced by LPS. In addition, the effects of thyme extract on human lung cancer cell line (H460) were analysed. Thyme extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties by reducing the NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 transcription factors protein levels followed by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta and IL-8), and Muc5ac secretion in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cells. Moreover, the extract showed cytotoxic effects on H460 cancer cells, modulated the release of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 proteins. Taken together, these results substantiated the traditional uses of thyme in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thyme extract might be an effective treatment of chronic diseases based on inflammatory processes when hypersecretion of mucus overwhelms the ciliary clearance and obstructs airways, causing morbidity and mortality. Moreover thyme extract, evaluated in H460 lung cancer cell line, demonstrated to induce cell cytotoxicity in addition to reduce inflammatory cell signals. PMID:27369807

  17. Matrigel improves functional properties of primary human salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Maria, Ola M; Zeitouni, Anthony; Gologan, Olga; Tran, Simon D

    2011-05-01

    Currently, there is no effective treatment available to patients with irreversible loss of functional salivary acini caused by Sjogren's syndrome or after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. A tissue-engineered artificial salivary gland would help these patients. The graft cells for this device must establish tight junctions in addition to being of fluid-secretory nature. This study analyzed a graft source from human salivary glands (huSG) cultured on Matrigel. Cells were obtained from parotid and submandibular glands, expanded in vitro, and then plated on either Matrigel-coated (2 mg/mL) or uncoated culture dish. Immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and transepithelial electrical resistance were employed. On Matrigel, huSG cells adopted an acinar phenotype by forming three-dimensional acinar-like units (within 24 h of plating) as well as a monolayer of cells. On uncoated surfaces (plastic), huSG cells only formed monolayers of ductal cells. Both types of culture conditions allowed huSG cells to express tight junction proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4; occludin; JAM-A; and ZO-1) and adequate transepithelial electrical resistance. Importantly, 99% of huSG cells on Matrigel expressed α-amylase and the water channel protein Aquaporin-5, as compared to <5% of huSG cells on plastic. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed an acinar phenotype with many secretory granules. Matrigel increased the secretion of α-amylase two to five folds into the media, downregulated certain salivary genes, and regulated the translation of acinar proteins. This three-dimensional in vitro serum-free cell culture method allows the organization and differentiation of huSG cells into salivary cells with an acinar phenotype.

  18. Dynamic OCT of mentally stress-induced sweating in sweat glands of the human finger tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate in-vivo imaging of sweat glands of human finger tip using the dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT). Mentally-stress-induced sweating in sweat glands of human finger tip can be observed clearly in time-sequential OCT images. In the experiment, a sweat pore opened clearly on the skin surface according to a stimulus of sound.

  19. Weight gain increases human aromatase expression in mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Hong; Coon, John S; Ono, Masanori; Pearson, Elizabeth K; Bulun, Serdar E

    2012-05-15

    Adulthood weight gain predicts estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because local estrogen excess in the breast likely contributes to cancer development, and aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, we investigated the role of local aromatase expression in weight gain-associated breast cancer risk in a humanized aromatase (Arom(hum)) mouse model containing the coding region and the 5'-regulatory region of the human aromatase gene. Compared with littermates on normal chow, female Arom(hum) mice on a high fat diet gained more weight, and had a larger mammary gland mass with elevated total human aromatase mRNA levels via promoters I.4 and II associated with increased levels of their regulators TNFα and C/EBPβ. There was no difference in total human aromatase mRNA levels in gonadal white adipose tissue. Our data suggest that diet-induced weight gain preferentially stimulates local aromatase expression in the breast, which may lead to local estrogen excess and breast cancer risk.

  20. Salivary gland lymph nodes. The site of lymphadenopathies and lymphomas associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, H L; Ryan, J R; Blaugrund, S M

    1988-12-01

    Normally, lymph nodes are intimately associated with the salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland. Several lymph nodes are embedded in the parotid gland, other lymph nodes are adjacent to the submaxillary gland, and ectopic salivary gland acini and ducts are commonly present in cervical lymph nodes. These salivary gland lymph nodes may become the primary site of the benign lymphadenopathy and the malignant lymphomas characteristically associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This report of a series of HIV-associated lymphatic lesions originating in salivary gland lymph nodes comprises nine cases of salivary gland masses that were surgically excised, it includes six cases of lymphadenitides and three cases of lymphoma--all originating in salivary gland lymph nodes and showing the histologic lesions known to occur in association with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV-related infections and neoplasias located in the salivary gland lymph nodes raise interesting questions about the possible etiologic role of an oral portal of entry and of the virus-infected saliva. The recognition of their clinical and pathologic features is indispensable to enable correct diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Optical method for quantifying rates of mucus secretion from single submucosal glands.

    PubMed

    Joo, N S; Wu, J V; Krouse, M E; Saenz, Y; Wine, J J

    2001-08-01

    We describe an optical method to quantify single- gland secretion. Isolated tracheal mucosa were mounted at the air-Krebs interface and coated with oil. Gland secretions formed spherical bubbles that were digitally imaged at intervals, allowing rates of secretion to be calculated. We monitored 340 glands in 54 experiments with 12 sheep. Glands secreted basally at low rates (0.57 +/- 0.04 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1), 123 glands) in tissues up to 9 h postharvest and at lower rates for up to 3 days. Carbachol (10 microM) stimulated secretion with an early transient and a sustained or oscillating phase. Peak secretion was 15.7 +/- 1.2 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1) (60 glands); sustained secretion was 4.5 +/- 0.5 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1) (10 glands). Isoproterenol and phenylephrine (10 microM each) stimulated only small, transient responses. We confirmed that cats have a large secretory response to phenylephrine (11.6 +/- 3.7 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1), 12 glands), but pigs, sheep, and humans all have small responses (<2 nl x min(-1)m x gland(-1)). Carbachol-stimulated peak secretion was inhibited 56% by bumetanide, 67% by HCO replacement with HEPES, and 92% by both. The distribution of secretion rates was nonnormal, suggesting the existence of subpopulations of glands. PMID:11435221

  2. Expression of the gene encoding growth hormone in the human mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Mol, J.A.; Misdorp, W.; Rijnberk, A.

    1995-10-01

    Progestins cause a syndrome of growth hormone (GH) excess and enhanced mammary tumorigenesis in the dog. This has been regarded as being specific for the dog. Recently we reported that progestin-induced GH excess originates from foci of hyperplastic ductular epithelium of the mammary gland in the dog. In the present report we demonstrate by reverse-transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemistry that a main factor involved in tissue growth, i.e. GH, is also expressed in normal and neoplastic human mammary glands. The gene expressed in the human mammary gland proved to be identical to the gene encoding GH in the pituitary gland. The role of progesterone in the GH expression of the human mammary gland needs, however, to be proven. It is hypothesized that this locally produced hGH may play a pathogenetic role in breast cancer. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Lrig1 Expression in Human Sebaceous Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pünchera, Jöri; Barnes, Laurent; Kaya, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    Background Sebaceous glands contribute significantly to the barrier functions of the skin. However, little is known about their homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Recently, increased expression of stem cell marker Lrig1 has been reported in sebaceous carcinoma-like tumors of K14ΔNLef1 transgenic mice. In this study, we analyzed the Lrig1 expression in human sebaceous tumors. Methods Twenty-eight formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sebaceous tumor specimens (7 sebaceous hyperplasias, 7 sebaceous adenomas, 10 sebaceomas and 4 sebaceous carcinomas) were stained with anti-Lrig1, anti-CD44v3 and anti-Ki67 antibody. Results Four (100%) sebaceous carcinomas, 8 (80%) sebaceomas, 3 (43%) sebaceous adenomas and no sebaceous hyperplasia showed Lrig1 overexpression. Discussion and Conclusion Lrig1 is a known tumor suppressor gene and is usually considered to be an indicator of poorly aggressive tumors. In human sebaceous tumors, the stronger Lrig1 staining in sebaceous carcinoma compared to other sebaceous tumors might be a feature of an advanced stage in tumorigenesis and a bad prognosis. In our study, 100% of sebaceous carcinomas revealed Lrig1 overexpression. We propose that Lrig1 may be used as a possible new marker of poorly differentiated sebaceous carcinoma. PMID:27504445

  4. Precursors of hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mahmoud A; Maningat, Patricia; Sunehag, Agneta L; Haymond, Morey W

    2015-04-15

    The human mammary gland is capable of de novo synthesis of glucose and galactose (hexoneogenesis); however, the carbon source is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of acetate, glutamine, lactate and glycerol as potential carbon sources for hexoneogenesis. Healthy breastfeeding women were studied following a 24-h fast on two occasions separated by 1-3 wk. Five women were infused with [U-¹³C]lactate or [1,2-¹³C₂]glutamine and five women with [U-¹³C]glycerol or [1,2-¹³C₂]acetate. Enrichments of ¹³C in plasma and milk substrates were analyzed using GC-MS. Infusion of labeled lactate, glycerol, glutamine, and acetate resulted in plasma glucose being 22.0±3.7, 11.2±1.0, 2.5±0.5, and 1.3±0.2% labeled, respectively. Lactate, glutamine, or acetate did not contribute to milk glucose or galactose (0-2%). In milk, ¹³C-free glycerol enrichment was one-fourth that in plasma but free glycerol concentration in milk was fourfold higher than in plasma. Using [U-¹³C]glycerol and by accounting for tracer dilution, glycerol alone contributed to 10±2 and 69±11% of the hexoneogenesis of milk glucose and galactose, respectively. During [U-¹³C]glycerol infusion, the ratio of M₃ enrichment on 4-6 carbons/M₃ on 1-3 carbons of galactose was higher (P<0.05, 1.22±0.05) than those of glucose in plasma (1.05±0.03) and milk (1.07±0.02). Reanalysis of samples from a previous study involving [U-¹³C]glucose infusion alone suggested labeling a portion of galactose consistent with pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity. We conclude that, although lactate contributed significantly to gluconeogenesis, glycerol alone provides the vast majority of substrate for hexoneogenesis. The relative contribution of the PPP vs. the reversal Embden-Meyerhof pathway to hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland remains to be determined.

  5. Laser microspectrofluorometry for measuring dynamic changes of intracellular free Ca2+ in human airway gland cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, Jean-Marc; Merten, M.; Sharonov, S.; Figarella, C.; Jacquot, J.; Manfait, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates a wide variety of cellular functions including secretion, transepithelial solute and fluid transport. Laser confocal microspectrofluorometry (DILOR, Lille, France) was applied to visualize fluorescence emission spectra of the Indo-1 for measuring the intracellular free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) in a human tracheal gland immortalized cell line (MM39 cell line). Under a 351 nm laser excitation (0.5 (mu) W), the intracellular spectrum was analyzed as a ratio of the emission intensities at 420 and 500 nm. Previously, the intracellular Ca2+ calibration has been performed to define the relation between the intensity ratio and [Ca2+]i. Dynamic changes of single-cell [Ca2+]i were measured either from one substrate-attached cell or from different adjacent cells in monolayer culture. Measurements of [Ca2+]i are taken successively in different subcellular locations (up to 10 measurement points). Each measurement cycle was repeated 60 times. To do so, an (X,Y) motorized stage coupled with a computer allowed us to store the (X,Y) positions of several chosen points for the laser radiation. Cells were monitored for about 10 min. After agonist stimulation. Upon stimulating with calcium ionophore, 4BrA23187 (1 (mu) M), [Ca2+]i increased immediately up to 10 fold from a resting value of 31 plus or minus 6 nM (n equals 36). Histamine (1 to 100 (mu) M) increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration dependent manner with levels of up to 88 nM and 140 nM for 1 (mu) M and 100 (mu) M concentration, respectively, followed by a smooth decay back to baseline. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ did not abolish the histamine-stimulation [Ca2+]i rise, suggesting that a part of Ca2+ mobilization comes from intracellular Ca2+ stores. These results show that the combined use of the UV microspectrofluorometry and Indo-1 is well adapted and straight forward for the measurement of rapid responses of substrate-attached cells during experiments of long

  6. Expression and cellular localizaion of melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in rat and human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Shimozuma, Masashi; Tokuyama, Reiko; Tatehara, Seiko; Umeki, Hirochika; Ide, Shinji; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2011-04-01

    Melatonin, discovered in 1958, is secreted by the pineal gland primarily during the night. Its secretion is controlled by the light/dark cycle of the environment. Melatonin is also produced in and secreted by various extrapineal organs, tissues and cells and its synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is expressed in various extrapineal organs, tissues and cells. Recently, it was reported that melatonin is present in saliva, but it is not certain where melatonin was synthesized and whether it was secreted into saliva and what function it may have in saliva. The present study was performed to investigate where melatonin was synthesized and whether it was secreted by salivary glands into saliva. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of AANAT in rat parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands and the expression of both AANAT and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in human submandibular glands. We evaluated the expression of AANAT and HIOMT mRNA in rat submandibular glands by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. As a result, we observed expression of AANAT in epithelial cells of striated ducts in rat salivary glands and expression of AANAT, HIOMT and melatonin in epithelial cells of striated ducts in human submandibular glands. In addition, we also confirmed the expression of the most potent melatonin receptor, melatonin 1a receptor, in rat buccal mucosa. Our findings suggest that melatonin might be produced and secreted by salivary glands directly into saliva and that it might play some physiological role in the oral cavity.

  7. Association of Oversized Tracheal Tubes and Cuff Overinsufflation With Postintubation Tracheal Ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Sudhoff, Tobias H.; Seidl, Rainer O.; Estel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Postintubation tracheal ruptures (PTR) are rare but cause severe complications. Our objective was to investigate the tracheal pattern of injury resulting from cuff inflation of the tracheal tube, to study the two main factors responsible for PTR (cuff overinsufflation and inapplicable tube sizes), and to explain the context, why small women are particularly susceptible to PTR. Methods Experimental study performed on 28 fresh human laryngotracheal specimens (16 males, 12 females) within 24 hours post autopsy. Artificial ventilation was simulated by using an underwater construction and a standard tracheal tube. Tube sizes were selected according to our previously published nomogram. Tracheal lesions were detected visually and tracheal diameters measured. The influence of body size, sex difference and appropriate tube size were investigated according to patient height. Results In all 28 cases, the typical tracheal lesion pattern was a longitudinal median rupture of the posterior trachea. Appropriate tube sizes according to body size caused PTR with significantly higher cuff pressure when compared with oversized tubes. An increased risk of PTR was found in shorter patients, when oversized tubes were used. Sex difference did not have any significant influence. Conclusion This experimental model provides information about tracheal patterns in PTR for the first time. The model confirms by experiment the observations of case series in PTR patients, and therefore emphasizes the importance of correct tube size selection according to patient height. This minimizes the risk of PTR, especially in shorter patients, who have an increased risk of PTR when oversized tubes are used. PMID:26622963

  8. Cytochemical investigation on lipids in human major salivary glands. A light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Sirigu, P; Diaz, G; Lantini, M S; Del Fiacco, M

    1976-01-01

    The localization of lipids in the secretion of human parotid and submandibular glands has been here investigated. Ultrastructural observations following lipid extraction and histochemical data showed that lipid components are not present in the secretory granules. In fact, while histochemical reactions are completely negative, secretory granules from lipid-depleted glands retain all their morphological characters. These results led us to emphasize that, at least in human seromucous cells, lipids are not directly involved in the salivary secretion. This conclusion, which is supported by the biochemical data concerning the lipid content in human saliva, disagrees with the findings obtained in rat and guinea pig salivary glands. However, this discrepancy may be ascribed to the specific biochemical and ultrastructural differences found in the salivary glands of the various mammalian species. PMID:1023331

  9. Enzyme histochemistry in the developing suprarenal gland of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Lichnovský, V; Lojda, Z

    1989-01-01

    The localization of the activities of some selected phosphatases, peptidases and dehydrogenases were studied in cryostat sections of the developing anlage of the suprarenal gland of human embryos from 8 to 20 weeks of the intra-uterine life. In the youngest fetuses under our notice (weeks 8-12), the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) on the cellular membranes of the fetal cortex was very low. In contrast, the activity of acid phosphatase (AcP) was comparatively high. Peak activity was found in the cells of the central zone of the fetal cortex. Compared to the activity of the latter, the activity of non-specific esterase (ANE) was somewhat lower. Both its localization and the gradient were identical with those of acid phosphatase. Of the peptidases studied, only dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) exhibited slight activity in deeper layers of the primitive fetal cortex after week 8. The other peptidases exhibited only traces of activity. As early as in the first stages followed, the activity of glycero-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH) was very high in all cells of the differentiating fetal cortex. The intensity of the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) was markedly lower. In older fetuses (weeks 13-20) there was a gradual increase in the activities of most enzymes, seen, after week 15 of the intrauterine life, also in the cells of the so-called definitive cortex. Most pronounced were the increases in the activities of acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase. The relatively low activities of the enzymes under study point to a relatively low degree of cell differentiation of both the primitive and, after week 15, the definitive cortex. Pronounced morphological and functional changes occur after the 20th week of the intrauterine life.

  10. Linoleic acid content of human meibum is associated with telangiectasia and plugging of gland orifices in meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Arita, Reiko; Mori, Naoto; Shirakawa, Rika; Asai, Kei; Imanaka, Takahiro; Fukano, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2016-04-01

    To examine the relation between changes in the free fatty acid (FFA) composition of human meibum and both objective signs and subjective symptoms of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), we analyzed the FFA content of meibum collected from both MGD patients and control subjects. Thirty-eight patients with MGD (13 men and 25 women; mean age ± SD, 66.9 ± 15.0 years) were evaluated. Various objective signs and subjective symptoms of MGD were assessed. Meibum was analyzed by liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry, and the relation between the FFA composition of meibum and each objective sign and subjective symptom was examined by principal component analysis (PCA). No relation was apparent between the FFA composition of meibum and individual subjective symptoms or objective signs of MGD. However, a PCA score plot for meibum samples grouped on the basis of the severity of both telangiectasia and plugging of meibomian gland orifices revealed clear separation of mild and severe groups. This separation of the two groups was largely due to a significantly increased linoleic acid content in meibum of the severe group (3.56%, versus 0.70% of total FFAs in the mild group). The relative amount of linoleic acid in meibum was thus associated with the severity of telangiectasia and plugging of gland orifices in MGD, suggesting that this FFA might contribute to the pathogenesis of these signs.

  11. Linoleic acid content of human meibum is associated with telangiectasia and plugging of gland orifices in meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Arita, Reiko; Mori, Naoto; Shirakawa, Rika; Asai, Kei; Imanaka, Takahiro; Fukano, Yasufumi; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2016-04-01

    To examine the relation between changes in the free fatty acid (FFA) composition of human meibum and both objective signs and subjective symptoms of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), we analyzed the FFA content of meibum collected from both MGD patients and control subjects. Thirty-eight patients with MGD (13 men and 25 women; mean age ± SD, 66.9 ± 15.0 years) were evaluated. Various objective signs and subjective symptoms of MGD were assessed. Meibum was analyzed by liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry, and the relation between the FFA composition of meibum and each objective sign and subjective symptom was examined by principal component analysis (PCA). No relation was apparent between the FFA composition of meibum and individual subjective symptoms or objective signs of MGD. However, a PCA score plot for meibum samples grouped on the basis of the severity of both telangiectasia and plugging of meibomian gland orifices revealed clear separation of mild and severe groups. This separation of the two groups was largely due to a significantly increased linoleic acid content in meibum of the severe group (3.56%, versus 0.70% of total FFAs in the mild group). The relative amount of linoleic acid in meibum was thus associated with the severity of telangiectasia and plugging of gland orifices in MGD, suggesting that this FFA might contribute to the pathogenesis of these signs. PMID:26919787

  12. A pre-operative planning for endoprosthetic human tracheal implantation: a decision support system based on robust design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, O; Villalobos, J L López; Ginel, A; Cortes, E Barrot; Doblaré, M

    2014-05-01

    Swallowing depends on physiological variables that have a decisive influence on the swallowing capacity and on the tracheal stress distribution. Prosthetic implantation modifies these values and the overall performance of the trachea. The objective of this work was to develop a decision support system based on experimental, numerical and statistical approaches, with clinical verification, to help the thoracic surgeon in deciding the position and appropriate dimensions of a Dumon prosthesis for a specific patient in an optimal time and with sufficient robustness. A code for mesh adaptation to any tracheal geometry was implemented and used to develop a robust experimental design, based on the Taguchi's method and the analysis of variance. This design was able to establish the main swallowing influencing factors. The equations to fit the stress and the vertical displacement distributions were obtained. The resulting fitted values were compared to those calculated directly by the finite element method (FEM). Finally, a checking and clinical validation of the statistical study were made, by studying two cases of real patients. The vertical displacements and principal stress distribution obtained for the specific tracheal model were in agreement with those calculated by FE simulations with a maximum absolute error of 1.2 mm and 0.17 MPa, respectively. It was concluded that the resulting decision support tool provides a fast, accurate and simple tool for the thoracic surgeon to predict the stress state of the trachea and the reduction in the ability to swallow after implantation. Thus, it will help them in taking decisions during pre-operative planning of tracheal interventions. PMID:23046526

  13. Similarity of GATA-3 Expression between Rat and Human Mammary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-07-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. In particular, GATA-3 is necessary for mammary gland maturation and is a useful marker in the characterization of mammary carcinoma in humans. The expression of GATA-3 protein in normal mammary glands, fibroadenomas and carcinomas was immunohistochemically compared in female rats and humans. In normal mammary glands of rats and humans, scattered luminal cells in the acini and whole ductal epithelial cells were positive for GATA-3 in the nuclei. No positive cells were detected in rat or human fibroadenomas. In rat and human mammary carcinomas, the nuclei of proliferating luminal-derived cancer cells expressed GATA-3. Therefore, GATA-3 protein is a candidate marker for mammary carcinoma in rats as well as humans.

  14. Anion exchanger immunoreactivity in human salivary glands in health and Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, J. J.; Vázquez, M.; Idoate, M. A.; Montuenga, L.; Martínez-Ansó, E.; Castillo, J. E.; García, N.; Medina, J. F.; Prieto, J.

    1995-01-01

    Salivary gland ducts play a relevant role in saliva secretion through transport processes. Na(+)-independent chloride-bicarbonate anion exchangers (AE) may be involved in these processes by generating ion fluxes into the salivary secretion. In Sjögren's syndrome, a disorder with gland dysfunction, there might be an impaired expression of AE proteins. Here we study AE immunoreactivities in human salivary glands, both in health and in Sjögren's syndrome. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on salivary glands from normal subjects and patients with Sjögren's syndrome, using two monoclonal antibodies against AE1 and AE2. Normal salivary glands showed AE2 immunoreactivity, which was restricted to the epithelium of the ducts, with no staining at the acini. A strong positivity was seen in the basolateral portion of the striated ducts, while interlobular duct cells showed a discrete positivity at their apical pole. In salivary glands from most of the patients with Sjögren's syndrome, AE2 immunoreactivity was absent in the ducts as well as in the acini. In both normal and diseased salivary glands, AE1 immunoreactivity was only located at the erythrocyte membrane. The recently reported AE0 was discarded because no AE0 message was found in salivary glands by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, AE2 immunoreactivity is observed in the ducts of normal salivary glands, particularly in the striated ducts. AE2 immunoreactivity is virtually absent in salivary glands from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, which may reflect either a loss of AE2 after inflammatory atrophy, or a primary defect occurring in the disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7778681

  15. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  16. Expression of ghrelin in human fetal adrenal glands and paraadrenal nerve ganglions.

    PubMed

    Obara-Moszyńska, Monika; Kedzia, Andrzej; Chmielnicka-Kopaczyk, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was assessment of location, expression and role of ghrelin in the development and maturation of human fetal adrenal glands and paraadrenal nerve ganglions. Immunohistochemistry was used. The strongest expression of ghrelin was detected in the fetal zone of the adrenal glands, in the neuroepithelial cells of the medullar portion of the adrenals and in few nerve ganglion cells. Ghrelin takes part in molecular processes of proliferation and maturation, and does not influence on steroidogenesis.

  17. Effect of Growth Factors on the Proliferation and Gene Expression of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohui; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Hatton, Mark P.; Sullivan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE), induce proliferation, but not differentiation (e.g., lipid accumulation), of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. We also hypothesize that these actions involve a significant upregulation of genes linked to cell cycle processes, and a significant downregulation of genes associated with differentiation. Our objective was to test these hypotheses. Methods. Immortalized human meibomian gland and conjunctival epithelial cells were cultured for varying time periods in the presence or absence of EGF, BPE, EGF + BPE, or serum, followed by cell counting, neutral lipid staining, or RNA isolation for molecular biological procedures. Results. Our studies show that growth factors stimulate a significant, time-dependent proliferation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. These effects are associated with a significant upregulation of genes linked to cell cycle, DNA replication, ribosomes, and translation, and a significant decrease in those related to cell differentiation, tissue development, lipid metabolic processes, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. Serum-induced differentiation, but not growth factor-related proliferation, elicits a pronounced lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This lipogenic response is unique, and is not duplicated by human conjunctival epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that EGF and BPE stimulate human meibomian gland epithelial cells to proliferate. Further, our findings show that action is associated with an upregulation of cell cycle and translation ontologies, and a downregulation of genetic pathways linked to differentiation and lipid biosynthesis. PMID:23493293

  18. Development of a nude mouse model to study human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M J; Zone, J J; Krueger, G G

    1984-10-01

    Study of human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology is limited by lack of an adequate animal model. This study was designed to develop an animal model using human face skin grafted onto the nude mouse to study human sebaceous glands. Full-thickness human face skin was grafted onto 60 adult male nude mice. 4 wk after grafting, androgens, which are known to stimulate sebaceous glands, were administered to test the system. Androgens were administered to 21 animals by implanted catheters that were filled with testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Empty catheters were implanted in 15 control animals. Graft biopsies and blood for androgen levels were obtained at time 1 (pre-catheter) and time 2 (26 d after catheter implantation). Three assessments were made on each biopsy: sebaceous gland volume, using an image analyzing computer; sebaceous cell size; and sebaceous gland labeling index. 29 mice completed the study through time 2. In the androgen-treated group, T levels (nanogram per milliliter) five times increased to 4.92 +/- 0.35, and DHT levels (nanogram per milliliter) increased 50 times to 16.70. In the androgen-treated group, sebaceous gland volume (micron 3 X 10(-3) increased from 896 +/- 194 to 3,233 +/- 754 (P less than 0.001), sebaceous cell area (micron 2) increased from 167 +/- 12 to 243 +/- 19 (P less than 0.001), and labeling index (percentage) increased from 2.7 +/- 0.7 to 6.4 +/- 0.9 (P less than 0.01). In the control group, sebaceous gland volume fell from 1,070 +/- 393 to 417 +/- 99 (NS), sebaceous cell size remained the same, and the labeling index fell from 5.1 +/- 1.9 to 3.2 +/- 1.1. After androgen administration, Halowax N-34, a known comedogen, or its vehicle, was applied to 15 grafts for 2-6 wk. Twice as many microcomedones were seen in the Halowax-treated grafts, compared with vehicle-treated grafts at the end of this time period. No visible comedones were produced. This study demonstrated that: (a) human sebaceous glands can

  19. Electron microprobe analysis of human labial gland secretory granules in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Izutsu, K.; Johnson, D.; Schubert, M.; Wang, E.; Ramsey, B.; Tamarin, A.; Truelove, E.; Ensign, W.; Young, M.

    1985-06-01

    X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried labial gland cryosections revealed that Na concentration was doubled and the Ca/S concentration ratio was decreased in secretory granules of labial glands from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) when compared with glands from normal subjects. Other results suggested that the decrease in the Ca/S concentration ratio resulted from an increase in S concentration. These findings imply that mucous granules in labial saliva showed a CF-related increase in Na and S content, and such changes would be expected to affect the rheology of the mucus after exocytosis. In contrast with a previous study in human parotid glands, no evidence was found for CF-related changes in cytoplasmic or nuclear Na, K, and Ca concentrations. Significant elemental differences were found between secretory granules and nuclei and cytoplasm of control cells.

  20. Nox2/ROS-dependent human antigen R translocation contributes to TNF-α-induced SOCS-3 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Kai; Lee, I-Ta; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2014-03-15

    Elevated levels of TNF-α have been detected in the airway fluids, which may induce upregulation of inflammatory proteins. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 proteins can be induced by various cytokines and negatively regulated inflammatory responses. Although TNF-α has been shown to induce SOCS-3 expression, the mechanisms underlying TNF-α-induced SOCS-3 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) remain unclear. Here, we showed that TNF-α induced SOCS-3 expression, which was inhibited by pretreatment with the inhibitor of transcription level (actinomycin D), translation level (cycloheximide), JNK1/2 (SP600125), MEK1/2 (U0126), NADPH oxidase (Nox; apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride), or reactive oxygen species (ROS; N-acetyl-l-cysteine) and transfection with siRNA of JNK1, p47(phox), p42, Nox2, or human antigen R (HuR). In addition, TNF-α-stimulated JNK1/2 and p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation, Nox activation, and ROS generation were inhibited by pretreatment with U0126 or SP600125 and transfection with siRNA of JNK1 or p42. We further showed that TNF-α markedly induced HuR protein expression and translocation from the nucleus to the cytosol, which could stabilize SOCS-3 mRNA. Moreover, TNF-α-enhanced HuR translocation was reduced by transfection with siRNA of p42, JNK1, or p47(phox). These results suggested that TNF-α induces SOCS-3 protein expression and mRNA stabilization via a TNFR1/JNK1/2, p42/p44 MAPK/Nox2/ROS-dependent HuR signaling in HTSMCs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to play a key role in inflammation via induction of adhesion molecules and then causes airway and lung injury. Moreover, we also demonstrated that overexpression of SOCS-3 protects against LPS-induced adhesion molecules expression and airway inflammation.

  1. The Influence of 13-cis Retinoic Acid on Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Kam, Wendy R.; Dieckow, Julia; Sullivan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a primary cause of dry eye disease. One of the risk factors for MGD is exposure to 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), a metabolite of vitamin A. However, the mechanism is not well understood. We hypothesize that 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell death, alters gene and protein expressions, and attenuates cell survival pathways in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. To test our hypotheses, immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured with or without 13-cis RA for varying doses and time. Cell proliferation, cell death, gene expression, and proteins involved in proliferation/survival and inflammation were evaluated. Results. We found that 13-cis RA inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death, and significantly altered the expression of 6726 genes, including those involved in cell proliferation, cell death, differentiation, keratinization, and inflammation, in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Further, 13-cis RA also reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and increased the generation of interleukin-1β and matrix metallopeptidase 9. Conclusions. Exposure to 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, increases cell death, alters gene expression, changes signaling pathways, and promotes inflammatory mediator and protease expression in meibomian gland epithelial cells. These effects may be responsible, at least in part, for the 13-cis RA–related induction of MGD. PMID:23722388

  2. Morphology and morphometry of the human sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements of edentulous patients

    PubMed Central

    de SÁ, Josiane Costa Rodrigues; TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; IWAKI FILHO, Liogi; LARA, Vanessa Soares; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic mouth floor enlargements may be observed in edentulous patients. These masses, which protrude from the mouth floor, may complicate the fitting of dentures and require surgery. Whether this "entity" may be considered an anatomical variation of the mouth floor or represent specific alterations in the sublingual gland is not known. Objective The aim of this work is to investigate the morphological and morphometric aspects of the sublingual glands of edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements and compare the glands of these patients with the sublingual glands of human cadavers. Material and Methods Microscopic evaluation was performed on human sublingual glands from edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements (n=20) and edentulous cadavers (n=20). The patients and cadavers were of similar ages. The data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests (p<0.05). Results Acinar atrophy, duct-like structures, mononuclear infiltrates, replacement of parenchyma with fibrous/adipose tissue, mucous extravasation and oncocytosis were similar between the groups (p>0.05). Only the variables "autolysis" and "congested blood vessels" presented statistical difference between groups (p=0.014; p=0.043). The morphometric study revealed that the volume densities of acini, ducts, stroma and adipose tissue were similar between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion The microscopic characteristics of the sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements in edentulous patients correspond to characteristics associated with the normal aging process. The glands are not pathological and represent an age-related alteration that occurs with or without the presence of the mouth floor enlargements. PMID:24473720

  3. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients.

  4. "Sebocytes' makeup": novel mechanisms and concepts in the physiology of the human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllosi, Attila G; Czifra, Gabriella; Bíró, Tamás

    2011-06-01

    The pilosebaceous unit of the human skin consists of the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Within this "mini-organ", the sebaceous gland has been neglected by the researchers of the field for several decades. Actually, it was labeled as a reminiscence of human development ("a living fossil with a past but no future"), and was thought to solely act as a producer of sebum, a lipid-enriched oily substance which protects our skin (and hence the body) against various insults. However, due to emerging research activities of the past two decades, it has now become evident that the sebaceous gland is not only a "passive" cutaneous "relic" to establish the physico-chemical barrier function of the skin against constant environmental challenges, but it rather functions as an "active" neuro-immuno-endocrine cutaneous organ. This review summarizes recent findings of sebaceous gland research by mainly focusing on newly discovered physiological functions, novel regulatory mechanisms, key events in the pathology of the gland, and future directions in both experimental and clinical dermatology.

  5. [Changes in human meibum with meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaodan; Lyu, Huibin; Jiang, Xiaodan; Li, Xuemin

    2015-03-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common ocular surface disease, characterized by terminal duct obstruction and (or) qualitative and quantitative changes in the glandular secretion. Meibomian lipids are a mixture consisting of various lipids, and they form the lipid layer of tear film and play important roles in preventing the evaporation and maintaining the stability of tear film. Patients with MGD may have different compositions of meibomian lipids, which could be an important indicator for diagnosis of MGD. The methods to analyze the composition of meibomian lipids mainly include chromatography and spectrum analysis. Because the pathogenic factors of MGD are still unclear, the main treatment is to relieve the symptoms. It can contribute to diagnose and treat MGD if we can find some convenient and effective methods to analyze the quality and quantity of meibomian lipids.

  6. [Changes in human meibum with meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaodan; Lyu, Huibin; Jiang, Xiaodan; Li, Xuemin

    2015-03-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common ocular surface disease, characterized by terminal duct obstruction and (or) qualitative and quantitative changes in the glandular secretion. Meibomian lipids are a mixture consisting of various lipids, and they form the lipid layer of tear film and play important roles in preventing the evaporation and maintaining the stability of tear film. Patients with MGD may have different compositions of meibomian lipids, which could be an important indicator for diagnosis of MGD. The methods to analyze the composition of meibomian lipids mainly include chromatography and spectrum analysis. Because the pathogenic factors of MGD are still unclear, the main treatment is to relieve the symptoms. It can contribute to diagnose and treat MGD if we can find some convenient and effective methods to analyze the quality and quantity of meibomian lipids. PMID:26268646

  7. Histamine H1 receptor induces cytosolic calcium increase and aquaporin translocation in human salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Park, Seong-Hae; Moon, Young Wha; Hwang, Sungmin; Kim, Donghoon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Oh, Seog Bae; Kim, Joong Soo; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Sung Joong; Choi, Se-Young; Park, Kyungpyo

    2009-08-01

    One of the common side effects of antihistamine medicines is xerostomia (dry mouth). The current consensus is that antihistamine-induced xerostomia comes from an antimuscarinic effect. Although the effect of antihistamines on salivary secretion is both obvious and significant, the cellular mechanism whereby this happens is still unclear because of the lack of knowledge of histamine signaling in human salivary glands. Here, we have studied histamine receptors and the effect of antihistamines on human submandibular acinar cells. In primary cultured human submandibular gland and a HSG cell line, histamine increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The histamine-induced cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor-specific antagonists, and the expression of the functional histamine H1 receptor was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, histamine pretreatment did not inhibit a subsequent carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise without "heterologous desensitization." Chlorpheniramine inhibited a carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase at a 100-fold greater concentration than histamine receptor antagonism, whereas astemizole and cetrizine showed more than 1000-fold difference, which in part explains the xerostomia-inducing potency among the antihistamines. Notably, histamine resulted in translocation of aquaporin-5 to the plasma membrane in human submandibular gland cells and green fluorescent protein-tagged aquaporin-5 expressing HSG cells. We found that histidine decarboxylase and the histamine H1 receptor are broadly distributed in submandibular gland cells, whereas choline acetyltransferase is localized only at the parasympathetic terminals. Our results suggest that human salivary gland cells express histamine H1 receptors and histamine-synthesizing enzymes, revealing the cellular mechanism of antihistamine-induced xerostomia. PMID:19443731

  8. Changes in human meibum lipid with meibomian gland dysfunction using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta C; Foulks, Gary N

    2010-08-01

    Changes in the phase transition temperatures and conformation of human meibum lipid with age and meibomian gland dysfunction have been quantified but with analysis of less than 1% of the infrared spectral range. The remaining 99% of the spectral range was analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA) and confirms our previous studies and reveal further insights into changes that occur in meibum with age and disease. Infrared spectra of meibum from 41 patients diagnosed with meibomian gland dysfunction (Md) and 32 normal donors (Mn) were measured. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to quantify the variance among the spectra and meibum protein was quantified using the infrared carbonyl and amide I and II bands. A training set of spectra was used to discriminate between Mn and Md with an accuracy of 93%. This shows that certain spectral regions (eigenvectors) contain compositional and structural information about the changes that occur with the principal component (variable), meibomian gland dysfunction. The spectral features of the major eigenvector indicate that Md contains more protein and relatively less CH(3) and cis = CH band intensity compared to Mn. The amount of protein was confirmed from relative infrared band intensities. Our study supports the idea that compositional differences result in meibum that is less fluid and more viscous with meibomian gland dysfunction so that less lipid flows out of the meibomian gland orifice as observed clinically. This study also demonstrates the power of the combination of infrared spectroscopy and PCA as a diagnostic tool that discriminates between Mn and Md.

  9. In vitro transformation of cell lines from human salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Queimado, L; Lopes, C; Du, F; Martins, C; Fonseca, I; Bowcock, A M; Soares, J; Lovett, M

    1999-05-31

    Explanted cells from salivary gland tumors are particularly difficult to propagate in vitro and not efficiently immortalized by agents such as simian virus 40. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) has been widely used to transform cells of epithelial origin, but its use for salivary gland cell transformation has not been described. In this study, we employed viral constructs containing the E6/E7 genes of HPV16 to infect and stably transform 9 salivary gland tumor cell cultures. Four of the tumor cell cultures were derived from benign tumors and 5 from malignant tumors. All of the original cell cultures were diploid; however, 6 contained subpopulations of cells with structural abnormalities. All 9 cell cultures were successfully transformed, and 8 were immortalized. The resulting cell lines have decreased serum requirements, exhibit a high proliferation rate, are E6/E7-positive and form colonies in soft agar. Immuno-histochemical and molecular studies confirmed that the transformed cells were indeed epithelial/myoepithelial in origin. All of the transformed cell lines had a diploid or near-diploid karyotype, and 2 contained the original translocated chromosomes in all cells. Our report represents a new application of the E6/E7 system in immortalizing salivary gland cell cultures, resulting in retention of the cellular features found in the native tissue without a general destabilization of the karyotype. These types of tissue culture resources should prove useful for positional cloning and functional studies of genes involved in salivary gland oncogenesis.

  10. Correlation of human Bub1 expression with tumor-proliferating activity in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Yoneda, Shingo; Taki, Masayuki; Nobumori, Takeshi; Ohta, Kouji; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Yasui, Wataru; Kamata, Nobuyuki

    2006-04-01

    Human Bub1 plays an important role at the spindle assembly check-point to prevent cell cycle progression following spindle damage. We examined the expression of Bub1 mRNA and protein in 21 human salivary gland tumors (7 pleomorphic adenomas, 2 warthin tumors, 5 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 3 adenoid cystic carcinomas and 4 acinic cell carcinomas) and 3 normal submandibular glands using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or western blotting. The mean expression levels of Bub1 mRNA and protein were higher in malignant tumors (0.12+/-0.028/1.75+/-0.53) than normal submandibular glands (0.042+/-0.014/0.19+/-0.044) and benign tumors (0.058+/-0.01/0.97+/-0.44). We found a significant association between the level of Bub1 mRNA/protein expression and clinical stage in malignant tumors (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.019/p=0.016). We analyzed its relation with the proliferative activity monitored by the Ki-67 labeling index by immunohistochemistry as well as the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by Western blotting. A significant correlation was found between Bub1 mRNA/protein expression and the Ki-67 labeling index in salivary gland tumors (Spearman's correlation coefficient by rank test, p=0.026/p=0.002). These results indicate that increased expression of the human Bub1 gene is closely linked to abnormal cell proliferation in malignant conditions.

  11. Three-Dimensional Human Bronchial-Tracheal Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLAs) as Hosts For Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suderman, M. T.; McCarthy, M.; Mossell, E.; Watts, D. M.; Peters, C. J.; Shope, R.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-like assembly (TLA) of human bronchial-tracheal mesenchymal (HBTC) cells with an overlay of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells was constructed using a NASA Bioreactor to survey the infectivity of SARS-CoV. This TLA was inoculated with a low passage number Urbani strain of SARS-CoV. At selected intervals over a 10-day period, media and cell aliquots of the 3-D TLA were harvested for viral titer assay and for light and electron microscopy examination. All viral titer assays were negative in both BEAS-2B two-dimensional monolayer and TLA. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry demonstrated antigen-antibody reactivity with anti-SARS-CoV polyclonal antibody to spike and nuclear proteins on cell membranes and cytoplasm. Coronavirus Group 2 cross-reactivity was demonstrated by positive reaction to anti-FIPV 1 and anti-FIPV 1 and 2 antibodies. TLA examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated increasing cytoplasmic vacuolation with numerous electron-dense bodies measuring 45 to 270 nm from days 4 through 10. There was no evidence of membrane blebbing, membrane duplication, or fragmentation of organelles in the TLAs. However, progressive disruption of endoplasmic reticulum was observed throughout the cells. Antibody response to SARS-CoV specific spike and nucleocapsid glycoproteins, cross-reactivity with FIPV antibodies, and the cytoplasmic pathology suggests this HBTE TLA model is permissive to SARS-CoV infection.

  12. Stem cells in the development and differentiation of the human adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    There are no studies on stem cells (SCs) and development and differentiation (DD) of the human adrenal glands. The SCs in DD of the adrenal glands were herein investigated histochemically and immunohistochemically in 18 human embryonic adrenal glands at gestational week (GW) 7-40. At 7 GW, the adrenal glands were present, and at 7 GW, numerous embryonic SCs (ESCs) are seen to create the adrenal cortex. The ESCs were composed exclusively of small cells with hyperchromatic nuclei without nucleoli. The ESCs were positive for neural cell adhesion molecule, KIT, neuron-specific enolase, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α, synaptophysin, and MET. They were negative for other SC antigens, including chromogranin, ErbB2, and bcl-2. They were also negative for lineage antigens, including cytokeratin (CK)7, CK8, CK18, and CK19, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, epithelial membrane antigen, HepPar1, mucin core apoprotein (MUC)1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6, and cluster differentiation (CD)3, CD45, CD20, CD34, and CD31. The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was high (Ki-67 LI = around 20%). α-Fetoprotein was positive in the ESCs and adrenal cells. The ESC was first seen in the periphery of the adrenal cortex at 7-10 GW. The ESC migrates into the inner part of the adrenal cortex. Huge islands of ESC were present near the adrenal, and they appeared to provide the ESC of the adrenal. At 16 GW, adrenal medulla appeared, and the adrenal ESCs were present in the periphery or the cortex, in the cortical parenchyma, corticomedullary junctions, and in the medulla. The adrenal essential architecture was established around 20 GW; however, there were still ESCs. At term, there are a few ESCs. These data suggest that the adrenal glands were created by ESCs.

  13. Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Shoji, Itaru; Shibasaki, Akiko; Kato, Ichiro; Hiraishi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kaneko, Kiriko; Murakami, Osamu; Morimoto, Ryo; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Totsune, Kazuhito

    2010-05-01

    Kisspeptins are neuropeptides which activate the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis and are considered to play important physiological roles in the reproduction. Kisspeptins have also been reported to stimulate the aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex. However, the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors has not been clarified yet. We, therefore, studied the presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors (adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas) by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. Kisspeptin-LI was detected in all the tissues examined; normal portions of adrenal glands (3.0 +/- 2.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 21, mean +/- SD), aldosterone-producing adenomas (4.6 +/- 3.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-producing adenomas (2.7 +/- 1.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 14), adrenocortical carcinomas (1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.8 +/- 0.8 pmol/g wet weight, n = 6). There was no significant difference in kisspeptin-LI levels among them. Immunocytochemistry showed positive kisspeptin-immunostaining in normal adrenal glands, with stronger immunostaining found in the medulla. Furthermore, positive kisspeptin-immunostaining was found in all types of adrenal tumors examined; adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas. The intensity of kisspeptin-immunostaining in these adrenal tumors was, however, not so strong as that in normal adrenal medulla. The present study has shown for the first time the presence of kisspeptin-LI in adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.

  14. Mammary gland-specific expression of biologically active human osteoprotegerin in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Lee, Chul-Sang

    2013-03-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates bone resorption by inhibiting differentiation and activation of osteoclast, thereby potentially useful for the treatment of many bone diseases associated with increased bone loss. In this study, we designed a novel cDNA expression cassette by modifying the potent and mammary gland-specific goat β-casein/hGH hybrid gene construct and examined human OPG (hOPG) cDNA expression in transgenic mice. Six transgenic mice all successfully expressed hOPG in their milk at the level of 0.06-2,000 µg/ml. An estimated molecular weight of the milk hOPG was 55 kDa in SDS-PAGE, which is the same as a naturally glycosylated monomer. This hOPG expression was highly specific to the mammary glands of transgenic mice. hOPG mRNA was not detected in any organs analyzed except mammary gland. Functional integrity of milk hOPG was evaluated by TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) activity assay in bone marrow cell cultures. OPG ligand (OPG-L) treatment increased TRAP activity by two fold but it was completely abolished by co-treatment with transgenic milk containing hOPG. Taken together, our novel cDNA expression cassette could direct an efficient expression of biologically active hOPG, a potential candidate pharmaceutical for bone diseases, only in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

  15. Tracheal Resection for Symptomatic Tracheal Stenosis During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Mariam; Muniappan, Ashok; Modest, Vicki; Mathisen, Douglas J; Madapu, Manokanth; Bryant, Allison; Kaimal, Anjali

    2016-04-01

    A 31-year-old multipara was diagnosed with tracheal stenosis that developed after intubation after an intentional benzodiazepine overdose in the first trimester of pregnancy. Tracheal dilations only temporarily improved her dyspnea at rest. A definitive repair by tracheal resection and reconstruction was performed at 28 weeks' gestation. Her symptoms resolved, and she delivered vaginally at 36 weeks' gestation after spontaneous labor. PMID:27000585

  16. Effectiveness of skin absorption of tincture of I in blocking radioiodine from the human thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.L.; Coen, P.E.; White, W.J.; Hurst, W.J.; Achey, B.E.; Lang, C.M.

    1989-06-01

    Topical application of tincture of iodine (I) was found to be effective in blocking the thyroid uptake of orally administered /sup 131/I in humans. Abdominal skin application of tincture of I resulted in an approximately 82% reduction in the uptake of /sup 131/I by the thyroid gland. The effectiveness varied among individuals and may have depended on the quantity applied and on the application site. In each study group, elevated levels of serum I were observed.

  17. Obstructive Fibrinous Tracheal Pseudomembrane After Tracheal Intubation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeon Hui; Kim, Jin Woo; Kang, Ji Young; Kim, Ju Sang; Kim, Myung Sook; Kim, Seung Su; Kim, Yong Hyun; Moon, Hwa Sik

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive fibrinous tracheal pseudomembrane is a rare, but potentially fatal complication associated with endotracheal intubation. It has been known that the formation of tracheal pseudomembrane is related with intracuff pressure during endotracheal intubation or infectious cause. But in the patient described in this case, pseudomembrane formation in the trachea was associated with subglottic epithelial trauma or caustic injuries to the trachea caused by aspirated gastric contents during intubation rather than tracheal ischemia due to high cuff pressure. We report a patient with obstructive fibrinous tracheal pseudomembrane after endotracheal intubation who presented with dyspnea and stridor and was treated successfully with mechanical removal using rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:20808687

  18. Interaction of the tracheal tubules of Scutigera coleoptrata (Chilopoda, Notostigmophora) with glandular structures of the pericardial septum

    PubMed Central

    Hilken, Gero; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Müller, Carsten H.G.; Sombke, Andy; Wirkner, Christian S.; Rosenberg, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Notostigmophora (Scutigeromorpha) exhibit a special tracheal system compared to other Chilopoda. The unpaired spiracles are localized medially on the long tergites and open into a wide atrium from which hundreds of tracheal tubules originate and extend into the pericardial sinus. Previous investigators reported that the tracheal tubules float freely in the hemolymph. However, here we show for the first time that the tracheal tubules are anchored to a part of the pericardial septum. Another novel finding is this part of the pericardial septum is structured as an aggregated gland on the basis of its specialized epithelium being formed by hundreds of oligocellular glands. It remains unclear whether the pericardial septum has a differently structure in areas that lack a connection with tracheal tubules. The tracheal tubules come into direct contact with the canal cells of the glands that presumably secrete mucous substances covering the entire luminal cuticle of the tracheal tubules. Connections between tracheae and glands have not been observed in any other arthropods. PMID:26257546

  19. Advances in Tracheal Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salna, Michael; Waddell, Thomas K.; Hofer, Stefan O.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: A recent revival of global interest for reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects, which represents one of the most interesting and complex problems in head and neck and thoracic reconstructive surgery, has been witnessed. The trachea functions as a conduit for air, and its subunits including the epithelial layer, hyaline cartilage, and segmental blood supply make it particularly challenging to reconstruct. A myriad of attempts at replacing the trachea have been described. These along with the anatomy, indications, and approaches including microsurgical tracheal reconstruction will be reviewed. Novel techniques such as tissue-engineering approaches will also be discussed. Multiple attempts at replacing the trachea with synthetic scaffolds have been met with failure. The main lesson learned from such failures is that the trachea must not be treated as a “simple tube.” Understanding the anatomy, developmental biology, physiology, and diseases affecting the trachea are required for solving this problem. PMID:25426361

  20. Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured with salivary gland biopsies adopt an epithelial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Maria, Ola M; Tran, Simon D

    2011-06-01

    Sjogren's syndrome and radiotherapy for head and neck cancer result in severe xerostomia and irreversible salivary gland damage for which no effective treatment is currently available. Cell culture methods of primary human salivary gland epithelial cells (huSGs) are slow and cannot provide a sufficient number of cells. In addition, the majority of cultured huSGs are of a ductal phenotype and thus not fluid/saliva secretory cells. Some reports indicated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possessed the potential to differentiate into epithelial cells. To test this hypothesis with huSGs, a coculture system containing 2 chambers separated by a polyester membrane was used to study the capacity of human MSCs to adopt an epithelial phenotype when cocultured with human salivary gland biopsies. Results were that 20%-40% of cocultured MSCs expressed tight junction proteins [claudin-1 (CLDN-1), -2, -3, and -4; occludin; junctional adhesion molecule-A; and zonula occludens-1] as well as other epithelial markers [aquaporin-5, α-amylase (α-AMY), and E-cadherin], and generated a higher transepithelial electrical resistance. Electron microscopy demonstrated that these MSCs had comparable cellular structures to huSGs, such as tight junction structures and numerous secretory granules. Quantitative real time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction revealed an upregulation of several salivary genes (aquaporin-5, AMY, and CLDN-2). Moreover, the amounts of α-AMY detected in cocultured MSCs were comparable to those detected in huSGs control cultures. These data suggest that cocultured MSCs can demonstrate a temporary change into a salivary gland acinar phenotype.

  1. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

    PubMed Central

    AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; de ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; LARA, Vanessa Soares; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years); II (31–60), and III (61–90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death. PMID:26537715

  2. Examination of Duct Physiology in the Human Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Dixie; Gomberawalla, Ameer; Gordon, Eva J.; Tondre, Julie; Nejad, Mitra; Nguyen, Tinh; Pogoda, Janice M.; Rao, Jianyu; Chatterton, Robert; Henning, Susanne; Love, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human breast comprise several ductal systems, or lobes, which contain a small amount of fluid containing cells, hormones, proteins and metabolites. The complex physiology of these ducts is likely a contributing factor to the development of breast cancer, especially given that the vast majority of breast cancers begin in a single lobular unit. Methods We examined the levels of total protein, progesterone, estradiol, estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and macrophages in ductal fluid samples obtained from 3 ducts each in 78 women, sampled twice over a 6 month period. Samples were processed for both cytological and molecular analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients and mixed models were utilized to identify significant data. Results We found that the levels of these ductal fluid components were generally uncorrelated among ducts within a single breast and over time, suggesting that each lobe within the breast has a distinct physiology. However, we also found that estradiol was more correlated in women who were nulliparous or produced nipple aspirate fluid. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the microenvironment of any given lobular unit is unique to that individual unit, findings that may provide clues about the initiation and development of ductal carcinomas. PMID:27073976

  3. An immunohistochemical study of Na+/I- symporter in human thyroid tissues and salivary gland tissues.

    PubMed

    Jhiang, S M; Cho, J Y; Ryu, K Y; DeYoung, B R; Smanik, P A; McGaughy, V R; Fischer, A H; Mazzaferri, E L

    1998-10-01

    The human Na+/I- symporter (hNIS) is the plasma membrane protein that mediates active iodide uptake into several tissues, such as the thyroid and salivary glands. To study the distribution and cellular localization of the hNIS protein, we have generated a polyclonal antibody that could detect the hNIS protein by immunohistochemical staining on tissue sections. In normal thyroids, hNIS expression is heterogeneous, and it is only detected in sporadic thyrocytes of a given follicle. The hNIS protein was not detected in thyroid carcinomas, yet it was detected in the majority of thyrocytes in Graves' thyroids. In salivary glands, hNIS protein was not detected in acinar cells, but it was detected in ductal cells. The hNIS proteins are clustered in the basal and lateral membranes in cells stained positive for hNIS.

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of tenascin in normal human salivary glands and in pleomorphic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sunardhi-Widyaputra, S; Van Damme, B

    1993-03-01

    The presence of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin was studied immunohistochemically in normal human salivary glands and in pleomorphic adenomas. Its expression was compared to that of fibronectin, and type IV collagen. In the normal salivary gland, tenascin was found with interruptions in periductal tissues, and continuously in blood vessels, fat cells and around nerve bundles. In pleomorphic adenoma, tenascin was detected surrounding the clusters of epithelioid cells, in areas with a myxoid and a chondroid matrix, and around some myoepithelial cells as a halo. As compared to fibronectin, there is a similar location of tenascin and fibronectin around tumor cell clusters but not in myxoid and chondroid matrices. Fibronectin was found around the cells in chondroid matrix. In conclusion, tenascin is not only found in malignant tumors but also in benign tumors such as pleomorphic adenoma. The presence of tenascin as a halo around myoepithelial cells suggests a role of these cells in development of myxoid and chondroid matrices.

  5. Development of peptide-containing nerves in the human fetal prostate gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jen, P Y; Dixon, J S

    1995-01-01

    Immunohistochemical methods were used to study the developing peptidergic innervation of the human fetal prostate gland in a series of specimens ranging in gestational age from 13 to 30 wk. The overall innervation of each specimen was visualised using protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), a general nerve marker. The onset and development of specific neuropeptide-containing subpopulations were investigated using antisera to neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), bombesin (BOM), somatostatin (SOM), leu-enkephalin (l-ENK) and met-enkephalin (m-ENK). In addition the occurrence and distribution of presumptive noradrenergic nerves was studied using antisera to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). At 13 wk numerous branching PGP-immunoreactive (-IR) nerves were observed in the capsule of the developing prostate gland and surrounding the preprostatic urethra but the remainder of the gland was devoid of nerves. The majority of nerves in the capsule contained D beta H and TH and were presumed to be noradrenergic in type while other nerves (in decreasing numbers) contained NPY, l-ENK, SP and CGRP. Nerves associated with the preprostatic urethra did not contain any of the neuropeptides under investigation. At 17 wk the density of nerves in the capsule had increased and occasional m-ENK-, VIP- and BOM-IR nerve fibres were also observed. In addition PGP, D beta H-, TH-, NPY- and l-ENK-IR nerves occurred in association with smooth muscle bundles which at 17 wk were present in the outer part of the gland. Occasional PGP-IR nerves were also present at the base of the epithelium forming some of the prostatic glands. At 23 wk some of the subepithelial nerves showed immunoreactivity for NPY, VIP or l-ENK. At 26 wk smooth muscle bundles occurred throughout the gland and were richly innervated by PGP, D beta H and TH-IR nerves while a less dense plexus was formed by NPY- and l

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein-6 is a marker of serous acinar cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic human salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Heikinheimo, K A; Laine, M A; Ritvos, O V; Voutilainen, R J; Hogan, B L; Leivo, I V; Heikinheimo, A K

    1999-11-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-6, also known as vegetal-pale-gene-related and decaplentaplegic-vegetal-related) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of multifunctional signaling molecules. BMP-6 appears to play various biological roles in developing tissues, including regulation of epithelial differentiation. To study the possible involvement of BMP-6 in normal and neoplastic human salivary glands, we compared its mRNA and protein expression in 4 fetal and 15 adult salivary glands and in 22 benign and 32 malignant salivary gland tumors. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis indicated that BMP-6 transcripts are expressed at low levels in acinar cells of adult submandibular glands but not in ductal or stromal cells. BMP-6 was immunolocated specifically in serous acini of parotid and submandibular glands. None was found in primitive fetal acini or any other types of cell in adult salivary glands, including mucous acini and epithelial cells of intercalated, striated, and excretory ducts. All 16 cases of acinic cell carcinoma consistently exhibited cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining in the acinar tumor cells. Other cell types in these tumors, including intercalated duct-like cells, clear, vacuolated cells, and nonspecific glandular cells, exhibited no cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining. Other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors lacked BMP-6 immunoreactivity, except in areas of squamous differentiation. The results indicate that in salivary glands, BMP-6 expression is uniquely associated with acinar cell differentiation and suggest that BMP-6 may play a role in salivary gland function. More importantly, our experience of differential diagnostic problems related to salivary gland tumors suggests that the demonstration of consistent and specific BMP-6 immunoreactivity in acinic cell carcinoma is likely to be of clinical value.

  7. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  8. The use of human sweat gland-derived stem cells for enhancing vascularization during dermal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Danner, Sandra; Kremer, Mathias; Petschnik, Anna Emilia; Nagel, Sabine; Zhang, Ziyang; Hopfner, Ursula; Reckhenrich, Ann K; Weber, Caroline; Schenck, Thilo L; Becker, Tim; Kruse, Charli; Machens, Hans-Günther; Egaña, José T

    2012-06-01

    Vascularization is a key process in tissue engineering and regeneration and represents one of the most important issues in the field of regenerative medicine. Thus, several strategies to improve vascularization are currently under clinical evaluation. In this study, stem cells derived from human sweat glands were isolated, characterized, seeded in collagen scaffolds, and engrafted in a mouse full skin defect model for dermal regeneration. Results showed that these cells exhibit high proliferation rates and express stem cell and differentiation markers. Moreover, cells responded to angiogenic environments by increasing their migration (P<0.001) and proliferation (P<0.05) capacity and forming capillary-like structures. After seeding in the scaffolds, cells distributed homogeneously, interacting directly with the scaffold, and released bioactive molecules involved in angiogenesis, immune response, and tissue remodeling. In vivo, scaffolds containing cells were used to induce dermal regeneration. Here we have found that the presence of the cells significantly improved vascularization (P<0.001). As autologous sweat gland-derived stem cells are easy to obtain, exhibit a good proliferation capacity, and improve vascularization during dermal regeneration, we suggest that the combined use of sweat gland-derived stem cells and scaffolds for dermal regeneration might improve dermal regeneration in future clinical settings.

  9. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is primarily composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the thymus, ...

  10. Comparative stereological studies on zonation and cellular composition of adrenal glands of normal and anencephalic human fetuses. II. Cellular composition of the gland.

    PubMed

    Bocian-Sobkowska, J; Malendowicz, L K; Woźniak, W

    1997-04-01

    In our previous paper (Bocian-Sobkowska et al., 1997) we demonstrated a striking difference in development of zonation in adrenals of normal and anencephalic human fetuses. The purpose of the present study was to characterize, by means of stereology, the cellular composition of developing adrenals in the same case. Studies were performed on 11 pairs of adrenal glands from normal fetuses and 10 from anencephalic fetuses. In the studied period of development (24 to 39 weeks of intra-uterine life) the average volume of cells in normal glands increased as follows: zona glomerulosa (ZG) from 355 to 870 microns3; zona fasciculata (ZF) from 779 to 1200 microns3; fetal zone (FZ) from 2004 to 2380 microns3: and medulla (M) from 600 to 970 microns3. In anencephalic fetuses, the appropriate values were: ZG-380-680 microns3; ZF-460-680 microns3; FZ-1820-1680 microns3; and M-870-1400 microns3. At the end of the studied period the number of ZG cells in normal fetuses was two fold higher than in anencephalics, ZF cells-6-fold and in FZ-5-fold higher, while in the M the number of cells was nearly equal in both groups. During the whole investigated period of intra-uterine development the total number of adrenocortical cells in normal glands increased ca 2.5-fold, while in anencephalic glands only ca 0.5-fold, reaching at the end ca 40% of normal value. In both normal and anencephalic adrenals the number of ZG and M cells was highly correlated with ZG/M cell ratio, being slightly higher in normal glands. No such relation was demonstrated for cells of the remaining adrenocortical zones. PMID:9151128

  11. Lipopolysaccharide induces VCAM-1 expression and neutrophil adhesion to human tracheal smooth muscle cells: Involvement of Src/EGFR/PI3-K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.-N.; Luo, S.-F.; Wu, C.-B.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2008-04-15

    In our previous study, LPS has been shown to induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) expression through MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). In addition to these pathways, the non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src), EGF receptor (EGFR), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to be implicated in the expression of several inflammatory target proteins. Here, we reported that LPS-induced up-regulation of VCAM-1 enhanced the adhesion of neutrophils onto HTSMC monolayer, which was inhibited by LY294002 and wortmannin. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinases including Src, PYK2, and EGFR, which were further confirmed using specific anti-phospho-Src, PYK2, or EGFR Ab, respectively, revealed by Western blotting. LPS-stimulated Src, PYK2, EGFR, and Akt phosphorylation and VCAM-1 expression were attenuated by the inhibitors of Src (PP1), EGFR (AG1478), PI3-K (LY294002 and wortmannin), and Akt (SH-5), respectively, or transfection with siRNAs of Src or Akt and shRNA of p110. LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was also blocked by pretreatment with curcumin (a p300 inhibitor) or transfection with p300 siRNA. LPS-stimulated Akt activation translocated into nucleus and associated with p300 and VCAM-1 promoter region was further confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. This association of Akt and p300 to VCAM-1 promoter was inhibited by pretreatment with PP1, AG1478, wortmannin, and SH-5. LPS-induced p300 activation enhanced VCAM-1 promoter activity and VCAM-1 mRNA expression. These results suggested that in HTSMCs, Akt phosphorylation mediated through transactivation of Src/PYK2/EGFR promoted the transcriptional p300 activity and eventually led to VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS.

  12. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  13. Interferon-gamma increased epithelial barrier function via upregulating claudin-7 expression in human submandibular gland duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ayumi; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are necessary for salivary gland function and may serve as indicators of salivary gland epithelial dysfunction. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition which disrupts the TJ associated epithelial barrier. The salivary glands are one of the most frequently involved organs in IgG4-RD, however, changes of the TJ associated epithelial barrier in salivary gland duct epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of TJs in human submandibular gland ductal epithelial cells (HSDECs) in normal and IgG4-RD. We examined submandibular gland (SMG) tissue from eight control individuals and 22 patients with IgG4-RD and established an HSDEC culture system. Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were performed. Claudin-4, claudin-7, occludin, and JAM-A were expressed at the apical side of the duct epithelium in submandibular gland (SMG) tissue and at the cell borders in HSDECs of normal and IgG4-RD. The expression and distribution of TJs in SMG tissue were not different in control individuals and patients with IgG4-RD in vivo and in vitro. Although interferon-gamma (IFNγ) generally disrupts the integrity and function of TJs, as manifested by decreased epithelial barrier function, IFNγ markedly increased the epithelial barrier function of HSDECs via upregulation of claudin-7 expression in HSDECs from patients with IgG4-RD. This is the first report showing an IFNγ-dependent increase in epithelial barrier function in the salivary gland duct epithelium. Our results provide insights into the functional significance of TJs in salivary gland duct epithelium in physiological and pathological conditions, including IgG4-RD.

  14. Interferon-gamma increased epithelial barrier function via upregulating claudin-7 expression in human submandibular gland duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ayumi; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are necessary for salivary gland function and may serve as indicators of salivary gland epithelial dysfunction. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition which disrupts the TJ associated epithelial barrier. The salivary glands are one of the most frequently involved organs in IgG4-RD, however, changes of the TJ associated epithelial barrier in salivary gland duct epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of TJs in human submandibular gland ductal epithelial cells (HSDECs) in normal and IgG4-RD. We examined submandibular gland (SMG) tissue from eight control individuals and 22 patients with IgG4-RD and established an HSDEC culture system. Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were performed. Claudin-4, claudin-7, occludin, and JAM-A were expressed at the apical side of the duct epithelium in submandibular gland (SMG) tissue and at the cell borders in HSDECs of normal and IgG4-RD. The expression and distribution of TJs in SMG tissue were not different in control individuals and patients with IgG4-RD in vivo and in vitro. Although interferon-gamma (IFNγ) generally disrupts the integrity and function of TJs, as manifested by decreased epithelial barrier function, IFNγ markedly increased the epithelial barrier function of HSDECs via upregulation of claudin-7 expression in HSDECs from patients with IgG4-RD. This is the first report showing an IFNγ-dependent increase in epithelial barrier function in the salivary gland duct epithelium. Our results provide insights into the functional significance of TJs in salivary gland duct epithelium in physiological and pathological conditions, including IgG4-RD. PMID:26956365

  15. Dynamic analysis for mental sweating of a group of eccrin sweat glands on a human fingertip by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Tanigawa, Motomu; Wada, Yuki; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2011-05-01

    OCT is highly potential for in vivo observation of human sweating dynamics which affects activity of the sympathetic nerve. In this paper, we demonstrate dynamic OCT analysis of mental sweating of a group of eccrin sweat glands. The sweating dynamics is tracked simultaneously for nineteen sweat glands by time-sequential piled-up en-face OCT images with the frame spacing of 3.3 sec. Strong non-uniformity is observed in mental sweating where the amount of excess sweat is different for each sweat gland although the sweat glands are adjacent to each other. The non-uniformity should be necessary to adjust as precisely the total amount of excess sweat as possible through the sympathetic nerve in response to strength of the stress.

  16. Induction and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells from human buccal fat pads into salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Miyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira; Mataga, Izumi

    2016-07-01

    Atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland because of aging or disease leads to hyposalivation that affects patient quality of life by causing dry mouth, deterioration of mastication/deglutition, and poor oral hygiene status. Current therapy for atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland in clinical practice focuses on symptom relief using drugs and artificial saliva; therefore, there is still a need to develop new therapies. To investigate potential novel therapeutic targets, we induced the differentiation of salivary gland cells by co-culturing human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from buccal fat pads (hBFP-ASCs) with human salivary-gland-derived fibroblasts (hSG-fibros). We examined their potential for transplantation and tissue neogenesis. Following the culture of hBFP-ASCs and hSG-fibros, differentiated cells were transplanted into the submandibular glands of SCID mice, and their degree of differentiation in tissues was determined. We also examined their potential for functional tissue reconstitution using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Co-cultured cells expressed salivary-glandrelated markers and generated new tissues following transplantation in vivo. Moreover, cell reconstituted glandular structures in the 3D culture system. In conclusion, coculture of hSG-fibros with hBFP-ASCs led to successful differentiation into salivary gland cells that could be transplanted to generate new tissues.

  17. Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11: new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Toyoda, Yu; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Niikawa, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 538G > A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg) in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter in apocrine glands. The wild-type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G > A) in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G > A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients’ response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy. PMID:23316210

  18. Nicotine and methyl methane sulfonate in mini organ cultures of human parotid gland tissue.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Friehs, Gudrun; Koehler, Christian; Hackenberg, Stephan; Voelker, Hans-Ullrich; Richter, Elmar; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2010-08-16

    The aim was to demonstrate the applicability of using mini organ cultures (MOC) of the human parotid gland for indicating DNA damage by nicotine. Macroscopically healthy specimens of human parotid glands (1 mm3) were cultured for 7 d. Morphology was examined after HE and immunohistochemical staining of alpha-amylase. MOC were exposed to 2.0 mM nicotine or 100 microM methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for 1, 2 and 3 h, followed by a regeneration period of 24 h. DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay. Histological findings demonstrated healthy acinar cells up to 8 days of culture and a strong expression pattern of alpha-amylase. Cells in the centre of mini organs showed a granular cytoplasm starting at day 3. 1-3 h nicotine exposure significantly increased DNA damage as determined by DNA in the tail (DT), with no significant differences with increasing exposure time and only a trend towards decreased values of DT after regeneration. MMS demonstrated a time-dependent increase in DNA damage and distinctly reduced DT values after regeneration. MOC may be used to study DNA damage and repair after repetitive exposure to xenobiotics. They provide additional information for in vitro studies of cells growing in an intact tissue structure. PMID:20466043

  19. [Tracheal paraganglioma in pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Krogdahl, Annelise Solveig; Godballe, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Paraganglioma with tracheal location is a rare tumor. Twelve cases with involvement of the trachea have been reported in English literature, including six cases of solely tracheal paragangliomas. We present a case of a paraganglioma confined to the tracheal wall in a 33-year-old pregnant woman. The tumor was locally resected. Follow-up 17 months later showed no evidence of relapse. Based on the literature, we found that the most common symptoms are respiratory impairment and haemoptysis. None of the cases showed malignant behaviour. PMID:20594539

  20. A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Jörg H; Saade, Anastasia; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Ackermann, Katrin; Jilg, Antje; Sebestény, Tamás; Maronde, Erik

    2011-08-01

    The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain. Through the nocturnally elevated synthesis and release of the neurohormone melatonin, the pineal gland encodes and disseminates information on circadian time, thus coupling the outside world to the biochemical and physiological internal demands of the body. Approaches to better understand molecular details behind the rhythmic signalling in the human pineal gland are limited but implicitly warranted, as human chronobiological dysfunctions are often associated with alterations in melatonin synthesis. Current knowledge on melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland is based on minimally invasive analyses, and by the comparison of signalling events between different vertebrate species, with emphasis put on data acquired in sheep and other primates. Together with investigations using autoptic pineal tissue, a remnant silhouette of premortem dynamics within the hormone's biosynthesis pathway can be constructed. The detected biochemical scenario behind the generation of dynamics in melatonin synthesis positions the human pineal gland surprisingly isolated. In this neuroendocrine brain structure, protein-protein interactions and nucleo-cytoplasmic protein shuttling indicate furthermore a novel twist in the molecular dynamics in the cells of this neuroendocrine brain structure. These findings have to be seen in the light that an impaired melatonin synthesis is observed in elderly and/or demented patients, in individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease, Smith-Magenis syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and sleep phase disorders. Already, recent advances in understanding signalling dynamics in the human pineal gland have significantly helped to counteract chronobiological dysfunctions through a proper restoration of the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  1. Spontaneous lesions in the reproductive tract and mammary gland of female non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Timothy K; Gabrielson, Kathleen L

    2007-04-01

    Because of their close phylogenic relationship with humans, the use of non-human primates (NHP) as experimental subjects has a long history in biomedical research. Although research topics have shifted focus and species used have changed, NHP remain vital as models in basic and applied research. While there is a wealth of information available on the spontaneous lesions of NHP, most of this information is fragmented, dated, or narrow in focus, often limited to single case reports. This review attempts to integrate this information to illustrate and enumerate the spectrum of spontaneous pathology of the reproductive tract and mammary gland of NHP. Although not the focus of this review, steroid-related changes are inextricably linked to these tissues, and brief consideration is given to this subject as well. PMID:17342758

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  3. Post-Irradiated Human Submandibular Glands Display High Collagen Deposition, Disorganized Cell Junctions, and an Increased Number of Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kihoon; Maruyama, Christina L; Trump, Bryan G; Buchmann, Luke; Hunt, Jason P; Monroe, Marcus M; Baker, Olga J

    2016-06-01

    Salivary glands are vital for maintaining oral health. Head and neck radiation therapy is one of the most common causes of salivary gland hypofunction. Little is known about the structural changes that occur in salivary glands after radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to understand the structural changes that occur in post-irradiated human (submandibular gland [SMG]) as compared with untreated ones. We determined changes in epithelial polarity, presence of collagen deposition, and alteration in adipose tissue. We used formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human SMG from two female subjects exposed to head and neck irradiation. We utilized hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's Trichrome staining. The immunostained tissue sections were examined using confocal microscopy. The number and size of adipocytes per tissue section were calculated using ImageJ, Prism, and SPSS software. Post-irradiated human SMG displayed high collagen deposition, disorganized cell junctions, and an increased number of adipocytes as compared with non-irradiated controls. These findings are important to improve our understanding of the individual risk and variation in radiation-related salivary gland dysfunction.

  4. Utility of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Chhieng, D C; Argosino, R; McKenna, B J; Cangiarella, J F; Cohen, J M

    1999-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has been increasingly utilized as a diagnostic tool in evaluating salivary gland masses, primarily to differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic lesions. Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) frequently present with salivary gland lesions. In this study, we reviewed the cytology of salivary gland lesions in HIV-infected patients and assessed the value of FNA in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions in HIV-infected patients. One hundred and three FNAs of salivary gland lesions from 78 HIV-infected patients (63 males and 15 females) were included in our study. The patients' ages ranged from 7-65 yr, with a mean age of 40.9 yr. FNAs were classified into three categories: benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLL) (77 cases or 74.8%), inflammatory processes (14 cases or 13.6%), including 3 reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and neoplastic lesions (6 cases or 5.8%). The latter included three malignant lymphomas, a multiple myeloma, a metastatic adenocarcinoma from a lung primary, and a direct extension of basal-cell carcinoma. Six (5.8%) aspirates were nondiagnostic. No false-positive or false-negative cases were noted during follow-up of these patients. In conclusion, FNA is a simple and cost-effective procedure for the diagnosis of HIV-related salivary gland lesions. The majority of these lesions are cystic BLL and can be managed conservatively. Malignant lesions are rarely encountered and are readily recognized by FNA. Diagn. Cytopathol. 1999;21:260-264.

  5. Association of mast cells with calcification in the human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Deręgowski, Krzysztof; Maśliński, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    Increased pineal calcifications and decreased pineal melatonin biosynthesis, both age related, support the notion of a pineal bio-organic timing mechanism. The role of calcification in the pathogenesis of pineal gland dysfunction remains unknown but the available data document that calcification is an organized, regulated process, rather than a passive aging phenomenon. The cellular biology and micro-environmental conditions required for calcification remain poorly understood but most studies have demonstrated evidence that mast cells are strongly implicated in this process. The aim of the present study was to examine the phenotype of mast cells associated with early stages and with the progressive development of calcification in the human pineal gland. The study was performed on pineal samples of 170 fetuses and children whose brains were autopsied and diagnosed during 1998-2002. The representative cerebral and pineal specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or the von Kossa staining technique and for the distribution of mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, histamine H4 receptor and vascular network using biotinylated Ulex europaeus agglutinin. Tryptase mast cells were found in all stages of pineal gland development independently of the presence of local tissue lesions. All of them were always localized in the close vicinity of the blood vessels and expressed immunoreactivity to histamine H4 receptor antibody. Immunolocalization of mast cells by chymase antibody (and following dual immunostaining with both chymase and tryptase antibodies) demonstrated that these cells were few in number and were located in the subcapsular region of the gland. In our study, all functional mast cells that underwent activation and were co-localized with deposits of calcium did not contain chymase. All of them were stained with tryptase and represent the MC-T phenotype. Tryptase mast cells and extracellular tryptase were often associated with areas of early and more

  6. Association of mast cells with calcification in the human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Deręgowski, Krzysztof; Maśliński, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    Increased pineal calcifications and decreased pineal melatonin biosynthesis, both age related, support the notion of a pineal bio-organic timing mechanism. The role of calcification in the pathogenesis of pineal gland dysfunction remains unknown but the available data document that calcification is an organized, regulated process, rather than a passive aging phenomenon. The cellular biology and micro-environmental conditions required for calcification remain poorly understood but most studies have demonstrated evidence that mast cells are strongly implicated in this process. The aim of the present study was to examine the phenotype of mast cells associated with early stages and with the progressive development of calcification in the human pineal gland. The study was performed on pineal samples of 170 fetuses and children whose brains were autopsied and diagnosed during 1998-2002. The representative cerebral and pineal specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or the von Kossa staining technique and for the distribution of mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, histamine H4 receptor and vascular network using biotinylated Ulex europaeus agglutinin. Tryptase mast cells were found in all stages of pineal gland development independently of the presence of local tissue lesions. All of them were always localized in the close vicinity of the blood vessels and expressed immunoreactivity to histamine H4 receptor antibody. Immunolocalization of mast cells by chymase antibody (and following dual immunostaining with both chymase and tryptase antibodies) demonstrated that these cells were few in number and were located in the subcapsular region of the gland. In our study, all functional mast cells that underwent activation and were co-localized with deposits of calcium did not contain chymase. All of them were stained with tryptase and represent the MC-T phenotype. Tryptase mast cells and extracellular tryptase were often associated with areas of early and more

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication within cystic lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Labouyrie, E; Merlio, J P; Beylot-Barry, M; Delord, B; Vergier, B; Brossard, G; Lacoste, D; Beylot, J; Leng, B; Fleury, H

    1993-07-01

    Cystic lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary glands (CLLSG) are nodular or diffuse salivary gland enlargements that are observed in patients who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Two cases of CLLSG are reported. Particular emphasis is placed on the presence of HIV-1 major-core protein (P24), HIV-1 RNA sequences, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA sequences, and lymphocyte receptor gene rearrangement. Lymphoid alterations consisted of explosive hyperplasia with a prominent follicular reticular dendritic cell (DRC) network and numerous intrafollicular CD8+ lymphocytes. Intrafollicular DRC strongly expressed HIV-1 major-core protein and HIV-1 RNA, indicating that most DRCs actively replicated the HIV-1 virus. The presence of active HIV-1 replication within DRC and the absence of clonal EBV infected lymphoid population strongly suggest that CLLSG pathogenesis is primarily induced by HIV-1. The presence of oligoclonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in our cases, however, suggest the need of long-term follow-up of such patients to determine whether CLLSG could be a benign prelymphomatous disease.

  8. Cryopreservation of the tracheal grafts

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of the trachea may become the preferred method for the reconstruction of extensive tracheal defects, however, several unresolved problems must be addressed, such as immunosuppression, preservation and donor shortage. In this manuscript, the cryopreservation of tracheal grafts is reviewed, which potentially is associated with a lessened immunological response. Cryopreservation may be used clinically for long-term preservation and may solve the donor shortage. It is very important to confirm the immunomodulatory effect of cryopreservation on tracheal allografts in order to expand the potential clinical application of tracheal transplantation in the future. The cartilage as well as the epithelium and lamina propria serve as targets for rejection. However, the effect of cryopreservation on chondrocytes could be associated with reduced allogenicity of the trachea. The long-term cryopreservation of cartilage must be investigated in basic research models of chondrocyte viability. Growth of cryopreserved tracheal allografts is less well understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of synergistic effects of both cryopreservation and adequate immunosuppression for tracheal xenografts. PMID:20046673

  9. Changes in PACAP immunoreactivity in human milk and presence of PAC1 receptor in mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Csanaky, Katalin; Banki, Eszter; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Reglodi, Dora; Tarcai, Ibolya; Czegledi, Levente; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Ertl, Tibor; Gyarmati, Judit; Szanto, Zalan; Zapf, Istvan; Sipos, Erika; Shioda, Seiji; Tamas, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread occurrence in the nervous system and peripheral organs, including the mammary gland. Previously, we have shown that PACAP38 is present in the human milk at higher levels than in respective blood samples. However, it is not known how PACAP levels and the expression of PAC1 receptor change during lactation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate PACAP38-like immunoreactivity (PACAP38-LI) in human colostrums and transitional and mature milk during lactation and to compare the expression of PAC1 receptors in lactating and non-lactating mammary glands. We found that PACAP38-LI was significantly higher in human colostrum samples than in the transitional and mature milk. PACAP38-LI did not show any significant changes within the first 10-month period of lactation, but a significant increase was observed thereafter, up to the examined 17th month. Weak expression of PAC1 receptors was detected in non-lactating sheep and human mammary glands, but a significant increase was observed in the lactating sheep samples. In summary, the present study is the first to show changes of PACAP levels in human milk during lactation. The presence of PACAP in the milk suggests a potential role in the development of newborn, while the increased expressions of PAC1 receptors on lactating breast may indicate a PACAP38/PAC1 interaction in the mammary gland during lactation.

  10. Three-dimensional volumetric human meibomian gland investigation using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Ju, Myeong Jin; Shin, Jun Geun; Hoshi, Sujin; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Lee, Byeong Ha; Tang, Shuo; Eom, Tae Joong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) capable of providing polarization contrasts such as phase retardation and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) was used for visualizing human meibomian glands (MGs) and investigating morphological characteristics of them. Especially, with the help of the DOPU contrast, MGs were exclusively extracted from the volumetric OCT image. In vivo PS-OCT measurements were performed on the upper eyelids of different age groups. From these measurements, different age-dependent aspects of the MG structure were also observed. Based on these observations, it can be inferred that the PS-OCT system has the potential for clinical diagnosis and investigation of MG-related dry eye diseases like MG dysfunction (MGD) and acinar atrophy.

  11. Selective secretion of annexin 1, a protein without a signal sequence, by the human prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Christmas, P; Callaway, J; Fallon, J; Jones, J; Haigler, H T

    1991-02-01

    Annexins are primarily intracellular proteins as would be predicted from their lack of hydrophobic signal sequences. However, we now report that the human prostate gland selectively secretes high concentrations of annexin 1 (also called lipocortin 1 and p35) and a proteolytic cleavage product, des1-29-annexin 1, into seminal plasma. Secreted annexin 1 had a blocked amino terminus and was structurally indistinguishable from intracellular annexin 1. Although annexin 1 and the structurally related protein, annexin 4, co-localized to many of the same cells of the ductal epithelium of the prostate, annexin 4 was not secreted. Thus, the secretion of annexin 1 appears to involve a highly selective mechanism that does not involve targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum by a hydrophobic signal sequence.

  12. Differences in Human Meibum Lipid Composition with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Using NMR and Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Foulks, Gary N.; Yappert, Marta C.; Milliner, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to quantify lipid wax, cholesterol ester terpenoid and glyceride composition, saturation, oxidation, and CH2 and CH3 moiety distribution. This tool was used to measure changes in human meibum composition with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods. 1H-NMR spectra of meibum from 39 donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (Md) were compared to meibum from 33 normal donors (Mn). Results. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the CH2/CH3 regions of a set of training NMR spectra of human meibum. PCA discriminated between Mn and Md with an accuracy of 86%. There was a bias toward more accurately predicting normal samples (92%) compared with predicting MGD samples (78%). When the NMR spectra of Md were compared with those of Mn, three statistically significant decreases were observed in the relative amounts of CH3 moieties at 1.26 ppm, the products of lipid oxidation above 7 ppm, and the ═CH moieties at 5.2 ppm associated with terpenoids. Conclusions. Loss of the terpenoids could be deleterious to meibum since they exhibit a plethora of mostly positive biological functions and could account for the lower level of cholesterol esters observed in Md compared with Mn. All three changes could account for the higher degree of lipid order of Md compared with age-matched Mn. In addition to the power of NMR spectroscopy to detect differences in the composition of meibum, it is promising that NMR can be used as a diagnostic tool. PMID:22131391

  13. WISP-1 overexpression upregulates cell proliferation in human salivary gland carcinomas via regulating MMP-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fu-Jun; Wang, Xin-Juan; Zhou, Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background WISP-1 is a member of the CCN family of growth factors and has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis by triggering downstream events via integrin signaling. However, little is known about the role of WISP-1 in proliferation of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) cells. Methods In this study, we investigated the WISP-1 expression in SGC tissues via immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, and then evaluated the regulatory role of WISP-1 in the growth of SGC A-253 cells. In addition, the role of MMP-2 in the WISP-1-mediated growth regulation was also investigated. Results It was demonstrated that the WISP-1 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in 15 of 21 SGC tumor tissues, compared to the non-tumor tissues (five of 21), associated with the lymph node dissection and bone invasion. The in vitro CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay demonstrated that the exogenous WISP-1 treatment or the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the growth of A-253 cells. In addition, we confirmed that the WISP-1 overexpression upregulated the MMP-2 expression in A-253 cells with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and that the MMP-2 knockdown attenuated the WISP-1-mediated growth promotion of A-253 cells. Conclusion We found that WISP-1 was overexpressed in the human SGCs, and the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the salivary gland cell proliferation via upregulating MMP-2 expression. Our study recognized the oncogenic role of WISP-1 in human SGCs, which could serve as a potential target for anticancer therapy. PMID:27799801

  14. Production and processing of milk from transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme in the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Maga, E A; Shoemaker, C F; Rowe, J D; Bondurant, R H; Anderson, G B; Murray, J D

    2006-02-01

    The potential for applying biotechnology to benefit animal agriculture and food production has long been speculated. The addition of human milk components with intrinsic antimicrobial activity and positive charge to livestock milk by genetic engineering has the potential to benefit animal health, as well as food safety and production. We generated one line of transgenic goats as a model for the dairy cow designed to express human lysozyme in the mammary gland. Here we report the characterization of the milk from 5 transgenic females of this line expressing human lysozyme in their milk at 270 microg/mL or 68% of the level found in human milk. Milk from transgenic animals had a lower somatic cell count, but the overall component composition of the milk and milk production were not different from controls. Milk from transgenic animals had a shorter rennet clotting time and increased curd strength. Milk of such nature may be of benefit to the producer by influencing udder health and milk processing.

  15. Dynamic Observation of Sweat Glands of Human Finger Tip Using All-Optical-Fiber High-Speed Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Nohara, Kenji; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Fuji, Toshie; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2005-06-01

    High-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) makes it possible to perform a time-sequential imaging of biological tissue and small organs. In this paper, we demonstrate in vivo observation of dynamics of sweat glands of human finger tip using high-speed OCT with push-pull driven fiber-optic PZT phase modulators. Movement of a sweat droplet through a micro spiral duct can be tracked clearly. An interesting function of sweat glands is found out in time-sequential OCT imaging.

  16. Human postmortem lacrimal and submandibular glands stored in RNAlater are suitable for molecular, biochemical, and cell biological studies

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Dillon; Aluri, Hema; Armaos, Helene; Kim, Gina; Kublin, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gene expression and protein analysis studies require high-quality human tissue which is a challenge and difficult to obtain through live human biopsies. Human postmortem lacrimal gland (LG) and submandibular gland (SMG) tissues have the potential to provide an invaluable source for studying the mechanisms involved in LG and SMG dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to test the suitability of post-mortem LG and SMG for molecular, biochemical, and cell biological studies. Methods LG and SMG tissue from healthy donors was collected and immediately placed in RNAlater solution and then shipped overnight at 4 °C. After receipt, each gland was divided into three pieces for RNA, protein, and histological analysis, respectively. Total RNA isolated from each LG and SMG was analyzed for RNA integrity using an Agilent Bioanalyzer and reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR). For histology, tissues were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For protein analysis, lysates were prepared and processed for sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) and western blotting. Results When the LG and SMG samples were preserved in RNAlater, the RNA integrity number (RIN) values from the LG and SMG were >7.0 from all three donors, while the RNAs from tissue not preserved in RNAlater were of poorer quality. The gene and/or protein expression of E-cadherin, aquaporin 5, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), β-actin, and GAPDH was preserved in all samples. In addition, histological analyses showed normal tubuloacinar structures of all glands with serous and mucous producing acini within lobules interspersed with adipose fat. Conclusions In this study, we determined that RNA, protein, and histological sections obtained from postmortem human LG and SMG tissue preserved in RNAlater were of high quality. This would provide a viable source of human LG and SMG tissue suitable for studies of diseases that affect these glands, such as Sj

  17. Development and structure of the glandopreputial sulcus of the human clitoris with a special reference to glandopreputial glands.

    PubMed

    van der Putte, Sebastian C J; Sie-Go, Daisy M D S

    2011-01-01

    The structure and development of the sulcus between the glans and prepuce of the human clitoris have hardly been investigated. Interest in its structure was raised when in the female, in contrast to the male, glands were found to develop from the solid lamella-like precursor of the glandopreputial sulcus. It prompted a further histological analysis of the sulcus in female fetuses and newborn and an extension of that study to clitorises of adult women. The investigation showed that in the clitoris, in contrast to the penis, the transformation of the glandopreputial lamella into the open sulcus was mostly incomplete and apparently remained so throughout life. As a most striking and probably exclusively female feature, two to eight eccrine glands developed from the base of the lamella in fetuses older than 14.5 weeks gestation. These glands formed secretory coils near and occasionally inside the adjacent distal corpora cavernosa. Some glands showed atresia, cystic dilatation, and squamous metaplasia. A remarkably similar picture was observed in the adult clitorises, in which the secretory coils were often found between the large blood vessels and nerves to the glans and were connected to the sulcus by long excretory ducts. All glands revealed unmistakably eccrine features. It is suggested that their secretion moistens the female glandopreputial sulcus, which is not lubricated by urethral secretion as in the male. The findings may explain the rare clitoral phimosis, cysts, and some pilonidal sinuses.

  18. Mechanisms of tracheal filling in insects.

    PubMed

    Förster, Thomas D; Woods, H Arthur

    2013-02-01

    Insects exchange respiratory gases primarily using tracheal systems that are filled with gas. However, in different developmental and environmental circumstances, liquid can occupy the tracheal system, which can significantly impair its respiratory function. Insects therefore use a suite of mechanisms for tracheal filling, which is the process of replacing tracheal liquids with gas. We review these mechanisms for liquid removal and gas filling. By integrating recent molecular work with older physiological literature, we show that liquid removal likely involves active ion transport in the whole tracheal system. Gas filling reveals fascinating interactions between geometry, surface chemistry of the tracheal walls, the tracheal liquid, and dissolved gases. The temporal proximity to moulting allows for potentially complex interdependencies between gas filling, moult-associated hormone signaling, and cuticle sclerotization. We propose a mechanistic model for tracheal filling. However, because the composition of the liquid is unknown, it remains hypothetical. PMID:22616845

  19. In vitro effects of sex hormones in human meibomian gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Antje; Abrar, Daniel B; Hampel, Ulrike; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich; Garreis, Fabian

    2016-10-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is considered the most common cause of dry eye disease (DED). Sex hormones seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of MGD although their involvement is not completely understood. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the effect of dihydrotestosteron (DHT) and estradiol (β-Est) on an immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC). Protein expression of sex hormone receptors in HMGEC was investigated by western blot. Ultrastructural morphology, Sudan III lipid staining, cell proliferation as well as vitality assays were performed. Furthermore, expression of MGD-associated markers for keratinization (hornerin, involucrin and CK6), proliferation (CK5 and CK14) and lipid synthesis (fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Western blot revealed presence of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and -β (ERα, ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) in HMGEC. PR, ERα and ERβ expression was significantly induced under cultivation with serum, whereas sex hormones stimulation showed no further effect on protein expression of PR, ERα and ERβ. Our results showed no impact of MGD-associated sex hormones to cellular morphology and lipid accumulation in HMGEC. Cell proliferation was slightly induced through application of sex hormones and supplementation of calcium. However, both sex hormones and calcium altered gene expression of MGD-associated markers. Especially keratinization genes hornerin (HRNR) and cornulin (COR) were induced after application of sex hormones and calcium in serum-free cultivated HMGEC. This may promote keratinization processes that are associated with MGD. Further investigations are necessary to analyze the (hyper)keratinization processes that occur during MGD and using HMGEC as an in vitro model.

  20. Effects of Insulin and High Glucose on Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Liu, Yang; Sullivan, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). We hypothesize that this diabetic impact is due, at least in part, to the effects of insulin resistance/deficiency and hyperglycemia on human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs). To begin to test this hypothesis, we examined whether insulin and high glucose influence immortalized (I) HMGECs. Methods Immortalized HMGECs were cultured in serum-containing or -free media and treated with insulin, insulin-like growth factor–1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor (R) blocking antibody, and glucose or mannitol for varying time periods. Specific proteins were detected by Western blots, cell proliferation was evaluated by manual cell counting and lipids were assessed with LipidTOX and high performance thin layer chromatography. Results We found that insulin induces a dose-dependent increase in phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt (AKT) signaling in IHMGECs. This effect involves the IGF-1R, but not the insulin receptor (IR), and is associated with a stimulation of cell proliferation and neutral lipid accumulation. In contrast, high glucose exposure alters cell morphology, causes a progressive cell loss, and significantly reduces the levels of IGF-1R, phospho (p)-AKT, Foxhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) in IHMGECs. Conclusions Our data show that insulin stimulates, and that high glucose is toxic for, IHMGECs. These results support our hypothesis that insulin resistance/deficiency and hyperglycemia are deleterious for HMGECs and may help explain why type II diabetes is a risk factor for MGD. PMID:26658502

  1. [A rainbow coupling human pathology and endocrinology, with emphasis on the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sasano, N

    1987-03-20

    Recent progress in research methodology particularly of immunocytochemistry has made the viaduct of human pathology through endocrinology a wide bridge. Immunohistochemical demonstration of enzymes working in corticosteroidogenesis is useful for the interpretation of histological findings. Cytochrome P-450C21 was demonstrated in three adrenocortical layers particularly evident in the glomerulosa and reticularis. The reactivity was intensive in hypertrophied cells in focal hyperplasia of autopsy series and adenomas in patients with hyperadrenocorticism. The distribution of extra-adrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase was revealed by immunohistochemistry at the distal and collecting tubules of the kidney, excretory ducts of the pancreas and salivary glands, mammary ducts and ductules and secretory portion of the sweat gland in man. It was postulated that in these target tissues of the mineralocorticoid action considerable amounts of DOC would be produced from plasma progesterone by the extra-adrenal 21-hydroxylase. Histopathological diagnosis of malignancy in adrenal tumors has been extremely difficult. Therefore, follow-up informations of metastasis and/or recurrence and gross findings including the tumor weight have been evaluated as the evidence of malignancy. In adrenocortical tumors plasma steroid patterns and in vitro steroid production which were appreciated in the clinical endocrinology, were corroborated by gross and microscopical findings. Immunohistochemical lectin bindings revealed that only RCA (Ricinus communis agglutinin) might be useful for the marker of adrenocortical malignancies. For establishing histological criteria of malignant pheochromocytomas, 25 adrenal and extra-adrenal tumors associated with metastases were examined. Localized or diffuse proliferation of small-sized cells, fusiform or round in shape, frequently associated with mitotic figures and foci of necrosis was of common feature. Immunoreactive peptide hormones were less compared with benign

  2. Tracheal Sounds Acquisition Using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Bersain A.; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H.

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal sounds have received a lot of attention for estimating ventilation parameters in a non-invasive way. The aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of extracting accurate airflow, and automating the detection of breath-phase onset and respiratory rates all directly from tracheal sounds acquired from an acoustic microphone connected to a smartphone. We employed the Samsung Galaxy S4 and iPhone 4s smartphones to acquire tracheal sounds from N = 9 healthy volunteers at airflows ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 L/s. We found that the amplitude of the smartphone-acquired sounds was highly correlated with the airflow from a spirometer, and similar to previously-published studies, we found that the increasing tracheal sounds' amplitude as flow increases follows a power law relationship. Acquired tracheal sounds were used for breath-phase onset detection and their onsets differed by only 52 ± 51 ms (mean ± SD) for Galaxy S4, and 51 ± 48 ms for iPhone 4s, when compared to those detected from the reference signal via the spirometer. Moreover, it was found that accurate respiratory rates (RR) can be obtained from tracheal sounds. The correlation index, bias and limits of agreement were r2 = 0.9693, 0.11 (−1.41 to 1.63) breaths-per-minute (bpm) for Galaxy S4, and r2 = 0.9672, 0.097 (–1.38 to 1.57) bpm for iPhone 4s, when compared to RR estimated from spirometry. Both smartphone devices performed similarly, as no statistically-significant differences were found. PMID:25196108

  3. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders.

  4. Ultrasonic delivery of silica-gold nanoshells for photothermolysis of sebaceous glands in humans: Nanotechnology from the bench to clinic.

    PubMed

    Paithankar, Dilip; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Munavalli, Girish; Kauvar, Arielle; Lloyd, Jenifer; Blomgren, Richard; Faupel, Linda; Meyer, Todd; Mitragotri, Samir

    2015-05-28

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have provided numerous opportunities to transform medical therapies for the treatment of diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis. Here, we report, through in vitro studies and in vivo human pilot clinical studies, the use of inert, inorganic silica-gold nanoshells for the treatment of a widely prevalent and researched, yet poorly treated disease of acne. We use ~150nm silica-gold nanoshells, tuned to absorb near-IR light and near-IR laser irradiation to thermally disrupt overactive sebaceous glands in the skin which define the etiology of acne-related problems. Low-frequency ultrasound was used to facilitate deep glandular penetration of the nanoshells. Upon delivery of the nanoshells into the follicles and glands, followed by wiping of superficial nanoshells from skin surface and exposure of skin to near-infrared laser, nanoshells localized in the follicles absorb light, get heated, and induce focal thermolysis of sebaceous glands. Pilot human clinical studies confirmed the efficacy of ultrasonically-delivered silica-gold nanoshells in inducing photothermal disruption of sebaceous glands without damaging collateral skin. PMID:25747145

  5. Dynamic analysis of eccrin sweat glands on human fingertips by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ohmi, Masato; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Akihiro; Saigusa, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    OCT is highly potential for dynamic analysis of eccrin sweat glands. It is found in our experiment that the spiral lumen of an active sweat gland expands drastically in response to mental stress. Mental-stress-induced sweating is analyzed quantitatively based on time-sequential OCT images.

  6. Human salivary gland acinar cells spontaneously form three-dimensional structures and change the protein expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yen-Hui; Huang, Tsung-Wei; Young, Tai-Horng; Lou, Pei-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Applying tissue engineering principles to design an auto-secretory device is a potential solution for patients suffering loss of salivary gland function. However, the largest challenge in implementing this solution is the primary culture of human salivary gland cells, because the cells are highly differentiated and difficult to expand in vitro. This situation leads to the lack of reports on the in vitro cell biology and physiology of human salivary gland cells. This study used a low-calcium culture system to selectively cultivate human parotid gland acinar (PGAC) cells from tissues with high purity in cell composition. This condition enables PGAC cells to continuously proliferate and retain the phenotypes of epithelial acinar cells to express secreting products (α-amylase) and function-related proteins (aquaporin-3, aquaporin-5, and ZO-1). Notably, when the cells reached confluence, three-dimensional (3D) cell aggregates were observed in crowded regions. These self-formed cell spheres were termed post-confluence structures (PCSs). Unexpectedly, despite being cultured in the same media, cells in PCSs exhibited higher expression levels and different expression patterns of function-related proteins compared to the two-dimensional (2D) cells. Translocation of aquoporin-3 from cytosolic to alongside the cell boundaries, and of ZO-1 molecules to the boundary of the PCSs were also observed. These observations suggest that when PGAC cells cultured on the 2D substrate would form PCSs without the help of 3D scaffolds and retain certain differentiation and polarity. This phenomenon implies that it is possible to introduce 2D substrates instead of 3D scaffolds into artificial salivary gland tissue engineering.

  7. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored.

  8. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored. PMID:27566169

  9. Down regulation and nuclear localization of human beta-defensin-1 in pleomorphic adenomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pantelis, Annette; Wenghoefer, Matthias; Haas, Susanne; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Pantelis, Dimitrios; Jepsen, Søren; Bootz, Friedrich; Winter, Jochen

    2009-06-01

    Although antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) appear to have diverse functional activities in innate immunity, a few reports suggest a potential role of human beta-defensin (hBD)-1 in tumor suppression. The aim of the present study was to compare the expression patterns of hBD-1, -2 and -3 in various features of human salivary gland tissues, such as healthy parenchyma, chronic sialadenitis and intraglandular pleomorphic adenomas, with their adjacent normal tissues. Twenty human salivary gland specimens (five healthy, five chronic sialadenitis, five pleomorphic adenomas and five adenoma adjacent normal tissues (AANTs)) were investigated for mRNA expression levels of hBD-1, -2 and -3 by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Additionally, immunohistochemistry for the hBD-1, -2 and -3 peptides was performed for analysis of localization. Considerably increased, 80-fold higher hBD-1 and increased hBD-3 mRNA expression levels compared to healthy salivary gland tissues were detected in chronic sialadenitis. In pleomorphic adenomas hBD-2 expression levels were lower, but hBD-1 expression levels were significant decreased (p=0.03) compared to healthy parenchyma. Interestingly, the AANTs showed a 48-fold higher expression of hBD-1 and increased hBD-3 expression compared to the healthy salivary gland. Immunohistochemistry of the tumors showed nuclear hBD-1 localization. For the first time, it was shown that hBD-1 gene expression is significantly decreased in pleomorphic adenomas, while simultaneously the protein is localized in the nucleus. Increased expression levels in glandular inflammation have been described previously albeit not in AANTs. These data support the hypothesis that hBD-1 might be a potential tumor suppressor also in benign salivary gland tumors in addition to other genetic alterations.

  10. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  11. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Located above the pituitary gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by ... messages. In response to hormonal messages from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH ( ...

  12. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include: Adrenal Hypothalamus Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas Ovaries Parathyroid Pineal Pituitary Testes Thyroid

  13. Autologous tracheal replacement for cancer.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Dominique; Fadel, Elie; Mussot, Sacha; Kolb, Frederic; Leymarie, Nicolas; Mercier, Olaf; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Dartevelle, Philippe G

    2015-12-01

    Surgical research has failed during fifty years to find an ideal substitute for the trachea after extended resection. All the prostheses could erode the adjacent structures or lead to infection or obstructive issues. Innovation in surgery development has been improved using novel techniques of plastic surgery. During the last ten years, we have developed a technique using free fasciocutaneous flaps. This allows us to construct tubes for tracheal replacement. The most accurate flap used for this technique is the forearm free flap (FFF). Reinforcement of the flap with autologous strips of cartilage harvested from the last ribs offers sufficient resistance to respiratory pressure. This technique is also completely autologous without any stent in the tracheal lumen. From 2004 to 2015 we have already reconstructed the trachea of 16 patients for 12 primary tracheal neoplasms [including 9 adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and 3 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)], 3 secondary tracheal Neoplasms and one for benign lesion. This article describes the indications, determination of resectability, patient selection, subheading for surgery, postoperative management and results of this technique. PMID:26730758

  14. Dynamics in enzymatic protein complexes offer a novel principle for the regulation of melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Maronde, Erik; Saade, Anastasia; Ackermann, Katrin; Goubran-Botros, Hany; Pagan, Cecile; Bux, Roman; Bourgeron, Thomas; Dehghani, Faramarz; Stehle, Jörg H

    2011-08-01

    Time of day is communicated to the body through rhythmic cues, including pineal gland melatonin synthesis, which is restricted to nighttime. Whereas in most rodents transcriptional regulation of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) gene is essential for rhythmic melatonin synthesis, investigations into nonrodent mammalian species have shown post-transcriptional regulation to be of central importance, with molecular mechanisms still elusive. Therefore, human pineal tissues, taken from routine autopsies were allocated to four time-of-death groups (night/dawn/day/dusk) and analyzed for daytime-dependent changes in phosphorylated AANAT (p31T-AANAT) and in acetyl-serotonin-methyltransferase (ASMT) expression and activity. Protein content, intracellular localization, and colocalization of p31T-AANAT and ASMT were assessed, using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation techniques. Fresh sheep pineal gland preparations were used for comparative purposes. The amount of p31T-AANAT and ASMT proteins as well as their intracellular localization showed no diurnal variation in autoptic human and fresh sheep pineal glands. Moreover, in human and sheep pineal extracts, AANAT could not be dephosphorylated, which was at variance to data derived from rat pineal extracts. P31T-AANAT and ASMT were often found to colocalize in cellular rod-like structures that were also partly immunoreactive for the pinealocyte process-specific marker S-antigen (arrestin) in both, human and sheep pinealocytes. Protein-protein interaction studies with p31T-AANAT, ASMT, and S-antigen demonstrated a direct association and formation of robust complexes, involving also 14-3-3. This work provides evidence for a regulation principle for AANAT activity in the human pineal gland, which may not be based on a p31T-AANAT phosphorylation/dephosphorylation switch, as described for other mammalian species.

  15. Recent progress in development of transgenic silkworms overexpressing recombinant human proteins with therapeutic potential in silk glands.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kohji; Kobayashi, Isao; Nishioka, So-Ichiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Machii, Hiroaki; Tamura, Toshiki

    2016-02-01

    Since 2000, transgenic silkworms have been developed to produce recombinant proteins with therapeutic potential for future clinical use, including antibody preparations. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are inherited metabolic disorders caused by mutations of lysosomal enzymes associated with excessive accumulation of natural substrates and neurovisceral symptoms. Over the past few years, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with human lysosomal enzymes produced by genetically engineered mammalian cell lines has been used clinically to treat several patients with an LSD involving multi-organ symptoms. ERT is based on the incorporation of recombinant glycoenzymes by their binding to glycan receptors on the surface of target cells and their subsequent delivery to lysosomes. However, ERT has several disadvantages, including difficulty mass producing human enzymes, dangers of pathogen contamination, and high costs. Recently, the current authors have succeeded in producing transgenic silkworms overexpressing human lysosomal enzymes in the silk glands and the authors have purified catalytically active enzymes from the middle silk glands. Silk gland-derived human enzymes carrying high-mannose and pauci-mannose N-glycans were endocytosed by monocytes via the mannose receptor pathway and were then delivered to lysosomes. Conjugates with cell-penetrating peptides were also taken up by cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with enzyme deficiencies to restore intracellular catalytic activity and reduce the excessive accumulation of substrates in patient fibroblasts. Transgenic silkworms overexpressing human lysosomal enzymes in the silk glands could serve as future bioresources that provide safe therapeutic enzymes for the treatment of LSDs. Combining recent developments in transglycosylation technology with microbial endoglycosidases will promote the development of therapeutic glycoproteins as bio-medicines. PMID:26971553

  16. Effect of androgen deficiency on the human meibomian gland and ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Krenzer, K L; Dana, M R; Ullman, M D; Cermak, J M; Tolls, D B; Evans, J E; Sullivan, D A

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chronic use of antiandrogen medications leads to meibomian gland dysfunction, altered lipid profiles in meibomian gland secretions, decreased tear film stability, and evaporative dry eye. Subjects taking antiandrogen therapy for prostatic indications, as well as age-related controls, were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed dry eye symptoms and then were given a complete anterior segment examination. Moreover, meibomian gland secretions were obtained from each eye and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the relative content of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, wax esters, diglycerides, triglycerides, and specific molecular species in the diglyceride fraction. Our results demonstrate that patients taking antiandrogen treatment, compared with age-related controls, had a: 1) significant increase in the frequency of appearance of tear film debris, an abnormal tear film meniscus, irregular posterior lid margins, conjunctival tarsal injection, and orifice metaplasia of the meibomian glands; 2) significant increase in the degree of ocular surface vital dye staining; 3) significant decrease in the tear film breakup time and quality of meibomian gland secretions; and 4) significant increase in the frequency of light sensitivity, painful eyes, and blurred vision. In addition, the use of antiandrogen pharmaceuticals was associated with significant changes in the relative amounts of lipids in meibomian gland secretions. Our findings indicate that chronic androgen deficiency is associated with meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye.

  17. Step-by-step protocol to perfuse and dissect the mouse parotid gland and isolation of high-quality RNA from murine and human parotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Watermann, Christoph; Valerius, Klaus Peter; Wagner, Steffen; Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline; Karnati, Srikanth

    2016-04-01

    Macroscopic identification and surgical removal of the mouse parotid gland is demanding because of its anatomic location and size. Moreover, the mouse parotid gland contains high concentrations of RNases, making it difficult to isolate high-quality RNA. So far, appropriate methods for optimal perfusion-fixation and dissection of mouse parotid glands, as well as the isolation of high quality RNA from this tissue, are not available. Here we present a simple, optimized, step-by-step surgical method to perfuse and isolate murine parotid glands. We also compared two common RNA extraction methods (RNeasy Mini Kit versus TRIzol) for their yields of high-quality, intact RNA from human and murine parotid gland tissues that were either snap-frozen or immersed in RNAlater stabilization solution. Mouse parotid tissue that was perfused and immersed in RNAlater and human samples immersed in RNAlater exhibited the best RNA quality, independent of the isolation method. PMID:27071609

  18. Stereology of the Thyroid Gland in Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Comparison with Human (Homo sapiens): Quantitative and Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kot, Brian Chin Wing; Lau, Thomas Yue Huen; Cheng, Sammy Chi Him

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×105 µm3 and 7.02×105 µm3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects. PMID:23690927

  19. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in comparison with human (Homo sapiens): quantitative and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Kot, Brian Chin Wing; Lau, Thomas Yue Huen; Cheng, Sammy Chi Him

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5) µm(3) and 7.02×10(5) µm(3) respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  20. Glycomic profile of the human parotid gland between 18th and 26th week of fetal development.

    PubMed

    Rêgo, Moacyr J B M; Silva Filho, Antônio F; Sobral, Ana P V; Beltrão, Eduardo I C

    2016-01-01

    The formation of new and functional structural components of several organs, such as parotid glands, can be influenced by the glycocode. This study analyzed the glycobiology of parotid salivary gland tissue during fetal development using specific biochemical probes (lectins and antibodies). Eleven parotid gland samples from human fetuses were obtained from spontaneous abortions at 14-28 weeks of gestation, and tissue sections were analyzed for lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. From the 18th to 26th week, Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin, wheat germ agglutinin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I, peanut agglutinin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin, and Vicia villosa agglutinin lectin staining were predominantly observed in the apical and/or basement membranes of the ducts and tubulo-acinar units. Moreover, the presence of galectin-1 was found in the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of both structures. Conversely, Gal-3 and mucin-1 were restricted to the glandular ducts. The lectin staining pattern changed during the weeks evaluated. Nevertheless, the carbohydrate subcellular localization represented a key factor in the investigation of structural distribution profiles and possible roles of these glycans in initial parotid gland development. These findings are defined by their high biological value and provide an important base for the development of subsequent studies. (J Oral Sci 58, 353-360, 2016). PMID:27665974

  1. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2/neu) in Salivary Gland Carcinomas: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Mislat; Alqarni, Mohammed Ali; Alnobi, Abdelrahman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to assess the relation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or HER2/neu with the development of salivary gland carcinomas and use of Herceptin in the treatment of these cancers. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface searching for articles from 1994 up to 2014 relating to the existence of HER-2 protein and gene in salivary gland carcinomas and HER2/neu targeted therapy, written in English language. Almost all the studies in literature reported a frequent over expression and amplification of HER2/nue in salivary duct carcinomas (SDC) compared to other salivary gland cancers. Herceptin given as a monotherapy was not effective. The data on Herceptin combined chemotherapy are potentially promising but inadequate to evaluate drug activity, as patients also received a variety of cytotoxic agents. Therefore, Herceptin contribution to tumour response outcomes could not be precisely determined and the total number of cases is not sufficient. It is recommended that further work involves a large series of HER2/neu positive salivary gland cancers (randomized control trial) treated with chemotherapy with and without Herceptin. This might need multi-institutional cooperation. PMID:25859537

  2. In-vitro depth-dependent hyperthermia of human mammary gland adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Andrew W; Zhang, Yu; Mast, David; Pauletti, Giovanni M; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Jiaming; Ewing, Rodney C; Shi, Donglu

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle mediated photothermal ablation of cancerous tissue shows promising results and applicability as a highly efficacious treatment method. As a majority of the photothermal work has been conducted with minimal attenuation of the laser before reaching the nanoparticles within surface seeded tumors in-vivo or through buffered media in-vitro, it is important to understand the effects of greater laser attenuation on photothermal efficacy mediated by changes in the scattering and absorption of the laser. Photothermal efficacy using a near infrared (NIR) 785nm laser irradiating polystyrene (PS) stabilized magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (PS-Fe3O4) is examined on MDA-MB-231 human mammary gland adenocarcinoma in-vitro. Agarose gel columns of various heights were created to simulate soft tissue and subsequently used for NIR laser attenuation. Polystyrene was found to significantly improve magnetite nanoparticle stability in serum containing media and modified Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and was able to induce significant hyperthermic ablation at mass concentrations which also did not elicit significant innate toxicity. Furthermore it was found that the polystyrene coating significantly reduced innate toxicity over 48h compared to uncoated magnetite. Agar gel layers provided similar optical attenuation in the NIR region to skin and prostate. PMID:27612683

  3. MRI-based three-dimensional thermal physiological characterization of thyroid gland of human body.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chao; He, Zhi Zhu; Yang, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to present a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) based three-dimensional finite element modeling on the thermal manifestations relating to the pathophysiology of thyroid gland. An efficient approach for identifying the metabolic dysfunctions of thyroid has also been demonstrated through tracking the localized non-uniform thermal distribution or enhanced dynamic imaging. The temperature features over the skin surface and thyroid domain have been characterized using the numerical simulation and experimental measurement which will help better interpret the thermal physiological mechanisms of the thyroid under steady-state or water-cooling condition. Further, parametric simulations on the hypermetabolism symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thermal effects within thyroid domain caused by varying breathing airflow in the trachea and blood-flow in artery and vein were performed. It was disclosed that among all the parameters, the airflow volume has the largest effect on the total heat flux of thyroid surface. However, thermal contributions caused by varying the breathing frequency and blood-flow velocity are negligibly small. The present study suggests a generalized way for simulating the close to reality physiological behavior or process of human thyroid, which is of significance for disease diagnosis and treatment planning.

  4. Effect of tympanic neurectomy on human parotid salivary gland. Histopathologic, Histochemical, and Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Mandour, M A; Helmi, A M; El-Sheikh, M M; El-Garem, F; El-Ghazzawi, E

    1977-06-01

    Five patients with bilateral chronic recurrent parotiditis and ten patients with unilateral persistent paratoid gland fistulas underwent tympanic neurectomies. Two biopsy specimens from the diseased gland were examined. The first biopsy specimen was taken at the time of operation, while the second one was taken six months later. All specimens were subjected to both histopathologic and histochemical investigations. Definite degenerative and atrophic changes occured in all parotid gland specimens taken six months after selective tympanic neurectomy. All patients were completely cured at about that time. This supported the practical indication of the selective tympanic neurectomy for treating certain benign disorders or diseases of the parotid gland that require persistent arrest of the function of its secretory units.

  5. Cytogenetic and molecular observations in human and experimental salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sandros, J; Stenman, G; Mark, J

    1990-02-01

    The chromosomal banding patterns in 189 benign and malignant salivary gland tumors are reviewed. For comparison, karyotypic data from a recent series of polyoma virus-induced salivary gland tumors in the mouse are discussed. Special interest is focused on the relationships between the highly specific patterns of translocations and deletions in these tumors and different genes involved in neoplasia, in particular oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes.

  6. A bilateral, superficial location of human sublingual glands: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Moss-Salentijn, L; Hendricks-Klyvert, M

    1987-11-01

    During a routine dissection of a cadaver, the unusual, completely superficial position of both sublingual glandular masses was noticed. Histologically, the glandular masses consisted of a group of minor sublingual glands. It is suggested that the existence of a wide gap between the anterior and posterior parts of the mylohyoid muscle, which was revealed during further dissection, was the primary embryologic anomaly that was responsible for the unusual location of the glands.

  7. Heterotopic tracheal transplants: techniques and applications.

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Szanto, A J; Pal, B C; Terzaghi, M; Marchok, A C

    1984-01-01

    Heterotopic tracheal transplants, placed subcutaneously in syngeneic rats have been extensively used in our laboratory. The objective of these experiments was to study the toxic and/or carcinogenic effect of several compounds on the respiratory tract mucosa. This was attained by exposing the transplants to an intraluminal pettet containing the toxicant or carcinogen mixed with an adequate matrix (gelatin, beeswax, stearyl alcohol, silastic, etc.). By varying the concentration of the test chemicals, it is possible to study dose-response relationships, and by changing the pellet matrix, the effects of release rate (dose rate) can be analyzed. Several end points can be studied, such as histological changes in the mucociliary epithelium, changes in mucus secretion, tumor induction and changes in the in vitro behavior of the epithelial cells after in vivo exposure. In addition, by de-epithelializing the tracheal transplants and reseeding them with another cell population, e.g., from previously treated cell cultures or from human specimens and transplanting them subcutaneously in nude mice, completely new vistas on the effect of chemicals can be opened. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6383803

  8. Endothelin in human brain and pituitary gland: Presence of immunoreactive endothelin, endothelin messenger ribonucleic acid, and endothelin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Ghatei, M.A.; Jones, P.M.; Murphy, J.K.; Lam, H.C.; O'Halloran, D.J.; Bloom, S.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The presence of immunoreactive (IR) endothelin, endothelin mRNA, and endothelin receptors in human brain and pituitary gland has been studied by RIA, Northern blot hybridization, and receptor assay. IR endothelin was detected in all five brain regions examined (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus) (6-10 fmol/g wet wt) and spinal cord (22 +/- 6 fmol/g wet wt, n = 7, mean +/- SEM). Higher concentrations of IR endothelin were found in the pituitary gland (147 +/- 30 fmol/g wet wt). Fast protein liquid chromatographic analysis of the IR endothelin in pituitary gland showed a large IR peak in the position of endothelin-3 and a smaller peak in the position of endothelin-1, whereas IR endothelin in the hypothalamus and brain stem was mainly endothelin-1. Endothelin messenger RNA was detected by Northern blot hybridization in the pituitary but not in hypothalamus. The receptor assay showed that 125I-endothelin-1 binding sites were present in large numbers in all five brain regions but were much less abundant in the pituitary gland. Binding capacity and dissociation constant were 5052 +/- 740 fmol/mg protein and 0.045 +/- 0.007 nM in brain stem and 963 +/- 181 fmol/mg protein and 0.034 +/- 0.009 nM in hypothalamus. In the pituitary gland, there were two classes of binding sites for endothelin with dissociation constants of 0.059 +/- 0.002 nM (binding capacity = 418 +/- 63 fmol/mg protein) and 0.652 +/- 0.103 nM (binding capacity = 1717 +/- 200 fmol/mg protein). Endothelin-1, -2 and -3 were almost equipotent in displacing the binding (IC50 approximately 0.04 nM). These findings are in accord with the possibility that endothelin acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator or neurohormone in man.

  9. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  10. Dissecting lipid metabolism in meibomian glands of humans and mice: An integrative study reveals a network of metabolic reactions not duplicated in other tissues.

    PubMed

    Butovich, Igor A; McMahon, Anne; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C; Lin, Feng; Mancini, Ronald; Itani, Kamel

    2016-06-01

    Lipids comprise the bulk of the meibomian gland secretion (meibum) which is produced by meibocytes. Complex arrays of lipogenic reactions in meibomian glands, which we collectively call meibogenesis, have not been explored on a molecular level yet. Our goals were to elucidate the possible biosynthetic pathways that underlie the generation of meibum, reveal similarities in, and differences between, lipid metabolism in meibomian glands and other organs and tissues, and integrate meibomian gland studies into the field of general metabolomics. Specifically, we have conducted detailed analyses of human and mouse specimens using genomic, immunohistochemical, and lipidomic approaches. Among equally highly expressed genes found in meibomian glands of both species were those related to fatty acid elongation, branching, desaturation, esterification, reduction of fatty acids to alcohols, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Importantly, corresponding lipid products were detected in meibum of both species using lipidomic approaches. For the first time, a cohesive, unifying biosynthetic scheme that connects genomic, lipidomic, and immunohistochemical observations is outlined and discussed. PMID:27032494

  11. Direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts into sweat gland-like cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiliang; Xu, Mengyao; Wu, Meng; Ma, Kui; Sun, Mengli; Tian, Xiaocheng; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The skin of patients with an extensive deep burn injury is repaired by a process that leaves a hypertrophic scar without sweat glands and therefore loses the function of perspiration. The aim of this study was to identify whether the key factors related to sweat gland development could directly reprogram fibroblasts into sweat gland-like cells. After introducing the NF-κB and Lef-1 genes into fibroblasts, we found that stably transfected fibroblasts expressed specific markers of sweat glands, including CEA, CK7, CK14 and CK19, both at the protein and mRNA levels. The immunofluorescence staining also showed positive expression of CEA, CK7, CK14 and CK19 in induced fibroblasts, but there were no positive cells in the control groups. The expression of Shh and Cyclin D1, downstream genes of NF-κB and Lef-1, were also significantly increased during regeneration. The induced fibroblasts were implanted into an animal model. Twenty days later, iodine-starch perspiration tests showed that 7 out of the 10 cell-treated paws were positive for perspiration, with a distinctive black point-like area appearing in the center of the paw. Contralateral paws tested negative. Histological examination of skin biopsies from experimental and control paws revealed that sweat glands were fully reconstructed in the test paws, with integral, secretory and ductal portions, but were not present in the control paws. This is the first report of successful reprogramming of fibroblasts into sweat gland-like cells, which will provide a new cell source for sweat gland regeneration in patients with extensive deep burns. PMID:26566868

  12. Management of Congenital Tracheal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Watters, Karen; Rahbar, Reza; Fynn-Thompson, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) is a serious and rare condition. In most cases, stenotic lesions are composed of complete tracheal rings of cartilage.The severity of symptoms correlates with the length of affected trachea, the presence of concomitant respiratory conditions, degree of luminal narrowing,and any bronchial involvement. Critically, CTS is a disorder that can lead to life-threatening respiratory insufficiency in children. Thus, it is a clinical entity that demands timely diagnosis and treatment. This review will firstly discuss the anatomy and pathophysiology of CTS and outline the various clinical presentations associated with the disorder. In addition, methods of diagnosis and treatment strategies will be reviewed, with a focus on contemporary surgical techniques. Finally, postoperative care of patients with CTS will be reviewed, and a contemporary multidisciplinary management approach will be presented.

  13. Milk composition studies in transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase in the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Hernan; Hockley, Duncan K; Olaniyan, Benjamen; Brochu, Eric; Zhao, Xin; Mustafa, Arif; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2008-10-01

    The use of the mammary gland of transgenic goats as a bioreactor is a well established platform for the efficient production of recombinant proteins, especially for molecules that cannot be adequately produced in traditional systems using genetically engineered microorganisms and cells. However, the extraordinary demand placed on the secretory epithelium by the expression of large amounts of the recombinant protein, may result in a compromised mammary physiology. In this study, milk composition was compared between control and transgenic goats expressing high levels (1-5 g/l) of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase in the milk. Casein concentration, as evaluated by acid precipitation, was significantly reduced in the transgenic compared with the control goats throughout lactation (P < 0.01). Milk fatty acid composition for transgenic goats, as determined by gas chromatography, was found to have significantly fewer short chain fatty acids (P < 0.01) and more saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) compared to controls, suggesting an overall metabolic stress and/or decreased expression of key enzymes (e.g. fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase). The concentration of Na(+), K(+), assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum albumin, determined by bromocresol green dye and scanning densitometry, were similar in transgenic and control goats during the first several weeks of lactation. However, as lactation progressed, a significant increase in Na and serum albumin concentrations and a decrease in K(+) concentration were found in the milk of transgenic goats, while control animals remained unchanged (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that: (a) high expression of recombinant proteins may be associated with a slow-down in other synthetic activities at the mammary epithelium, as evidenced by a reduced casein expression and a decreased de-novo synthesis of fatty acids; (b) the development of permeable tight junctions may be the main mechanism involved in the

  14. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy of the human ceruminous apocrine gland. II. Myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, I; Kurosumi, K

    1976-09-01

    The myoepithelial cells of the human ceruminous apocrine gland were observed with transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The myoepithelial cells are long fibrous cells about 100-150 mum in length and 3-5 mum in width. They are arranged in parallel with each other, and their long axes are parallel to that of the secretory tubule itself. The tips of cells are often sharply pointed and their lateral tapering surface may be contiguous with adjacent cells forming a side-by-side contact, while other cells may have a blunt tip which is conjuncted with a similar tip of the next cell forming an end-to-end junction. The myoepithelial cells are joined to each other by desmosomes and there are also desmosomes at their junction with secretory cells. The outer surface of the cell abutting on the basal lamina has some exaggerated densities which are undoubtedly identical to the hemidesmosomes of epidermal cells. There are well developed foldings in the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, but the surface of the myoepithelial cells has very few foldings and projections. The relative shortage of intercellular attachment devices between the secretory and myeopithelial cells makes it easy to peel off the secretory cells to disclose the myoepithelium, a useful feature of scanning electron microscopy. The nucleus-containing part of the cell protrudes slightly upward and invades the secretory epithelium. The cytoplasmic rim surrounding the nucleus contains a small Golgi apparatus and some other organelles. The cytoplasm of the basal half of the cell contains closely packed myofilaments running parallel to the long axis of the cell. There is no definite arrangement of thin and thick myofilaments. Microtubules which often occur in pairs are arranged parallel to the myofilaments.

  15. MUC19 expression in human ocular surface and lacrimal gland and its alteration in Sjögren syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, D F; Chen, Y; Han, J M; Zhang, H; Chen, X P; Zou, W J; Liang, L Y; Xu, C C; Liu, Z G

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the expression of MUC19, a newly discovered gel-forming mucin gene, in normal human lacrimal functional unit components and its alteration in Sjögren syndrome patients. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the expression of MUC19 and MUC5AC in human cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal gland tissues. Conjunctival impression cytology specimens were collected from normal control subjects and Sjögren syndrome patients for Real-time PCR, PAS staining, and immunohistochemistry assays. In addition, conjunctiva biopsy specimens from both groups were examined for the expression differences of MUC19 and MUC5AC at both mRNA and protein level. The MUC19 mRNA was found to be present in cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal gland tissues. The immunohistochemical staining of mucins showed that MUC19 was expressed in epithelial cells from corneal, conjunctival, and lacrimal gland tissues. In contrast, MUC5AC mRNA was only present in conjunctiva and lacrimal gland tissues, but not in cornea. Immunostaining demonstrates the co-staining of MUC19 and MUC5AC in conjunctival goblet cells. Consistent with the significant decrease of mucous secretion, both MUC19 and MUC5AC were decreased in conjunctiva of Sjögren syndrome patients compared to normal subjects. Considering the contribution of gel-forming mucins to the homeostasis of the ocular surface, the decreased expression of MUC19 and MUC5AC in Sjögren syndrome patients suggested that these mucins may be involved in the disruption of the ocular surface homeostasis in this disease. PMID:18184611

  16. MUC19 expression in human ocular surface and lacrimal gland and its alteration in Sjögren syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, D F; Chen, Y; Han, J M; Zhang, H; Chen, X P; Zou, W J; Liang, L Y; Xu, C C; Liu, Z G

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the expression of MUC19, a newly discovered gel-forming mucin gene, in normal human lacrimal functional unit components and its alteration in Sjögren syndrome patients. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the expression of MUC19 and MUC5AC in human cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal gland tissues. Conjunctival impression cytology specimens were collected from normal control subjects and Sjögren syndrome patients for Real-time PCR, PAS staining, and immunohistochemistry assays. In addition, conjunctiva biopsy specimens from both groups were examined for the expression differences of MUC19 and MUC5AC at both mRNA and protein level. The MUC19 mRNA was found to be present in cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal gland tissues. The immunohistochemical staining of mucins showed that MUC19 was expressed in epithelial cells from corneal, conjunctival, and lacrimal gland tissues. In contrast, MUC5AC mRNA was only present in conjunctiva and lacrimal gland tissues, but not in cornea. Immunostaining demonstrates the co-staining of MUC19 and MUC5AC in conjunctival goblet cells. Consistent with the significant decrease of mucous secretion, both MUC19 and MUC5AC were decreased in conjunctiva of Sjögren syndrome patients compared to normal subjects. Considering the contribution of gel-forming mucins to the homeostasis of the ocular surface, the decreased expression of MUC19 and MUC5AC in Sjögren syndrome patients suggested that these mucins may be involved in the disruption of the ocular surface homeostasis in this disease.

  17. Gas Exchange Models for a Flexible Insect Tracheal System.

    PubMed

    Simelane, S M; Abelman, S; Duncan, F D

    2016-06-01

    In this paper two models for movement of respiratory gases in the insect trachea are presented. One model considers the tracheal system as a single flexible compartment while the other model considers the trachea as a single flexible compartment with gas exchange. This work represents an extension of Ben-Tal's work on compartmental gas exchange in human lungs and is applied to the insect tracheal system. The purpose of the work is to study nonlinear phenomena seen in the insect respiratory system. It is assumed that the flow inside the trachea is laminar, and that the air inside the chamber behaves as an ideal gas. Further, with the isothermal assumption, the expressions for the tracheal partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, rate of volume change, and the rates of change of oxygen concentration and carbon dioxide concentration are derived. The effects of some flow parameters such as diffusion capacities, reaction rates and air concentrations on net flow are studied. Numerical simulations of the tracheal flow characteristics are performed. The models developed provide a mathematical framework to further investigate gas exchange in insects. PMID:27209375

  18. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection. PMID:19884745

  19. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection.

  20. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on mammary gland differentiation and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Russo, I H; Koszalka, M; Russo, J

    1990-10-01

    The observation that mammary carcinogenesis is inhibited in rats which completed a pregnancy prior to exposure to the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) led us to determine whether the protective effect of pregnancy could be mimicked by treatment with the placental hormone chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). We also studied the effect of this treatment on mammary gland structure and differentiation, and determined whether hCG exerts toxic or collateral effects on body weight and endocrine organs. The systemic effect of hCG on body wt and endocrine organs and mammary gland was studied in outbred virgin Sprague-Dawley rats which at the age of 50 days started receiving 100 IU hCG i.p. daily for 21 days. The animals were subdivided into nine groups of five animals each; one group was killed on the first day of and the others at 5, 10, 15 and 21 days of injection and 5, 10, 15 and 21 days post injection. The effect of the hormonal treatment on the estrous cycle was determined by studying the vaginal smears taken during and after the injection period. The following parameters were determined: body wt, weight and morphology of pituitary gland, adrenals, ovaries and uterine horns. Mammary glands were processed for histology, autoradiography for determination of DNA labeling index (DNA-LI) and whole mount preparation for morphometric studies. The effect of hCG on mammary carcinogenesis was studied in two groups of virgin rats; group I, which at the age of 50 days started receiving a daily i.p. injection of 100 IU hCG for 21 days; 21 days after the last injection they were given 8 mg DMBA/100 g body wt. Group II animals received DMBA only. hCG treated animals gained weight as a function of age at the same rate as controls. Treatment did not modify the weight of adrenal glands. The weight of ovaries, uterus and pituitary gland were transitorily increased by the 15th day of treatment, but had returned to the same values of controls by the time of DMBA

  1. Effect of glucocorticoid on epidermal growth factor receptor in human salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell line HSG.

    PubMed

    Kyakumoto, S; Kurokawa, R; Ota, M

    1990-07-12

    Human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (HSG) cells treated with 10(-6) M triamcinolone acetonide for 48 h exhibited a 1.7- to 2.0-fold increase in [125I]human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) binding capacity as compared with untreated HSG cells. Scatchard analysis of [125I]EGF binding data revealed that the number of binding sites was 83,700 (+/- 29,200) receptors/cell in untreated cells and 160,500 (+/- 35,500) receptors/cell in treated cells. No substantial change in receptor affinity was detected. The dissociation constant of the EGF receptor was 0.78 (+/- 0.26).10(-9) M for untreated cells, whereas it was 0.93 (+/- 0.31).10(-9)M for treated cells. The triamcinolone acetonide-induced increase in [125I]EGF binding capacity was dose-dependent between 10(-9) and 10(-6)M, and maximal binding was observed at 10(-6)M. EGF receptors on HSG cells were affinity-labeled with [125I]EGF by use of the cross-linking reagent disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). The cross-linked [125I]EGF was 3-4% of the total [125I]EGF bound to HSG cells. The affinity-labeled EGF receptor was detected as a specific 170 kDa band in the autoradiograph after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Densitometric analysis revealed that triamcinolone acetonide amplified the intensity of this band 2.0-fold over that of the band of untreated cells. EGF receptor synthesis was also measured by immunoprecipitation of [3H]leucine-labeled EGF receptor protein with anti-hEGF receptor monoclonal antibody. Receptor synthesis was increased 1.7- to 1.8-fold when HSG cells were treated with 10(-8)-10(-6)M triamcinolone acetonide for 48 h. When the immunoprecipitated, [35S]methionine-pulse-labeled EGF receptor was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography, the newly synthesized EGF receptor was detected at the position of 170 kDa; and treatment of HSG cells with triamcinolone acetonide resulted in a 2.0-fold amplification of this 170 kDa band. There was no significant difference in turnover rate of EGF receptor

  2. Analysis of the human, bovine and rat 33-kDa proteins and cDNA in retina and pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Nakabayashi, H; Tamada, H; Takagi, T; Sakuragi, S; Yamaki, K; Shinohara, T

    1990-07-16

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced against a bovine retinal 33-kDa protein. Several clones of 33-kDa protein were isolated from each library of cDNA from human, bovine and rat retinas and rat pineal gland by mAb screening and by hybridization with cDNA probes. Each of the four cDNA sequences was determined and amino acid (aa) sequences were deduced from the nucleotide sequences. The latter were nearly identical in rat retina and rat pineal gland (99.6%) and were similar in human, bovine and rat retina (more than 87%). Each of these cDNAs had one long ORF and encoded 245 or 246 aa. The deduced aa sequences in rat retina and rat pineal gland were virtually identical and the sequences in human, bovine and rat retina were highly homologous (more than 88%). The predicted Mr for each of these proteins was 28,246 in the human, 28,176 in bovine, 28,143 in rat retina, and 28,129 in rat pineal gland. Each of the sequences has a putative site for phosphorylation by A kinase; we have confirmed that the putative site is Ser73. These results show that the 33-kDa proteins in the retina and pineal gland have the same sequences and the same phosphorylation site and suggest that the functional role of this protein is the same in the retina and pineal gland.

  3. Characterization of Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Human Minor Salivary Glands with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis has been proposed to play a role in the inflammation observed in Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS). However, no studies have validated the degree of angiogenesis in salivary glands with SS. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the presence and localization of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in salivary glands with SS. We used frozen tissue sections from human minor salivary glands (hMSG) with and without SS in our analyses. To investigate signs of angiogenesis, hMSG tissue lysates were used to detect levels of the pro-angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by western blot analyses. Additionally, we labeled blood vessels using antibodies specific to platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) to determine blood vessel organization and volume fraction using fluorescence microscopy. Lymphatic vessel organization and volume fraction were determined using antibodies specific to lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1). Our results suggest that expression levels of VEGF are decreased in hMSG with SS as compared with controls. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in blood or lymphatic vessel organization or volume fraction between hMSG with and without SS, suggesting that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis have little impact on the progression of SS. PMID:25636309

  4. Topical spironolactone inhibits dihydrotestosterone receptors in human sebaceous glands: an autoradiographic study in subjects with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Gabba, P; Ucci, G; Borroni, G; Rabbiosi, G

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between spironolactone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) receptors was evaluated with an autoradiographic technique. The inhibition of DHT receptors by spironolactone was found to be related to the decrease of tritiated DHT granules in the sebaceous glands of the treated site. 6 male patients affected by acne vulgaris entered the study. The acute study was performed by applying to 25 cm2 of the back a cream containing 5% spironolactone under occlusive dressing. The dosage of spironolactone applied was 4 mg/cm2 for 48 h. The long-term study was performed by applying the same amount to the entire back, without occlusion, twice daily for 1 month. Skin biopsies were taken at the end of the treatment, incubated with tritiated DHT and processed for autoradiography. Both the acute and the long-term study revealed a decrease of the autoradiographic granules in the treated site. This effect is related to the binding of spironolactone with dihydrotestosterone receptors in the sebaceous glands. Our study demonstrates that 5% topical spironolactone cream acts as an antiandrogen in human sebaceous glands, competing with DHT receptors and producing a decrease of labelled DHT. At the concentrations used the effect has been only local. No side-effects were recorded during both studies. PMID:2972662

  5. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  6. Human eccrine sweat gland cells reconstitute polarized spheroids when subcutaneously implanted with Matrigel in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Mingjun; Chen, Liyun; Li, Xuexue; Zhang, Bingna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that maintenance of cell polarity plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glandular homeostasis and function. We examine the markers for polarity at different time points to investigate the formation of cell polarity during 3D reconstitution of eccrine sweat glands. Mixtures of eccrine sweat gland cells and Matrigel were injected subcutaneously into the inguinal regions of nude mice. At 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks post-implantation, Matrigel plugs were removed and immunostained for basal collagen IV, lateral β-catenin, lateroapical ZO-1 and apical F-actin. The results showed that the cell polarity of the spheroids appeared in sequence. Formation of basal polarity was prior to lateral, apical and lateroapical polarity. Collagen IV was detected basally at 2 weeks, β-catenin laterally and ZO-1 lateroapically at 3 weeks, and F-actin apically at 4 weeks post-implantation. At week 5 and week 6, the localization and the positive percentage of collagen IV, β-catenin, ZO-1 or F-actin in spheroids was similar to that in native eccrine sweat glands. We conclude that the reconstituted 3D eccrine sweat glands are functional or potentially functional. PMID:27492422

  7. A case of human intramuscular adrenal gland transplantation as a cure for chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Grodstein, E; Hardy, M A; Goldstein, M J

    2010-02-01

    Intramuscular endocrine gland transplantation has been well described as it pertains to parathyroid autotransplantation; however, transplantation of the adrenal gland is less well characterized. While adrenal autotransplantation in the setting of Cushing's disease has been described, intramuscular adrenal allotransplantation as a cure for adrenal insufficiency to our knowledge has not been previously carried out. Current treatment for adrenal insufficiency leaves patients without diurnal variation in cortisol release and susceptible to the detrimental effects of chronic hypercortisolism. We describe here the case of a 5-year-old girl with renal failure who had adrenal insufficiency following fulminant meningococcemia that led to requirements for both stress-dose steroid and mineralocorticoid replacement. Ten months after the onset of her disease, she received a simultaneous renal and adrenal gland transplant from her mother. The adrenal gland allograft was morselized into 1 mm(3) segments and implanted into three 2 cm pockets created in her rectus abdominis muscle. Three years after surgery, her allograft remains fully functional, responding well to adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulation and the patient does not require any steroid or mineral-corticoid supplementation. We believe this case represents the first description of successful functional intramuscular adrenal allograft transplantation with long-term follow up as a cure for adrenal insufficiency.

  8. TNF-α inhibits aquaporin 5 expression in human salivary gland acinar cells via suppression of histone H4 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Yoshiko; Motegi, Katsumi; Kani, Kouichi; Takano, Hideyuki; Momota, Yukihiro; Aota, Keiko; Yamanoi, Tomoko; Azuma, Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by reductions in salivary and lacrimal secretions. The mechanisms underlying these reductions remain unclear. We have previously shown that TNF-α plays an important role in the destruction of acinar structures. Here we examined TNF-α's function in the expression of aquaporin (AQP) 5 in human salivary gland acinar cells. Immortalized human salivary gland acinar (NS-SV-AC) cells were treated with TNF-α, and then the expression levels of AQP5 mRNA and protein were analysed. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the reduction of AQP5 expression by TNF-α treatment were investigated. TNF-α-treatment of NS-SV-AC cells significantly suppressed the expression levels of AQP5 mRNA and protein, and reduced the net fluid secretion rate. We examined the expression and activation levels of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) in NS-SV-AC cells treated with TNF-α. However, no significant changes were observed in the expression or activation levels of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a or Dnmt3b. Although we also investigated the role of NF-κB activity in the TNF-α-induced suppression of AQP5 expression in NS-SV-AC cells, we detected similar TNF-α suppression of AQP5 expression in non-transfected cells and in a super-repressor form of IκBα cDNA-transfected cell clones. However, interestingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated a remarkable decrease in levels of acetylated histone H4 associated with the AQP5 gene promoter after treatment with TNF-α in NS-SV-AC cells. Therefore, our results may indicate that TNF-α inhibition of AQP5 expression in human salivary gland acinar cells is due to the epigenetic mechanism by suppression of acetylation of histone H4.

  9. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  10. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  11. Biocompatibility of Experimental Polymeric Tracheal Matrices.

    PubMed

    Kiselevskii, M V; Chikileva, I O; Vlasenko, R Ya; Sitdikova, S M; Tenchurin, T Kh; Mamagulashvili, V G; Shepelev, A D; Grigoriev, T A; Chvalun, S N

    2016-08-01

    Biocompatibility of a new tracheal matrix is studied. The new matrix is based on polymeric ultra-fiber material colonized by mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells. The experiments demonstrate cytoconductivity of the synthetic matrices and no signs of their degradation within 2 months after their implantation to recipient mice. These data suggest further studies of the synthetic tracheal matrices on large laboratory animals. PMID:27591876

  12. Simian virus 40 sequences and expression of the viral large T antigen oncoprotein in human pleomorphic adenomas of parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Marcella; Martini, Fernanda; Rinaldi, Eliana; Caramanico, Laura; Magri, Eros; Grandi, Enrico; Carinci, Francesco; Pastore, Antonio; Tognon, Mauro

    2002-10-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) sequences of the early region coding for the large T antigen (Tag) oncoprotein were investigated in DNA samples from human pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of parotid glands. Specific SV40 sequences were detected, by PCR and filter hybridization with an internal oligoprobe, in 28 of 45 (62%) human PA specimens. None of the DNA samples from 11 normal salivary gland tissues was SV40-positive. DNA sequence analysis, carried out in all PCR amplified products from SV40-positive PA specimens, confirmed the SV40 specificity and indicated that PCR products had a sequence not distinguishable from SV40 DNA wild-type strain 776. SV40 Tag expression was revealed by immunohistochemistry with the specific monoclonal antibody Pab 101 in PA thin sections with a highly sensitive technical approach which retrieved the nuclear viral oncoprotein in 26 out of 28 (93%) samples previously found SV40-positive by PCR. Detection of SV40 sequences and Tag expression in human PA suggests that this oncogenic virus may play a role as a cofactor in the onset and/or progression of this benign neoplasm, or that SV40 DNA could replicate and express the Tag in PA cells.

  13. Optical metabolic imaging for monitoring tracheal health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Gil, Daniel A.; Choma, Michael A.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-04-01

    The health of the tracheal mucosa and submucosa is a vital yet poorly understood component of critical care medicine, and a minimally-invasive method is needed to monitor tracheal health in patients. Of particular interest are the ciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium that move mucus away from the lungs and prevent respiratory infection. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) allows cellular-level measurement of metabolism, and is a compelling method for assessing tracheal health because ciliary motor proteins require ATP to function. In this pilot study, we apply multiphoton imaging of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and FAD to the mucosa and submucosa of ex vivo mouse trachea. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential diagnostic utility of these measurements for assessing tracheal health and pathophysiology at the single-cell level.

  14. Phenotype and cell proliferation activity of duct-like structures in human sublingual glands: a histological and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; TEIXEIRA, Cleverson Soares; AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    There are several age-related microscopic changes in the salivary glands, including the increase in the number of duct-like structures (DLS). However, the true origin and the phenotype of the DLS are not known. Objective To evaluate the phenotype and the cell proliferation index of the DLS of human sublingual glands. Material and Methods Sixty sublingual glands obtained from human cadavers were divided into two groups - 0-30 and 61-90 years old. The phenotype was estimated by immunostaining for cytokeratin 19 (CK 19) and the S-100 protein as well as by the presence of mucin and glycogen. The cell proliferation index was determined by the Ki-67 antibody. The histochemical techniques used periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian Blue. In each captured microscopic field, the DLS were counted to establish a percentage for the staining profile. The statistical analysis was accomplished using Student’s t-test, the Mann-Whitney test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (p<0.05). Results Comparing both groups, only CK 19 showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.033), with the strongest expression in the elderly group. There was no significant difference between PAS and Alcian Blue (p=0.270). In both groups, the immunostaining for CK 19 was stronger than that for S-100 (p=0.004;p<0.001), but there was no correlation between the two immunomarkers (ρ=-0.163; p=0.315). There was no immunostaining for Ki-67. Conclusions DLS demonstrate a ductal phenotypic profile and do not present cell proliferation activity. DLS may represent a regressive process arising from acini or represent the result of metaplasia. PMID:26221919

  15. BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implications for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, Liesl K.; Madden, Vicki; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2009-11-25

    Background: In this study, it was determined that BKV is shed in saliva and an in vitro model system was developed whereby BKV can productively infect both submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary gland cell lines. Results: BKV was detected in oral fluids using quantitative real-time PCR (QRTPCR). BKV infection was determined using quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The infectivity of BKV was inhibited by pre-incubation of the virus with gangliosides that saturated the major capsid protein, VP1, halting receptor mediated BKV entry into salivary gland cells. Examination of infected cultures by transmission electron microscopy revealed 45-50 nm BK virions clearly visible within the cells. Subsequent to infection, encapsidated BK virus was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion: We thus demonstrated that BKV was detected in oral fluids and that BK infection and replication occur in vitro in salivary gland cells. These data collectively suggest the potential for BKV oral route of transmission and oral pathogenesis.

  16. Expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    López-Meza, Joel E; Gutiérrez-Barroso, Angelina; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2009-08-01

    The production of antimicrobial peptides is an important key of innate immunity. Tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) expression has been reported in bovine tracheal epithelial cells and it can be modulated by bacterial infection or bacterial components. In mammary gland TAP expression has been reported, but the cell type that produces it is unknown. The objective of this work was to evaluate if bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) express TAP mRNA, and evaluate the regulation of its expression in response to Staphylococcus aureus infection, bovine prolactin (bPRL) or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). By retrotranscription and PCR, we demonstrated that bMEC express TAP mRNA. bMEC infected with live S. aureus down-regulates TAP expression, whereas the challenge with gentamicin-killed S. aureus up-regulates it. Also, bPRL do not significantly modify TAP expression, but in the presence of 5 mM ASA it was down-regulated, suggesting that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway can be involved in its regulation. PMID:19181355

  17. Prediction of difficult tracheal intubation in thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Bouaggad, Abderrahmane; Nejmi, Sif Eddine; Bouderka, Moulay Ahmed; Abbassi, Omar

    2004-08-01

    The incidence of difficult endotracheal intubation (DEI) for patients undergoing thyroidectomy has rarely been studied, and evaluation of factors linked to DEI is limited to a few studies. We undertook this prospective study to investigate the incidence of DEI in the presence of goiter (an enlargement of the thyroid gland) and to evaluate factors linked to DEI. We studied 320 consecutive patients scheduled for thyroidectomy. DEI was evaluated by an intubation difficulty scale. The trachea was intubated by an unassisted anesthesiologist, and the intubation difficulty scale was calculated. A univariate analysis was performed to identify potential factors predicting DEI, followed by a multivariate analysis. DEI was reported in 17 patients. The rate of easy tracheal intubation was 36.9%; the rate for patients who had minor difficulty of intubation was 57.8%. Sex (male), body mass index, Mallampati class, thyromental distance, neck mobility, Cormack grade, cancerous goiter, and tracheal deviation or compression were identified in the univariate analysis as potential DEI risk factors. With multivariate analysis, two criteria were recognized as independent for DEI (Cormack Grade III or IV and cancerous goiter). We conclude that the large goiter is not associated with a more frequent DEI. However, the presence of a cancerous goiter is a major factor for predicting DEI.

  18. Differential scanning calorimetric evaluation of human meibomian gland secretions and model lipid mixtures: transition temperatures and cooperativity of melting

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Butovich, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Meibomian gland secretions (or meibum) are produced by holocrine meibomian glands and are secreted in melted form onto the ocular surface of humans and animals to form a protective tear film lipid layer (TFLL). Its protective effect strongly depends on the composition and, hence, thermotropic behavior of meibum. The goal of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the melting characteristics of human meibum and model lipid mixtures using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Standard calorimetric parameters, e.g. changes in calorimetric enthalpy, transition temperatures T(m), cooperativity of melting etc. were assessed. We found that thermotropic behavior of meibum resembled that of relatively simple mixtures of unsaturated wax esters, but showed a lower change in calorimetric enthalpy, which can be indicative of a looser packing of lipids in meibum compared with pure standards and their simple mixtures. The cooperativity of melting of meibomian lipids was comparable to that of an equimolar mixture of four oleic-acid based wax esters. We demonstrated that the phase transitions in meibum start at about 10 to 15 °C and end at 35-36 °C, with T(m) being about 30 °C. The highly asymmetrical shape of the thermotropic peak of meibum is important for the physiology and biophysics of TFLL. PMID:23578711

  19. A connection between extracellular matrix and hormonal signals during the development of the human fetal adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Chamoux, E; Otis, M; Gallo-Payet, N

    2005-10-01

    The human adrenal cortex, involved in adaptive responses to stress, body homeostasis and secondary sexual characters, emerges from a tightly regulated development of a zone-specific secretion pattern during fetal life. Its development during fetal life is critical for the well being of pregnancy, the initiation of delivery, and even for an adequate adaptation to extra-uterine life. As early as from the sixth week of pregnancy, the fetal adrenal gland is characterized by a highly proliferative zone at the periphery, a concentric migration accompanied by cell differentiation (cortisol secretion) and apoptosis in the central androgen-secreting fetal zone. After birth, a strong reorganization occurs in the adrenal gland so that it better fulfills the newborn's needs, with aldosterone production in the external zona glomerulosa, cortisol secretion in the zona fasciculata and androgens in the central zona reticularis. In addition to the major hormonal stimuli provided by angiotensin II and adrenocorticotropin, we have tested for some years the hypotheses that such plasticity may be under the control of the extracellular matrix. A growing number of data have been harvested during the last years, in particular about extracellular matrix expression and its putative role in the development of the human adrenal cortex. Laminin, collagen and fibronectin have been shown to play important roles not only in the plasticity of the adrenal cortex, but also in cell responsiveness to hormones, thus clarifying some of the unexplained observations that used to feed controversies. PMID:16172742

  20. Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-20 and Potential Interaction with Dentin Sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) in Human Major Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Koli, Komal; Saxena, Geetu; Ogbureke, Kalu U E

    2015-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) expression is widely regarded as tooth-specific, with expression limited to dental hard tissues. Necessary for sound enamel formation, MMP-20 and MMP-2 proteolytically process dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) into dentin sialoprotein, dentin phosphoprotein, and dentin glycoprotein during tooth formation. In the mid-2000s, three members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) were reported to bind specifically with high affinity (nM) to, and activate, three MMPs in vitro: bone sialoprotein with MMP-2; osteopontin with MMP-3; and dentin matrix protein1 with MMP-9. The SIBLING-MMP interaction was confirmed in biological systems such as the ducts of salivary glands, where all five members of the SIBLINGs are expressed. Recently, we documented MMP-20 expression and interaction with DSPP (another member of the SIBLING family) in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Here we report the expression of MMP-20, and confirm its co-expression and potential interaction with DSPP in human major salivary gland tissues and cell line using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot, quantitative RT-PCR, and proximity ligation assay. This report reinforces our earlier suggestion that the SIBLING-MMP complexes may be involved in the turnover of extracellular proteins damaged by oxidation byproducts in metabolically active duct epithelial systems.

  1. First-line tracheal resection and primary anastomosis for postintubation tracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, H; Mostafa, A M; Soliman, S; Shoukry, T; El-Nori, A A; El-Bawab, H Y

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Tracheal stenosis following intubation is the most common indication for tracheal resection and reconstruction. Endoscopic dilation is almost always associated with recurrence. This study investigated first-line surgical resection and anastomosis performed in fit patients presenting with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Methods Between February 2011 and November 2014, a prospective study was performed involving patients who underwent first-line tracheal resection and primary anastomosis after presenting with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Results A total of 30 patients (20 male) were operated on. The median age was 23.5 years (range: 13-77 years). Seventeen patients (56.7%) had had previous endoscopic tracheal dilation, four (13.3%) had had tracheal stents inserted prior to surgery and one (3.3%) had undergone previous tracheal resection. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had had a tracheostomy. Eight patients (26.7%) had had no previous tracheal interventions. The median time of intubation in those developing tracheal stenosis was 20.5 days (range: 0-45 days). The median length of hospital stay was 10.5 days (range: 7-21 days). The success rate for anastomoses was 96.7% (29/30). One patient needed a permanent tracheostomy. The in-hospital mortality rate was 3.3%: 1 patient died from a chest infection 21 days after surgery. There was no mortality or morbidity in the group undergoing first-line surgery for de novo tracheal lesions. Conclusions First-line tracheal resection with primary anastomosis is a safe option for the treatment of tracheal stenosis following intubation and obviates the need for repeated dilations. Endoscopic dilation should be reserved for those patients with significant co-morbidities or as a temporary measure in non-equipped centres.

  2. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  12. Human breast cancer cells are redirected to mammary epithelial cells upon interaction with the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Bussard, Karen M; Smith, Gilbert H

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display 'normal' behavior when placed into 'normal' ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for 'normal' gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts) confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini) were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic) respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo.

  13. Expression of Human NSAID Activated Gene 1 in Mice Leads to Altered Mammary Gland Differentiation and Impaired Lactation.

    PubMed

    Binder, April K; Kosak, Justin P; Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Janhardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Moser, Glenda; Eling, Thomas E; Korach, Kenneth S

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing human non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene 1 (NAG-1) have less adipose tissue, improved insulin sensitivity, lower insulin levels and are resistant to dietary induced obesity. The hNAG-1 expressing mice are more metabolically active with a higher energy expenditure. This study investigates female reproduction in the hNAG-1 transgenic mice and finds the female mice are fertile but have reduced pup survival after birth. Examination of the mammary glands in these mice suggests that hNAG-1 expressing mice have altered mammary epithelial development during pregnancy, including reduced occupancy of the fat pad and increased apoptosis via TUNEL positive cells on lactation day 2. Pups nursing from hNAG-1 expressing dams have reduced milk spots compared to pups nursing from WT dams. When CD-1 pups were cross-fostered with hNAG-1 or WT dams; reduced milk volume was observed in pups nursing from hNAG-1 dams compared to pups nursing from WT dams in a lactation challenge study. Milk was isolated from WT and hNAG-1 dams, and the milk was found to have secreted NAG-1 protein (approximately 25 ng/mL) from hNAG-1 dams. The WT dams had no detectable hNAG-1 in the milk. A decrease in non-esterified free fatty acids in the milk of hNAG-1 dams was observed. Altered milk composition suggests that the pups were receiving inadequate nutrients during perinatal development. To examine this hypothesis serum was isolated from pups and clinical chemistry points were measured. Male and female pups nursing from hNAG-1 dams had reduced serum triglyceride concentrations. Microarray analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism are differentially expressed in hNAG-1 mammary glands. Furthermore, the expression of Cidea/CIDEA that has been shown to regulate milk lipid secretion in the mammary gland was reduced in hNAG-1 mammary glands. This study suggests that expression of hNAG-1 in mice leads to impaired lactation and reduces pup survival due to

  14. Expression of Human NSAID Activated Gene 1 in Mice Leads to Altered Mammary Gland Differentiation and Impaired Lactation.

    PubMed

    Binder, April K; Kosak, Justin P; Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Janhardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Moser, Glenda; Eling, Thomas E; Korach, Kenneth S

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing human non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene 1 (NAG-1) have less adipose tissue, improved insulin sensitivity, lower insulin levels and are resistant to dietary induced obesity. The hNAG-1 expressing mice are more metabolically active with a higher energy expenditure. This study investigates female reproduction in the hNAG-1 transgenic mice and finds the female mice are fertile but have reduced pup survival after birth. Examination of the mammary glands in these mice suggests that hNAG-1 expressing mice have altered mammary epithelial development during pregnancy, including reduced occupancy of the fat pad and increased apoptosis via TUNEL positive cells on lactation day 2. Pups nursing from hNAG-1 expressing dams have reduced milk spots compared to pups nursing from WT dams. When CD-1 pups were cross-fostered with hNAG-1 or WT dams; reduced milk volume was observed in pups nursing from hNAG-1 dams compared to pups nursing from WT dams in a lactation challenge study. Milk was isolated from WT and hNAG-1 dams, and the milk was found to have secreted NAG-1 protein (approximately 25 ng/mL) from hNAG-1 dams. The WT dams had no detectable hNAG-1 in the milk. A decrease in non-esterified free fatty acids in the milk of hNAG-1 dams was observed. Altered milk composition suggests that the pups were receiving inadequate nutrients during perinatal development. To examine this hypothesis serum was isolated from pups and clinical chemistry points were measured. Male and female pups nursing from hNAG-1 dams had reduced serum triglyceride concentrations. Microarray analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism are differentially expressed in hNAG-1 mammary glands. Furthermore, the expression of Cidea/CIDEA that has been shown to regulate milk lipid secretion in the mammary gland was reduced in hNAG-1 mammary glands. This study suggests that expression of hNAG-1 in mice leads to impaired lactation and reduces pup survival due to

  15. Formation of post-confluence structure in human parotid gland acinar cells on PLGA through regulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yen-Hui; Huang, Tsung-Wei; Chou, Ya-Shuan; Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Su, Wei-Fang; Lou, Pei-Jen; Young, Tai-Horng

    2012-01-01

    As a potential solution for patients to retrieve their lost salivary gland functions, tissue engineering of an auto-secretory device is profoundly needed. Under serum-free environment, primary human parotid gland acinar (PGAC) cells can be obtained. After reaching confluence, PGAC cells spontaneously form three-dimension (3D) cell aggregations, termed post-confluence structure (PCS), and change their behaviors. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been widely used in the field of biomedical applications because of its biodegradable properties for desired functions. Nonetheless, the role of PLGA in facilitating PGAC cells to form PCS has seldom been explored to recover epithelial characteristics. In this study, PGAC cells were found to have a greater tendency to form PCS on PLGA than on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). By tracing cell migration paths and modulating E-cadherin activity with specific inhibitor or antibody, we demonstrated that the static force of homophilic interaction on surfaces of individual cells, but not the dynamics of cell migration, played a more important role in PCS formation. Thus, PLGA was successfully confirmed to support PGAC cells to form more PCS through the effects on enhancing E-cadherin expression, which is associated with FAK/ILK/Snail expression in PGAC cells. This result indicates that selective appropriate biomaterials may be potentially useful in generating 3D PCS on two-dimension (2D) substrate without fabricating a complex 3D scaffold.

  16. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

  17. Function of human eccrine sweat glands during dynamic exercise and passive heat stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, N.; Shibasaki, M.; Aoki, K.; Koga, S.; Inoue, Y.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of change in the density of activated sweat glands (ASG) and sweat output per gland (SGO) during dynamic constant-workload exercise and passive heat stress. Eight male subjects (22.8 +/- 0.9 yr) exercised at a constant workload (117.5 +/- 4.8 W) and were also passively heated by lower-leg immersion into hot water of 42 degrees C under an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, sweating rate (SR), and heart rate were measured continuously during both trials. The number of ASG was determined every 4 min after the onset of sweating, whereas SGO was calculated by dividing SR by ASG. During both exercise and passive heating, SR increased abruptly during the first 8 min after onset of sweating, followed by a slower increase. Similarly for both protocols, the number of ASG increased rapidly during the first 8 min after the onset of sweating and then ceased to increase further (P > 0.05). Conversely, SGO increased linearly throughout both perturbations. Our results suggest that changes in forearm sweating rate rely on both ASG and SGO during the initial period of exercise and passive heating, whereas further increases in SR are dependent on increases in SGO.

  18. In Vivo Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy of Human Meibomian Glands in Aging and Ocular Surface Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fasanella, Vincenzo; Agnifili, Luca; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Brescia, Lorenza; Di Staso, Federico; Ciancaglini, Marco; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Meibomian glands (MGs) play a crucial role in the ocular surface homeostasis by providing lipids to the superficial tear film. Their dysfunction destabilizes the tear film leading to a progressive loss of the ocular surface equilibrium and increasing the risk for dry eye. In fact, nowadays, the meibomian gland dysfunction is one of the leading causes of dry eye. Over the past decades, MGs have been mainly studied by using meibography, which, however, cannot image the glandular structure at a cellular level. The diffusion of the in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) provided a new approach for the structural assessment of MGs permitting a major step in the noninvasive evaluation of these structures. LSCM is capable of showing MGs modifications during aging and in the most diffuse ocular surface diseases such as dry eye, allergy, and autoimmune conditions and in the drug-induced ocular surface disease. On the other hand, LSCM may help clinicians in monitoring the tissue response to therapy. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the role of in vivo LSCM in the assessment of MGs during aging and in the most diffuse ocular surface diseases.

  19. In Vivo Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy of Human Meibomian Glands in Aging and Ocular Surface Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fasanella, Vincenzo; Agnifili, Luca; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Brescia, Lorenza; Di Staso, Federico; Ciancaglini, Marco; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Meibomian glands (MGs) play a crucial role in the ocular surface homeostasis by providing lipids to the superficial tear film. Their dysfunction destabilizes the tear film leading to a progressive loss of the ocular surface equilibrium and increasing the risk for dry eye. In fact, nowadays, the meibomian gland dysfunction is one of the leading causes of dry eye. Over the past decades, MGs have been mainly studied by using meibography, which, however, cannot image the glandular structure at a cellular level. The diffusion of the in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) provided a new approach for the structural assessment of MGs permitting a major step in the noninvasive evaluation of these structures. LSCM is capable of showing MGs modifications during aging and in the most diffuse ocular surface diseases such as dry eye, allergy, and autoimmune conditions and in the drug-induced ocular surface disease. On the other hand, LSCM may help clinicians in monitoring the tissue response to therapy. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the role of in vivo LSCM in the assessment of MGs during aging and in the most diffuse ocular surface diseases. PMID:27047965

  20. In Vivo Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy of Human Meibomian Glands in Aging and Ocular Surface Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fasanella, Vincenzo; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Brescia, Lorenza; Di Staso, Federico; Ciancaglini, Marco; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Meibomian glands (MGs) play a crucial role in the ocular surface homeostasis by providing lipids to the superficial tear film. Their dysfunction destabilizes the tear film leading to a progressive loss of the ocular surface equilibrium and increasing the risk for dry eye. In fact, nowadays, the meibomian gland dysfunction is one of the leading causes of dry eye. Over the past decades, MGs have been mainly studied by using meibography, which, however, cannot image the glandular structure at a cellular level. The diffusion of the in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) provided a new approach for the structural assessment of MGs permitting a major step in the noninvasive evaluation of these structures. LSCM is capable of showing MGs modifications during aging and in the most diffuse ocular surface diseases such as dry eye, allergy, and autoimmune conditions and in the drug-induced ocular surface disease. On the other hand, LSCM may help clinicians in monitoring the tissue response to therapy. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the role of in vivo LSCM in the assessment of MGs during aging and in the most diffuse ocular surface diseases. PMID:27047965

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor is constitutively expressed in normal human salivary glands and is secreted in the saliva of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Pammer, J; Weninger, W; Mildner, M; Burian, M; Wojta, J; Tschachler, E

    1998-10-01

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific mitogen for endothelial cells, was examined in salivary glands and in normal saliva. In normal salivary glands, VEGF mRNA and protein were strongly present in acinar cells, whereas little or no VEGF was found in ductal cells. In chronically inflamed glands, VEGF protein was in addition present in ductal elements and in infiltrating mononuclear cells. No difference of VEGF expression was observed between benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. By ELISA, whole saliva of 24 healthy individuals contained up to 2.5 ng/ml (mean 1.4 ng/ml; SD 0.77 ng/ml) of VEGF, confirming the constitutive secretion of this cytokine by human salivary glands. Western blot analysis of normal saliva under non-reducing conditions detected anti-VEGF reactive protein moieties of approximately 46 kD, corresponding to VEGF secreted by cells in tissue culture. Additional anti-VEGF reactive proteins of approximately 60 and 90 kD were detected in the saliva of some individuals. The presence of considerable quantities of VEGF in normal human saliva suggests an important role for this cytokine in the maintenance of the homeostasis of mucous membranes, with rapid induction of neoangiogenesis by salivary VEGF helping to accelerate wound healing within the oral cavity. Moreover, salivary VEGF may permeabilize intraglandular capillaries and thus participate in the regulation of saliva production itself.

  2. Isolation and characterization of glycoproteins from canine tracheal pouch secretions.

    PubMed

    Liao, T H; Blumenfeld, O O; Park, S S

    1979-04-25

    Canine tracheal pouch secretions were solubilized with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Intact mucus, and water-soluble and insoluble fractions of mucus were shown to be composed of high molecular weight glycoproteins (Mr greater than or equal to 3 . 10(6)) and three major classes of proteins of lower molecular weight (Mr approximately 4 . 10(5), 2 . 10(5), and 6 . 10(4)). When the mucus secretions were further treated with a reducing agent, the glycoproteins were dissociated into subunits which appeared on the gel as three discrete bands. Separation of the high molecular weight glycoproteins from the other proteins was achieved by gel filtration on Biogel A-15m in the presence of 1% dodecyl sulfate following reduction and alkylation of mucus. These glycoproteins were further resolved, using DEAE cellulose chromatography in the presence of 6 M urea, into two protein fractions. Both fractions contained approximately 87% carbohydrate, high amounts of serine and threonine but differed significantly in contents of N-acetyl glucosamine and sialic acid; their mobility on gel electrophoresis was also different. Significant contents of cysteine were noted in both fractions. Results of this study indicate that the canine tracheal pouch preparations provide normal tracheal secretions which bear similarity in structure to the tracheobronchial secretions obtained from human patients. PMID:454656

  3. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by tracheal explants: effects of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Last, J.A.; Kaizu, T.

    1980-04-01

    Tracheal slices incubated with radioactive precursors in tissue culture medium secrete labeled mucus glycoproteins into the culture medium. We have used an in vivtro approach, a combined method utilizing exposure to pneumotoxins in vivo coupled with quantitation of mucus secretion rates in vitro, to study the effects of inhaled pollutants on mucus biosynthesis by rat airways. In addition, we have purified the mucus glycoproteins secreted by rat tracheal explants in order to determine putative structural changes that might by the basis for the observed augmented secretion rates after exposure of rats to H2SO4 aerosols in combination with high ambient levels of ozone. After digestion with papain, mucus glycoproteins secreted by tracheal explants may be separated into five fractions by ion-exchange chromatography, with recovery in high yield, on columns of DEAE-cellulose. Each of these five fractions, one neutral and four acidic, migrates as a single unique spot upon cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH values of 8.6 and 1.2. The neutral fraction, which is labeled with (3H) glucosamine, does not contain radioactivity when Na2 35SO4 is used as the precursor. Acidic fractions I to IV are all labeled with either 3H-glucosamine or Na2 35SO4 as precursor. Acidic fraction II contains sialic acid as the terminal sugar on its oligosaccharide side chains, based upon its chromatographic behavior on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin-Agarose. Treatment of this fraction with neuraminidase shifts its elution position in the gradient to a lower salt concentration, coincident with acidic fraction I. After removal of terminal sialic acid residues with either neuraminidase or low pH treatment, the resultant terminal sugar on the oligosaccharide side chains is fucose. These results are identical with those observed with mucus glycoproteins secreted by cultured human tracheal explants and purified by these same techniques.

  4. In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

    2008-01-01

    It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to human beings and must all be sacrificed for such studies. We, therefore, established a modified system of culturing mucosa cells from the trachea of pigs, which is available as a regular by-product after slaughtering. With respect to the possibility of developing “beating” cilia, it could be shown that the speed of cell proliferation until adhesion to the coated culture dishes, the formation of conjunctions of cell clusters and the proliferation of cilia were comparable for porcine and human mucosa. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the porcine cilia beat frequency of 7.57 ± 1.39 Hz was comparable to the human mucosa cells beat frequency of 7.3 ± 1.4 Hz and that this beat frequency was absolutely constant over the investigation time of 360 min. In order to prove whether the reaction to different drugs is comparable between the porcine and human cilia, we initially tested benzalkonium chloride, which is known to be toxic for human cells, followed by naphazoline, which we found in previous studies on human mucosa to be non-toxic. The results clearly showed that the functional and morphological reactions of the porcine ciliated cells to these substances were similar to the reaction we found in the in vitro cultured human mucosa. PMID:18458926

  5. Post intubation tracheal stenosis in children.

    PubMed

    Caruselli, Marco; Amici, Mirco; Galante, Dario; Paut, Olivier; De Francisci, Giovanni; Carboni, Laura

    2014-08-12

    Many authors have reported that tracheal stenosis is a complication that can follow tracheal intubation in both adults and children. The symptoms, when they do appear, can be confused with asthma, with subsequent treatment providing only mild and inconsistent relief. We report here the case of an 8 year old girl admitted to our hospital for whooping cough that was not responding to therapy. PMID:25635215

  6. Alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (. cap alpha. -hANP) specific binding sites in bovine adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, K.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.I.; Ibayashi, H.; Matsuo, H.

    1986-06-13

    The effects of synthetic ..cap alpha..-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (..cap alpha..-hANP) on steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells in primary monolayer culture were investigated. ..cap alpha..-hANP did not inhibit basal aldosterone secretion. ..cap alpha..-hANP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of basal levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion and also of aCTH (10/sup -8/M)-stimulated increases in aldosterone, cortisol and DHEA secretion. Visualization of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha..-hANP binding sites in bovine adrenal gland by an in vitro autoradiographic technique demonstrated that these sites were highly localized in the adrenal cortex, especially the zona glomerulosa. These results suggest that the adrenal cortex may be a target organ for direct receptor-mediated actions of ..cap alpha..-hANP.

  7. Physico-chemical characterization of human von Ebner gland protein expressed in Escherichia coli: implications for its physiological role.

    PubMed

    Creuzenet, C; Mangroo, D

    1998-11-01

    The human von Ebner gland protein (VEG) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The sequence and mass of the recombinant protein were confirmed, and far and near UV circular dichroic analyses showed that the protein was properly folded. The secondary structure of recombinant VEG consisted of 75% beta-sheets and 12% alpha-helices, and it was found to be stable under acidic conditions, in the presence of alcohol, and at high temperatures. The denaturation temperature was 79 degreesC at pH 3.5, with a denaturation enthalpy (DeltaHd) of 160,600 J/mol. Fluorescence analysis and measurement of the denaturation temperature by circular dichroism did not detect any interaction between VEG and extremely bitter (denatonium benzoate, caffein) or sweet (aspartame) compounds. These results suggest that VEG may not function as a shuttle for transfer of sapid molecules to taste receptors.

  8. Detection of novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the human epidermis and serum and pig adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Kim, Tae-Kang; Li, Wei; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Tieu, Elaine W; Tang, Edith K Y; Tuckey, Robert C

    2015-10-08

    To investigate whether novel pathways of vitamin D3 (D3) and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and previously characterized in vitro, occur in vivo, we analyzed samples of human serum and epidermis, and pig adrenals for the presence of intermediates and products of these pathways. We extracted human epidermis from 13 individuals and sera from 13 individuals and analyzed them by LC/qTOF-MS alongside the corresponding standards. Pig adrenal glands were also analyzed for these steroids and secosteroids. Epidermal, serum and adrenal samples showed the presence of D3 hydroxy-derivatives corresponding to 20(OH)D3, 22(OH)D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, 20,22(OH)2D3, 20,23(OH)2D3, 20,24(OH)2D3, 20,25(OH)2D3, 20,26(OH)2D3, 1,20,23(OH)3D3 and 17,20,23(OH)3D3, plus 1,20(OH)2D3 which was detectable only in the epidermis. Serum concentrations of 20(OH)D3 and 22(OH)D3 were only 30- and 15-fold lower than 25(OH)D3, respectively, and at levels above those required for biological activity as measured in vitro. We also detected 1,20,24(OH)3D3, 1,20,25(OH)3D3 and 1,20,26(OH)3D3 in the adrenals. Products of CYP11A1 action on 7DHC, namely 22(OH)7DHC, 20,22(OH)27DHC and 7-dehydropregnenolone were also detected in serum, epidermis and the adrenal. Thus, we have detected novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the skin, serum and adrenal gland and based on their concentrations and biological activity suggest that they act as hormones in vivo.

  9. Nicotine derived genotoxic effects in human primary parotid gland cells as assessed in vitro by comet assay, cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and chromosome aberrations test.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Steussloff, Gudrun; Koehler, Christian; Burghartz, Marc; Scherzed, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2014-08-01

    Genotoxic effects of nicotine were described in different human cells including salivary gland cells. Based on the high nicotine concentration in saliva of smokers or patients using therapeutic nicotine patches, the current study was performed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of nicotine in human salivary gland cells. Therefore, primary salivary gland cells from 10 patients undergoing parotid gland surgery were exposed to nicotine concentrations between 1 μM and 1000 μM for 1 h in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation. The acinar phenotype was proven by immunofluorescent staining of alpha-amylase. Genotoxic effects were evaluated using the Comet assay, the micronucleus test and the chromosome aberration test. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue exclusion test and Caspase-3 assay. Nicotine was able to induce genotoxic effects in all three assays. The chromosome aberration test was the most sensitive and increases in numerical and structural (chromatid-type and chromosome-type) aberrations were seen at ≥1 μM, whereas increases in micronuclei frequency were detected at 10 μM and DNA damage as measured in the Comet assay was noted at >100 μM. No cytotoxic damage or influence of apoptosis could be demonstrated. Nicotine as a possible risk factor for tumor initiation in salivary glands is still discussed controversially. Our results demonstrated the potential of nicotine to induce genotoxic effects in salivary gland cells. These results were observed at saliva nicotine levels similar to those found after oral or transdermal exposure to nicotine and suggest the necessity of careful monitoring of the use of nicotine in humans. PMID:24698733

  10. NORMAL MAMMARY GLAND MORPHOLOGY IN PUBERTAL FEMALE MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENISTEIN AT LEVELS COMPARABLE TO HUMAN DIETARY EXPOSURE. (R827402)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to genistein (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) on mammary gland morphology in female B6D2F1 mice at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures. The effect of diethylstilbest...

  11. Activation of ROS/NF-{kappa}B and Ca{sup 2+}/CaM kinase II are necessary for VCAM-1 induction in IL-1{beta}-treated human tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, S.-F.; Chang, C.-C.; Lee, I-T.; Lee, C.-W.; Lin, W.-N.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2009-05-15

    Histone acetylation regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) plays a critical role in the expression of inflammatory genes, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Oxidative processes have been shown to induce VCAM-1 expression. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying IL-1{beta}-induced VCAM-1 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). Our results showed that IL-1{beta} enhanced HTSMCs-monocyte adhesion through up-regulation of VCAM-1, which was inhibited by pretreatment with selective inhibitors of PKC{alpha} (Goe6976), c-Src (PP1), NADPH oxidase [diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and apocynin (APO)], intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA/AM), PI-PLC (U73122), CaM (calmidazolium chloride), CaM kinase II (KN62), p300 (garcinol), NF-{kappa}B (Bay11-7082), HDAC (trichostatin A), and ROS scavenger [N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)] or transfection with siRNAs of MyD88, PKC{alpha}, Src, p47{sup phox}, p300, and HDAC4. Moreover, IL-1{beta} stimulated NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII phosphorylation through MyD88-dependent PI-PLC/PKC{alpha}/c-Src/ROS and PI-PLC/Ca{sup 2+}/CaM pathways, respectively. Activation of NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII may eventually lead to the acetylation of histone residues and phosphorylation of histone deacetylases. These findings suggested that IL-1{beta} induced VCAM-1 expression via these multiple signaling pathways in HTSMCs. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte adhesion via VCAM-1 suppression and attenuation of the inflammatory responses in airway diseases.

  12. Indications and interventional options for non-resectable tracheal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Jenny Louise; Patterson, Caroline Marie

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific presentation and normal examination findings in early disease often result in tracheal obstruction being overlooked as a diagnosis until patients present acutely. Once diagnosed, surgical options should be considered, but often patient co-morbidity necessitates other interventional options. Non-resectable tracheal stenosis can be successfully managed by interventional bronchoscopy, with therapeutic options including airway dilatation, local tissue destruction and airway stenting. There are common aspects to the management of tracheal obstruction, tracheomalacia and tracheal fistulae. This paper reviews the pathogenesis, presentation, investigation and management of tracheal disease, with a focus on tracheal obstruction and the role of endotracheal intervention in management. PMID:24624290

  13. Life stage differences in mammary gland gene expression profile in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Sielker, Sonja; Wood, Charles E.; Register, Thomas C.; Lees, Cynthia J.; Dewi, Fitriya N.; Williams, J. Koudy; Wagner, Janice D.; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Cline, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy of women in the developed world. To better understand its pathogenesis, knowledge of normal breast development is crucial, as BC is the result of disregulation of physiologic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of reproductive life stages on the transcriptional profile of the mammary gland in a primate model. Comparative transcriptomic analyses were carried out using breast tissues from 28 female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the following life stages: prepubertal (n = 5), adolescent (n = 4), adult luteal (n = 5), pregnant (n = 6), lactating (n = 3), and postmenopausal (n = 5). Mammary gland RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip® Rhesus Macaque Genome Arrays. Differential gene expression was analyzed using ANOVA and cluster analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct separation of life stage groups. More than 2,225 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified. Gene families or pathways that changed across life stages included those related to estrogen and androgen (ESR1, PGR, TFF1, GREB1, AR, 17HSDB2, 17HSDB7, STS, HSD11B1, AKR1C4), prolactin (PRLR, ELF5, STAT5, CSN1S1), insulin-like growth factor signaling (IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP5), extracellular matrix (POSTN, TGFB1, COL5A2, COL12A1, FOXC1, LAMC1, PDG-FRA, TGFB2), and differentiation (CD24, CD29, CD44, CD61, ALDH1, BRCA1, FOXA1, POSTN, DICER1, LIG4, KLF4, NOTCH2, RIF1, BMPR1A, TGFB2). Pregnancy and lactation displayed distinct patterns of gene expression. ESR1 and IGF1 were significantly higher in the adolescent compared to the adult animals, whereas differentiation pathways were overrepresented in adult animals and pregnancy-associated life stages. Few individual genes were distinctly different in postmenopausal animals. Our data demonstrate characteristic patterns of gene expression during breast development. Several of the pathways activated during pubertal development have been implicated in cancer

  14. Morphometrical analysis of the human suprarenal gland between the 4th and 7th months of gestation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dariusz; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Zurada, Anna; Gielecki, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    The present study's purpose has been to examine the development of the human suprarenal glands (SGs) during the prenatal period. Special attention was paid to sexual dimorphism and the differences between the parameters of the right and left SGs. Specimens were obtained from 187 human fetuses spontaneously aborted between the 4th and 7th months of gestation. The SGs were dissected from the fetuses after an immersion and preservation period of 3-24 months in 9% formalin solution. The mass and linear dimensions of each isolated SG were obtained, and these data revealed a progressive two-fold increase between the 4th and 7th months of gestation. There was a gradual reduction in the ratio of the SG mass to the overall mass of the fetus with a marked decrease evident between the 4th and 5th months. Statistical analysis of both SGs showed significant differences between sexes in the mass and in the thickness of the left SG during the 5th and 6th months of gestation. Differences in the mass and linear dimensions of the left and right SGs were recorded from the 5th month of gestation to the 7th month. The mass and volume of the left SGs were higher than those on the right side. This allometric analysis provides data from a large sample of human fetuses and will later aid in microscopic and ultrasonographic studies.

  15. cGMP phosphodiesterase activity evaluation in human carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Mariani, A; Santoleri, F; Fioroni, M; Vitale, D; Piatelli, A; Di Nicola, M; Rubini, C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences of cGMP-PDE activity in salivary glands, between a control group and different benign tumour groups and, where present, with malign tumour groups. Endogen cGMP was evaluated too. The enzymatic reaction used the method of Spoto et al., with minor variations. The samples were organized in six groups: A (Adenolymphoma and Warthins tumour); B (Pleomorphic Adenoma); C (Basaloid Adenoma); D (Myoepitelioma). The control group was represented by healthy patients. In A and B groups, we have analyzed malign pathologies (Adenocarcinoma and Parotid Lymphoma) The benign tumours have more activity than controls, especially in Myoepitelioma (D) but with a decrement in the C group, which presents lower values of cGMP than the other three groups, where the concentration is similar. Between A and B groups, the activity values of malign tumours are similar, higher than controls and than the other benign pathologies, but not higher than in myoepitelioma. The cyclic concentration is similar for malign pathologies, with concentrations lower than controls, similar to Basaloid Adenoma (C).

  16. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1.

  17. Comparison of human coagulation factor VIII expression directed by cytomegalovirus and mammary gland-specific promoters in HC11 cells and transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Hao, Siguo; Ma, Liyuan; Zhang, Wenhao; Wan, Jiangbo; Deng, Xiaohui

    2015-10-01

    Hemophilia A is an inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. The conventional treatment involves the administration of recombinant human FVIII (rhFVIII) preparations. In this study, the mammary gland 'bioreactor' is designed to specifically and efficiently express a foreign protein hFVIII in the mammary glands of transgenic mice. We constructed a P1A3-hFVIIIBD vector directed by the mammary gland-specific P1A3 promoter, and transiently transfected HC11 cells and mouse mammary glands with P1A3-hFVIIIBD or CMV-hFVIIIBD vectors directed by a ubiquitous cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, respectively. We also generated P1A3-hFVIIIBD and CMV-hFVIIIBD transgenic mice by microinjection, respectively. Our data indicated that both vectors effectively expressed hFVIIIBD in HC11 cells at the transcription level, and hFVIIIBD protein was efficiently expressed in mouse milk after the injection of the hFVIIIBD vectors into mouse mammary glands during lactation. In both CMV-hFVIIIBD and P1A3-hFVIIIBD transgenic mice, hFVIIIBD proteins were efficiently expressed in the mammary glands at the mRNA and protein levels. No significant difference was observed in hFVIIIBD levels between the CMV-hFVIIIBD and P1A3-hFVIIIBD transgenic mice (P > 0.05). However, the activity of hFVIII in CMV-directed transgenic mice was slightly higher than that in P1A3-directed transgenic mice (P < 0.05). While hFVIIIBD was present in multiple organs in CMV-hFVIIIBD mice, P1A3-hFVIIIBD mice showed negligible hFVIIIBD expression in organs other than the mammary glands. This study demonstrated that the mammary gland-specific P1A3-hFVIIIBD vector was more suitable for the generation of hFVIIIBD mammary gland bioreactor.

  18. Negative tracheal pressure during neonatal endotracheal suction.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Nicholas J; Tingay, David G; Mills, John F; Morley, Colin J; Copnell, Beverley

    2008-07-01

    Endotracheal tube (ETT) suction is the most frequently performed invasive procedure in ventilated newborn infants and is associated with adverse effects related to negative tracheal pressure. We aimed to measure suction catheter gas flow and intratracheal pressure during ETT suction of a test lung and develop a mathematical model to predict tracheal pressure from catheter and ETT dimensions and applied pressure. Tracheal pressure and catheter flow were recorded during suction of ETT sizes 2.5-4.0 mm connected to a test lung with catheters 5-8 French Gauge and applied pressures of 80-200 mm Hg. The fraction of applied pressure transmitted to the trachea was calculated for each combination, and data fitted to three nonlinear models for analysis. Tracheal pressure was directly proportional to applied pressure (r = 0.82-0.99), and catheter flow fitted a turbulent flow model (R = 0.85-0.96). With each ETT, increasing catheter size resulted in greater catheter flow (p < 0.0001) and thus lower intratracheal pressure (p < 0.0001). The fraction of applied pressure transmitted to the trachea was accurately modeled using ETT and catheter dimensions (R = 0.98-0.99). Negative tracheal pressure during in vitro ETT suction is directly proportional to applied pressure. This relationship is determined by ETT and catheter dimensions.

  19. Morphological, diagnostic and surgical features of ectopic thyroid gland: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Germano; Cinelli, Mariapia; Mesolella, Massimo; Tafuri, Domenico; Rocca, Aldo; Amato, Bruno; Rengo, Sandro; Testa, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue remains a rare developmental abnormality involving defective or aberrant embryogenesis of the thyroid gland during its passage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its usual final position in pre-tracheal region of the neck. Its specific prevalence accounts about 1 case per 100.000-300.000 persons and one in 4.000-8.000 patients with thyroid disease show this condition. The cause of this defect is not fully known. Despite genetic factors have been associated with thyroid gland morphogenesis and differentiation, just recently some mutation has been associated with human thyroid ectopy. Lingual region in the most common site of thyroid ectopy but ectopic thyroid tissue were found in other head and neck locations. Nevertheless, aberrant ectopic thyroid tissue has been found in other places distant from the neck region. Ectopic tissue is affected by different pathological changes that occur in the normal eutopic thyroid. Patients may present insidiously or as an emergency. Diagnostic management of thyroid ectopy is performed by radionuclide thyroid imaging, ultrasonography, CT scan, MRI, biopsy and thyroid function tests. Asymptomatic euthyroid patients with ectopic thyroid do not usually require therapy but are kept under observation. For those with symptoms, treatment depends on size of the gland, nature of symptoms, thyroid function status and histological findings. Surgical excision is often required as treatment for this condition.

  20. A milk protein gene promoter directs the expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA to the mammary gland in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pittius, C.W.; Hennighausen, L.; Lee, E.; Westphal, H.; Nicols, E.; Vitale, J.; Gordon, K. )

    1988-08-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP) is a major whey protein in mouse milk. Its gene is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and is inducible by steroid and peptide hormones. A series of transgenic mice containing a hybrid gene in which human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) cDNA is under the control of the murine WAP gene promoter had previously been generated. In this study, 21 tissues from lactating and virgin transgenic female mice containing the WAP-tPA hybrid gene were screened for the distribution of murine WAP and human tPA transcripts. Like the endogenous WAP RNA, WAP-tPA RNA was expressed predominantly in mammary gland tissue and appeared to be inducible by lactation. Whereas WAP transcripts were not detected in 22 tissues of virgin mice, low levels of WAP-tPA RNA, which were not modulated during lactation, were found in tongue, kidney, and sublingual gland. These studies demonstrate that the WAP gene promoter can target the expression of a transgene to the mammary gland and that this expression is inducible during lactation.

  1. Unsolved Mysteries of the Human Mammary Gland: Defining and Redefining the Critical Questions from the Lactation Consultant's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Lisa Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite advances in knowledge about human lactation, clinicians face many problems when advising mothers who are experiencing breastfeeding difficulties that do not respond to normal management strategies. Primary insufficient milk production is now being acknowledged, but incidence rates have not been well studied. Many women have known histories of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, hyperandrogenism or other hormonal imbalances, while others have no obvious risk factors. Some present with obviously abnormal breasts that are pubescent, tuberous/tubular or asymmetric in shape, raising the question of insufficient mammary gland tissue. Other women have breasts that appear within normal limits yet do not lactate normally. Endocrine disruptors may underlie some of these cases but their impact on human milk production has not been well explored. Similarly, any problem with prolactin such as a deficiency in serum prolactin or receptor number, receptor resistance, or poor bioavailability or bioactivity could underlie some cases of insufficient lactation, yet these possibilities are rarely investigated. A weak or suppressed milk ejection reflex, often assumed to be psychosomatic, could be related to thyroid dysfunction or caused by downstream post-receptor pathway problems. In the absence of sufficient data regarding these situations, desperate mothers may turn to non-evidence-based remedies, sometimes at considerable cost and unknown risk. Research targeted to these clinical dilemmas is critical in order to develop evidence-based strategies and increase breastfeeding duration and success rates. PMID:26084427

  2. Unsolved Mysteries of the Human Mammary Gland: Defining and Redefining the Critical Questions from the Lactation Consultant's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Lisa Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite advances in knowledge about human lactation, clinicians face many problems when advising mothers who are experiencing breastfeeding difficulties that do not respond to normal management strategies. Primary insufficient milk production is now being acknowledged, but incidence rates have not been well studied. Many women have known histories of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, hyperandrogenism or other hormonal imbalances, while others have no obvious risk factors. Some present with obviously abnormal breasts that are pubescent, tuberous/tubular or asymmetric in shape, raising the question of insufficient mammary gland tissue. Other women have breasts that appear within normal limits yet do not lactate normally. Endocrine disruptors may underlie some of these cases but their impact on human milk production has not been well explored. Similarly, any problem with prolactin such as a deficiency in serum prolactin or receptor number, receptor resistance, or poor bioavailability or bioactivity could underlie some cases of insufficient lactation, yet these possibilities are rarely investigated. A weak or suppressed milk ejection reflex, often assumed to be psychosomatic, could be related to thyroid dysfunction or caused by downstream post-receptor pathway problems. In the absence of sufficient data regarding these situations, desperate mothers may turn to non-evidence-based remedies, sometimes at considerable cost and unknown risk. Research targeted to these clinical dilemmas is critical in order to develop evidence-based strategies and increase breastfeeding duration and success rates.

  3. P2Y2 nucleotide receptor activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [corrected] expression and enhances lymphocyte adherence to a human submandibular gland cell line.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J; Camden, Jean M; Rome, Danny E; Seye, Cheikh I; Weisman, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes salivary and lacrimal gland tissue destruction resulting in impaired secretory function. Although lymphocytic infiltration of salivary epithelium is associated with SS, the mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. Our previous studies have shown that the G protein-coupled P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) is up-regulated in response to damage or stress of salivary gland epithelium, and in salivary glands of the NOD.B10 mouse model of SS-like autoimmune exocrinopathy. Additionally, we have shown that P2Y2R activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in endothelial cells leading to the binding of monocytes. The present study demonstrates that activation of the P2Y2R in dispersed cell aggregates from rat submandibular gland (SMG) and in human submandibular gland ductal cells (HSG) up-regulates the expression of VCAM-1. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation mediated the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression in HSG cells leading to increased adherence of lymphocytic cells. Inhibitors of EGFR phosphorylation and metalloprotease activity abolished P2Y2R-mediated VCAM-1 expression and decreased lymphocyte binding to HSG cells. Moreover, silencing of EGFR expression abolished UTP-induced VCAM-1 up-regulation in HSG cells. These results suggest that P2Y2R activation in salivary gland cells increases the EGFR-dependent expression of VCAM-1 and the binding of lymphocytes, a pathway relevant to inflammation associated with SS.

  4. P2Y2 Nucleotide Receptor Activation Up-regulates Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecular-1 Expression and Enhances Lymphocyte Adherence to a Human Submandibular Gland Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.; Camden, Jean M.; Rome, Danny E.; Seye, Cheikh I.; Weisman, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that causes salivary and lacrimal gland tissue destruction resulting in impaired secretory function. Although lymphocytic infiltration of salivary epithelium is associated with SS, the mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. Our previous studies have shown that the G protein-coupled P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) is up-regulated in response to damage or stress of salivary gland epithelium, and in salivary glands of the NOD.B10 mouse model of SS-like autoimmune exocrinopathy. Additionally, we have shown that P2Y2R activation up-regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in endothelial cells leading to the binding of monocytes. The present study demonstrates that activation of the P2Y2R in dispersed cell aggregates from rat submandibular gland (SMG) and in human submandibular gland ductal cells (HSG) up-regulates the expression of VCAM-1. Furthermore, P2Y2R activation mediated the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression in HSG cells leading to increased adherence of lymphocytic cells. Inhibitors of EGFR phosphorylation and metalloprotease activity abolished P2Y2R-mediated VCAM-1 expression and decreased lymphocyte binding to HSG cells. Moreover, silencing of EGFR expression abolished UTP-induced VCAM-1 up-regulation in HSG cells. These results suggest that P2Y2R activation in salivary gland cells increases the EGFR-dependent expression of VCAM-1 and the binding of lymphocytes, a pathway relevant to inflammation associated with SS. PMID:17599409

  5. Effects of guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine, and ambroxol on MUC5AC and mucociliary transport in primary differentiated human tracheal-bronchial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic intervention in the pathophysiology of airway mucus hypersecretion is clinically important. Several types of drugs are available with different possible modes of action. We examined the effects of guaifenesin (GGE), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol (Amb) on differentiated human airway epithelial cells stimulated with IL-13 to produce additional MUC5AC. Methods After IL-13 pre-treatment (3 days), the cultures were treated with GGE, NAC or Amb (10–300 μM) in the continued presence of IL-13. Cellular and secreted MUC5AC, mucociliary transport rates (MTR), mucus rheology at several time points, and the antioxidant capacity of the drugs were assessed. Results IL-13 increased MUC5AC content (~25%) and secretion (~2-fold) and decreased MTR, but only slightly affected the G’ (elastic) or G” (viscous) moduli of the secretions. GGE significantly inhibited MUC5AC secretion and content in the IL-13-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50s at 24 hr ~100 and 150 μM, respectively). NAC or Amb were less effective. All drugs increased MTR and decreased G’ and G” relative to IL-13 alone. Cell viability was not affected and only NAC exhibited antioxidant capacity. Conclusions Thus, GGE effectively reduces cellular content and secretion of MUC5AC, increases MTR, and alters mucus rheology, and may therefore be useful in treating airway mucus hypersecretion and mucostasis in airway diseases. PMID:23113953

  6. Biological actions of nitroarenes in short-term tests on Salmonella, cultured mammalian cells and cultured human tracheal tissues: possible basis for regulatory control.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, T; Takayama, S

    1983-01-01

    Pure synthetic nitropyrene compounds were subjected to a mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 with and without S9 mix, a metabolic activation system. Dinitropyrenes were highly mutagenic. Among them, 1,8-dinitropyrene was the most potent mutagen, producing 940,000 revertants of TA 98/micrograms. 1,3,6-Trinitropyrene and 1,3,6,8-tetranitropyrene were also highly mutagenic, producing 708,000 and 221,000 revertants/micrograms, respectively. 1-Nitropyrene was weakly mutagenic. All nitropyrenes were more mutagenic towards TA 98 than TA 100, and all mutagenic activities were abolished by the presence of S9 mix. Di- and trinitropyrenes were demonstrated to be mutagenic to Chinese hamster lung cells without metabolic activation, by using diphtheria toxin resistancy as a marker. The range of mutagenic potential of nitropyrenes was much narrower with cultured mammalian cells than with Salmonella. 1-Nitropyrene was not mutagenic. 1,6-Dinitropyrene and 1-nitropyrene induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in epithelial cells of in vitro cultured human bronchi, as did diol-epoxides of benzo[a]pyrene, while benzo[a]pyrene itself was inert. 1-Nitropyrene and 3-nitrofluoranthene produced subcutaneous fibrosarcomas at the loci of injections in the backs of rats. Tumors were found in 47% and 40% of animals with total doses of 40 mg of 1-nitropyrene and 30 mg of 3-nitrofluoranthene, respectively. The biomedical significance of nitroarenes is discussed. PMID:6337823

  7. [Tracheal rupture: delayed diagnosis with endobronchial intubation].

    PubMed

    Besmer, I; Schüpfer, G; Stulz, P; Jöhr, M

    2001-03-01

    Tracheobroncheal rupture is a rare complication of intubation techniques using a stylet. In this case report the patient was intubated by an emergency physician in a preclinical setting after a motor vehicle accident. Iatrogenic tracheal laceration was masked by inappropriate position of the endobronchial tube. By chance ventilation was maintained to both lungs by flow through the Murphy's eye of the tube and the lumen of the tube. In correcting the deep tube position after a chest x-ray laceration of the trachea was unmasked and ventilation problems occurred immediately. The tube was replaced under fiberoptical control and the patient was managed for surgical repair using a jet ventilation technique. In this case two complications of endobronchial intubation occurred, but the deep tube placement opposed the effects of the tracheal laceration. This was probably life saving for the patient during emergency transfer by helicopter after the accident. The anaesthesiological management during tracheal repair is discussed.

  8. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  18. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin F; Meier, Jeremy D; Ward, P Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Salivary gland disorders include inflammatory, bacterial, viral, and neoplastic etiologies. The presentation can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Acute suppurative sialadenitis presents as rapid-onset pain and swelling and is treated with antibiotics, salivary massage, hydration, and sialagogues such as lemon drops or vitamin C lozenges. Viral etiologies include mumps and human immunodeficiency virus, and treatment is directed at the underlying disease. Recurrent or chronic sialadenitis is more likely to be inflammatory than infectious; examples include recurrent parotitis of childhood and sialolithiasis. Inflammation is commonly caused by an obstruction such as a stone or duct stricture. Management is directed at relieving the obstruction. Benign and malignant tumors can occur in the salivary glands and usually present as a painless solitary neck mass. Diagnosis is made by imaging (e.g., ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and biopsy (initially with fine-needle aspiration). Overall, most salivary gland tumors are benign and can be treated with surgical excision.

  19. Localization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α/β, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotransporter 1 and aquaporin-5 in human eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjun; Zeng, Shaopeng; Zhang, Lei; Li, Haihong; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Xuexue; Lin, Changmin; Shu, Shenyou; Xie, Sitian; He, Yunpu; Mao, Xiaoyan; Peng, Lihong; Shi, Lungang; Yang, Lvjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    In order to evaluate the function of the repaired or regenerated eccrine sweat glands, we must first localize the proteins involved in sweat secretion and absorption in normal human eccrine sweat glands. In our studies, the cellular localization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α/β, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) in eccrine sweat glands were detected by immunoperoxidase labeling. The results showed that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α was immunolocalized in the cell membrane of the basal layer and suprabasal layer cells of the epidermis, the basolateral membrane of the secretory coils, and the cell membrane of the outer cells and the basolateral membrane of the luminal cells of the ducts. The localization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase β in the secretory coils was the same as Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α, but Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase β labeling was absent in the straight ducts and epidermis. NKCC1 labeling was seen only in the basolateral membrane of the secretory coils. AQP5 was strongly localized in the apical membrane and weakly localized in the cytoplasm of secretory epithelial cells. The different distribution of these proteins in eccrine sweat glands was related to their functions in sweat secretion and absorption. PMID:25218052

  20. Generation of TALE nickase-mediated gene-targeted cows expressing human serum albumin in mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Cui, Chenchen; Wu, Yongyan; Lan, Hui; Chen, Qi; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-02-08

    Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs. After co-transfecting the bovine fetal fibroblasts with human serum albumin (HSA) gene-targeting vector and TALE nickase expression vectors, approximately 4.8% (40/835) of the cell clones contained HSA at BLG locus. Unexpectedly, one homozygous gene-targeted cell clone (1/835, 0.1%) was obtained by targeting both alleles of BLG in a single round of transfection. The recombinant protein mimicking the endogenous BLG was highly expressed and correctly folded in the mammary glands of the targeted cows, and the expression level of HSA was significantly increased in the homozygous targeted cows. Results suggested that the combination of TALE nickase-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer is a feasible and safe approach in producing gene-targeted livestock.

  1. Generation of TALE nickase-mediated gene-targeted cows expressing human serum albumin in mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Cui, Chenchen; Wu, Yongyan; Lan, Hui; Chen, Qi; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription- activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs. After co-transfecting the bovine fetal fibroblasts with human serum albumin (HSA) gene-targeting vector and TALE nickase expression vectors, approximately 4.8% (40/835) of the cell clones contained HSA at BLG locus. Unexpectedly, one homozygous gene-targeted cell clone (1/835, 0.1%) was obtained by targeting both alleles of BLG in a single round of transfection. The recombinant protein mimicking the endogenous BLG was highly expressed and correctly folded in the mammary glands of the targeted cows, and the expression level of HSA was significantly increased in the homozygous targeted cows. Results suggested that the combination of TALE nickase-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer is a feasible and safe approach in producing gene-targeted livestock. PMID:26853907

  2. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan) synthesized by ACC3, adenoid cystic carcinoma cells of human salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Cheng, J; Toyoshima, K; Oda, K; Saku, T

    1999-02-01

    The biosynthesis of basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), known as perlecan, in ACC3 cells established from a adenoid cystic carcinoma of the human salivary gland was studied using metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation with discriminative antibodies specific for HSPG core protein. Treatment of immunoprecipitated HSPG with HNO2, heparitinase, and chondroitinase ABC revealed that ACC3 cells synthesized HSPG molecules composed of 470-kDa core protein and heparan sulfate but not of chondroitin sulfate. The core protein was shown to contain complex type N-linked oligosaccharides by digestion with N-glycanase and endoglycosidase H. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the mature form of HSPG was formed in the cells in 30 min and released into the medium thereafter. Degradation of HSPG was also found in the chase period of 3 h. In time course experiments, HSPG was found to be synthesized maximally at day 4 after plating, deposited in the cell layer maximally at day 6, and secreted maximally at day 8. This was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, Northern blotting, and in-situ hybridization. The results indicate that ACC3 cells synthesize, secrete and degrade basement membrane type HSPG, which is analogous to those produced by other cell types, and that the biosynthesis and secretion of HSPG in ACC3 cells are strictly regulated by the cell growth, that may be reflected in the characteristic histology of adenoid cystic carcinomas. PMID:9990141

  3. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  4. Peribiliary Glands as a Niche of Extrapancreatic Precursors Yielding Insulin-Producing Cells in Experimental and Human Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Guido; Puca, Rosa; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Renzi, Anastasia; Scafetta, Gaia; Nevi, Lorenzo; Rossi, Massimo; Berloco, Pasquale B; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano; Reid, Lola M; Maroder, Marella; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Peribiliary glands (PBGs) are niches in the biliary tree and containing heterogeneous endodermal stem/progenitors cells that can differentiate, in vitro and in vivo, toward pancreatic islets. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in experimental and human diabetes, proliferation of cells in PBGs and differentiation of the biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs) toward insulin-producing cells. Diabetes was generated in mice by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 200 mg/kg (N = 12) or 120 mg/kg (N = 12) of streptozotocin. Liver, pancreas, and extrahepatic biliary trees were en bloc dissected and examined. Cells in PBGs proliferated in experimental diabetes, and their proliferation was greatest in the PBGs of the hepatopancreatic ampulla, and inversely correlated with the pancreatic islet area. In rodents, the cell proliferation in PBGs was characterized by the expansion of Sox9-positive stem/progenitor cells that gave rise to insulin-producing cells. Insulin-producing cells were located mostly in PBGs in the portion of the biliary tree closest to the duodenum, and their appearance was associated with upregulation of MafA and Gli1 gene expression. In patients with type 2 diabetes, PBGs at the level of the hepatopancreatic ampulla contained cells showing signs of proliferation and pancreatic fate commitment. In vitro, high glucose concentrations induced the differentiation of human BTSCs cultures toward pancreatic beta cell fates. The cells in PBGs respond to diabetes with proliferation and differentiation towards insulin-producing cells indicating that PBG niches may rescue pancreatic islet impairment in diabetes. These findings offer important implications for the pathophysiology and complications of this disease. Stem Cells 2016;34:1332-1342. PMID:26850087

  5. Fluid dynamic factors in tracheal pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Chang, H K; Mortola, J P

    1981-07-01

    Because tracheal pressure measurement generally involves the use of a cannula or an endotracheal tube, fluid dynamic factors may cause a considerable artifact. We present a theoretical explanation of the observed apparent paradox in which the resistance of a tracheal cannula or an endotracheal tube is isolation was found to exceed the resistance of the airways plus the cannula or the tube in situ. By estimating the viscous dissipation and the kinetic energy change in a conduit with sudden variation of cross-sectional area, a predictive model is derived. The predictions are verified by a series of in vitro experiments with both steady and oscillatory flows. The experiments showed that the pressure recorded from the sidearm of a tracheal cannula or endotracheal tube contains an error which, in general, increased with the mean Reynolds' number of the through flow and also depends on the diameter ratio between the trachea and the tube or cannula, the position of the pressure tap, and the frequency of ventilation. When feasible, direct measurement with a needle in the trachea is suggested as a way to avoid the possible artifacts arising from the use fo a side tap of the cannula. Theoretical considerations, as well as in vitro and animal experiments, indicate that adding a properly chosen expansion to the tracheal cannula makes it possible to alter inspiratory and expiratory pressures selectively. This device may prove useful in control of breathing studies. PMID:7263418

  6. Standard methods for tracheal mite research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, for the COLOSS Beebook from the Bee Research Center in Switzerland, summarizes all the current information about the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) infesting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The chapter covers the effects on bees, its life history, and its range, as well as the identifica...

  7. The thyroid gland and its variations: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S D; Joshi, S S; Daimi, S R; Athavale, S A

    2010-02-01

    The size and shape of the thyroid gland is subject to much variation, as stated by Wood Jones. Literature is replete with a large number of variations of the gland. By utilizing various techniques like gross dissection, histology, developmental anatomy, and recently thyroid scans and scintigraphy, some common and certain rare anomalies of the thyroid with their possible developmental bases are described in the literature. An attempt has been made to study the thyroid glands in 90 male cadavers available in our department, with ages ranging from 60 to 75 years with mean height of 5'4". The parameters that were observed included the length and width of lobes, presence or absence of pyramidal lobe, levator glandulae thyroideae, and isthmus with its relation to the tracheal rings. The average length of the right lobe was 4.32 cm, and the left lobe was 4.22 cm. The thickness of the right lobe was 1.13 cm, and the left lobe was 1.18 cm. Pyramidal lobe was present in 34 (37.77%) cases, frequently arising from the left lobe, while the levator glandulae thyroideae was present in 27 (30%) instances, mostly attached superiorly to the body of the hyoid bone. The isthmus was absent in 15 (16.66%) cases; its relation with the tracheal rings greatly varied from the cricoid cartilage to the fourth tracheal ring. Knowledge of variations of the thyroid assumes significance as this has relevance in the resection of thyroid, tumours, and tracheostomy. PMID:20235050

  8. [Simplified procedure for cold preservation of human parathyroid gland tissue for replantation].

    PubMed

    Wagner, P K; Rumpelt, H J; Rothmund, M

    1986-04-01

    A simplified technique for cryopreservation of human parathyroid tissue is described. It allows to achieve the same quality of tissue than using the programmable expensive freezing method which is usually employed up to now. Cryovials are placed in a methanol bath. The temperature is decreased by -1 degree C/min down to -25 degrees C, thereafter by -10 degrees C/min down to -70 degrees C by repeated adding of cryo ice-cubes into the methanol. Thereafter the vials are stored in LN2. The temperature lowering is controlled by a stop watch and a thermometer in a reference vial. This simple and cheap technique may allow a more general application of cryopreservation in surgery of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:3709300

  9. Chromosomal patterns in Warthin's tumor. A second type of human benign salivary gland neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Mark, J; Dahlenfors, R; Stenman, G; Nordquist, A

    1990-05-01

    The cytogenetical observations in eight successfully cultured human adenolymphomas are reported. When the results were considered with those of two previously reported cases, three main stemline groups could be distinguished: (a) one with a normal karyotype and noted as a primary or secondary stemline in all hitherto studied tumors; (b) a second group with only numerical changes, either loss of the Y chromosome or trisomy or monosomy 5; and (c) a third group with only structural changes, as a rule with one or two reciprocal translocations. With regard to the last group, studies of many more cases are necessary to decide whether distinctive subgroups exist. Analyses using molecular methods are also urgently needed to clarify whether the normal stemline cells contain submicroscopic changes.

  10. Role of Keratinocyte Growth Factor in the Differentiation of Sweat Gland-Like Cells From Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongan; Hong, Yucai; Xu, Mengyan; Ma, Kui; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have higher proliferation potency and lower immune resistance than human bone marrow MSCs and can differentiate into various functional cells. Many regulatory factors, including keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), are involved in the development of skin and cutaneous appendages. Although KGF is important in wound healing, the role of KGF in hUC-MSC differentiation remains unknown. In our previous work, we found the mixing medium (nine parts of basic sweat-gland [SG] medium plus one part of conditioned heat-shock SG medium) could induce hUC-MSC differentiation to sweat gland-like cells (SGCs). In this study, we further improved the inducing medium and determined the effects of KGF in hUC-MSC differentiation. We found KGF expression in the SGCs and that recombinant human KGF could induce hUC-MSC differentiation into SGCs, suggesting KGF plays a pivotal role in promoting hUC-MSC differentiation to SGCs. Furthermore, the SGCs differentiated from hUC-MSCs were applied to severely burned skin of the paw of an in vivo severe combined immunodeficiency mouse burn model. Burned paws treated with SGCs could regenerate functional sparse SGs 21 days after treatment; the untreated control paws could not. Collectively, these results demonstrated that KGF is a critical growth factor for SGC differentiation from hUC-MSCs and the differentiated SGCs from hUC-MSCs may have a potential therapeutic application for regeneration of destroyed SGs and injured skin. Significance There is growing evidence demonstrating a potential therapeutic application of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in injured skin. In the current study, conditioned media and chemically defined media with recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) could induce hUC-MSC differentiation into sweat gland-like cells (SGCs). Moreover, the differentiated SGCs from hUC-MSCs could regenerate functional sparse sweat glands in a

  11. The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

  12. The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions.

    PubMed

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P; Witkowska, H Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T; Yates, John R; Fisher, Susan J

    2008-05-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets.

  13. Morphometric study of the human suprarenal gland in the first postnatal year.

    PubMed

    Bocian-Sobkowska, J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of present, study was to describe adrenal volume, volumes of adrenocortical zones, and stroma volume in 40 adrenals obtained from children between 1st and 370th day during autopsy. The postnatal decrease in adrenal volume was caused mainly by rapid fall of fetal zone (FZ) volume (from 70 to 3% of total adrenal volume), that can be divided into two phases: rapid phase (from birth to the end of the second week) and a slow phase from the 3rd week on. Involution was accompanied by increase of zona glomerulosa (ZG) (from 10 to 25% of total adrenal volume), zona fasciculata ZF (from 10 to 38%) and zona reticularis (ZR), volume (from 1 to 23%). During the whole investigated period the volume of medulla remained constant. The volume fraction of stroma (connective tissue and blood vessels) was highest at the beginning of the first postnatal week and then decreased rapidly at the end of the 2nd week, with the most pronounced changes in the fetal zone and medulla. Performed present stereological study confirms opinion that hemorrhagic mechanisms are involved in the involution process of the human fetal zone.

  14. The M2 selective antagonist AF-DX 116 shows high affinity for muscarine receptors in bovine tracheal membranes.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; in't Hout, W G; de Zeeuw, R A; Zaagsma, J

    1987-05-01

    We have characterized the muscarine receptors in bovine tracheal and left ventricular membranes using 3H-dexetimide/pirenzepine and 3H-dexetimide/AF-DX 116 competition studies. Pirenzepine exhibited low (M2) affinity binding to both preparations; Kd was 590 nM in left ventricle and 463 nM in trachea. AF-DX 116 exhibited high (M2) affinity binding to left ventricle (Kd = 95.6 nM); in tracheal membranes it bound with high (M2) affinity (Kd = 40.7 nM) to 74% of the receptors and with low (M3) affinity (Kd = 2.26 microM) to 26% of the receptors. It is concluded that bovine tracheal muscle membranes contain a heterogeneous population of muscarine binding sites, the majority having M2 (heart) subtype characteristics and being located on the smooth muscle membranes; a minority having M3 (exocrine gland) subtype characteristics and presumed to be located in submucosal glands. This is the first report of high affinity binding of AF-DX 116 to non-cardiac peripheral muscarine receptors. PMID:3614390

  15. Ca2+ is a Regulator of the WNK/OSR1/NKCC Pathway in a Human Salivary Gland Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soonhong; Ku, Sang Kyun; Ji, Hye Won

    2015-01-01

    Wnk kinase maintains cell volume, regulating various transporters such as sodium-chloride cotransporter, potassium-chloride cotransporter, and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) through the phosphorylation of oxidative stress responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) and STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). However, the activating mechanism of Wnk kinase in specific tissues and specific conditions is broadly unclear. In the present study, we used a human salivary gland (HSG) cell line as a model and showed that Ca2+ may have a role in regulating Wnk kinase in the HSG cell line. Through this study, we found that the HSG cell line expressed molecules participating in the WNK-OSR1-NKCC pathway, such as Wnk1, Wnk4, OSR1, SPAK, and NKCC1. The HSG cell line showed an intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) increase in response to hypotonic stimulation, and the response was synchronized with the phosphorylation of OSR1. Interestingly, when we inhibited the hypotonically induced [Ca2+]i increase with nonspecific Ca2+ channel blockers such as 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, gadolinium, and lanthanum, the phosphorylated OSR1 level was also diminished. Moreover, a cyclopiazonic acid-induced passive [Ca2+]i elevation was evoked by the phosphorylation of OSR1, and the amount of phosphorylated OSR1 decreased when the cells were treated with BAPTA, a Ca2+ chelator. Finally, through that process, NKCC1 activity also decreased to maintain the cell volume in the HSG cell line. These results indicate that Ca2+ may regulate the WNK-OSR1 pathway and NKCC1 activity in the HSG cell line. This is the first demonstration that indicates upstream Ca2+ regulation of the WNK-OSR1 pathway in intact cells. PMID:25954130

  16. The human mammary gland as a target for isoflavones: how does the relation vary in individuals with different ethnicity?

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2013-05-01

    Based on observational studies, it appears that soy food consumption provides protection against breast cancer primarily in Asian but not in Western populations. Given the problems in examining the effects of isoflavones directly in the human mammary gland, this review describes epidemiologic studies that investigated the association with biomarkers reflecting hormonal activity of isoflavones, in particular sex steroid levels, mammographic densities, nipple aspirate fluid, and tissue specimens from biopsies or surgeries. Three possible mechanisms that may be responsible for ethnic-specific health effects from these compounds are discussed: genetic variation in metabolic enzymes, timing of exposure, and intestinal metabolism by microbiota. Only a limited number of comparative studies and even fewer nutritional interventions have examined effects and addressed differences in biomarkers between Asian and Western populations. Investigations that looked at estrogens and mammographic densities as endpoints observed some associations in Asian women that were not seen in Caucasians. On the other hand, the low rate of nipple aspirate fluid production and a lack of breast tissue studies make it impossible to evaluate effects of isoflavones on these biomarkers in Asian women. Based on the current evidence, it appears likely that the timing of exposure is the most important determinant of beneficial health effects from soy foods. This may be the result of gut microbiota, which colonize the intestine during childhood and facilitates the hydrolysis of glycosides and the formation of equol from dadzein, a pathway that may result in beneficial health effects. The current evidence is insufficient to answer the question whether women of diverse ethnic groups experience distinct effects from soy isoflavones in breast tissue, but as knowledge about the role of early life nutrition and the development of gut microbiota increases, the potential for diverse metabolic pathways of

  17. High p21RAS expression levels correlate with chromosome 8 rearrangements in benign human mixed salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Stenman, G; Sandros, J; Mark, J; Nordkvist, A

    1989-09-01

    The expression of RAS oncogenes in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors was studied by immunohistochemistry and by immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies recognizing the HRAS and KRAS gene products. Twenty-eight out of 29 benign pleomorphic adenomas overexpressed p21RAS, whereas only 12 out of 18 malignant salivary gland tumors expressed the p21 protein. The expression levels were also substantially higher in the adenomas than in the malignant tumors, indicating that RAS gene activation appears to be more frequent and of greater importance for benign than for malignant salivary gland tumors. Comparisons of the p21 expression levels with the karyotypes of the pleomorphic adenomas revealed a novel correlation between high p21 expression and chromosome 8 rearrangements. As a hypothesis, it is suggested that a novel gene located on the proximal long arm of chromosome 8, most likely at band q12, is involved in the regulation of RAS gene expression.

  18. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  19. Identification of cholinergic chemosensory cells in mouse tracheal and laryngeal glandular ducts.

    PubMed

    Krasteva-Christ, G; Soultanova, A; Schütz, B; Papadakis, T; Weiss, C; Deckmann, K; Chubanov, V; Gudermann, T; Voigt, A; Meyerhof, W; Boehm, U; Weihe, E; Kummer, W

    2015-11-01

    Specialized epithelial cells in the respiratory tract such as solitary chemosensory cells and brush cells sense the luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to the detection of potentially harmful substances. The majority of these cells are cholinergic and utilize the canonical taste signal transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Utilizing two different mouse strains reporting expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme of acetylcholine (ACh), we detected cholinergic cells in the submucosal glands of the murine larynx and trachea. These cells were localized in the ciliated glandular ducts and were neither found in the collecting ducts nor in alveolar or tubular segments of the glands. ChAT expression in tracheal gland ducts was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The cholinergic duct cells expressed the brush cell marker proteins, villin and cytokeratin-18, and were immunoreactive for components of the taste signal transduction cascade (Gα-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel = TRPM5, phospholipase C(β2)), but not for carbonic anhydrase IV. Furthermore, these cells expressed the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131, as demonstrated utilizing an appropriate reporter mouse strain. Our study identified a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensory cell type in the duct of the airway submucosal glands that likely utilizes ACh for paracrine signaling. We propose that these cells participate in infection-sensing mechanisms and initiate responses assisting bacterial clearance from the lower airways.

  20. Identification of cholinergic chemosensory cells in mouse tracheal and laryngeal glandular ducts.

    PubMed

    Krasteva-Christ, G; Soultanova, A; Schütz, B; Papadakis, T; Weiss, C; Deckmann, K; Chubanov, V; Gudermann, T; Voigt, A; Meyerhof, W; Boehm, U; Weihe, E; Kummer, W

    2015-11-01

    Specialized epithelial cells in the respiratory tract such as solitary chemosensory cells and brush cells sense the luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to the detection of potentially harmful substances. The majority of these cells are cholinergic and utilize the canonical taste signal transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Utilizing two different mouse strains reporting expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme of acetylcholine (ACh), we detected cholinergic cells in the submucosal glands of the murine larynx and trachea. These cells were localized in the ciliated glandular ducts and were neither found in the collecting ducts nor in alveolar or tubular segments of the glands. ChAT expression in tracheal gland ducts was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The cholinergic duct cells expressed the brush cell marker proteins, villin and cytokeratin-18, and were immunoreactive for components of the taste signal transduction cascade (Gα-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel = TRPM5, phospholipase C(β2)), but not for carbonic anhydrase IV. Furthermore, these cells expressed the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131, as demonstrated utilizing an appropriate reporter mouse strain. Our study identified a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensory cell type in the duct of the airway submucosal glands that likely utilizes ACh for paracrine signaling. We propose that these cells participate in infection-sensing mechanisms and initiate responses assisting bacterial clearance from the lower airways. PMID:26033492

  1. Investigation of phthalate release from tracheal tubes.

    PubMed

    Morton, W J; Muller, C T; Goodwin, N; Wilkes, A R; Hall, J E

    2013-04-01

    Phthalates are chemicals used extensively in the manufacture of plastics for their desirable physical characteristics. In addition to enhancing the performance of plastics, phthalates have a number of undesirable effects, principally endocrine disruptor effects, that may have adverse effects on reproductive development and functioning. As a result, they have been banned from the manufacture of children's toys. Despite this, they continue to be used in the manufacture of medical devices, including anaesthetic equipment. This study aimed to assess phthalate release from five brands of tracheal tube. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we analysed phthalate concentrations from samples of ultra pure water in which tracheal tubes had been submerged. Phthalate concentration increased from 6.7 to 149 μg.l(-1) over a period of 4.8 days. Phthalate release from anaesthetic equipment has not previously been documented over short time periods and raises the possibility of iatrogenic endocrine disruption with routine anaesthesia.

  2. Up-regulation of Store-operated Ca2+ Entry and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Promote the Acinar Phenotype of the Primary Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Shyh-Ing; Ong, Hwei Ling; Liu, Xibao; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-04-15

    The signaling pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of exocrine gland acinar cells have not yet been established. Primary human salivary gland epithelial cells, derived from salivary gland biopsies, acquired an acinar-like phenotype when the [Ca(2+)] in the serum-free medium (keratinocyte growth medium, KGM) was increased from 0.05 mm (KGM-L) to 1.2 mm (KGM-H). Here we examined the mechanism underlying this Ca(2+)-dependent generation of the acinar cell phenotype. Compared with cells in KGM-L, those in KGM-H display enhancement of Orai1, STIM1, STIM2, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression together with an increase in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), SOCE-dependent nuclear translocation of pGFP-NFAT1, and NFAT-dependent but not NFκB-dependent gene expression. Importantly, AQP5, an acinar-specific protein critical for function, is up-regulated in KGM-H via SOCE/NFAT-dependent gene expression. We identified critical NFAT binding motifs in the AQP5 promoter that are involved in Ca(2+)-dependent up-regulation of AQP5. These important findings reveal that the Ca(2+)-induced switch of salivary epithelial cells to an acinar-like phenotype involves remodeling of SOCE and NFAT signaling, which together control the expression of proteins critically relevant for acinar cell function. Our data provide a novel strategy for generating and maintaining acinar cells in culture.

  3. c-myc, ras p21 and p53 expression in pleomorphic adenoma and its malignant form of the human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, H; Hamano, H; Hayashi, Y

    1993-01-01

    Using an immunohistochemical study and an immunoblot analysis, the expression of cellular oncogenes of the human salivary glands such as c-myc, ras p21, and p53 tumor-suppressor gene in pleomorphic adenomas and its malignant form, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenomas was examined to evaluate a differential biological significance, in comparison with that in normal salivary gland tissues. Immunohistochemically, the c-myc product was detected in 42% of the pleomorphic adenomas and in 56% of the carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma. The ras p21 expression was observed in 24% of pleomorphic adenomas, and in 50% of carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma. The p53 protein was detected in 18% of the pleomorphic adenomas and in 67% of the carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma. Although there was no significant difference between the benign and malignant forms for the expression of c-myc, a statistical significance in ras p21 and p53 expression was found between the pleomorphic adenoma and its malignant form (P < 0.05) and P < 0.001, respectively). An immunoblotting assay clearly demonstrated the expression of c-myc and p53 gene products in both the benign and malignant forms of the pleomorphic adenoma, and that of ras p21 in the malignant form. These results indicate that activation of c-myc and ras p21 proto-oncogenes and the involvement of p53 mutation may play important roles in the malignant transformation of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma.

  4. Meibomian gland studies: histologic and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed

    Jester, J V; Nicolaides, N; Smith, R E

    1981-04-01

    Heightened interest in meibomian gland dysfunction has prompted us to evaluate the normal morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the meibomian gland. Histologic analysis of human, primate, steer, and rabbit glands revealed evidence of keratinized epithelium extending throughout the meibomian gland duct. Characteristic ultrastructural features of keratinized epithelium identified in primate and rabbit glands included tonofilaments, keratohyaline granules, lamellar bodies, and keratinized squamous cells. Comparison of the meibomian gland duct to the pilosebaceous canal and the sebaceous duct brought out certain dissimilarities such as (1) the lack of a well-developed stratum granulosum and (2) the absence of lipid inclusions within transitional cells from duct to acini. We postulate that abnormalities of the keratinizing process may be responsible for meibomian gland dysfunction states.

  5. Human prominin-1 (CD133) is detected in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases and released into saliva in a ubiquitinated form.

    PubMed

    Karbanová, Jana; Laco, Jan; Marzesco, Anne-Marie; Janich, Peggy; Voborníková, Magda; Mokrý, Jaroslav; Fargeas, Christine A; Huttner, Wieland B; Corbeil, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is physiologically expressed at the apical membranes of secretory (serous and mucous) and duct cells of major salivary glands. We investigated its expression in various human salivary gland lesions using two distinct anti-prominin-1 monoclonal antibodies (80B258 and AC133) applied on paraffin-embedded sections and characterized its occurrence in saliva. The 80B258 epitope was extensively expressed in adenoid cystic carcinoma, in lesser extent in acinic cell carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma, and rarely in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The 80B258 immunoreactivity was predominately detected at the apical membrane of tumor cells showing acinar or intercalated duct cell differentiation, which lined duct- or cyst-like structures, and in luminal secretions. It was observed on the whole cell membrane in non-luminal structures present in the vicinity of thin-walled blood vessels and hemorrhagic areas in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Of note, AC133 labeled only a subset of 80B258-positive structures. In peritumoral salivary gland tissues as well as in obstructive sialadenitis, an up-regulation of prominin-1 (both 80B258 and AC133 immunoreactivities) was observed in intercalated duct cells. In most tissues, prominin-1 was partially co-expressed with two cancer markers: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and mucin-1 (MUC1). Differential centrifugation of saliva followed by immunoblotting indicated that all three markers were released in association with small membrane vesicles. Immuno-isolated prominin-1-positive vesicles contained CEA and MUC1, but also exosome-related proteins CD63, flotillin-1, flotillin-2 and the adaptor protein syntenin-1. The latter protein was shown to interact with prominin-1 as demonstrated by its co-immunoisolation. A fraction of saliva-associated prominin-1 appeared to be ubiquitinated. Collectively, our findings bring new insights into the biochemistry and trafficking of prominin-1 as well as its immunohistochemical profile in certain types

  6. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor )

    1990-02-26

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips ({le}12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 {mu}m thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 {mu}Ci/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36{+-}4% (mean {+-} SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0{+-}1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 {mu}M calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE{sub 2}, PGF{sub 2}{alpha}, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2}{alpha} standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium.

  7. Activation of tracheal smooth muscle responsiveness by fMLP-treated HL-60 cells and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Munoz, N M; Hamann, K J; Vita, A; Cozzi, P J; Baranowski, S; Solway, J; Leff, A R

    1993-03-01

    We assessed the effects of cultured human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) isolated from peripheral human blood on tracheal smooth muscle responsiveness in 40 male Hartley guinea pigs. Undifferentiated HL-60 cells (16-25 passages) were activated in vitro by incubation with 1 microM f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), and force of contraction was measured isometrically using an in situ preparation of tracheal smooth muscle. Increasing concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/cm2 tracheal surface) were applied topically to the epithelial surface pretreated with 4 x 10(6) fMLP-activated HL-60 cells, 4 x 10(6) fMLP-activated neutrophils, 4 x 10(6) sham-activated HL-60 cells, fMLP+vehicle, or vehicle control. Topical application of fMLP-activated HL-60 cells caused a maximum active tension (AT) of 1.13 +/- 0.2 g/cm after 5 min; fMLP-activated neutrophils, sham-activated HL-60 cells, or fMLP+vehicle had no effect. The fMLP-activated HL-60 cells also caused substantial augmentation of tracheal contraction to ACh (P < 0.05 vs. sham-activated cells for all concentrations > 10(-9) mol/cm2). Although fMLP treatment caused 247 +/- 28% increase from baseline level in O2-. production, neither direct contraction nor augmentation of muscarinic stimulation was demonstrated after topical application of 4 x 10(6) neutrophils. In 12 other preparations, fMLP-activated HL-60 cells were pretreated with either 10 microM indomethacin (Indo) or 100 microM A63162, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Pretreatment with Indo caused complete blockade of direct tracheal contraction and 88 +/- 13% blockade of muscarinic augmentation; there was no effect after A63162.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8460711

  8. Endodermal Wnt signaling is required for tracheal cartilage formation

    PubMed Central

    Snowball, John; Ambalavanan, Manoj; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Sinner, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchomalacia is a common congenital defect in which the walls of the trachea and bronchi lack of adequate cartilage required for support of the airways. Deletion of Wls, a cargo receptor mediating Wnt ligand secretion, in the embryonic endoderm using ShhCre mice inhibited formation of tracheal-bronchial cartilaginous rings. The normal dorsal-ventral patterning of tracheal mesenchyme was lost. Smooth muscle cells, identified by Acta2 staining, were aberrantly located in ventral mesenchyme of the trachea, normally the region of Sox9 expression in cartilage progenitors. Wnt/β-catenin activity, indicated by Axin2 LacZ reporter, was decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ embryos. Proliferation of chondroblasts was decreased and reciprocally, proliferation of smooth muscle cells was increased in Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ tracheal tissue. Expression of Tbx4, Tbx5, Msx1 and Msx2, known to mediate cartilage and muscle patterning, were decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ embryos. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that Wnt7b and Wnt5a, expressed by the epithelium of developing trachea, and active Wnt/β-catenin signaling are required for tracheal chondrogenesis before formation of mesenchymal condensations. In conclusion, Wnt ligands produced by the tracheal epithelium pattern the tracheal mesenchyme via modulation of gene expression and cell proliferation required for proper tracheal cartilage and smooth muscle differentiation. PMID:26093309

  9. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  10. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  11. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  12. Isolation of differentially expressed cDNAs during ferret tracheal development: application of differential display PCR.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, A; Presente, A; Dudus, L; Engelhardt, J F

    1996-01-01

    The technique of differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) was used to identify cDNA sequences, which are temporally expressed during ferret tracheal airway development. Such differentially expressed cDNAs may ultimately prove to be useful markers in elucidating mechanisms of epithelial differentiation and submucosal gland development in the airway. Using two sets of oligonucleotide primers 15 differentially amplified cDNAs were isolated by comparative reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR of 6-h and 3-day postnatal tracheal poly-A mRNA. In situ hybridization was used to assess the reliability of this method and confirm the differential mRNA expression patterns of cloned cDNAs. Results of in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that 10 of the 15 cDNA sequences gave a temporally regulated pattern of expression, which was concordant with that of the differential display. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the 15 isolated cDNAs revealed that the majority of clones were amplified from two inverted decamer primers. These findings demonstrate the lack of poly-T priming in the differential display reaction, which suggests that this method may yield substantially more information regarding the coding sequence of cloned genes. In support of this observation, 6 of the 15 cDNA sequences contained one complete open reading frame. Although the majority of cDNAs demonstrated no homology to sequence data bases at the DNA or amino acid level, clone FT-4, which demonstrated a differential expression pattern limited to 3-day tracheal time points, was composed of a 10-amino acid repeat domain that was structurally similar to neuropeptide anthoRFamide and barley D hordein seed protein. A second interesting clone, FT-3, demonstrated an infrequent pattern of expression within a subset of epithelial cells limited to early developmental time points (6 h) and was dramatically reduced by 3 days postnatally. Several additional clones with no homologies to previously cloned genes

  13. Interstitial Fluid Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Murine Mammary Gland and Cancer and Human Breast Tissue and Cancer Determined by Novel Methods.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yamada, Akimitsu; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Allegood, Jeremy C; Tsuchida, Junko; Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Huang, Wei-Ching; Terracina, Krista P; Adams, Barbara J; Rashid, Omar M; Milstien, Sheldon; Wakai, Toshifumi; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-06-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a determining factor for cancer biology and progression. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), produced by sphingosine kinases (SphKs), is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates processes important for cancer progression. Despite its critical roles, the levels of S1P in interstitial fluid (IF), an important component of the tumor microenvironment, have never previously been measured due to a lack of efficient methods for collecting and quantifying IF. The purpose of this study is to clarify the levels of S1P in the IF from murine mammary glands and its tumors utilizing our novel methods. We developed an improved centrifugation method to collect IF. Sphingolipids in IF, blood, and tissue samples were measured by mass spectrometry. In mice with a deletion of SphK1, but not SphK2, levels of S1P in IF from the mammary glands were greatly attenuated. Levels of S1P in IF from mammary tumors were reduced when tumor growth was suppressed by oral administration of FTY720/fingolimod. Importantly, sphingosine, dihydro-sphingosine, and S1P levels, but not dihydro-S1P, were significantly higher in human breast tumor tissue IF than in the normal breast tissue IF. To our knowledge, this is the first reported S1P IF measurement in murine normal mammary glands and mammary tumors, as well as in human patients with breast cancer. S1P tumor IF measurement illuminates new aspects of the role of S1P in the tumor microenvironment.

  14. Lipomatous infiltration of the canine salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Lucke, V M; Sozmen, M; Whitbread, T J; Wyatt, J M

    1997-06-01

    Benign connective tumours of the canine salivary glands are rare. This report describes lipomatous infiltration of parotid or submandibular salivary glands in seven dogs in which the glands were enlarged as a result of infiltration by fat cells; they appeared to have been successfully treated by local excision. The precise cause of the lipomatous infiltration in the dogs is unclear but different causes of similar lesions in humans are discussed.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary.

    PubMed

    Occhi, G; Albiger, N; Berlucchi, S; Gardiman, M; Scanarini, M; Scienza, R; Fassina, A; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2007-07-01

    Pituitary adenomas are slow-growing tumours arising within the pituitary gland. If secreting, they give rise to well-known syndromes such as Cushing's disease or acromegaly; when hormonally inactive, they come to clinical attention often with local mass effects or pituitary deficiency. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear hormone receptor with a key role in fat and glucose metabolism, but also involved in several neoplasia, has recently been detected in pituitary adenomas. In the present study, we evaluated the occurrence and splicing profile of PPARgamma in 43 cases of pituitary adenoma of different subtypes and compared it to 12 normal pituitary glands. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, PPARgamma was expressed as much in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and ACTH-silent adenomas as in controls, with a moderate underexpression in somatotrophinomas and prolactinomas and overexpression in 54% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). There was no apparent qualitative change in the splicing profile of pathological pituitary glands, nor was the presence of specific isoforms with dominant negative effects against PPARgamma detected. Western blotting revealed similar expression levels in the different subgroups of pituitary adenomas and normal glands. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PPARgamma expression in approximately one-half of analysed samples. The intra- and intergroup differences observed in pituitary adenomas may represent new elements in the process of understanding the different clinical responses of Cushing's and Nelson patients to PPARgamma-ligand treatment. Moreover, the higher level of PPARgamma expression detected in the NFPA subgroup may suggest its possible role as a molecular target in these pituitary adenomas, paving the way for investigations on the effectiveness of treatment with thiazolidinediones in such patients. PMID:17561883

  16. Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system : morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, K. J.; Henry, J. R.; Kirkton, S. D.; Westneat, M. W.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.; Harrison, J. F.; North Dakota State Univ.; Arizona State Univ.; Union Coll.; Field Museum of Natural History

    2009-11-01

    As grasshoppers increase in size during ontogeny, they have mass specifically greater whole body tracheal and tidal volumes and ventilation than predicted by an isometric relationship with body mass and body volume. However, the morphological and physiological bases to this respiratory hypermetry are unknown. In this study, we use synchrotron imaging to demonstrate that tracheal hypermetry in developing grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) is due to increases in air sacs and tracheae and occurs in all three body segments, providing evidence against the hypothesis that hypermetry is due to gaining flight ability. We also assessed the scaling of air sac structure and function by assessing volume changes of focal abdominal air sacs. Ventilatory frequencies increased in larger animals during hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}) but did not scale in normoxia. For grasshoppers in normoxia, inflated and deflated air sac volumes and ventilation scaled hypermetrically. During hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}), many grasshoppers compressed air sacs nearly completely regardless of body size, and air sac volumes scaled isometrically. Together, these results demonstrate that whole body tracheal hypermetry and enhanced ventilation in larger/older grasshoppers are primarily due to proportionally larger air sacs and higher ventilation frequencies in larger animals during hypoxia. Prior studies showed reduced whole body tracheal volumes and tidal volume in late-stage grasshoppers, suggesting that tissue growth compresses air sacs. In contrast, we found that inflated volumes, percent volume changes, and ventilation were identical in abdominal air sacs of late-stage fifth instar and early-stage animals, suggesting that decreasing volume of the tracheal system later in the instar occurs in other body regions that have harder exoskeleton.

  17. Meibomian gland dysfunction: hyperkeratinization or atrophy?

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Parfitt, Geraint J; Brown, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the major cause of evaporative dry eye disease (EDED) and dysfunction is widely thought to mechanistically involve ductal hyperkeratinization, plugging and obstruction. This review re-evaluates the role of hyperkeratinization in MGD based on more recent findings from mouse models. In these studies, eyelids from normal young and old mice or mice exposed to desiccating stress were evaluated by immunofluorescent tomography and 3-dimensional reconstruction to evaluate gland volume, expression of hyperkeratinization markers and cell proliferation or stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to assess lipid quality. Results indicate that aging mice show dropout of meibomian glands with loss of gland volume and a forward migration of the mucocutaneous junction anterior to the gland orifice; similar age-related changes that are detected in human subjects. Atrophic glands also showed evidence of epithelial plugging of the orifice without the presence of hyperkeratinization. Mice exposed to desiccating stress showed hyperproliferation of the meibomian gland and ductal dilation suggesting a marked increase in lipid synthesis. Lipid quality was also affected in EDED mice with an increase in the protein content of lipid within the duct of the gland. Overall, age-related changes in the mouse show similar structural and functional correlates with that observed in clinical MGD without evidence of hyperkeratinization suggesting that gland atrophy may be a major cause of EDED. The response of the meibomian gland to desiccating stress also suggest that environmental conditions may accelerate or potentiate age-related changes.

  18. Meibomian gland dysfunction: hyperkeratinization or atrophy?

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Parfitt, Geraint J; Brown, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the major cause of evaporative dry eye disease (EDED) and dysfunction is widely thought to mechanistically involve ductal hyperkeratinization, plugging and obstruction. This review re-evaluates the role of hyperkeratinization in MGD based on more recent findings from mouse models. In these studies, eyelids from normal young and old mice or mice exposed to desiccating stress were evaluated by immunofluorescent tomography and 3-dimensional reconstruction to evaluate gland volume, expression of hyperkeratinization markers and cell proliferation or stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to assess lipid quality. Results indicate that aging mice show dropout of meibomian glands with loss of gland volume and a forward migration of the mucocutaneous junction anterior to the gland orifice; similar age-related changes that are detected in human subjects. Atrophic glands also showed evidence of epithelial plugging of the orifice without the presence of hyperkeratinization. Mice exposed to desiccating stress showed hyperproliferation of the meibomian gland and ductal dilation suggesting a marked increase in lipid synthesis. Lipid quality was also affected in EDED mice with an increase in the protein content of lipid within the duct of the gland. Overall, age-related changes in the mouse show similar structural and functional correlates with that observed in clinical MGD without evidence of hyperkeratinization suggesting that gland atrophy may be a major cause of EDED. The response of the meibomian gland to desiccating stress also suggest that environmental conditions may accelerate or potentiate age-related changes. PMID:26817690

  19. The pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Paquette, H

    2000-04-01

    The pineal gland is located posterior to the midbrain and is the site of melatonin production. Research on pineal gland function in neonates is very limited. This article will discuss pineal gland development and the possible relationship between melatonin production and sudden infant death syndrome. Further research on pineal gland function is needed in order to establish its significance for the neonate.

  20. Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland and the thyroglossal duct remnant: a study using human fetal sections.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Honkura, Yohei; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the thyroglossal duct, we observed serial sagittal sections of eight embryos (crown-rump length (CRL) 6-12 mm; approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) as well as serial horizontal or cross-sections of 70 embryos and fetuses (CRL 15-110 mm; 6-15 weeks). In the sagittal sections, the thyroglossal duct was identified as a small sheet or mass of relatively large cells with vacuolization anterior, superior or inferior to the fourth pharyngeal arch artery. However, we found no continuous duct-like structure that reached the thyroid gland. Thus, previous classical schemes might have overestimated the continuity of the duct. Among cross-sections of 70 specimens, we found the thyroglossal duct remnant in only two specimens (CRL 15 mm and 100 mm), in contrast to the pyramidal lobe, which was seen in one-third of the specimens. The duct remnant ran downward along the lateral edge of the hyoid body to reach the anterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage. However, the connection between the pyramidal lobe and the duct remnant was interrupted by the anterior cervical muscles. Therefore, it was unlikely that the thyroglossal duct remnant would more frequently be evident in fetuses than in adults. The highly tortuous course of the duct along the lingual aspect of the hyoid body, which has been reported previously, appeared to become established near term. Descent of the thyroid gland was not evident after the CRL 20 mm stage (6 weeks): the gland appeared to retain its position at the level of the third-sixth cervical vertebrae.

  1. Mucociliary clearance following segmental tracheal reversal.

    PubMed

    Delaere, P R; Liu, Z; Delanghe, G; Gyselen, K; Jorissen, M; Feenstra, L

    1996-04-01

    Ciliated tracheal epithelium is arranged in a polarized pattern oriented according to the inferior-superior axis of the trachea and is responsible for the transport of mucus toward the larynx. In this study, ciliary beat orientation and the influence of external factors on mucociliary clearance direction were studied in rabbit inverted cervical tracheas. The animals displayed normal respiration postoperatively. After 16 weeks, airway clearance was studied by observation of the movement of silicone particles placed in the inverted segment and in normal parts of the ciliated epithelium. Cilia exhibited unidirectional and coordinated movement within inverted tracheal segments. As shown by the direction of effective flow produced by beating cilia and by scanning electron microscopy, the cilia in the inverted segment beat in the opposite direction from the cilia in the remainder of the trachea. This study demonstrated that ciliary orientation is irreversibly determined, but the reversal of ciliary beating within the cervical trachea had no adverse effects on the survival of the animals.

  2. Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

    1985-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

  3. Tracheal activity recognition based on acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Olubanjo, Temiloluwa; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal activity recognition can play an important role in continuous health monitoring for wearable systems and facilitate the advancement of personalized healthcare. Neck-worn systems provide access to a unique set of health-related data that other wearable devices simply cannot obtain. Activities including breathing, chewing, clearing the throat, coughing, swallowing, speech and even heartbeat can be recorded from around the neck. In this paper, we explore tracheal activity recognition using a combination of promising acoustic features from related work and apply simplistic classifiers including K-NN and Naive Bayes. For wearable systems in which low power consumption is of primary concern, we show that with a sub-optimal sampling rate of 16 kHz, we have achieved average classification results in the range of 86.6% to 87.4% using 1-NN, 3-NN, 5-NN and Naive Bayes. All classifiers obtained the highest recognition rate in the range of 97.2% to 99.4% for speech classification. This is promising to mitigate privacy concerns associated with wearable systems interfering with the user's conversations.

  4. [Trace elements storage peculiarities and metallothionein content in human thyroid gland under iodine deficiency euthyroid nodular goiter].

    PubMed

    Fal'fushins'ka, H I; Hnatyshyna, L L; Osadchuk, O Ĭ; Shydlovs'kyĭ, V O; Stoliar, O B

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of iodine and copper in the node, paranodular and contralateral (not affected tissue by node) tissues of thyroid gland in relation to the level of metal-binding proteins, potential antioxidants and oxidative changes in tissue was investigated. To assess the severity of the pathological process the molecular markers of cytotoxicity were used. The reduction of total iodine (by 19.5%), increase of inorganic iodine fraction (by 82.4%) and total copper content (twice) in paranodular and nodular tissues compared with contrlateral part have been established. Excess of copper in goitrous-changes tissue was partially accumulated in the metallothioneins. The level of metal-binding form of metallothioneins and reserve of free thiols of these proteins was higher two-three times and lower content of reduced glutathione in node-affected tissue compared to the contralateral part. Signs of cytotoxicity among them: higher cathepsine D free activity (up to 84.6% and 134.4% in paranodular tissue and node respectively) and higher level of DNA strand breaks in the node (up to 22.6%) were observed. In paranodular tissue the range of indices variability compared with parenchyma of contralateral part is shorter than in the node. Thus, under low level of iodine organification and high copper level in goitrous-modified tissue of thyroid gland metallothionein may provide a partial compensatory effect on prooxidative processes.

  5. Identification of Glycosaminoglycans in Human Airway Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Monzon, Maria E.; Casalino-Matsuda, Susana M.; Forteza, Rosanna M.

    2006-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), known to be present in airway mucus, are macromolecules with a variety of structural and biological functions. In the present work, we used fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) to identify and relatively quantify GAGs in human tracheal aspirates (HTA) obtained from healthy volunteers. Primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and submucosal gland (SMG) cells were used to assess their differential contribution to GAGs in mucus. Distribution was further assessed by immunofluorescence in human trachea tissue sections and in cell cultures. HTA samples contained keratan sulfate (KS), chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS), and hyaluronan (HA), whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was not detected. SMG cultures secreted CS/DS and HA, CS/DS being the most abundant GAGs in these cultures. NHBE cells synthesized KS, HA, and CS/DS. Confocal microscopy showed that KS was exclusively found at the apical border of NHBE cells and on the apical surface of ciliated epithelial cells in tracheal tissues. CS/DS and HA were present in both NHBE and SMG cells. HS was only found in the extracellular matrix in trachea tissue sections. In summary, HTA samples contain KS, CS/DS, and HA, mirroring a mixture of secretions originated in surface epithelial cells and SMGs. We conclude that surface epithelium is responsible for most HA and all KS present in secretions, whereas glands secrete most of CS/DS. These data suggest that, in diseases where the contribution to secretions of glands versus epithelial cells is altered, the relative concentration of individual GAGs, and therefore their biological activities, will also be affected. PMID:16195536

  6. Updating the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi (Tunisian Strain): The Search for Sand Fly-Secreted Immunogenic Proteins for Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ahmed, Melika; Zhioua, Elyes; Chelbi, Ifhem; Cherni, Saifedine; Louzir, Hechmi; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sand fly saliva plays an important role in both blood feeding and outcome of Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response against a Phlebotomus papatasi salivary protein was shown to protect rodents against Leishmania major infection. In humans, P. papatasi salivary proteins induce a systemic cellular immune response as well as a specific antisaliva humoral immune response, making these salivary proteins attractive targets as markers of exposure for this Leishmania vector. Surprisingly, the repertoire of salivary proteins reported for P. papatasi–a model sand fly for Leishmania-vector-host molecular interactions–is very limited compared with other sand fly species. We hypothesize that a more comprehensive study of the transcripts present in the salivary glands of P. papatasi will provide better knowledge of the repertoire of proteins of this important vector and will aid in selection of potential immunogenic proteins for humans and of those proteins that are highly conserved between different sand fly strains. Methods and Findings A cDNA library from P. papatasi (Tunisian strain) salivary glands was constructed, and randomly selected transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. The most abundant transcripts encoding secreted proteins were identified and compared with previously reported sequences. Importantly, we identified salivary proteins not described before in this sand fly species. Conclusions Comparative analysis between the salivary proteins of P. papatasi from Tunisia and Israel strains shows a high level of identity, suggesting these proteins as potential common targets for markers of vector exposure or inducers of cellular immune responses in humans for different geographic areas. PMID:23139741

  7. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla-Dave, A; Lu, Y; Hatzoglou, V; Stambuk, H; Mazaheri, Y; Banerjee, S; Shankaranarayanan, A; Deasy, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting.

  8. Tracheal decannulation protocol in patients affected by traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Isabel de Lima; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Hirata, Gisela Carmona

    2014-04-01

    Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing. PMID:25992074

  9. Tracheal Decannulation Protocol in Patients Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zanata, Isabel de Lima; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Hirata, Gisela Carmona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing. PMID:25992074

  10. Complications after tracheal resection and reconstruction: prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Hugh G.

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal resection and reconstruction (TRR) and laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction (LTRR) is commonly performed for post-intubation tracheal stenosis, tracheal tumor, idiopathic laryngotracheal stenosis (ILTS), and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Ninety-five percent of patients have a good result from surgery. Complications occur in ~20% of patients, of which half are anastomotic complications. Complications include granulation tissue formation, restenosis of the trachea, anastomotic separation, TEF and tracheoinnominate fistula (TIF), wound infection, laryngeal edema, and glottic dysfunction. Risk factors for anastomotic complication include diabetes, reoperation, previous tracheal appliance, and long-segment tracheal resection. Bronchoscopy should be part of the diagnostic workup when a complication is suspected. Anastomotic separation—the most feared complication of tracheal surgery—may present subtly with stridor and wound infection, or with respiratory distress and extremis. Prompt management is required to prevent devastating consequences. The airway should be secured, bronchoscopy should be performed to address the degree of separation, and the anastomosis should be revised if needed, usually with the addition of t-tube or tracheostomy. Anastomotic complications that are managed aggressively typically yield good results. More than half of such patients will eventually have a satisfactory airway. However, an anastomotic complication is associated with a thirteen-fold increase in the risk of death following tracheal resection. PMID:26981267

  11. Do Cyclosporine A, an IL-1 Receptor Antagonist, Uridine Triphosphate, Rebamipide, and/or Bimatoprost Regulate Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Wendy R.; Liu, Yang; Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Researchers have hypothesized that treatment with cyclosporine A (CyA), interleukin-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1RA; e.g., anakinra), P2Y2 receptor agonists (e.g., uridine triphosphate; UTP), and rebamipide may alleviate human meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and/or dry eye disease. Investigators have also proposed that prostaglandin analogues (e.g., bimatoprost) may induce MGD. Our goal was to determine whether these compounds directly influence human meibomian gland epithelial cell (HMGEC) function. Methods Multiple concentrations of each compound were tested for effects on immortalized (I) HMGEC morphology and survival. Nontoxic dosages were used for our studies. Immortalized HMGEC were cultured in the presence of vehicle, CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, or bimatoprost for up to 6 days in various media. Experiments included positive controls for proliferation (epidermal growth factor and bovine pituitary extract), differentiation (azithromycin), and signaling pathway activation (insulin-like growth factor 1). Cells were analyzed for neutral lipid staining, lysosome accumulation, lipid composition, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt (AKT), phosphorylation. Results Our findings demonstrate that CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, and bimatoprost had no effect on the proliferation; neutral lipid content; lysosome number; or levels of free cholesterol, triglycerides, or phospholipids in IHMGECs. Cylosporine A, IL-1RA, rebamipide, and bimatoprost significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AKT, as compared to control. Of interest, tested doses of CyA above 8 nM killed the IHMGECs. Conclusions Our results show that CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, and bimatoprost do not influence the proliferation or differentiation of IHMGEC. However, with the exception of UTP, these compounds do decrease the activity of the AKT signaling pathway, which is known to promote cell survival. PMID:27552406

  12. The Mammary Glands of Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cline, J. Mark; Wood, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the normal biology and physiology of the mammary gland in macaques, including the typical histologic appearance across the life span (development, reproductive maturity, lactation, and senescence). The molecular events regulating breast morphogenesis are described, as well as systemic and local hormonal regulators of mammary gland proliferation, differentiation, and function. Similarities and differences to the human breast are described. Regulatory events are illuminated by discussion of genetically modified mouse models. Tissue response markers, including immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and other hormonally induced changes and studies to date, regarding the effects of exogenous hormones, are briefly summarized. In general, estrogens stimulate progesterone receptor expression and proliferation in the mammary gland, and combinations of estrogens and progestogens cause greater proliferation than estrogens alone. Evaluation of novel chemical agents in macaques requires careful evaluation of age and hormonal context to avoid the confounding effects of mammary gland development, past reproductive history, and other influences on mammary gland morphology. The expression of proliferation markers and progesterone receptors may be used as biomarkers to measure chemically induced hormonal effects. PMID:21475638

  13. Rings, slings, and other tracheal disorders in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Javia, Luv; Harris, Matthew A; Fuller, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Tracheal and bronchial pathologies in the neonate can be rapidly fatal if prenatal or quick postnatal diagnosis and intervention is not performed. Close multidisciplinary collaboration between multiple medical and surgical specialties is vital to the effective diagnosis and treatment of these pathologies. The fetal and neonatal airway may be affected or compromised by more prevalent pathologies such as tracheomalacia and tracheo-esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia. However, it is imperative that we also consider other potential sources that may perhaps be less familiar such as congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, tracheal stenosis, complete tracheal rings, tracheal sleeve, and foregut duplication cysts. Modern imaging studies and surgical techniques are allowing us to better serve these children. PMID:27090408

  14. An Innovative Operative Method for Correction of Tracheal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dakshesh R; Mungutwar, Varsha

    2016-09-01

    This is a case of failed attempt of hanging, resulted into cervical injury & injury to the trachea. Patient was put on the ventilator for respiratory support for long period. Poor recovery of the patient resulted into prolong tracheostomy tube. Combine effect of all resulted into suprastomal tracheal stenosis. Due to complexity of the problem a novel method was customized to correct the tracheal stenosis. Strap muscle (Sternohyoid & Sternothyroid) was raised as a flap; free cartilage was sandwiched in between and sutured to the created tracheal defect. Bovine collagen was placed over a stent and placed in the tracheal lumen. Good result was achieved post operatively in the form of adequate lumen, rigid anterior wall during respiration, good mucosal lining without fibrosis and normal speech. PMID:27508127

  15. Reresection for recurrent stenosis after primary tracheal repair

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Failure of the anastomosis after primary tracheal reconstruction for benign disease is uncommon. Here we review the available evidence on tracheal restenosis and the results of second reconstructions. Factors associated with failed primary anastomosis are examined. Temporizing immediate and alternative long-term management with T-tube or tracheostomy is described, emphasizing the role of tracheal stenting in abating the urgency for reoperation. From available evidence, elective reoperative treatment of failed tracheal reconstruction should be considered in selected patients after careful review and reversal of patient- and operation-specific factors that initiated failure. Referral to a high-volume center with a deep bench of nursing, anesthesiologic and surgical expertise is recommended for reoperation. PMID:26981266

  16. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and ... the rest of the mouth. Salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth through ducts that open at ...

  17. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  18. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  19. Measurement of tracheal mucous transport rate in the horse

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.; Hampe, D.W.

    1983-06-01

    Tracheal mucous transport rates were measured in 12 nonanesthetized horses after an intratracheal injection of 99mtechnetium-sulfur colloid. The transport rate of the subsequent bolus of radioactivity was determined, using a portable scaler rate meter fitted with a high-energy gamma-scintillation probe. A gamma-scintillation camera was used to verify bolus form and movement in 1 horse. The mean tracheal mucous transport rate was 1.66 +/- 0.24 cm/min.

  20. Decellularized Tracheal Extracellular Matrix Supports Epithelial Migration, Differentiation, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kutten, Johannes C.; McGovern, David; Hobson, Christopher M.; Luffy, Sarah A.; Nieponice, Alejandro; Tobita, Kimimasa; Francis, Richard J.; Reynolds, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal loss is a source of significant morbidity for affected patients with no acceptable solution. Interest in engineering tracheal transplants has created a demand for small animal models of orthotopic tracheal transplantation. Here, we examine the use of a decellularized graft in a murine model of tracheal replacement. Fresh or decellularized tracheas harvested from age-matched female donor C57BL/6 mice were transplanted into syngeneic recipients. Tracheas were decellularized using repeated washes of water, 3% Triton X-100, and 3 M NaCl under cyclic pressure changes, followed by disinfection with 0.1% peracetic acid/4% ethanol, and terminal sterilization by gamma irradiation. Tracheas were explanted for immunolabeling at 1, 4, and 8 weeks following surgery. Video microscopy and computed tomography were performed to assess function and structure. Decellularized grafts supported complete reepithelialization by 8 weeks and motile cilia were observed. Cartilaginous portions of the trachea were maintained in mice receiving fresh transplants, but repopulation of the cartilage was not seen in mice receiving decellularized transplants. We observed superior postsurgical survival, weight gain, and ciliary function in mice receiving fresh transplants compared with those receiving decellularized transplants. The murine orthotopic tracheal transplant provides an appropriate model to assess the repopulation and functional regeneration of decellularized tracheal grafts. PMID:24980864

  1. dysfusion Transcriptional Control of Drosophila Tracheal Migration, Adhesion, and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lan; Crews, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    The Drosophila dysfusion basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor gene is expressed in specialized fusion cells that reside at the tips of migrating tracheal branches. dysfusion mutants were isolated, and genetic analysis of live embryos revealed that mutant tracheal branches migrate to close proximity but fail to recognize and adhere to each other. Misexpression of dysfusion throughout the trachea further indicated that dysfusion has the ability to both inhibit cell migration and promote ectopic tracheal fusion. Nineteen genes whose expression either increases or decreases in fusion cells during development were analyzed in dysfusion mutant embryos. dysfusion upregulates the levels of four genes, including the shotgun cell adhesion protein gene and the zona pellucida family transmembrane protein gene, CG13196. Misexpression experiments with CG13196 result in ectopic tracheal fusion events, suggesting that it also encodes a cell adhesion protein. Another target gene of dysfusion is members only, which inhibits protein nuclear export and influences tracheal fusion. dysfusion also indirectly downregulates protein levels of Trachealess, an important regulator of tracheal development. These results indicate that fusion cells undergo dynamic changes in gene expression as they switch from migratory to fusion modes and that dysfusion regulates a discrete, but important, set of these genes. PMID:16914738

  2. Decellularized tracheal extracellular matrix supports epithelial migration, differentiation, and function.

    PubMed

    Kutten, Johannes C; McGovern, David; Hobson, Christopher M; Luffy, Sarah A; Nieponice, Alejandro; Tobita, Kimimasa; Francis, Richard J; Reynolds, Susan D; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal loss is a source of significant morbidity for affected patients with no acceptable solution. Interest in engineering tracheal transplants has created a demand for small animal models of orthotopic tracheal transplantation. Here, we examine the use of a decellularized graft in a murine model of tracheal replacement. Fresh or decellularized tracheas harvested from age-matched female donor C57BL/6 mice were transplanted into syngeneic recipients. Tracheas were decellularized using repeated washes of water, 3% Triton X-100, and 3 M NaCl under cyclic pressure changes, followed by disinfection with 0.1% peracetic acid/4% ethanol, and terminal sterilization by gamma irradiation. Tracheas were explanted for immunolabeling at 1, 4, and 8 weeks following surgery. Video microscopy and computed tomography were performed to assess function and structure. Decellularized grafts supported complete reepithelialization by 8 weeks and motile cilia were observed. Cartilaginous portions of the trachea were maintained in mice receiving fresh transplants, but repopulation of the cartilage was not seen in mice receiving decellularized transplants. We observed superior postsurgical survival, weight gain, and ciliary function in mice receiving fresh transplants compared with those receiving decellularized transplants. The murine orthotopic tracheal transplant provides an appropriate model to assess the repopulation and functional regeneration of decellularized tracheal grafts. PMID:24980864

  3. Expression of the carcinoma markers: the sialylated Lewis A and X carbohydrate antigens in normal laryngeal surface epithelium and submucosal glands from old humans.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Aberrant surface expression of the carbohydrate ABH and Lewis antigens are often used as markers for the diagnosis of cancer, but while the distribution of these histo-blood group antigens is relatively well-described in tissues and organs from young and middle-aged humans little is known of their expression in old age. The objective for this study was to estimate if the Lewis A and X antigens together with their sialylated modifications, are expressed in sections of normal laryngeal tissue from old humans. Antibodies directed against the tumor markers Sialyl Lewis A and Sialyl Lewis X showed positive reaction in the surface epithelia from normal larynx autopsies obtained from people aged 77-90 years. The sialylated and non-sialylated Lewis A antigens were more frequently expressed in the pseudostratified epithelium than in squamous surface epithelium. Both the sialylated and the non-sialylated carbohydrates were stained in the submucosal glands in all the autopsies. In conclusion, visualization of Lewis tumor markers in the larynx should be interpreted with great care, as they may be present in normal laryngeal epithelial cells from old humans.

  4. Identification of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in human prostate: expression site of the estrogen receptor in the benign and neoplastic gland.

    PubMed

    Rago, V; Romeo, F; Giordano, F; Ferraro, A; Carpino, A

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens are involved in growth, differentiation and pathogenesis of human prostate through the mediation of the classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is a 'novel' mediator of estrogen signaling which has been recently recognized in some human reproductive tissues, but its expression in the prostate gland is still unknown. Here, we investigated GPER in benign (from 5 patients) and neoplastic prostatic tissues (from 50 patients) by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting. Normal areas of benign prostates revealed a strong GPER immunoreactivity in the basal epithelial cells while luminal epithelial cells were unreactive and stromal cells were weakly immunostained. GPER was also immunolocalized in adenocarcinoma samples but the immunoreactivity of tumoral areas decreased from Gleason pattern 2 to Gleason pattern 4. Furthermore, a strong GPER immunostaining was also revealed in cells of pre-neoplastic lesions (high-grade prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia). Western blot analysis of benign and tumor protein extracts showed the presence of a ~42 kDa band, consistent with the GPER molecular weight. An increase in both pAkt and p cAMP-response-binding protein (pCREB) levels was also observed in poorly differentiated PCa samples. Finally, this work identified GPER in the epithelial basal cells of benign human prostate, with a different localization with respect to the classical estrogen receptors. Furthermore, the expression of GPER in prostatic adenocarcinoma cells was also observed but with a modulation of the immunoreactivity according to tumor cell arrangements.

  5. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  6. Submandibular gland myoepithelioma.

    PubMed

    Testa, D; Galera, F; Insabato, L; Vassallo, A; Mesolella, M; Galli, V

    2005-06-01

    Benign myoepithelioma is a very rare form of salivary gland tumor, composed entirely of myoepithelial cells. It accounts for approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumors and is most frequently located in the parotid gland and in the minor salivary glands of the hard palate. We describe herein the ninth reported case of myoepithelioma of the submandibular gland. Benign myoepithelioma must be differentiated from several benign and malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining can help differentiate between these conditions, but histopathology remains the gold standard for diagnosing this neoplastic process.

  7. Elevated p16ink4a Expression in Human Labial Salivary Glands as a Potential Correlate of Cognitive Aging in Late Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Tritsaris, Katerina; Reibel, Jesper; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2016-01-01

    Background The cell-cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p16ink4a, is one of the two gene products of the ink4a/ARF (cdkn2a) locus on chromosome 9q21. Up-regulation of p16ink4a has been linked to cellular senescence, and findings from studies on different mammalian tissues suggest that p16ink4a may be a biomarker of organismal versus chronological age. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the immunolocalization pattern of p16ink4a in human labial salivary gland (LSG) tissue, and to analyze whether its expression level in LSGs is a peripheral correlate of cognitive decline in late midlife. Methods The present study was a part of a study of causes and predictors of cognitive decline in middle-aged men in a Danish birth cohort. It is based on data from 181 male participants from the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, born in 1953, who were examined for age-associated alterations in cognition, dental health, and morphological and autonomic innervation characteristics of the LSGs. The participants were allocated to two groups based on the relative change in cognitive performance from young adulthood to late midlife. LSG biopsies were analyzed by qRT-PCR for the expression level of p16ink4a. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of LSGs. Results p16ink4a immunoreactivity was observed in LSG ductal, myoepithelial, and stromal cells, but not in acinar cells. The mean relative expression of p16ink4a in LSGs was higher in the group of participants with decline in cognitive performance. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the relative p16 expression was predictive of the participant’s group assignment. A negative correlation was found between relative p16ink4a expression and the participant’s standardized regression residuals from early adulthood to late midlife cognitive performance scores. Conclusions p16ink4a expression in human LSGs may constitute a potential peripheral

  8. A morphometric study of the tracheal system of Peripatus acacioi Marcus and Marcus (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Bicudo, J E; Campiglia, S

    1985-04-01

    Volumes and surfaces of the tracheal system in Peripatus acacioi Marcus and Marcus (Onychophora) were evaluated using stereological techniques. The onychophorans were divided into three portions, arbitrarily denominated lead, body and tail segments. This procedure was used to provide information on the spatial distribution of tracheal tubes along the body. The mean weight specific tracheal volume for a 212 mg animal (average body weight) was 7.27 microliters g-1. Size appears to affect tracheal volume; the surface density of the tracheal system was greater in both lead and tail segments. There appears to be a positive correlation between tracheal surface density and tissue metabolic activity.

  9. Human milk miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary gland resulting in unique miRNA profiles of fractionated milk

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-01-01

    Human milk (HM) contains regulatory biomolecules including miRNAs, the origin and functional significance of which are still undetermined. We used TaqMan OpenArrays to profile 681 mature miRNAs in HM cells and fat, and compared them with maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma, and bovine and soy infant formulae. HM cells and PBMCs (292 and 345 miRNAs, respectively) had higher miRNA content than HM fat and plasma (242 and 219 miRNAs, respectively) (p < 0.05). A strong association in miRNA profiles was found between HM cells and fat, whilst PBMCs and plasma were distinctly different to HM, displaying marked inter-individual variation. Considering the dominance of epithelial cells in mature milk of healthy women, these results suggest that HM miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary epithelium, whilst the maternal circulation may have a smaller contribution. Our findings demonstrate that unlike infant formulae, which contained very few human miRNA, HM is a rich source of lactation-specific miRNA, which could be used as biomarkers of the performance and health status of the lactating mammary gland. Given the recently identified stability, uptake and functionality of food- and milk-derived miRNA in vivo, HM miRNA are likely to contribute to infant protection and development. PMID:26854194

  10. Human milk miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary gland resulting in unique miRNA profiles of fractionated milk.

    PubMed

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-02-08

    Human milk (HM) contains regulatory biomolecules including miRNAs, the origin and functional significance of which are still undetermined. We used TaqMan OpenArrays to profile 681 mature miRNAs in HM cells and fat, and compared them with maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma, and bovine and soy infant formulae. HM cells and PBMCs (292 and 345 miRNAs, respectively) had higher miRNA content than HM fat and plasma (242 and 219 miRNAs, respectively) (p < 0.05). A strong association in miRNA profiles was found between HM cells and fat, whilst PBMCs and plasma were distinctly different to HM, displaying marked inter-individual variation. Considering the dominance of epithelial cells in mature milk of healthy women, these results suggest that HM miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary epithelium, whilst the maternal circulation may have a smaller contribution. Our findings demonstrate that unlike infant formulae, which contained very few human miRNA, HM is a rich source of lactation-specific miRNA, which could be used as biomarkers of the performance and health status of the lactating mammary gland. Given the recently identified stability, uptake and functionality of food- and milk-derived miRNA in vivo, HM miRNA are likely to contribute to infant protection and development.

  11. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  12. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    localized in the different regions, local invasiveness and enlarged nuclei were observed. The samples included 3 tumors of mammary glands mammary tumors were complex carcinomas (n = 2) and adenocarcinoma (n = 1). The histological grades of the 3 cases were as follows: grade II, (1/3); grade III, (2/3) with high mitotic index. The preferential localization of mammary neoplasms was in the inguinal lobe (1/3 case) and abdominal lobes (2/3 cases). Furthermore, 1case of the inguinal mass affected the left caudo-inguinal lobe and 2cases right cranio and caudo abdominal lobes. Conclusion The study concluded that cytology could be used as a quick, rapid, field diagnostic technique in combination with histopathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary tumors (FMTs). Our findings in feline MTs indicate that FMTs could be useful as an animal model of human breast cancer. Moreover, because of the similarity of the cytohistopathological findings in the human and feline mammary gland tumours, it is possible to use the same cytopathological criteria applied in human pathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary gland tumours. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2047361423103295 PMID:23941603

  13. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds.

  14. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds. PMID:21120907

  15. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z.; Tang, Edith; Benson, Heather A. E.; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R.; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)2D2, 1,20(OH)2D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)2D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)2D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)2D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity. PMID:24382416

  16. Functional treatment of a large laryngeal chondrosarcoma by tracheal autotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Delaere, Pierre R; Vertriest, Rudolph; Hermans, Robert

    2003-08-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the cricoid cartilage poses difficult therapeutic challenges. The tumor necessitates resection of parts of the cricoid cartilage with a resulting defect that is difficult to repair. We wanted to improve the functional outcome after resection of a lateralized chondrosarcoma by applying the technique of tracheal autotransplantation. The technique involves a 2-stage procedure, because the trachea needs at least 2 weeks for revascularization. Tracheal revascularization is the first stage, and is accomplished by wrapping the trachea in vascularized fascia (radial forearm). The second stage, performed after 14 days, consists of a hemilaryngectomy with tracheal autotransplantation. A case of a large unilateral chondrosarcoma of the cricoid cartilage with involvement of 1 cricoarytenoid joint is reported. The tumor was removed by hemicricohemilaryngectomy. After 2 weeks of tracheal revascularization, the cervical trachea was used to repair the laryngeal defect. The tumor was completely resected, and all laryngeal functions (swallowing, voice, respiration without tracheostomy) were restored. The patient remains tumor-free after a follow-up period of 3 years. Tracheal autotransplantation improves the functional treatment of lateralized chondrosarcomas of the cricoid cartilage.

  17. Tracheal compression in pupae of the beetle Zophobas morio

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kenny, Melissa C.; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Insects that are small or exhibit low metabolic rates are considered to not require active ventilation to augment diffusive gas exchange. Some pupae with low metabolic rates exhibit abdominal pumping, a behaviour that is known to drive tracheal ventilation in the adults of many species. However, previous work on pupae suggests that abdominal pumping may serve a non-respiratory role. To study the role of abdominal pumping in pupa of the beetle Zophobas morio, we visualized tracheal dynamics with X-rays while simultaneously measuring haemolymph pressure, abdominal movement, and CO2 emission. Pupae exhibited frequent tracheal compressions that were coincident with both abdominal pumping and pulsation of pressure in the haemolymph. However, more than 63% of abdominal pumping events occurred without any tracheal collapse and hence ventilation, suggesting that the major function of the abdominal pump is not respiratory. In addition, this study shows that the kinematics of abdominal pumping can be used to infer the status of the spiracles and internal behaviour of the tracheal system. PMID:26085499

  18. Tracheal compression in pupae of the beetle Zophobas morio.

    PubMed

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kenny, Melissa C; Socha, John J

    2015-06-01

    Insects that are small or exhibit low metabolic rates are considered to not require active ventilation to augment diffusive gas exchange. Some pupae with low metabolic rates exhibit abdominal pumping, a behaviour that is known to drive tracheal ventilation in the adults of many species. However, previous work on pupae suggests that abdominal pumping may serve a non-respiratory role. To study the role of abdominal pumping in pupa of the beetle Zophobas morio, we visualized tracheal dynamics with X-rays while simultaneously measuring haemolymph pressure, abdominal movement, and CO2 emission. Pupae exhibited frequent tracheal compressions that were coincident with both abdominal pumping and pulsation of pressure in the haemolymph. However, more than 63% of abdominal pumping events occurred without any tracheal collapse and hence ventilation, suggesting that the major function of the abdominal pump is not respiratory. In addition, this study shows that the kinematics of abdominal pumping can be used to infer the status of the spiracles and internal behaviour of the tracheal system.

  19. Benzydamine Oral Spray Inhibiting Parasympathetic Function of Tracheal Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lee, Fei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Benzydamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents agent with anti-inflammatory and local anesthesia properties that is available in the entire world as an oral spray for oral mucositis patients who are suffering from radiation effects. The effect of benzydamine on oral mucositis in vivo is well known; however, the effect of the drug on tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. During administration of the benzydamine for oral symptoms, it might affect the trachea via oral intake or inhalation. Methods We examined the effectiveness of benzydamine on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle. The following assessments of benzydamine were performed: effect on tracheal smooth muscle resting tension; effect on contraction caused by 10-6M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic; and effect of the drug on electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Results Addition of methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of benzydamine at doses of 10-5M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10-6M methacholine-induced contraction. Benzydamine could inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It alone had a minimal effect on the basal tension of trachea as the concentration increased. Conclusion This study indicated that high concentrations of benzydamine might actually inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. Benzydamine might reduce asthma attacks in oral mucositis patients because it could inhibit parasympathetic function and reduce methacholine-induced contraction of tracheal smooth muscle. PMID:25729498

  20. How to perform open tracheal suction via an endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Credland, Nicola

    2016-04-27

    Rationale and key points Tracheal suction involves the removal of pulmonary secretions from the respiratory tract using negative pressure under sterile conditions. Practitioners should be aware of the indications for, and risks associated with, open tracheal suction via an endotracheal tube. ▶ Respiratory assessment of the patient should be carried out to identify when tracheal suction is required. ▶ A suction pressure of 80-120mmHg is recommended, and suction should last no longer than 15 seconds. ▶ Reassurance and support should be given to the patient to minimise any discomfort and distress that might result from tracheal suction. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence-based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you think this article will change your practice when performing open tracheal suction via an endotracheal tube. 2. How you could use this resource to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  1. Synthetic tracheal mucus with native rheological and surface tension properties.

    PubMed

    Hamed, R; Fiegel, J

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the development of a model tracheal mucus with chemical composition and physical properties (bulk viscoelasticity and surface tension) matched to that of native tracheal mucus is described. The mucus mimetics (MMs) were formulated using components that are abundant in tracheal mucus (glycoproteins, proteins, lipids, ions, and water) at concentrations similar to those found natively. Pure solutions were unable to achieve the gel behavior observed with native mucus. The addition of a bifunctional cross-linking agent enabled control over the viscoelastic properties of the MMs by tailoring the concentration of the cross-linking agent and the duration of cross-linking. Three MM formulations with different bulk viscoelastic properties, all within the normal range for nondiseased tracheal mucus, were chosen for investigation of surfactant spreading at the air-mimetic interface. Surfactant spread quickly and completely on the least viscoelastic mimetic surface, enabling the surface tension of the mimetic to be lowered to match native tracheal mucus. However, surfactant spreading on the more viscoelastic mimetics was hindered, suggesting that the bulk properties of the mimetics dictate the range of surface properties that can be achieved.

  2. Tracheal compression in pupae of the beetle Zophobas morio.

    PubMed

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kenny, Melissa C; Socha, John J

    2015-06-01

    Insects that are small or exhibit low metabolic rates are considered to not require active ventilation to augment diffusive gas exchange. Some pupae with low metabolic rates exhibit abdominal pumping, a behaviour that is known to drive tracheal ventilation in the adults of many species. However, previous work on pupae suggests that abdominal pumping may serve a non-respiratory role. To study the role of abdominal pumping in pupa of the beetle Zophobas morio, we visualized tracheal dynamics with X-rays while simultaneously measuring haemolymph pressure, abdominal movement, and CO2 emission. Pupae exhibited frequent tracheal compressions that were coincident with both abdominal pumping and pulsation of pressure in the haemolymph. However, more than 63% of abdominal pumping events occurred without any tracheal collapse and hence ventilation, suggesting that the major function of the abdominal pump is not respiratory. In addition, this study shows that the kinematics of abdominal pumping can be used to infer the status of the spiracles and internal behaviour of the tracheal system. PMID:26085499

  3. Consumption of milk from transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme in the mammary gland results in the modulation of intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Maga, Elizabeth A; Walker, Richard L; Anderson, Gary B; Murray, James D

    2006-08-01

    Lysozyme is a key antimicrobial component of human milk that has several health-promoting functions including the development of a healthy intestinal tract. However, levels of lysozyme in the milk of dairy animals are negligible. We have generated transgenic dairy goats that express human lysozyme (HLZ) in their milk in an attempt to deliver the benefits of human milk in a continual fashion. To test the feasibility of this transgenic approach to achieve a biological impact at the level of the intestine, feeding trials were conducted in two animal models. Pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic animals was fed to both kid goats (ruminant model) and young pigs (human model), and the numbers of total coliforms and Escherichia coli present in the small intestine were determined. Data from this proof-of-principle study demonstrate that milk from transgenic animals was capable of modulating the bacterial population of the gut in both animal models. Pigs that consumed pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic goats had fewer numbers of coliforms and E. coli in their intestine than did those receiving milk from non-transgenic control animals. The opposite effect was seen in goats. Milk from these transgenic animals not only represent one of the first transgenic food products with the potential of benefiting human health, but are also a unique model to study the development and role of intestinal microflora on health, well-being and resistance to disease.

  4. Development of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 assays utilizing homogenates of adrenal glands: Utility of monkey as a surrogate for human.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Matthew A; Csengery, Alexander; Schmenk, Jennifer; Frederick, Kosea

    2015-11-01

    Elevated levels of aldosterone are associated with arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. Aldosterone is produced predominantly in the zona glomerulosa of the cortex of the adrenal gland by the enzyme aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Treatment of the above indications by decreasing production of aldosterone is thought to be of therapeutic benefit by lessening the deleterious effects of aldosterone mediated through both the mineralocorticoid receptor and also through so called non-genomic pathways. However, inhibition of the highly similar enzyme, CYP11B1, which is responsible for the production of cortisol, must be avoided in the development of clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors due to the resulting impairment of the cortisol-induced stress response. In efforts to assess the interactions of compounds with the CYP11B enzymes, a variety of cell-based inhibitor screening assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 have been reported. Herein we report details of assays employing both cynomolgus monkey adrenal homogenate (CAH) and human adrenal homogenate (HAH) as sources of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 enzymes. Utilizing both CAH and HAH, we have characterized the kinetics of the CYP11B1-mediated conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and the CYP11B2-mediated oxidation of corticosterone to aldosterone. Inhibition assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were subsequently developed. Based on a comparison of human and monkey amino acid sequences, kinetics data, and inhibition values derived from the HAH and CAH assays, evidence is provided in support of using cynomolgus monkey tissue-derived cell homogenates as suitable surrogates for the human enzymes.

  5. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  6. Submandibular gland excision.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, G M; Yarington, C T

    1988-10-01

    A review of 107 submandibular gland excisions was made to determine the relative frequency of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic disease. The results show a preponderance of non-neoplastic pathology. Benign tumors were found in 6% of glands, primary glandular and metastatic carcinoma in 3%. Timely treatment of a submandibular gland mass is indicated due to the relatively aggressive behavior of malignancies originating in this location.

  7. Simultaneous Esophageal and Tracheal Fistulization Resulting From Pott's Abscess.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Atilla; Aydin, Yener; Ogul, Hayri; Altuntas, Bayram

    2016-10-01

    We describe a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with a complaint of coughing while drinking water, which began 2 months earlier and was treated with surgical repair of esophageal and tracheal fistulization that resulted from a Pott's abscess. The patient had been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis 4 years previously and had been treated for 6 months. Esophageal and tracheal fistulization of the abscess cavity was observed both radiologically and intraoperatively. The fistulas were closed through separate operations for the trachea and the esophagus. Simultaneous esophageal and tracheal fistulization of a Pott's abscess is a serious complication of spinal tuberculosis that has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:27645978

  8. Awake tracheal intubation using the Airtraq laryngoscope: a case series.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, V K; Zogogiannis, I D; Liotiri, D G

    2009-08-01

    The Airtraq laryngoscope (AL) is a new single use indirect laryngoscope designed to facilitate tracheal intubation in anaesthetised patients either with normal or difficult airway anatomy. It is designed to provide a view of the glottis without alignment of the oral, pharyngeal and tracheal axes. We report four cases of successful awake tracheal intubation using the AL. The first case is a patient with severe ankylosing spondylitis and the other three cases with anticipated difficult airway. An awake intubation under sedation and topical airway anaesthesia was chosen. We consider that the AL can be used effectively to accomplish an awake intubation in patients with a suspected or known difficult airway and may be a useful alternative where other methods for awake intubation have failed or are not available.

  9. Meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Driver, P J; Lemp, M A

    1996-01-01

    Blepharitis is probably the most common disease entity seen in the general ophthalmologist's office. A significant proportion of these cases are secondary to meibomian gland disease. This review outlines our knowledge of the histopathology, lipid abnormalities and role of microorganisms in meibomian gland dysfunction. We will also review the physiology of meibomian gland secretion and present models of meibomian gland dysfunction which have enhanced our knowledge of this condition. The importance of diagnosing associated conditions such as aqueous tear deficiency, contact lens intolerance, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis is emphasized. Although this condition causes significant morbidity in the population, there are effective treatments available and these will be discussed.

  10. Effects of oxymetazoline on isolated rat's tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsing-Won; Wu, Chi-Chung

    2008-06-01

    Oxymetazoline is often used as a decongestant in rhinitis patients who are suffering from nasal obstruction. It is used as a nasal drop or spray solution. The effect on nasal mucosa in vitro or in vivo is well known. However, the effect of the drug on tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. During administration of the drug to the nose, it might affect the trachea via inhalation. We used our preparation to test the effectiveness of oxymetazoline on isolated rat's tracheal smooth muscle. A 5 mm long portion of rat trachea was submersed in 30 ml Kreb's solution in a muscle bath at 37 degrees C. Changes in tracheal contractility in response to the application of parasympathetic mimetic agents were measured using a transducer connected to a Pentium III computer equipped with polygraphy software. The following assessments were performed: (1) effect on tracheal smooth muscle resting tension; (2) effect on contraction caused by 10(-6)M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic; (3) effect of oxymetazoline on electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Addition of parasympathetic mimetics to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of oxymetazoline induced a significant relaxation response when the preparation was up to 10(-4) M. At the same concentration, the drug also could inhibit EFS induced spike contraction. Oxymetazoline had negligible effect on the basal tension of trachea as the concentration increased. The degree of drug-induced tracheal contraction or relaxation was dose-dependent. The study indicated that high concentrations of oxymetazoline might actually antagonize cholinergic receptors of the trachea.

  11. Tracheal Perforation and Widespread Subcutaneous Emphysema in a Horse

    PubMed Central

    Caron, J. P.; Townsend, H. G. G.

    1984-01-01

    A twelve year old Quarterhorse mare exhibited subcutaneous emphysema of the head, neck, upper forelimbs and thorax, and walked with a stiff gait, characterized by decreased flexion of the forelimbs. Endoscopy of the trachea revealed a small tracheal wound ninety centimeters from the external nares. The location of the lesion corresponded with a seroma present at the base of the neck. The subcutaneous emphysema and the seroma resolved without specific therapy. Blunt trauma was suggested as the cause of the tracheal lesion and subsequent subcutaneous emphysema. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422449

  12. Tracheotomy-related posterior tracheal wall rupture, trans-tracheal repair

    PubMed Central

    Deganello, A; Sofra, MC; Facciolo, F; Spriano, G

    2007-01-01

    Summary Laceration of the membranous part of the tracheo-bronchial tree is a rare complication that can occur after single lumen intubation, double-lumen intubation, percutaneous and surgical tracheotomy. The case of a 76-year-old male is presented in whom a posterior tracheal wall laceration, related to tracheotomy, was diagnosed and immediately treated at the end of a head and neck operation. A 6 cm long laceration started 1.5 cm below the tracheotomy level and ended 2 cm above the carina. The tear was closed from distal to proximal area via the tracheotomy opening with PDS 4/0 interrupted sutures using a thoracoscopic needle-holder. This original surgical technique is described in detail. In tracheotomy related tears, the fact that an opening in the trachea already exists and that the lesion rarely extends beyond the carina, should guide the surgeon to make every effort to repair the laceration through this already existing access. PMID:18198757

  13. Down-regulation of TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) markedly enhances the growth of a human salivary gland cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakashiro, K; Kawamata, H; Hino, S; Uchida, D; Miwa, Y; Hamano, H; Omotehara, F; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

    1998-02-01

    We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) cDNA as a new anticancer drug (Vesnarinone)-inducible gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We conducted the present study to examine whether up-regulation or down-regulation of TSC-22 can affect the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. We constructed an expression vector containing sense- or antisense-oriented human TSC-22 cDNA under the transcriptional control of the SR alpha promoter. We cotransfected TYS cells with the sense or antisense expression vector and pSV2neo and obtained more than 200 G418-resistant colonies in each sense or antisense transfectant. Approximately 80% of representative G418-resistant clones expressed the transcripts from transfected sense or antisense TSC-22 cDNA. To avoid the clonal heterogeneity of the cells, we mixed all of the G418-resistant colonies together in each sense or antisense transfectant and examined the expression of TSC-22 protein, in vitro growth, and the tumorigenicity in nude mice. The expression of TSC-22 protein was examined by solid-phase ELISA using a specific antibody against recombinant TSC-22 protein. The expression of TSC-22 protein was up-regulated in the sense transfectants and down-regulated in the antisense transfectants. Contrary to our expectation, up-regulation of TSC-22 protein did not affect both in vitro and in vivo growth of TYS cells. However, down-regulation of TSC-22 markedly enhanced the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the expression of TSC-22 mRNA in several human salivary gland tumors. The mRNA expression of TSC-22 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors was significantly decreased when compared to that in tumor-free salivary glands (P < 0.05; one-way ANOVA), and in some salivary gland tumors, the expression of TSC-22 mRNA was not detectable by reverse transcription-PCR. These results suggest that down-regulation of TSC-22 may play a major role on

  14. Effect of recombinant human TSH on the uptake of radioactive iodine ((123)I) by the thyroid gland in healthy beagles.

    PubMed

    Campos, M; Peremans, K; Duchateau, L; Dobbeleir, A; Vandermeulen, E; van Hoek, I; Paes, G; Daminet, S

    2010-11-01

    In human medicine, recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) increases thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), allowing radioiodine-131 ((131)I) dose reduction and greater efficacy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and multinodular goiter. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of rhTSH, administered 24 h and 48 h before radioiodine-123 ((123)I), on the thyroid RAIU in healthy dogs. Seven healthy euthyroid beagles were randomly allocated to 3 groups (2 groups of 2 dogs and 1 group of 3 dogs) in a prospective, blinded, crossover study. At Week 1, 1 group received (123)I for a baseline RAIU; 1 group received 100 μg of rhTSH IV 24 h before (123)I, and 1 group received 100 μg of rhTSH IV 48 h before (123)I. All dogs received 37 MBq of radioactive (123)I IV, and thyroid RAIU was determined 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h thereafter. The study was designed in such a manner that each dog received the 3 treatments and a wash-out period of 3 wk was respected in between. Blood samples were taken for measurement of serum total thyroxine (TT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations at baseline and 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after rhTSH administration. Recombinant human TSH caused no significant change on thyroid RAIU. The overall mean thyroid RAIU significantly decreased during the study independent of the treatment. Recombinant human TSH significantly increased serum TT4 concentration, which peaked 6 h after rhTSH administration. Compared to baseline, serum TSH concentration remained higher at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h. However, a statistically significant difference was reached only at 6 h and 12 h after rhTSH administration. No adverse effects of rhTSH were observed during the study. Further studies are needed to determine the best timing and dosage of administration of rhTSH in healthy and thyroid carcinoma dogs.

  15. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Boonsriwong, Worachote; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Vogtsberger, Roy C.; Sukontason, Kom

    2012-01-01

    The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly. PMID:22666549

  16. [Successful Use of the i-gel and Dexmedetomidine for Tracheal Resection and Construction Surgery in a Patient with Severe Tracheal Stenosis].

    PubMed

    Kashii, Tomoko; Nabatame, Maki; Okura, Nahomi; Fujinaga, Ayumi; Namoto, Kazuko; Mori, Masafumi; Tsujimura, Shigehisa

    2016-04-01

    A 51-year-old man, 170 cm, 86 kg, was diagnosed with a tracheal tumor existing just below the glottis occupying more than 80% of his tracheal lumen, and was scheduled for tracheal resection and construction. The patient had a strider due to the severe tracheal stenosis. We could insert i-gel easily under dexmedetomidine sedation. After successful i-gel insertion, tracheotomy and endotracheal intubation were performed. Until ETT insertion, the patient maintained spontaneous respiration without any hypoxic event. Followed by ETT insertion, tracheal resection and construction were performed under general anesthesia. After the operation, the patient was extubated and transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), where he was given DEX infusion to keep the tracheal anastomosis immobilized. There was no serious complication during the perioparative period. PMID:27188107

  17. Structure and functions of the Bordetella tracheal cytotoxin.

    PubMed

    Goldman, W E; Cookson, B T

    1988-01-01

    Of the various toxins and virulence-related factors produced by Bordetella pertussis, only one has been demonstrated to reproduce the specific respiratory epithelial cytopathology characteristic of the pertussis syndrome. That molecule is tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), which is released by B. pertussis during log phase growth. An HPLC-based method has allowed us to purify TCT from culture supernatants, resulting in a preparation with undetectable levels of endotoxin and which is homogeneous by all analytical criteria, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). Exposure to purified TCT specifically damages ciliated epithelial cells, causing ciliostasis and extrusion of these cells. Other species of Bordetella, which generate remarkably similar respiratory tract infections and ciliated cell-specific pathology, produce a chemically identical TCT. Compositional analysis and FAB-MS have unambiguously defined the structure of TCT as N-acetylglucosaminyl-1, 6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramylalanyl-gamma-glutamyl-diaminopimelylalanine+ ++. This particular disaccharide-tetrapeptide composition and arrangement reveals that TCT is apparently formed by cleavage of peptidoglycan. Unlike other gram-negative bacteria, however, B. pertussis seems to be very selective in its release of cell wall fragments: greater than 95% of soluble peptidoglycan in culture supernatants is TCT. The structure of TCT places it in the "muramyl peptide" family, a group of structurally related molecules that are responsible for a diverse array of biological activities. Neisseria gonorrhoeae also releases muramyl peptides (one of which is identical to TCT) that can cause ciliated cell-specific damage like that seen during gonococcal infection of fallopian tube mucosa. In addition, TCT is absolutely identical in structure to FSu, a potent sleep-promoting factor isolated from humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3273616

  18. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  19. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  20. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  1. Significance of the choice of tissue culture technique on the chromosomal patterns in human mixed salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Mark, J; Sandros, J; Wedell, B; Stenman, G; Ekedahl, C

    1988-07-15

    Cytogenetic observations by banding methods in 56 new cases of human benign pleomorphic adenomas are reported. Thirty of the cases (series I) were studied in preparations from primary cultures established from cells growing out from mechanically dispersed tumor pieces. The remaining 26 cases (series II) were analyzed in preparations from primary cultures established from enzymatically pretreated material. The use of the latter method resulted in a decrease in the frequency of cases with a normal stemline from about 53% to about 19%. However, the general characteristics of the aberrations observed in abnormal stemlines in both series agreed well. The minor differences observed consisted of a higher frequency of recurrent t(3;8)(p21;q12) in series II and, in the same series, fewer cases showing an involvement of 8q or 12q. The present results emphasize the importance of molecular studies of, in particular, the regions 8q12, 12q13-15, and 3p21.

  2. Surgical treatment of primary tracheal dyskinesia in a 14-month-old child--case report.

    PubMed

    Jović, Rajko M; Komazec, Zoran; Mitrović, Slobodan; Dragicević, Danijela; Janjević, Dusica

    2010-04-01

    The primary form of tracheal dyskinesia in early childhood is a rare congenital malformation of unknown origin. The degree of the posterior membranous tracheal wall involvement determines the intensity of obstruction and the severity of the clinical picture. The aim of this paper is to present a case of a 14-month-old child with severe tracheal dyskinesia that required surgical treatment. Fascia lata graft fixated with fibrin glue was used in strengthening the posterior tracheal wall. Three years following the surgery, the child is without breathing difficulties. In severe cases of primary dyskinesia, surgical treatment using fascia lata graft, fixated with fibrin glue is recommended in strengthening the posterior tracheal wall.

  3. The cellular localization of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, potassium channel, epithelial sodium channel γ and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase in human eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Xiang; Zeng, Shaopeng; Chen, Lu; Li, Xuexue; Lin, Changmin; Zhang, Mingjun; Shu, Shenyou; Xie, Sitian; He, Yunpu; Yang, Lvjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    The secretory portions of human eccrine sweat glands secrete isotonic fluid into the lumen and then the primary fluid is rendered hypotonic during its passage to the skin surface. During the processes of sweat secretion and absorption, many enzymes and proteins play important roles. In the study, the cellular localizations of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), potassium channel (KC), epithelial sodium channel γ (γENaC) and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in human eccrine sweat glands and epidermis were detected using immunofluorescence labeling. The results revealed that in the secretory coils, the basolateral membranes showed evidence of CFTR, NHE1 and KC activities, the apical membranes showed the activities of KC and NHE1, and the nucleus showed γEaNC and V-ATPase activities; in the duct, the peripheral and luminal ductal cells showed evidence of CFTR, NHE1 and KC, the apical membranes showed the activities of CFTR and NHE1, and the nucleus showed γEaNC, V-ATPase and KC activities. The cellular localization of these proteins in eccrine sweat glands is helpful to better understand the mechanisms of sweat secretion and absorption. PMID:25081942

  4. Tracheal trauma from percutaneous tracheostomy using the Griggs method.

    PubMed

    Watters, M; Thorne, G; Cox, C; Monk, C

    2002-03-01

    In a safety evaluation study, relative force and distance measurements during percutaneous tracheostomy were recorded using specially monitored Griggs guidewire dilating tracheostomy forceps on 12 cadavers scheduled to undergo postmortem examination the same day. All measurements were recorded in millivolts and were converted to force and distance via appropriate calibration tables. Markedly more force was required for tracheal destruction than for therapeutic tracheal dilation (87.7 N +/- 19 N vs. 31.6 N +/- 17.1 N, p <0.001). Also relatively less force was required for therapeutic tracheal dilation than for dilation of the pretracheal tissues (44.4 N +/- 17.1 N vs. 31.6 N +/- 17.1 N, p <0.05). These results suggest that the Griggs tracheostomy forceps have a reasonable margin of safety in that tracheal destruction is unlikely to occur inadvertently during therapeutic dilation. Second, the dilation of pretracheal tissues can act as useful guide in knowing how much force to apply in a therapeutic dilation.

  5. Fluoroscopically Guided Balloon Dilation for Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Woong Hee; Kim, Jin Hyoung Park, Jung-Hun

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Little was known about the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Methods: From February 2000 to November 2010, 14 patients underwent fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for postintubation tracheal stenosis. Technical success, clinical success, and complications were evaluated. Patients were followed up for recurrent symptoms. Results: In all patients, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was technically and clinically successful with no major complications. Following the initial procedure, six patients (43 %) remained asymptomatic during a follow-up period. Obstructive symptoms recurred in eight patients (57 %) within 6 months (mean, 1.7 months), who were treated with repeat balloon dilation (n = 4) and other therapies. Of the four patients who underwent repeat balloon dilation, three became asymptomatic. One patient became asymptomatic after a third balloon dilation. On long-term (mean, 74 months) follow-up, 71 % of patients experienced relief of symptoms following fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation. Conclusions: Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation may be safe, is easy to perform, and resulted in effective treatment in patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis.

  6. Tracheal Resection With Carinal Reconstruction for Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Krantz, Seth B; Patterson, G Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for primary malignancies of the trachea. We present here the rare case of a lifelong nonsmoker with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea, requiring tracheal resection and anterior carinal reconstruction. Patient preparation, surgical technique, and considerations to avoid airway anastomotic complications are discussed.

  7. Tracheal trauma from percutaneous tracheostomy using the Griggs method.

    PubMed

    Watters, M; Thorne, G; Cox, C; Monk, C

    2002-03-01

    In a safety evaluation study, relative force and distance measurements during percutaneous tracheostomy were recorded using specially monitored Griggs guidewire dilating tracheostomy forceps on 12 cadavers scheduled to undergo postmortem examination the same day. All measurements were recorded in millivolts and were converted to force and distance via appropriate calibration tables. Markedly more force was required for tracheal destruction than for therapeutic tracheal dilation (87.7 N +/- 19 N vs. 31.6 N +/- 17.1 N, p <0.001). Also relatively less force was required for therapeutic tracheal dilation than for dilation of the pretracheal tissues (44.4 N +/- 17.1 N vs. 31.6 N +/- 17.1 N, p <0.05). These results suggest that the Griggs tracheostomy forceps have a reasonable margin of safety in that tracheal destruction is unlikely to occur inadvertently during therapeutic dilation. Second, the dilation of pretracheal tissues can act as useful guide in knowing how much force to apply in a therapeutic dilation. PMID:11879214

  8. Intraluminal tracheal stent fracture in a Yorkshire terrier.

    PubMed

    Woo, Heung-Myong; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Gon; Nam, Hyun-Sook; Kwak, Ho-Hyun; Lee, Joon-Seok; Park, In-Chul; Hyun, Changbaig

    2007-10-01

    An 8-year-old Yorkshire terrier was presented with tracheal collapse. Two intraluminal nitinol stents were implanted. The implanted stents were found to be fractured 4 weeks after implantation. The fractured stents were removed. To restore the collapsed trachea, ring prostheses were applied. However, the dog was euthanized because of a bad outcome following surgery.

  9. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  10. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC–ESI-MS–MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R.; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-18

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.

  11. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC–ESI-MS–MS

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R.; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-18

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland.more » AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.« less

  12. Review of 23 cases of postintubation tracheal obstructions in birds.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Neiffer, Donald; Terrell, Scott; Powell, David M; Newton, Alisa

    2013-09-01

    Although recognized as a potential complication after endotracheal intubation in birds, the complication rate of postintubation tracheal obstruction in this taxon is unknown. Twenty-three cases of postintubation obstruction in birds from two institutions are reported. Clinical signs were noted an average of 16.6 days postintubation and consisted primarily of indications of acute respiratory distress. Diagnosis was confirmed via tracheoscopy or radiology. Five birds died before treatment could be initiated. Medical treatment alone was successful in three birds that had mild changes consisting primarily of a luminal mucoid plug that could be manually removed without tracheal surgery but was unsuccessful in an additional six birds. Tracheal resection and anastamosis was successful in four birds and unsuccessful in five birds. Overall mortality was 70%. Postintubation tracheal obstruction in birds appears to be more common in zoo practice than is suggested by the literature, as a total of 1.8% (1.2-2.7%, 95% confidence interval) of intubations or 3.5% (2.3-5.3%, 95% confidence interval) of individual animals intubated in these institutions resulted in this complication. Multiple cases were found in Ciconiiformes (n = 4), Columbiformes (n = 4), Gruiformes (n = 4), Anseriformes (n = 3), Galliformes (n = 3), and Passeriformes (n = 2). No cases were found in Coraciiforms, Falconiforms, or Psittaciformes despite many (>40) recorded intubations. The specific cause of these lesions is unclear, but some type of tracheal mucosa trauma or irritation is suggested by histologic findings. Prevention may include selective intubation, use of a laryngeal mask airway in place of intubation, careful placement of an endotracheal tube, minimal movement of the head and neck after placement, humidification of anesthetic gases, and gentle positive-pressure ventilation.

  13. The pineal gland from development to function.

    PubMed

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  14. Cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Skálová, A; Leivo, I

    1996-06-01

    Salivary gland tumors often pose considerable difficulty in differential diagnostic and prognostic assessment based on histomorphologic grounds alone. Histomorphology may poorly correlate with clinical outcome and the tumors within the same type in classification schedule exhibit different clinical courses. Prognostic relevance of various cell proliferation markers has been investigated in many types of human cancer, recently including salivary gland tumors. Evaluation of DNA content by flow cytometry and by cytophotometry, AgNOR technique, and immunohistochemical detection of antigens in cycling cells such as the Ki67 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) have been applied to a variety of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors in only few studies so far. Cell proliferation, assessed with the MIB1 antibody, that recognizes the Ki67 antigen in proliferating cells, represents a significant prognostic factor for acinic cell carcinomas and mucoepidermoid carcinomas of salivary gland origin. Moreover, much lower proliferative activity as assessed with the MIB1 antibody helps to distinguish difficult cases of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas from adenoid cystic carcinomas and may contribute to differentiation of solid myoepithelial cell-rich pleomorphic adenomas from various malignant tumors. Thus, assessment of cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors using the MIB1 antibody and PCNA in paraffin-embedded tissue should be incorporated into routine immunohistologic evaluation of histologically difficult cases of salivary gland tumors.

  15. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  16. Localization of the aromatase enzyme expression in the human pituitary gland and its effect on growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone axis.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Asli Sezgin; Kapucu, Aysegul; Dar, Kadriye Akgun; Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Caglar, Erkan; Ince, Haluk; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate aromatase expression in prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and growth hormone (GH) secreting cells. Nontumoral human pituitary specimens were obtained from autopsy samples. Aromatase co-expression was determined by double immunohistochemical staining and assessed using H scores. H scores for GH-aromatase co-expression (GH-aromatase), TSH-aromatase co-expression (TSH-aromatase), and PRL-aromatase co-expression (PRL-aromatase) were 83.1 ± 13.1, 95.6 ± 16.1, and 83.7 ± 14.5, respectively. TSH producing cells exhibited the highest H score for co-expression of aromatase (p < 0.001). There was no gender difference in terms of H scores for aromatase expression and double immunohistochemical staining results (p > 0.05 for all). There was a negative correlation between the H scores for aromatase and PRL-aromatase, GH-aromatase and TSH-aromatase, respectively (r = -0.592, p < 0.001; r = -0.593, p < 0.001; r = -0.650, p < 0.001, respectively). Also, H scores for aromatase co-expression of each hormone were negatively correlated with the H scores for the corresponding hormone (r = -0.503, p < 0.001 for PRL-aromatase and PRL; r = -0.470, p < 0.001 for GH-aromatase, and GH; r = -0.641, p < 0.001 for TSH-aromatase and TSH). H scores for mean aromatase, GH-aromatase, TSH-aromatase were invariant of age (p > 0.05 for all). Age was negatively correlated with PRL-aromatase H score (r = -0.373, p = 0.008). Our study demonstrated significant aromatase co-expression in PRL, GH, and TSH secreting cells of the human anterior pituitary gland. The mutual paracrinal regulation between aromatase and three adenohypophyseal hormones indicates that aromatase may have a regulatory role on the synthesis and secretion of these hormones.

  17. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  18. Comparison of innate immune agonists for induction of tracheal antimicrobial peptide gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells of cattle.

    PubMed

    Berghuis, Lesley; Abdelaziz, Khaled Taha; Bierworth, Jodi; Wyer, Leanna; Jacob, Gabriella; Karrow, Niel A; Sharif, Shayan; Clark, Mary Ellen; Caswell, Jeff L

    2014-10-12

    Bovine respiratory disease is a complex of bacterial and viral infections of economic and welfare importance to the beef industry. Although tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) has microbicidal activity against bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease, risk factors for bovine respiratory disease including BVDV and stress (glucocorticoids) have been shown to inhibit the induced expression of this gene. Lipopolysaccharide is known to stimulate TAP gene expression, but the maximum effect is only observed after 16 h of stimulation. The present study investigated other agonists of TAP gene expression in primary cultures of bovine tracheal epithelial cells. PCR analysis of unstimulated tracheal epithelial cells, tracheal tissue and lung tissue each showed mRNA expression for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1-10. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that Pam3CSK4 (an agonist of TLR1/2) and interleukin (IL)-17A significantly induced TAP gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells after only 4-8 h of stimulation. Flagellin (a TLR5 agonist), lipopolysaccharide and interferon-α also had stimulatory effects, but little or no response was found with class B CpG ODN 2007 (TLR9 agonist) or lipoteichoic acid (TLR2 agonist). The use of combined agonists had little or no enhancing effect above that of single agonists. Thus, Pam3CSK4, IL-17A and lipopolysaccharide rapidly and significantly induce TAP gene expression, suggesting that these stimulatory pathways may be of value for enhancing innate immunity in feedlot cattle at times of susceptibility to disease.

  19. Uptake of indocyanine green by hamster sebaceous glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Lo, Kai-Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2001-05-01

    Photothermal injury to the sebaceous glands is a potential curative treatment for the common skin disease acne vulgaris. Accumulation of the exogenous chromophore indocyanine green in the sebaceous glands may be accomplished using an emulsion or liposomal formulation applied to the skin surface. An emulsion containing 0.09% by weight indocyanine green (ICG) was applied to the epidermis of hamster ears ex vivo and the flank organ in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of ICG in the underlying sebaceous glands. The concentration of ICG that may be expected to accumulate in sebaceous glands of humans was then estimated on the basis of the gland size and orifice area, for the case of topical application of a more concentrated 1% ICG liposomal formulation. Monte Carlo modeling and heat transfer calculations showed that the sebaceous glands containing the exogenous chromophore may be selectively damaged by pulsed 810 nm laser radiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling.

  20. Positional variations in mammary gland development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Veltmaat, Jacqueline M; Ramsdell, Ann F; Sterneck, Esta

    2013-06-01

    Most mammals develop their mammary glands in pairs of which the two counterparts are symmetrically displaced away from the ventral midline. Based on this symmetry and the same functional outcome as a milk-producing organ, the mammary glands are easily presumed to be mere copies of one another. Based on our analysis of published data with inclusion of new results related to mammary development and pathology in mice, we argue that this presumption is incorrect: Between and within pairs, mammary glands differ from one another, and tumor incidence and biology depend on the position along the anterior-posterior and the left-right axis as well. This insight has implications for experimental designs with mouse models and for data extrapolation between mammary glands within and between species. We suggest that improved documentation of location-specific mammary gland features will lead to more insights into the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland development and cancer biology in both mice and humans.

  1. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Joos, Zachary P.; Patel, Bhupendra C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  2. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases.

  3. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases. PMID:24931156

  4. Genipin cross-linked decellularized tracheal tubular matrix for tracheal tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Jiang, Yuan; Xu, Yanfei; Shi, Hongcan; Zhang, Siquan; Liu, Xingchen; Pan, Shu; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Fangbiao; Zhong, Chonghao

    2016-01-01

    Decellularization techniques have been widely used as an alternative strategy for organ reconstruction. This study investigated the mechanical, pro-angiogenic and in vivo biocompatibility properties of decellularized airway matrices cross-linked with genipin. New Zealand rabbit tracheae were decellularized and cross-linked with genipin, a naturally derived agent. The results demonstrated that, a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the secant modulus was computed for the cross-linked tracheae, compared to the decellularized samples. Angiogenic assays demonstrated that decellularized tracheal scaffolds and cross-linked tracheae treated with 1% genipin induce strong in vivo angiogenic responses (CAM analysis). Seven, 15 and 30 days after implantation, decreased (p < 0.01) inflammatory reactions were observed in the xenograft models for the genipin cross-linked tracheae matrices compared with control tracheae, and no increase in the IgM or IgG content was observed in rats. In conclusion, treatment with genipin improves the mechanical properties of decellularized airway matrices without altering the pro-angiogenic properties or eliciting an in vivo inflammatory response. PMID:27080716

  5. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  6. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  7. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  8. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions.

  9. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  10. Mammary Gland Development

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  11. Meibomian gland dysfunction. III. Meibomian gland lipids.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, N; Santos, E C; Smith, R E; Jester, J V

    1989-05-01

    The lipid components of meibomian gland excreta were evaluated in rabbits after they received 2% topical epinephrine dropped into their eyes daily for a period of 6 months to a year to induce meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Changes were compared to excreta obtained from seven age-matched, untreated control rabbits. Comparison of the lipids from MGD lids with lipids obtained from control rabbits revealed, for clinically evident MGD, a marked increase in the lipids that are uniquely characteristic of epidermal tissue. These epidermal lipids are free sterols (large amounts) and a group of seven types of ceramides. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the initiating factor of rabbit MGD is hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelia. For clinically apparent MGD some hydrolysis of the sterol esters of the meibomian gland lipids also seems to have occurred. This was evidenced by the formation of an 8-fold increase in a cluster of anteiso fatty acids with chain lengths longer than C20 in the free fatty acid fraction. This group of free fatty acids was the same as the acids esterified to the sterol esters. We could detect no change in the lipid excreta obtained from rabbits that developed only subclinical MGD, consisting of orifice plugging and dilation of the duct.

  12. A Surviving Child With Complete Proximal Tracheal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Haight, Ken; Sankaran, Koravangattu; Shokeir, Mohamed

    1984-01-01

    An infant was born with an unusual combination of primitive foregut anomalies consisting of complete proximal tracheal atresia, proximal esophageal atresia and distal tracheoesophageal fistula. Before the birth, the family physician suspected an anomaly of the upper airway or esophageal occlusion on the basis of hydramnios evident at the thirty-third to thirty-fourth week of gestation, and earlier amniocentesis which indicated a normal level of α-fetoprotein. He consulted the hospital obstetrics and neonatology departments, which were thus prepared to deal with a potential airway problem at the birth. At birth, prompt airway management, including tracheostomy, prevented anoxic damage to the child. Features which should alert the physician to tracheal obstruction include antenatal polyhydramnios; severe respiratory distress without an audible cry and palpable distal trachea in the newborn; and failure to advance the endotracheal tube beyond the infant's vocal cords. PMID:21279046

  13. Transoral tracheal intubation of rodents using a fiberoptic laryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Costa, D L; Lehmann, J R; Harold, W M; Drew, R T

    1986-06-01

    A fiberoptic laryngoscope which allows direct visualization of the deep pharynx and epiglottis has been developed for transoral tracheal intubation of small laboratory mammals. The device has been employed in the intubation and instillation of a variety of substances into the lungs of rats, and with minor modification, has had similar application in mice, hamsters, and guinea pigs. The simplicity and ease of handling of the laryngoscope permits one person to intubate large numbers of enflurane anesthetized animals either on an open counter top or in a glove-box, as may be required for administration of carcinogenic materials. Instillation of 7Be-labeled carbon particles into the lungs of mice, hamsters, rats, and guinea pigs resulted in reasonably consistent interlobal distribution of particles for each test animal species with minimal tracheal deposition. However, actual lung tissue doses of carbon exhibited some species dependence.

  14. Tracheal Involvement in Crohn Disease: the First Case in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seunghyun; Park, Jongha; Kim, Hyun-Kuk; Kim, Ji Yeon; Hur, So Chong; Lee, Ju Hyung; Jung, Jae Won; Lee, Juwon

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory involvement in Crohn disease (CD) is rare condition with only about a dozen reported cases. We report the first case of CD with tracheal involvement in Korea. An 18-year-old woman with CD was hospitalized because of coughing, dyspnea, and fever sustained for 3 weeks. Because she had stridor in her neck, we performed computed tomography of the neck, which showed circumferential wall thickening of the larynx and hypopharynx. Bronchoscopy revealed mucosal irregularity, ulceration, and exudates debris in the proximal trachea, and bronchial biopsy revealed chronic inflammation with granulation tissue. Based on these findings, we suspected CD with tracheal involvement and began administering intravenous methylprednisolone at 1 mg/kg per day, after which her symptoms and bronchoscopic findings improved. PMID:26879553

  15. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  16. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  17. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  18. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  19. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  20. The effect of aluminium chlorhydrate on sweat gland activity in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rees-Jones, A M; Jenkinson, D M

    1978-03-01

    Topical application of aluminium chlorhydrate had no appreciable antiperspirant action on the epitrichial glands of cattle. There was no evidence of penetration of the salt into the dermis or of any change in the morphology of the glands. It is probable that the antiperspirant activity of aluminium chlorhydrate in the human axilla, is only on the atrichial glands. PMID:632617

  1. Comparative aspects of mammary gland development and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Capuco, Anthony V; Ellis, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Mammary glands are crucial to the reproductive strategy of mammals, and the milk of domesticated ruminants serves as an important source of nutrients for the human population. The majority of mammary gland development occurs postnatally, and the mammary gland undergoes cyclical periods of growth, differentiation, lactation, and regression that are coordinated to provide nutrients for offspring or are driven by strategies to manage reproduction and milk production of domesticated species. Growth and maintenance of the mammary epithelium depends on the function of mammary stem cells and progenitor cells. In this review, we provide an overview of postnatal mammary gland development, cyclical phases of mammary gland regression (regression during lactation and between successive lactations), and mammary stem cells and progenitor cells. Where possible, these processes are related to animal production and compared across species, particularly bovine, porcine, murine, and human.

  2. Efficacy and complications of submental tracheal intubation compared with tracheostomy in maxillofacial trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Kita, Ryosuke; Kikuta, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Masahiro; Ootani, Taishi; Takaoka, Masao; Matsuda, Michitaka; Tsurushima, Hiroki; Yoshioka, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    Submental tracheal intubation is a technique for use in patients with maxillofacial trauma. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and complications of this technique compared with tracheostomy. Twenty-five patients underwent submental tracheal intubation since 2001. Submental tracheal intubation was performed in cases needing intermaxillary fixation complicated by a nasal pyramid or anterior skull base fracture. No severe perioperative or long-term complications were noted. Intra- and postoperative complications were observed in three patients. In one case, the tube was accidentally dislodged into the right main bronchus during submental tracheal intubation. Two patients developed skin infections. Submental scarring was undetectable, except for one patient with slight scarring. Submental tracheal intubation avoids the complications associated with tracheostomy and the difficulty of nasal intubation during intubation and surgery. Therefore, submental tracheal intubation is useful in the intraoperative management of patients with complex maxillofacial trauma. (J Oral Sci 58, 23-28, 2016). PMID:27021536

  3. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  4. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  5. Rejection and indirect revascularization of glycerin-preserved tracheal implant.

    PubMed

    Saueressig, Maurício G; Moreschi, Alexandre H; Barbosa, Gilberto V; Edelweiss, Maria I A; de Souza, Felipe H; Savegnago, Fabrício L; de Macedo Neto, Amarílio V

    2003-09-01

    The objective of the following study was to evaluate antigenicity, malacia and revascularization in glycerin-preserved canine tracheal allografts. Trachea with six cartilage rings (2.4 to 3.1 cm) were distributed in three study groups: autograft (21), allograft (18) and glycerin-preserved (22). We implanted two segments from different groups in the greater omentum of dogs. After 28 days, latex was injected in the canine aorta before the segments were harvested. We evaluated number of sectors with functional vessels, number of vessels dyed in the submucosa, acute arteritis score, incidence of acute rejection, cartilage lesion score, and malacia. The autograft group had a larger number of dyed vessels than the glycerin-preserved group. The autograft group also had a higher average number of quadrants with functional vessels than the allograft group and the glycerin-preserved group. The allograft group had a higher mean score for acute arteritis than the autograft group and more acute rejection than the glycerin-preserved group. The cartilage lesion score did not show any significant difference between groups. Malacia was not observed in any tracheal segment. Overall, the glycerin-preserved tracheal implant had low antigenicity and good rigidity, but showed incomplete revascularization.

  6. A new endoscopic hand drill for management of tracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Batzella, Sandro; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Iacono, Raffaele Dello; Battistoni, Paolo; Caterino, Umberto; Santini, Mario; Galluccio, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Tracheal resection and primary anastomosis is the treatment of choice for the management of benign tracheal stenoses. Rigid endoscopy with laser-assisted mechanical dilatation is an alternative to surgery and helps to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients unfit for surgery. Here, we describe the treatment of a simple web-like stenosis, using a new endoscopic hand drill that was assembled by sharpening the blunt tip of a standard endoscopic cotton applicator. The bronchoscopy was positioned proximally to the stenotic lesion and radial holes were made at 12, 3 and 9 o'clock. The tip of instrument touched the target area of the stenotic scar. The proximal end was handily rotated and the force, applied on the instrument's tip, and the hole was drilled. Next, endoscopic scissors was placed in the drill holes and the stenotic scar was cut. Mechanical dilatation with rigid bronchoscopes of increasing diameters completed the procedure. This procedure was successfully applied in 5 patients with simple benign tracheal stenosis and unfit for surgery. No intraoperative and/or postoperative complications occurred. No recurrence of stenosis was detected after a mean follow-up of 26 ± 2 months.

  7. Intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing during tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Yukioka, H; Yoshimoto, N; Nishimura, K; Fujimori, M

    1985-12-01

    Effects of intravenously administered lidocaine on cough suppression during tracheal intubation under general anesthesia were evaluated in two studies. In study 1, 100 patients received either a placebo or 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously 1 min before tracheal intubation. All visible coughs were classified as coughing. The incidence of coughing decreased as the dose of lidocaine increased. A dose of 1 mg/kg or more of intravenous lidocaine suppressed the cough reflex significantly (P less than 0.01). Coughing was suppressed completely by 2 mg/kg of intravenous lidocaine. In study 2, 108 patients received 2 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously or a placebo 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 15 min before intubation. The same criteria for determining whether a patient did or did not cough during tracheal intubation were used as in study 1. The incidence of coughing decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) when 2 mg/kg of lidocaine was injected intravenously between 1 and 5 min before our attempting intubation. Cough reflex was suppressed completely by plasma concentrations of lidocaine in excess of 3 micrograms/ml. PMID:4061901

  8. Rejection and indirect revascularization of glycerin-preserved tracheal implant.

    PubMed

    Saueressig, Maurício G; Moreschi, Alexandre H; Barbosa, Gilberto V; Edelweiss, Maria I A; de Souza, Felipe H; Savegnago, Fabrício L; de Macedo Neto, Amarílio V

    2003-09-01

    The objective of the following study was to evaluate antigenicity, malacia and revascularization in glycerin-preserved canine tracheal allografts. Trachea with six cartilage rings (2.4 to 3.1 cm) were distributed in three study groups: autograft (21), allograft (18) and glycerin-preserved (22). We implanted two segments from different groups in the greater omentum of dogs. After 28 days, latex was injected in the canine aorta before the segments were harvested. We evaluated number of sectors with functional vessels, number of vessels dyed in the submucosa, acute arteritis score, incidence of acute rejection, cartilage lesion score, and malacia. The autograft group had a larger number of dyed vessels than the glycerin-preserved group. The autograft group also had a higher average number of quadrants with functional vessels than the allograft group and the glycerin-preserved group. The allograft group had a higher mean score for acute arteritis than the autograft group and more acute rejection than the glycerin-preserved group. The cartilage lesion score did not show any significant difference between groups. Malacia was not observed in any tracheal segment. Overall, the glycerin-preserved tracheal implant had low antigenicity and good rigidity, but showed incomplete revascularization. PMID:14514556

  9. A Case of Symptomatic Tracheal Diverticulum and Surgical Resection as a Treatment Modality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin-Young; Joo, Seok; Lee, Geun Dong; Ham, Seok Jin; Park, Chul Hwan; Lee, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal diverticulum is often diagnosed incidentally and, due to its rarity, there is no standard treatment. It is a benign entity, but has the potential to cause specific symptoms, such as chronic upper respiratory infection and chronic cough. Symptomatic tracheal diverticulum can be medically treated, but likelihood of recurrence is high. We report a case of surgical resection of symptomatic tracheal diverticulum to prevent recurrence. PMID:27734005

  10. Tracheal laceration as a complication of out-of-hospital emergency tracheal intubation in a patient with COPD.

    PubMed

    Üzümcügil, Filiz; Babaoğlu, Gülçin; Denizci, Ezgi; Sarıcaoğlu, Fatma; Kanbak, Meral

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial injuries related to emergency endotracheal intubations are reported to be associated with an increased risk of mortality. Many mechanical risk factors may become more frequent in an emergency setting leading to such injuries. Aside from these factors that may complicate endotracheal intubation, this procedure is not recommended a priori for ventilation due to the resulting interruptions in external chest compressions, by 2010 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and external chest compression guidelines. We present a 78-year-old woman with known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who had a tracheal laceration after emergency endotracheal intubation during CPR. Thorax computed tomography revealed an overinflated tube cuff. The trachea was repaired surgically; however, our patient died on the fourth postoperative day due to multiple-organ failure. Prehospital providers must remain especially vigilant to priorities in airway management during CPR and aware of the dangers associated with field tracheal intubation under less than ideal conditions.

  11. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, Niharika; Parmar, Deepankar; Rao, B Rama Mohan; Rao, Epari Sanjeeva

    2013-01-01

    Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare primary tumour of the salivary gland, benign in nature arising from differentiated Sebaceous glands and cells in the salivary gland. Most of the tumours are seen in the parotid gland and very rarely in the submandibular gland. Herein a case of sebaceous lymphadenoma is reported in a 45 years old female with a swelling in the submandibular region. Histopathological study after surgical excision showed islands of sebaceous epithelial cells with dense collections of lymphoid cells in stroma and a diagnosis of sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland was made.

  12. Accessory parotid gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches. PMID:23483721

  13. Lymphomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, M J; Bennett, M H; Cawson, R A

    1986-08-01

    Primary lymphomas arising in salivary glands are very uncommon. The histologic classification of 40 cases of lymphomas in salivary gland tissue submitted to the British Salivary Gland Tumour Panel is reported, and, for 30 of the patients for whom adequate information was available, the clinical presentation, management, and outcome have been analyzed. Lymphomas in salivary glands represented 1.7% of all reported salivary neoplasms. The majority developed in the parotid glands of patients aged between 50 and 70 years. Only four cases gave a premorbid history compatible with sicca syndrome. In this series, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas predominated; 23 were Grade I, and 13 were Grade II. Treatment regimens were not uniform, but are outlined. Survival ranged from 5 to 111 months. Median survival for the group was 49 months. Prognosis was not influenced by the clinical stage of disease at presentation. Four cases of lymphoma arising in benign lymphoepithelial lesions are included. None had clinical symptoms of sicca complex. Prognosis for this group was found to be as favorable as the others.

  14. Tracheal Agenesis Reconstruction with External Esophageal Stenting: Postoperative Results and Complications.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung-Jo; Kim, Min Soo; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2015-12-01

    Tracheal agenesis is an extremely rare and typically lethal congenital disorder. Approximately 150 cases have been described since 1900, and very few cases of survival have been reported. We describe tracheal reconstruction with external esophageal stenting in a patient with Floyd's type II tracheal agenesis. Neither long-term survival nor survival without mechanical ventilation for even a single day has previously been reported in patients with Floyd's type II tracheal agenesis. The infant in the present case survived for almost a year and breathed without a ventilator for approximately 50 days after airway reconstruction using external supportive stents. PMID:26665117

  15. Characterization of the myoepithelial cells in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Julio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Bats constitute one of the most numerous mammalian species. Bats have a wide range of dietary habits and include carnivorous, haematophagous, insectivorous, frugivorous and nectivorous species. The salivary glands of these species have been of particular research interest due to their structural variability among chiropterans with different types of diets. Myoepithelial cells (MECs), which support and facilitate the expulsion of saliva from the secretory portions of salivary glands, are very important for their function; however, this cell type has not been extensively studied in the salivary glands of bats. In this study, we characterized the MECs in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis. Herein, we describe the morphology of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of A. jamaicensis at the light- and electro-microscopic level and the distribution of MECs in these glands, as defined by their expression of smooth-muscle markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (SMAα) and desmin, and of epithelial cell markers, such as KRT14. We found that the anatomical locations of the major salivary glands in this bat species are similar to those of humans, except that the bat sublingual gland appears to be unique, extending to join the contralateral homologous gland. Morphologically, the parotid gland has the characteristics of a mixed-secretory gland, whereas the submandibular and sublingual glands were identified as mucous-secretory glands. MECs positive for SMAα, KRT14 and desmin were found in all of the structural components of the three glands, except in their excretory ducts. Desmin is expressed at a lower level in the parotid gland than in the other glands. Our results suggest that the major salivary glands of A. jamaicensis, although anatomically and structurally similar to those of humans, play different physiological roles that can be attributed to the dietary habits of this species. PMID:27168421

  16. Fetal Endoscopic Tracheal Intubation: A New Fetoscopic Procedure to Ensure Extrauterine Tracheal Permeability in a Case with Congenital Cervical Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martinez, Rogelio; Moreno-Alvarez, Oscar; Garcia, Maritza; Méndez, Antonio; Pineda, Hugo; Cruz-Martinez, Miriam Alejandra; Cruz, Miriam A; Martinez-Morales, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Congenital neck masses are associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity secondary to airway obstruction due to a mass effect of the tumor with subsequent neonatal asphyxia and/or neonatal death. Currently, the only technique designed to establish a secure neonatal airway is the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure, which involves neonatal tracheal intubation while fetal oxygenation is maintained by the uteroplacental circulation in a partial fetal delivery under maternal general anesthesia. We present a case with a giant cervical teratoma and huge displacement and compression of the fetal trachea that was treated successfully at 35 weeks of gestation with a novel fetoscopic procedure to ensure extrauterine tracheal permeability by means of a fetal endoscopic tracheal intubation (FETI) before delivery. The procedure consisted of a percutaneous fetal tracheoscopy under maternal epidural anesthesia using an 11-Fr exchange catheter covering the fetoscope that allowed a conduit to introduce a 3.0-mm intrauterine orotracheal cannula under ultrasound guidance. After FETI, a conventional cesarean section was performed uneventfully with no need for an EXIT procedure. This report is the first to illustrate that in cases with large neck tumors involving fetal airways, FETI is feasible and could potentially replace an EXIT procedure by allowing prenatal airway control.

  17. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined.

  18. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  19. Descartes and the pineal gland in animals: a frequent misinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Finger, S

    1995-01-01

    René Descartes presented a number of reasons for his choice of the pineal gland as a logical place for the soul to interact with the physical machinery of the body. It is often stated that one of his reasons was that he believed animals do not have pineal glands, whereas humans alone possess a soul and this small structure. This is a misinterpretation of Descartes. The philosopher knew that barnyard and other animals possess pineal glands, having seen this with his own eyes. His point was that the pineal is unique in humans only because of a special function - acting as the seat for the rational soul. PMID:11619024

  20. Descartes and the pineal gland in animals: a frequent misinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Finger, S

    1995-01-01

    René Descartes presented a number of reasons for his choice of the pineal gland as a logical place for the soul to interact with the physical machinery of the body. It is often stated that one of his reasons was that he believed animals do not have pineal glands, whereas humans alone possess a soul and this small structure. This is a misinterpretation of Descartes. The philosopher knew that barnyard and other animals possess pineal glands, having seen this with his own eyes. His point was that the pineal is unique in humans only because of a special function - acting as the seat for the rational soul.

  1. Tissue distribution of cadmium-109 after tracheal and gastric administration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, R.; Chowdhury, P.; Nishikawa, M.; Rayford, P.L. )

    1993-10-01

    Cadmium is known to be a toxic trace element and its ingestion into the human body via dietary, inhalation, occupational, or non-occupational sources can induce a variety of pulmonary, renal, or reproductive dysfunction. Many acute and chronic studies with cadmium have been conducted in experimental animals to determine its mechanism of action, and it has been reported that cadmium may enhance or deactivate several enzyme systems in vitro or in vivo, and it may act as a potent calcium blocker, and can inhibit calmodulin activity. In addition, cadmium is distributed and retained in organ systems such as liver, kidney and lung. We have previously shown that a significant amount of cadmium is accumulated in lung, kidney, liver and gastrointestinal tract following intravenous or intraperitoneal injection. This study was conducted to delineate the tissue distribution of cadmium in animals following more physiologic route of exposure, such as tracheal and gastric administration of cadmium. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  3. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many types of salivary gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the ... cancer can develop in the salivary glands. Squamous cell carcinoma: This cancer occurs mainly in older men. ...

  4. Imaging of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Weissman, J L

    1995-12-01

    CT and MRI have greatly facilitated evaluation of pathology of the three pairs of major salivary glands and the hundreds of minor salivary glands. Imaging can frequently offer a specific histological diagnosis for benign and malignant neoplasms of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Obstruction, infection, autoimmune processes, and congenital anomalies also are readily diagnosed. CT and MRI studies assess the anatomic extent of minor salivary gland neoplasms. Sialography continues to provide useful information about intrinsic abnormalities of the parotid and submandibular ducts.

  5. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  6. [Meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Finis, D; Schrader, S; Geerling, G

    2012-05-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a chronic disease, usually caused by obstruction of the secretory Meibomian glands. The subsequent reduction of gland secretion results in a decreased amount of lipids in the tear film. This results in a faster evaporation of the tear film and thus an evaporative dry eye. MGD alone is responsible for about 60% of all cases in combination with aqueous deficiency for a further 20% of dry eyes. While in Europe up to 20% of the population are suffering from MDD, this is true in Asia for over 60% of the population. MGD is more common in women and it incidence increases with age. It is influenced by the hormonal status as well as chemical and mechanical noxious stimuli. Additional risk factors include various skin diseases such as rosacea, acne or atopy. To diagnose MGD, particular attention should be paid to changes in the lid margin such as plugging or pouting of the ducts, thickening and telangiectasia. However, most important is the diagnostic expression of the glands. At first it should be assessed whether secretion can be caused by pressure to the eyelid against the globe and secondly the quality of the expressed secretions should be evaluated. MGD should be treated according to the severity of the disease. While in mild stages instructions for lid margin hygiene, warming and massage in combination with artificial tears might be sufficient, in more severe stages oral tetracyclin derivatives and anti-inflammatory eye drops such as steroids or CSA are necessary for successful treatment.

  7. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children.

  8. Dormancy activation mechanism of tracheal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Xu, Jing-xian; Jia, Xin-Shan; Li, Wen-ya; Han, Yi-chen; Wang, En-hua; Li, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate markers and molecular mechanisms of stem cell dormancy and activation are poorly understood. In this study, the anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil, was used to selectively kill proliferating cells of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line. This method can enrich and purify stem cell population. The dormant versus active status of stem cells was determined by phosphorylation of RNAp II Ser2. The surviving stem cells were cultured to form stem cell spheres expressing stem cell markers and transplanted into nude mice to form a teratoma. The results demonstrated the properties of stem cells and potential for multi-directional differentiation. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter by 5-FU resulted in Sox2 expression in the dormant stem cells. This study shows that the dormancy and activation of HBE stem cells is closely related to epigenetic modification. PMID:27009861

  9. Does the polystomatic gland exist?

    PubMed

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Moriguchi, K; Kinbara, M

    1989-03-01

    According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the sublingual gland has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means that the gland is a polystomatic gland. We intended to determine whether the so-called polystomatic gland exists or not. 1. According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the gl. sublingualis has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means the gland is a polystomatic gland. However, the formation of one gland with plural excretory ducts is embryologically impossible, in other words, the polystomatic gland does not exist. 2. Many scholars described that the gl. sublingualis was composed of the gl. sublingualis major and g11. sublinguales minores. However, they are completely different kinds of glands. Accordingly, we suggest the terms for these glands: the g1. sublingualis and its ductus sublingualis ("major" is useless), the g11. sublinguales minores and their ductus sublinguales minores. 3. The N.A.V.J. and some scholars use the term g1. sublingualis polystomatica or parvicanalaris. However, this is a group of a number of independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Such a gland should not be regarded as a single gland. We suggest that the term g11. sublinguales minores and their excretory ducts should be replaced with the term the ductus sublinguales minores. 4. The g1. lingualis anterior, g1. retromolaris and g1. lacrimalis are not single glands but a group of several independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Accordingly, they should be termed the g11. linguales anteriores, g11. retromolares and g11. lacrimales such as the g11. labiales, g11. buccales and g11. palatinae.

  10. Development of a new system for guidewire-assisted tracheal intubation: manikin and cadaver evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dhara, S S; McGlone, D J; Skinner, M W

    2016-01-01

    Guided intubation using a tracheal tube and semi-rigid introducer is associated with technical difficulties, failure and traumatic complications. We describe the development of a new system of guidewire-assisted tracheal intubation that may circumvent these problems. A reinforced silicone tracheal tube was modified with a guide channel built inside its wall, and a nitinol non-kinking guidewire was matched to this channel. Both anterograde and retrograde tracheal intubation were evaluated in a test rig, an airway manikin and then in preserved and fresh cadavers. There was minimal resistance to passage of the guidewire through the guide channel when the modified tube was in an anatomical configuration, in contrast to moderate resistance when an Airway Exchange Catheter was passed through a PVC tracheal tube. Intubation using the new equipment required increased force in the manikin and preserved cadavers, but minimal force in fresh cadavers. Resistance to tracheal tube advancement in preserved cadavers was overcome by withdrawal followed by 90° rotation, but this manoeuvre was not required in fresh cadavers. We suggest that the combination of the modified tracheal tube and matching guidewire may allow easy and reliable single-step guided tracheal intubation when used in patients.

  11. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  16. Management of esophageal stenting-associated esophagotracheal fistula, tracheal stenosis and tracheal rupture: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fanceng; Nie, Peihe; Yi, Fuxia; Zhang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although the placement of esophageal self-expandable stents (SES) can effectively relieve dysphagia after radiotherapy in patients with esophageal cancer (EC), it may induce severe esophageal complications. This article reports a case of emergency endotracheal intubation in an EC patient who suddenly developed severe dyspnea two months after SES placement. Methods: Electronic bronchoscopy of the patient’s airway confirmed the diagnosis of esophagotracheal fistula, tracheal stenosis and tracheal rupture. Endotracheal intubation was successfully performed under the guidance of electronic bronchoscopy. Results: Dyspnea due to tracheal stenosis was relieved effectively by inserting the tracheal catheter to a proper place under the guidance of electronic bronchoscopy. Conclusion: Bronchoscopic examination is strongly recommended in EC patients who are highly suspected as having airway stenosis associated with esophageal stenting, for which endotracheal intubation under the guidance of bronchoscopy is suggested. PMID:26464685

  17. [The Use of a Tracheal Tube for Guiding Nasogastric Tube Insertion].

    PubMed

    Saima, Shunsuke; Asai, Takashi; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-01

    An obese patient was scheduled for shoulder joint surgery under general anesthesia. After induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation, insertion of a gastric tube was difficult. A new tracheal tube was prepared, the connecter was removed, and the tube was cut longitudinally. The tube was inserted orally into the esophagus. A gastric tube was passed through the nose, and its tip was taken out of the mouth. The tip of the gastric tube was passed through the tracheal tube, and its correct position in the stomach was confirmed by auscultation of the epigastrium. The tracheal tube was carefully taken out from the esophagus leaving the gastric tube in the stomach. The cut tracheal tube was peeled off from the gastric tube. Correct positioning of the gastric tube was re-confirmed.

  18. Muscarinic M2 receptors in bovine tracheal smooth muscle: discrepancies between binding and function.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; Elzinga, C R; Van Amsterdam, R G; De Zeeuw, R A; Zaagsma, J

    1988-08-01

    Previous work showing that AF-DX 116, a cardioselective muscarinic antagonist in functional experiments, does not discriminate between muscarinic receptors in bovine cardiac and tracheal membranes has been extended. In addition to AF-DX 116 we used the muscarinic antagonists, atropine, pirenzepine, 4-DAMP methobromide, gallamine, hexahydrosiladifenidol and methoctramine, in radioligand binding experiments on bovine cardiac left ventricular and tracheal smooth muscle membranes. The functional antagonism of the methacholine-induced contraction of bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips was also evaluated. An excellent correlation was found for all compounds between the binding affinities for muscarinic receptors in cardiac and tracheal smooth muscle membranes; moreover, the affinities found in cardiac membranes correspond with the pA2 values reported for atrial preparations of rat and guinea pig. However, significant and occasionally marked discrepancies were found between binding and functional affinities of these muscarinic antagonists on bovine tracheal smooth muscle. PMID:3215279

  19. Luminal acetylcholine does not affect the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Nikolaus P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Fluid homeostasis mediated by the airway epithelium is required for proper lung function, and the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) Cl(-) channel is crucial for these processes. Luminal acetylcholine (ACh) acts as an auto-/paracrine mediator to activate Cl(-) channels in airway epithelia and evidence exists showing that nicotinic ACh receptors activate CFTR in murine airway epithelia. The present study investigated whether or not luminal ACh regulates CFTR activity in airway epithelia of pigs, an emerging model for investigations of human airway disease and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Transepithelial ion currents of freshly dissected pig tracheal preparations were measured with Ussing chambers. Application of luminal ACh (100 μM) induced an increase of the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The ACh effect was mimicked by muscarine and pilocarpine (100 μM each) and was sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine). No changes of the I(SC) were observed by nicotine (100 μM) and ACh responses were not affected by nicotine or mecamylamine (25 μM). Luminal application of IBMX (I, 100 μM) and forskolin (F, 10 μM), increase the I(SC) and the I/F-induced current were decreased by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101 (GlyH, 50 μM) indicating increased CFTR activity by I/F. In contrast, GlyH did not affect the ACh-induced current, indicating that the ACh response does not involve the activation of the CFTR. Results from this study suggest that luminal ACh does not regulate the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs which opposes observation from studies using mice airway epithelium.

  20. Luminal acetylcholine does not affect the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Nikolaus P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Fluid homeostasis mediated by the airway epithelium is required for proper lung function, and the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) Cl(-) channel is crucial for these processes. Luminal acetylcholine (ACh) acts as an auto-/paracrine mediator to activate Cl(-) channels in airway epithelia and evidence exists showing that nicotinic ACh receptors activate CFTR in murine airway epithelia. The present study investigated whether or not luminal ACh regulates CFTR activity in airway epithelia of pigs, an emerging model for investigations of human airway disease and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Transepithelial ion currents of freshly dissected pig tracheal preparations were measured with Ussing chambers. Application of luminal ACh (100 μM) induced an increase of the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The ACh effect was mimicked by muscarine and pilocarpine (100 μM each) and was sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine). No changes of the I(SC) were observed by nicotine (100 μM) and ACh responses were not affected by nicotine or mecamylamine (25 μM). Luminal application of IBMX (I, 100 μM) and forskolin (F, 10 μM), increase the I(SC) and the I/F-induced current were decreased by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101 (GlyH, 50 μM) indicating increased CFTR activity by I/F. In contrast, GlyH did not affect the ACh-induced current, indicating that the ACh response does not involve the activation of the CFTR. Results from this study suggest that luminal ACh does not regulate the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs which opposes observation from studies using mice airway epithelium. PMID:26286842

  1. Distance between Anterior Commissure and the First Tracheal Ring: An Important New Clinical Laryngotracheal Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Khadivi, Ehsan; Zaringhalam, Mohammad Ali; Khazaeni, Kamran; Bakhshaee, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The distance between the anterior commissure of the larynx and the first tracheal ring (AC.T. distance) is of great importance in laryngotracheal surgeries. The amount of narrowing of the subglottic airway is used as a quantitative mean to determine whether the lesion is subglottic or has extended to the trachea and therefore helps in the prediction of the final prognosis. Materials and Methods: In this study, the larynx was exposed by direct laryngoscopy under general anesthesia. The case was considered to be difficult because the exposure did not optimally reveal the anterior commissure, therefore a cricoid tape or anterior commissure laryngoscope was used. A zero degree Hopkins lens was used to view the anterior commissure and the first tracheal ring. Special markers were used to mark the two points with the distance between those being considered as the AC.T. distance. The relationship between AC.T. distance and the patient's age, sex, BMI, and laryngeal exposure condition during laryngoscopy was also studied. Results: Eighty-two patients participated in this study. The mean AC.T. distance was measured and was found to be 32.67±3.34 mm in males and 29.80± 3.00 mm in females. This difference was statistically significant between the two groups (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between BMI, age, laryngeal exposure condition, and the AC.T. distance. Conclusion: The AC.T. distance was measured to be around 3 cm; with males measuring greater than females. However, future studies may lead to a more accurate practical scale for laryngotracheal surgeries due to possible technical or human errors, in addition to racial differences. PMID:26082900

  2. Management of pulmonary artery sling with tracheal stenosis: LPA re-implantation without tracheoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Gengxu; Liu, Yuhang; Liu, Yingyue; Wang, Hui; Feng, Zhichun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Pulmonary artery sling (PA sling) is frequently associated with tracheal and/or bronchial stenosis. Most PA sling patients receive left pulmonary artery (LPA) re-implantation and tracheoplasty under the cardiopulmonary bypass, but the postoperative complications of tracheoplasty remain a great challenge. In this study, we reviewed 14 PA sling children who received surgery in our hospital, and tried to find out whether tracheoplasty could be avoided or not. Methods: A total of 14 patients receiving surgery due to PA sling/tracheal stenosis were recruited. Complete tracheal ring was confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in all the patients preoperatively. The clinical outcome and the severity of trachea stenosis (tracheal diameter and length) were evaluated, and effectiveness of various managements was analyzed. Results: Fourteen PA sling/tracheal stenosis children underwent surgical treatment. Three patients needed intubation and mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory symptoms preoperatively. Eight patients received LPA re-implantation alone to relieve the trachea compression, and slide tracheoplasty was performed in one patient for extubation failure who finally died of air leakage. Six patients received LPA re-implantation and tracheal intervention simultaneously. Three patients received slide tracheoplasty, and one was discharged after recovery. The remaining 3 patients received tracheal stent implantation, but finally died. The diameter/length (%) in the survivors without tracheal intervention was significantly higher than that in patients with tracheal intervention. Conclusions: Patients with PA sling undergoing LPA re-implantation achieved a good outcome. Diameter/length (%) may be a more reliable indicator used for determination of tracheal intervention in surgical management of PA sling. PMID:25932228

  3. Tracheal dead space influences regional ventilation measurement in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Delaunois, L.; Boileau, R.; Martin, R.R. )

    1990-02-01

    The lung volume at which airway closure begins during expiration (closing volume, CV) can be measured (1) with a radioactive bolus inspired at residual volume (RV) and (2) with the single-breath N2 elimination test. In previous studies in dogs, we observed that N2 CV was systematically larger than 133Xe bolus CV (Xe CV) (N2 CV %vital capacity (VC) = 35 +/- 2.3 (SE) vs. Xe CV %VC = 24 +/- 2.2, P less than 0.01). Because the regional RV in the dog is evenly distributed throughout the lung and all airways closed at RV, N2 CV is related to the regional distribution of the tracheal N2; differences between N2 and Xe CV could then be related to the size of the inhaled dead space. Simultaneous measurements of Xe and N2 CV were performed at various sites of Xe bolus injection while the regional distribution of the bolus was measured. Injections at the level of the carina increased Xe CV to a value (30 +/- 1.4%VC) near simultaneous N2 CV (32 +/- 1.5%VC) and increased the unevenness of regional distribution of the Xe bolus. The difference between N2 and Xe CV is then the result of the size of the inspired tracheal dead space. Moreover, comparisons between different values of Xe CV require injections of the boluses at the same distance from the carina.

  4. Abnormal tracheal smooth muscle function in the CF mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Helen L; Southern, Kevin W; Connell, Marilyn G; Wray, Susan; Burdyga, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility is thought to underlie symptoms of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway, ASM anomalies have been reported, but have not been fully characterized and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We examined ASM in an adult CF mouse tracheal ring preparation, and determined whether changes in contractility were associated with altered ASM morphology. We looked for inherent changes in the cellular pathways involved in contractility, and characterized trachea morphology in the adult trachea and in an embryonic lung culture model during development. Results showed that that there was a reduction in tracheal caliber in CF mice as indicated by a reduction in the number of cartilage rings; proximal cross-sectional areas of cftr−/− tracheas and luminal areas were significantly smaller, but there was no difference in the area or distribution of smooth muscle. Morphological differences observed in adult trachea were not evident in the embryonic lung at 11.5 days gestation or after 72 h in culture. Functional data showed a significant reduction in the amplitude and duration of contraction in response to carbachol (CCh) in Ca-free conditions. The reduction in contraction was agonist specific, and occurred throughout the length of the trachea. These data show that there is a loss in the contractile capacity of the CF mouse trachea due to downregulation of the pathway specific to acetylcholine (ACh) activation. This reduction in contraction is not associated with changes in the area or distribution of ASM. PMID:24400140

  5. Glycoprotein secretion in a tracheal organ culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Warunek, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Glycoprotein secretion in the rat trachea was studied in vitro, utilizing a modified, matrix embed/perfusion chamber. Baseline parameters of the culture environment were determined by enzymatic and biochemical procedures. The effect of pilocarpine on the release of labelled glycoproteins from the tracheal epithelium was assessed. After a single stimulation with the drug, there was a significant increase in the release of /sup 14/C-glucosamine and /sup 3/H-fucose-labelled glycoprotein. The response was dose-dependent. Similar results were obtained after a second exposure to pilocarpine. However, no dose response was observed. Morphological analyses of the tracheal epithelial secretory cells by Alcian Blue/Periodic Acid Schiff staining showed a significant decrease in the total number of Alcian Blue staining cells and an increase in the mixed cell population after a single exposure to pilocarpine. Second stimulation with the drug showed that the trachea was able to respond again, this time with a further decrease in the number of Alcian Blue staining cells and a decrease in the PAS staining cells as well. Carbohydrate analyses after the first simulation with pilocarpine showed increased levels of N-acetyl neuraminic acid and the neutral carbohydrates, fucose and galactose, in the precipitated glycoproteins.

  6. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  7. Notch Signaling in Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gidfar, Sanaz; Afsharkhamseh, Neda; Sanjari, Sara; Djalilian, Ali R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Notch1 was previously shown to play a critical role in murine meibomian gland function and maintenance. In this study, we have examined the expression and activation of Notch pathway in human meibomian gland epithelial cells in vitro. Methods An immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cell (HMGEC) line was cultured under proliferative and differentiative conditions. Expression of Notch receptors and ligands were evaluated by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The effect of Notch inhibition and induction on oil production was also assessed. Results Human meibomian gland epithelial cell expressed Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta-like 1, and Delta-like 3. The level of cleaved (activated) Notch1 strongly increased with differentiation. The expression of Notch3 was inversely correlated with proliferation. Induction and inhibition of Notch1 led to an increase and decrease in the amount of oil production, respectively. Conclusions Notch signaling appears to play an important role in human meibomian gland epithelial differentiation and oil production. This may provide a potential therapeutic pathway for treating meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:26943148

  8. Bronchial mucous gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H

    1979-07-27

    Tumours arising in the bronchial mucous glands closely resemble tumours arising in the mixed salivary glands. Bronchial mucous gland tumours account for less than 0.5 per cent of all lung tumours. Twenty six tumours are reviewed and they have been divided into five types, (a) adenoidcystic carcinomas, (b) muco-epidermoid tumors, (c) mixed (pleomorphic) tumors, (d) cystadenomas and (f) oxyphilic adenoma. The clinical features, and postoperative course of the patients are reviewed. Adenocystic carcinomas, arising in the bronchus frequently involve the neighbouring trachea and spread mainly by direct infiltration. Most muco-epidermoid bronchial tumours were confined to young persons, and the only malignant muco-epidermoid tumour occurred in an elderly person. The prognosis in young persons is good provided the tumours are completely excised. The two mixed bronchial tumours resembled their salivary counterparts and one subsequently behaved as a carcinoma and metastasised. Bronchial cystadenomas all proved to be benign tumours but in two cases were associated with surface papillary proliferation. The only example of an oxyphil cell adenoma was discovered at post mortem examination. The histogenesis of the tumours is considered.

  9. Prolactin binding in minor salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Abbey, L M; Witorsch, R J

    1985-07-01

    An immunohistochemical study of 15 minor salivary gland tumors was initiated to determine if prolactin binding occurred in these tissues. Eight benign mixed tumors (BMT) and 7 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) were selected at random from the surgical biopsy service of the MCV/VCU School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology. The specimens were cut and mounted on slides along with sections of rat pituitary and rat ventral prostate which served as methodologic controls. Experimental specimens were incubated for 24 hours with varying concentrations of highly purified (iodination grade) rat prolactin; controls were incubated with vehicle. Following incubation the specimens were stained according to the Sternberger peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Results showed dose-dependent staining for prolactin binding sites in 7 of 8 BMTs and 5 of 7 ACCs. The staining was wider in distribution than we observed in normal human minor salivary gland tissue. Binding was confined primarily to cells of duct origin in both types of tumor. In individual cells, staining was observed in diffuse cytoplasmic and perinuclear locations as well as in nuclei and apical regions. We conclude that two minor salivary gland neoplasms (BMT and ACC) exhibit prolactin binding at different cellular locations and in a more widespread pattern than was observed in normal minor salivary gland.

  10. Efficacy of two iso-propanol-based skin antiseptics applied to human skin with many sebaceous glands for 2 and 10 minutes

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Sammann, Andreas; Pitten, Frank-Albert; Christiansen, Bärbel; Heeg, Peter; Nowak, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent research suggests that specific ethanol-based skin antiseptics exhibit their efficacy on the resident skin flora of the forehead in only 2.5 minutes. We have now looked at the efficacy of two skin antiseptics based on 63% (w/w) propan-2-ol (iso-propanol) and applied for 10 and 2 minutes on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands. Methods: Each experiment was performed in a reference-controlled cross-over design with at least 20 participants. Application of isopropanol (70%, v/v) for 10 minutes to the forehead served as the reference treatment. Pre-values and post-values (immediately after the application and after 30 min) were obtained by swabbing a marked area of 5 cm2 for about 10 s. Swabs were vortexed in tryptic soy broth containing valid neutralizing agents. After serial dilution aliquots were spread on tryptic soy agar. Colonies were counted after incubation of plates at 36°C for 48 h. The mean log10 reduction of bacteria was calculated. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used for a comparison of treatments. Results: Skin antiseptic A applied for 10 min (one experiment) was equally effective to the reference treatment. When applied for 2 min (two experiments) it was still equally effective to the reference treatment immediately after application (e.g. 1.6 versus 1.4 log10 reduction) and after 30 min (1.7 versus 1.4 log10 reduction). Skin antiseptic B applied for 10 and 2 min (one experiment each) was also equally effective to the reference treatment both immediately after application and after 30 min. Conclusions: The clear and coloured skin antiseptics applied for 2 min on the skin of the forehead fulfilled the national efficacy requirements for skin antisepsis. The shorter application time on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands will allow acting more efficiently in clinical practice. PMID:24653974

  11. [Salivary gland stem cells : Can they restore radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction?].

    PubMed

    Rotter, N; Schwarz, S; Jakob, M; Brandau, S; Wollenberg, B; Lang, S

    2010-06-01

    Adult stem cells are actively investigated in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as they exhibit specific characteristics that make them promising candidates for cellular therapies. Depending on their tissue of origin these characteristics include long-term proliferation and the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. To date adult stem cells have been isolated from a multitude of tissues. Non-embryogenic adult tissues contain only small numbers of such stem cells and the derivation of such tissues can cause comorbidities. Therefore, there is ongoing interest in the identification and characterisation of novel cell sources for stem cell isolation and characterisation.Recently, salivary gland tissue has also been explored as a possible source of stem cells, first in animals and later in humans. Such salivary gland-derived stem cells might be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced salivary gland hypofunction, and possibly also in other diseases with loss of acinar cells, such as sequelae of radio iodine treatment or Sjögren's disease.In this paper we review the current status of salivary gland stem cell biology and application and discuss the possible role of stem cells in the development of novel therapies for salivary gland dysfunctions such as postradiogenic xerostomia.

  12. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Sedat; Can, Ilknur Haberal; Unlü, Ilhan; Süngü, Nuran; Gönültaş, Mehmet Alparslan; Samim, Ethem Erdal

    2009-05-01

    A 33-year-old male patient with a slow-growing, painless, well-circumscribed soft tissue mass on the left parotid region is presented. The clinical impression was that of a benign salivary gland tumor. The tumor was situated in the superficial lobe of the gland, and a superficial parotidectomy was performed, with preservation of the facial nerve. Histopathologic examination results revealed a sialolipoma of the parotid gland and a lesion that consisted of both mature adipose tissue and glandular elements. Sialolipomas share similar clinical features with conventional lipomas of the salivary glands. Preoperative diagnosis is generally difficult, and computed tomographic scanning is useful in defining these benign parotid gland masses. Superficial parotidectomy is the usual surgical treatment for parotid gland superficial lobe lipomas, with near-total absence of recurrence.

  13. Ciliated cells in vitamin A-deprived cultured hamster tracheal epithelium do divide

    SciTech Connect

    Rutten, A.A.; Beems, R.B.; Wilmer, J.W.; Feron, V.J.

    1988-09-01

    The pseudostratified tracheal epithelium, composed of a heterogeneous phenotypically varying cell population, was studied with respect to the in vitro cell proliferative activity of differentiated epithelial cells. Ciliated tracheal epithelial cells so far have been considered to be terminally differentiated, nonproliferating cells. Tracheal organ cultures obtained from vitamin A-deprived Syrian Golden hamsters were cultured in a vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In vitamin A-deprived tracheal epithelium treated with physiologically active all-trans retinol and low cigarette-smoke condensate concentrations it is possible to stimulate the cell proliferation of both basal and columnar cells. Therefore, the probability of finding proliferating columnar cells was increased compared with the in vivo and the vitamin A-deprived situation in which cell proliferative activity is relatively low. In the presence of cigarette-smoke condensate in a noncytotoxic concentration, basal, small mucous granule, ciliated, and indifferent tracheal epithelial cells incorporated (methyl-3H)-thymidine into the DNA during the S phase. The finding that ciliated cells were labeled was supported by serial sections showing the same labeled ciliated cell in two section planes separated by 2 to 3 micron, without labeled epithelial cells next to the ciliated cell. Furthermore, a ciliated tracheal epithelial cell incorporating (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA was also seen in tracheal cultures of vitamin A-deprived hamsters treated with all-trans retinol in a physiologic concentration.

  14. [Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Halimi, P; Gardner, M; Petit, F

    2005-06-01

    Tumors of salivary glands arise mainly from the parotid gland. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is mandatory not only to localize precisely the tumor within the gland but also to differentiate between benign and malignant neoplasms, in competition with cytology in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Tumors without risk of transformation, such as adenolymphoma, are not systematically operated on. Indications of roentgenotherapy and irradiation volumes depend on histologic type, localisation and size of the tumor.

  15. [Tumor of the Parotid Gland].

    PubMed

    Pötzl, Teresa; Iselin, Sabine; Husner, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    Salivary gland tumors are a rare, histologically heterogeneous group of tumors which constitute approximately 4–6 % of all head and neck neoplasms. In 2/3 of cases they are benign, especially in the parotid gland. We report about a rare tumor of the parotid gland presenting as an extraskeletal chondroma. Histologically there were multiple S 100 protein-positive nests of chondrocytes. The externally completed cytology suspected a pleomorphic adenoma, nevertheless, the final histopathological findings showed another tumor entity.

  16. Functional changes are associated with tracheal structural abnormalities in patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Mogami, Roberto; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although impaired pulmonary function and respiratory sleep disorders are described as responsible for increased mortality in acromegalic patients, little is known about the tracheal abnormalities in this group of patients. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the tracheal structural abnormalities and correlate these changes with the respiratory function and clinical data of acromegalic patients. Material and methods This is a cross-sectional study that was carried out at two university hospitals. Twenty acromegalic patients underwent spirometry, forced oscillation technique, and computed tomography (CT) assessments. Dyspnea and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), respectively. Forty matched subjects served as controls. Results The acromegalic patients exhibited larger median ratios between forced expiratory flow and forced inspiratory flow at 50% of the forced vital capacity (FEF50%/FIF50%) (2.05 vs. 1.06, p = 0.0001) compared with healthy volunteers. In the CT analysis, acromegalic patients exhibited larger median differences between their cervical and thoracic tracheal diameters (Δ tracheal diameters) (3 vs. 1 mm; p = 0.003). An association was found between FEF50%/FIF50% and the following variables: mean resistance (Rm), cervical tracheal diameter, and Δ tracheal diameters. Rm also exhibited a negative correlation with cervical tracheal diameter. Neither the MMRC scale nor the ESS exhibited any significant correlation with large airway obstruction (LAO) indices or with the measured tracheal diameters. Conclusions Acromegalic patients have tracheal structural abnormalities which are associated with functional indicators of LAO but not with clinical data. PMID:26925121

  17. Effects of ozone on lamb tracheal mucosa. Quantitative glycoconjugate histochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mariassy, A.T.; Sielczak, M.W.; McCray, M.N.; Abraham, W.M.; Wanner, A. )

    1989-11-01

    Whether or not the previously reported O3-induced abnormality in the postnatal development of tracheal secretory function in lambs is accompanied by changes in epithelial cell populations and their glycoconjugate composition was determined. Six lambs were killed at birth and 12 lambs at age 2 weeks. Of the latter 12, six were exposed to O3 (1 ppm, 4 hours daily for 5 days during the 1st week of life) and five had air-sham exposures (controls). Tracheal glycoconjugates were localized in situ with lectins to detect N-acetyl-galactosamine (galNAc), alpha-D-galactose (alpha-gal), beta-D-gal(1----3)-galNAc (beta-gal), and fucose (fuc). Mean (+/- SD) epithelial cell density (cells/mm basal lamina) was 418 +/- 57 in the newborns, 385 +/- 63 in controls (P was not significant), and 342 +/- 47 in O3-exposed lambs (P less than 0.05). Mucous cell density was 87 +/- 12 in newborns, 63 +/- 10 in controls (P less than 0.05), and 76 +/- 10 in O3 exposed lambs (P was not significant). Ciliated cells remained unchanged from birth to 2 weeks (P was not significant), but decreased (P less than 0.05) in O3-exposed lambs. All counted mucous cells contained fuc and galNAc at birth and retained these residues after sham and O3 exposure. The alpha-gal-containing mucous cells declined from 97 +/- 13 to 7 +/- 1 (P less than 0.05) and beta-gal containing cells from 39 +/- 5 to 25 +/- 4 in controls. In contrast, cells containing alpha-gal 71 +/- 10 remained at newborn levels (97 +/- 13) and beta-gal-containing cells increased from 40 +/- 5 at birth to 58 +/- 8 in O3-exposed animals (P less than 0.05). It was concluded that early postnatal exposure of lambs to O3 causes a decrease in epithelial cell density, but retards the developmental decrease in the number of tracheal mucous cells and alters the lectin detectable carbohydrate composition of mucus in these cells.

  18. [Meibomian gland dysfunction--review].

    PubMed

    Nowińska, Anna; Wylegała, Edward; Tarnawska, Dorota; Janiszewska, Dominika; Dobrowolskia, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction is a common ocular disorder affecting from 39 to 50% of population. Despite that, so far a pathophysiology path of the disease remains unknown, moreover there is no distinct border between physiology and the disease. There has been no clear diagnostic criteria. The purpose of this review was to combine a current knowledge of Meibomian gland anatomy, Meibomian gland dysfunction epidemiology, as well as presenting current definition, nomenclature, classification and diagnostic criteria. The importance of diagnosis associated with conditions such as aqueous tear deficiency, seborrheic dermatitis, and rosacea is emphasized. The available treatment methods are discussed. Meibomian gland dysfunction, blepharitis, dry eye syndrome.

  19. Taxonomy of salivary gland neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  20. Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  1. Anesthetic management of a large mediastinal mass for tracheal stent placement.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Suman; Harbott, Mark; Ortiz, Jaime; Bandi, Venkata

    2016-01-01

    The anesthetic management of patients with large mediastinal masses can be complicated due to the pressure effects of the mass on the airway or major vessels. We present the successful anesthetic management of a 64-year-old female with a large mediastinal mass that encroached on the great vessels and compressed the trachea. A tracheal stent was placed to relieve the tracheal compression under general anesthesia. Spontaneous ventilation was maintained during the perioperative period with the use of a classic laryngeal mask airway. We discuss the utility of laryngeal mask airway for anesthetic management of tracheal stenting in patients with mediastinal masses.

  2. [Contact allergy-induced tracheal stenosis caused by vulcanization accelerators in the endotracheal tube?].

    PubMed

    Niehaus, H H; Enzmann, H

    1995-07-01

    Tracheal stenoses occur mainly under iatrogenic conditions: they develop specially after long-term intubation, but also after tracheotomy. Etiological-pathogenic relevant factors include the mechanical irritation of mucosa, perichondrium and cartilage in addition to infected tracheal secretions. An allergic cell-mediated reaction in the respiratory tract has been already described. It is seldom recognized. The possibility of such a hyperergic, allergic, delayed reaction (Type IV Coombs-Gell response) with subsequent tracheal stenosis caused by rubber chemicals (accelerators) found in endotracheal tubes is presented in the following case report.

  3. A Novel Method for Insertion of the Straight Metallic Tracheal Stent.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kuruswamy Thurai; Ram, Babu; Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-10-01

    A straight metallic tracheal stent can be inserted either during flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. However, in patients with significant airway obstruction or those requiring tumor debulking, rigid bronchoscopy is the method of choice. A tracheoscope size 12 or larger is generally required for the introduction of the straight metallic tracheal stent. Herein, we describe a novel method that facilitates the introduction of the straight metallic tracheal stent through a size 8.5 tracheoscope by using the introducer tube of the silicone stent applicator. PMID:27645990

  4. Intraoperative Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal During Apneic Oxygenation with an EZ-Blocker in Tracheal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Marco; Nespoli, Moana Rossella; Mattiacci, Dario Maria; Esposito, Marianna; Corcione, Antonio; Buono, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    Tracheal surgery requires continued innovation to manage the anesthetic during an open airway phase. A common approach is apneic oxygenation with continuous oxygen flow, but the lack of effective ventilation causes hypercapnia, with respiratory acidosis. We used extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal for intraoperative decapneization during apneic oxygenation in a 64-year-old woman who was scheduled for tracheal surgery because of tracheal stenosis caused by long-term intubation. Our findings demonstrate that even after 40 minutes of total apnea, using an EZ-blocker for oxygenation and external decapneization, hemodynamic and gas exchange variables never demonstrated any dangerous alterations.

  5. [Tracheal phospholipid composition and respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn].

    PubMed

    Obladen, M

    1979-03-01

    Tracheal or pharyngeal aspirates were collected in 50 newborn infants with and without respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). After lipid extraction the phospholipids were analyzed with 2-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Surface-active are lecithin (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Newborn infants with RDS always have a complete lack of PG, which makes up to 11% of phospholipid-phosphors in mature newborns. In all infants with and without RDS, a sharp increase of PC occurs in the lung effluent after birth. The recovery from RDS is characterized by marked changes of PI: this phospholipid rises up to twice its initial value if the infants survive. The PI-increase parallels the clinical improvement and reaches its maximum usually on the 5th day of life. At the time of the PI-peak, the infants' surfactant function is sufficient to maintain alveolar stability with spontaneous breathing. In infants dying from RDS the PI-increase was not observed.

  6. X-ray microanalysis of hamster tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, A.J.; Roomans, G.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelia are of great interest if we are to understand the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystic fibrosis in which ion transport is abnormal. Concentrations of elements were determined in various subcellular regions of normal or isoproterenol-treated hamster tracheal epithelium, using X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections. Samples of trachea were taken from animals under anesthesia and either frozen in situ or dissected and plunge frozen. Concentrations of Mg, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were higher in cytoplasm and nuclei of control epithelial cells in dissected samples than in cryoneedle samples. Following treatment with isoproterenol, a large decrease in the concentration of Cl was observed. The results confirm that cyclic AMP-regulated chloride secretion is unaffected by anesthesia.

  7. Endoscopic laser treatment of subglottic and tracheal stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Alex J.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Reinisch, Lou

    1999-06-01

    The ideal laser produces discrete wounds in a reproducible manner. The CO2 laser with its 10.6 micron wavelength is highly absorbed by water, its energy concentrated at the point of impact and the longer wavelength creates less scatter in tissue. The development of binocular endoscopic delivery system for use with binocular microlaryngoscopes have aided in using CO2 laser to treat patients with subglottic and tracheal stenosis. Often, patients with these disease processes require multiple endoscopic or open reconstructive procedures and my ultimately become tracheotomy dependent. The canine model of subglottic stenosis that has been develop allows testing of new agents as adjuncts to laser treatment. Mitomycin-C is an antibiotic with antitumor activity used in chemotherapy and also in ophthalmologic surgery due to its known inhibition of fibroblast proliferation. Current studies indicate this drug to have significant potential for improving our current management of this disease process.

  8. Modeling expiratory flow from excised tracheal tube laws.

    PubMed

    Aljuri, N; Freitag, L; Venegas, J G

    1999-11-01

    Flow limitation during forced exhalation and gas trapping during high-frequency ventilation are affected by upstream viscous losses and by the relationship between transmural pressure (Ptm) and cross-sectional area (A(tr)) of the airways, i.e., tube law (TL). Our objective was to test the validity of a simple lumped-parameter model of expiratory flow limitation, including the measured TL, static pressure recovery, and upstream viscous losses. To accomplish this objective, we assessed the TLs of various excised animal tracheae in controlled conditions of quasi-static (no flow) and steady forced expiratory flow. A(tr) was measured from digitized images of inner tracheal walls delineated by transillumination at an axial location defining the minimal area during forced expiratory flow. Tracheal TLs followed closely the exponential form proposed by Shapiro (A. H. Shapiro. J. Biomech. Eng. 99: 126-147, 1977) for elastic tubes: Ptm = K(p) [(A(tr)/A(tr0))(-n) - 1], where A(tr0) is A(tr) at Ptm = 0 and K(p) is a parametric factor related to the stiffness of the tube wall. Using these TLs, we found that the simple model of expiratory flow limitation described well the experimental data. Independent of upstream resistance, all tracheae with an exponent n < 2 experienced flow limitation, whereas a trachea with n > 2 did not. Upstream viscous losses, as expected, reduced maximal expiratory flow. The TL measured under steady-flow conditions was stiffer than that measured under expiratory no-flow conditions, only if a significant static pressure recovery from the choke point to atmosphere was assumed in the measurement.

  9. [The thyroid gland in Anothomia Mundini (1316)].

    PubMed

    Lamberg, B A

    2001-01-01

    Andreas Vesalius described the human thyroid lobes very distinctly in his De humani corporis fabrica in 1543 calling them glandulae laryngis. Before him Leonardo da Vinci had depicted the human thyroid gland in his anatomical drawings. The first publication which could be called a textbook of human anatomy, because it was used as the basis for cathedral teaching in human anatomy for about two centuries, was the Anothomia of Mundinus Liucius, Mondino de'Liuzzi, published in 1316. In the chapter on the blood vessels of the neck he describes two glands, which he calls amigdalae, situated under the longitudinal muscles and below the larynx. Their function should be 1) to wet the trachea; 2) to fill the grove below the larynx because the neck was broader above due to the large larynx but much slender below because of the narrower trachea. And 3): they should function as a shield for the deep arteries and veins. Later anatomists at the beginning of the 15th and the 16th century, like Achillini, Massa and Zerbus, all used the text of Mundinus but obviously they tried to locate the glands of Mundinus to the tonsils apparently only because he used the denomination amigdalae. Berengario da Carpi, however, who was a much experienced anatomist, published a large treatise Commentaria super Anothomia Mundini in which he confirms the location of the glands of Mundini below the larynx. Obviously the two glands in the neck Mundinus mentions are the two thyroid lobes. According to his description they cannot be the tonsils because 1) of their location below the larynx, and 2) their function of adequating the appearance of the neck and 3) shielding, at least to some extent, the deep vessels in the neck. Before Mundini there is no similar description of the anatomy of the human neck in the literature, so what he describes must he based upon his own experience. Furthermore, he did the autopsies himself and did not use the assistance of a prosector as the professors after him used to do

  10. [Rapid measurement of human parathyroid hormone-(1-84) by immunoradiometric assay for use in intraoperative determination of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Kousaka, T; Shigeno, C; Kitamura, N; Iwamoto, N; Shiomi, K; Lee, K C; Sone, T; Kikuchi, H; Ohta, S; Yamamoto, I

    1990-02-01

    Rapid measurement of serum intact parathyroid hormone concentration was achieved by modification of an immunoradiometric assay for the hormone. Incubation of serum samples for 15 min at 37 degrees C under shaking gave optimal results in terms of assay variance and reproducibility: intra-assay CVs were less than 10% over the hormone concentrations of 11-1,600 pg/ml; intra- and inter-assay CVs for two control sera at different hormone levels were less than 12%. The minimal detectable hormone concentration was found at 27.8 pg/ml. The serum hormone levels of 43 subjects (31 health subjects, 9 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and 3 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism) determined by either rapid or regular assay well correlated with each other (r2 = 0.979, p less than 0.001). In two patients with parathyroid adenoma serum intact PTH levels fell rapidly to 12.1% of the preoperative values 20 min after ligation of the vascular pedicle to the hyperfunctioning glands. We conclude that the modified assay protocol allows rapid, accurate, and simple estimation of intact PTH concentrations, and can be used as an intraoperative measure to aid both diagnosis and surgical cure of hyperparathyroidism.

  11. MTA1 Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Mirhadi, Hosein; Torabi-Ardekani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are important parts of human neoplasms. The most common SGT is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common malignant SGTs are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Metastasis-associated genes 1 (MTA1), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is one newly discovered gene which recruits histone deacetylation, causing ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling, and regulating transcription. MTA1 had been shown to be overexpressed in malignant tumors with the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples of salivary gland tumors from the Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 17 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 19 cases of ACC, and 23 cases of normal salivary gland tissues were chosen for immunohistochemical analysis of MTA1. Results: MTA1 expression in the malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in pleomorphic adenoma (P<0.001), and higher in pleomorphic adenoma than the normal salivary glands(P< 0.001). In total, 69.6% of normal salivary gland tissues showed MTA1, but all cases of salivary gland tumors were positive for MTA1. High nuclear expression of MTA1 was detected in 83.3% (30/36) of the malignant salivary gland tumors and 45% (9/20) of pleomorphic adenoma, while low MTA1 expression was seen in all of the normal salivary gland tissues. No statistically significant correlation was found between MTA1 protein expression and any clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA1 was significantly overexpressed in malignant salivary gland neoplasm in comparison to a lower level in benign pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting that MTA1 protein might be involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:26878004

  12. Immunohistochemical expression of retinoblastoma pathway proteins in normal salivary glands and in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Etges, A; Nunes, F D; Ribeiro, K C B; Araújo, V C

    2004-03-01

    The expression of G1-phase cell-cycle regulators is commonly deregulated in human malignancies. In the present study, we investigate components of the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway in normal salivary glands (NSG) and in salivary gland tumours (SGT). Samples of NSG, pleomorphic adenoma (PA), adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), malignant myoepithelioma (MEM), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA), and polymorphous, low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies to cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK-4), retinoblastoma protein (pRb), CDK inhibitor p16 and transcription factor E2F-1. In normal salivary glands, cyclin D1 and cdk-4 were not expressed in any case while p16 was positively expressed. pRb was abundant and E2F-1 moderately expressed. In tumors, cdk-4 was overexpressed in half of the cases. Most tumour cases showed decreased pRb immunoexpression compared to normal salivary glands. In contrast, expression of p16 and E2F-1 increased. pRb expression was absent in three cases of PA, two of EMC and one of CEPA. One case of MEM and one of PLGA showed no E2F-1 expression. Statistical analyses revealed positive correlations between cyclin D1 and cdk-4, cyclin D1 and E2F-1, cdk-4 and E2F-1, and p16 and E2F-1. The benign and malignant tumours expressed retinoblastoma pathway proteins differently form the normal salivary gland. Our findings suggest that, pRb pathway deregulation in salivary gland neoplasms is unrelated to their biological behaviour.

  13. Spectrum of Salivary Gland Lesions in a Tertiary Level Hospital.

    PubMed

    Begum, A; Baten, M A; Alam, M M; Huq, M H; Ahsan, M M; Khan, M K; Saleh, F M; Talukder, S I

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively infrequent and account for less than 2% of all human tumors. This study was conducted to see the prevalence of patterns of non neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of salivary glands in greater Mymensingh. It was a retrospective study carried out in the department of Pathology, Community Based Medical College Bangladesh from January 2010 to December 2012. Heamatoxylin and eosin stained sections were studied in all cases. Total 98 cases of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Out of them 55 cases were female and 43 were male. Mean age of the cases were 42 years. Among the salivary gland lesions non-neoplastic lesions 24.48% and neoplastic lesions 75.51%. Among neoplastic lesions benign tumor comprises 91.89% and malignant tumor comprises 8.10%.

  14. The presence of diatom algae in a tracheal wash from a German Wirehaired Pointer with aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Benson, Catherine J; Edlund, Mark B; Gray, Sarah; Powell, Lisa; Paulin-Curlee, Geisa; Armien, Anibal; Overmann, Jed A

    2013-06-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female German Wirehaired Pointer was presented with difficulty breathing after being found seizing in a water-filled drainage ditch while out hunting. Aspirates from a tracheal wash contained numerous degenerate neutrophils, fewer macrophages, some of which contained basophilic debris, low numbers of extracellular diatoms, and a single intracellular short bacterial rod. As the dog continued to clinically decline and could not be weaned from oxygen support, the owners chose euthanasia. The major necropsy finding was a severe granulomatous bronchopneumonia that was likely due to aspiration of foreign material based on the microscopic presence of plant-like material, bi-refringent crystalline material, non-cellular debris, and occasional fungal structures. Diatoms are a class of algae that live primarily in water. Diatom analysis has been used, with some controversy, in human forensics to assist in documenting drowning as the cause of death. In this case, given the clinical history, the presence of diatoms and inflammation in the tracheal wash were interpreted as a likely result of the aspiration of surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of diatoms observed in a cytologic specimen in a nonhuman mammal with aspiration pneumonia.

  15. SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, George S.; Helsper, James T.

    1960-01-01

    In a review of a series of 248 salivary gland tumors, seen over a 28-year period, all pathologic material was brought up to date by reclassification according to more recent criteria and nomenclature. In parotid tumors, a probable lowered recurrence rate and a definite decrease in incidence of permanent facial nerve paralysis was found in the more recent cases in which the “Y” incision was used, with identification of the seventh nerve as it leaves the stylomastoid foramen. The five-year recurrence rate for primary mixed tumor was 8.3 per cent, and in recurrent cases it was found to be 18.1 per cent. Of 44 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors in all sites who were observed for five years or more, 32 or 72.7 per cent survived five years. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:18732337

  16. Immunobiology of the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, L M; Shafer-Weaver, K; DeRosa, D

    1997-08-01

    The mammary gland is a complex organ that provides neonatal offspring with milk for nourishment and disease resistance. Specific and innate immune factors associated with mammary gland tissues and secretion also play a vital role in protecting the gland from infectious disease. Through genetic selection and technological advances in milk removal, the bovine mammary gland yields for more milk than is needed to nourish the newborn calf. This excess is the basis of the dairy industry. Factors associated with the intense management of dairy cattle can profoundly affect mammary gland immunity and the ability of the host to resist mastitis. Technological advances in immunology have led to the availability of new research tools that can facilitate the study of mammary gland immunity and disease pathogenesis. In recent years, considerable research effort has focused on enhancing the natural defense mechanisms of the mammary gland during periods of heightened susceptibility to disease. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity with special emphasis on the bovine system. The underlying mechanisms of disease susceptibility and development of potential immunoregulatory strategies to control mastitis are discussed.

  17. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  18. Tracheal varices caused by mediastinal compression of a large intrathoracic goiter: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    LUCCHINI, R.; SANTOPRETE, S.; TRIOLA, R.; POLISTENA, A.; MONACELLI, M.; AVENIA, S.; SANGUINETTI, A.; PUMA, F.; AVENIA, N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tracheal varices are a rare condition but they can be an important source of massive or recurrent haemoptysis. Usually they are related to increased pressure in the pulmonary veins. Mediastinal goiter is often associated to compressive effects on the surrounding structures, including mediastinal vessels with potential superior vena cava syndrome. Case report We describe a case, not previously reported in literature, of mediastinal goiter with hemoptysis as first clinical manifestation. Bleeding was attributed to a superior vena cava syndrome associated to a tracheal fragile mucosa with an easily bleeding intramural nodule which was diagnosed as tracheal varices after total thyroidectomy. The nodule in fact disappeared together with the venous hypertensive signs after venous decompression of the mediastinum. Conclusions Compressive symptoms including tracheal varices, related to mediastinal goiter, can be treated surgically by total thyroidectomy via cervicotomy and when required with associated median sternotomy. PMID:25827666

  19. Infected tracheal diverticulum: a rare association with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Cecília Beatriz Alves; Silva, Sónia; Feijó, Salvato

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal diverticulum, defined as a benign outpouching of the tracheal wall, is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice. It can be congenital or acquired in origin, and most cases are asymptomatic, typically being diagnosed postmortem. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who was hospitalized after presenting with fever, fatigue, pleuritic chest pain, and a right neck mass complicated by dysphagia. Her medical history was significant: pulmonary emphysema (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency); bronchiectasis; and thyroidectomy. On physical examination, she presented diminished breath sounds and muffled heart sounds, with a systolic murmur. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, a CT scan showed an air-filled, multilocular mass in the right tracheal wall, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the CT findings. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy failed to reveal any abnormalities. Nevertheless, the patient was diagnosed with tracheal diverticulum. The treatment approach was conservative, consisting mainly of antibiotics. After showing clinical improvement, the patient was discharged.

  20. Usefulness of ultrasound for selecting a correctly sized uncuffed tracheal tube for paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bae, J-Y; Byon, H-J; Han, S-S; Kim, H-S; Kim, J-T

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether ultrasonography is useful for determining uncuffed tracheal tube sizes for paediatric patients. The equation for selecting the correctly sized tracheal tube was developed using data on the subglottic diameter measured by ultrasonography and air leak test. The efficacy of the new equation was evaluated by comparing it with the conventional age-based formula (4 + age/4) in another 100 patients. Tracheal tube sizes were selected using two methods, and air leakage pressure was measured after each intubation. The ultrasonographic method allowed the correct tube size to be selected in 60% of cases, whereas the age-based method enabled this in 31% of cases (p < 0.001). Ultrasound can offer a useful means of selecting correct tracheal tube size compared with the age-based formula in paediatric patients. However, even using ultrasound, the success rate of correct tube size selection is still not very high.

  1. Long-term outcome of conventional endotracheal tube balloon dilation of tracheal stenosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Nili; Segev, Gilad

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a successful dilation of tracheal stenosis in a 16-year-old dog using a conventional endotracheal tube balloon. This technique should be considered as palliative treatment when owners decline other therapeutic options. PMID:24381344

  2. Hedgehog Is a Positive Regulator of FGF Signalling during Embryonic Tracheal Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Butí, Elisenda; Mesquita, Duarte; Araújo, Sofia J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a widespread and complex process that is crucial for morphogenesis and for the underlying invasion and metastasis of human cancers. During migration, cells are steered toward target sites by guidance molecules that induce cell direction and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. The spatio-temporal regulation of the expression of these guidance molecules is of extreme importance for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. One way to achieve this precise regulation is by combinatorial inputs of different transcription factors. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster mutants with migration defects in the ganglionic branches of the tracheal system to further clarify guidance regulation during cell migration. By studying the cellular consequences of overactivated Hh signalling, using ptc mutants, we found that Hh positively regulates Bnl/FGF levels during embryonic stages. Our results show that Hh modulates cell migration non-autonomously in the tissues surrounding the action of its activity. We further demonstrate that the Hh signalling pathway regulates bnl expression via Stripe (Sr), a zinc-finger transcription factor with homology to the Early Growth Response (EGR) family of vertebrate transcription factors. We propose that Hh modulates embryonic cell migration by participating in the spatio-temporal regulation of bnl expression in a permissive mode. By doing so, we provide a molecular link between the activation of Hh signalling and increased chemotactic responses during cell migration. PMID:24651658

  3. Moving towards in situ tracheal regeneration: the bionic tissue engineered transplantation approach

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Augustinus; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In June 2008, the world’s first whole tissue-engineered organ – the windpipe – was successfully transplanted into a 31-year-old lady, and about 18 months following surgery she is leading a near normal life without immunosuppression. This outcome has been achieved by employing three groundbreaking technologies of regenerative medicine: (i) a donor trachea first decellularized using a detergent (without denaturing the collagenous matrix), (ii) the two main autologous tracheal cells, namely mesenchymal stem cell derived cartilage-like cells and epithelial respiratory cells and (iii) a specifically designed bioreactor that reseed, before implantation, the in vitro pre-expanded and pre-differentiated autologous cells on the desired surfaces of the decellularized matrix. Given the long-term safety, efficacy and efforts using such a conventional approach and the potential advantages of regenerative implants to make them available for anyone, we have investigated a novel alternative concept how to fully avoid in vitro cell replication, expansion and differentiation, use the human native site as micro-niche, potentiate the human body’s site-specific response by adding boosting, permissive and recruitment impulses in full respect of sociological and regulatory prerequisites. This tissue-engineered approach and ongoing research in airway transplantation is reviewed and presented here. PMID:20406329

  4. Multiple sites of impingement of a tracheal tube as it is advanced over a fibreoptic bronchoscope or tracheal tube introducer in anaesthetized, paralysed patients.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A H; Orr, B; Yeo, C; Parker, C; Craven, R; Greenberg, S L

    2006-08-01

    Impingement of the tracheal tube on upper airway structures occurs commonly during advancement over a fibreoptic bronchoscope or introducer. In this descriptive study a fibrescope was used to assess the site and mechanism of tracheal tube impingement during advancement over a variety of fibreoptic bronchoscopes and introducers during orotracheal intubation in anaesthetized adults. The effect of the 90 degree counterclockwise rotation manoeuvre in overcoming impingement was also assessed. We recorded impingement at the right arytenoid, left arytenoid, epiglottis, interarytenoid tissue and the left pyriform fossa. Our study found a wider range of sites at which impingement may occur than in previous studies. We also found that when 90 degree counterclockwise rotation of the tip of the tracheal tube was achieved, the impingement was reliably overcome.

  5. Schwannoma of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Diaz, D D; Kennedy, K S; Parker, G S; White, V J

    1991-01-01

    Neurilemmomas (schwannomas) are solitary neurogenic tumors that arise from cells of the neural sheath. They are slow growing and represent a proliferation of Schwann cells. Extracranial neurogenic tumors of the head and neck are uncommon, with benign tumors occurring with greater frequency than malignant tumors. These tumors often mimic primary or metastatic disease in the head and neck. Schwannoma of the salivary gland is a particularly rare form of an extracranial neurogenic tumor, with most presenting in the parotid gland originating from a peripheral branch of the facial nerve. An unusual case of neurilemmoma of the submandibular gland is presented, and the literature concerning this subject is reviewed. We believe this tumor originated in an autonomic nerve of the submandibular gland. The mass was discrete and well demonstrated on CT scan. Total excision of the gland resulted in complete resolution of symptoms with no cranial nerve deficits.

  6. The preparation of chicken tracheal organ cultures for virus isolation, propagation, and titration.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brenda V; Hennion, Ruth M

    2008-01-01

    Chicken tracheal organ cultures (TOCs), comprising transverse sections of chick embryo trachea with beating cilia, have proved useful in the isolation of several respiratory viruses and as a viral assay system, using ciliostasis as the criterion for infection. A simple technique for the preparation of chicken tracheal organ cultures in glass test tubes, in which virus growth and ciliostasis can be readily observed, is described.

  7. The preparation of chicken tracheal organ cultures for virus isolation, propagation, and titration.

    PubMed

    Hennion, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken tracheal organ cultures (TOCs), comprising transverse sections of chick embryo trachea with beating cilia, have proved useful in the isolation of several respiratory viruses and as a viral assay system, using ciliostasis as the criterion for infection. A simple technique for the preparation of chicken tracheal organ cultures in glass test tubes, in which virus growth and ciliostasis can be readily observed, is described.

  8. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    PubMed

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Diciotti, Stefano; Bigazzi, Francesca; Lombardo, Simone; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Paoletti, Matteo; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory-expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT) and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28) and in females (n=27). Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10) showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001). Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory-expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second), and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD are closely correlated. In patients with a predominant emphysematous phenotype, a reduced collapsibility may reflect the mechanical properties of the stiff hyperinflated emphysematous lung. The high collapsibility in patients with predominant airway disease, mild airway obstruction, and in women with this phenotype may reflect chronic airway inflammation. The lack of relationship with such symptoms as wheezing, cough, and dyspnea could indicate that intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility itself should be considered neither an abnormal feature of COPD nor a relevant clinical finding. PMID:25960647

  9. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Diciotti, Stefano; Bigazzi, Francesca; Lombardo, Simone; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Paoletti, Matteo; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT) and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28) and in females (n=27). Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10) showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001). Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second), and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD are closely correlated. In patients with a predominant emphysematous phenotype, a reduced collapsibility may reflect the mechanical properties of the stiff hyperinflated emphysematous lung. The high collapsibility in patients with predominant airway disease, mild airway obstruction, and in women with this phenotype may reflect chronic airway inflammation. The lack of relationship with such symptoms as wheezing, cough, and dyspnea could indicate that intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility itself should be considered neither an abnormal feature of COPD nor a relevant clinical finding. PMID:25960647

  10. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  11. HIV lymphadenitis of the salivary gland: A case with cytological and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Avani; Kini, Hema; Pai, Radha R; Rau, Aarathi R

    2009-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection associated lymphadenitis of the salivary glands (HIVLSG) and benign lymphoepithelial cysts are described as early events in HIV patients. The diagnosis is not usually made clinically as it mimics a salivary gland tumor. We present here a patient with two painless nodules in the right parotid and submandibular glands. The cytological diagnosis was florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Histopathology revealed features of HIVLSG with multiple, small, cystic, benign lymphoepithelial lesions.

  12. Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.

    PubMed

    Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries.

  13. Adhesion and protease activity in cell lines from human salivary gland tumors are regulated by the laminin-derived peptide AG73, syndecan-1 and beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Gama-de-Souza, Letícia N; Cyreno-Oliveira, Elaine; Freitas, Vanessa M; Melo, Edielle S; Vilas-Boas, Vanessa F; Moriscot, Anselmo S; Jaeger, Ruy G

    2008-06-01

    We studied the induction of protease activity by the laminin alpha1-derived peptide AG73 in cells from adenoid cystic carcinoma (CAC2) and myoepithelioma (M1), respectively a malignant and a benign salivary gland tumors. Laminin alpha1 chain and MMP9 were immunolocalized in adenoid cystic carcinoma and myoepithelioma in vivo and in vitro. Cells grown inside AG73-enriched laminin-111 exhibited large spaces in the extracellular matrix, suggestive of remodeling. The broad spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 decreased spaces induced by AG73 in CAC2 and M1 cells. This result strongly suggests that AG73-mediated matrix remodeling involves matrix metalloproteinases. CAC2 and M1 cells cultured on AG73 showed a dose-dependent increase of MMP9 secretion, as detected by zymography. Furthermore, siRNA silencing of MMP9 decreased remodeling in 3D cultures. We searched for AG73 receptors regulating MMP9 activity in our cell lines. CAC2 and M1 cells grown on AG73 exhibited colocalization of syndecan-1 and beta1 integrin. siRNA knockdown of syndecan-1 expression in these cells resulted in decreased adhesion to AG73 and reduced protease and remodeling activity. We investigated syndecan-1 co-receptors in both cell lines. Silencing beta1 integrin inhibited adhesion to AG73, matrix remodeling and protease activity. Double-knockdown experiments were carried out to further explore syndecan-1 and beta1 integrin cooperation. CAC2 cells transfected with both syndecan-1 and beta1 integrin siRNA oligos showed significant decrease in adhesion to AG73. Simultaneous silencing of receptors also induced a decrease in protease activity. Our results suggest that syndecan-1 and beta1 integrin signaling downstream of AG73 regulate adhesion and MMP production by CAC2 and M1 cells.

  14. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  15. Patterns and density of early tracheal colonization in intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Durairaj, Lakshmi; Mohamad, Zeinab; Launspach, Janice L.; Ashare, Alix; Choi, James Y.; Rajagopal, Srinivasan; Doern, Gary V.; Zabner, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe patterns and density of early tracheal colonization among intubated patients and correlate colonization status with levels of antimicrobial peptides and inflammatory cytokines. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Medical and cardiovascular intensive care units (ICU) of a tertiary referral hospital. Patients 74 adult patients admitted between March 2003 and May 2006. Interventions Tracheal aspirates were collected daily for the first four days of intubation using standardized, sterile technique and sent for quantitative culture and cytokines, lactoferrin and lysozyme measurements. Measurements and main results The mean APACHE II score in this cohort was 24 ± 7. Proportion of subjects colonized by any microorganism increased over the first four days of intubation (47%, 60%, 70%, 70%, p=0.08) but density of colonization for bacteria or yeast did not change significantly. No known risk factors predicted tracheal colonization on day 1 of intubation. Several patterns of colonization were observed (persistent, transient, new colonization and clearance of initial colonization).The most common organisms cultured were Candida albicans and coagulase negative staphylococcus. Levels of cytokines, lactoferrin or lysozyme did not change over time and were not correlated with tracheal colonization status. Four subjects (6%) had ventilator-associated pneumonia. Conclusions The density of tracheal colonization did not change significantly over the first four days of intubation in medical ICU patients. There was no correlation between tracheal colonization and the levels of antimicrobial peptides or cytokines. Several different patterns of colonization may have to be considered while planning interventions to reduce airway colonization. PMID:19272547

  16. Iatrogenic post-intubation tracheal rupture treated conservatively without intubation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Prunet, Bertrand; Lacroix, Guillaume; Asencio, Yves; Cathelinaud, Olivier; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Goutorbe, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background Tracheal rupture is a rare but life-threatening complication that most commonly occurrs after blunt trauma to the chest, but which may also complicate tracheal intubation. We report a case of post-intubation tracheal rupture after cataract surgery under general anesthesia treated conservatively. Case presentation Four hours after extubation, a 67 year-old woman developed subcutaneous emphysema of the facial, bilateral laterocervical and upper anterior chest. Tracheobronchial fiberendoscopy showed a posterior tracheal transmural rupture 4 cm long located 2.5 cm above the carina that opened in inspiration. The location of the lesion and features of the patient favoured conservative treatment with antibiotic cover. The patient made a full and uncomplicated recovery and was discharged fourteen days after the original injury. Conclusion Two therapeutic strategies are currently employed for post-intubation tracheal rupture: a non-surgical strategy for small injuries and a surgical strategy for larger injuries. This case report presented the non-surgical therapeutic strategy of a large tracheal injury. PMID:18945364

  17. Mechanical properties of tracheal tubes in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Matthew R.; De Vita, Raffaella; Twigg, Jeffrey N.; Socha, John J.

    2011-09-01

    Insects breathe using an extensive network of flexible air-filled tubes. In some species, the rapid collapse and reinflation of these tubes is used to drive convective airflow, a system that may have bio-inspired engineering applications. The mechanical behavior of these tracheal tubes is critical to understanding how they function in this deformation process. Here, we performed quasi-static tensile tests on ring sections of the main thoracic tracheal trunks from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) to determine the tracheal mechanical properties in the radial direction. The experimental findings indicate that the stress-strain relationships of these tracheal tubes exhibit some nonlinearities. The elastic modulus of the linear region of the stress-strain curves tubes was found to be 1660 ± 512 MPa. The ultimate tensile strength, ultimate strain and toughness were found to be 23.7 ± 7.33 MPa, 2.0 ± 0.7% and 0.207 ± 0.153 MJ m-3, respectively. This study is the first experimental quantification of insect tracheal tissue, and represents a necessary step toward understanding the mechanical role of tracheal tubes in insect respiration.

  18. Fascin links Btl/FGFR signalling to the actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okenve-Ramos, Pilar; Llimargas, Marta

    2014-02-01

    A key challenge in normal development and in disease is to elucidate the mechanisms of cell migration. Here we approach this question using the tracheal system of Drosophila as a model. Tracheal cell migration requires the Breathless/FGFR pathway; however, how the pathway induces migration remains poorly understood. We find that the Breathless pathway upregulates singed at the tip of tracheal branches, and that this regulation is functionally relevant. singed encodes Drosophila Fascin, which belongs to a conserved family of actin-bundling proteins involved in cancer progression and metastasis upon misregulation. We show that singed is required for filopodia stiffness and proper morphology of tracheal tip cells, defects that correlate with an abnormal actin organisation. We propose that singed-regulated filopodia and cell fronts are required for timely and guided branch migration and for terminal branching and branch fusion. We find that singed requirements rely on its actin-bundling activity controlled by phosphorylation, and that active Singed can promote tip cell features. Furthermore, we find that singed acts in concert with forked, another actin cross-linker. The absence of both cross-linkers further stresses the relevance of tip cell morphology and filopodia for tracheal development. In summary, our results on the one hand reveal a previously undescribed role for forked in the organisation of transient actin structures such as filopodia, and on the other hand identify singed as a new target of Breathless signal, establishing a link between guidance cues, the actin cytoskeleton and tracheal morphogenesis.

  19. Systemic overexpression of matricellular protein CCN1 exacerbates obliterative bronchiolitis in mouse tracheal allografts.

    PubMed

    Raissadati, Alireza; Nykänen, Antti I; Tuuminen, Raimo; Syrjälä, Simo O; Krebs, Rainer; Arnaudova, Ralica; Rouvinen, Eeva; Wang, Xiaomin; Poller, Wolfgang; Lemström, Karl B

    2015-12-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) involves airway epithelial detachment, fibroproliferation, and inflammation, resulting in chronic rejection and transplant failure. Cysteine-rich 61 (CCN1) is an integrin receptor antagonist with a context-dependent role in inflammatory and fibroproliferative processes. We used a mouse tracheal OB model to investigate the role of CCN1 in the development of lung allograft OB. C57Bl/6 mice received a systemic injection of CCN1-expressing adenoviral vectors 2 days prior to subcutaneous implantation of tracheal allografts from major MHC-mismatched BALB/c mice. We treated another group of tracheal allograft recipients with cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide to dissect the role of αvβ3-integrin signaling in mediating CCN1 effects in tracheal allografts. Allografts were removed 4 weeks after transplantation and analyzed for luminal occlusion, inflammation, and vasculogenesis. CCN1 overexpression induced luminal occlusion (P < 0.05), fibroproliferation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation (P < 0.05). Selective activation of αvβ3-integrin receptor failed to mimic the actions of CCN1, and blocking failed to inhibit the effects of CCN1 in tracheal allografts. In conclusion, CCN1 exacerbates tracheal OB by enhancing fibroproliferation via an αvβ3-integrin-independent pathway. Further experiments are required to uncover its potentially harmful role in the development of OB after lung transplantation.

  20. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics.