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Sample records for human tracheal gland

  1. Lubiprostone stimulates secretion from tracheal submucosal glands of sheep, pigs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Joo, N S; Wine, J J; Cuthbert, A W

    2009-05-01

    Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 chloride channel opener, has been investigated for its effects on airway epithelia (tracheas). Lubiprostone is shown to increase submucosal gland secretion in pigs, sheep, and humans and to increase short-circuit current (SCC) in the surface epithelium of pigs and sheep. Use of appropriate blocking agents and ion-substitution experiments shows anion secretion is the driving force for fluid formation in both glands and surface epithelium. From SCC concentration-response relations, it is shown that for apical lubiprostone K(d) = 10.5 nM with a Hill slope of 1.08, suggesting a single type of binding site and, from the speed of the response, close to the apical surface, confirmed the rapid blockade by Cd ions. Responses to lubiprostone were reversible and repeatable, responses being significantly larger with ventral compared with dorsal epithelium. Submucosal gland secretion rates following basolateral lubiprostone were, respectively, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 nl gl(-1) min(-1) in humans, sheep, and pigs. These rates dwarf any contribution surface secretion adds to the accumulation of surface liquid under the influence of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone stimulated gland secretion in two out of four human cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues and in two of three disease controls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (COPD/IPF), but in neither type of tissue was the increase significant. Lubiprostone was able to increase gland secretion rates in normal human tissue in the continuing presence of a high forskolin concentration. Lubiprostone had no spasmogenic activity on trachealis muscle, making it a potential agent for increasing airway secretion that may have therapeutic utility.

  2. Neuropeptides degranulate serous cells of ferret tracheal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Gashi, A.A.; Borson, D.B.; Finkbeiner, W.E.; Nadel, J.A.; Basbaum, C.B.

    1986-08-01

    To determine whether serous or mucous cells in tracheal submucosal glands respond to the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The authors studied the peptide-induced changes in gland cell morphology accompanying release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules from tracheal explants of ferrets. Explants were labeled for 1 h in medium containing TVSO4 and washed for 3.5 additional hours. Base-line secretion in the absence of drugs declined between 1.5 and 3.5 h after the pulse. Between 2.5 and 3.5 h, the average percent change in counts per minute recovered per sample period was not significantly different from zero. Substance P and VIP added 4 h after labeling each increased greatly the release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules above base line. Bethanechol, a muscarinic-cholinergic agonist, increased secretion by an average of 142% above base line. Light and electron microscopy of the control tissues showed glands with narrow lumens and numerous secretory granules. Glands treated with SP or VIP had enlarged lumens and the serous cells were markedly degranulated. These phenomena were documented by morphometry and suggest that SP and VIP cause secretion from glands at least partially by stimulating exocytosis from serous cells.

  3. Postnatal development of tracheal surface epithelium and submucosal glands in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Leigh, M W; Gambling, T M; Carson, J L; Collier, A M; Wood, R E; Boat, T F

    1986-01-01

    We explored the usefulness of the postnatal ferret as a model for early developmental events in the large airways, using light and scanning electron microscopy. In the first 28 postnatal days, ferret tracheal surface epithelium and glands undergo dramatic growth and development. Tracheal surface area increases 8-fold. At birth, ciliated cells are sparse (9.4 +/- 1.2% of total epithelial cells). A significant increase in ciliated cells is observed at weekly intervals and by day 28 the ciliated cell is the predominant cell type (54.2 +/- 2.8% of total epithelial cells). Secretory cells decrease from 66.4 +/- 1.0% at birth to 22.2 +/- 2.8% of total epithelial cells. Histochemical staining of the granules of the epithelial secretory cells changes from predominantly non-acidic (staining with PAS but not Alcian blue) to predominantly acidic (staining also with Alcian blue). During the same time interval, tracheal glands develop from intraepithelial cellular aggregates devoid of secretory granules at birth into complex, submucosal tubuloacinar structures composed predominantly of cells containing non-acidic secretory granules at 28 days. Therefore, infant ferrets offer an opportunity to examine the structural and functional components of the mucociliary clearance mechanism at developmental stages which occur prenatally in many laboratory animals and in humans.

  4. Mucus secretion by single tracheal submucosal glands from normal and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ianowski, Juan P; Choi, Jae Young; Wine, Jeffrey J; Hanrahan, John W

    2007-01-01

    Submucosal glands line the cartilaginous airways and produce most of the antimicrobial mucus that keeps the airways sterile. The glands are defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), but how this impacts airway health remains uncertain. Although most CF mouse strains exhibit mild airway defects, those with the C57Bl/6 genetic background have increased airway pathology and susceptibility to Pseudomonas. Thus, they offer the possibility of studying whether, and if so how, abnormal submucosal gland function contributes to CF airway disease. We used optical methods to study fluid secretion by individual glands in tracheas from normal, wild-type (WT) mice and from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) knockout mice (Cftrm1UNC/Cftrm1UNC; CF mice). Glands from WT mice qualitatively resembled those in humans by responding to carbachol and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), although the relative rates of VIP- and forskolin-stimulated secretion were much lower in mice than in large mammals. The pharmacology of mouse gland secretion was also similar to that in humans; adding bumetanide or replacement of HCO3− by Hepes reduced the carbachol response by ∼50%, and this inhibition increased to 80% when both manoeuvres were performed simultaneously. It is important to note that glands from CFTR knockout mice responded to carbachol but did not secrete when exposed to VIP or forskolin, as has been shown previously for glands from CF patients. Tracheal glands from WT and CF mice both had robust secretory responses to electrical field stimulation that were blocked by tetrodotoxin. It is interesting that local irritation of the mucosa using chili pepper oil elicited secretion from WT glands but did not stimulate glands from CF mice. These results clarify the mechanisms of murine submucosal gland secretion and reveal a novel defect in local regulation of glands lacking CFTR which may also compromise airway defence in CF patients. PMID:17204498

  5. Characterization of muscarinic receptors on isolated swine tracheal submucosal gland cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.M.; Dwyer, T.M.; Farley, J.M.

    1986-03-05

    Muscarinic receptors play an important role in the regulation of tracheobronchial secretion. Tracheal epithelium was cut into small pieces (approx.10 mm/sup 2/) and dissociated using collagenase in HEPES-Ringer solution at 37/sup 0/C. After dissociation the glands cells were isolated by discontinuous Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Submucosal gland cells concentrated above the layers with densities of 1.084 and 1.057 g/ml after centrifugation at x 500 g for 10 min at 15/sup 0/C. Cell viability was > 95% as determined by exclusion of trypan blue. Over 98% of the isolated cells were identified by periodic acid Schiff staining method to be gland cells. Muscarinic receptors on intact gland cells were characterized using the binding of specific muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) binding. Scatchard plot analysis of saturation isotherms, showed that the maximal receptor density (B/sub max/) and dissociation constant (K/sub D/) were 7400 +/- 200 sites/cell and 100 +/- 20 pM, respectively (n = 3). These two parameters were less than those from cat tracheal gland cells, B/sub max/ = 42,000 sites/cell and K/sub D/ = 200 pM. In conclusion, this study provided a useful method to isolate tracheal gland cells and characterized the presence of muscarinic receptors on isolated intact cells.

  6. Effects of ozone on the cholinergic secretory responsiveness of ferret tracheal glands

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.; Oberdoerster, G.; Marin, M.G. )

    1991-06-01

    Oxidant air pollutants exacerbate several pulmonary diseases. Inhalation of ozone has been shown to induce airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness. Oxidant injury could also affect airway secretory mechanisms. The authors postulated that oxidant exposure would alter the glycoconjugate secretory function of airway submucosal glands. To test this hypothesis they examined the effects of in vivo ozone exposure on the in vitro secretory responsiveness of ferret tracheal glands. Ferrets were exposed to 1 ppm ozone, 24 hr/day for 3 or 7 days. Following exposure, glandular explants, denuded of surface epithelial cells, were prepared and incubated in medium containing 3H-glucosamine for 18 hr. Basal secretion of labeled glycoconjugates was significantly increased 31% following 3 days of ozone exposure (P less than or equal to 0.05) and remained elevated 11% after 7 days of exposure compared to the air-exposed group. After 3 or 7 days of exposure to ozone, tracheal gland responsiveness to carbachol was increased as indicated by significantly lower EC50 values (log molar concentration) of -6.43 {plus minus} 0.04 (n = 6) and -6.50 {plus minus} 0.11 (n = 5), respectively; compared to -6.20 {plus minus} 0.08 (n = 6) for the air-exposed group. There was no difference in carbachol EC50 values for air and 7-day ozone-exposed animals treated with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone did not attenuate the ozone-induced increase in basal secretion. Tracheal gland responsiveness to {alpha}- or {beta}-adrenergic agonists was not changed by oxidant exposure. These experiments suggest that oxidant injury not only increases basal secretion of respiratory glycoconjugates but also increases tracheal gland sensitivity to a cholinergic agonist.

  7. An Apical-Membrane Chloride Channel in Human Tracheal Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanism of chloride transport by airway epithelia has been of substantial interest because airway and sweat gland-duct epithelia are chloride-impermeable in cystic fibrosis. The decreased chloride permeability prevents normal secretion by the airway epithelium, thereby interfering with mucociliary clearance and contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Because chloride secretion depends on and is regulated by chloride conductance in the apical cell membrane, the patch-clamp technique was used to directly examine single-channel currents in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium. The cells contained an anion-selective channel that was not strongly voltage-gated or regulated by calcium in cell-free patches. The channel was also blocked by analogs of carboxylic acid that decrease apical chloride conductance in intact epithelia. When attached to the cell, the channel was activated by isoproterenol, although the channel was also observed to open spontaneously. However, in some cases, the channel was only observed after the patch was excised from the cell. These results suggest that this channel is responsible for the apical chloride conductance in airway epithelia.

  8. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  9. Human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell sheets with bellows graft for rapid tracheal epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Hun; Park, Ju Young; Nam, Inn-Chul; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kim, Choung-Soo; Jung, Jin Woo; Jang, Jinah; Lee, Hyungseok; Choi, Yeongjin; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Rapid functional epithelial regeneration on the luminal surface is essential when using artificial tracheal grafts to repair tracheal defects. In this study, we imposed human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell (hTMSC) sheets for tracheal epithelial regeneration, and then assessed their potential as a new clinical cell source. In vitro, hTMSCs sheets showed high capacity to differentiate into tracheal epithelium. We fabricated a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) tracheal graft by indirect three-dimensional (3D) printing technique and created a composite construct by transplanting the hTMSC sheets to its luminal surface of the tracheal graft, then applied this tissue-engineered tracheal graft to non-circumferential tracheal reconstruction in a rabbit model. 4 weeks after implantation, the luminal surface of tissue-engineered tracheal graft was covered by a mature and highly-ciliated epithelium, whereas tracheal grafts without hTMSC sheets were covered by only a thin, immature epithelium. Therefore, hTMSC sheets on the luminal surface of a tissue-engineered tracheal graft can accelerate the tracheal epithelial regeneration, and the tissue-engineered tracheal graft with hTMSC sheets provides a useful clinical alternative for tracheal epithelial regeneration.

  10. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    PubMed

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Muscarinic receptors: evidence for a nonuniform distribution in tracheal smooth muscle and exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Basbaum, C.B.; Grillo, M.A.; Widdicombe, J.H.

    1984-02-01

    Muscarinic receptor distribution in smooth muscle, exocrine glands, and epithelium of the ferret trachea was determined using (3H)propylbenzilylcholine mustard ((3H)PrBCM) binding and autoradiography. Specific, atropine-sensitive (3H)PrBCM binding was quantified autoradiographically in the trachealis muscle (approximately 21 binding sites/microns2), surface epithelium (approximately 6 binding sites/microns2), and submucosal glands (approximately 5 binding sites/microns2). Serous and mucous cells in the glands did not differ in receptor density. Binding sites on gland and epithelial cells were associated with basolateral membranes. In the trachealis muscle, a gradient in receptor density was observed, with outer layers of muscle containing 3 to 10 times more receptors per unit area than inner layers. Receptor distribution in both glands and muscle paralleled the distribution of cholinergic axons. However, at the light microscope level, there was no evidence for the presence of receptor ''hot spots'' related to the position of individual axons. The parallelism in the distribution of axons and receptors suggests the possibility of neural control of the genesis and/or maintenance of receptor distribution in these tissues.

  12. Carbocisteine inhibits rhinovirus infection in human tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, H; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, T; Inoue, D; Nakayama, K; Yamada, M; Asada, M; Yoshida, M; Suzuki, T; Nishimura, H; Sasaki, H

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a mucolytic drug, carbocisteine, on rhinovirus (RV) infection in the airways. Human tracheal epithelial cells were infected with a major-group RV, RV14. RV14 infection increased virus titres and the cytokine content of supernatants. Carbocisteine reduced supernatant virus titres, the amount of RV14 RNA in cells, cell susceptibility to RV infection and supernatant cytokine concentrations, including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, after RV14 infection. Carbocisteine reduced the expression of mRNA encoding intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, the receptor for the major group of RVs. It also reduced the supernatant concentration of a soluble form of ICAM-1, the number and fluorescence intensity of acidic endosomes in the cells before RV infection, and nuclear factor-kappaB activation by RV14. Carbocisteine also reduced the supernatant virus titres of the minor group RV, RV2, although carbocisteine did not reduce the expression of mRNA encoding a low density lipoprotein receptor, the receptor for RV2. These results suggest that carbocisteine inhibits rhinovirus 2 infection by blocking rhinovirus RNA entry into the endosomes, and inhibits rhinovirus 14 infection by the same mechanism as well as by reducing intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels. Carbocisteine may modulate airway inflammation by reducing the production of cytokines in rhinovirus infection.

  13. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Wronski, A; Arendt, L M; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Although mouse models have provided invaluable information on the mechanisms of mammary gland development, anatomical and developmental differences between human and mice limit full understanding of this fundamental process. Humanization of the mouse mammary gland by injecting immortalized human breast stromal cells into the cleared murine mammary fat pad enables the growth and development of human mammary epithelial cells or tissue. This facilitates the characterization of human mammary gland development or tumorigenesis by utilizing the mouse mammary fat pad. Here we describe the process of isolating human mammary stromal and epithelial cells as well as their introduction into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice.

  14. Goblet Cell Glycoprotein and Tracheal Gland Hypertrophy in Rat Airways: The Effect of Tobacco Smoke with or without the Anti-Inflammatory Agent Phenylmethyloxadiazole

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R.; Bolduc, P.; Reid, L.

    1973-01-01

    A quantitative analysis has been made of tracheal gland size and of histochemical changes occurring in goblet cells of the respiratory epithelium, in rats exposed either to tobacco smoke alone or to tobacco smoke with phenylmethyloxadiazole (PMO). Exposure to tobacco smoke alone causes an increase in goblet cell number with a shift from the production of neutral to acid glycoprotein, mainly sialidase resistant sialomucin but some sialidase sensitive sialomucin and sulphomucin. Acid glycoprotein, and each of its types, appears first at the cell apex. The addition of PMO to the tobacco protects against the increase in goblet cell number but gives no protection against the shift from neutral to acid glycoprotein and causes a larger secretory mass within the goblet cell. In the tracheal gland exposure to smoke from either tobacco alone or tobacco with PMO causes a significant increase in cell size and acinar diameter and a lesser increase in lumen diameter. There is also an increase in the thickness of the gland and its depth. Each of these gland changes is more pronounced in those animals receiving PMO with the tobacco. PMID:4121724

  15. Proteome of human minor salivary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, W L; Salih, E; Wan, D L; Helmerhorst, E J; Oppenheim, F G

    2008-05-01

    Recent research efforts in oral biology have resulted in elucidation of the proteomes of major human salivary secretions and whole saliva. One might hypothesize that the proteome of minor gland secretions may show significantly different characteristics when compared with the proteomes of parotid or submandibular/sublingual secretions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted the first exploration into the proteome of minor salivary gland secretion. Minor gland secretion was obtained from healthy volunteers, and its components were subjected to liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry. This led to the identification of 56 proteins, 12 of which had never been identified in any salivary secretion. The unique characteristics of the minor salivary gland secretion proteome are related to the types as well as the numbers of components present. The differences between salivary proteomes may be important with respect to specific oral functions.

  16. Morphogenesis of the human lacrimal gland

    PubMed Central

    de la Cuadra-Blanco, C; Peces-Peña, M D; Mérida-Velasco, J R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main stages of the lacrimal gland's developmental process in humans and to establish its precise morphogenetic timetable. Its onset is generally assumed to take place at O'Rahilly's stage 21, arising from an epithelial thickening of the superior extreme of the temporary conjunctival fornix. However, the present study points to a prior stage in the process: the presence of epithelial–mesenchymal changes in embryos at O'Rahilly's stage 19. The study was performed using light microscopy on serial sections of 37 human specimens: 23 embryos and 14 fetuses ranging from 15 to 137 mm crown–rump length (7–116 weeks of development). Three stages in lacrimal gland morphogenesis were identified: (1) the presumptive glandular stage, O'Rahilly's stages 19–20, characterized by a thickening of the superior fornix epithelium together with surrounding mesenchymal condensation; (2) the bud stage, generally assumed to be the first manifestation of glandular origin, characterized initially by the appearance of nodular formations in the region of the superior conjunctival fornix and concluding with the appearance of lumina within the epithelial buds; and (3) the glandular maturity stage, weeks 9–16, the period in which the gland begins to take on the morphology of adulthood. PMID:14635806

  17. [Development of the human adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Folligan, K; Bouvier, R; Targe, F; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2005-09-01

    The human adrenal is an endocrine gland located at the superior part of the kidney. Composed of the adrenal cortex of mesoblastic origin and the adrenal medulla of neuroectoblastic origin, the human fetal adrenal grows considerably during the first three months of development. From 12 to 18 weeks of development (WD), the weight of the adrenals increases seven-fold. The gland's weight doubles from 18 to 28 WD and from 28 to 36 WD. At birth, the two adrenals weigh on average 10 g. At the 8th week, two zones are individualized in the adrenal cortex: the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. At the second trimester, according to ultrastructural and biochemical studies, a third zone, called the transition zone, is individualized between the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. The definitive zone persists, but the origin of the three zones (glomerular, fascicular and reticular) of adult adrenal cortex is not known. The fetal inner zone regresses from the 5th month of gestation and disappears totally one year after birth. At the 8th week, the immature neuroblasts migrate to the definitive zone, then to the fetal inner zone to compose the adrenal medulla, which develops essentially after birth and during the first year. Before the 10th week, the human fetal adrenal is able to produce steroid hormones, in particular dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S); the secretion of cortisol remains discussed. The development of the human fetal adrenal is complex and is under the control of hormones (ACTH, LH and betaHCG), growth factors (ACTH essentially) and transcription factors (essentially SF1 and DAX-1). Knowledge of morphological and molecular phenomena of this development permits to understand the pathophisiology of congenital adrenal deficiencies.

  18. Human eccrine sweat gland cells can reconstitute a stratified epidermis.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Thomas; Pontiggia, Luca; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Tharakan, Sasha; Braziulis, Erik; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2010-08-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are generally considered to be a possible epidermal stem cell source. Here we compared the multilayered epithelia formed by epidermal keratinocytes and those formed by eccrine sweat gland cells. We demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo the capability of human eccrine sweat gland cells to form a stratified interfollicular epidermis substitute on collagen hydrogels. This is substantiated by the following findings: (1) a stratified epidermis consisting of 10-12 cell layers is formed by sweat gland cells; (2) a distinct stratum corneum develops and is maintained after transplantation onto immuno-incompetent rats; (3) proteins such as filaggrin, loricrin, involucrin, envoplakin, periplakin, and transglutaminases I and III match with the pattern of the normal human skin; (4) junctional complexes and hemidesmosomes are readily and regularly established; (5) cell proliferation in the basal layer reaches homeostatic levels; (6) the sweat gland-derived epidermis is anchored by hemidesmosomes within a well-developed basal lamina; and (7) palmo-plantar or mucosal markers are not expressed in the sweat gland-derived epidermis. These data suggest that human eccrine sweat glands are an additional source of keratinocytes that can generate a stratified epidermis. Our findings raise the question of the extent to which the human skin is repaired and/or permanently renewed by eccrine sweat gland cells.

  19. Dynamic OCT of sweat glands of human finger tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ohmi, Masato; Fuji, Toshie

    2006-02-01

    Dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated for dynamic study of sweat glands of human finger tip using the all-optical-fiber imaging system. Stress-induced and physical activation of sweat glands can be observed clearly in time-sequential OCT images. The method for image data acquisition is presented as well as the experimental results.

  20. Orthotopic tracheal transplantation using human bronchus: an original xenotransplant model of obliterative airway disorder.

    PubMed

    Guihaire, Julien; Itagaki, Ryo; Stubbendorff, Mandy; Hua, Xiaoqin; Deuse, Tobias; Ullrich, Sebastian; Fadel, Elie; Dorfmüller, Peter; Robbins, Robert C; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Schumacher, Udo; Schrepfer, Sonja

    2016-12-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a main cause of allograft dysfunction and mortality after lung transplantation (LTx). A better understanding of BOS pathogenesis is needed to overcome this treatment-refractory complication. Orthotopic tracheal transplantation using human bronchus was performed in Brown Norway (BN) and nude (RNU) rats. Allografts were recovered in both strains at Day 7 (BN7 , n = 6; RNU7 , n = 7) or Day 28 (BN28 , n = 6; RNU28 , n = 6). Immune response of the host against the bronchial graft was assessed. Human samples from BOS patients were used to compare with the histological features of the animal model. Obstruction of the allograft lumen associated with significant infiltration of CD3+ and CD68+ cells was observed in the BN group on Day 28. Immune response from type 1 T-helper cells against the tracheal xenograft was higher in BN animals compared to nude animals on Days 7 and 28 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.035). Xenoreactive antibodies were significantly higher at Day 7 (IgM) and Day 28 (IgG) in the BN group compared to RNU (respectively, 37.6 ± 6.5 vs. 5.8 ± 0.7 mean fluorescence, P = 0.039; and 22.4 ± 3.8 vs. 6.9 ± 1.6 mean fluorescence, P = 0.011). Immunocompetent animals showed a higher infiltration of S100A4+ cells inside the bronchial wall after 28 days, associated with cartilage damage ranging from invasion to complete destruction. In vitro expression of S100A4 by human fibroblasts was higher when stimulated by mononuclear cells (MNCs) from BN rats than from RNU (2.9 ± 0.1 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 mean fluorescence intensity, P = 0.005). Similarly, S100A4 was highly expressed in response to human MNCs compared to stimulation by T-cell-depleted human MNCs (4.3 ± 0.2 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1 mean fluorescence intensity, P < 0.001). Obliterative bronchiolitis has been induced in a new xenotransplant model in which chronic airway obstruction was associated with immune activation against the xenograft. Cartilage infiltration by S100A4+ cells might be

  1. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  2. Characterization of human tracheal epithelial cells transformed by an origin-defective simian virus 40.

    PubMed Central

    Gruenert, D C; Basbaum, C B; Welsh, M J; Li, M; Finkbeiner, W E; Nadel, J A

    1988-01-01

    To facilitate understanding of the mechanisms underlying pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer and cystic fibrosis, we have transformed and characterized cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. Cells were transfected by calcium phosphate precipitation with a plasmid containing a replication-defective simian virus 40 (SV40) genome. Colonies of cells with enhanced growth potential were isolated and analyzed for transformation- and epithelial-specific characteristics. Precrisis cells were observed to express the SV40 large tumor antigen, produce cytokeratins, have microvilli, and form tight junctions. After crisis, cells continued to express the SV40 large tumor antigen as well as epithelial-specific cytokeratins and to display the apical membrane microvilli. Apical membrane Cl channels were opened in postcrisis cells exposed to 50 microM forskolin. These channels showed electrical properties similar to those observed in primary cultures. The postcrisis cells have been in culture for greater than 250 generations and are potentially "immortal." In addition to providing a useful in vitro model for the study of ion transport by human airway epithelial cells, the cells can be used to examine stages of neoplastic progression. Images PMID:2457904

  3. Frequency of varicella zoster virus DNA in human adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Badani, Hussain; White, Teresa; Schulick, Nicole; Raeburn, Christopher D; Topkaya, Ibrahim; Gilden, Don; Nagel, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in ganglionic neurons derived from neural crest cells. Because the adrenal gland also contains medullary chromaffin cells of neural crest origin, we examined human adrenal glands and medullary chromaffin cell tumors (pheochromocytomas) for VZV and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We found VZV, but not HSV-1, DNA in 4/63 (6 %) normal adrenal glands. No VZV transcripts or antigens were detected in the 4 VZV DNA-positive samples. No VZV or HSV-1 DNA was found in 21 pheochromocytomas.

  4. Ambroxol inhibits rhinovirus infection in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Nadine, Lusamba Kalonji; Ota, Chiharu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2014-04-01

    The mucolytic drug ambroxol hydrochloride reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the frequency of exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the inhibitory effects of ambroxol on rhinovirus infection, the major cause of COPD exacerbations, have not been studied. We examined the effects of ambroxol on type 14 rhinovirus (RV14) infection, a major RV group, in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. RV14 infection increased virus titers and cytokine content in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells. Ambroxol (100 nM) reduced RV14 titers and cytokine concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the supernatants and RV14 RNA in the cells after RV14 infection, in addition to reducing susceptibility to RV14 infection. Ambroxol also reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the receptor for RV14, and the number of acidic endosomes from which RV14 RNA enters the cytoplasm. In addition, ambroxol reduced the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the nucleus. These results suggest that ambroxol inhibits RV14 infection partly by reducing ICAM-1 and acidic endosomes via the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Ambroxol may modulate airway inflammation by reducing the production of cytokines in rhinovirus infection.

  5. l-carbocisteine inhibits respiratory syncytial virus infection in human tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Asada, Masanori; Yoshida, Motoki; Hatachi, Yukimasa; Sasaki, Takahiko; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Deng, Xue; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2012-01-15

    To examine the effects of l-carbocisteine on airway infection with respiratory syncytial (RS) virus, human tracheal epithelial cells were pretreated with l-carbocisteine and infected with RS virus. Viral titer, virus RNA, and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, including interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6, increased with time after infection. l-carbocisteine reduced the viral titer in the supernatant fluids, the amount of RS virus RNA, RS virus infection susceptibility, and the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by virus infection. l-carbocisteine reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, an RS virus receptor, on the cells. However, l-carbocisteine had no effects on the expression of heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan that binds to the RS virus attachment protein, or on the amount of intracellular activated-RhoA, isoform A of the Ras-homologous family, that binds to the RS virus fusion protein. These findings suggest that l-carbocisteine may inhibit RS virus infection by reducing the expression of ICAM-1. It may also modulate airway inflammation during RS virus infection.

  6. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  11. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  12. Rabies viral antigen in human tongues and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Feng, Z; Ye, H

    1995-10-01

    Lingual and major salivary tissue samples from three cases of rabies were stained with the immunoperoxidase (ABC) technique. All tissue blocks had been embedded in paraffin 4-10 years before. The first antibody used was monoclonal antirabies nucleocapsin (N) mouse antibody (HAM). Four out of five pieces of tongue from two cases showed a large amount of granular staining indicating rabies antigen (RVAg) inside serous glandular cells, terminal nerves, muscle cells and covering epithelial cells including taste cells. In the tissue probes from the third case only minimal granular staining was found, probably due to complete absence of the serous gland. In contrast to the tongue, only a little weakly reacting material was found in 4 out of 9 probes of salivary gland, either in acini or in nerve fibres. The amount of RVAg is evidently much greater in the human tongue than in major salivary glands, whereas major salivary glands from infected dogs, foxes and skunks reportedly contain much RVAg. As the human tongue's serous gland appears to be a preferred location for RVAg, it may be a source of oral infection.

  13. Changes in Gene Expression in Human Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohui; Richards, Stephen M.; Lo, Kristine; Hatton, Mark; Fay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) may be the leading cause of dry eye syndrome throughout the world. However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying the pathogenesis of this disease is unclear. This study was conducted to identify meibomian gland genes that may promote the development and/or progression of human MGD. Methods. Lid tissues were obtained from male and female MGD patients and age-matched controls after eyelid surgeries (e.g., to correct entropion or ectropion). Meibomian glands were isolated and processed for RNA extraction and the analysis of gene expression. Results. The results show that MGD is associated with significant alterations in the expression of almost 400 genes in the human meibomian gland. The levels of 197 transcripts, including those encoding various small proline-rich proteins and S100 calcium-binding proteins, are significantly increased, whereas the expression of 194 genes, such as claudin 3 and cell adhesion molecule 1, is significantly decreased. These changes, which cannot be accounted for by sex differences, are accompanied by alterations in many gene ontologies (e.g., keratinization, cell cycle, and DNA repair). The findings also show that the human meibomian gland contains several highly expressed genes that are distinct from those in an adjacent tissue (i.e., conjunctival epithelium). Conclusions. The results demonstrate that MGD is accompanied by multiple changes in gene expression in the meibomian gland. The nature of these alterations, including the upregulation of genes encoding small proline-rich proteins and S100 calcium-binding proteins, suggest that keratinization plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MGD. PMID:21372006

  14. Precursors of hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human mammary gland is capable of de novo synthesis of glucose and galactose (hexoneogenesis); however, the carbon source is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of acetate, glutamine, lactate and glycerol as potential carbon sources for hexoneogenesis. Healthy breast...

  15. Engineered cartilaginous tubes for tracheal tissue replacement via self-assembly and fusion of human mesenchymal stem cell constructs.

    PubMed

    Dikina, Anna D; Strobel, Hannah A; Lai, Bradley P; Rolle, Marsha W; Alsberg, Eben

    2015-06-01

    There is a critical need to engineer a neotrachea because currently there are no long-term treatments for tracheal stenoses affecting large portions of the airway. In this work, a modular tracheal tissue replacement strategy was developed. High-cell density, scaffold-free human mesenchymal stem cell-derived cartilaginous rings and tubes were successfully generated through employment of custom designed culture wells and a ring-to-tube assembly system. Furthermore, incorporation of transforming growth factor-β1-delivering gelatin microspheres into the engineered tissues enhanced chondrogenesis with regard to tissue size and matrix production and distribution in the ring- and tube-shaped constructs, as well as luminal rigidity of the tubes. Importantly, all engineered tissues had similar or improved biomechanical properties compared to rat tracheas, which suggests they could be transplanted into a small animal model for airway defects. The modular, bottom up approach used to grow stem cell-based cartilaginous tubes in this report is a promising platform to engineer complex organs (e.g., trachea), with control over tissue size and geometry, and has the potential to be used to generate autologous tissue implants for human clinical applications.

  16. Anatomy of the human mammary gland: Current status of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Geddes, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy of the gland, resulting in remodeling of the gland into a milk-secretory organ. Pubertal and post-pubertal development of the breast in females aids in preparing it to assume a functional state during pregnancy and lactation. Remarkably, this organ has the capacity to regress to a resting state upon cessation of lactation, and then undergo the same cycle of expansion and regression again in subsequent pregnancies during reproductive life. This plasticity suggests tight hormonal regulation, which is paramount for the normal function of the gland. This review presents the current status of knowledge of the normal macro- and micro-anatomy of the human mammary gland and the distinct changes it undergoes during the key developmental stages that characterize it, from embryonic life through to post-menopausal age. In addition, it discusses recent advances in our understanding of the normal function of the breast during lactation, with special reference to breastmilk, its composition, and how it can be utilized as a tool to advance knowledge on normal and aberrant breast development and function. Finally, anatomical and molecular traits associated with aberrant expansion of the breast are discussed to set the basis for future comparisons that may illuminate the origin of breast cancer.

  17. Replication of Oral BK Virus in Human Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Madden, Victoria; Hallett, Ryan A.; Gingerich, Aaron D.; Nickeleit, Volker

    2014-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is the most common viral pathogen among allograft patients. Increasing evidence links BKPyV to the human oral compartment and to HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIVSGD). To date, few studies have analyzed orally derived BKPyV. This study aimed to characterize BKPyV isolated from throat wash (TW) samples from HIVSGD patients. The replication potential of HIVSGD-derived clinical isolates HIVSGD-1 and HIVSGD-2, both containing the noncoding control region (NCCR) architecture OPQPQQS, were assessed and compared to urine-derived virus. The BKPyV isolates displayed significant variation in replication potential. Whole-genome alignment of the two isolates revealed three nucleotide differences that were analyzed for a potential effect on the viral life cycle. Analysis revealed a negligible difference in NCCR promoter activity despite sequence variation and emphasized the importance of functional T antigen (Tag) for efficient replication. HIVSGD-1 encoded full-length Tag, underwent productive infection in both human salivary gland cells and kidney cells, and expressed viral DNA and Tag protein. Additionally, HIVSGD-1 generated DNase-resistant particles and by far surpassed the replication potential of the kidney-derived isolate in HSG cells. HIVSGD-2 encoded a truncated form of Tag and replicated much less efficiently. Quantitation of infectious virus, via the fluorescent forming unit assay, suggested that HIVSGD BKPyV had preferential tropism for salivary gland cells over kidney cells. Similarly, the results suggested that kidney-derived virus had preferential tropism for kidney cells over salivary gland cells. Evidence of HIVSGD-derived BKPyV oral tropism and adept viral replication in human salivary gland cells corroborated the potential link between HIVSGD pathogenesis and BKPyV. PMID:24173219

  18. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  19. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  20. TGFβ signaling regulates lipogenesis in human sebaceous glands cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sebaceous glands are components of the skin essential for its normal lubrication by the production of sebum. This contributes to skin health and more importantly is crucial for the skin barrier function. A mechanistic understanding of sebaceous gland cells growth and differentiation has lagged behind that for keratinocytes, partly because of a lack of an in vitro model that can be used for experimental manipulation. Methods We have developed an in vitro culture model to isolate and grow primary human sebocytes without transformation that display functional characteristics of sebocytes. We used this novel method to probe the effect of Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) signaling on sebocyte differentiation, by examining the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis upon treatment with TGFβ1. We also repressed TGFβ signaling through knockdown of the TGFβ Receptor II to address if the effect of TGFβ activation is mediated via canonical Smad signal transduction. Results We find that activation of the TGFβ signaling pathway is necessary and sufficient for maintaining sebocytes in an undifferentiated state. The presence of TGFβ ligand triggered decreased expression in genes required for the production of characteristics sebaceous lipids and for sebocyte differentiation such as FADS2 and PPARγ, thereby decreasing lipid accumulation through the TGFβ RII-Smad2 dependent pathway. Conclusion TGFβ signaling plays an essential role in sebaceous gland regulation by maintaining sebocytes in an undifferentiated state. This data was generated using a novel method for human sebocyte culture, which is likely to prove generally useful in investigations of sebaceous gland growth and differentiation. These findings open a new paradigm in human skin biology with important implications for skin therapies. PMID:23343495

  1. Isolation and characterization of sweat gland myoepithelial cells from human skin.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Ryuichiro; Futaki, Sugiko; Nakano, Itsuko; Tanemura, Atsushi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells routinely maintain the main epidermal components, i.e. the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicles, and sweat glands. Human sweat glands present throughout the body are glandular exocrine organs that mainly play a role in thermoregulation by sweating. Emerging evidence points to the presence of stem cells in sweat glands, but it remains unclear whether such stem cells exist in human sweat glands. Here, we attempted to gather evidence for stem cells in human sweat glands, which would be characterized by self-renewal ability and multipotency. First, we explored human sweat gland cells for expression of stem cell markers. CD29 and Notch, epidermal stem cell markers, were found to reside among α-smooth muscle actin-positive myoepithelial cells in human sweat glands. Next, sweat gland myoepithelial cells were isolated from human skin as a CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) subpopulation. The myoepithelial cell-enriched CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) subpopulation possessed the ability to differentiate into sweat gland luminal cells in sphere-forming assays. Furthermore, CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) subpopulation-derived sphere-forming cells exhibited long-term proliferative potential upon multiple passaging, indicating that the CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) myoepithelial subpopulation includes stem cells with self-renewal ability. These findings provide evidence that human sweat gland myoepithelial cells contain stem cells that possess both self-renewal ability and multipotency to differentiate into sweat glands.

  2. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J H; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P

    2016-03-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) stem/progenitor cells and demonstrate at the single cell level in vitro self-renewal and differentiation into multilineage organoids. We also show in vivo functionality, long-term engraftment, and functional restoration in a xenotransplantation model. Indeed, transplanted human salisphere-derived cells restored saliva production and greatly improved the regenerative potential of irradiated SGs. Further selection for c-Kit expression enriched for cells with enhanced regenerative potencies. Interestingly, interaction of transplanted cells with the recipient SG may also be involved in functional recovery. Thus, we show for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia.

  3. Human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cultures express ductal characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Brayden, D J; Cuthbert, A W; Lee, C M

    1988-01-01

    1. Isolated human eccrine sweat glands were cultured in vitro. Cells were harvested and plated onto permeable supports to form confluent cell sheets, area 0.2 cm2. These were used to study the electrogenic transepithelial transport of ions by measurement of short-circuit current (SCC). Epithelial sheets had a basal SCC of 5.89 +/- 0.62 microA cm-2 (n = 33) and a transepithelial resistance of 74.1 +/- 5.6 omega cm2 (n = 33). The transepithelial potential difference varied between -0.2 and -1.8 mV with a mean value of -0.71 +/- 0.09 mV (n = 33). 2. The basal current was abolished by addition of 10 microM-amiloride to the apical bathing solution. The concentration of amiloride which inhibited basal SCC by 50% (EC50) was 0.4 microM. Cultures prepared from the secretory coil of sweat glands, rather than from whole glands, were similarly sensitive to amiloride (EC50 = 0.8 microM). 3. Lysylbradykinin (LBK), carbachol, isoprenaline, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and A23187 all increased SCC in cultures from whole glands. LBK responses were obtained with basolateral and not with apical application. Furthermore LBK actions were not substantially altered by cyclo-oxygenase inhibition but showed marked desensitization upon repeated application. Sheet cultures prepared from sweat gland coils also showed SCC responses to both carbachol and LBK. Forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, did not alter SCC in either type of preparation. 4. Replacement of chloride and of chloride and bicarbonate in the bathing solution did not cause attenuation of the responses to LBK or carbachol in whole-gland sheet cultures. Furthermore responses were unaffected by piretanide or acetazolamide. These results were taken to indicate that anion secretion was not the basis for the SCC responses. 5. Responses to LBK and carbachol were significantly reduced by amiloride (10 microM), this effect being reversible. No responses to LBK or carbachol were seen when N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) was used to

  4. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  5. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  6. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  7. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  8. 21 CFR 878.3720 - Tracheal prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal prosthesis. 878.3720 Section 878.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3720 Tracheal prosthesis....

  9. Mutations in H5N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin that Confer Binding to Human Tracheal Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Scull, Margaret A.; Ren, Junyuan; Jones, Ian M.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Barclay, Wendy S.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence in 2009 of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus as the first pandemic of the 21st Century is a timely reminder of the international public health impact of influenza viruses, even those associated with mild disease. The widespread distribution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in the avian population has spawned concern that it may give rise to a human influenza pandemic. The mortality rate associated with occasional human infection by H5N1 virus approximates 60%, suggesting that an H5N1 pandemic would be devastating to global health and economy. To date, the H5N1 virus has not acquired the propensity to transmit efficiently between humans. The reasons behind this are unclear, especially given the high mutation rate associated with influenza virus replication. Here we used a panel of recombinant H5 hemagglutinin (HA) variants to demonstrate the potential for H5 HA to bind human airway epithelium, the predominant target tissue for influenza virus infection and spread. While parental H5 HA exhibited limited binding to human tracheal epithelium, introduction of selected mutations converted the binding profile to that of a current human influenza strain HA. Strikingly, these amino-acid changes required multiple simultaneous mutations in the genomes of naturally occurring H5 isolates. Moreover, H5 HAs bearing intermediate sequences failed to bind airway tissues and likely represent mutations that are an evolutionary “dead end.” We conclude that, although genetic changes that adapt H5 to human airways can be demonstrated, they may not readily arise during natural virus replication. This genetic barrier limits the likelihood that current H5 viruses will originate a human pandemic. PMID:19924306

  10. Evaluations of thyme extract effects in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cell lines and in human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Marinelli; Romilde, Iannarelli; Beatrice, Morelli Maria; Matteo, Valisi; Giovanna, Nicotra; Consuelo, Amantini; Claudio, Cardinali; Giorgio, Santoni; Filippo, Maggi; Massimo, Nabissi

    2016-08-25

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is used traditionally to prepare herbal remedies possessing expectorant, mucolytic, antitussive and antispasmodic properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a standardized hydroalcoholic extract of thyme on primary human airway (bronchial/tracheal) epithelial cell lines in a model of lung inflammation induced by LPS. In addition, the effects of thyme extract on human lung cancer cell line (H460) were analysed. Thyme extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties by reducing the NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 transcription factors protein levels followed by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta and IL-8), and Muc5ac secretion in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cells. Moreover, the extract showed cytotoxic effects on H460 cancer cells, modulated the release of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 proteins. Taken together, these results substantiated the traditional uses of thyme in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thyme extract might be an effective treatment of chronic diseases based on inflammatory processes when hypersecretion of mucus overwhelms the ciliary clearance and obstructs airways, causing morbidity and mortality. Moreover thyme extract, evaluated in H460 lung cancer cell line, demonstrated to induce cell cytotoxicity in addition to reduce inflammatory cell signals.

  11. Clarification of the terminology of the major human salivary glands: acinus and alveolus are not synonymous.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Afolayan, Adebowale

    2014-08-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of the major human salivary glands often appear in anatomical textbooks and tend to adversely affect student's learning experience in Microscopic Anatomy. The main culprit is the inconsistent description of the morphology of these glands secretory end pieces where "acinus" and "alveolus" are used interchangeably. The correct terminology originated from Malpighi (1687), repeated by Kölliker (1854), but over the years has been misinterpreted by prominent authors as a result of the nature of specimen preparation. This commentary is based on etymology, current standard light microscopy, research studies and consultation with experts. The overall objective of this publication is to recommend that textbooks should endeavour to modify the relevant descriptions about this terminology in their future editions. The most appropriate terminology for the major human salivary glands would be: (1) the parotid gland, entirely serous, should be called compound acinar glands; (2) the submandibular glands are mixed glands; their serous components are compound acinar while some of the mucinous areas are tubular with serous, crescents or demilunes, as acinar end pieces hence they should be named compound tubuloacinar glands; (3) the sublingual glands, mainly mucous glands with tubular shape, with small acinar end pieces that are serous crescents thence they should be called compound tubuloacinar glands.

  12. Eccrine sweat glands are major contributors to reepithelialization of human wounds.

    PubMed

    Rittié, Laure; Sachs, Dana L; Orringer, Jeffrey S; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are skin-associated epithelial structures (appendages) that are unique to some primates including humans and are absent in the skin of most laboratory animals including rodents, rabbits, and pigs. On the basis of the known importance of other skin appendages (hair follicles, apocrine glands, and sebaceous glands) for wound repair in model animals, the present study was designed to assess the role of eccrine glands in the repair of wounded human skin. Partial-thickness wounds were generated on healthy human forearms, and epidermal repair was studied in skin biopsy samples obtained at precise times during the first week after wounding. Wound reepithelialization was assessed using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo wounded skin samples. Our data demonstrate a key role for eccrine sweat glands in reconstituting the epidermis after wounding in humans. More specifically, (i) eccrine sweat glands generate keratinocyte outgrowths that ultimately form new epidermis; (ii) eccrine sweat glands are the most abundant appendages in human skin, outnumbering hair follicles by a factor close to 3; and (iii) the rate of expansion of keratinocyte outgrowths from eccrine sweat glands parallels the rate of reepithelialization. This novel appreciation of the unique importance of eccrine sweat glands for epidermal repair may be exploited to improve our approaches to understanding and treating human wounds.

  13. Human Parotid Gland Alpha-Amylase Secretion as a Function of Chronic Hyperbaric Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    parotid ...Pullman, WA 99163 Gilman, S. C, G. J. Fischer, R. J. Biersner, R. D. Thornton, and D. A. Miller. 1979. Human parotid gland alpha-amylase secretion...as a function of chronic hyperbaric exposure. Undersea Biomed. Res. 6(3):303-307.—Secretion of a-amylase by the human parotid gland increased

  14. Dynamic OCT of mentally stress-induced sweating in sweat glands of the human finger tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate in-vivo imaging of sweat glands of human finger tip using the dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT). Mentally-stress-induced sweating in sweat glands of human finger tip can be observed clearly in time-sequential OCT images. In the experiment, a sweat pore opened clearly on the skin surface according to a stimulus of sound.

  15. Comparison of proliferating cells between human adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Hong; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Gang

    2008-04-01

    Studies of sweat glands had demonstrated that there were degenerating cells and proliferating cells in the eccrine sweat glands. To compare the differences in the proliferating cells between human adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands, immunostaining of proliferating-associated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67 nuclear antigen (Ki67) was performed, and the location and the percentage of the positive staining cells were analyzed. The results showed that a few cells of the secretory and ductal portion in both the adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands stained positive with Ki67 and PCNA. The labeling index of PCNA in adult eccrine sweat glands was 34.71 +/- 8.37%, while that in the fetal was 62.72 +/- 6.54%. The labeling index of PCNA in fetal eccrine sweat glands was higher than that in adult. Myoepithelial cells were negative staining with anti-PCNA antibody in adult eccrine sweat glands, while in the fetal a few myoepithelial cells were positive staining. Labeling index of Ki67 in adult eccrine sweat glands was similar to that in the fetal, ranging from 0.5 to 4.3%. Myoepithelial cells of the adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands both were negative staining with anti-Ki67 antibody. We concluded that the myoepithelial cells had proliferating ability only in fetal eccrine sweat glands, and that the proliferating ability of fetal eccrine sweat glands was stronger than that of the adult.

  16. Weight gain increases human aromatase expression in mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Hong; Coon, John S; Ono, Masanori; Pearson, Elizabeth K; Bulun, Serdar E

    2012-05-15

    Adulthood weight gain predicts estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because local estrogen excess in the breast likely contributes to cancer development, and aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, we investigated the role of local aromatase expression in weight gain-associated breast cancer risk in a humanized aromatase (Arom(hum)) mouse model containing the coding region and the 5'-regulatory region of the human aromatase gene. Compared with littermates on normal chow, female Arom(hum) mice on a high fat diet gained more weight, and had a larger mammary gland mass with elevated total human aromatase mRNA levels via promoters I.4 and II associated with increased levels of their regulators TNFα and C/EBPβ. There was no difference in total human aromatase mRNA levels in gonadal white adipose tissue. Our data suggest that diet-induced weight gain preferentially stimulates local aromatase expression in the breast, which may lead to local estrogen excess and breast cancer risk.

  17. Overview of Human Salivary Glands: Highlights of Morphology and Developing Processes.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Fernanda; Teshima, Tathyane Harumi Nakajima; Hsieh, Ricardo; Souza, Milena Monteiro; Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen; Lourenco, Silvia Vanessa

    2017-02-13

    Salivary glands are essential organs that produce and secrete saliva to the oral cavity. During gland morphogenesis, many developmental processes involve a series of coordinated movements and reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme that generate the ductal system and the secretory units. Recent studies have shown new findings about salivary gland development, particularly regarding lumen formation and expansion, with the involvement of apoptosis and cell polarization, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that human minor salivary glands start forming earlier than previously published and that distinct apoptotic mediators can trigger duct lumen opening in humans. This review summarizes updated morphological and cellular features of human salivary glands and also explores new aspects of the human developmental process. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Expression of the gene encoding growth hormone in the human mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Mol, J.A.; Misdorp, W.; Rijnberk, A.

    1995-10-01

    Progestins cause a syndrome of growth hormone (GH) excess and enhanced mammary tumorigenesis in the dog. This has been regarded as being specific for the dog. Recently we reported that progestin-induced GH excess originates from foci of hyperplastic ductular epithelium of the mammary gland in the dog. In the present report we demonstrate by reverse-transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemistry that a main factor involved in tissue growth, i.e. GH, is also expressed in normal and neoplastic human mammary glands. The gene expressed in the human mammary gland proved to be identical to the gene encoding GH in the pituitary gland. The role of progesterone in the GH expression of the human mammary gland needs, however, to be proven. It is hypothesized that this locally produced hGH may play a pathogenetic role in breast cancer. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The human adrenal gland proteome defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Julia; Botling, Johan; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Djureinovic, Dijana; Uhlén, Mathias; Pontén, Fredrik

    2016-11-30

    The adrenal gland is a composite endocrine organ with vital functions that include the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. To define the molecular landscape that underlies the specific functions of the adrenal gland, we combined a genome-wide transcriptomics approach based on mRNA sequencing of human tissues with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling on tissue microarrays. Approximately two-thirds of all putative protein coding genes were expressed in the adrenal gland and the analysis identified 253 genes with an elevated pattern of expression in the adrenal gland, with only 37 genes showing a markedly higher expression level (>5-fold) in the adrenal gland compared to 31 other normal human tissue types analyzed. The analyses allowed for an assessment of the relative expression levels for well-known proteins involved in adrenal gland function, but also identified previously poorly characterized proteins in the adrenal cortex, such as FERM domain containing 5 (FRMD5) and protein NOV homolog (NOV). In summary, we provide a global analysis of the adrenal gland transcriptome and proteome, with a comprehensive list of genes with elevated expression in the adrenal gland and spatial information with examples of protein expression patterns for corresponding proteins. These genes and proteins constitute important starting points for an improved understanding of the normal function and pathophysiology of the adrenal glands.

  20. Precursors of hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mahmoud A; Maningat, Patricia; Sunehag, Agneta L; Haymond, Morey W

    2015-04-15

    The human mammary gland is capable of de novo synthesis of glucose and galactose (hexoneogenesis); however, the carbon source is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of acetate, glutamine, lactate and glycerol as potential carbon sources for hexoneogenesis. Healthy breastfeeding women were studied following a 24-h fast on two occasions separated by 1-3 wk. Five women were infused with [U-¹³C]lactate or [1,2-¹³C₂]glutamine and five women with [U-¹³C]glycerol or [1,2-¹³C₂]acetate. Enrichments of ¹³C in plasma and milk substrates were analyzed using GC-MS. Infusion of labeled lactate, glycerol, glutamine, and acetate resulted in plasma glucose being 22.0±3.7, 11.2±1.0, 2.5±0.5, and 1.3±0.2% labeled, respectively. Lactate, glutamine, or acetate did not contribute to milk glucose or galactose (0-2%). In milk, ¹³C-free glycerol enrichment was one-fourth that in plasma but free glycerol concentration in milk was fourfold higher than in plasma. Using [U-¹³C]glycerol and by accounting for tracer dilution, glycerol alone contributed to 10±2 and 69±11% of the hexoneogenesis of milk glucose and galactose, respectively. During [U-¹³C]glycerol infusion, the ratio of M₃ enrichment on 4-6 carbons/M₃ on 1-3 carbons of galactose was higher (P<0.05, 1.22±0.05) than those of glucose in plasma (1.05±0.03) and milk (1.07±0.02). Reanalysis of samples from a previous study involving [U-¹³C]glucose infusion alone suggested labeling a portion of galactose consistent with pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity. We conclude that, although lactate contributed significantly to gluconeogenesis, glycerol alone provides the vast majority of substrate for hexoneogenesis. The relative contribution of the PPP vs. the reversal Embden-Meyerhof pathway to hexoneogenesis within the human mammary gland remains to be determined.

  1. Structure and function of human sweat glands studied with histochemistry and cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Saga, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    The basic structure and the physiological function of human sweat glands were reviewed. Histochemical and cytochemical techniques greatly contributed the elucidation of the ionic mechanism of sweat secretion. X-ray microanalysis using freeze-dried cryosections clarified the level of Na, K, and Cl in each secretory cell of the human sweat gland. Enzyme cytochemistry, immunohistochemistry and autoradiography elucidated the localization of Na,K-ATPase. These data supported the idea that human eccrine sweat is produced by the model of N-K-2Cl cotransport. Cationic colloidal gold localizes anionic sites on histological sections. Human eccrine and apocrine sweat glands showed completely different localization and enzyme sensitivity of anionic sites studied with cationic gold. Human sweat glands have many immunohistochemical markers. Some of them are specific to apocrine sweat glands, although many of them stain both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands. Histochemical techniques, especially immunohistochemistry using a confocal laser scanning microscope and in situ hybridization, will further clarify the relationship of the structure and function in human sweat glands.

  2. [Age-dependent morphology of human pineal gland: supravital study].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S V

    2007-01-01

    On the base of analysis of 5784 events of diagnostic magnetic-resonance tomography studies of the head of patients in radio diagnosis departments the database is formed. Only events (n=411) without cerebral, oncology, endocrine and other pathology are taken in database. The material was grouped to time and date of the study, sex and age in accordance with generally accepted categorization. Maximum linear sizes of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri in sagittal, axial and coronar projection were measured in all events; volumes of the organs were calculated on the formula of a ball. It is defined that the volume of pineal gland increases from birth till 17-21 year age, gradually falls till the second mature age and is getting stable in old age. The normative factors of the volume of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri for 8 age groups are determined. "Brain sand" and false cysts in pineal gland can be observed in all age groups. The petrification degree of pineal gland, as of computer tomography, varies from 30 to 277 ed. HV. For the factor of pineal gland volume and factor of cysts frequency in pineal gland a puberty "collapse" is typical, mainly in men.

  3. Three-dimensional culture and identification of human eccrine sweat glands in matrigel basement membrane matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Mingjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2013-12-01

    Interactions between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and epithelial cells are necessary for the proper organization and function of the epithelium. In the present study, we show that human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells cultured in matrigel, a representation of ECM components, constitute a good model for studying three-dimensional reconstruction, wound repair and regeneration and differentiation of the human eccrine sweat gland. In matrigel, epithelial cells from the human eccrine sweat gland form tubular-like structures and then the tubular-like structures coil into sphere-like shapes that structurally resemble human eccrine sweat glands in vivo. One sphere-like shape can be linked to another sphere-like shape or to a cell monolayer via tubular-like structures. Hematoxylin and eosin staining has revealed that the tubular-like structures have a single layer or stratified epithelial cells located peripherally and a lumen at the center, similar to the secretory part or duct part, respectively, of the eccrine sweat gland in sections of skin tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of the cultures has demonstrated that the cells express CK7, CK19, epithelial membrane antigen and actin. Thus, matrigel promotes the organization and differentiation of epithelial cells from the human eccrine sweat gland into eccrine sweat gland tissues.

  4. Matrigel-induced tubular morphogenesis of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xia; Liu, Bo; Wu, Jinjin; Lu, Yuangang; Yang, Yadong

    2011-09-01

    Human eccrine sweat glands are tubule-structured glands of the skin that are vital in thermoregulation, secretion, and excretion of water and electrolytes. A study of tubular morphogenesis in vitro would facilitate the development of a tissue engineering model for eccrine sweat glands and other tubule-structured glands. Matrigel, a basement membrane matrix, has been shown to promote differentiation and morphogenesis of many different cell types, including tubular cells. This study investigated the growth, differentiation, and tubular morphogenesis of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells cultured in Matrigel. Human eccrine gland epithelial cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The cell growth in Matrigel was evidenced by the formation of cell clusters, which were observed under an inverted microscope. The internal structure of the cell clusters was further investigated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of propidium iodide-stained nuclei. The results demonstrated that although on a plastic surface or in a collagen gel the cells could not form tubular structures, they formed tubular structures when cultured in Matrigel. Consequently, we conclude that Matrigel can promote tubular morphogenesis of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells.

  5. The effects of neuraminidase inhibitors on the release of oseltamivir-sensitive and oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses from primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Mutsuo; Nadine, Lusamba; Kubo, Hiroshi; Saito, Kousuke; Saito, Reiko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Defining the effects of neuraminidase inhibitors on influenza virus infection may provide important information for the treatment of patients. The effects of neuraminidase inhibitors have been examined using various methods, including viral release from kidney cells. However, the effects of neuraminidase inhibitors on viral release from primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells, which retain functions of the original tissues, have not been studied. The effects of neuraminidase inhibitors on the replication of the pandemic influenza virus [A/Sendai-H/N0633/2009 (H1N1) pdm09] and the seasonal influenza virus [A/Sendai-H/216/2009 (H1N1)] that was isolated during the 2008-2009 season were examined. The virus stocks were generated by infecting tracheal cells with the pandemic or seasonal influenza virus. Four types of inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, laninamivir, and peramivir) reduced pandemic viral titers and concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in supernatants and viral RNA in cells. However, oseltamivir did not reduce seasonal viral titers, cytokine concentrations and viral RNA, and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of oseltamivir for neuraminidase activity in the seasonal virus was 300-fold higher than that observed for the pandemic influenza virus. The seasonal influenza virus had an oseltamivir-resistant genotype. The magnitude of the IC50 values of the neuraminidase inhibitors for the seasonal influenza virus was inversely related to the magnitude of the inhibitory effects on viral release. These methods for measuring the release of virus and inflammatory cytokines from primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium may provide useful information regarding the effects of neuraminidase inhibitors on influenza viruses.

  6. Similarity of GATA-3 Expression between Rat and Human Mammary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-07-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. In particular, GATA-3 is necessary for mammary gland maturation and is a useful marker in the characterization of mammary carcinoma in humans. The expression of GATA-3 protein in normal mammary glands, fibroadenomas and carcinomas was immunohistochemically compared in female rats and humans. In normal mammary glands of rats and humans, scattered luminal cells in the acini and whole ductal epithelial cells were positive for GATA-3 in the nuclei. No positive cells were detected in rat or human fibroadenomas. In rat and human mammary carcinomas, the nuclei of proliferating luminal-derived cancer cells expressed GATA-3. Therefore, GATA-3 protein is a candidate marker for mammary carcinoma in rats as well as humans.

  7. PAR-2 receptor-induced effects on human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    PubMed

    L Bovell, Douglas; Kofler, Barbara; Lang, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Serine proteases can induce cell signaling by stimulating G-protein-coupled receptors, called proteinase-activated receptors (PAR's) on a variety of epithelial cells. While PAR-2, one such receptor, activates cell signaling in a secretory cell line derived from human sweat glands, there was no information on their presence and effects on intact sweat glands. PAR-2 presence and activation of eccrine sweat glands isolated from human skin samples was investigated using Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy (EM) and Ca(2+) imaging. Anti-human PAR-2 antibody demonstrated the presence of these receptors in eccrine sweat glands. EM showed that PAR-2 activation resulted in degranulation of secretory cells. Ca(2+) imaging using PAR-2 activators demonstrated a two phase increase in [Ca(2+)](i) which was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) for the second phase, and that the response could be blocked by prior incubation with xestospongin, the IP(3) receptor blocker. The results demonstrated that PAR-2 receptors are present in human sweat gland secretory cells and that these receptors are functionally active and can induce changes associated with secretory events in eccrine glands.

  8. Immunohistochemical evidence suggests intrinsic regulatory activity of human eccrine sweat glands

    PubMed Central

    ZANCANARO, CARLO; MERIGO, FLAVIA; CRESCIMANNO, CATERINA; ORLANDINI, SIMONETTA; OSCULATI, ANTONIO

    1999-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of normal eccrine sweat glands was performed on paraffin sections of human skin. Immunoreactivity (ir) for neuron specific enolase, S100 protein (S100), regulatory peptides, nitric oxide synthase type I (NOS-I) and choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) was found in small nerve bundles close to sweat glands. In the glands, secretory cells were labelled with anticytokeratin antibody. Using antibodies to S100, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) a specific distribution pattern was found in secretory cells. Granulated (dark) and parietal (clear) cells were immunopositive for CGRP, and S100 and SP, respectively. Immunoreactivity was diffuse in the cytoplasm for CGRP and S100, and peripheral for SP. Myoepithelial cells were not labelled. Electron microscopy revealed electron dense granules, probably containing peptide, in granulated cells. Using antibodies to NOS-I and ChAT, ir was exclusively found in myoepithelial cells. Immunoreactivity for the atrial natriuretic peptide was absent in sweat glands. These results provide evidence for the presence of both regulatory peptides involved in vasodilation and key enzymes for the synthesis of nitric oxide and acetylcholine in the secretory coil of human sweat glands. It is suggested that human sweat glands are capable of some intrinsic regulation in addition to that carried out by their nerve supply. PMID:10386780

  9. Development of a nude mouse model to study human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M J; Zone, J J; Krueger, G G

    1984-10-01

    Study of human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology is limited by lack of an adequate animal model. This study was designed to develop an animal model using human face skin grafted onto the nude mouse to study human sebaceous glands. Full-thickness human face skin was grafted onto 60 adult male nude mice. 4 wk after grafting, androgens, which are known to stimulate sebaceous glands, were administered to test the system. Androgens were administered to 21 animals by implanted catheters that were filled with testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Empty catheters were implanted in 15 control animals. Graft biopsies and blood for androgen levels were obtained at time 1 (pre-catheter) and time 2 (26 d after catheter implantation). Three assessments were made on each biopsy: sebaceous gland volume, using an image analyzing computer; sebaceous cell size; and sebaceous gland labeling index. 29 mice completed the study through time 2. In the androgen-treated group, T levels (nanogram per milliliter) five times increased to 4.92 +/- 0.35, and DHT levels (nanogram per milliliter) increased 50 times to 16.70. In the androgen-treated group, sebaceous gland volume (micron 3 X 10(-3) increased from 896 +/- 194 to 3,233 +/- 754 (P less than 0.001), sebaceous cell area (micron 2) increased from 167 +/- 12 to 243 +/- 19 (P less than 0.001), and labeling index (percentage) increased from 2.7 +/- 0.7 to 6.4 +/- 0.9 (P less than 0.01). In the control group, sebaceous gland volume fell from 1,070 +/- 393 to 417 +/- 99 (NS), sebaceous cell size remained the same, and the labeling index fell from 5.1 +/- 1.9 to 3.2 +/- 1.1. After androgen administration, Halowax N-34, a known comedogen, or its vehicle, was applied to 15 grafts for 2-6 wk. Twice as many microcomedones were seen in the Halowax-treated grafts, compared with vehicle-treated grafts at the end of this time period. No visible comedones were produced. This study demonstrated that: (a) human sebaceous glands can

  10. Development of a nude mouse model to study human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, M J; Zone, J J; Krueger, G G

    1984-01-01

    Study of human sebaceous gland physiology and pathophysiology is limited by lack of an adequate animal model. This study was designed to develop an animal model using human face skin grafted onto the nude mouse to study human sebaceous glands. Full-thickness human face skin was grafted onto 60 adult male nude mice. 4 wk after grafting, androgens, which are known to stimulate sebaceous glands, were administered to test the system. Androgens were administered to 21 animals by implanted catheters that were filled with testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Empty catheters were implanted in 15 control animals. Graft biopsies and blood for androgen levels were obtained at time 1 (pre-catheter) and time 2 (26 d after catheter implantation). Three assessments were made on each biopsy: sebaceous gland volume, using an image analyzing computer; sebaceous cell size; and sebaceous gland labeling index. 29 mice completed the study through time 2. In the androgen-treated group, T levels (nanogram per milliliter) five times increased to 4.92 +/- 0.35, and DHT levels (nanogram per milliliter) increased 50 times to 16.70. In the androgen-treated group, sebaceous gland volume (micron 3 X 10(-3) increased from 896 +/- 194 to 3,233 +/- 754 (P less than 0.001), sebaceous cell area (micron 2) increased from 167 +/- 12 to 243 +/- 19 (P less than 0.001), and labeling index (percentage) increased from 2.7 +/- 0.7 to 6.4 +/- 0.9 (P less than 0.01). In the control group, sebaceous gland volume fell from 1,070 +/- 393 to 417 +/- 99 (NS), sebaceous cell size remained the same, and the labeling index fell from 5.1 +/- 1.9 to 3.2 +/- 1.1. After androgen administration, Halowax N-34, a known comedogen, or its vehicle, was applied to 15 grafts for 2-6 wk. Twice as many microcomedones were seen in the Halowax-treated grafts, compared with vehicle-treated grafts at the end of this time period. No visible comedones were produced. This study demonstrated that: (a) human sebaceous glands can

  11. Cidea control of lipid storage and secretion in mouse and human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Wang, Guanqun; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shuhong; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xiao, Ran; Ye, Jing; Li, Wei; Li, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Sebaceous glands are skin appendages that secrete sebum onto hair follicles to lubricate the hair and maintain skin homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lipid-laden mature sebocytes and that Cidea deficiency led to dry hair and hair loss in aged mice. In addition, Cidea-deficient mice had markedly reduced levels of skin surface lipids, including triacylglycerides (TAGs) and wax diesters (WDEs), and these mice were defective in water repulsion and thermoregulation. Furthermore, we observed that Cidea-deficient sebocytes accumulated a large number of smaller-sized lipid droplets (LDs), whereas overexpression of Cidea in human SZ95 sebocytes resulted in increased lipid storage and the accumulation of large LDs. Importantly, Cidea was highly expressed in human sebaceous glands, and its expression levels were positively correlated with human sebum secretion. Our data revealed that Cidea is a crucial regulator of sebaceous gland lipid storage and sebum lipid secretion in mammals and humans.

  12. Isolation, culture and phenotypic characterization of human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yunhe; Li, Meiying; Zhang, Xueyan; Bai, Tingting; Chi, Guanfan; Liu, Jin Yu; Li, Yulin

    2014-10-01

    Sweat gland epithelial cells (SGECs) have been identified as essential for the regeneration of sweat glands and for the construction of skin substitutes containing skin appendages. Consequently, the isolation, culture and phenotypic characterization of SGECs are of paramount importance. In the present study study, human sweat glands were isolated by pipetting under a phase contrast microscope following digestion with collagenase type I. Subsequently, a microscopic organ culture technique was used for the primary culture of human SGECs, and the culture conditions were modified in order to achieve optimal cell growth status. Primary SGECs were identified based on their expression of markers specific for sweat glands, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CK7, CK8, CK14, CK15, CK18 and CK19. We explored the possible presence of stem cells in human sweat glands by detecting their expression of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5). Primary SGECs achieved a good growth state when cultured under serum-free conditions. After one passage, the cells cultured in keratinocyte serum-free medium with 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) still showed a prominent proliferative activity. Phenotypic analysis by immunofluorescence microscopy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of sweat gland-specific markers, including CEA, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK15, CK18 and CK19. In addition, RT-PCR and immunochemistry detected the expression of LGR5. In comparison with traditional serum-containing conditions, serum-free culture provides the preferred culture conditions for human SGECs. LGR5 is a novel marker that identifies human sweat gland-derived stem cells.

  13. Electron microprobe analysis of human labial gland secretory granules in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Izutsu, K.; Johnson, D.; Schubert, M.; Wang, E.; Ramsey, B.; Tamarin, A.; Truelove, E.; Ensign, W.; Young, M.

    1985-06-01

    X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried labial gland cryosections revealed that Na concentration was doubled and the Ca/S concentration ratio was decreased in secretory granules of labial glands from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) when compared with glands from normal subjects. Other results suggested that the decrease in the Ca/S concentration ratio resulted from an increase in S concentration. These findings imply that mucous granules in labial saliva showed a CF-related increase in Na and S content, and such changes would be expected to affect the rheology of the mucus after exocytosis. In contrast with a previous study in human parotid glands, no evidence was found for CF-related changes in cytoplasmic or nuclear Na, K, and Ca concentrations. Significant elemental differences were found between secretory granules and nuclei and cytoplasm of control cells.

  14. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cells of the human normal pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Pivonello, Rosario; Waaijers, Marlijn; Kros, Johan M; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Cozzolino, Alessia; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2016-10-13

    The dopamine D2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D2 receptor. D2 receptor was heterogeneously expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the anterior and posterior lobe as well as in the area localized between the anterior and posterior lobe, and arbitrary defined as "intermediate zone". This zone, characterized by the presence of nerve fibers included the residual pars intermedia represented by the colloid-filled cysts lined by the remnant melanotroph cells strongly expressing D2 receptors, and clusters of corticotroph cells, belonging to the anterior lobe but localized within the cysts and adjacent to the posterior lobe, variably expressing D2 receptors. D2 dopamine receptor is expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the human normal pituitary gland, and particularly, in the different corticotroph cell populations localized in the anterior lobe and the intermediate zone of the pituitary gland.

  15. Differentiation of primary human submandibular gland cells cultured on basement membrane extract.

    PubMed

    Szlávik, Vanda; Szabó, Bálint; Vicsek, Tamás; Barabás, József; Bogdán, Sándor; Gresz, Veronika; Varga, Gábor; O'Connell, Brian; Vág, János

    2008-11-01

    There is no effective treatment for the loss of functional salivary tissue after irradiation for head and neck cancer or the autoimmune disease Sjögren's syndrome. One possible approach is the regeneration of salivary glands from stem cells. The present study aimed to investigate whether small pieces of human submandiblar gland tissue contain elements necessary for the reconstruction of salivary rudiments in vitro via acinar and ductal cell differentiation. Primary submandibular gland (primary total human salivary gland; PTHSG) cells were isolated from human tissue and cultured in vitro using a new method in which single cells form an expanding epithelial monolayer on plastic substrates. Differentiation, morphology, number, and organization of these cells were then followed on basement membrane extract (BME) using RNA quantitation (amylase, claudin-1 (CLN1), CLN3, kallikrein, vimentin), immunohistochemistry (amylase and occludin), viability assay, and videomicroscopy. On the surface of BME, PTHSG cells formed acinotubular structures within 24 h, did not proliferate, and stained for amylase. In cultures derived from half of the donors, the acinar markers amylase and CLN3 were upregulated. The PTHSG culture model suggests that human salivary gland may be capable of regeneration via reorganization and differentiation and that basement membrane components play a crucial role in the morphological and functional differentiation of salivary cells.

  16. Distribution and Size of Mucous Glands in the Ferret Tracheobronchial Tree

    PubMed Central

    HAJIGHASEMI-OSSAREH, MOHAMMAD; BORTHWELL, RACHEL M.; STEVENS, JEREMY E.; FINKBEINER, WALTER E.; WIDDICOMBE, JONATHAN H.

    2014-01-01

    A transgenic ferret model of cystic fibrosis has recently been generated. It is probable that malfunction of airway mucous glands contributes significantly to the airway pathology of this disease. The usefulness of the ferret model may therefore depend in part on how closely the airway glands of ferrets resemble those of humans. Here, we show that in the ferret trachea glands are commonest in its most ventral aspect and disappear about half way up the lateral walls; they are virtually absent from the dorsal membranous portion. Further, the aggregate volume of glands per unit mucosal surface declines progressively by about 60% between the larynx and the carina. The average frequency of glands openings for the ferret trachea as a whole is only about one-fifth that in humans (where gland openings are found at approximately the same frequency throughout the trachea). Glands in the ferret trachea are on average about one-third the size of those in the human. Therefore, the aggregate volume of tracheal glands (per unit mucosal surface area) in the ferret is only about 6% that in humans. As in other mammalian species, airway glands in the ferret disappear at an airway internal diameter of ~1 mm, corresponding approximately in this species to airway generation 6. PMID:24106034

  17. Differential sorting of human parathyroid hormone after transduction of mouse and rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Adriaansen, J; Perez, P; Goldsmith, C M; Zheng, C; Baum, B J

    2008-10-01

    Gene transfer to salivary glands leads to abundant secretion of transgenic protein into either saliva or the bloodstream. This indicates significant clinical potential, depending on the route of sorting. The aim of this study was to probe the sorting characteristics of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) in two animal models for salivary gland gene transfer. PTH is a key hormone regulating calcium levels in the blood. A recombinant serotype 5 adenoviral vector carrying the hPTH cDNA was administered to the submandibular glands of mice and rats. Two days after delivery, high levels of hPTH were found in the serum of mice, leading to elevated serum calcium levels. Only low amounts of hPTH were found in the saliva. Two days after vector infusion into rats, a massive secretion of hPTH was measured in saliva, with little secretion into serum. Confocal microscopy showed hPTH in the glands, localized basolaterally in mice and apically in rats. Submandibular gland transduction was effective and the produced hPTH was biologically active in vivo. Whereas hPTH sorted toward the basolateral side in mice, in rats hPTH was secreted mainly at the apical side. These results indicate that the interaction between hPTH and the cell sorting machinery is different between mouse and rat salivary glands. Detailed studies in these two species should result in a better understanding of cellular control of transgenic secretory protein sorting in this tissue.

  18. Individual variations in structure and function of human eccrine sweat gland.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Sato, F

    1983-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying variations in perspiration rate at the glandular level are still poorly understood. Human eccrine sweat glands were dissected from the back of 12 adults, cannulated, and stimulated in vitro with methacholine (Mch). The maximal sweat rate and pKA for Mch determined from the dose-response curve for each individual were compared with the anatomic dimensions of the isolated secretory tubules. There was significant correlation between Mch sensitivity (pKA) and the size of the sweat gland, sweat rate per gland, sweat rate per unit length of the secretory tubule, and sweat rate per unit glandular volume. The sweat glands from individuals judged to be poor sweaters exhibited smaller size, lower secretory activity both in vivo and in vitro, and decreased Mch sensitivity compared with glands from physically fit individuals. We conclude that the increased Mch sensitivity and glandular hypertrophy are the two important features of functionally active sweat glands and infer that these parameters could improve as a result of acclimatization to physical exercise and/or heat.

  19. Cancer Secretome May Influence BSP and DSP Expression in Human Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Samantha Lynn; Ferando, Blake; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Yu, Jennifer Chian; Joy, Anita Rose

    2017-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges in managing head and neck cancers, especially salivary gland cancers, is the identification of secreted biomarkers of the disease that can be evaluated noninvasively. A relevant source of enriched tumor markers could potentially be found in the tumor secretome. Although numerous studies have evaluated secretomes from various cancers, the influence of the cancer secretome derived from salivary gland cancers on the behavior of normal cells has not yet been elucidated. Our data indicate that secretome derived from salivary gland cancer cells can influence the expression of two potential biomarkers of oral cancer-namely, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP)-in normal salivary gland cells. Using routine immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting techniques, we demonstrate an enrichment of BSP and DSP in human salivary gland (HSG) cancer tissue, unique localizations of BSP and DSP in HSG cancer cells, and enriched expression of BSP and DSP in normal salivary gland cells exposed to a cancer secretome. The secretome domain of the cancer microenvironment could alter signaling cascades responsible for normal cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, thus enhancing cancer cell survival and the potential for cancer progression. The cancer secretome may be critical in maintaining and stimulating "cancer-ness," thus potentially promoting specific hallmarks of metastasis.

  20. The Influence of 13-cis Retinoic Acid on Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Kam, Wendy R.; Dieckow, Julia; Sullivan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a primary cause of dry eye disease. One of the risk factors for MGD is exposure to 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), a metabolite of vitamin A. However, the mechanism is not well understood. We hypothesize that 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell death, alters gene and protein expressions, and attenuates cell survival pathways in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. To test our hypotheses, immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured with or without 13-cis RA for varying doses and time. Cell proliferation, cell death, gene expression, and proteins involved in proliferation/survival and inflammation were evaluated. Results. We found that 13-cis RA inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death, and significantly altered the expression of 6726 genes, including those involved in cell proliferation, cell death, differentiation, keratinization, and inflammation, in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Further, 13-cis RA also reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and increased the generation of interleukin-1β and matrix metallopeptidase 9. Conclusions. Exposure to 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, increases cell death, alters gene expression, changes signaling pathways, and promotes inflammatory mediator and protease expression in meibomian gland epithelial cells. These effects may be responsible, at least in part, for the 13-cis RA–related induction of MGD. PMID:23722388

  1. Single Cell Clones Purified from Human Parotid Glands Display Features of Multipotent Epitheliomesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, TacGhee; Lee, Songyi; Choi, Nahyun; Shin, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Junghee; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of the biology of tissue-resident stem cell populations is essential to development of therapeutic strategies for regeneration of damaged tissue. Here, we describe the isolation of glandular stem cells (GSCs) from a small biopsy specimen from human parotid glands. Single colony-forming unit-derived clonal cells were isolated through a modified subfractionation culture method, and their stem cell properties were examined. The isolated clonal cells exhibited both epithelial and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like features, including differentiation potential and marker expression. The cells transiently displayed salivary progenitor phenotypes during salivary epithelial differentiation, suggesting that they may be putative multipotent GSCs rather than progenitor cells. Both epithelial and mesenchymal-expressing putative GSCs, LGR5+CD90+ cells, were found in vivo, mostly in inter-secretory units of human salivary glands. Following in vivo transplantation into irradiated salivary glands of mice, these cells were found to be engrafted around the secretory complexes, where they contributed to restoration of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction. These results showed that multipotent epitheliomesenchymal GSCs are present in glandular mesenchyme, and that isolation of homogenous GSC clones from human salivary glands may promote the precise understanding of biological function of bona fide GSCs, enabling their therapeutic application for salivary gland regeneration. PMID:27824146

  2. Differential expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in human versus cynomolgus monkey skin eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Pantano, Serafino; Dubost, Valérie; Darribat, Katy; Couttet, Philippe; Grenet, Olivier; Busch, Steven; Moulin, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) is a peptidase whose inhibition is beneficial in Type II diabetes treatment. Several evidences suggest potential implication of DPP4 in skin disorders such as psoriasis, keloids and fibrotic skin diseases where its inhibition could also be beneficial. DPP4 expression in human skin was described mainly in dermal fibroblasts and a subset of keratinocytes in the basal layer. Of importance in the perspective of preclinical experimentation, DPP4 distribution in skin of non-human primate species has not been documented. This report evidences unexpected differences between a set of human and cynomolgus monkey skin samples revealing a major expression of DPP4 in eccrine sweat glands of cynomolgus monkeys but not in humans. This represents a unique distinctive feature compared to the conserved expression of dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9 and potential relevant DPP4 substrates such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and receptors (NPY-receptor 1 and Neurokinin receptor). Finally the observation that cathepsin D, an unrelated protease, shows the opposite expression compared to DPP4 (present in human but not in cynomolgus monkey eccrine sweat glands) could indicate that human eccrine sweat glands evolved a divergent protease repertoire compared to non-human primates. These unexpected differences in the eccrine sweat glands protease repertoire will need to be confirmed extending the analysis to a major number of donors but could imply possible biochemical divergences, reflecting the functional evolution of the glands and the control of their activity. Our findings also demonstrate that non-human primates studies aiming at understanding DPP4 function in skin biology are not readily translatable to human.

  3. Tracheal malignant melanoma: successful outcome with tracheal resection.

    PubMed

    Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Minamoto, Helio; Junqueira, Jader J M; Falzoni, Roberto; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2008-07-01

    Primary tracheal malignant melanomas are uncommon neoplasms: only five cases have been reported. Different therapeutic approaches are described, with a short life expectancy observed. We report a case of a young woman with a primary tracheal malignant melanoma who underwent complete tracheal resection and is free of disease 4 years after surgical treatment.

  4. Morphology and morphometry of the human sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements of edentulous patients

    PubMed Central

    de SÁ, Josiane Costa Rodrigues; TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; IWAKI FILHO, Liogi; LARA, Vanessa Soares; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic mouth floor enlargements may be observed in edentulous patients. These masses, which protrude from the mouth floor, may complicate the fitting of dentures and require surgery. Whether this "entity" may be considered an anatomical variation of the mouth floor or represent specific alterations in the sublingual gland is not known. Objective The aim of this work is to investigate the morphological and morphometric aspects of the sublingual glands of edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements and compare the glands of these patients with the sublingual glands of human cadavers. Material and Methods Microscopic evaluation was performed on human sublingual glands from edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements (n=20) and edentulous cadavers (n=20). The patients and cadavers were of similar ages. The data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests (p<0.05). Results Acinar atrophy, duct-like structures, mononuclear infiltrates, replacement of parenchyma with fibrous/adipose tissue, mucous extravasation and oncocytosis were similar between the groups (p>0.05). Only the variables "autolysis" and "congested blood vessels" presented statistical difference between groups (p=0.014; p=0.043). The morphometric study revealed that the volume densities of acini, ducts, stroma and adipose tissue were similar between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion The microscopic characteristics of the sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements in edentulous patients correspond to characteristics associated with the normal aging process. The glands are not pathological and represent an age-related alteration that occurs with or without the presence of the mouth floor enlargements. PMID:24473720

  5. "Sebocytes' makeup": novel mechanisms and concepts in the physiology of the human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllosi, Attila G; Czifra, Gabriella; Bíró, Tamás

    2011-06-01

    The pilosebaceous unit of the human skin consists of the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Within this "mini-organ", the sebaceous gland has been neglected by the researchers of the field for several decades. Actually, it was labeled as a reminiscence of human development ("a living fossil with a past but no future"), and was thought to solely act as a producer of sebum, a lipid-enriched oily substance which protects our skin (and hence the body) against various insults. However, due to emerging research activities of the past two decades, it has now become evident that the sebaceous gland is not only a "passive" cutaneous "relic" to establish the physico-chemical barrier function of the skin against constant environmental challenges, but it rather functions as an "active" neuro-immuno-endocrine cutaneous organ. This review summarizes recent findings of sebaceous gland research by mainly focusing on newly discovered physiological functions, novel regulatory mechanisms, key events in the pathology of the gland, and future directions in both experimental and clinical dermatology.

  6. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abike, Faruk; Bingol, Banu; Temizkan, Osman; Dunder, Ilkkan; Kilic, Gokhan Sami; Cetin, Guven; Gundogdu, Cem

    2011-01-01

    Cancer complicates approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Primary tracheal carcinoma is one of very rarely seen tumors and the rate of its being seen makes up approximately % 0.2 of all tumors of respiratory tract. The patient, 28 years old, who has 28-weeks-pregnant, was diagnosed with primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma. Patient was made operation as thoracotomy and tracheal tumor was removed at the 28th week of pregnancy. Patient was delivered with sectio abdominale at the 39th week of pregnancy. Primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma is very rarely seen tumors and it is the first tracheal ACC with pregnancy case in literature to have been detected and surgically treated during pregnancy. We discussed primary tracheal adenocystic carcinoma and tracheal tumors during pregnancy with literature. PMID:22066040

  7. Three-Dimensional Human Bronchial-Tracheal Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLAs) as Hosts For Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suderman, M. T.; McCarthy, M.; Mossell, E.; Watts, D. M.; Peters, C. J.; Shope, R.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-like assembly (TLA) of human bronchial-tracheal mesenchymal (HBTC) cells with an overlay of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells was constructed using a NASA Bioreactor to survey the infectivity of SARS-CoV. This TLA was inoculated with a low passage number Urbani strain of SARS-CoV. At selected intervals over a 10-day period, media and cell aliquots of the 3-D TLA were harvested for viral titer assay and for light and electron microscopy examination. All viral titer assays were negative in both BEAS-2B two-dimensional monolayer and TLA. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry demonstrated antigen-antibody reactivity with anti-SARS-CoV polyclonal antibody to spike and nuclear proteins on cell membranes and cytoplasm. Coronavirus Group 2 cross-reactivity was demonstrated by positive reaction to anti-FIPV 1 and anti-FIPV 1 and 2 antibodies. TLA examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated increasing cytoplasmic vacuolation with numerous electron-dense bodies measuring 45 to 270 nm from days 4 through 10. There was no evidence of membrane blebbing, membrane duplication, or fragmentation of organelles in the TLAs. However, progressive disruption of endoplasmic reticulum was observed throughout the cells. Antibody response to SARS-CoV specific spike and nucleocapsid glycoproteins, cross-reactivity with FIPV antibodies, and the cytoplasmic pathology suggests this HBTE TLA model is permissive to SARS-CoV infection.

  8. Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Shoji, Itaru; Shibasaki, Akiko; Kato, Ichiro; Hiraishi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kaneko, Kiriko; Murakami, Osamu; Morimoto, Ryo; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Totsune, Kazuhito

    2010-05-01

    Kisspeptins are neuropeptides which activate the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis and are considered to play important physiological roles in the reproduction. Kisspeptins have also been reported to stimulate the aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex. However, the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors has not been clarified yet. We, therefore, studied the presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors (adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas) by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. Kisspeptin-LI was detected in all the tissues examined; normal portions of adrenal glands (3.0 +/- 2.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 21, mean +/- SD), aldosterone-producing adenomas (4.6 +/- 3.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-producing adenomas (2.7 +/- 1.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 14), adrenocortical carcinomas (1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.8 +/- 0.8 pmol/g wet weight, n = 6). There was no significant difference in kisspeptin-LI levels among them. Immunocytochemistry showed positive kisspeptin-immunostaining in normal adrenal glands, with stronger immunostaining found in the medulla. Furthermore, positive kisspeptin-immunostaining was found in all types of adrenal tumors examined; adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas. The intensity of kisspeptin-immunostaining in these adrenal tumors was, however, not so strong as that in normal adrenal medulla. The present study has shown for the first time the presence of kisspeptin-LI in adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.

  9. Stem cells in the development and differentiation of the human adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    There are no studies on stem cells (SCs) and development and differentiation (DD) of the human adrenal glands. The SCs in DD of the adrenal glands were herein investigated histochemically and immunohistochemically in 18 human embryonic adrenal glands at gestational week (GW) 7-40. At 7 GW, the adrenal glands were present, and at 7 GW, numerous embryonic SCs (ESCs) are seen to create the adrenal cortex. The ESCs were composed exclusively of small cells with hyperchromatic nuclei without nucleoli. The ESCs were positive for neural cell adhesion molecule, KIT, neuron-specific enolase, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α, synaptophysin, and MET. They were negative for other SC antigens, including chromogranin, ErbB2, and bcl-2. They were also negative for lineage antigens, including cytokeratin (CK)7, CK8, CK18, and CK19, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, epithelial membrane antigen, HepPar1, mucin core apoprotein (MUC)1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6, and cluster differentiation (CD)3, CD45, CD20, CD34, and CD31. The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was high (Ki-67 LI = around 20%). α-Fetoprotein was positive in the ESCs and adrenal cells. The ESC was first seen in the periphery of the adrenal cortex at 7-10 GW. The ESC migrates into the inner part of the adrenal cortex. Huge islands of ESC were present near the adrenal, and they appeared to provide the ESC of the adrenal. At 16 GW, adrenal medulla appeared, and the adrenal ESCs were present in the periphery or the cortex, in the cortical parenchyma, corticomedullary junctions, and in the medulla. The adrenal essential architecture was established around 20 GW; however, there were still ESCs. At term, there are a few ESCs. These data suggest that the adrenal glands were created by ESCs.

  10. Interaction of the tracheal tubules of Scutigera coleoptrata (Chilopoda, Notostigmophora) with glandular structures of the pericardial septum

    PubMed Central

    Hilken, Gero; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Müller, Carsten H.G.; Sombke, Andy; Wirkner, Christian S.; Rosenberg, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Notostigmophora (Scutigeromorpha) exhibit a special tracheal system compared to other Chilopoda. The unpaired spiracles are localized medially on the long tergites and open into a wide atrium from which hundreds of tracheal tubules originate and extend into the pericardial sinus. Previous investigators reported that the tracheal tubules float freely in the hemolymph. However, here we show for the first time that the tracheal tubules are anchored to a part of the pericardial septum. Another novel finding is this part of the pericardial septum is structured as an aggregated gland on the basis of its specialized epithelium being formed by hundreds of oligocellular glands. It remains unclear whether the pericardial septum has a differently structure in areas that lack a connection with tracheal tubules. The tracheal tubules come into direct contact with the canal cells of the glands that presumably secrete mucous substances covering the entire luminal cuticle of the tracheal tubules. Connections between tracheae and glands have not been observed in any other arthropods. PMID:26257546

  11. Effectiveness of skin absorption of tincture of I in blocking radioiodine from the human thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.L.; Coen, P.E.; White, W.J.; Hurst, W.J.; Achey, B.E.; Lang, C.M.

    1989-06-01

    Topical application of tincture of iodine (I) was found to be effective in blocking the thyroid uptake of orally administered /sup 131/I in humans. Abdominal skin application of tincture of I resulted in an approximately 82% reduction in the uptake of /sup 131/I by the thyroid gland. The effectiveness varied among individuals and may have depended on the quantity applied and on the application site. In each study group, elevated levels of serum I were observed.

  12. Tracheal replacement with an aortic autograft.

    PubMed

    Azorin, Jacques F; Bertin, Francois; Martinod, Emmanuel; Laskar, Marc

    2006-02-01

    Tracheal replacement after extensive resection remains a challenge for the thoracic surgeon. We propose an innovative solution: the use of an aortic autograft. After an experimental work on animals with aortic autografts and allografts [Martinod E, Seguin A, Pfeuty K, Fornes P, Kambouchner M, Azorin JF, Carpentier AF. Long-term evaluation of the replacement of the trachea with an autologous aortic graft. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;75(5):1572-8; Martinod E, Seguin A, Holder-Espinasse M, Kambouchner M, Duterque-Coquillaud M, Azorin JF, Carpentier AF. Tracheal regeneration following tracheal replacement with an allogenic aorta. Ann Thorac Surg 2005;79(3):942-8], we present the first human case of long tracheal replacement with an aortic autograft. In this case we replaced 7 cm of a tumoral trachea using an aortic infra-renal autograft supported by a silicone stent. The early postoperative course was uneventful. The stent was removed at three months. The patient died at six months from an acute pulmonary infection without any sign of anastomosis leakage or graft rupture. A new field of clinical study has to be investigated.

  13. Endoscopic laser reshaping of rabbit tracheal cartilage: preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Walter; Lam, Anthony; Protsenko, Dmitry; Wong, Brian J.

    2005-04-01

    Background: Tracheal cartilage deformities due to trauma, prolonged endotracheal intubation or infection are difficult to correct. Current treatment options such as dilation, laser ablation, stent placement, and segmental resection are only temporary or carry significant risks. The objectives of this project were to design and test a laser activated endotracheal stent system that can actively modify the geometry of tracheal cartilage, leading to permanent retention of a new and desirable tracheal geometry. Methods: Ex vivo rabbit tracheal cartilage (simulating human neonate trachea) were irradiated with an Er: Glass laser, (λ= 1.54um, 0.5W-2.5W, 1 sec to 5 sec). Shape change and gross thermal injury were assessed visually to determine the best laser power parameters for reshaping. A rigid endoscopic telescope and hollow bronchoscope were used to record endoscopic images. The stent was constructed from nitinol wire, shaped into a zigzag configuration. An ex vivo testing apparatus was also constructed. Results: The best laser power parameter to produce shape change was 1 W for 6-7 seconds. At this setting, there was significant shape change with only minimal thermal injury to the tracheal mucosa, as assessed by visual inspection. The bronchoscopy system functioned adequately during testing in the ex vivo testing apparatus. Conclusion: We have successfully designed instrumentation and created the capability to endoscopically reshape tracheal cartilage in an ex vivo rabbit model. The results obtained in ex vivo tracheal cartilage indicated that reshaping using Er: Glass laser can be accomplished.

  14. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

    PubMed Central

    AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; de ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; LARA, Vanessa Soares; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years); II (31–60), and III (61–90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death. PMID:26537715

  15. Lectin binding pattern and proteoglycan distribution in human eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Sames, K; Moll, I; van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Schumacher, U

    1999-11-01

    The distribution pattern of glycoconjugates in human eccrine sweat glands has been studied by the binding of newly discovered lectins and by antibodies against a chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan and chondroitin sulphate glycosaminoglycans. Mannose-specific lectins labelled large intracellular granules, part of which could be extended cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. In contrast, lectins specific for terminal mannose/glucose residues predominantly labelled basement membranes and the glycocalyx. Lectins recognizing terminal N-acetylgalactosamine groups left most parts of the glands unstained, but stained some dark cells intensely. These last cells were also intensively labelled by N-acetylglucosamine-specific and by fucose-specific lectins. Sialic acid residues were preferentially located in luminal borders of secretory coils. No terminal galactose residues were detected. All antibodies against chondroitin glycoconjugates stained large granules similar to those revealed by the mannose-specific lectins in the secretory cells. The basement membrane is only stained by the proteoglycan antibody and the chondroitin-6-sulphate antibody. Thus, a complex composition of glycoconjugates exists not only in matrix elements but also in the cells of eccrine glands of the human skin. A possible secretion of glycoconjugates is discussed.

  16. Effect of skin temperature on the ion reabsorption capacity of sweat glands during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, A K M; Kuwahara, T; Oue, A; Nomura, C; Koga, S; Inoue, Y; Kondo, N

    2005-07-01

    The effect of skin temperature on the ion reabsorption capacity of sweat glands during exercise in humans is unknown. In this study, eight healthy subjects performed a 60-min cycling exercise at a constant intensity (60% VO(2max)) under moderate (25 degrees C) and cool (15 degrees C) ambient temperatures at a constant relative humidity of 40%. The sweating rate (SR), index of sweat ion concentration (ISIC) by using sweat conductivity, esophageal temperature (Tes), mean skin temperature, and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously under both ambient temperatures. The SR and ISIC were significantly lower at the cool ambient temperature versus the moderate temperature. There were no significant differences in the changes in HR and esophageal temperature between these ambient temperature conditions, while the mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the cool ambient temperature by almost 3 degrees C (P < 0.05). The slopes of the relationships between Tes and the SR and ISIC were significantly lower and the thresholds of these relationships were significantly higher at the cool ambient temperature (P < 0.05). The ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat glands was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in a cool environment (0.21 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.06 mg/cm(2)/min at 15 and 25 degrees C, respectively) as evaluated using the relationships for SR and ISIC. The results suggest that the ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat glands is influenced by skin temperature during exercise in humans.

  17. Examination of Duct Physiology in the Human Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Dixie; Gomberawalla, Ameer; Gordon, Eva J.; Tondre, Julie; Nejad, Mitra; Nguyen, Tinh; Pogoda, Janice M.; Rao, Jianyu; Chatterton, Robert; Henning, Susanne; Love, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human breast comprise several ductal systems, or lobes, which contain a small amount of fluid containing cells, hormones, proteins and metabolites. The complex physiology of these ducts is likely a contributing factor to the development of breast cancer, especially given that the vast majority of breast cancers begin in a single lobular unit. Methods We examined the levels of total protein, progesterone, estradiol, estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and macrophages in ductal fluid samples obtained from 3 ducts each in 78 women, sampled twice over a 6 month period. Samples were processed for both cytological and molecular analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients and mixed models were utilized to identify significant data. Results We found that the levels of these ductal fluid components were generally uncorrelated among ducts within a single breast and over time, suggesting that each lobe within the breast has a distinct physiology. However, we also found that estradiol was more correlated in women who were nulliparous or produced nipple aspirate fluid. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the microenvironment of any given lobular unit is unique to that individual unit, findings that may provide clues about the initiation and development of ductal carcinomas. PMID:27073976

  18. Development of peptide-containing nerves in the human fetal prostate gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jen, P Y; Dixon, J S

    1995-01-01

    Immunohistochemical methods were used to study the developing peptidergic innervation of the human fetal prostate gland in a series of specimens ranging in gestational age from 13 to 30 wk. The overall innervation of each specimen was visualised using protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), a general nerve marker. The onset and development of specific neuropeptide-containing subpopulations were investigated using antisera to neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), bombesin (BOM), somatostatin (SOM), leu-enkephalin (l-ENK) and met-enkephalin (m-ENK). In addition the occurrence and distribution of presumptive noradrenergic nerves was studied using antisera to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). At 13 wk numerous branching PGP-immunoreactive (-IR) nerves were observed in the capsule of the developing prostate gland and surrounding the preprostatic urethra but the remainder of the gland was devoid of nerves. The majority of nerves in the capsule contained D beta H and TH and were presumed to be noradrenergic in type while other nerves (in decreasing numbers) contained NPY, l-ENK, SP and CGRP. Nerves associated with the preprostatic urethra did not contain any of the neuropeptides under investigation. At 17 wk the density of nerves in the capsule had increased and occasional m-ENK-, VIP- and BOM-IR nerve fibres were also observed. In addition PGP, D beta H-, TH-, NPY- and l-ENK-IR nerves occurred in association with smooth muscle bundles which at 17 wk were present in the outer part of the gland. Occasional PGP-IR nerves were also present at the base of the epithelium forming some of the prostatic glands. At 23 wk some of the subepithelial nerves showed immunoreactivity for NPY, VIP or l-ENK. At 26 wk smooth muscle bundles occurred throughout the gland and were richly innervated by PGP, D beta H and TH-IR nerves while a less dense plexus was formed by NPY- and l

  19. Serum-Induced Keratinization Processes in an Immortalized Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Ulrike; Schröder, Antje; Mitchell, Todd; Brown, Simon; Snikeris, Peta; Garreis, Fabian; Kunnen, Carolina; Willcox, Mark; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate a human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC) as a model for meibomian gland (patho)physiology in vitro. Methods HMGEC were cultured in the absence or presence of serum. Sudan III lipid staining, ultrastructural analysis and lipidomic analyses were performed. Impedance sensing, desmoplakin 1/2 mRNA and cytokeratin (CK) 1, 5, 6, 14 levels were evaluated. Serum containing medium supplemented with higher serum, glucose, an omega-3 lipid cocktail, eicosapentaenoic acid or sebomed medium were investigated for lipid accumulation and ultrastructural morphology. Results Lipid droplet accumulation in HMGEC was induced by serum containing media after 1 day, but decreased over time. Cultivation in serum induced desmosome and cytokeratin filament formation. Desmoplakin 1/2 gene levels were significantly upregulated after 1d of serum treatment. Furthermore, the normalized impedance increased significantly. Lipidome analysis revealed high levels of phospholipids (over 50%), but very low levels of wax ester and cholesteryl esters (under 1%). Stimulation with eicosapentaenoic acid increased lipid accumulation after one day. Conclusion Serum treatment of HMGEC caused lipid droplet formation to some extent but also induced keratinization. The cells did not produce typical meibum lipids under these growth conditions. HMGEC are well suited to study (hyper)keratinization processes of meibomian gland epithelial cells in vitro. PMID:26042605

  20. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  1. Quantitative analysis of human salivary gland-derived intact proteome using top-down mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N; Tolić, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J; Pevzner, Pavel; Smith, Richard D; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2014-05-01

    There are several notable challenges inherent for fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, PTMs, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based LC-MS/MS approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of PTMs. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin. In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein. These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different proteoform profiles were resolved with high reproducibility between parotid secretion and submandibular/sublingual glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  2. Endothelin-1 induces VCAM-1 expression-mediated inflammation via receptor tyrosine kinases and Elk/p300 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wei-Ning; Hou, Wei-Chen; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2015-08-01

    The elevated level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with severe asthma, acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and sepsis. ET-1 may affect vessel tone together with lung physiology and pathology. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is one kind of adhesion molecules participating in the process of polymorphonuclear leukocyte transmigration and regulating the occurrence and amplification of tissue inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ET-1-mediated expression of VCAM-1 on human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) were largely unknown. Here we reported that ET-1 stimulated expression of VCAM-1 gene on HTSMCs, which was blocked by pretreatment with the inhibitors of ET receptors, Src, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, MEK1/2, and p300, suggesting the participation of these signaling components in ET-1-regulated HTSMC responses. Furthermore, transfection with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) of Src, AKT, p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or p300 downregulated the respective proteins and significantly attenuated ET-1-induced VCAM-1 expression. ET-1 also stimulated phosphorylation of Src, EGFR, PDGFR, AKT, p42/p44 MAPK, and Elk-1 and acetylation of histone H4 on HTSMCs. Immunoprecipitation assay showed the association between Elk-1 and p300 in the nucleus. Adhesion assay revealed that the adhesion of THP-1 to HTSMCs challenged with ET-1 was increased, which was attenuated by the inhibitors of ET receptors, Src, MMPs, EGFR, PDGFR, PI3K, AKT, p42/p44 MAPK, and p300. Taken together, these data suggested that ET-1 promotes occurrence and amplification of pathology-related airway inflammation via enhancing VCAM-1 expression in an ET receptor/Src/MMP/EGFR, PDGFR/PI3K/AKT/p42/p44 MAPK/Elk-1/p300 pathway in HTSMCs.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide induces VCAM-1 expression and neutrophil adhesion to human tracheal smooth muscle cells: Involvement of Src/EGFR/PI3-K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.-N.; Luo, S.-F.; Wu, C.-B.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2008-04-15

    In our previous study, LPS has been shown to induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) expression through MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). In addition to these pathways, the non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src), EGF receptor (EGFR), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to be implicated in the expression of several inflammatory target proteins. Here, we reported that LPS-induced up-regulation of VCAM-1 enhanced the adhesion of neutrophils onto HTSMC monolayer, which was inhibited by LY294002 and wortmannin. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinases including Src, PYK2, and EGFR, which were further confirmed using specific anti-phospho-Src, PYK2, or EGFR Ab, respectively, revealed by Western blotting. LPS-stimulated Src, PYK2, EGFR, and Akt phosphorylation and VCAM-1 expression were attenuated by the inhibitors of Src (PP1), EGFR (AG1478), PI3-K (LY294002 and wortmannin), and Akt (SH-5), respectively, or transfection with siRNAs of Src or Akt and shRNA of p110. LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was also blocked by pretreatment with curcumin (a p300 inhibitor) or transfection with p300 siRNA. LPS-stimulated Akt activation translocated into nucleus and associated with p300 and VCAM-1 promoter region was further confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. This association of Akt and p300 to VCAM-1 promoter was inhibited by pretreatment with PP1, AG1478, wortmannin, and SH-5. LPS-induced p300 activation enhanced VCAM-1 promoter activity and VCAM-1 mRNA expression. These results suggested that in HTSMCs, Akt phosphorylation mediated through transactivation of Src/PYK2/EGFR promoted the transcriptional p300 activity and eventually led to VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS.

  4. Human eccrine sweat gland cells turn into melanin-uptaking keratinocytes in dermo-epidermal skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Biedermann, Thomas; Pontiggia, Luca; Braziulis, Erik; Schiestl, Clemens; Hendriks, Bart; Eichhoff, Ossia M; Widmer, Daniel S; Meuli-Simmen, Claudia; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2013-02-01

    Recently, Biedermann et al. (2010) have demonstrated that human eccrine sweat gland cells can develop a multilayered epidermis. The question still remains whether these cells can fulfill exclusive and very specific functional properties of epidermal keratinocytes, such as the incorporation of melanin, a feature absent in sweat gland cells. We added human melanocytes to eccrine sweat gland cells to let them develop into an epidermal analog in vivo. The interaction between melanocytes and sweat gland-derived keratinocytes was investigated. The following results were gained: (1) macroscopically, a pigmentation of the substitutes was seen 2-3 weeks after transplantation; (2) we confirmed the development of a multilayered, stratified epidermis with melanocytes distributed evenly throughout the basal layer; (3) melanocytic dendrites projected to suprabasal layers; and (4) melanin was observed to be integrated into former eccrine sweat gland cells. These skin substitutes were similar or equal to skin substitutes cultured from human epidermal keratinocytes. The only differences observed were a delay in pigmentation and less melanin uptake. These data suggest that eccrine sweat gland cells can form a functional epidermal melanin unit, thereby providing striking evidence that they can assume one of the most characteristic keratinocyte properties.

  5. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  6. Thermogenic and psychogenic recruitment of human eccrine sweat glands: Variations between glabrous and non-glabrous skin surfaces.

    PubMed

    Machado-Moreira, Christiano A; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-04-01

    Human eccrine sweat-gland recruitment and secretion rates were investigated from the glabrous (volar) and non-glabrous hand surfaces during psychogenic (mental arithmetic) and thermogenic stimuli (mild hyperthermia). It was hypothesised that these treatments would activate glands from both skin surfaces, with the non-thermal stimulus increasing secretion rates primarily by recruiting more sweat glands. Ten healthy men participated in two seated, resting trials in temperate conditions (25-26°C). Trials commenced under normothermic conditions during which the first psychogenic stress was applied. That was followed by passive heating (0.5°C mean body temperature elevation) and thermal clamping, with a second cognitive challenge then applied. Sudomotor activity was evaluated from both hands, with colourimetry used to identify activated sweat glands, skin conductance to determine the onset of precursor sweating and ventilated sweat capsules to measure rates of discharged sweating. From glandular activation and sweat rate data, sweat-gland outputs were derived. These psychogenic and thermogenic stimuli activated sweat glands from both the glabrous and non-glabrous skin surfaces, with the former dominating at the glabrous skin and the latter at the non-glabrous surface. Indeed, those stimuli individually accounted for ~90% of the site-specific maximal number of activated sweat glands observed when both stimuli were simultaneously applied. During the normothermic psychological stimulation, sweating from the glabrous surface was elevated via a 185% increase in the number of activated glands within the first 60s. The hypothetical mechanism for this response may involve the serial activation of additional eccrine sweat glands during the progressive evolution of psychogenic sweating.

  7. Interferon-gamma increased epithelial barrier function via upregulating claudin-7 expression in human submandibular gland duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ayumi; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are necessary for salivary gland function and may serve as indicators of salivary gland epithelial dysfunction. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition which disrupts the TJ associated epithelial barrier. The salivary glands are one of the most frequently involved organs in IgG4-RD, however, changes of the TJ associated epithelial barrier in salivary gland duct epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of TJs in human submandibular gland ductal epithelial cells (HSDECs) in normal and IgG4-RD. We examined submandibular gland (SMG) tissue from eight control individuals and 22 patients with IgG4-RD and established an HSDEC culture system. Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were performed. Claudin-4, claudin-7, occludin, and JAM-A were expressed at the apical side of the duct epithelium in submandibular gland (SMG) tissue and at the cell borders in HSDECs of normal and IgG4-RD. The expression and distribution of TJs in SMG tissue were not different in control individuals and patients with IgG4-RD in vivo and in vitro. Although interferon-gamma (IFNγ) generally disrupts the integrity and function of TJs, as manifested by decreased epithelial barrier function, IFNγ markedly increased the epithelial barrier function of HSDECs via upregulation of claudin-7 expression in HSDECs from patients with IgG4-RD. This is the first report showing an IFNγ-dependent increase in epithelial barrier function in the salivary gland duct epithelium. Our results provide insights into the functional significance of TJs in salivary gland duct epithelium in physiological and pathological conditions, including IgG4-RD.

  8. Dynamic analysis for mental sweating of a group of eccrin sweat glands on a human fingertip by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Tanigawa, Motomu; Wada, Yuki; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2011-05-01

    OCT is highly potential for in vivo observation of human sweating dynamics which affects activity of the sympathetic nerve. In this paper, we demonstrate dynamic OCT analysis of mental sweating of a group of eccrin sweat glands. The sweating dynamics is tracked simultaneously for nineteen sweat glands by time-sequential piled-up en-face OCT images with the frame spacing of 3.3 sec. Strong non-uniformity is observed in mental sweating where the amount of excess sweat is different for each sweat gland although the sweat glands are adjacent to each other. The non-uniformity should be necessary to adjust as precisely the total amount of excess sweat as possible through the sympathetic nerve in response to strength of the stress.

  9. Endocannabinoids regulate growth and survival of human eccrine sweat gland-derived epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Czifra, Gabriella; Szöllősi, Attila G; Tóth, Balázs I; Demaude, Julien; Bouez, Charbel; Breton, Lionel; Bíró, Tamás

    2012-08-01

    The functional existence of the emerging endocannabinoid system (ECS), one of the new neuroendocrine players in cutaneous biology, is recently described in the human skin. In this study, using human eccrine sweat gland-derived immortalized NCL-SG3 model cells and a wide array of cellular and molecular assays, we investigated the effects of prototypic endocannabinoids (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol) on cellular functions. We show here that both endocannabinoids dose-dependently suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis, altered expressions of various cytoskeleton proteins (e.g., cytokeratins), and upregulated lipid synthesis. Interestingly, as revealed by specific agonists and antagonists as well as by RNA interference, neither the metabotropic cannabinoid receptors (CB) nor the "ionotropic" CB transient receptor potential ion channels, expressed by these cells, mediated the cellular actions of the endocannabinoids. However, the endocannabinoids selectively activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Finally, other elements of the ECS (i.e., enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids) were also identified on NCL-SG3 cells. These results collectively suggest that cannabinoids exert a profound regulatory role in the biology of the appendage. Therefore, from a therapeutic point of view, upregulation of endocannabinoid levels might help to manage certain sweat gland-derived disorders (e.g., tumors) characterized by unwanted growth.

  10. Immunological characterization of deglycosylated human and swine trachea and Cowper's gland mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Brewer, J M; Mendicino, J

    1991-04-01

    Antibodies were raised in rabbits against purified swine and human trachea and Cowper's gland mucin glycoproteins and their deglycosylated polypeptide chains. Three monospecific antibody fractions that recognize the carbohydrate, the deglycosylated or unglycosylated regions of the polypeptide chains in these glycoproteins, were isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography. The human and swine trachea mucin glycoproteins showed extensive immunological homology in both their carbohydrate and polypeptide chains. The carbohydrate chains and unglycosylated region of the polypeptide chain in Cowper's gland mucin glycoprotein showed little or no cross-reaction with comparable regions in respiratory mucin glycoproteins. However, the polypeptide chains in the deglycosylated regions of all three mucin glycoproteins showed extensive homology. Five bands with molecular masses ranging from 40 to 46 kDa that differed by a constant molecular mass of approximately 1.5 kDa were detected in hydrolysates of all of the polypeptide chains after treatment with S. aureus V8 protease. Monospecific antibodies to the deglycosylated region of these chains reacted with the peptides, whereas those directed against the unglycosylated region did not. The results suggest that these chains contain tandem repeating sequences of amino acids.

  11. Localization of carboxyl ester lipase in human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Vigetti, Davide; Placidi, Claudia; Finzi, Giovanna; Uccella, Silvia; Clerici, Moira; Bartolini, Barbara; Carnevali, Ileana; Losa, Marco; Capella, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    Carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes a wide variety of lipid substrates, including ceramides, which are known to show inhibitory regulation of pituitary hormone secretion in experimental models. Because no studies on CEL expression in human pituitary and pituitary adenomas have been reported in the literature, we investigated CEL expression in 10 normal pituitary glands and 86 well-characterized pituitary adenomas [12 FSH/LH cell, 17 α-subunit/null cell, 6 TSH cell, 21 ACTH cell, 11 prolactin (PRL) cell, and 19 GH cell adenomas] using IHC, immunoelectron microscopy, Western blotting, and quantitative RT-PCR. In normal adenohypophysis, CEL was localized in GH, ACTH, and TSH cells. In adenomas, it was mainly found in functioning GH, ACTH, and TSH tumors, whereas its expression was poor in the corresponding silent adenomas and was lacking in FSH/LH cell, null cell, and PRL cell adenomas. Ultrastructurally, CEL was localized in secretory granules close to their membranes. This is the first study demonstrating CEL expression in normal human pituitary glands and in functioning GH, ACTH, and TSH adenomas. Considering that CEL hydrolyzes ceramides, inactivating their inhibitory function on pituitary hormone secretion, our findings suggest a possible role of CEL in the regulation of hormone secretion in both normal and adenomatous pituitary cells.

  12. Immunocytochemical Localization of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Normal Human Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sijie; Han, Bing; Liu, Guojin; Li, Songyun; Ouellet, Johanne; Labrie, Fernand; Pelletier, Georges

    2010-01-01

    The sex steroids, estrogens, progesterone, and androgens, all play a role in mammary development and function. To precisely identify the sites of action of these steroids, we studied the localization of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ, the progesterone receptor A (PRA) and PRB, and androgen receptors (AR) in the normal human mammary gland. Immunocytochemical localization of ERα, ERβ, PRA, PRB, and AR was performed with reduction mammoplasty specimens from premenopausal women. ERα, PRA, PRB, and AR were localized mostly to the inner layer of epithelial cells lining acini and intralobular ducts, as well as to myoepithelial cells scattered in the external layer of interlobular ducts. AR was also found in some stromal cells. ERβ staining was more widespread, resulting in epithelial and myoepithelial cells being labeled in acini and ducts as well as stromal cells. These results suggest that all sex steroids can directly act on epithelial cells to modulate development and function of the human mammary gland. Estrogens and androgens can also indirectly influence epithelial cell activity by an action on stromal cells. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:509–515, 2010) PMID:20026671

  13. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  14. Basal epithelial cells of human prostate gland are not myoepithelial cells. A comparative immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study with the human salivary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Srigley, J. R.; Dardick, I.; Hartwick, R. W.; Klotz, L.

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis that basal epithelial cells of the human prostate are of myoepithelial origin was investigated using immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methodologies. The immunohistologic analyses show significant phenotypic differences between prostatic basal cells and myoepithelial cells of the salivary gland. Although both cell types stain intensely with the 312C8-1 monoclonal antibody, only true myoepithelial cells demonstrated significant amounts of muscle-specific actin as decorated by the HHF35 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, using double-labeling experiments, the prostatic basal cells were strongly decorated with a fluorescein-tagged basal cell-specific keratin but were negative with the rhodamine-tagged phalloidin, a chemical that binds specifically to actin microfilaments. Ultrastructural studies also showed an absence of thin microfilament bundles, dense bodies, and micropinocytotic vesicles in the prostatic basal cells. The current investigations show that the prostatic acini do not have a basal myoepithelium. Although some authors have suggested a stem cell role for prostatic basal cells, the weight of experimental work argues against this hypothesis. The exact role of the basal epithelial cells of the prostate is not known, although they may serve endocrine, paracrine, or other regulatory functions and may be involved in modulating signals between prostatic stroma and epithelium. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1691595

  15. A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Jörg H; Saade, Anastasia; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Ackermann, Katrin; Jilg, Antje; Sebestény, Tamás; Maronde, Erik

    2011-08-01

    The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain. Through the nocturnally elevated synthesis and release of the neurohormone melatonin, the pineal gland encodes and disseminates information on circadian time, thus coupling the outside world to the biochemical and physiological internal demands of the body. Approaches to better understand molecular details behind the rhythmic signalling in the human pineal gland are limited but implicitly warranted, as human chronobiological dysfunctions are often associated with alterations in melatonin synthesis. Current knowledge on melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland is based on minimally invasive analyses, and by the comparison of signalling events between different vertebrate species, with emphasis put on data acquired in sheep and other primates. Together with investigations using autoptic pineal tissue, a remnant silhouette of premortem dynamics within the hormone's biosynthesis pathway can be constructed. The detected biochemical scenario behind the generation of dynamics in melatonin synthesis positions the human pineal gland surprisingly isolated. In this neuroendocrine brain structure, protein-protein interactions and nucleo-cytoplasmic protein shuttling indicate furthermore a novel twist in the molecular dynamics in the cells of this neuroendocrine brain structure. These findings have to be seen in the light that an impaired melatonin synthesis is observed in elderly and/or demented patients, in individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease, Smith-Magenis syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and sleep phase disorders. Already, recent advances in understanding signalling dynamics in the human pineal gland have significantly helped to counteract chronobiological dysfunctions through a proper restoration of the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  17. Differential distribution and expression of leptin and the functional leptin receptor in major salivary glands of humans.

    PubMed

    Bohlender, J; Rauh, M; Zenk, J; Gröschl, M

    2003-08-01

    Leptin plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in rodents. However, it has become clear that this hormone has more than only a satiety-inducing function, and that there are other sources of leptin, such as the central nervous system, placenta and the gastrointestinal tract in addition to adipose tIssue. Knowing about the important role of the salivary glands in food intake and digestion, it was the objective of the present study to investigate how leptin and its receptor are expressed and distributed in the major salivary glands of humans. We found leptin distributed throughout the major salivary glands with obvious intracellular concentrations in granula. In contrast, immunostaining for the leptin receptor was found exclusively in the membranes of the glandular cells. A high density of the leptin receptor was localised in the epithelia of the duct lumen. PCR analysis proved the autonomous expression of leptin by the salivary glands independently from adipocytes. Accordingly the long receptor isoform was expressed by any examined tIssue. In the light of recent findings of leptin influencing the growth of rodent salivary glands, the presence and distribution of leptin and its receptor suggests an autocrine role of salivary leptin within the glands.

  18. GLP-1 receptor is expressed in human stomach mucosa: analysis of its cellular association and distribution within gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Broide, Efrat; Bloch, Olga; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J

    2013-09-01

    The stomach is a target organ of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the cellular expression and glandular distribution of its receptor (GLP-1R) in human gastric mucosa are not known. We determined the expression of GLP-1R in different regions of human stomach mucosa and its specific cellular association and distribution within gastric glands. Tissue samples from stomach body and antrum were obtained from 20 patients during routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy. mRNA encoding GLP-1R protein expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Determination of cell types bearing GLP-1R, their localization, and their frequency in gastric glands in different gastric regions were estimated by immunohistochemical morphological analysis. Levels of GLP-1R mRNA were similar in body and antrum. GLP-1R immunoreactivity was found throughout the gastric mucosa in various types of glandular cells. The highest frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells was found in the neck area of the principal glands in cells morphologically identified as parietal cells. GLP-1R immunostaining was also found on enteroendocrine-like cells in the pyloric glands. This study provides the first description of GLP-1R expression in human gastric glands and its specific cellular association. Our data suggest that GLP-1 may act directly on the gastric mucosa to modulate its complex functions.

  19. Association of mast cells with calcification in the human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Deręgowski, Krzysztof; Maśliński, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    Increased pineal calcifications and decreased pineal melatonin biosynthesis, both age related, support the notion of a pineal bio-organic timing mechanism. The role of calcification in the pathogenesis of pineal gland dysfunction remains unknown but the available data document that calcification is an organized, regulated process, rather than a passive aging phenomenon. The cellular biology and micro-environmental conditions required for calcification remain poorly understood but most studies have demonstrated evidence that mast cells are strongly implicated in this process. The aim of the present study was to examine the phenotype of mast cells associated with early stages and with the progressive development of calcification in the human pineal gland. The study was performed on pineal samples of 170 fetuses and children whose brains were autopsied and diagnosed during 1998-2002. The representative cerebral and pineal specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or the von Kossa staining technique and for the distribution of mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, histamine H4 receptor and vascular network using biotinylated Ulex europaeus agglutinin. Tryptase mast cells were found in all stages of pineal gland development independently of the presence of local tissue lesions. All of them were always localized in the close vicinity of the blood vessels and expressed immunoreactivity to histamine H4 receptor antibody. Immunolocalization of mast cells by chymase antibody (and following dual immunostaining with both chymase and tryptase antibodies) demonstrated that these cells were few in number and were located in the subcapsular region of the gland. In our study, all functional mast cells that underwent activation and were co-localized with deposits of calcium did not contain chymase. All of them were stained with tryptase and represent the MC-T phenotype. Tryptase mast cells and extracellular tryptase were often associated with areas of early and more

  20. Structure of the tight junctions of the human eccrine sweat gland.

    PubMed

    Briggman, J V; Bank, H L; Bigelow, J B; Graves, J S; Spicer, S S

    1981-12-01

    The human eccrine sweat gland contains two anatomically and functionally discrete segments: the secretory coil, which produces an isotonic or slightly hypertonic precursor fluid, and the coiled duct, which reabsorbs Na+ and Cl- to yield a hypotonic sweat. We examined the freeze-fracture morphology of tight junctions from isolated secretory coil and coiled duct segments to assess indirectly the contribution of paracellular ion transport in secretion and resorption in the sweat gland. In the secretory coil, tight junctions of the intercellular canaliculus and main lumen consisted of approximately 9 and 6, closely spaced, parallel or anastomosing elements, respectively. Tight junctions of the coiled duct were similar in appearance to those at the main lumen of the secretory coil. In both the secretory coil and coiled duct, and average of 2 to 3, widely spaced junctional elements were usually observed basolateral to the closely spaced junctional elements in the region corresponding to the location of the zonula adherens in Epon sections. The complexity of the tight junctions of the secretory coil exceeded what we expected for an epithelium secreting an isosmotic fluid. The elaborate tight junctions of the coiled duct support other evidence for an intermediate to high transepithelial resistance.

  1. Imaging of sebaceous glands of human skin by three-dimensional ultrasound microscopy and its relation to elasticity.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kazutoshi; Koike, Hideyuki; Kudo, Yukina; Nagaoka, Ryo; Kubo, Kiyono; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2011-01-01

    High frequency ultrasound imaging has realized high resolution in vivo imaging of the biological tissues at a microscopic level. Human skin structure, especially sebaceous glands at the deep part of the dermis, was observed by three-dimensional ultrasound microscopy with the central frequency of 120 MHz. The visco-elasticity and surface sebum level of the observed region were measured by established testing devices. Both sebaceous glands density and surface sebum level were higher in cheek than those in forearm. The viscosity of forearm was lower than that of cheek. These results suggest that sebaceous glands may act as cushions of the skin besides their classical role of secreting sebum and some hormones. High frequency ultrasound imaging contributes to the evaluation of human skin aging.

  2. Subunit structure of deglycosylated human and swine trachea and Cowper's gland mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Kim, D; Brewer, J M; Mendicino, J

    1991-03-27

    The oligosaccharide chains in human and swine trachea and Cowper's gland mucin glycoproteins were completely removed in order to examine the subunit structure and properties of the polypeptide chains of these glycoproteins. The carbohydrate, which constitutes more than 70% of these glycoproteins, was removed by two treatments with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid for 3 h at 3 degrees and periodate oxidation by a modified Smith degradation. All of the sialic acid, fucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine present in these glycoproteins was removed by these procedures. The deglycosylated polypeptide chains were purified and characterized. The size of the monomeric forms of all three polypeptide chains were very similar. Data obtained by gel filtration, release of amino acids during hydrolysis with carboxypeptidase B and gel electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% dodecyl sulfate showed that a major fraction from each of the three mucin glycoproteins had a molecular size of about 67 kDa. All of the deglycosylated chains had a tendency to aggregate. Digestion with carboxypeptidases showed that human and swine trachea mucin glycoproteins had identical carboxyl terminal sequences, -Val-Ala-Phe-Tyr-Leu-Lys-Arg-COOH. Cowper's gland mucin glycoprotein had a similar carboxyl terminal sequence, -Val-Ala-Tyr-Leu-Phe-Arg-Arg-COOH. The yield of amino acids after long periods of hydrolysis with carboxypeptidases showed that at least 85% of the polypeptide chains in each of the deglycosylated preparations have these sequences. These results suggested that the polypeptide chains in these deglycosylated mucin glycoprotein preparations were relatively homogeneous. The deglycosylated polypeptide chains as well as the intact mucin glycoproteins had blocked amino terminii. The purified polypeptide chains were digested with trypsin-TCPK, and S. aureus V8 protease and the resulting peptides were isolated by gel electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% dodecyl sulfate

  3. Changes in PACAP immunoreactivity in human milk and presence of PAC1 receptor in mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Csanaky, Katalin; Banki, Eszter; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Reglodi, Dora; Tarcai, Ibolya; Czegledi, Levente; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Ertl, Tibor; Gyarmati, Judit; Szanto, Zalan; Zapf, Istvan; Sipos, Erika; Shioda, Seiji; Tamas, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread occurrence in the nervous system and peripheral organs, including the mammary gland. Previously, we have shown that PACAP38 is present in the human milk at higher levels than in respective blood samples. However, it is not known how PACAP levels and the expression of PAC1 receptor change during lactation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate PACAP38-like immunoreactivity (PACAP38-LI) in human colostrums and transitional and mature milk during lactation and to compare the expression of PAC1 receptors in lactating and non-lactating mammary glands. We found that PACAP38-LI was significantly higher in human colostrum samples than in the transitional and mature milk. PACAP38-LI did not show any significant changes within the first 10-month period of lactation, but a significant increase was observed thereafter, up to the examined 17th month. Weak expression of PAC1 receptors was detected in non-lactating sheep and human mammary glands, but a significant increase was observed in the lactating sheep samples. In summary, the present study is the first to show changes of PACAP levels in human milk during lactation. The presence of PACAP in the milk suggests a potential role in the development of newborn, while the increased expressions of PAC1 receptors on lactating breast may indicate a PACAP38/PAC1 interaction in the mammary gland during lactation.

  4. First evidence of TRPV5 and TRPV6 channels in human parathyroid glands: possible involvement in neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Laura; Cetani, Filomena; Da Valle, Ylenia; Pardi, Elena; Ciregia, Federica; Donadio, Elena; Gargini, Claudia; Piano, Ilaria; Borsari, Simona; Jaber, Ali; Caputo, Antonella; Basolo, Fulvio; Giannaccini, Gino; Marcocci, Claudio; Lucacchini, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The parathyroid glands play an overall regulatory role in the systemic calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of the Ca(2+) channels transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 5 and TRPV6 in human parathyroid glands. Semi-quantitative and quantitative PCR was carried out to evaluate the presence of TRPV5 and TRPV6 mRNAs in sporadic parathyroid adenomas and normal parathyroid glands. Western blot and immunocytochemical assays were used to assess protein expression, cellular localization and time expression in primary cultures from human parathyroid adenoma. TRPV5 and TRPV6 transcripts were then identified both in normal and pathological tissues. Predominant immunoreactive bands were detected at 75-80 kD for both vanilloid channels. These channels co-localized with the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) on the membrane surface, but immunoreactivity was also detected in the cytosol and around the nuclei. Our data showed that western blotting recorded an increase of protein expression of both channels in adenoma samples compared with normal glands suggesting a potential relation with the cell calcium signalling pathway and the pathological processes of these glands.

  5. De novo epidermal regeneration using human eccrine sweat gland cells: higher competence of secretory over absorptive cells.

    PubMed

    Pontiggia, Luca; Biedermann, Thomas; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Oliveira, Carol; Braziulis, Erik; Klar, Agnieszka S; Meuli-Simmen, Claudia; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2014-06-01

    In our previous work, we showed that human sweat gland-derived epithelial cells represent an alternative source of keratinocytes to grow a near normal autologous epidermis. The role of subtypes of sweat gland cells in epidermal regeneration and maintenance remained unclear. In this study, we compare the regenerative potential of both secretory and absorptive sweat gland cell subpopulations. We demonstrate the superiority of secretory over absorptive cells in forming a new epidermis on two levels: first, the proliferative and colony-forming efficiencies in vitro are significantly higher for secretory cells (SCs), and second, SCs show a higher frequency of successful epidermis formation as well as an increase in the thickness of the formed epidermis in the in vitro and in vivo functional analyses using a 3D dermo-epidermal skin model. However, the ability of forming functional skin substitutes is not limited to SCs, which supports the hypothesis that multiple subtypes of sweat gland epithelial cells hold regenerative properties, while the existence and exact localization of a keratinocyte stem cell population in the human eccrine sweat gland remain elusive.

  6. Chloride transport in a human submandibular gland cell line studied by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Roomans, G M

    1998-08-01

    Ion transport properties of the human submandibular gland cell line A253 were investigated by X-ray microanalysis. The cells were grown on ultrathin plastic films on titanium grids. After the experiment, where the cells were exposed to various agonists and inhibitors, the specimens were briefly rinsed in distilled water, frozen, and freeze-dried. The elemental composition of the cultured cells most closely resembled that of striated duct cells. Beta-adrenergic stimulation caused a small decrease in the cellular Cl- and K+ concentration, but cholinergic stimulation had no effect. Also stimulation with cAMP caused a decrease in Cl- and K+; this decrease could be inhibited by the chloride channel blocker NPPB. Loss of Cl- and K+ could also be elicited by exposure to a hypotonic solution. The results suggest that there may be several types of chloride channel present in A253 cells.

  7. Transgenic expression of human amphiregulin in mouse skin: inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia and enlarged sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Stoll, Stefan W; Sekhon, Sahil; Talsma, Caroline; Camhi, Maya I; Jones, Jennifer L; Lambert, Sylviane; Marley, Hue; Rittié, Laure; Grachtchouk, Marina; Fritz, Yi; Ward, Nicole L; Elder, James T

    2016-03-01

    To explore the role of amphiregulin in inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia, we overexpressed human AREG (hAREG) in FVB/N mice using a bovine K5 promoter. A construct containing AREG coding sequences flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated region sequences (AREG-UTR) led to a >10-fold increase in hAREG expression compared to an otherwise-identical construct containing only the coding region (AREG-CDR). AREG-UTR mice developed tousled, greasy fur as well as elongated nails and thickened, erythematous tail skin. No such phenotype was evident in AREG-CDR mice. Histologically, AREG-UTR mice presented with marked epidermal hyperplasia of tail skin (2.1-fold increase in epidermal thickness with a 9.5-fold increase in Ki-67(+) cells) accompanied by significantly increased CD4+ T-cell infiltration. Dorsal skin of AREG-UTR mice manifested lesser but still significant increases in epidermal thickness and keratinocyte hyperplasia. AREG-UTR mice also developed marked and significant sebaceous gland enlargement, with corresponding increases in Ki-67(+) cells. To determine the response of AREG-UTR animals to a pro-inflammatory skin challenge, topical imiquimod (IMQ) or vehicle cream was applied to dorsal and tail skin. IMQ increased dorsal skin thickness similarly in both AREG-UTR and wild type mice (1.7- and 2.2-fold vs vehicle, P < 0.001 each), but had no such effect on tail skin. These results confirm that keratinocyte expression of hAREG elicits inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia, and are consistent with prior reports of tail epidermal hyperplasia and increased sebaceous gland size in mice expressing human epigen.

  8. Transgenic expression of human amphiregulin in mouse skin: inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia and enlarged sebaceous glands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Stoll, Stefan W.; Sekhon, Sahil; Talsma, Caroline; Camhi, Maya I.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Lambert, Sylviane; Marley, Hue; Rittié, Laure; Grachtchouk, Marina; Fritz, Yi; Ward, Nicole L.; Elder, James T.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the role of amphiregulin in inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia, we overexpressed human AREG (hAREG) in FVB/N mice using a bovine K5 promoter. A construct containing AREG coding sequences flanked by 5′ and 3′ untranslated region sequences (AREG-UTR) led to a >10-fold increase in hAREG expression compared to an otherwise-identical construct containing only the coding region (AREG-CDR). AREG-UTR mice developed tousled, greasy fur as well as elongated nails and thickened, erythematous tail skin. No such phenotype was evident in AREG-CDR mice. Histologically, AREG-UTR mice presented with marked epidermal hyperplasia of tail skin (2.1-fold increase in epidermal thickness with a 9.5-fold increase in Ki-67+ cells) accompanied by significantly increased CD4+ T-cell infiltration. Dorsal skin of AREG-UTR mice manifested lesser but still significant increases in epidermal thickness and keratinocyte hyperplasia. AREG-UTR mice also developed marked and significant sebaceous gland enlargement, with corresponding increases in Ki-67+ cells. To determine the response of AREG-UTR animals to a pro-inflammatory skin challenge, topical imiquimod (IMQ) or vehicle cream was applied to dorsal and tail skin. IMQ increased dorsal skin thickness similarly in both AREG-UTR and wild type mice (1.7- and 2.2-fold vs vehicle, P < 0.001 each), but had no such effect on tail skin. These results confirm that keratinocyte expression of hAREG elicits inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia, and are consistent with prior reports of tail epidermal hyperplasia and increased sebaceous gland size in mice expressing human epigen. PMID:26519132

  9. WISP-1 overexpression upregulates cell proliferation in human salivary gland carcinomas via regulating MMP-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fu-Jun; Wang, Xin-Juan; Zhou, Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background WISP-1 is a member of the CCN family of growth factors and has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis by triggering downstream events via integrin signaling. However, little is known about the role of WISP-1 in proliferation of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) cells. Methods In this study, we investigated the WISP-1 expression in SGC tissues via immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, and then evaluated the regulatory role of WISP-1 in the growth of SGC A-253 cells. In addition, the role of MMP-2 in the WISP-1-mediated growth regulation was also investigated. Results It was demonstrated that the WISP-1 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in 15 of 21 SGC tumor tissues, compared to the non-tumor tissues (five of 21), associated with the lymph node dissection and bone invasion. The in vitro CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay demonstrated that the exogenous WISP-1 treatment or the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the growth of A-253 cells. In addition, we confirmed that the WISP-1 overexpression upregulated the MMP-2 expression in A-253 cells with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and that the MMP-2 knockdown attenuated the WISP-1-mediated growth promotion of A-253 cells. Conclusion We found that WISP-1 was overexpressed in the human SGCs, and the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the salivary gland cell proliferation via upregulating MMP-2 expression. Our study recognized the oncogenic role of WISP-1 in human SGCs, which could serve as a potential target for anticancer therapy. PMID:27799801

  10. Differences in Human Meibum Lipid Composition with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Using NMR and Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Foulks, Gary N.; Yappert, Marta C.; Milliner, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to quantify lipid wax, cholesterol ester terpenoid and glyceride composition, saturation, oxidation, and CH2 and CH3 moiety distribution. This tool was used to measure changes in human meibum composition with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods. 1H-NMR spectra of meibum from 39 donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (Md) were compared to meibum from 33 normal donors (Mn). Results. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the CH2/CH3 regions of a set of training NMR spectra of human meibum. PCA discriminated between Mn and Md with an accuracy of 86%. There was a bias toward more accurately predicting normal samples (92%) compared with predicting MGD samples (78%). When the NMR spectra of Md were compared with those of Mn, three statistically significant decreases were observed in the relative amounts of CH3 moieties at 1.26 ppm, the products of lipid oxidation above 7 ppm, and the ═CH moieties at 5.2 ppm associated with terpenoids. Conclusions. Loss of the terpenoids could be deleterious to meibum since they exhibit a plethora of mostly positive biological functions and could account for the lower level of cholesterol esters observed in Md compared with Mn. All three changes could account for the higher degree of lipid order of Md compared with age-matched Mn. In addition to the power of NMR spectroscopy to detect differences in the composition of meibum, it is promising that NMR can be used as a diagnostic tool. PMID:22131391

  11. Dynamic Observation of Sweat Glands of Human Finger Tip Using All-Optical-Fiber High-Speed Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Nohara, Kenji; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Fuji, Toshie; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2005-06-01

    High-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) makes it possible to perform a time-sequential imaging of biological tissue and small organs. In this paper, we demonstrate in vivo observation of dynamics of sweat glands of human finger tip using high-speed OCT with push-pull driven fiber-optic PZT phase modulators. Movement of a sweat droplet through a micro spiral duct can be tracked clearly. An interesting function of sweat glands is found out in time-sequential OCT imaging.

  12. Tracheal Sounds Acquisition Using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Bersain A.; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H.

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal sounds have received a lot of attention for estimating ventilation parameters in a non-invasive way. The aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of extracting accurate airflow, and automating the detection of breath-phase onset and respiratory rates all directly from tracheal sounds acquired from an acoustic microphone connected to a smartphone. We employed the Samsung Galaxy S4 and iPhone 4s smartphones to acquire tracheal sounds from N = 9 healthy volunteers at airflows ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 L/s. We found that the amplitude of the smartphone-acquired sounds was highly correlated with the airflow from a spirometer, and similar to previously-published studies, we found that the increasing tracheal sounds' amplitude as flow increases follows a power law relationship. Acquired tracheal sounds were used for breath-phase onset detection and their onsets differed by only 52 ± 51 ms (mean ± SD) for Galaxy S4, and 51 ± 48 ms for iPhone 4s, when compared to those detected from the reference signal via the spirometer. Moreover, it was found that accurate respiratory rates (RR) can be obtained from tracheal sounds. The correlation index, bias and limits of agreement were r2 = 0.9693, 0.11 (−1.41 to 1.63) breaths-per-minute (bpm) for Galaxy S4, and r2 = 0.9672, 0.097 (–1.38 to 1.57) bpm for iPhone 4s, when compared to RR estimated from spirometry. Both smartphone devices performed similarly, as no statistically-significant differences were found. PMID:25196108

  13. Human postmortem lacrimal and submandibular glands stored in RNAlater are suitable for molecular, biochemical, and cell biological studies

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Dillon; Aluri, Hema; Armaos, Helene; Kim, Gina; Kublin, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gene expression and protein analysis studies require high-quality human tissue which is a challenge and difficult to obtain through live human biopsies. Human postmortem lacrimal gland (LG) and submandibular gland (SMG) tissues have the potential to provide an invaluable source for studying the mechanisms involved in LG and SMG dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to test the suitability of post-mortem LG and SMG for molecular, biochemical, and cell biological studies. Methods LG and SMG tissue from healthy donors was collected and immediately placed in RNAlater solution and then shipped overnight at 4 °C. After receipt, each gland was divided into three pieces for RNA, protein, and histological analysis, respectively. Total RNA isolated from each LG and SMG was analyzed for RNA integrity using an Agilent Bioanalyzer and reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR). For histology, tissues were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For protein analysis, lysates were prepared and processed for sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) and western blotting. Results When the LG and SMG samples were preserved in RNAlater, the RNA integrity number (RIN) values from the LG and SMG were >7.0 from all three donors, while the RNAs from tissue not preserved in RNAlater were of poorer quality. The gene and/or protein expression of E-cadherin, aquaporin 5, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), β-actin, and GAPDH was preserved in all samples. In addition, histological analyses showed normal tubuloacinar structures of all glands with serous and mucous producing acini within lobules interspersed with adipose fat. Conclusions In this study, we determined that RNA, protein, and histological sections obtained from postmortem human LG and SMG tissue preserved in RNAlater were of high quality. This would provide a viable source of human LG and SMG tissue suitable for studies of diseases that affect these glands, such as Sj

  14. Anaesthetic management in thoracoscopic distal tracheal resection.

    PubMed

    Acosta Martínez, J; Beato López, J; Domínguez Blanco, A; López Romero, J L; López Villalobos, J L

    2017-03-01

    Surgical resection of tracheal tumours, especially distal tracheal tumours, is a challenge for the anaesthesiologists involved, mainly due to difficulties in ensuring adequate control of the airway and ventilation. We report the case of a patient undergoing tracheal resection and anastomosis by VATS, emphasizing the anaesthetic management.

  15. Minor salivary glands as a major source of secretory immunoglobin A in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J M; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J

    1975-12-19

    Secretory immunoglobulin A is the predominant immunoglobulin in labial minor salivary gland secretions. Its mean concentration is four times higher in these secretions than in parotid gland secretion. The minor salivary glands can produce 30 to 35 percent of the immunoglobulin A that enters the oral cavity. This, together with the potential accessibility of these glands to antigenic stimulation, suggest that they may be an important source of the immune factors that are involved in the regulation of the microorganisms in the oral environment.

  16. Tracheal allotransplantation after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Delaere, Pierre; Vranckx, Jan; Verleden, Geert; De Leyn, Paul; Van Raemdonck, Dirk

    2010-01-14

    Reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects requires a vascularized allograft. We report successful tracheal allotransplantation after indirect revascularization of the graft in a heterotopic position. Immunosuppressive therapy was administered before the operation, and the tracheal allograft was wrapped in the recipient's forearm fascia. Once revascularization was achieved, the mucosal lining was replaced progressively with buccal mucosa from the recipient. At 4 months, the tracheal chimera was fully lined with mucosa, which consisted of respiratory epithelium from the donor and buccal mucosa from the recipient. After withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy, the tracheal allograft was moved to its correct anatomical position with an intact blood supply. No treatment-limiting adverse effects occurred.

  17. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders.

  18. Dynamic analysis of eccrin sweat glands on human fingertips by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ohmi, Masato; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Akihiro; Saigusa, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    OCT is highly potential for dynamic analysis of eccrin sweat glands. It is found in our experiment that the spiral lumen of an active sweat gland expands drastically in response to mental stress. Mental-stress-induced sweating is analyzed quantitatively based on time-sequential OCT images.

  19. Ultrasonic delivery of silica-gold nanoshells for photothermolysis of sebaceous glands in humans: Nanotechnology from the bench to clinic.

    PubMed

    Paithankar, Dilip; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Munavalli, Girish; Kauvar, Arielle; Lloyd, Jenifer; Blomgren, Richard; Faupel, Linda; Meyer, Todd; Mitragotri, Samir

    2015-05-28

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have provided numerous opportunities to transform medical therapies for the treatment of diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis. Here, we report, through in vitro studies and in vivo human pilot clinical studies, the use of inert, inorganic silica-gold nanoshells for the treatment of a widely prevalent and researched, yet poorly treated disease of acne. We use ~150nm silica-gold nanoshells, tuned to absorb near-IR light and near-IR laser irradiation to thermally disrupt overactive sebaceous glands in the skin which define the etiology of acne-related problems. Low-frequency ultrasound was used to facilitate deep glandular penetration of the nanoshells. Upon delivery of the nanoshells into the follicles and glands, followed by wiping of superficial nanoshells from skin surface and exposure of skin to near-infrared laser, nanoshells localized in the follicles absorb light, get heated, and induce focal thermolysis of sebaceous glands. Pilot human clinical studies confirmed the efficacy of ultrasonically-delivered silica-gold nanoshells in inducing photothermal disruption of sebaceous glands without damaging collateral skin.

  20. The spectrophotometric sulfo-phospho-vanillin assessment of total lipids in human meibomian gland secretions.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua; Butovich, Igor A

    2013-05-01

    Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen.

  1. Involvement of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in the early development of the human pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Saraga-Babic, M; Bazina, M; Vukojevic, K; Bocina, I; Stefanovic, V

    2008-10-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of appearance of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and p53 proteins, and anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein was investigated in the developing pituitary gland of 6 human embryos 5-8-weeks old, using morphological and immunohistochemical techniques. Their dynamic appearance was analyzed in the Rathke's pouch (future adenohypophysis), mesenchyme, and in the developing neurohypophysis. In the 5th and 6th week, caspase-3 positive cells appeared in the Rathke's pouch (5%) and stalk (11%), in the mesenchyme, but not in the neurohypophysis. In the 6th and 7th week, apoptotic cells were more numerous in the caudal part of the Rathke's pouch due to its separation from the oral epithelium. Pro-apoptotic p53 protein was detected in all parts of the pituitary gland throughout the investigated period. Nuclear condensations characterized cells positive to caspase-3 and p53 proteins. Apoptotic cells displayed condensations of nuclear chromatin on an ultrastructural level as well. While caspase-3 dependent pathway of cell death participated in morphogenesis of the adenohypophysis and associated connective tissue, p53-mediated apoptosis most likely participates in morphogenesis of all parts of the gland, including neurohypophysis. The anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein was also detected in all parts of the developing gland. With advancing development, the positivity to bcl-2 protein increased in the cells of the adenohypophysis, while it decreased in the neurohypophysis. Bcl-2 protein probably prevented cell death in all parts of the gland and enhanced cell differentiation. The described pattern of appearance of the investigated pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors might be important for normal morphogenesis and function of the pituitary gland.

  2. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored.

  3. Enhanced Edar signalling has pleiotropic effects on craniofacial and cutaneous glands.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shie Hong; Jobling, Stephanie; Brennan, Keith; Headon, Denis J

    2009-10-26

    The skin carries a number of appendages, including hair follicles and a range of glands, which develop under the influence of EDAR signalling. A gain of function allele of EDAR is found at high frequency in human populations of East Asia, with genetic evidence suggesting recent positive selection at this locus. The derived EDAR allele, estimated to have reached fixation more than 10,000 years ago, causes thickening of hair fibres, but the full spectrum of phenotypic changes induced by this allele is unknown. We have examined the changes in glandular structure caused by elevation of Edar signalling in a transgenic mouse model. We find that sebaceous and Meibomian glands are enlarged and that salivary and mammary glands are more elaborately branched with increased Edar activity, while the morphology of eccrine sweat and tracheal submucosal glands appears to be unaffected. Similar changes to gland sizes and structures may occur in human populations carrying the derived East Asian EDAR allele. As this allele attained high frequency in an environment that was notably cold and dry, increased glandular secretions could represent a trait that was positively selected to achieve increased lubrication and reduced evaporation from exposed facial structures and upper airways.

  4. Enhanced Edar Signalling Has Pleiotropic Effects on Craniofacial and Cutaneous Glands

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shie Hong; Jobling, Stephanie; Brennan, Keith; Headon, Denis J.

    2009-01-01

    The skin carries a number of appendages, including hair follicles and a range of glands, which develop under the influence of EDAR signalling. A gain of function allele of EDAR is found at high frequency in human populations of East Asia, with genetic evidence suggesting recent positive selection at this locus. The derived EDAR allele, estimated to have reached fixation more than 10,000 years ago, causes thickening of hair fibres, but the full spectrum of phenotypic changes induced by this allele is unknown. We have examined the changes in glandular structure caused by elevation of Edar signalling in a transgenic mouse model. We find that sebaceous and Meibomian glands are enlarged and that salivary and mammary glands are more elaborately branched with increased Edar activity, while the morphology of eccrine sweat and tracheal submucosal glands appears to be unaffected. Similar changes to gland sizes and structures may occur in human populations carrying the derived East Asian EDAR allele. As this allele attained high frequency in an environment that was notably cold and dry, increased glandular secretions could represent a trait that was positively selected to achieve increased lubrication and reduced evaporation from exposed facial structures and upper airways. PMID:19855838

  5. Morphology of pineal glands in human foetuses and infants with brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Maślińska, Danuta; Deregowski, Krzysztof; Czichos, Elzbieta; Raczkowska, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The pineal gland is an organ involved in regulation of homeostasis and body rhythms. It plays an important role in the growth foetuses and adaptation of newborns to new environmental conditions. The requirements of foetuses and newborns progressively change during development. The purpose of the study was to evaluate morphological changes of pineal glands in foetuses and infants with brain lesions. The results of our study showed that parenchyma of developing pineal glands was susceptible to injury in most autopsied foetal and infantile cases. Morphological changes in pineal glands were found in 90% of autopsied brains but 100% of the cases had infections. The lesions in the pineal included mainly haemorrhagic, necrotic and cystic changes. In our autopsied foetuses and children, morphological changes in pineal glands were concomitant with various lesions of brain parenchyma. All results of our study lead to the conclusion that the pineal gland during its development is very susceptible to injury. The failure of normal pineal gland development and subsequent impaired production of melatonin decrease resistance of newborns and children to various environmental harmful agents.

  6. Dynamics in enzymatic protein complexes offer a novel principle for the regulation of melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Maronde, Erik; Saade, Anastasia; Ackermann, Katrin; Goubran-Botros, Hany; Pagan, Cecile; Bux, Roman; Bourgeron, Thomas; Dehghani, Faramarz; Stehle, Jörg H

    2011-08-01

    Time of day is communicated to the body through rhythmic cues, including pineal gland melatonin synthesis, which is restricted to nighttime. Whereas in most rodents transcriptional regulation of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) gene is essential for rhythmic melatonin synthesis, investigations into nonrodent mammalian species have shown post-transcriptional regulation to be of central importance, with molecular mechanisms still elusive. Therefore, human pineal tissues, taken from routine autopsies were allocated to four time-of-death groups (night/dawn/day/dusk) and analyzed for daytime-dependent changes in phosphorylated AANAT (p31T-AANAT) and in acetyl-serotonin-methyltransferase (ASMT) expression and activity. Protein content, intracellular localization, and colocalization of p31T-AANAT and ASMT were assessed, using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation techniques. Fresh sheep pineal gland preparations were used for comparative purposes. The amount of p31T-AANAT and ASMT proteins as well as their intracellular localization showed no diurnal variation in autoptic human and fresh sheep pineal glands. Moreover, in human and sheep pineal extracts, AANAT could not be dephosphorylated, which was at variance to data derived from rat pineal extracts. P31T-AANAT and ASMT were often found to colocalize in cellular rod-like structures that were also partly immunoreactive for the pinealocyte process-specific marker S-antigen (arrestin) in both, human and sheep pinealocytes. Protein-protein interaction studies with p31T-AANAT, ASMT, and S-antigen demonstrated a direct association and formation of robust complexes, involving also 14-3-3. This work provides evidence for a regulation principle for AANAT activity in the human pineal gland, which may not be based on a p31T-AANAT phosphorylation/dephosphorylation switch, as described for other mammalian species.

  7. Step-by-step protocol to perfuse and dissect the mouse parotid gland and isolation of high-quality RNA from murine and human parotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Watermann, Christoph; Valerius, Klaus Peter; Wagner, Steffen; Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline; Karnati, Srikanth

    2016-04-01

    Macroscopic identification and surgical removal of the mouse parotid gland is demanding because of its anatomic location and size. Moreover, the mouse parotid gland contains high concentrations of RNases, making it difficult to isolate high-quality RNA. So far, appropriate methods for optimal perfusion-fixation and dissection of mouse parotid glands, as well as the isolation of high quality RNA from this tissue, are not available. Here we present a simple, optimized, step-by-step surgical method to perfuse and isolate murine parotid glands. We also compared two common RNA extraction methods (RNeasy Mini Kit versus TRIzol) for their yields of high-quality, intact RNA from human and murine parotid gland tissues that were either snap-frozen or immersed in RNAlater stabilization solution. Mouse parotid tissue that was perfused and immersed in RNAlater and human samples immersed in RNAlater exhibited the best RNA quality, independent of the isolation method.

  8. Salivary gland proteome of the human malaria vector, Anopheles campestris-like (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Bates, Paul A; Poovorawan, Yong; Choochote, Wej

    2013-03-01

    Anopheles campestris-like is proven to be a high-potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, A. campestris-like salivary gland proteins were determined and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total amount of salivary gland proteins in the mosquitoes aged 3-5 days was approximately 0.1 ± 0.05 μg/male and 1.38 ± 0.01 μg/female. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed at least 12 major proteins found in the female salivary glands and each morphological region of the female glands contained different major proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed approximately 20 major and several minor protein spots displaying relative molecular masses from 10 to 72 kDa with electric points ranging from 3.9 to 10. At least 15 glycoproteins were detected in the female glands. Similar electrophoretic protein profiles were detected comparing the male and proximal-lateral lobes of the female glands, suggesting that these lobes are responsible for sugar feeding. Blood-feeding proteins, i.e., putative 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, anti-platelet protein, long-form D7 salivary protein, D7-related 1 protein, and gSG6, were detected in the distal-lateral lobes (DL) and/or medial lobes (ML) of the female glands. The major spots related to housekeeping proteins from other arthropod species including Culex quinquefasciatus serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3 expressed in both male and female glands, Ixodes scapularis putative sil1 expressed in DL and ML, and I. scapularis putative cyclophilin A expressed in DL. These results provide information for further study on the salivary gland proteins of A. campestris-like that are involved in hematophagy and disease transmission.

  9. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in comparison with human (Homo sapiens): quantitative and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Kot, Brian Chin Wing; Lau, Thomas Yue Huen; Cheng, Sammy Chi Him

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5) µm(3) and 7.02×10(5) µm(3) respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  10. Expression of lipogenic factors galectin-12, resistin, SREBP-1, and SCD in human sebaceous glands and cultured sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Wesley J; Bull, Jonathan J; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C; Philpott, Michael P

    2007-06-01

    The transcription factors CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha, beta, and delta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma are known to be crucial to the differentiation of adipocytes and are expressed in sebaceous gland cells. As lipogenesis is key to both adipocyte and sebocyte differentiation we hypothesize that sebocytes follow a similar program of differentiation to adipocytes. We have investigated the expression of known adipogenic factors resistin, galectin-12, sterol response-element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in the immortalized sebaceous gland cell line SZ95 and whole skin. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed the expression of galectin-12, resistin, SREBP-1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNAs in SZ95 sebocytes. Immunoreactivity was observed for galectin-12 and SREBP-1 in the nuclei and resistin in the cytoplasm of basal sebocytes, and stearoyl CoA desaturase in the cytoplasm of basal and luminal sebocytes of human scalp skin. Expression of galectin-12, resistin, and SREBP-1 in SZ95 sebocytes was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These data provide further evidence that pathways of differentiation in adipocytes and sebocytes could be similar and therefore further understanding of sebaceous gland differentiation and lipogenesis and potential therapies for sebaceous gland disorders may be obtained from our knowledge of adipocyte differentiation.

  11. Tyrosine polysulfation of human salivary histatin 1. A post-translational modification specific of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Tiziana; Fanali, Chiara; Monteiro, Joana A; Amado, Francisco; Inzitari, Rosanna; Desiderio, Claudia; Scarano, Emanuele; Giardina, Bruno; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2007-07-01

    Histatin 1 (His-1) derivatives showing serial mass increases of 80.0 +/- 0.1 Da were detected in human saliva by HPLC-ESI-MS. The same derivatives were also found in granules of submandibular glands and secretions of submandibular/sublingual glands, but not in granules and secretions of parotid glands. Only one phosphate group was present in His-1 and its derivatives, since treatment with alkaline phosphatase provided an 80.0 Da mass decrease. His-1 derivatives were almost completely transformed into His-1 by treatment with 1 M HCl at 100 degrees C, suggesting the presence of O-sulfotyrosine, which is more labile than phospho-Tyr to acidic hydrolysis. CE-MS analysis of pronase extensive digestion of derivatives confirmed the presence of sulfotyrosine. Derivatives were digested by trypsin, proteinase K, and protease V-8 and analyzed by different MS strategies. The results allowed locating sulfation on the last four tyrosines (Tyr 27, 30, 34, and 36). This study is the first report of the gland-specific sulfation of a salivary phosphopeptide in vivo.

  12. MRI-based three-dimensional thermal physiological characterization of thyroid gland of human body.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chao; He, Zhi Zhu; Yang, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to present a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) based three-dimensional finite element modeling on the thermal manifestations relating to the pathophysiology of thyroid gland. An efficient approach for identifying the metabolic dysfunctions of thyroid has also been demonstrated through tracking the localized non-uniform thermal distribution or enhanced dynamic imaging. The temperature features over the skin surface and thyroid domain have been characterized using the numerical simulation and experimental measurement which will help better interpret the thermal physiological mechanisms of the thyroid under steady-state or water-cooling condition. Further, parametric simulations on the hypermetabolism symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thermal effects within thyroid domain caused by varying breathing airflow in the trachea and blood-flow in artery and vein were performed. It was disclosed that among all the parameters, the airflow volume has the largest effect on the total heat flux of thyroid surface. However, thermal contributions caused by varying the breathing frequency and blood-flow velocity are negligibly small. The present study suggests a generalized way for simulating the close to reality physiological behavior or process of human thyroid, which is of significance for disease diagnosis and treatment planning.

  13. Different bindings to lectin in human submandibular gland after enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    Takai, Y; Noda, Y; Sumitomo, S; Sagara, S; Mori, M

    1986-01-01

    Lectin binding affinities were described in human submandibular gland (SMG) in the paraffin sections following alpha-amylase, sialidase, and trypsin digestions. Lectins in the present study were used Con A (Glc, Man binding lectins), PNA, and SBA(Gal, GalNAc), RCA-1(Gal), DBA(GalNAc), WGA(GlcNAc), and UEA-1(Fuc). Lectin stainings in serous and mucous acinar cells and ductal epithelia were reported to compare enzyme treated and nontreated sections. Amylase treatment showed increasing Con A staining in connective tissue fibers and no marked changes in SMG to lectin bindings. Sialidase digestion was characteristically intense in PNA and SBA bindings in SMG cells, and also enhanced staining to UEA-1 in serous and duct cells and to WGA in mucous and duct cells were noted. Trypsin digestion indicated a slight increase to Con A binding, and was relatively strong to UEA-1 in serous and duct cells and a little strong to WGA. The results suggested that SMG serous cells contain higher amounts of Gal, GalNAc, and Fuc residues; and mucous cells were also abundant in Gal, GalNAc, and GlcNAc residues.

  14. A practical guide for the study of human and murine sebaceous glands in situ.

    PubMed

    Hinde, Eleanor; Haslam, Iain S; Schneider, Marlon R; Langan, Ewan A; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Schramm, Carolin; Zouboulis, Christos C; Paus, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    The skin of most mammals is characterised by the presence of sebaceous glands (SGs), whose predominant constituent cell population is sebocytes, that is, lipid-producing epithelial cells, which develop from the hair follicle. Besides holocrine sebum production (which contributes 90% of skin surface lipids), multiple additional SG functions have emerged. These range from antimicrobial peptide production and immunomodulation, via lipid and hormone synthesis/metabolism, to the provision of an epithelial progenitor cell reservoir. Therefore, in addition to its involvement in common skin diseases (e.g. acne vulgaris), the unfolding diversity of SG functions, both in skin health and disease, has raised interest in this integral component of the pilosebaceous unit. This practical guide provides an introduction to SG biology and to relevant SG histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques, with emphasis placed on in situ evaluation methods that can be easily employed. We propose a range of simple, established markers, which are particularly instructive when addressing specific SG research questions in the two most commonly investigated species in SG research, humans and mice. To facilitate the development of reproducible analysis techniques for the in situ evaluation of SGs, this methods review concludes by suggesting quantitative (immuno-)histomorphometric methods for standardised SG evaluation.

  15. Tracheal microaspiration in adult cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ledson, M J; Wilson, G E; Tran, J; Walshaw, M J

    1998-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) has been implicated in the aetiology of lung disease. Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have a high incidence of GOR symptoms with demonstrable episodes of oesophageal acidification. We studied 24-hour ambulatory tracheal and oesophageal pH in 11 CF patients with GOR symptoms to identify any episodes of tracheal acidification and define their temporal relation to oesophageal reflux and respiratory symptoms. 8 patients had evidence of significant GOR (DeMeester score mean 58; range 17-107) and in 6 it was gross (DeMeester score > 30). 4 patients had tracheal acidification (defined as tracheal pH < 5.5): all had greatly raised DeMeester scores. Two patterns of lowered tracheal pH were seen: a gradual drift downwards of tracheal pH to < 5.5 which recovered slowly, and an acute fall in tracheal pH to < 5.5 with rapid recovery. Only one patient had a fall in peak expiratory flow in conjunction with a decline in tracheal pH, and no association was found between the presence of tracheal microaspiration and pulmonary function. We conclude that tracheal acidification occurs in adult CF patients with GOR.

  16. Estimation of parenchymal cell content of human parathyroid glands using the image analyzing computer technique.

    PubMed Central

    Grimelius, L.; Akerström, G.; Johansson, H.; Lundqvist, H.

    1978-01-01

    By means of the image analyzing computer technique, a complete determination of the parenchymal tissue distribution in serially sectioned parathyroid glands were accomplished. The technique had good reproducibility. Taking into account the shrinkage of the different tissue components during histotechnical procedures and the tissue densities, it was possible to calculate the parenchymal cell mass of unfixed glands. The cell distribution varied considerably, and in most glands as many as 10 sections at different levels had to be examined to get a reliable ratio between the parenchymal and fat cell tissue. The results seriously question the validity of histopathologic examination of one or a few sections of parathyroid glands in evaluation of the parenchymal cell mass, as well as diagnoses based on examination of partial glandular biopsy specimens. PMID:717545

  17. Production of functional human nerve growth factor from the saliva of transgenic mice by using salivary glands as bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Zicong; Zhu, Qingchun; Dong, Rui; Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Guoling; Li, Guo; Gao, Wenchao; Jiang, Gelong; Zheng, Enqin; Cai, Gengyuan; Moisyadi, Stefan; Urschitz, Johann; Yang, Huaqiang; Liu, Dewu; Wu, Zhenfang

    2017-01-01

    The salivary glands of animals have great potential to act as powerful bioreactors to produce human therapeutic proteins. Human nerve growth factor (hNGF) is an important pharmaceutical protein that is clinically effective in the treatment of many human neuronal and non-neuronal diseases. In this study, we generated 18 transgenic (TG) founder mice each carrying a salivary gland specific promoter-driven hNGF transgene. A TG mouse line secreting high levels of hNGF protein in its saliva (1.36 μg/mL) was selected. hNGF protein was successfully purified from the saliva of these TG mice and its identity was verified. The purified hNGF was highly functional as it displayed the ability to induce neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Furthermore, it strongly promoted proliferation of TF1 cells, above the levels observed with mouse NGF. Additionally, saliva collected from TG mice and containing unpurified hNGF was able to significantly enhance the growth of TF1 cells. This study not only provides a new and efficient approach for the synthesis of therapeutic hNGF but also supports the concept that salivary gland from TG animals is an efficient system for production of valuable foreign proteins. PMID:28117418

  18. Endothelin in human brain and pituitary gland: Presence of immunoreactive endothelin, endothelin messenger ribonucleic acid, and endothelin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Ghatei, M.A.; Jones, P.M.; Murphy, J.K.; Lam, H.C.; O'Halloran, D.J.; Bloom, S.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The presence of immunoreactive (IR) endothelin, endothelin mRNA, and endothelin receptors in human brain and pituitary gland has been studied by RIA, Northern blot hybridization, and receptor assay. IR endothelin was detected in all five brain regions examined (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus) (6-10 fmol/g wet wt) and spinal cord (22 +/- 6 fmol/g wet wt, n = 7, mean +/- SEM). Higher concentrations of IR endothelin were found in the pituitary gland (147 +/- 30 fmol/g wet wt). Fast protein liquid chromatographic analysis of the IR endothelin in pituitary gland showed a large IR peak in the position of endothelin-3 and a smaller peak in the position of endothelin-1, whereas IR endothelin in the hypothalamus and brain stem was mainly endothelin-1. Endothelin messenger RNA was detected by Northern blot hybridization in the pituitary but not in hypothalamus. The receptor assay showed that 125I-endothelin-1 binding sites were present in large numbers in all five brain regions but were much less abundant in the pituitary gland. Binding capacity and dissociation constant were 5052 +/- 740 fmol/mg protein and 0.045 +/- 0.007 nM in brain stem and 963 +/- 181 fmol/mg protein and 0.034 +/- 0.009 nM in hypothalamus. In the pituitary gland, there were two classes of binding sites for endothelin with dissociation constants of 0.059 +/- 0.002 nM (binding capacity = 418 +/- 63 fmol/mg protein) and 0.652 +/- 0.103 nM (binding capacity = 1717 +/- 200 fmol/mg protein). Endothelin-1, -2 and -3 were almost equipotent in displacing the binding (IC50 approximately 0.04 nM). These findings are in accord with the possibility that endothelin acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator or neurohormone in man.

  19. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  20. Human Meibum Lipid Conformation and Thermodynamic Changes with Meibomian-Gland Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta C.; Bell, James; Wells, Emily; Neravetla, Shantanu; Greenstone, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Instability of the tear film with rapid tear break-up time is a common feature of aqueous-deficient and evaporative dry eye diseases, suggesting that there may be a shared structural abnormality of the tear film that is responsible for the instability. It may be that a change in the normal meibum lipid composition and conformation causes this abnormality. Principle component analyses of infrared spectra of human meibum indicate that human meibum collected from normal donors (Mn) is less ordered than meibum from donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (Md). In this study the conformation of Md was quantified to test this finding. Methods. Changes in lipid conformation with temperature were measured by infrared spectroscopy. There were two phases to our study. In phase 1, the phase transitions of human samples, Mn and Md, were measured. In phase 2, the phase transitions of model lipid standards composed of different waxes and cholesterol esters were measured. Results. The phase-transition temperature was significantly higher (4°C) for the Md compared with the Mn of age-matched donors with no history of dry-eye symptoms. Most (82%) of the phase-transition temperatures measured for Md were above the values for Mn. The small change in the transition temperature was amplified in the average lipid order (stiffness) at 33.4°C. The average lipid order at 33.4°C for Md was significantly higher (30%, P = 0.004) than for Mn. The strength of lipid–lipid interactions was 72% higher for Md than for Mn. The ability of one lipid to influence the melting of adjacent lipids is termed cooperativity. There were no significant differences between Mn and Md in phase-transition cooperativity, nor was there a difference between Mn and Md in the minimum order or maximum order that Mn and Md achieved at very low and very high temperatures, respectively. The model wax studies showed that the phase transition of complex mixtures of natural lipids was set by the level of

  1. Direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts into sweat gland-like cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiliang; Xu, Mengyao; Wu, Meng; Ma, Kui; Sun, Mengli; Tian, Xiaocheng; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The skin of patients with an extensive deep burn injury is repaired by a process that leaves a hypertrophic scar without sweat glands and therefore loses the function of perspiration. The aim of this study was to identify whether the key factors related to sweat gland development could directly reprogram fibroblasts into sweat gland-like cells. After introducing the NF-κB and Lef-1 genes into fibroblasts, we found that stably transfected fibroblasts expressed specific markers of sweat glands, including CEA, CK7, CK14 and CK19, both at the protein and mRNA levels. The immunofluorescence staining also showed positive expression of CEA, CK7, CK14 and CK19 in induced fibroblasts, but there were no positive cells in the control groups. The expression of Shh and Cyclin D1, downstream genes of NF-κB and Lef-1, were also significantly increased during regeneration. The induced fibroblasts were implanted into an animal model. Twenty days later, iodine-starch perspiration tests showed that 7 out of the 10 cell-treated paws were positive for perspiration, with a distinctive black point-like area appearing in the center of the paw. Contralateral paws tested negative. Histological examination of skin biopsies from experimental and control paws revealed that sweat glands were fully reconstructed in the test paws, with integral, secretory and ductal portions, but were not present in the control paws. This is the first report of successful reprogramming of fibroblasts into sweat gland-like cells, which will provide a new cell source for sweat gland regeneration in patients with extensive deep burns.

  2. Associated expressions of FGFR-2 and FGFR-3: from mouse mammary gland physiology to human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cerliani, Juan P; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Piñero, Cecilia Pérez; Bottino, María C; Sahores, Ana; Nuñez, Myriam; Varchetta, Romina; Martins, Rubén; Zeitlin, Eduardo; Hewitt, Stephen M; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Lanari, Claudia; Lamb, Caroline A

    2012-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are tyrosine kinase receptors which have been implicated in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate FGFR-1, -2, -3, and -4 protein expressions in normal murine mammary gland development, and in murine and human breast carcinomas. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot, we report a hormonal regulation of FGFR during postnatal mammary gland development. Progestin treatment of adult virgin mammary glands resulted in changes in localization of FGFR-3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, while treatment with 17-β-estradiol induced changes in the expressions and/or localizations of FGFR-2 and -3. In murine mammary carcinomas showing different degrees of hormone dependence, we found progestin-induced increased expressions, mainly of FGFR-2 and -3. These receptors were constitutively activated in hormone-independent variants. We studied three luminal human breast cancer cell lines growing as xenografts, which particularly expressed FGFR-2 and -3, suggesting a correlation between hormonal status and FGFR expression. Most importantly, in breast cancer samples from 58 patients, we found a strong association (P < 0.01; Spearman correlation) between FGFR-2 and -3 expressions and a weaker correlation of each receptor with estrogen receptor expression. FGFR-4 correlated with c-erbB2 over expression. We conclude that FGFR-2 and -3 may be mechanistically linked and can be potential targets for treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients.

  3. The Drosophila SRF homolog is expressed in a subset of tracheal cells and maps within a genomic region required for tracheal development.

    PubMed

    Affolter, M; Montagne, J; Walldorf, U; Groppe, J; Kloter, U; LaRosa, M; Gehring, W J

    1994-04-01

    The Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate serum response factor (SRF) was isolated by low stringency hybridization. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the Drosophila SRF homolog (DSRF) codes for a protein that displays 93% sequence identity with human SRF in the MADS domain, the region required for DNA binding, dimerization and interaction with accessory factors. The DSRF gene is expressed during several phases of embryonic development. In the egg, both the RNA and the protein are maternal in origin and slowly decrease in amount during gastrulation. After germ band retraction, high levels of zygotic expression are observed in a distinct subset of peripheral tracheal cells distributed throughout the embryo. Many of these cells are at the tip of tracheal branches and are in direct contact with the target tissues. The DSRF gene was mapped to position 60C on the second chromosome, and overlapping deficiencies which remove the gene were identified. Analysis of tracheal development in embryos carrying these deletions revealed a degeneration of most of the major branches of the tracheal system. Although the initial migration of tracheal cells was not affected in those deficient embryos, many tracheal cells appeared not to maintain their correct position and continued to migrate. Thus, the DSRF gene might play a role in the proper formation and maintenance of the trachea.

  4. Confocal microscopy with double immunofluorescence staining reveals the functional transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 expressed in myoepithelial cells of human submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qianwen; Zhang, Yan; Cong, Xin; Cai, Zhigang; Han, Jingyan; Su, Yunchao; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guan-Gyan

    2012-05-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) mainly surround acini and intercalated ducts in the human salivary glands. The contraction of MECs provides the expulsive force to promote salivation. We previously found functional transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was expressed in rabbit and human submandibular glands and increased saliva secretion. However, it was unknown whether TRPV1 was expressed in MECs of submandibular glands. In this study, we observed the immunoflourescence of TRPV1 was not only located in serous acini and ducts but also surround the basal layer of the acinus and intercalated ducts of human submandibular glands. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed colocalization of TRPV1 with calponin, vimentin, and α-smooth muscle actin, which indicated the myoepithelial expression of TRPV1. Treating submandibular gland tissues with capsaicin, an agonist of TRPV1, substantially increased the phosphorylation of the 20-kDa regulatory light-chain subunit of myosin (MLC(20) ), a crucial molecule for contraction of smooth muscle cells, in MECs. Pretreatment with capsazepine, a specific TRPV1 inhibitor, blocked capsaicin-induced MLC(20) phosphorylation. These results suggest that TRPV1 is expressed in MECs of the human submandibular gland and mediates myoepithelial contraction via a mechanism involving MLC(20) phosphorylation.

  5. Prostaglandin protection of human isolated gastric glands against indomethacin and ethanol injury. Evidence for direct cellular action of prostaglandin.

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, A; Brzozowski, T; Sarfeh, I J; Krause, W J; Ulich, T R; Gergely, H; Hollander, D

    1988-01-01

    Isolated human gastric glands from surgical specimens were preincubated in an oxygenated medium with placebo or 16,16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) and incubated at 37 degrees C in either medium alone, medium containing 4.43 mM indomethacin or medium containing 8% ethanol. We assessed the viability of gland cells with fast green exclusion, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the medium, and ultrastructural damage by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both indomethacin and ethanol significantly reduced the viability of placebo-pretreated glands, increased LDH release into the medium, and produced prominent ultrastructural damage. DmPGE2 significantly reduced both indomethacin and ethanol-induced injury, increased the number of viable cells, reduced LDH release, and diminished the extent of ultrastructural damage. These studies indicate that PG protection of gastric mucosal cells has a direct cellular action that is not limited to replacement of depleted endogenous PGs. PG protection in our experiments did not depend on PG's previously described systemic actions, such as protection of the microvessels, preservation of the mucosal blood flow, or stimulation of bicarbonate and mucus secretion. Images PMID:3350966

  6. Multipotent nestin-positive stem cells reside in the stroma of human eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and can be propagated robustly in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Sabine; Rohr, Franziska; Weber, Caroline; Kier, Janina; Siemers, Frank; Kruse, Charli; Danner, Sandra; Brandenburger, Matthias; Matthiessen, Anna Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Human skin harbours multiple different stem cell populations. In contrast to the relatively well-characterized niches of epidermal and hair follicle stem cells, the localization and niches of stem cells in other human skin compartments are as yet insufficiently investigated. Previously, we had shown in a pilot study that human sweat gland stroma contains Nestin-positive stem cells. Isolated sweat gland stroma-derived stem cells (SGSCs) proliferated in vitro and expressed Nestin in 80% of the cells. In this study, we were able to determine the precise localization of Nestin-positive cells in both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands of human axillary skin. We established a reproducible isolation procedure and characterized the spontaneous, long-lasting multipotent differentiation capacity of SGSCs. Thereby, a pronounced ectodermal differentiation was observed. Moreover, the secretion of prominent cytokines demonstrated the immunological potential of SGSCs. The comparison to human adult epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) revealed differences in protein expression and differentiation capacity. Furthermore, we found a coexpression of the stem cell markers Nestin and Iα6 within SGSCs and human sweat gland stroma. In conclusion the initial results of the pilot study were confirmed, indicating that human sweat glands are a new source of unique stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential, high proliferation capacity and remarkable self renewal. With regard to the easy accessibility of skin tissue biopsies, an autologous application of SGSCs in clinical therapies appears promising.

  7. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  8. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  9. Human eccrine sweat gland cells reconstitute polarized spheroids when subcutaneously implanted with Matrigel in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Mingjun; Chen, Liyun; Li, Xuexue; Zhang, Bingna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that maintenance of cell polarity plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glandular homeostasis and function. We examine the markers for polarity at different time points to investigate the formation of cell polarity during 3D reconstitution of eccrine sweat glands. Mixtures of eccrine sweat gland cells and Matrigel were injected subcutaneously into the inguinal regions of nude mice. At 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks post-implantation, Matrigel plugs were removed and immunostained for basal collagen IV, lateral β-catenin, lateroapical ZO-1 and apical F-actin. The results showed that the cell polarity of the spheroids appeared in sequence. Formation of basal polarity was prior to lateral, apical and lateroapical polarity. Collagen IV was detected basally at 2 weeks, β-catenin laterally and ZO-1 lateroapically at 3 weeks, and F-actin apically at 4 weeks post-implantation. At week 5 and week 6, the localization and the positive percentage of collagen IV, β-catenin, ZO-1 or F-actin in spheroids was similar to that in native eccrine sweat glands. We conclude that the reconstituted 3D eccrine sweat glands are functional or potentially functional.

  10. Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Mediates Mucus Secretion in the Airway Submucosal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jae; Yang, Yu-Mi; Kim, Kyubo; Shin, Dong Min; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Choi, Jae Young

    2012-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in airway epithelia and smooth muscle, plays an important role in airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of PAR2 induces mucus secretion from the human airway gland and examined the underlying mechanism using the porcine and murine airway glands. The mucosa with underlying submucosal glands were dissected from the cartilage of tissues, pinned with the mucosal side up at the gas/bath solution interface of a physiological chamber, and covered with oil so that secretions from individual glands could be visualized as spherical bubbles in the oil. Secretion rates were determined by optical monitoring of the bubble diameter. The Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura2-AM was used to determine intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by means of spectrofluorometry. Stimulation of human tracheal mucosa with PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP) elevated intracellular Ca2+ and induced glandular secretion equal to approximately 30% of the carbachol response in the human airway. Porcine gland tissue was more sensitive to PAR2-AP, and this response was dependent on Ca2+ and anion secretion. When the mouse trachea were exposed to PAR2-AP, large amounts of secretion were observed in both wild type and ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant mice but there is no secretion from PAR-2 knock out mice. In conclusion, PAR2-AP is an agonist for mucus secretion from the airway gland that is Ca2+-dependent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-independent. PMID:22916223

  11. Calcium-sensing receptor expression and parathyroid hormone secretion in hyperplastic parathyroid glands from humans.

    PubMed

    Cañadillas, Sagrario; Canalejo, Antonio; Santamaría, Rafael; Rodríguez, Maria E; Estepa, Jose C; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Bravo, Juan; Ramos, Blanca; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Rodríguez, Mariano; Almadén, Yolanda

    2005-07-01

    In uremic patients, severe parathyroid hyperplasia is associated with reduced parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) expression. Thus, in these patients, a high serum Ca concentration may be required to inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. This study compares the magnitude of reduction in CaR expression and the degree of the abnormality in Ca-regulated PTH release in vitro. A total of 50 glands from 23 hemodialysis patients with refractory hyperparathyroidism were studied. Tissue slices were incubated in vitro to evaluate (1) the PTH secretory output in a normal Ca concentration (1.25 mM) and (2) the PTH secretory response to high (1.5 mM) and low (0.6 mM) Ca concentration. Tissue aliquots were processed for determination of CaRmRNA expression. The results showed that, corrected for DNA, parathyroid tissue with lowest CaR expression secreted more PTH than that with relatively high CaR expression (146 +/- 23 versus 60 +/- 2 pg/microg DNA; P < 0.01). Furthermore, glands with low CaR expression demonstrated a blunted PTH secretory response to both the inhibitory effect of high Ca and the stimulatory effect of low Ca. The study also showed that the larger the gland, the lower the CaRmRNA expression. Thus, large parathyroid glands produce a large amount of PTH not only as a result of the increased gland size but also because the parathyroid tissue secretory output is increased. These abnormalities in PTH regulation are related to low CaR expression.

  12. Tracheal remodelling in response to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Centanin, Lazaro; Gorr, Thomas A.; Wappner, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The insect tracheal system is a continuous tubular network that ramifies into progressively thinner branches to provide air directly to every organ and tissue throughout the body. During embryogenesis the basic architecture of the tracheal system develops in a stereotypical and genetically controlled manner. Later, in larval stages, the tracheal system becomes plastic, and adapts to particular oxygen needs of the different tissues of the body. Oxygen sensing is mediated by specific prolyl-4-hydroxylases that regulate protein stability of the alpha subunit of oxygen-responsive transcription factors from the HIF family. Tracheal cells are exquisitely sensitive to oxygen levels, modulating the expression of hypoxia-inducible proteins that mediate sprouting of tracheal branches in direction to oxygen-deprived tissues. PMID:19482033

  13. Optical metabolic imaging for monitoring tracheal health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Gil, Daniel A.; Choma, Michael A.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-04-01

    The health of the tracheal mucosa and submucosa is a vital yet poorly understood component of critical care medicine, and a minimally-invasive method is needed to monitor tracheal health in patients. Of particular interest are the ciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium that move mucus away from the lungs and prevent respiratory infection. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) allows cellular-level measurement of metabolism, and is a compelling method for assessing tracheal health because ciliary motor proteins require ATP to function. In this pilot study, we apply multiphoton imaging of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and FAD to the mucosa and submucosa of ex vivo mouse trachea. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential diagnostic utility of these measurements for assessing tracheal health and pathophysiology at the single-cell level.

  14. Constitution and behavior of follicular structures in the human anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, D. R.; Puy, L. A.; Stati, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    The follicular structures present in the human pituitary gland were studied, at the light-microscopic level, using histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. The antisera applied in the peroxidase-antiperoxidase procedure were anti-hFSH beta, anti-hLH beta, anti-hPRL, anti-hGH, anti-hTSH beta, anti-hLPH beta, anti-pACTH, and anti-hACTH. In the 10 normal pituitaries examined, follicles were always found in the three areas of the adenohypophysis. The wall of the pars distalis follicles showed the seven immunoreactive cell types studied, while follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells were the only ones present in the wall of the pars tuberalis follicles. Most of the cell types studied were also present in the wall of the intermediate area follicles, but these follicles had characteristics not found in the other two areas. They were very large, with frequent interconnections forming a three-dimensional network of anastomotic cavities, and the colloid had different histochemical affinity. None of the hormones studied could be detected by immunocytochemistry within the follicular colloid. Three of the ten pituitary adenomas examined showed numerous follicular structures. Some of the follicles in the adenomatous pituitaries were similar to those found in the normal adenohypophysis, but there were also follicles filled with only traces of colloid and numerous blood cells in the cavity, and follicles filled with neoformed connective tissue. In one of these cases, FSH/LH immunoreactive adenoma cells were seen in the wall of the follicles. The results obtained suggest that the finding of pituitary adenomas with follicular structures is not uncommon and that the follicles originate from the tumor cells. In addition, the follicles seem to have several functional stages, explaining the finding of different types of follicular formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11

  15. Distribution and regulation of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase in human parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Cynthia S; Haughey, Bruce H; Armbrecht, Harvey J; Brown, Alex J

    2012-05-01

    Parathyroid glands express the 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) 1α-hydroxylase (1αOHase). 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol) synthesized by extrarenal tissues generally does not enter the circulation, but plays an autocrine/paracrine role specific to the cell type, and is regulated by the needs of that particular cell. While the role of calcitriol produced in the parathyroid glands presumably is to suppress PTH and cell growth, its regulation in this cell type has not been defined. In the present study, we found that regulation of the human parathyroid 1αOHase differs from the renal enzyme in that it is induced by FGF-23 and extracellular calcium. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands from patients with chronic kidney failure normally display a heterogeneous cellularity. We found that the 1αOHase is expressed at much higher levels in oxyphil cells than in chief cells in these patients. Recent findings indicate that oxyphil cell content is increased by treatment with calcium receptor activators (calcimimetics). Here, we demonstrate that the calcimimetic cinacalcet increases the expression of 1αOHase in human parathyroid cultures. Additionally, we found that the 1αOHase in human parathyroid cultures is functionally active, as evidenced by the ability of the enzyme to 1-hydroxylate 25(OH)D(3) in parathyroid monolayers. Calcium, as well as cinacalcet, also induced expression of the degradation enzyme 24-hydroxylase, indicating the presence of a negative feedback system in the parathyroid cells. Therefore, local production of 1αOHase suggests an autocrine/paracrine role in regulating parathyroid function and may mediate, in part, the suppression of PTH by calcium and FGF-23.

  16. TNF-α inhibits aquaporin 5 expression in human salivary gland acinar cells via suppression of histone H4 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Yoshiko; Motegi, Katsumi; Kani, Kouichi; Takano, Hideyuki; Momota, Yukihiro; Aota, Keiko; Yamanoi, Tomoko; Azuma, Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by reductions in salivary and lacrimal secretions. The mechanisms underlying these reductions remain unclear. We have previously shown that TNF-α plays an important role in the destruction of acinar structures. Here we examined TNF-α's function in the expression of aquaporin (AQP) 5 in human salivary gland acinar cells. Immortalized human salivary gland acinar (NS-SV-AC) cells were treated with TNF-α, and then the expression levels of AQP5 mRNA and protein were analysed. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the reduction of AQP5 expression by TNF-α treatment were investigated. TNF-α-treatment of NS-SV-AC cells significantly suppressed the expression levels of AQP5 mRNA and protein, and reduced the net fluid secretion rate. We examined the expression and activation levels of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) in NS-SV-AC cells treated with TNF-α. However, no significant changes were observed in the expression or activation levels of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a or Dnmt3b. Although we also investigated the role of NF-κB activity in the TNF-α-induced suppression of AQP5 expression in NS-SV-AC cells, we detected similar TNF-α suppression of AQP5 expression in non-transfected cells and in a super-repressor form of IκBα cDNA-transfected cell clones. However, interestingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated a remarkable decrease in levels of acetylated histone H4 associated with the AQP5 gene promoter after treatment with TNF-α in NS-SV-AC cells. Therefore, our results may indicate that TNF-α inhibition of AQP5 expression in human salivary gland acinar cells is due to the epigenetic mechanism by suppression of acetylation of histone H4.

  17. A Case of Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma in a Worker Exposed to Rubber Fumes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary tracheal tumors occur infrequently, accounting for less than 0.1% of all tumors. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is the second most common type of malignancy of the trachea after squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Little has been reported on the risk factors for tracheal ACC. The purpose of this study is to describe a case of tracheal ACC in a patient who had been exposed to rubber fumes, and to review the relationship between tracheal ACC and rubber fumes. Case report A 48-year-old man who had been experiencing aggravation of dyspnea for several months was diagnosed as having ACC of the trachea on the basis of a pathologic examination of a biopsy specimen obtained via laser microscopy-guided resection. The patient had been exposed to rubber fumes for 10 years at a tire manufacturing factory where he worked until ACC was diagnosed. His job involved preheating and changing rubber molds during the curing process. Conclusion ACC of both the trachea and the salivary glands show very similar patterns with regard to histopathology and epidemiology and are therefore assumed to have a common etiology. Rubber manufacturing is an occupational risk factor for the development of salivary gland tumors. Further, rubber fumes have been reported to be mutagenic. The exposure level to rubber fumes during the curing process at the patient’s workplace was estimated to be close to or higher than British Occupational Exposure Limits. Therefore, tracheal ACC in this case might have been influenced by occupational exposure to rubber fumes. PMID:24472110

  18. First-line tracheal resection and primary anastomosis for postintubation tracheal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, AM; Soliman, S; Shoukry, T; El-Nori, AA; El-Bawab, HY

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tracheal stenosis following intubation is the most common indication for tracheal resection and reconstruction. Endoscopic dilation is almost always associated with recurrence. This study investigated first-line surgical resection and anastomosis performed in fit patients presenting with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Methods Between February 2011 and November 2014, a prospective study was performed involving patients who underwent first-line tracheal resection and primary anastomosis after presenting with postintubation tracheal stenosis. Results A total of 30 patients (20 male) were operated on. The median age was 23.5 years (range: 13–77 years). Seventeen patients (56.7%) had had previous endoscopic tracheal dilation, four (13.3%) had had tracheal stents inserted prior to surgery and one (3.3%) had undergone previous tracheal resection. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had had a tracheostomy. Eight patients (26.7%) had had no previous tracheal interventions. The median time of intubation in those developing tracheal stenosis was 20.5 days (range: 0–45 days). The median length of hospital stay was 10.5 days (range: 7–21 days). The success rate for anastomoses was 96.7% (29/30). One patient needed a permanent tracheostomy. The in-hospital mortality rate was 3.3%: 1 patient died from a chest infection 21 days after surgery. There was no mortality or morbidity in the group undergoing first-line surgery for de novo tracheal lesions. Conclusions First-line tracheal resection with primary anastomosis is a safe option for the treatment of tracheal stenosis following intubation and obviates the need for repeated dilations. Endoscopic dilation should be reserved for those patients with significant co-morbidities or as a temporary measure in non-equipped centres. PMID:27138847

  19. [Protein composition of human saliva under rest and stimulation and its changes in salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Eichner, H

    1977-06-16

    In 153 probands the following parameters of normal parotid gland secretion were examined: flow-rate, total protein excretion, lysozyme, amylase, phosphatase, BAEE-esterase, immunglobulin A and trypsin-inhibitor. The results were compared with secretions of parotid glands with tumors (51 patients), sialadenitis (22 patients) and sialadenosis (12 patients). Thereby differential diagnosis in sialotumors was found possible. The mose important parameters are flow-rate, protein and immunglobulin A-concentrations, Moreover it is possible to differentiate in sialadenitis and sialadenosis: lysocym secretion gives besides flow--rate protein and immunglobulin A-concentration a good parameter in differentiating both pathological findings. Discelectrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic separations supplement the differential diagnosis in sialotumors, sialadenitis and sialadenosis. The results are discussed.

  20. Distribution of obestatin and ghrelin in human tissues: immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, Malin; Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Magnusson, Linda; Janson, Eva T; Saras, Jan

    2008-09-01

    Obestatin and ghrelin are two peptides derived from the same prohormone. It is well established that ghrelin is produced by endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. However, the distribution of human obestatin immunoreactive cells is not thoroughly characterized. A polyclonal antibody that specifically recognizes human obestatin was produced. Using this antibody and a commercial antibody vs ghrelin, the distribution of obestatin and ghrelin immunoreactive cells was determined in a panel of human tissues using immunohistochemistry. The two peptides were detected in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, from cardia to ileum, and in the pancreatic islets. Interestingly, epithelial cells in the ducts of mammary glands showed distinct immunoreactivity for both ghrelin and obestatin. By double immunofluorescence microscopy, it was shown that all detected cells were immunoreactive for both peptides. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of obestatin and ghrelin was essentially identical, indicating that obestatin and ghrelin are stored in the same secretory vesicles.

  1. BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implications for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, Liesl K.; Madden, Vicki; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2009-11-25

    Background: In this study, it was determined that BKV is shed in saliva and an in vitro model system was developed whereby BKV can productively infect both submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary gland cell lines. Results: BKV was detected in oral fluids using quantitative real-time PCR (QRTPCR). BKV infection was determined using quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The infectivity of BKV was inhibited by pre-incubation of the virus with gangliosides that saturated the major capsid protein, VP1, halting receptor mediated BKV entry into salivary gland cells. Examination of infected cultures by transmission electron microscopy revealed 45-50 nm BK virions clearly visible within the cells. Subsequent to infection, encapsidated BK virus was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion: We thus demonstrated that BKV was detected in oral fluids and that BK infection and replication occur in vitro in salivary gland cells. These data collectively suggest the potential for BKV oral route of transmission and oral pathogenesis.

  2. [A 2-month-old child with complex tracheal hypoplasia].

    PubMed

    De Cloedt, L; Papadopoulos, J; Corouge, P; Khalil, T; Van Laer, P

    2013-12-01

    We describe the case of a 2-month-old child with complex tracheal hypoplasia with bilateral bronchial hypoplasia and left pulmonary hypoplasia. Tracheal hypoplasia is complex when it is associated with critical stenosis, cricoid stenosis, bronchial hypoplasia, tracheal bronchus, or esophageal atresia with severe tracheomalacia. Slide tracheoplasty is the gold standard treatment for the complex tracheal hypoplasia.

  3. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5790 - Tracheal tube stylet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube stylet. 868.5790 Section 868.5790...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5790 Tracheal tube stylet. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube stylet is a device used temporarily to make rigid a flexible tracheal tube to...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5770 - Tracheal tube fixation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube fixation device. 868.5770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5770 Tracheal tube fixation device. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube fixation device is a device used to hold a tracheal tube...

  13. Sonographic detection of tracheal or esophageal intubation: A cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Tejesh, CA; Manjunath, AC; Shivakumar, S; Vinayak, PS; Yatish, B; Geetha, CR

    2016-01-01

    Background: The correct position of the endotracheal tube is confirmed by various modalities, most of which are not entirely reliable. Ultrasound is now increasingly available to anesthesiologists in the operating theater and is an attractive alternative. To investigate the usefulness of sonography in identifying the correct tracheal tube position in human cadavers. Materials and Methods: Endotracheal tubes placed randomly into trachea or esophagus was identified with a linear ultrasound probe placed transversely just above the suprasternal notch by a single anesthesiologist. Results: Of the 100 intubations performed at random, 99 were correctly identified to give a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.9%. Conclusion: Sonography is a useful technique to identify correct position of the tracheal tube. PMID:27375387

  14. Differential scanning calorimetric evaluation of human meibomian gland secretions and model lipid mixtures: transition temperatures and cooperativity of melting

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Butovich, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Meibomian gland secretions (or meibum) are produced by holocrine meibomian glands and are secreted in melted form onto the ocular surface of humans and animals to form a protective tear film lipid layer (TFLL). Its protective effect strongly depends on the composition and, hence, thermotropic behavior of meibum. The goal of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the melting characteristics of human meibum and model lipid mixtures using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Standard calorimetric parameters, e.g. changes in calorimetric enthalpy, transition temperatures T(m), cooperativity of melting etc. were assessed. We found that thermotropic behavior of meibum resembled that of relatively simple mixtures of unsaturated wax esters, but showed a lower change in calorimetric enthalpy, which can be indicative of a looser packing of lipids in meibum compared with pure standards and their simple mixtures. The cooperativity of melting of meibomian lipids was comparable to that of an equimolar mixture of four oleic-acid based wax esters. We demonstrated that the phase transitions in meibum start at about 10 to 15 °C and end at 35-36 °C, with T(m) being about 30 °C. The highly asymmetrical shape of the thermotropic peak of meibum is important for the physiology and biophysics of TFLL. PMID:23578711

  15. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J; Krishnan, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Optical Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in salivary

  16. Human breast cancer cells are redirected to mammary epithelial cells upon interaction with the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Bussard, Karen M; Smith, Gilbert H

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display 'normal' behavior when placed into 'normal' ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for 'normal' gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts) confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini) were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic) respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo.

  17. Tracheal mucormycosis pneumonia: a rare clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, Satyawati; Gupta, Bhumika; Gupta, Karan; Bal, Amanjit

    2014-11-01

    This article reports an unusual case of tracheal mucormycosis following H1N1 pneumonia and reviews previously reported cases. A 40-y-old female with a 5-y history of diabetes mellitus, adequately controlled by oral hypoglycemic agents, developed tracheal mucormycosis after successful treatment for H1N1 pneumonia. The condition was diagnosed during workup for decannulation due to subglottic and upper tracheal obstruction by necrotic chewing gum-like tissue and cartilage. The patient was managed successfully by treatment with amphotericin B and surgical intervention in the form of laryngofissure and Montgomery tube placement. A review of the literature revealed only 5 previously reported cases of tracheal mucormycosis. A high degree of suspicion, early endoscopy and biopsy, histopathological evidence of the infection, and early institution of therapy are the keys to successful outcome.

  18. Expression of Human NSAID Activated Gene 1 in Mice Leads to Altered Mammary Gland Differentiation and Impaired Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Binder, April K.; Kosak, Justin P.; Janhardhan, Kyathanahalli S.; Moser, Glenda; Eling, Thomas E.; Korach, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing human non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene 1 (NAG-1) have less adipose tissue, improved insulin sensitivity, lower insulin levels and are resistant to dietary induced obesity. The hNAG-1 expressing mice are more metabolically active with a higher energy expenditure. This study investigates female reproduction in the hNAG-1 transgenic mice and finds the female mice are fertile but have reduced pup survival after birth. Examination of the mammary glands in these mice suggests that hNAG-1 expressing mice have altered mammary epithelial development during pregnancy, including reduced occupancy of the fat pad and increased apoptosis via TUNEL positive cells on lactation day 2. Pups nursing from hNAG-1 expressing dams have reduced milk spots compared to pups nursing from WT dams. When CD-1 pups were cross-fostered with hNAG-1 or WT dams; reduced milk volume was observed in pups nursing from hNAG-1 dams compared to pups nursing from WT dams in a lactation challenge study. Milk was isolated from WT and hNAG-1 dams, and the milk was found to have secreted NAG-1 protein (approximately 25 ng/mL) from hNAG-1 dams. The WT dams had no detectable hNAG-1 in the milk. A decrease in non-esterified free fatty acids in the milk of hNAG-1 dams was observed. Altered milk composition suggests that the pups were receiving inadequate nutrients during perinatal development. To examine this hypothesis serum was isolated from pups and clinical chemistry points were measured. Male and female pups nursing from hNAG-1 dams had reduced serum triglyceride concentrations. Microarray analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism are differentially expressed in hNAG-1 mammary glands. Furthermore, the expression of Cidea/CIDEA that has been shown to regulate milk lipid secretion in the mammary gland was reduced in hNAG-1 mammary glands. This study suggests that expression of hNAG-1 in mice leads to impaired lactation and reduces pup survival due to

  19. Histochemical profiles of mucins in the tracheal epithelium during the posthatching period of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Alan, Emel; Liman, Narin

    2010-01-01

    Mucus normally protects the airway epithelium from dehydration and inhaled infectious agents and possibly toxic substances. Two components of mucus, mucin and water play major roles in the elimination of inhaled foreign material. Mucins are large carbohydrates rich glycoprotein. The objective of the present study was to determine the histochemical changes in mucin pattern of the goblet cells and intraepithelial glands of the trachea in quails during the post-hatching period using specific various staining procedures for complex carbohydrates (Periodic acid Schiff, Alcian blue-Periodic acid Schiff (pH 2.5), Aldehyde fuchsin-Alcian blue (pH 2.5), High-iron diamine-Alcian blue (pH 2.5), Periodic acid-Phenylhydrazine-Schiff). The intraepithelial alveolar glands were present at hatching and their numbers increased with the advance of age. In quail of all ages, the histochemical reactions revealed that the goblet cells and mucous cells of intraepithelial glands contained the mucins with vicinal diol groups, neutral mucin, sialomucin and sulphomucin. In all ages studied, the tracheal epithelium contained three distinct types of goblet or mucous cells producing neutral-, acid- and mixture of neutral- and acid mucins. In 1 day old, the majority of the goblet cells and gland cells contained neutral mucin or a mixture of neutral- and acid mucins, while the proportion of only acid mucin-producing cells was few. The majority of acidic mucins consisted of sulphomucin. The sialomucin-containing cells were only a few. After day 14, it was seen that the content of sialomucin in the epithelium became more diffuse toward adulthood. In conclusion, the content of mucin of tracheal epithelium was variable depending on the ages during the post-hatching period. These changes in mucin dynamics could affect the protective functions against pathogens and toxins of the tracheal epithelium.

  20. Characterization of a novel human type II epithelial keratin K1b, specifically expressed in eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Langbein, Lutz; Rogers, Michael A; Praetzel, Silke; Cribier, Bernard; Peltre, Bernard; Gassler, Nikolaus; Schweizer, Jürgen

    2005-09-01

    In this study, we show that a novel human type II epithelial keratin, K1b, is exclusively expressed in luminal duct cells of eccrine sweat glands. Taking this luminal K1b expression as a reference, we have used antibodies against a plethora of epithelial keratins to systematically investigate their expression in the secretory globule and the two-layered sweat duct, which was divided into the intraglandular, intradermal, and intraepidermal (acrosyringium) segments, the latter being further subdivided into the sweat duct ridge and upper intraepidermal duct. We show that (i) each of the eccrine sweat gland tissue compartments expresses their own keratin patterns, (ii) the peripheral and luminal duct layers exhibit a sequential keratin expression, with both representing self-renewing cell layers, (iii) the intradermal duct and the sweat duct ridge display hitherto unknown length variations, and (iv) out of all cell layers, the luminal cell layer is the most robust layer and expresses the highest number of keratins, these being concentrated at the apical side of the cells to form the cuticle. We provide evidence that the cellular and intercellular properties of the peripheral and the luminal layers reflect adaptations to different functions.

  1. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

  2. Function of human eccrine sweat glands during dynamic exercise and passive heat stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, N.; Shibasaki, M.; Aoki, K.; Koga, S.; Inoue, Y.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of change in the density of activated sweat glands (ASG) and sweat output per gland (SGO) during dynamic constant-workload exercise and passive heat stress. Eight male subjects (22.8 +/- 0.9 yr) exercised at a constant workload (117.5 +/- 4.8 W) and were also passively heated by lower-leg immersion into hot water of 42 degrees C under an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, sweating rate (SR), and heart rate were measured continuously during both trials. The number of ASG was determined every 4 min after the onset of sweating, whereas SGO was calculated by dividing SR by ASG. During both exercise and passive heating, SR increased abruptly during the first 8 min after onset of sweating, followed by a slower increase. Similarly for both protocols, the number of ASG increased rapidly during the first 8 min after the onset of sweating and then ceased to increase further (P > 0.05). Conversely, SGO increased linearly throughout both perturbations. Our results suggest that changes in forearm sweating rate rely on both ASG and SGO during the initial period of exercise and passive heating, whereas further increases in SR are dependent on increases in SGO.

  3. A study of intermediate lobe differentiation in the human pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    McNicol, A M

    1986-11-01

    The immunohistochemical demonstration of neurofilament (NF) polypeptide was used to identify nerves in a series of 17 pituitary adenomas. NF-positive fibres were present in two out of five corticotroph adenomas sited deep in the anterior lobe, in one out of five sited in the intermediate zone and in two out of seven non-corticotroph adenomas. Such nerve fibres were often seen in relation to blood vessels. The distribution of alpha-MSH immunoreactive cells was examined in 25 normal pituitaries and in 23 cases of Cushing's disease. Such cells were scattered throughout the normal gland and there was no increase in numbers in pregnancy. alpha-MSH was demonstrated in 18 corticotroph adenomas in Cushing's disease. There was no correlation with the site of the tumour or the presence of nerve fibres. alpha-MSH cells were distributed normally in the para-adenomatous gland. Crooke's hyaline change and alpha-MSH coexisted in some corticotrophs. These findings support the concept that 'intermediate lobe' function, as found in animals, has no discrete anatomical location in man.

  4. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by tracheal explants: effects of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Last, J.A.; Kaizu, T.

    1980-04-01

    Tracheal slices incubated with radioactive precursors in tissue culture medium secrete labeled mucus glycoproteins into the culture medium. We have used an in vivtro approach, a combined method utilizing exposure to pneumotoxins in vivo coupled with quantitation of mucus secretion rates in vitro, to study the effects of inhaled pollutants on mucus biosynthesis by rat airways. In addition, we have purified the mucus glycoproteins secreted by rat tracheal explants in order to determine putative structural changes that might by the basis for the observed augmented secretion rates after exposure of rats to H2SO4 aerosols in combination with high ambient levels of ozone. After digestion with papain, mucus glycoproteins secreted by tracheal explants may be separated into five fractions by ion-exchange chromatography, with recovery in high yield, on columns of DEAE-cellulose. Each of these five fractions, one neutral and four acidic, migrates as a single unique spot upon cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH values of 8.6 and 1.2. The neutral fraction, which is labeled with (3H) glucosamine, does not contain radioactivity when Na2 35SO4 is used as the precursor. Acidic fractions I to IV are all labeled with either 3H-glucosamine or Na2 35SO4 as precursor. Acidic fraction II contains sialic acid as the terminal sugar on its oligosaccharide side chains, based upon its chromatographic behavior on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin-Agarose. Treatment of this fraction with neuraminidase shifts its elution position in the gradient to a lower salt concentration, coincident with acidic fraction I. After removal of terminal sialic acid residues with either neuraminidase or low pH treatment, the resultant terminal sugar on the oligosaccharide side chains is fucose. These results are identical with those observed with mucus glycoproteins secreted by cultured human tracheal explants and purified by these same techniques.

  5. Effect of age on immunoglobulin content and volume of human labial gland saliva.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Joshipura, K; Kent, R; Taubman, M A

    1992-12-01

    Stimulated lower labial (LLGF) and parotid salivary volumes and IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations were measured in 264 subjects whose ages ranged from 17 to 76 years. A significant (p < 0.001) age-related decline in LLGF output was observed for subjects over this age range. Sixty-three percent of the subjects in the 18-20-year-old group (n = 46) secreted at least 10 microL of labial saliva in a 7-10-minute period, while approximately 70% of the subjects in the two oldest groups (61-70 and 71-76 years old) secreted less than 1 microL of LLGF during this time period (n = 64). No significant gender-based differences occurred in the volumes of labial saliva secreted. Stimulated parotid salivary flow showed no age-related trend in these subjects. Lower labial gland salivary IgA concentrations in an older population (mean age +/- SD = 55.6 yr +/- 1.3) were significantly lower (p < 0.025) than IgA concentrations in a younger population (20.7 yr +/- 0.8), when IgA was expressed as microgram/mL LLGF collected. Immunoglobulin A concentrations in parotid saliva and IgG and IgM concentrations in labial and parotid saliva were not significantly different when the two age populations were compared. These data suggest that the physiological and immunological potential of labial gland saliva may decrease with age.

  6. Alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (. cap alpha. -hANP) specific binding sites in bovine adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, K.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.I.; Ibayashi, H.; Matsuo, H.

    1986-06-13

    The effects of synthetic ..cap alpha..-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (..cap alpha..-hANP) on steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells in primary monolayer culture were investigated. ..cap alpha..-hANP did not inhibit basal aldosterone secretion. ..cap alpha..-hANP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of basal levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion and also of aCTH (10/sup -8/M)-stimulated increases in aldosterone, cortisol and DHEA secretion. Visualization of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha..-hANP binding sites in bovine adrenal gland by an in vitro autoradiographic technique demonstrated that these sites were highly localized in the adrenal cortex, especially the zona glomerulosa. These results suggest that the adrenal cortex may be a target organ for direct receptor-mediated actions of ..cap alpha..-hANP.

  7. Activation of ROS/NF-{kappa}B and Ca{sup 2+}/CaM kinase II are necessary for VCAM-1 induction in IL-1{beta}-treated human tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, S.-F.; Chang, C.-C.; Lee, I-T.; Lee, C.-W.; Lin, W.-N.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2009-05-15

    Histone acetylation regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) plays a critical role in the expression of inflammatory genes, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Oxidative processes have been shown to induce VCAM-1 expression. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying IL-1{beta}-induced VCAM-1 expression in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). Our results showed that IL-1{beta} enhanced HTSMCs-monocyte adhesion through up-regulation of VCAM-1, which was inhibited by pretreatment with selective inhibitors of PKC{alpha} (Goe6976), c-Src (PP1), NADPH oxidase [diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and apocynin (APO)], intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA/AM), PI-PLC (U73122), CaM (calmidazolium chloride), CaM kinase II (KN62), p300 (garcinol), NF-{kappa}B (Bay11-7082), HDAC (trichostatin A), and ROS scavenger [N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)] or transfection with siRNAs of MyD88, PKC{alpha}, Src, p47{sup phox}, p300, and HDAC4. Moreover, IL-1{beta} stimulated NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII phosphorylation through MyD88-dependent PI-PLC/PKC{alpha}/c-Src/ROS and PI-PLC/Ca{sup 2+}/CaM pathways, respectively. Activation of NF-{kappa}B and CaMKII may eventually lead to the acetylation of histone residues and phosphorylation of histone deacetylases. These findings suggested that IL-1{beta} induced VCAM-1 expression via these multiple signaling pathways in HTSMCs. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte adhesion via VCAM-1 suppression and attenuation of the inflammatory responses in airway diseases.

  8. Immunocytochemical study of the GH cells in the anterior pituitary gland of human fetus II. Anencephalic fetus.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Toshiaki; Ito, Takayasu

    2003-12-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of hypothalamic regulation on the morphology of GH cells, light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical examinations were carried out comparing GH cells in the anterior pituitary gland of anencephalic fetus with those of normal fetuses. Three types of GH cells were identified in the anterior pituitary gland of anencephalic fetus as well as in the normal fetus. Type-I is a small, round cell containing a few small secretory granules. Type-III is a large, polygonal cell with numerous large secretory granules. Type-II is a polygonal cell with medium-sized secretory granules. The Type-II GH cell was predominant in both anencephalic and normal fetuses. The most striking difference between anencephalic and normal fetuses was the presence of atypical forms of the Type II cell. These were polygonal cells containing secretory granules, which were either immunopositive or immunonegative to anti-human GH (anti-hGH) serum. Furthermore, two other types of GH cells were identified. The somatomammotroph (SM cell) contained GH and PRL in different granules within the same cell. Also, a different type of the GH cell was noted containing two varieties of secretory granules; one was immunolabeled only with anti-hGH and the other was not immunolabeled to either anti-hGH or anti-human PRL (anti-hPRL). From these results, we suggest that an absence of hypothalamic regulation in the anencehpalic does not seriously modify GH cell morphology but induces an altered GH storage pattern in some of the cells.

  9. Tracheal and bronchial stenoses and other obstructive conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Claudia; Cohen, Aliza P.

    2016-01-01

    Although tracheal stenosis and bronchial stenosis are relatively rare in the pediatric population, they are both associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While most cases of congenital tracheal stenosis in children present as complete tracheal rings (CTRs), other congenital tracheal obstructions are also encountered in clinical practice. In addition, acquired obstructive tracheal conditions stemming from endotracheal trauma or previous surgical interventions may occur. Many affected children also have associated cardiovascular malformations, further complicating their management. Optimal management of children with tracheal or bronchial stenoses requires comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and optimization prior to surgery. Slide tracheoplasty has been the operative intervention of choice in the treatment of the majority of these children. PMID:28066618

  10. Indications and interventional options for non-resectable tracheal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Jenny Louise; Patterson, Caroline Marie

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific presentation and normal examination findings in early disease often result in tracheal obstruction being overlooked as a diagnosis until patients present acutely. Once diagnosed, surgical options should be considered, but often patient co-morbidity necessitates other interventional options. Non-resectable tracheal stenosis can be successfully managed by interventional bronchoscopy, with therapeutic options including airway dilatation, local tissue destruction and airway stenting. There are common aspects to the management of tracheal obstruction, tracheomalacia and tracheal fistulae. This paper reviews the pathogenesis, presentation, investigation and management of tracheal disease, with a focus on tracheal obstruction and the role of endotracheal intervention in management. PMID:24624290

  11. Recurred Post-intubation Tracheal Stenosis Treated with Bronchoscopic Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Ryung; Taek Jeong, Joon; Kyu Lee, Myoung; Kim, Sang-Ha; Joong Yong, Suk; Jeong Lee, Seok; Lee, Won-Yeon

    Post-intubation tracheal stenosis accounts for the greatest proportion of whole-cause tracheal stenosis. Treatment of post-intubation tracheal stenosis requires a multidisciplinary approach. Surgery or an endoscopic procedure can be used, depending on the type of stenosis. However, the efficacy of cryotherapy in post-intubation tracheal stenosis has not been validated. Here, we report a case of recurring post-intubation tracheal stenosis successfully treated with bronchoscopic cryotherapy that had previously been treated with surgery. In this case, cryotherapy was effective in treating web-like fibrous stenosis, without requiring more surgery. Cryotherapy can be considered as an alternative or primary treatment for post-intubation tracheal stenosis.

  12. Nicotine derived genotoxic effects in human primary parotid gland cells as assessed in vitro by comet assay, cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and chromosome aberrations test.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Steussloff, Gudrun; Koehler, Christian; Burghartz, Marc; Scherzed, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2014-08-01

    Genotoxic effects of nicotine were described in different human cells including salivary gland cells. Based on the high nicotine concentration in saliva of smokers or patients using therapeutic nicotine patches, the current study was performed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of nicotine in human salivary gland cells. Therefore, primary salivary gland cells from 10 patients undergoing parotid gland surgery were exposed to nicotine concentrations between 1 μM and 1000 μM for 1 h in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation. The acinar phenotype was proven by immunofluorescent staining of alpha-amylase. Genotoxic effects were evaluated using the Comet assay, the micronucleus test and the chromosome aberration test. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue exclusion test and Caspase-3 assay. Nicotine was able to induce genotoxic effects in all three assays. The chromosome aberration test was the most sensitive and increases in numerical and structural (chromatid-type and chromosome-type) aberrations were seen at ≥1 μM, whereas increases in micronuclei frequency were detected at 10 μM and DNA damage as measured in the Comet assay was noted at >100 μM. No cytotoxic damage or influence of apoptosis could be demonstrated. Nicotine as a possible risk factor for tumor initiation in salivary glands is still discussed controversially. Our results demonstrated the potential of nicotine to induce genotoxic effects in salivary gland cells. These results were observed at saliva nicotine levels similar to those found after oral or transdermal exposure to nicotine and suggest the necessity of careful monitoring of the use of nicotine in humans.

  13. NORMAL MAMMARY GLAND MORPHOLOGY IN PUBERTAL FEMALE MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENISTEIN AT LEVELS COMPARABLE TO HUMAN DIETARY EXPOSURE. (R827402)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to genistein (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) on mammary gland morphology in female B6D2F1 mice at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures. The effect of diethylstilbest...

  14. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  15. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... women; stimulates sperm production in men Prolactin - stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to produce important substances that have properties similar ...

  16. Molecular cloning and transmembrane structure of hCLCA2 from human lung, trachea, and mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A D; Schreur, K D; Ji, H L; Fuller, C M; Pauli, B U

    1999-06-01

    The CLCA family of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels has recently been discovered, with an increasing number of closely related members isolated from different species. Here we report the cloning of the second human homolog, hCLCA2, from a human lung cDNA library. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses revealed additional expression in trachea and mammary gland. A primary translation product of 120 kDa was cleaved into two cell surface-associated glycoproteins of 86 and 34 kDa in transfected HEK-293 cells. hCLCA2 is the first CLCA homolog for which the transmembrane structure has been systematically studied. Glycosylation site scanning and protease protection assays revealed five transmembrane domains with a large, cysteine-rich, amino-terminal extracellular domain. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings of hCLCA2-transfected HEK-293 cells detected a slightly outwardly rectifying anion conductance that was increased in the presence of the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin and inhibited by DIDS, dithiothreitol, niflumic acid, and tamoxifen. Expression in human trachea and lung suggests that hCLCA2 may play a role in the complex pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis.

  17. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1.

  18. Comparison of human coagulation factor VIII expression directed by cytomegalovirus and mammary gland-specific promoters in HC11 cells and transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Hao, Siguo; Ma, Liyuan; Zhang, Wenhao; Wan, Jiangbo; Deng, Xiaohui

    2015-10-01

    Hemophilia A is an inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. The conventional treatment involves the administration of recombinant human FVIII (rhFVIII) preparations. In this study, the mammary gland 'bioreactor' is designed to specifically and efficiently express a foreign protein hFVIII in the mammary glands of transgenic mice. We constructed a P1A3-hFVIIIBD vector directed by the mammary gland-specific P1A3 promoter, and transiently transfected HC11 cells and mouse mammary glands with P1A3-hFVIIIBD or CMV-hFVIIIBD vectors directed by a ubiquitous cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, respectively. We also generated P1A3-hFVIIIBD and CMV-hFVIIIBD transgenic mice by microinjection, respectively. Our data indicated that both vectors effectively expressed hFVIIIBD in HC11 cells at the transcription level, and hFVIIIBD protein was efficiently expressed in mouse milk after the injection of the hFVIIIBD vectors into mouse mammary glands during lactation. In both CMV-hFVIIIBD and P1A3-hFVIIIBD transgenic mice, hFVIIIBD proteins were efficiently expressed in the mammary glands at the mRNA and protein levels. No significant difference was observed in hFVIIIBD levels between the CMV-hFVIIIBD and P1A3-hFVIIIBD transgenic mice (P > 0.05). However, the activity of hFVIII in CMV-directed transgenic mice was slightly higher than that in P1A3-directed transgenic mice (P < 0.05). While hFVIIIBD was present in multiple organs in CMV-hFVIIIBD mice, P1A3-hFVIIIBD mice showed negligible hFVIIIBD expression in organs other than the mammary glands. This study demonstrated that the mammary gland-specific P1A3-hFVIIIBD vector was more suitable for the generation of hFVIIIBD mammary gland bioreactor.

  19. Morphological, diagnostic and surgical features of ectopic thyroid gland: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Germano; Cinelli, Mariapia; Mesolella, Massimo; Tafuri, Domenico; Rocca, Aldo; Amato, Bruno; Rengo, Sandro; Testa, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue remains a rare developmental abnormality involving defective or aberrant embryogenesis of the thyroid gland during its passage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its usual final position in pre-tracheal region of the neck. Its specific prevalence accounts about 1 case per 100.000-300.000 persons and one in 4.000-8.000 patients with thyroid disease show this condition. The cause of this defect is not fully known. Despite genetic factors have been associated with thyroid gland morphogenesis and differentiation, just recently some mutation has been associated with human thyroid ectopy. Lingual region in the most common site of thyroid ectopy but ectopic thyroid tissue were found in other head and neck locations. Nevertheless, aberrant ectopic thyroid tissue has been found in other places distant from the neck region. Ectopic tissue is affected by different pathological changes that occur in the normal eutopic thyroid. Patients may present insidiously or as an emergency. Diagnostic management of thyroid ectopy is performed by radionuclide thyroid imaging, ultrasonography, CT scan, MRI, biopsy and thyroid function tests. Asymptomatic euthyroid patients with ectopic thyroid do not usually require therapy but are kept under observation. For those with symptoms, treatment depends on size of the gland, nature of symptoms, thyroid function status and histological findings. Surgical excision is often required as treatment for this condition.

  20. Engineering of human tracheal tissue with collagen-enforced poly-lactic-glycolic acid non-woven mesh: a preliminary study in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Xue; Mao, Tianqiu; Feng, Xinghua; Ouyang, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Guifang; Chen, Fulin

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the current study is to fabricate tissue engineered trachea with poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) non-woven mesh enforced by collagen type I. PLGA fibres coated with collagen solution were put together and fabricated into the shape of a human trachea, after drying and cross-linking treatment, a non-woven mesh with "C" shape formed. Chondrocytes from sheep nasal septum cartilage were expanded in vitro and seeded into PLGA/collagen non-woven mesh in the density of 5.0 x 10(7)mL(-1). After 5 days of in vitro incubation, six Cell-PLGA/collagen composites were implanted subcutaneously into the back of 6 nude mice to prefabricate a tissue engineering trachea. Eight weeks later, the cartilage formation was observed by gross inspection and histological examination. Cartilage-like tissue in the shape of the initial PLGA/collagen scaffold had been regenerated successfully without obvious inflammatory response. The tissue engineered trachea cartilage consisted of evenly spaced lacunae embedded in matrix stained red with safranin-O staining. The amount of GAGs in tissue engineered trachea cartilage reached 71.42% of normal value in native cartilage. This study demonstrated that collagen-enforced PLGA non-woven mesh facilitated the adhesion and proliferation of chondrocytes, it also owned adequate mechanical strength to serve as an ideal scaffold for trachea tissue engineering without internal support.

  1. Effects of guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine, and ambroxol on MUC5AC and mucociliary transport in primary differentiated human tracheal-bronchial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic intervention in the pathophysiology of airway mucus hypersecretion is clinically important. Several types of drugs are available with different possible modes of action. We examined the effects of guaifenesin (GGE), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol (Amb) on differentiated human airway epithelial cells stimulated with IL-13 to produce additional MUC5AC. Methods After IL-13 pre-treatment (3 days), the cultures were treated with GGE, NAC or Amb (10–300 μM) in the continued presence of IL-13. Cellular and secreted MUC5AC, mucociliary transport rates (MTR), mucus rheology at several time points, and the antioxidant capacity of the drugs were assessed. Results IL-13 increased MUC5AC content (~25%) and secretion (~2-fold) and decreased MTR, but only slightly affected the G’ (elastic) or G” (viscous) moduli of the secretions. GGE significantly inhibited MUC5AC secretion and content in the IL-13-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50s at 24 hr ~100 and 150 μM, respectively). NAC or Amb were less effective. All drugs increased MTR and decreased G’ and G” relative to IL-13 alone. Cell viability was not affected and only NAC exhibited antioxidant capacity. Conclusions Thus, GGE effectively reduces cellular content and secretion of MUC5AC, increases MTR, and alters mucus rheology, and may therefore be useful in treating airway mucus hypersecretion and mucostasis in airway diseases. PMID:23113953

  2. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  12. A milk protein gene promoter directs the expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA to the mammary gland in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pittius, C.W.; Hennighausen, L.; Lee, E.; Westphal, H.; Nicols, E.; Vitale, J.; Gordon, K. )

    1988-08-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP) is a major whey protein in mouse milk. Its gene is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and is inducible by steroid and peptide hormones. A series of transgenic mice containing a hybrid gene in which human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) cDNA is under the control of the murine WAP gene promoter had previously been generated. In this study, 21 tissues from lactating and virgin transgenic female mice containing the WAP-tPA hybrid gene were screened for the distribution of murine WAP and human tPA transcripts. Like the endogenous WAP RNA, WAP-tPA RNA was expressed predominantly in mammary gland tissue and appeared to be inducible by lactation. Whereas WAP transcripts were not detected in 22 tissues of virgin mice, low levels of WAP-tPA RNA, which were not modulated during lactation, were found in tongue, kidney, and sublingual gland. These studies demonstrate that the WAP gene promoter can target the expression of a transgene to the mammary gland and that this expression is inducible during lactation.

  13. Unsolved Mysteries of the Human Mammary Gland: Defining and Redefining the Critical Questions from the Lactation Consultant's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Lisa Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite advances in knowledge about human lactation, clinicians face many problems when advising mothers who are experiencing breastfeeding difficulties that do not respond to normal management strategies. Primary insufficient milk production is now being acknowledged, but incidence rates have not been well studied. Many women have known histories of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, hyperandrogenism or other hormonal imbalances, while others have no obvious risk factors. Some present with obviously abnormal breasts that are pubescent, tuberous/tubular or asymmetric in shape, raising the question of insufficient mammary gland tissue. Other women have breasts that appear within normal limits yet do not lactate normally. Endocrine disruptors may underlie some of these cases but their impact on human milk production has not been well explored. Similarly, any problem with prolactin such as a deficiency in serum prolactin or receptor number, receptor resistance, or poor bioavailability or bioactivity could underlie some cases of insufficient lactation, yet these possibilities are rarely investigated. A weak or suppressed milk ejection reflex, often assumed to be psychosomatic, could be related to thyroid dysfunction or caused by downstream post-receptor pathway problems. In the absence of sufficient data regarding these situations, desperate mothers may turn to non-evidence-based remedies, sometimes at considerable cost and unknown risk. Research targeted to these clinical dilemmas is critical in order to develop evidence-based strategies and increase breastfeeding duration and success rates.

  14. Tracheal lipoma mimicking obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mota, Vinícius Turano; Maia, José Geraldo Soares; Barbosa, Ana Teresa Fernandes; Fernandes, Diego Franco Silveira; Rocha, Emanuelly Botelho

    2010-01-01

    Tracheal tumors are rare and can be difficult to diagnose due to their capacity to mimic other obstructive lung diseases, such as asthma and COPD. We report the case of a female patient with a tracheal tumor. She had previously been treated for asthma and COPD, with little response to the treatment. The onset of infectious complications prompted further investigation. Chest CT images suggested the presence of a tumor, which was confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The tumor was endoscopically resected. However, the patient evolved to death due to pneumonia and septic shock.

  15. Activation of Alternative Wnt Signaling Pathways in Human Mammary Gland and Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    signalling, the antagonistic role of Wnt5a on canonical Wnt signalling, and the fact that the genes regulated by either of these pathways differ in...differentiation, apoptosis, and migration. Wnt/Frizzled signaling is now linked to human hereditary disorders with retinal vascular defects, implicating...www.physiologyonline.org fact that the role of FrzA in vascular biology is not well understood. Wnt Signaling Comes into Play in Human Vascular

  16. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  17. Gonadotrope and thyrotrope development in the human and mouse anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Pope, Caroline; McNeilly, Judy R; Coutts, Shiona; Millar, Mike; Anderson, Richard A; McNeilly, Alan S

    2006-09-01

    Genes and orthologous intrinsic and extrinsic factors critical for embryonic pituitary gonadotrope and thyrotrope cell differentiation have been identified mainly in rodents, but data on the human are very limited. In human fetal pituitaries examined between 14 and 19 weeks of gestation using immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, we found that most fetal gonadotropes expressed alpha-GSU, LHbeta, and FSHbeta gonadotropin subunits while almost no cells expressed alpha-GSU and LHbeta alone. Gonadotropes expressing alpha-GSU and FSHbeta only were detected in both male and female pituitaries, increasing in proportion to total gonadotropes in both males and females from 14 (approximately 4.5%) to 19 weeks (approximately 16.5%) with a peak in males of 45.5% compared with females of 16.5% at 17 weeks of gestation. When FSHbeta or LHbeta genes were expressed, gonadotropes were non-dividing. This profile of human fetal gonadotrope development differs from the current mouse model. Furthermore, while expression of alpha-GSU appears to be the lead protein in gonadotropes, in thyrotropes which ultimately express alpha-GSU with TSHbeta, we observed that most if not all thyrotropes were TSHbeta-positive but alpha-GSU-negative until around 19 weeks in human, and e15 in mouse, fetal pituitaries. Furthermore, the TSHbeta-only thyrotropes were dividing, and TSHbeta rather than alpha-GSU was the lead protein in thyrotrope development. Thus, while biologically active dimeric FSH and LH can be produced by the human fetal pituitary by 14 weeks, dimeric biologically active TSH will only be produced from around 17 weeks of gestation. The mechanism(s) responsible for the different molecular regulation of alpha-GSU gene expression in gonadotropes and thyrotropes in the developing human fetal pituitary now requires investigation.

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography Evaluation of Tracheal Inflammation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    0.50). A dose - response curve shows a weak correlation between the increase in mucosal thickness with dosage of S Pneumoniae inoculated (Figure 5...10000 100000 1000000 Figure 5: Dose response curve for septic tracheal mucosal thickness. DISCUSSION These studies confirm the feasibility of high

  19. Standard methods for tracheal mite research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, for the COLOSS Beebook from the Bee Research Center in Switzerland, summarizes all the current information about the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) infesting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The chapter covers the effects on bees, its life history, and its range, as well as the identifica...

  20. Localization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α/β, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotransporter 1 and aquaporin-5 in human eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjun; Zeng, Shaopeng; Zhang, Lei; Li, Haihong; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Xuexue; Lin, Changmin; Shu, Shenyou; Xie, Sitian; He, Yunpu; Mao, Xiaoyan; Peng, Lihong; Shi, Lungang; Yang, Lvjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    In order to evaluate the function of the repaired or regenerated eccrine sweat glands, we must first localize the proteins involved in sweat secretion and absorption in normal human eccrine sweat glands. In our studies, the cellular localization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α/β, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) in eccrine sweat glands were detected by immunoperoxidase labeling. The results showed that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α was immunolocalized in the cell membrane of the basal layer and suprabasal layer cells of the epidermis, the basolateral membrane of the secretory coils, and the cell membrane of the outer cells and the basolateral membrane of the luminal cells of the ducts. The localization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase β in the secretory coils was the same as Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α, but Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase β labeling was absent in the straight ducts and epidermis. NKCC1 labeling was seen only in the basolateral membrane of the secretory coils. AQP5 was strongly localized in the apical membrane and weakly localized in the cytoplasm of secretory epithelial cells. The different distribution of these proteins in eccrine sweat glands was related to their functions in sweat secretion and absorption.

  1. Generation of TALE nickase-mediated gene-targeted cows expressing human serum albumin in mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Cui, Chenchen; Wu, Yongyan; Lan, Hui; Chen, Qi; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-02-08

    Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs. After co-transfecting the bovine fetal fibroblasts with human serum albumin (HSA) gene-targeting vector and TALE nickase expression vectors, approximately 4.8% (40/835) of the cell clones contained HSA at BLG locus. Unexpectedly, one homozygous gene-targeted cell clone (1/835, 0.1%) was obtained by targeting both alleles of BLG in a single round of transfection. The recombinant protein mimicking the endogenous BLG was highly expressed and correctly folded in the mammary glands of the targeted cows, and the expression level of HSA was significantly increased in the homozygous targeted cows. Results suggested that the combination of TALE nickase-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer is a feasible and safe approach in producing gene-targeted livestock.

  2. Generation of TALE nickase-mediated gene-targeted cows expressing human serum albumin in mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Cui, Chenchen; Wu, Yongyan; Lan, Hui; Chen, Qi; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Targeting exogenous genes at milk protein loci via gene-targeting technology is an ideal strategy for producing large quantities of pharmaceutical proteins. Transcription- activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs) are an efficient genome-editing tool. However, the off-target effects may lead to unintended gene mutations. In this study, we constructed TALENs and TALE nickases directed against exon 2 of the bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) locus. The nickases can induce a site-specific DNA single-strand break, without inducing double-strand break and nonhomologous end joining mediated gene mutation, and lower cell apoptosis rate than TALENs. After co-transfecting the bovine fetal fibroblasts with human serum albumin (HSA) gene-targeting vector and TALE nickase expression vectors, approximately 4.8% (40/835) of the cell clones contained HSA at BLG locus. Unexpectedly, one homozygous gene-targeted cell clone (1/835, 0.1%) was obtained by targeting both alleles of BLG in a single round of transfection. The recombinant protein mimicking the endogenous BLG was highly expressed and correctly folded in the mammary glands of the targeted cows, and the expression level of HSA was significantly increased in the homozygous targeted cows. Results suggested that the combination of TALE nickase-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer is a feasible and safe approach in producing gene-targeted livestock. PMID:26853907

  3. In vivo enhancement of chemosensitivity of human salivary gland cancer cells by overexpression of TGF-beta stimulated clone-22.

    PubMed

    Omotehara, F; Uchida, D; Hino, S; Begum, N M; Yoshida, H; Sato, M; Kawamata, H

    2000-01-01

    We have isolated transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22) cDNA as an anti-cancer drug-inducible gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We have previously reported that TSC-22 negatively regulates the growth of TYS cells, and that overexpression of TSC-22 protein in TYS cells enhanced the in vitro chemosensitivity of the cells. In this study, we examined the in vivo chemosensitivity of TSC-22-expressing TYS cells. TSC-22-expressing TYS cells formed tumors in nude mice, but tumors formed by TSC-22-expressing TYS cells were significantly smaller than tumors formed by control cells (p<0.001, one way ANOVA). Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) markedly inhibited the growth of the TSC-22-expressing TYS tumors, but did not affect the growth of control tumors. It was found by TUNEL assay that TSC-22-expressing TYS tumors were induced to undergo apoptosis by 5-FU treatment. These findings suggest that overexpression of TSC-22 protein in TYS cells enhances the in vivo chemosensitivity of the cells to 5-FU via induction of apoptosis.

  4. Involvement of PPARgamma in oxidative stress-mediated prostaglandin E(2) production in SZ95 human sebaceous gland cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiwei; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C; Konger, Raymond L

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is thought to play a role in sebaceous gland cell function. We previously demonstrated in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells that UVB irradiation activates PPARgamma via the generation of multiple oxidized glycerophosphocholine species with PPARgamma ligand activity. UVB-induced cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression was also shown to be PPARgamma-dependent. We therefore reasoned that PPARgamma activation and PPARgamma-dependent COX-2 expression may occur as a general consequence of oxidative stress. The present studies were designed to examine the effects of the oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBH) on PPARgamma activation and COX-2 expression in SZ95 sebocytes. We first verified that functional PPARgamma is expressed and activated by UVB irradiation in these cells. We next demonstrated that TBH increased PPARgamma reporter activity in SZ95 sebocytes. Increased COX-2 protein, mRNA expression, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production was observed after TBH or PPARgamma agonist treatment. The ability of PPARgamma agonists and TBH to induce COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production was blocked by pretreatment with the specific PPARgamma antagonist GW9662. Finally, TBH and PPARgamma agonists failed to elicit a PGE(2) response in SZ95 sebocytes stably expressing a dominant-negative PPARgamma. This study illustrates the importance of the PPARgamma system in regulating cellular responses to oxidative stress.

  5. CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels in primary cultures of human airway gland cells of serous or mucous phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Sachs, Lorne; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H

    2010-10-01

    Using cell culture models, we have investigated the relative importance of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) in Cl secretion by mucous and serous cells of human airway glands. In transepithelial recordings in Ussing chambers, the CFTR inhibitor CFTR(inh)-172 abolished 60% of baseline Cl secretion in serous cells and 70% in mucous. Flufenamic acid (FFA), an inhibitor of CaCC, reduced baseline Cl secretion by ∼20% in both cell types. Methacholine and ATP stimulated Cl secretion in both cell types, which was largely blocked by treatment with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and partially by mucosal FFA or CFTR(inh)-172 with the exception of methacholine responses in mucous cells, which were not blocked by FFA and partially (∼60%) by CFTR(inh)-172. The effects of ionomycin on short-circuit current (I(sc)) were less than those of ATP or methacholine. Forskolin stimulated Cl secretion only if Cl in the mucosal medium was replaced by gluconate. In whole cell patch-clamp studies of single isolated cells, cAMP-induced Cl currents were ∼3-fold greater in serous than mucous cells. Ionomycin-induced Cl currents were 13 times (serous) or 26 times (mucous) greater than those generated by cAMP and were blocked by FFA. In serous cells, mRNA for transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was ∼10 times more abundant than mRNA for CFTR. In mucous cells it was ∼100 times more abundant. We conclude: 1) serous and mucous cells both make significant contributions to gland fluid secretion; 2) baseline Cl secretion in both cell types is mediated predominantly by CFTR, but CaCC becomes increasingly important after mediator-induced elevations of intracellular Ca; and 3) the high CaCC currents seen in patch-clamp studies and the high TMEM16A expression in intact polarized cells sheets are not reflected in transepithelial current recordings.

  6. Calcium-binding protein, spermatid-specific 1 is expressed in human salivary glands and contains an anti-inflammatory motif

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Chris D.; St. Laurent, Katherine E.; Mathison, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in the production and exocrine and endocrine secretion of biologically active proteins, polypeptides, and hormones involved in growth and differentiation, homeostasis, and digestion. We have previously studied the prohormone submandibular rat 1 (SMR1), product of the Vcsa1 gene, which is highly expressed in the testes and salivary glands of rats, and can be cleaved to produce polypeptides with analgesic, erectile function, and anti-inflammatory activities. Humans lack the Vcsa1 gene, but homologous sequences and functions for analgesia and erectile function exist in the human genes Prol1, SMR3a, and SMR3b located on the human chromosomal region close to where Vcsa1 lies in the rat. Here we show the human protein calcium-binding protein spermatid-specific 1 (CABS1) contains a similar sequence to the anti-inflammatory sequence in rat SMR1, thus CABS1 may be another human gene with homologous function to Vcsa1. Using Western blot and PCR, we discovered that the human protein CABS1, previously thought to only be expressed in the testes, is also expressed in the salivary glands and lung, in a tissue-specific manner. Peptides derived from CABS1 were tested in an in vivo mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neutrophilia and an ex vivo rat model of antigen-induced intestinal anaphylaxis and significantly reduced both neutrophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and antigen-induced ileal contractions, respectively. Thus human CABS1 has a peptide motif homologous to the anti-inflammatory peptide sequence of rat SMR1. Whether this similarity of CABS1 extends to the neuroendocrine regulation of the anti-inflammatory activity seen for SMR1 remains to be determined. PMID:25632019

  7. Calcium-binding protein, spermatid-specific 1 is expressed in human salivary glands and contains an anti-inflammatory motif.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Chris D; St Laurent, Katherine E; Mathison, Ron D; Befus, A Dean

    2015-04-01

    Salivary glands are involved in the production and exocrine and endocrine secretion of biologically active proteins, polypeptides, and hormones involved in growth and differentiation, homeostasis, and digestion. We have previously studied the prohormone submandibular rat 1 (SMR1), product of the Vcsa1 gene, which is highly expressed in the testes and salivary glands of rats, and can be cleaved to produce polypeptides with analgesic, erectile function, and anti-inflammatory activities. Humans lack the Vcsa1 gene, but homologous sequences and functions for analgesia and erectile function exist in the human genes Prol1, SMR3a, and SMR3b located on the human chromosomal region close to where Vcsa1 lies in the rat. Here we show the human protein calcium-binding protein spermatid-specific 1 (CABS1) contains a similar sequence to the anti-inflammatory sequence in rat SMR1, thus CABS1 may be another human gene with homologous function to Vcsa1. Using Western blot and PCR, we discovered that the human protein CABS1, previously thought to only be expressed in the testes, is also expressed in the salivary glands and lung, in a tissue-specific manner. Peptides derived from CABS1 were tested in an in vivo mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neutrophilia and an ex vivo rat model of antigen-induced intestinal anaphylaxis and significantly reduced both neutrophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and antigen-induced ileal contractions, respectively. Thus human CABS1 has a peptide motif homologous to the anti-inflammatory peptide sequence of rat SMR1. Whether this similarity of CABS1 extends to the neuroendocrine regulation of the anti-inflammatory activity seen for SMR1 remains to be determined.

  8. Role of Keratinocyte Growth Factor in the Differentiation of Sweat Gland-Like Cells From Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongan; Hong, Yucai; Xu, Mengyan; Ma, Kui; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have higher proliferation potency and lower immune resistance than human bone marrow MSCs and can differentiate into various functional cells. Many regulatory factors, including keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), are involved in the development of skin and cutaneous appendages. Although KGF is important in wound healing, the role of KGF in hUC-MSC differentiation remains unknown. In our previous work, we found the mixing medium (nine parts of basic sweat-gland [SG] medium plus one part of conditioned heat-shock SG medium) could induce hUC-MSC differentiation to sweat gland-like cells (SGCs). In this study, we further improved the inducing medium and determined the effects of KGF in hUC-MSC differentiation. We found KGF expression in the SGCs and that recombinant human KGF could induce hUC-MSC differentiation into SGCs, suggesting KGF plays a pivotal role in promoting hUC-MSC differentiation to SGCs. Furthermore, the SGCs differentiated from hUC-MSCs were applied to severely burned skin of the paw of an in vivo severe combined immunodeficiency mouse burn model. Burned paws treated with SGCs could regenerate functional sparse SGs 21 days after treatment; the untreated control paws could not. Collectively, these results demonstrated that KGF is a critical growth factor for SGC differentiation from hUC-MSCs and the differentiated SGCs from hUC-MSCs may have a potential therapeutic application for regeneration of destroyed SGs and injured skin. Significance There is growing evidence demonstrating a potential therapeutic application of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in injured skin. In the current study, conditioned media and chemically defined media with recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) could induce hUC-MSC differentiation into sweat gland-like cells (SGCs). Moreover, the differentiated SGCs from hUC-MSCs could regenerate functional sparse sweat glands in a

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhances neutrophil adhesiveness: induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 via activation of Akt and CaM kinase II and modifications of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 4 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Lin, Chih-Chung; Luo, Shue-Fen; Lee, Hui-Chun; Lee, I-Ta; Aird, William C; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2008-05-01

    Up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) involves adhesions between both circulating and resident leukocytes and the human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) during airway inflammatory reaction. We have demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB, and p300 activation in HTSMCs. In addition to this pathway, phosphorylation of Akt and CaM kinase II has been implicated in histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) activation. Here, we investigated whether these different mechanisms participated in TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression and enhanced neutrophil adhesion. TNF-alpha significantly increased HTSMC-neutrophil adhesions, and this effect was associated with increased expression of VCAM-1 on the HTSMCs and was blocked by the selective inhibitors of Src [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidine (PP1)], epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR; 4-(3'-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxy-quinazoline, (AG1478)], phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride(LY294002) and wortmannin],calcium[1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester; BAPTA-AM], phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PLC) [1-[6-[[17beta-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122)], protein kinase C (PKC) [12-(2-cyanoethyl)-6,7,12, 13-tetrahydro-13-methyl-5-oxo-5H-indolo(2,3-a)pyrrolo(3,4-c)-carbazole (Gö6976), rottlerin, and 3-1-[3-(amidinothio)propyl-1H-indol-3-yl]-3-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) maleimide (bisindolylmaleimide IX) (Ro 31-8220)], CaM (calmidazolium chloride), CaM kinase II [(8R(*),9S(*),11S(*))-(-)-9-hydroxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-8-methyl-14-n-propoxy-2,3,9, 10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy, 1H,8H, 11H-2,7b,11a-triazadibenzo[a,g]cycloocta[cde]trinden-1-one (KT5926) and 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl

  10. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  11. Identification of cholinergic chemosensory cells in mouse tracheal and laryngeal glandular ducts.

    PubMed

    Krasteva-Christ, G; Soultanova, A; Schütz, B; Papadakis, T; Weiss, C; Deckmann, K; Chubanov, V; Gudermann, T; Voigt, A; Meyerhof, W; Boehm, U; Weihe, E; Kummer, W

    2015-11-01

    Specialized epithelial cells in the respiratory tract such as solitary chemosensory cells and brush cells sense the luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to the detection of potentially harmful substances. The majority of these cells are cholinergic and utilize the canonical taste signal transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Utilizing two different mouse strains reporting expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme of acetylcholine (ACh), we detected cholinergic cells in the submucosal glands of the murine larynx and trachea. These cells were localized in the ciliated glandular ducts and were neither found in the collecting ducts nor in alveolar or tubular segments of the glands. ChAT expression in tracheal gland ducts was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The cholinergic duct cells expressed the brush cell marker proteins, villin and cytokeratin-18, and were immunoreactive for components of the taste signal transduction cascade (Gα-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel = TRPM5, phospholipase C(β2)), but not for carbonic anhydrase IV. Furthermore, these cells expressed the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131, as demonstrated utilizing an appropriate reporter mouse strain. Our study identified a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensory cell type in the duct of the airway submucosal glands that likely utilizes ACh for paracrine signaling. We propose that these cells participate in infection-sensing mechanisms and initiate responses assisting bacterial clearance from the lower airways.

  12. [Surgery of traumatic tracheal and tracheobronchial injuries].

    PubMed

    Palade, E; Passlick, B

    2011-02-01

    Tracheal injuries are altogether rare events and can be divided into three broad categories: tracheobronchial injuries caused by external violence, iatrogenic ruptures of the trachea and inhalation trauma. Successful management of tracheobronchial injuries requires a fast and straightforward diagnostic evaluation. In all severely injured patients with cervicothoracic involvement an injury of the tracheobronchial system should be actively excluded. Although it is commonly agreed that posttraumatic injuries require surgical intervention the management of iatrogenic injuries is presently shifting towards a more conservative treatment.

  13. Tolerance Following Organophosphate Poisoning of Tracheal Muscle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-13

    tracheal function. Bronchoconstriction can be elicited in dogs by stimulation of the cervical branch vagus nerve (1,2,3), This effect appears to be...Widdicombe. The effect of vagotomy» vagal cooling and efferent vagal stimulation on breathing and lung mechanics of rabbits. J. Physiol. London...respect to [?H]QNB and tissue concentrations and was time- and pH-dependent. The association of [pH]QNE (180 pM) with the muscarinic receptors

  14. A rare complication of tracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Shukeri, Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd; Hassan, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan; Nadarajan, Chandran

    2016-01-01

    Accidental endobronchial intubation is a frequent complication in critically ill patients requiring tracheal intubation (TI). If such complication occurs, it is more often the right main bronchus that is intubated due to anatomical reasons. Left main bronchus (LMB) intubation is rare. Here, we report a case with auscultatory, bronchoscopic, and radiographic evidence of accidental LMB intubation in a pregnant woman with dengue shock syndrome. We highlight this case to increase awareness about this possible-but-rare complication of TI. PMID:27275080

  15. Systems analysis of primary Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis in salivary glands identifies shared pathways in human and a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with complex etiopathogenesis. Despite extensive studies to understand the disease process utilizing human and mouse models, the intersection between these species remains elusive. To address this gap, we utilized a novel systems biology approach to identify disease-related gene modules and signaling pathways that overlap between humans and mice. Methods Parotid gland tissues were harvested from 24 pSS and 16 non-pSS sicca patients and 25 controls. For mouse studies, salivary glands were harvested from C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice at various times during development of pSS-like disease. RNA was analyzed with Affymetrix HG U133+2.0 arrays for human samples and with MOE430+2.0 arrays for mouse samples. The images were processed with Affymetrix software. Weighted-gene co-expression network analysis was used to identify disease-related and functional pathways. Results Nineteen co-expression modules were identified in human parotid tissue, of which four were significantly upregulated and three were downregulated in pSS patients compared with non-pSS sicca patients and controls. Notably, one of the human disease-related modules was highly preserved in the mouse model, and was enriched with genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Further comparison between these two species led to the identification of genes associated with leukocyte recruitment and germinal center formation. Conclusion Our systems biology analysis of genome-wide expression data from salivary gland tissue of pSS patients and from a pSS mouse model identified common dysregulated biological pathways and molecular targets underlying critical molecular alterations in pSS pathogenesis. PMID:23116360

  16. Recurred Post-intubation Tracheal Stenosis Treated with Bronchoscopic Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ye-Ryung; Taek Jeong, Joon; Kyu Lee, Myoung; Kim, Sang-Ha; Joong Yong, Suk; Jeong Lee, Seok; Lee, Won-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Post-intubation tracheal stenosis accounts for the greatest proportion of whole-cause tracheal stenosis. Treatment of post-intubation tracheal stenosis requires a multidisciplinary approach. Surgery or an endoscopic procedure can be used, depending on the type of stenosis. However, the efficacy of cryotherapy in post-intubation tracheal stenosis has not been validated. Here, we report a case of recurring post-intubation tracheal stenosis successfully treated with bronchoscopic cryotherapy that had previously been treated with surgery. In this case, cryotherapy was effective in treating web-like fibrous stenosis, without requiring more surgery. Cryotherapy can be considered as an alternative or primary treatment for post-intubation tracheal stenosis. PMID:27853078

  17. Tracheal intubation with a camera embedded in the tube tip (Vivasight(™) ).

    PubMed

    Huitink, J M; Koopman, E M; Bouwman, R A; Craenen, A; Verwoert, M; Krage, R; Visser, I E; Erwteman, M; van Groeningen, D; Tijink, R; Schauer, A

    2013-01-01

    We studied tracheal intubation in manikins and patients with a camera embedded in the tip of the tracheal tube (Vivasight(™) ). Four people in two teams and two individuals attempted intubation of a manikin through an i-gel(™) 10 times each. The tracheas of 12 patients with a Mallampati grade of 1 were intubated with a Vivasight tracheal tube through a Berman airway, passed over a Frova(™) introducer. All 60 manikin intubations were successful, taking a mean (SD) time of 1.4 (0.5) s. The fastest intubation was performed in 0.5 s. All 12 participants' tracheas were successfully intubated in a median (IQR [range]) time of 90 (70-120 [50-210]) s. Seven participants complained of a sore throat, comparable with earlier findings for standard laryngoscopy and intubation: five mild; one moderate; and one severe. Tracheal intubation with the Vivasight through the i-gel or Berman airway is an alternative to existing techniques, against which it should be compared in randomised controlled trials in human participants. It has potential as a fast airway rescue technique.

  18. Endodermal Wnt signaling is required for tracheal cartilage formation

    PubMed Central

    Snowball, John; Ambalavanan, Manoj; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Sinner, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchomalacia is a common congenital defect in which the walls of the trachea and bronchi lack of adequate cartilage required for support of the airways. Deletion of Wls, a cargo receptor mediating Wnt ligand secretion, in the embryonic endoderm using ShhCre mice inhibited formation of tracheal-bronchial cartilaginous rings. The normal dorsal-ventral patterning of tracheal mesenchyme was lost. Smooth muscle cells, identified by Acta2 staining, were aberrantly located in ventral mesenchyme of the trachea, normally the region of Sox9 expression in cartilage progenitors. Wnt/β-catenin activity, indicated by Axin2 LacZ reporter, was decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ embryos. Proliferation of chondroblasts was decreased and reciprocally, proliferation of smooth muscle cells was increased in Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ tracheal tissue. Expression of Tbx4, Tbx5, Msx1 and Msx2, known to mediate cartilage and muscle patterning, were decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ embryos. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that Wnt7b and Wnt5a, expressed by the epithelium of developing trachea, and active Wnt/β-catenin signaling are required for tracheal chondrogenesis before formation of mesenchymal condensations. In conclusion, Wnt ligands produced by the tracheal epithelium pattern the tracheal mesenchyme via modulation of gene expression and cell proliferation required for proper tracheal cartilage and smooth muscle differentiation. PMID:26093309

  19. Endodermal Wnt signaling is required for tracheal cartilage formation.

    PubMed

    Snowball, John; Ambalavanan, Manoj; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Sinner, Debora

    2015-09-01

    Tracheobronchomalacia is a common congenital defect in which the walls of the trachea and bronchi lack of adequate cartilage required for support of the airways. Deletion of Wls, a cargo receptor mediating Wnt ligand secretion, in the embryonic endoderm using ShhCre mice inhibited formation of tracheal-bronchial cartilaginous rings. The normal dorsal-ventral patterning of tracheal mesenchyme was lost. Smooth muscle cells, identified by Acta2 staining, were aberrantly located in ventral mesenchyme of the trachea, normally the region of Sox9 expression in cartilage progenitors. Wnt/β-catenin activity, indicated by Axin2 LacZ reporter, was decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wls(f/f);Shh(Cre/+) embryos. Proliferation of chondroblasts was decreased and reciprocally, proliferation of smooth muscle cells was increased in Wls(f/f);Shh(Cre/+) tracheal tissue. Expression of Tbx4, Tbx5, Msx1 and Msx2, known to mediate cartilage and muscle patterning, were decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wls(f/f);Shh(Cre/+) embryos. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that Wnt7b and Wnt5a, expressed by the epithelium of developing trachea, and active Wnt/β-catenin signaling are required for tracheal chondrogenesis before formation of mesenchymal condensations. In conclusion, Wnt ligands produced by the tracheal epithelium pattern the tracheal mesenchyme via modulation of gene expression and cell proliferation required for proper tracheal cartilage and smooth muscle differentiation.

  20. The effect of decellularization of tracheal allografts on leukocyte infiltration and of recellularization on regulatory T cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Haykal, Siba; Zhou, Yingzhe; Marcus, Paula; Salna, Michael; Machuca, Tiago; Hofer, Stefan O P; Waddell, Thomas K

    2013-07-01

    Tracheal transplantation without immunosuppressive therapy has been accomplished with a tissue-engineering approach using decellularized biological scaffolds in combination with recipient progenitor cells. The mechanisms of immune response directed towards these tracheal allografts have not been fully determined. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of these grafts at the protein level, and functionally, in vitro and in vivo in a large animal model. Long-segment circumferential tracheal allografts were decellularized using two different protocols and recellularized using recipient mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and tracheal epithelial progenitor cells (TEC). Residual MHCI and MHCII immunostaining was found surrounding the submucosal glands despite cyclical decellularization. In an in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay, CD4+ T cells continued to proliferate on decellularized pieces and this proliferation was inhibited by co-culture with autologous MSC. Allografts were heterotopically transplanted under a muscle flap in the neck of the recipients and decellularization was found to delay leukocyte infiltration but resulted in eventual cartilage degradation. Recellularization prevented this infiltration up to 3 weeks post-transplantation and allowed for preservation of the cartilage. The immune cells found within these grafts included a significant number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Furthermore, gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β1, involved in proliferation, differentiation and function of regulatory T cells was found in these grafts. These results indicate that the immunological modification induced by recellularized tracheal scaffolds is an active process involving the recruitment of immunosuppressive cells, rather than simply the removal of donor-derived antigenic components.

  1. Expression and secretion of human proinsulin-B10 from mouse salivary glands: implications for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rowzee, Anne M; Perez-Riveros, Paola J; Zheng, Changyu; Krygowski, Sarah; Baum, Bruce J; Cawley, Niamh X

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) mediated expression of therapeutic proteins from salivary glands can result in the delivery of biologically active proteins into the circulation where they impart their physiological function. In recent years, Ad vector delivery to salivary glands (SGs) has emerged as a viable option for gene therapy. Here, we engineered a variant of human proinsulin (hProinsulin-B10) into an Ad vector and demonstrated its ability to transduce cell lines, and express a bioactive protein that induces the phosphorylation of AKT, a key insulin signaling molecule. We also examined its expression in mice following delivery of the vector to the parotid gland (PTG), the submandibular gland (SMG) or to the liver via the tail vein and assessed transgenic protein expression and vector containment for each delivery method. In all cases, hProinsulin-B10 was expressed and secreted into the circulation. Lower levels of circulating hProinsulin-B10 were obtained from the PTG while higher levels were obtained from the tail vein and the SMG; however, vector particle containment was best when delivered to the SMG. Expression of hProinsulin-B10 in the SMG of chemically induced diabetic mice prevented excessive hyperglycemia observed in untreated mice. These results demonstrate that hProinsulin-B10 can be expressed and secreted into the circulation from SGs and can function physiologically in vivo. The ability to remediate a diabetic phenotype in a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the first step in an effort that may lead to a possible therapy for diabetes.

  2. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  3. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  4. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  5. Isolation of differentially expressed cDNAs during ferret tracheal development: application of differential display PCR.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, A; Presente, A; Dudus, L; Engelhardt, J F

    1996-01-01

    The technique of differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) was used to identify cDNA sequences, which are temporally expressed during ferret tracheal airway development. Such differentially expressed cDNAs may ultimately prove to be useful markers in elucidating mechanisms of epithelial differentiation and submucosal gland development in the airway. Using two sets of oligonucleotide primers 15 differentially amplified cDNAs were isolated by comparative reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR of 6-h and 3-day postnatal tracheal poly-A mRNA. In situ hybridization was used to assess the reliability of this method and confirm the differential mRNA expression patterns of cloned cDNAs. Results of in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that 10 of the 15 cDNA sequences gave a temporally regulated pattern of expression, which was concordant with that of the differential display. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the 15 isolated cDNAs revealed that the majority of clones were amplified from two inverted decamer primers. These findings demonstrate the lack of poly-T priming in the differential display reaction, which suggests that this method may yield substantially more information regarding the coding sequence of cloned genes. In support of this observation, 6 of the 15 cDNA sequences contained one complete open reading frame. Although the majority of cDNAs demonstrated no homology to sequence data bases at the DNA or amino acid level, clone FT-4, which demonstrated a differential expression pattern limited to 3-day tracheal time points, was composed of a 10-amino acid repeat domain that was structurally similar to neuropeptide anthoRFamide and barley D hordein seed protein. A second interesting clone, FT-3, demonstrated an infrequent pattern of expression within a subset of epithelial cells limited to early developmental time points (6 h) and was dramatically reduced by 3 days postnatally. Several additional clones with no homologies to previously cloned genes

  6. Heat Tolerance and the Peripheral Effects of Anticholinergics. 1. A Non-Invasive Method for Estimating the Cholinergic Sensitivity of the Eccrine Glands in Humans.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-30

    used as sensitive index of anticholiinergic drug potency. Independently, we developed 1 human sweat gland assayd d+ fftf -ng from theirs in several...derived from an assembly of 4 evaporative capsules with .pecially designed electronics, is our primary measurement [3]. Sweat counts are determined on...can be defined. Apparatus. The anode assembly consists of a machined 11.5 cm x 3.7 cm PlexigTas block containing four 0.9 cm D Ag/AgCl buttons removed

  7. Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system : morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, K. J.; Henry, J. R.; Kirkton, S. D.; Westneat, M. W.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.; Harrison, J. F.; North Dakota State Univ.; Arizona State Univ.; Union Coll.; Field Museum of Natural History

    2009-11-01

    As grasshoppers increase in size during ontogeny, they have mass specifically greater whole body tracheal and tidal volumes and ventilation than predicted by an isometric relationship with body mass and body volume. However, the morphological and physiological bases to this respiratory hypermetry are unknown. In this study, we use synchrotron imaging to demonstrate that tracheal hypermetry in developing grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) is due to increases in air sacs and tracheae and occurs in all three body segments, providing evidence against the hypothesis that hypermetry is due to gaining flight ability. We also assessed the scaling of air sac structure and function by assessing volume changes of focal abdominal air sacs. Ventilatory frequencies increased in larger animals during hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}) but did not scale in normoxia. For grasshoppers in normoxia, inflated and deflated air sac volumes and ventilation scaled hypermetrically. During hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}), many grasshoppers compressed air sacs nearly completely regardless of body size, and air sac volumes scaled isometrically. Together, these results demonstrate that whole body tracheal hypermetry and enhanced ventilation in larger/older grasshoppers are primarily due to proportionally larger air sacs and higher ventilation frequencies in larger animals during hypoxia. Prior studies showed reduced whole body tracheal volumes and tidal volume in late-stage grasshoppers, suggesting that tissue growth compresses air sacs. In contrast, we found that inflated volumes, percent volume changes, and ventilation were identical in abdominal air sacs of late-stage fifth instar and early-stage animals, suggesting that decreasing volume of the tracheal system later in the instar occurs in other body regions that have harder exoskeleton.

  8. Tracheal agenesis: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Desai, AV; Rao, Sudha; Shanbhag, PR; Rupani, M

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal agenesis is an extremely rare congenital anomaly involving the respiratory system. It is generally associated with anomalies of other systems. Antenatal diagnosis of this condition is difficult; therefore, it presents as a medical emergency in the labor room. Intubation in these babies is difficult. As many of these babies are born prematurely, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) adds to the management difficulties. Here, we describe two babies with this lethal anomaly and RDS where esophageal intubation and surfactant therapy proved beneficial. Furthermore, described are other associated anomalies. PMID:27424553

  9. Tracheal rupture in a cat: diagnosis by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Bhandal, Jitender; Kuzma, Alan

    2008-06-01

    A cat was presented with a history of worsening generalized subcutaneous emphysema following dental prophylaxis. Tentative diagnosis of tracheal rupture was made. The location and extent of the tear was confirmed with the help of computed tomography. This is the 1st computed tomographic description of tracheal rupture in the veterinary literature.

  10. Pit-1/growth hormone factor 1 splice variant expression in the rhesus monkey pituitary gland and the rhesus and human placenta.

    PubMed

    Schanke, J T; Conwell, C M; Durning, M; Fisher, J M; Golos, T G

    1997-03-01

    We have examined the expression of Pit-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) splice variants in the nonhuman primate pituitary and in rhesus and human placenta. Full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) representing Pit-1 and the Pit-1 beta splice variants were cloned from a rhesus monkey pituitary cDNA library and were readily detectable by RT-PCR with rhesus pituitary gland RNA. The Pit-1T variant previously reported in mouse pituitary tumor cell lines was not detectable in normal rhesus pituitary tissue, although two novel splice variants were detected. A cDNA approximating the rat Pit-1 delta 4 variant was cloned but coded for a truncated and presumably nonfunctional protein. Only by using a nested RT-PCR approach were Pit-1 and Pit-1 beta variants consistently detectable in both human and rhesus placental tissue. The Pit-1 beta variant mRNA was not detectable in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells unless the cells were stimulated with 8-Br-cAMP. Immunoblot studies with nuclear extracts from primary rhesus syncytiotrophoblast cultures or JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells indicated that although mRNA levels were very low, Pit-1 protein was detectable in differentiated cytotrophoblasts, and levels increased after treatment with 8-Br-cAMP. Two major species of Pit-1 protein were detected that corresponded to the two major bands in rat pituitary GH3 cell nuclear extracts. Low levels of slightly larger bands also were seen, which may represent Pit-1 beta protein or phosphorylated species. We conclude that Pit-1 splice variants expressed in the primate pituitary gland differ from those in the rodent gland and that the Pit-1 and Pit-1 beta mRNAs expressed in the placenta give rise to a pattern of protein expression similar to that seen in pituitary cells, which is inducible by treatment with 8-Br-cAMP.

  11. Interstitial Fluid Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Murine Mammary Gland and Cancer and Human Breast Tissue and Cancer Determined by Novel Methods.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yamada, Akimitsu; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Allegood, Jeremy C; Tsuchida, Junko; Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Huang, Wei-Ching; Terracina, Krista P; Adams, Barbara J; Rashid, Omar M; Milstien, Sheldon; Wakai, Toshifumi; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-06-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a determining factor for cancer biology and progression. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), produced by sphingosine kinases (SphKs), is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates processes important for cancer progression. Despite its critical roles, the levels of S1P in interstitial fluid (IF), an important component of the tumor microenvironment, have never previously been measured due to a lack of efficient methods for collecting and quantifying IF. The purpose of this study is to clarify the levels of S1P in the IF from murine mammary glands and its tumors utilizing our novel methods. We developed an improved centrifugation method to collect IF. Sphingolipids in IF, blood, and tissue samples were measured by mass spectrometry. In mice with a deletion of SphK1, but not SphK2, levels of S1P in IF from the mammary glands were greatly attenuated. Levels of S1P in IF from mammary tumors were reduced when tumor growth was suppressed by oral administration of FTY720/fingolimod. Importantly, sphingosine, dihydro-sphingosine, and S1P levels, but not dihydro-S1P, were significantly higher in human breast tumor tissue IF than in the normal breast tissue IF. To our knowledge, this is the first reported S1P IF measurement in murine normal mammary glands and mammary tumors, as well as in human patients with breast cancer. S1P tumor IF measurement illuminates new aspects of the role of S1P in the tumor microenvironment.

  12. In vivo readout of CFTR function: ratiometric measurement of CFTR-dependent secretion by individual, identifiable human sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Wine, Jeffrey J; Char, Jessica E; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A C; Tran, Kim V; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (~50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ~0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with 'CFTR-related' conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary.

    PubMed

    Occhi, G; Albiger, N; Berlucchi, S; Gardiman, M; Scanarini, M; Scienza, R; Fassina, A; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2007-07-01

    Pituitary adenomas are slow-growing tumours arising within the pituitary gland. If secreting, they give rise to well-known syndromes such as Cushing's disease or acromegaly; when hormonally inactive, they come to clinical attention often with local mass effects or pituitary deficiency. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear hormone receptor with a key role in fat and glucose metabolism, but also involved in several neoplasia, has recently been detected in pituitary adenomas. In the present study, we evaluated the occurrence and splicing profile of PPARgamma in 43 cases of pituitary adenoma of different subtypes and compared it to 12 normal pituitary glands. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, PPARgamma was expressed as much in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and ACTH-silent adenomas as in controls, with a moderate underexpression in somatotrophinomas and prolactinomas and overexpression in 54% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). There was no apparent qualitative change in the splicing profile of pathological pituitary glands, nor was the presence of specific isoforms with dominant negative effects against PPARgamma detected. Western blotting revealed similar expression levels in the different subgroups of pituitary adenomas and normal glands. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PPARgamma expression in approximately one-half of analysed samples. The intra- and intergroup differences observed in pituitary adenomas may represent new elements in the process of understanding the different clinical responses of Cushing's and Nelson patients to PPARgamma-ligand treatment. Moreover, the higher level of PPARgamma expression detected in the NFPA subgroup may suggest its possible role as a molecular target in these pituitary adenomas, paving the way for investigations on the effectiveness of treatment with thiazolidinediones in such patients.

  14. Hepatocyte growth factor promoting the proliferation of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells is relative to AKT signal channel and β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xia; Wu, Jinjin; Liu, Bo; Lu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multi-effective molecule, playing important roles in organ growth, tumorigenesis and trauma healing. This experiment aims at studying the promoting function of HGF on the proliferation of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells (hESGc) and its relative signal channels. After HGF at different concentrations were added into cells, MTT was adopted to detect the cell proliferations, Annexin-V/PI the cell apoptosis, and Westernblot the expressions of p-AKT, AKT, p-ERK, p-GSK3β, p-IKBα, and β-catenin in hESGc. After adding siRNA c-Met to block HGF or LY294002 to inhibit p-AKT, we used MTT to detect the proliferation of hESGc and Westernblot to detect the expression of β-catenin. As a result, 20-40 ng/mL HGF could promote the proliferation of hESGc and inhibit its apoptosis. HGF could promote the expressions of p-AKT1/2/3, p-ERK, p-GSK3β, p-IKBα, and β-catenin. The additions of siRNA c-Met to block HGF or LY294002 to inhibit p-AKT could downregulate β-catenin and inhibit the proliferation promotion caused by HGF. Consequently, we concluded HGF can promote the proliferation of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells, which is relative to AKT signal channel and β-catenin.

  15. The management of congenital tracheal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Martin; Roebuck, Derek; Noctor, Clair; McLaren, Clare; Hartley, Ben; Mok, Quen; Dunne, Catherine; Pigott, Nick; Patel, Chirag; Patel, Alpesh; Wallis, Colin

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews current concepts and results in the management of congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS). Diagnostic options are considered and the requirements for successful management defined. Chief amongst these is a multi-disciplinary approach with individualised patient management. Severe long-segment CTS represents the biggest challenge to clinicians and the worst problems for affected families. Near-death episodes are frequent in affected infants and some cannot be ventilated and require ECMO. Associated cardiovascular anomalies are frequent. Patients require immediate resuscitation and transfer to a specialist unit. After careful assessment, accurate diagnosis and discussion, primary resection and end-to-end repair with a slide technique should always be the first option, with concomitant repair of associated cardiac anomalies. If this is impossible because of the severity of the lesion, some form of patch tracheoplasty will be indicated. Cardiopulmonary bypass is often required. Patches include pericardium, autograft trachea, carotid artery, cartilage, and allograft trachea. Mortality ranges from 0 to 30% in the literature, which largely comprises single-centre long-term experience. Recurrence is common and can be managed by stenting and tracheal homograft implantation. Long-term quality of life of survivors is little reported but seems good. Physiological data are lacking. To improve results, we suggest a treatment algorithm to rationalise care.

  16. Pathology of the parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews the embryology, histology and pathology of the human parathyroid glands. It emphasizes those pathologic lesions which are found in the setting of clinical hyperparathyroidism. Also discussed are certain molecular features of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. The difficulties encountered in parathyroid FNA are reviewed and illustrated.

  17. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  18. Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland and the thyroglossal duct remnant: a study using human fetal sections.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Honkura, Yohei; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the thyroglossal duct, we observed serial sagittal sections of eight embryos (crown-rump length (CRL) 6-12 mm; approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) as well as serial horizontal or cross-sections of 70 embryos and fetuses (CRL 15-110 mm; 6-15 weeks). In the sagittal sections, the thyroglossal duct was identified as a small sheet or mass of relatively large cells with vacuolization anterior, superior or inferior to the fourth pharyngeal arch artery. However, we found no continuous duct-like structure that reached the thyroid gland. Thus, previous classical schemes might have overestimated the continuity of the duct. Among cross-sections of 70 specimens, we found the thyroglossal duct remnant in only two specimens (CRL 15 mm and 100 mm), in contrast to the pyramidal lobe, which was seen in one-third of the specimens. The duct remnant ran downward along the lateral edge of the hyoid body to reach the anterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage. However, the connection between the pyramidal lobe and the duct remnant was interrupted by the anterior cervical muscles. Therefore, it was unlikely that the thyroglossal duct remnant would more frequently be evident in fetuses than in adults. The highly tortuous course of the duct along the lingual aspect of the hyoid body, which has been reported previously, appeared to become established near term. Descent of the thyroid gland was not evident after the CRL 20 mm stage (6 weeks): the gland appeared to retain its position at the level of the third-sixth cervical vertebrae.

  19. Tracheal decannulation protocol in patients affected by traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Isabel de Lima; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Hirata, Gisela Carmona

    2014-04-01

    Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing.

  20. Tracheal Decannulation Protocol in Patients Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zanata, Isabel de Lima; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Hirata, Gisela Carmona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The frequency of tracheostomy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) contrasts with the lack of objective criteria for its management. The study arose from the need for a protocol in the decision to remove the tracheal tube. Objective To evaluate the applicability of a protocol for tracheal decannulation. Methods A prospective study with 20 patients, ranging between 21 and 85 years of age (average 33.55), 4 of whom were women (20%) and 16 were men (80%). All patients had been diagnosed by a neurologist as having TBI, and the anatomical region of the lesion was known. Patients were evaluated following criteria for tracheal decannulation through a clinical evaluation protocol developed by the authors. Results Decannulation was performed in 12 (60%) patients. Fourteen (70%) had a score greater than 8 on the Glasgow Coma Scale and only 2 (14%) of these were not able to undergo decannulation. Twelve (60%) patients maintained the breathing pattern with occlusion of the tube and were successfully decannulated. Of the 20 patients evaluated, 11 (55%) showed no signs suggestive of tracheal aspiration, and of these, 9 (82%) began training on occlusion of the cannula. The protocol was relevant to establish the beginning of the decannulation process. The clinical assessment should focus on the patient's condition to achieve early tracheal decannulation. Conclusion This study allowed, with the protocol, to establish six criteria for tracheal decannulation: level of consciousness, respiration, tracheal secretion, phonation, swallowing, and coughing. PMID:25992074

  1. Over-expression of TSC-22 (TGF-beta stimulated clone-22) markedly enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in a human salivary gland cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Uchida, D; Kawamata, H; Omotehara, F; Miwa, Y; Hino, S; Begum, N M; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

    2000-06-01

    We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22) cDNA as an anticancer, drug-inducible (with vesnarinone) gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We have also reported that TSC-22 negatively regulates the growth of TYS cells and that down-regulation of TSC-22 in TYS cells plays a major role in salivary gland tumorigenesis (Nakashiro et al, 1998). In this study, we transfected TYS cells with an expression vector encoding the TSC-22-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein, and we established TSC-22-GFP-expressing TYS cell clones. Next, we examined (a) the subcellular localization of the fusion protein, (b) the sensitivity of the transfectants to several anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, cis-diaminedichloroplatinum, peplomycin), and (c) induction of apoptotic cell death in the transfectants by 5-fluorouracil treatment. The TSC-22-GFP fusion protein was clearly localized to the cytoplasm, but not to the nucleus. Over-expression of the TSC-22-GFP fusion protein did not affect cell growth, but significantly increased the sensitivity of the cells to the anticancer drugs (p < 0.01; one-way ANOVA). Furthermore, over-expression of the TSC-22-GFP fusion protein markedly enhanced 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that over-expression of TSC-22-GFP protein in TYS cells enhances the chemosensitivity of the cells via induction of apoptosis.

  2. Comparative aspects of mammary gland development and homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary glands are crucial to the reproductive strategy of mammals and the milk of domesticated ruminants serves as an important source of nutrients for the human population. The majority of mammary gland development occurs postnatally and the mammary gland undergoes cyclical periods of growth, dif...

  3. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Khimani, Amina; Mcnierney, Afton; Surani, Sara; Surani, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite. PMID:24083047

  4. Inhibitory effects of silibinin on proliferation and lung metastasis of human high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma via autophagy induction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Canhua; Jin, Shufang; Jiang, Zhisheng; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible mechanisms and effects of silibinin (SIL) on the proliferation and lung metastasis of human lung high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-M). Methods A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was performed to detect the inhibitory effects of SIL on the proliferation of ACC-M cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the autophagic process. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of microtube-related protein 1 light-chain 3 (LC3). An experimental adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) lung metastasis model was established in nude mice to detect the impacts of SIL on lung weight and lung cancer nodules. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expressions of LC3 in human ACC samples and normal salivary gland tissue samples. Results SIL inhibited the proliferation of ACC-M cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and inductively increased the autophagic bodies in ACC-M cells. Furthermore, SIL could increase the expression of LC3 in ACC-M cells and promote the conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the ACC lung metastasis model, the lung weight and left and right lung nodules in the SIL-treated group were significantly less than those in the control group (P<0.05). The expressions of LC3-I and LC3-II as well as the positive expression rate of LC3 (80%) significantly increased, but the positive expression of LC3 in human ACC (42.22%) reduced significantly. Conclusion SIL could inhibit the proliferation and lung metastasis of ACC-M cells by possibly inducing tumor cells autophagy. PMID:27822066

  5. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla-Dave, A; Lu, Y; Hatzoglou, V; Stambuk, H; Mazaheri, Y; Banerjee, S; Shankaranarayanan, A; Deasy, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting.

  6. Effect of tracheal suctioning on aspiration past the tracheal tube cuff in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This clinical study evaluated the effect of a suctioning maneuver on aspiration past the cuff during mechanical ventilation. Methods Patients intubated for less than 48 hours with a PVC-cuffed tracheal tube, under mechanical ventilation with a PEEP ≥5 cm H2O and under continuous sedation, were included in the study. At baseline the cuff pressure was set at 30 cm H2O. Then 0.5ml of blue dye diluted with 3 ml of saline was instilled into the subglottic space just above the cuff. Tracheal suctioning was performed using a 16-French suction catheter with a suction pressure of – 400 mbar. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed before and after the suctioning maneuver, looking for the presence of blue dye in the folds within the cuff wall or in the trachea under the cuff. The sealing of the cuff was defined by the absence of leakage of blue dye either in the cuff wall or in the trachea under the cuff. Results Twenty-five patients were included. The size of the tracheal tube was 7-mm ID for 5 patients, 7.5-mm ID for 16 patients, and 8-mm ID for four patients. Blue dye was never seen in the trachea under the cuff before suctioning and only in one patient (4%) after the suctioning maneuver. Blue dye was observed in the folds within the cuff wall in 6 of 25 patients before suctioning and 11 of 25 after (p = 0.063). Overall, the incidence of sealing of the cuff was 76% before suctioning and 56% after (p = 0.073). Conclusions In patients intubated with a PVC-cuffed tracheal tube and under mechanical ventilation with PEEP ≥5 cm H2O and a cuff pressure set at 30 cm H2O, a single tracheal suctioning maneuver did not increase the risk of aspiration in the trachea under the cuff. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01170156 PMID:23134813

  7. Iontophoretic beta-adrenergic stimulation of human sweat glands: possible assay for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, A K M; Reddy, M M; Quinton, P M

    2008-08-01

    With the advent of numerous candidate drugs for therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF), there is an urgent need for easily interpretable assays for testing their therapeutic value. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) abolished beta-adrenergic but not cholinergic sweating in CF. Therefore, the beta-adrenergic response of the sweat gland may serve both as an in vivo diagnostic tool for CF and as a quantitative assay for testing the efficacy of new drugs designed to restore CFTR function in CF. Hence, with the objective of defining optimal conditions for stimulating beta-adrenergic sweating, we have investigated the components and pharmacology of sweat secretion using cell cultures and intact sweat glands. We studied the electrical responses and ionic mechanisms involved in beta-adrenergic and cholinergic sweating. We also tested the efficacy of different beta-adrenergic agonists. Our results indicated that in normal subjects the cholinergic secretory response is mediated by activation of Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) conductance as well as K(+) conductances. In contrast, the beta-adrenergic secretory response is mediated exclusively by activation of a cAMP-dependent CFTR Cl(-) conductance without a concurrent activation of a K(+) conductance. Thus, the electrochemical driving forces generated by beta-adrenergic agonists are significantly smaller compared with those generated by cholinergic agonists, which in turn reflects in smaller beta-adrenergic secretory responses compared with cholinergic secretory responses. Furthermore, the beta-adrenergic agonists, isoproprenaline and salbutamol, induced sweat secretion only when applied in combination with an adenylyl cyclase activator (forskolin) or a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, aminophylline or theophylline). We surmise that to obtain consistent beta-adrenergic sweat responses, levels of intracellular cAMP above that achievable with a beta-adrenergic agonist alone are

  8. Tracheal Stenosis Because of Wegener Granulomatosis Misdiagnosed as Asthma.

    PubMed

    O'Hear, Kelley E; Ingrande, Jerry; Brodsky, Jay B; Morton, John M; Sung, Chih-Kwang

    2016-05-15

    We describe a patient with Wegener granulomatosis whose complaint of wheezing was incorrectly attributed to asthma. Anesthesiologists must recognize that tracheal stenosis is extremely common in Wegener granulomatosis and can mimic other causes of wheezing.

  9. Reresection for recurrent stenosis after primary tracheal repair

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Failure of the anastomosis after primary tracheal reconstruction for benign disease is uncommon. Here we review the available evidence on tracheal restenosis and the results of second reconstructions. Factors associated with failed primary anastomosis are examined. Temporizing immediate and alternative long-term management with T-tube or tracheostomy is described, emphasizing the role of tracheal stenting in abating the urgency for reoperation. From available evidence, elective reoperative treatment of failed tracheal reconstruction should be considered in selected patients after careful review and reversal of patient- and operation-specific factors that initiated failure. Referral to a high-volume center with a deep bench of nursing, anesthesiologic and surgical expertise is recommended for reoperation. PMID:26981266

  10. Re-epithelialization: a key element in tracheal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengyi; Fu, Wei; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    Trachea-tissue engineering is a thriving new field in regenerative medicine that is reaching maturity and yielding numerous promising results. In view of the crucial role that the epithelium plays in the trachea, re-epithelialization of tracheal substitutes has gradually emerged as the focus of studies in tissue-engineered trachea. Recent progress in our understanding of stem cell biology, growth factor interactions and transplantation immunobiology offer the prospect of optimization of a tissue-engineered tracheal epithelium. In addition, advances in cell culture technology and successful applications of clinical transplantation are opening up new avenues for the construction of a tissue-engineered tracheal epithelium. Therefore, this review summarizes current advances, unresolved obstacles and future directions in the reconstruction of a tissue-engineered tracheal epithelium.

  11. Do Cyclosporine A, an IL-1 Receptor Antagonist, Uridine Triphosphate, Rebamipide, and/or Bimatoprost Regulate Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Wendy R.; Liu, Yang; Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Researchers have hypothesized that treatment with cyclosporine A (CyA), interleukin-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1RA; e.g., anakinra), P2Y2 receptor agonists (e.g., uridine triphosphate; UTP), and rebamipide may alleviate human meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and/or dry eye disease. Investigators have also proposed that prostaglandin analogues (e.g., bimatoprost) may induce MGD. Our goal was to determine whether these compounds directly influence human meibomian gland epithelial cell (HMGEC) function. Methods Multiple concentrations of each compound were tested for effects on immortalized (I) HMGEC morphology and survival. Nontoxic dosages were used for our studies. Immortalized HMGEC were cultured in the presence of vehicle, CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, or bimatoprost for up to 6 days in various media. Experiments included positive controls for proliferation (epidermal growth factor and bovine pituitary extract), differentiation (azithromycin), and signaling pathway activation (insulin-like growth factor 1). Cells were analyzed for neutral lipid staining, lysosome accumulation, lipid composition, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt (AKT), phosphorylation. Results Our findings demonstrate that CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, and bimatoprost had no effect on the proliferation; neutral lipid content; lysosome number; or levels of free cholesterol, triglycerides, or phospholipids in IHMGECs. Cylosporine A, IL-1RA, rebamipide, and bimatoprost significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AKT, as compared to control. Of interest, tested doses of CyA above 8 nM killed the IHMGECs. Conclusions Our results show that CyA, IL-1RA, UTP, rebamipide, and bimatoprost do not influence the proliferation or differentiation of IHMGEC. However, with the exception of UTP, these compounds do decrease the activity of the AKT signaling pathway, which is known to promote cell survival. PMID:27552406

  12. Analysis of the Composition of Lipid in Human Meibum from Normal Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults, and Adults with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rashmi K.; Foulks, Gary N.; Yappert, Marta C.; Milliner, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study represents a first step toward the evaluation of possible compositional differences in meibum from normal donors (Mn) and donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (Md) by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The results highlight the applicability of 1H-NMR spectroscopy for the quantitative analysis of waxes, cholesteryl esters, and glycerides in meibum lipid (ML). Methods. Meibum was obtained from 41 normal donors and 51 donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to quantify the amount of waxes, glycerides, and cholesteryl esters in human meibum. Results. The relative amount of cholesteryl esters in Mn increased with age and was 40% (P < 0.05) lower in Md. Interestingly, the relative levels of cholesteryl esters in infant meibum were comparable to those in Md. The relative amounts of glycerides were not affected significantly by age or MGD. Conclusions. The changes in cholesteryl ester could be used as a molecular marker for MGD and could potentially be applied to follow the efficacy of drug therapy in the treatment of MGD. The similarity of the levels of cholesteryl esters in infant meibum and Md suggests that the relative amounts of these meibum components alone are unlikely to be responsible for the increased stability of the infant tear film and decreased stability of the tear film with MGD. This study reveals the complexity of human MLs and the changes that occur with age and disease. Understanding the factors that lead to such variations is of utmost relevance in the design of effective therapies. PMID:21849420

  13. Paclitaxel Drug-eluting Tracheal Stent Could Reduce Granulation Tissue Formation in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Juan; Pei, Ying-Hua; Qiu, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Yu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently available silicone and metallic stents for tracheal stenosis are associated with many problems. Granulation proliferation is one of the main complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of paclitaxel drug-eluting tracheal stent in reducing granulation tissue formation in a canine model, as well as the pharmacokinetic features and safety profiles of the coated drug. Methods: Eight beagles were randomly divided into a control group (bare-metal stent group, n = 4) and an experimental group (paclitaxel-eluting stent group, n = 4). The observation period was 5 months. One beagle in both groups was sacrificed at the end of the 1st and 3rd months, respectively. The last two beagles in both groups were sacrificed at the end of 5th month. The proliferation of granulation tissue and changes in tracheal mucosa were compared between the two groups. Blood routine and liver and kidney function were monitored to evaluate the safety of the paclitaxel-eluting stent. The elution method and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to characterize the rate of in vivo release of paclitaxel from the stent. Results: Compared with the control group, the proliferation of granulation tissue in the experimental group was significantly reduced. The drug release of paclitaxel-eluting stent was the fastest in the 1st month after implantation (up to 70.9%). Then, the release slowed down gradually. By the 5th month, the release reached up to 98.5%. During the observation period, a high concentration of the drug in the trachea (in the stented and adjacent unstented areas) and lung tissue was not noted, and the blood test showed no side effect. Conclusions: The paclitaxel-eluting stent could safely reduce the granulation tissue formation after stent implantation in vivo, suggesting that the paclitaxel-eluting tracheal stent might be considered for potential use in humans in the future. PMID:27824004

  14. Tracheal cartilaginous sleeve with cricoid cartilage involvement in Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elloy, Marianne Dawn; Cochrane, Lesley Ann; Wyatt, Michelle

    2006-03-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is one of a group of craniosynostosis syndromes in which rare tracheal anomalies have been described. This group of patients have a poor prognosis, and mortality can be related to airway complications and respiratory distress. We report a case of type II Pfeiffer syndrome with tracheal cartilaginous sleeve and cricoid cartilage involvement. We discuss our strategy for the management of the airway of this patient.

  15. Conservative management of intraoperative tracheal injury during cardiac operations.

    PubMed

    Kayatta, Michael O; Vasquez, Julio C; DeLaRosa, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Iatrogenic intraoperative tracheal injuries are rare in cardiac operations. Management of this complication is not well described because of the low incidence and lack of reported cases. We present an 82-year-old woman who sustained a tracheal injury during aortic valve replacement. Soft tissue coverage of the trachea was obtained, the original cardiac operation was completed, and she was otherwise managed conservatively. She recovered without further complication and was discharged home 1 week after the surgical procedure.

  16. Measurement of tracheal mucous transport rate in the horse

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.; Hampe, D.W.

    1983-06-01

    Tracheal mucous transport rates were measured in 12 nonanesthetized horses after an intratracheal injection of 99mtechnetium-sulfur colloid. The transport rate of the subsequent bolus of radioactivity was determined, using a portable scaler rate meter fitted with a high-energy gamma-scintillation probe. A gamma-scintillation camera was used to verify bolus form and movement in 1 horse. The mean tracheal mucous transport rate was 1.66 +/- 0.24 cm/min.

  17. Parathyroid glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  18. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  19. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... malignant. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  20. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  1. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  2. Wnt Signaling Regulates Airway Epithelial Stem Cells in Adult Murine Submucosal Glands.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Thomas J; Anderson, Preston J; Xie, Weiliang; Crooke, Adrianne K; Liu, Xiaoming; Tyler, Scott R; Luo, Meihui; Kusner, David M; Zhang, Yulong; Neff, Traci; Burnette, Daniel C; Walters, Katherine S; Goodheart, Michael J; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Engelhardt, John F

    2016-06-24

    Wnt signaling is required for lineage commitment of glandular stem cells (SCs) during tracheal submucosal gland (SMG) morphogenesis from the surface airway epithelium (SAE). Whether similar Wnt-dependent processes coordinate SC expansion in adult SMGs following airway injury remains unknown. We found that two Wnt-reporters in mice (BAT-gal and TCF/Lef:H2B-GFP) are coexpressed in actively cycling SCs of primordial glandular placodes and in a small subset of adult SMG progenitor cells that enter the cell cycle 24 hours following airway injury. At homeostasis, these Wnt reporters showed nonoverlapping cellular patterns of expression in the SAE and SMGs. Following tracheal injury, proliferation was accompanied by dynamic changes in Wnt-reporter activity and the analysis of 56 Wnt-related signaling genes revealed unique temporal changes in expression within proximal (gland-containing) and distal (gland-free) portions of the trachea. Wnt stimulation in vivo and in vitro promoted epithelial proliferation in both SMGs and the SAE. Interestingly, slowly cycling nucleotide label-retaining cells (LRCs) of SMGs were spatially positioned near clusters of BAT-gal positive serous tubules. Isolation and culture of tet-inducible H2B-GFP LRCs demonstrated that SMG LRCs were more proliferative than SAE LRCs and culture expanded SMG-derived progenitor cells outcompeted SAE-derived progenitors in regeneration of tracheal xenograft epithelium using a clonal analysis competition assay. SMG-derived progenitors were also multipotent for cell types in the SAE and formed gland-like structures in xenografts. These studies demonstrate the importance of Wnt signals in modulating SC phenotypes within tracheal niches and provide new insight into phenotypic differences of SMG and SAE SCs. Stem Cells 2016.

  3. Salivary gland progenitor cell biology provides a rationale for therapeutic salivary gland regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, I M A; Knox, S M; Hoffman, M P

    2011-07-01

    An irreversible loss of salivary gland function often occurs in humans after removal of salivary tumors, after therapeutic radiation of head and neck tumors, as a result of Sjögren's syndrome and in genetic syndromes affecting gland development. The permanent loss of gland function impairs the oral health of these patients and broadly affects their quality of life. The regeneration of functional salivary gland tissue is thus an important therapeutic goal for the field of regenerative medicine and will likely involve stem/progenitor cell biology and/or tissue engineering approaches. Recent reports demonstrate how both innervation of the salivary gland epithelium and certain growth factors influence progenitor cell growth during mouse salivary gland development. These advances in our understanding suggest that developmental mechanisms of mouse salivary gland development may provide a paradigm for postnatal regeneration of both mice and human salivary glands. Herein, we will discuss the developmental mechanisms that influence progenitor cell biology and the implications for salivary gland regeneration.

  4. Expression of S100A2 and S100P in human eccrine sweat glands and their application in differentiating secretory coil-like from duct-like structures in the 3D reconstituted eccrine sweat spheroids.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Mingjun; Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Bingna; Zhang, Cuiping

    2017-03-28

    Secretory coils and ducts are two components of eccrine sweat glands with different structures and functions. In our previous study, we combined keratins and α-SMA to distinguish between secretory coils and ducts. However, the key deficiency of the method was that none of the antibodies used was specific for ducts. In this study, we first examined the co-localization of K5/K7, α-SMA/K14, K7/S100P and α-SMA/S100A2 by double-immunofluorescence staining to confirm the localization of S100P and S100A2 in native human eccrine sweat glands, and second we identified secretory coil-like and duct-like structures in the 3D reconstituted eccrine sweat gland spheroids by double-immunofluorescence staining for K7/S100P and α-SMA/S100A2. In native human eccrine sweat glands, S100A2 immunoreactivity was confined to the outer layer and S100P to the inner layer of the duct. In 12-week Matrigel plugs containing eccrine sweat gland cells, double-immunofluorescence staining for K7/S100P and α-SMA/S100A2 could easily distinguish duct-like structures from secretory coil-like structures. We conclude that S100A2 and S100P can be used as specific duct markers in eccrine sweat glands, and combined use of S100P or S100A2 with keratins enables easy to distinction between secretory coils and ducts.

  5. Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in normal rat pituitary gland, estrogen-induced rat pituitary tumor and human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Male rat pituitary glands, diethylstilbestrol (DES)-induced rat pituitary tumors and 12 human pituitary adenomas were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptor proteins. Positive immunostaining of AT1 was observed in a subpopulation of anterior and intermediate pituitary lobe cells as well as in some nerve endings of the neurohypophysis. In the DES-induced rat pituiary tumors, the subpopulation of AT1-immunnopositive cells was smaller than in the non-tumoral anterior pituitary. In human pituitary adenomas, weak AT1 immunostaining was found in 5 tumors. In the remaining adenomas, the AT1 immunostaining was trace (doubtful) or absent. The AT1 immunostaining in the peritumoral non-neoplastic pituitary tissue was stronger than that observed in the tumors. The normal rat pituitaries and rat tumors did not show immunostaining with anti-AT2 antibody. In human pituitary adenomas, the tumoral cells were AT2- negative but moderate to strong AT2 immunostaining was observed in intratumoral blood vessel walls. The data suggest that the experimental (in rat) and spontaneous (in man) pituitary tumorigenesis is associated with the down-regulation of AT1 receptors. The expression of AT2 receptors, in turn, may be connected with the process of tumoral neo-angiogenesis.

  6. The appearance, density, and distribution of Merkel cells in human embryonic and fetal skin: their relation to sweat gland and hair follicle development.

    PubMed

    Kim, D K; Holbrook, K A

    1995-03-01

    The density and distribution of Merkel cells in human embryonic and fetal skin were studied using an immunolabeling technique on epidermal and dermal sheets obtained by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid separation. Merkel cells were identified by the known cytokeratin markers CK20 and CK18. Merkel cells showed CK20 immunoreactivity as early as 56 d estimated gestational age (EGA) in the palmar epidermis (133.11 +/- 44.27 cells/mm2). The density increased rapidly, reaching a maximum of more than 1400 cells/mm2 at 80-90 d EGA. At this stage, the cells became distributed along the primary epidermal ridges. In the palmar epidermis of fetuses older than 100 d EGA, the distribution of Merkel cells showed the same pattern, but the density then decreased gradually. Merkel cells were not observed in ductal and glandular portions of eccrine sweat glands. In the epidermal sheets of hairy skin, a few cells were first seen in the fetus at 75 d EGA. At 100 d EGA, only a few Merkel cells were observed, mostly in the hair pegs and bulbous hair pegs. In the older fetus, ring-like arrangements and aggregates of Merkel cells were prominent in the infundibulum and bulge of hair follicles, respectively. Merkel cells were both globular and dendritic in shape. The ratio of dendritic to globular cells increased gradually until the period of highest Merkel cell density in both the glabrous and hairy skin. All Merkel cells located in the dermis were globular in shape. In accord with the results obtained, we postulate that Merkel cells may have some functional role in the formation and proliferation of eccrine sweat glands and hair follicle anlagen in developing skin.

  7. Protein kinase Cδ is required for ErbB2-driven mammary gland tumorigenesis and negatively correlates with prognosis in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Allen-Petersen, B L; Carter, C J; Ohm, A M; Reyland, M E

    2014-03-06

    Protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) regulates apoptosis in the mammary gland, however, the functional contribution of PKCδ to the development or progression of breast cancer has yet to be determined. Meta-analysis of ErbB2-positive breast cancers shows increased PKCδ expression, and a negative correlation between PKCδ expression and prognosis. Here, we present in-vivo evidence that PKCδ is essential for the development of mammary gland tumors in a ErbB2-overexpressing transgenic mouse model, and in-vitro evidence that PKCδ is required for proliferative signaling downstream of the ErbB2 receptor. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-ErbB2 mice lacking PKCδ (δKO) have increased tumor latency compared with MMTV-ErbB2 wild-type (δWT) mice, and the tumors show a dramatic decrease in Ki-67 staining. To explore the relationship between PKCδ and ErbB2-driven proliferation more directly, we used MCF-10A cells engineered to express a synthetic ligand-inducible form of the ErbB2 receptor. Depletion of PKCδ with short hairpin RNA inhibited ligand-induced growth in both two-dimensional (2D) (plastic) and three-dimensional (3D) (Matrigel) culture, and correlated with decreased phosphorylation of the ErbB2 receptor and reduced activation of Src and MAPK/ERK pathways. Similarly, in human breast cancer cell lines in which ErbB2 is overexpressed, depletion of PKCδ suppresses proliferation, Src and ERK activation. PKCδ appears to drive proliferation through the formation of an active ErbB2/PKCδ/Src signaling complex, as depletion of PKCδ disrupts association of Src with the ErbB2 receptor. Taken together, our studies present the first evidence that PKCδ is a critical regulator of ErbB2-mediated tumorigenesis, and suggest further investigation of PKCδ as a target in ErbB2-positive breast cancer.

  8. A morphometric study of the tracheal system of Peripatus acacioi Marcus and Marcus (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Bicudo, J E; Campiglia, S

    1985-04-01

    Volumes and surfaces of the tracheal system in Peripatus acacioi Marcus and Marcus (Onychophora) were evaluated using stereological techniques. The onychophorans were divided into three portions, arbitrarily denominated lead, body and tail segments. This procedure was used to provide information on the spatial distribution of tracheal tubes along the body. The mean weight specific tracheal volume for a 212 mg animal (average body weight) was 7.27 microliters g-1. Size appears to affect tracheal volume; the surface density of the tracheal system was greater in both lead and tail segments. There appears to be a positive correlation between tracheal surface density and tissue metabolic activity.

  9. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  10. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds.

  11. Binding of fluorescently labeled cholera toxin subunit B to glycolipids in the human submandibular gland and inhibition of binding by periodate oxidation and by galactose.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S

    2016-01-01

    FITC-labeled cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) stained the surfaces of cells of mucous acini in the submandibular gland. CTB, also called choleragenoid, binds to the GM1 glycolipid in the cell membrane. The binding in most acini was inhibited by periodic acid oxidation of the sections, while some acini remained unaffected even after increased oxidation. Staining with the subunit was also reduced significantly by adding galactose to the incubation medium. Binding of CTB to cell surfaces apparently requires intact sialic groups on most, but not all, cell surfaces. Oxidation of the sialic acid residues may influence the structure of the sialylated GM1 molecules on the cell surface in different ways. It is possible that both the sialic acid residue and the terminal galactose are oxidized. Alternatively, the sialic acid may be resistant to acid hydrolysis in gangliosides in which the sialic acid is attached to the internal galactose residue linked to GalNAc, as in the GM1 glycolipid. Inhibition of the GM1 receptor binding to cholera toxin has potential for protection of humans against cholera. Galactose and agents that modify sialic acid inhibit the accessibility of the toxin to the GM1 carbohydrate receptor. Human milk contains high levels of sialic acid glycoconjugates that may provide defense mechanisms.

  12. An overlooked aspect of the human breast: areolar glands in relation with breastfeeding pattern, neonatal weight gain, and the dynamics of lactation.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Sébastien; Soussignan, Robert; Sagot, Paul; Schaal, Benoist

    2012-02-01

    The early nursing-sucking relationship is not to be taken for granted in humans. A number of factors can either facilitate or mitigate its optimal establishment on the mother's or newborn's sides. Among these factors, a morphological feature of human mothers' breasts--the areolar glands (AG)--has been identified as potentially important. Three day-old infants display attraction during the presentation of the native secretions of the AG, suggesting that they could influence the newborn's behaviour during breastfeeding. The present study assessed this topic in a sample of 121 Caucasian mother-infant dyads. The areolae of these women were screened during the first 3 postnatal days in parallel with the infant's sucking performance, body weight fluctuations and time to lactation onset. On average, 97% of the women bore AG, 80.2% having 1-20 units per areola and 33% showing AG excreting a visible fluid. The endowment in AG appeared positively linked with neonatal growth after birth and with the speed of lactation onset: infants of primiparous women with lower AG numbers had a lower weight gain than those of mothers with higher AG numbers. Further, it took longer to primiparae with lower AG counts to set on lactation. This study confirms and extends the fact that AG, in interaction with maternal experience, might influence the initiation of the breastfeeding relationship.

  13. Human milk miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary gland resulting in unique miRNA profiles of fractionated milk

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-01-01

    Human milk (HM) contains regulatory biomolecules including miRNAs, the origin and functional significance of which are still undetermined. We used TaqMan OpenArrays to profile 681 mature miRNAs in HM cells and fat, and compared them with maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma, and bovine and soy infant formulae. HM cells and PBMCs (292 and 345 miRNAs, respectively) had higher miRNA content than HM fat and plasma (242 and 219 miRNAs, respectively) (p < 0.05). A strong association in miRNA profiles was found between HM cells and fat, whilst PBMCs and plasma were distinctly different to HM, displaying marked inter-individual variation. Considering the dominance of epithelial cells in mature milk of healthy women, these results suggest that HM miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary epithelium, whilst the maternal circulation may have a smaller contribution. Our findings demonstrate that unlike infant formulae, which contained very few human miRNA, HM is a rich source of lactation-specific miRNA, which could be used as biomarkers of the performance and health status of the lactating mammary gland. Given the recently identified stability, uptake and functionality of food- and milk-derived miRNA in vivo, HM miRNA are likely to contribute to infant protection and development. PMID:26854194

  14. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections.

  15. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    localized in the different regions, local invasiveness and enlarged nuclei were observed. The samples included 3 tumors of mammary glands mammary tumors were complex carcinomas (n = 2) and adenocarcinoma (n = 1). The histological grades of the 3 cases were as follows: grade II, (1/3); grade III, (2/3) with high mitotic index. The preferential localization of mammary neoplasms was in the inguinal lobe (1/3 case) and abdominal lobes (2/3 cases). Furthermore, 1case of the inguinal mass affected the left caudo-inguinal lobe and 2cases right cranio and caudo abdominal lobes. Conclusion The study concluded that cytology could be used as a quick, rapid, field diagnostic technique in combination with histopathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary tumors (FMTs). Our findings in feline MTs indicate that FMTs could be useful as an animal model of human breast cancer. Moreover, because of the similarity of the cytohistopathological findings in the human and feline mammary gland tumours, it is possible to use the same cytopathological criteria applied in human pathology for the diagnosis of feline mammary gland tumours. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2047361423103295 PMID:23941603

  16. Tracheal compression in pupae of the beetle Zophobas morio

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kenny, Melissa C.; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Insects that are small or exhibit low metabolic rates are considered to not require active ventilation to augment diffusive gas exchange. Some pupae with low metabolic rates exhibit abdominal pumping, a behaviour that is known to drive tracheal ventilation in the adults of many species. However, previous work on pupae suggests that abdominal pumping may serve a non-respiratory role. To study the role of abdominal pumping in pupa of the beetle Zophobas morio, we visualized tracheal dynamics with X-rays while simultaneously measuring haemolymph pressure, abdominal movement, and CO2 emission. Pupae exhibited frequent tracheal compressions that were coincident with both abdominal pumping and pulsation of pressure in the haemolymph. However, more than 63% of abdominal pumping events occurred without any tracheal collapse and hence ventilation, suggesting that the major function of the abdominal pump is not respiratory. In addition, this study shows that the kinematics of abdominal pumping can be used to infer the status of the spiracles and internal behaviour of the tracheal system. PMID:26085499

  17. Tracheal compression in pupae of the beetle Zophobas morio.

    PubMed

    Pendar, Hodjat; Kenny, Melissa C; Socha, John J

    2015-06-01

    Insects that are small or exhibit low metabolic rates are considered to not require active ventilation to augment diffusive gas exchange. Some pupae with low metabolic rates exhibit abdominal pumping, a behaviour that is known to drive tracheal ventilation in the adults of many species. However, previous work on pupae suggests that abdominal pumping may serve a non-respiratory role. To study the role of abdominal pumping in pupa of the beetle Zophobas morio, we visualized tracheal dynamics with X-rays while simultaneously measuring haemolymph pressure, abdominal movement, and CO2 emission. Pupae exhibited frequent tracheal compressions that were coincident with both abdominal pumping and pulsation of pressure in the haemolymph. However, more than 63% of abdominal pumping events occurred without any tracheal collapse and hence ventilation, suggesting that the major function of the abdominal pump is not respiratory. In addition, this study shows that the kinematics of abdominal pumping can be used to infer the status of the spiracles and internal behaviour of the tracheal system.

  18. Synthetic Tracheal Mucus with Native Rheological and Surface Tension Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, R.; Fiegel, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the development of a model tracheal mucus with chemical composition and physical properties (bulk viscoelasticity and surface tension) matched to that of native tracheal mucus is described. The mucus mimetics were formulated using components that are abundant in tracheal mucus (glycoproteins, proteins, lipids, ions and water) at concentrations similar to those found natively. Pure solutions were unable to achieve the gel behavior observed with native mucus. The addition of a bi-functional crosslinking agent enabled control over the viscoelastic properties of the mucus mimetics by tailoring the concentration of the crosslinking agent and the duration of crosslinking. Three mucus mimetic formulations with different bulk viscoelastic properties, all within the normal range for non-diseased tracheal mucus, were chosen for investigation of surfactant spreading at the air-mimetic interface. Surfactant spread quickly and completely on the least viscoelastic mimetic surface, enabling the surface tension of the mimetic to be lowered to match native tracheal mucus. However, surfactant spreading on the more viscoelastic mimetics was hindered, suggesting that the bulk properties of the mimetics dictate the range of surface properties that can be achieved. PMID:23813841

  19. Residual paralysis at the time of tracheal extubation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Marymont, Jesse H; Franklin, Mark; Avram, Michael J; Vender, Jeffery S

    2005-06-01

    Respiratory and pharyngeal muscle function are impaired during minimal neuromuscular blockade. Tracheal extubation in the presence of residual paresis may contribute to adverse respiratory events. In this investigation, we assessed the incidence and severity of residual neuromuscular block at the time of tracheal extubation. One-hundred-twenty patients presenting for gynecologic or general surgical procedures were enrolled. Neuromuscular blockade was maintained with rocuronium (visual train-of-four [TOF] count of 2) and all subjects were reversed with neostigmine at a TOF count of 2-4. TOF ratios were quantified using acceleromyography immediately before tracheal extubation, after clinicians had determined that complete neuromuscular recovery had occurred using standard clinical criteria (5-s head lift or hand grip, eye opening on command, acceptable negative inspiratory force or vital capacity breath values) and peripheral nerve stimulation (no evidence of fade with TOF or tetanic stimulation). TOF ratios were measured again on arrival to the postanesthesia care unit. Immediately before tracheal extubation, the mean TOF ratio was 0.67 +/- 0.2; among the 120 patients, 70 (58%) had a TOF ratio <0.7 and 105 (88%) had a TOF ratio <0.9. Significantly fewer patients had TOF ratios <0.7 (9 subjects, 8%) and <0.9 (38 subjects, 32%) in the postanesthesia care unit compared with the operating room (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that complete recovery from neuromuscular blockade is rarely present at the time of tracheal extubation.

  20. Human cytomegalovirus and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands: cell-specific localization of active viral and oncogenic signaling proteins is confirmatory of a causal relationship.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Michael; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Allen, Carl M; Jaskoll, Tina

    2012-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection is common. Although still controversial, there is growing evidence that active hCMV infection is associated with a variety of malignancies, including brain, breast, lung, colon, and prostate. Given that hCMV is frequently resident in salivary gland (SG) ductal epithelium, we hypothesized that hCMV would be important to the pathogenesis of SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). This was initially supported by our finding that purified CMV induces malignant transformation in SG cells in an in vitro mouse model, and utilizes a pathogenic pathway previously reported for human MEC. Here we present the histologic and molecular characterizations of 39 human SG MECs selected randomly from a repository of cases spanning 2004-2011. Serial sections were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded, tissue blocks from previous incisional or excisional biopsies. Immunohistochemical assays were performed for active hCMV proteins (IE1 and pp65) and the activated COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK signaling pathway. All four prospective causal criteria for viruses and cancer are fully satisfied: (1) protein markers for active hCMV are present in 97% of MECs; (2) markers of active hCMV are absent in non-neoplastic SG tissues; (3) hCMV-specific proteins (IE1, pp65) are in specific cell types and expression is positively correlated with severity; (4) hCMV correlates and colocalizes with an upregulation and activation of an established oncogenic signaling pathway (COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK). Thus, the evidential support reported here and previously in a mouse model is strongly confirmatory of a causal relationship between hCMV and SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of hCMV's role in human oncogenesis that fully responds to all of Koch's Postulates as revised for viruses and cancer. In the absence of any contrary evidence, hCMV can reasonably be designated an "oncovirus."

  1. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z.; Tang, Edith; Benson, Heather A. E.; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R.; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)2D2, 1,20(OH)2D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)2D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)2D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)2D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity. PMID:24382416

  2. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z; Tang, Edith K Y; Benson, Heather A E; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C

    2014-03-05

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)₂D2, 1,20(OH)₂D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)₂D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)₂D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)₂D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity.

  3. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  4. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  5. Menthol inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsing-Won; Liu, Shao-Cheng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lee, Fei-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Menthol is used as a constituent of food and drink, tobacco and cosmetics nowadays. This cold receptor agonist has been used as a nasal inhalation solution in the daily life. The effect of menthol on nasal mucosa in vivo is well known; however, the effect of the drug on tracheal smooth muscle has been rarely explored. Therefore, during administration of the drug for nasal symptoms, it might also affect the trachea via oral intake or inhalation. We used our preparation to test the effectiveness of menthol on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle. A 5 mm long portion of rat trachea was submersed in 30 ml Krebs solution in a muscle bath at 37ºC. Changes in tracheal contractility in response to the application of a parasympathetic mimetic agent were measured using a transducer connected to a Pentium III computer equipped with polygraph software. The following assessments of menthol were performed: (1) effect on tracheal smooth muscle resting tension; (2) effect on contraction caused by 10-6 M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic; (3) effect of the drug on electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Results indicated that addition of a parasympathetic mimetic to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of menthol at doses of 10-5 M or above elicited a relaxation response to 10-6 M methacholine-induced contraction. Menthol could also inhibit electrical field stimulation (EFS) induced spike contraction. However, it alone had a minimal effect on the basal tension of trachea as the concentration increased. We concluded that the degree of drug-induced tracheal contraction or relaxation was dose-dependent. In addition, this study indicated that high concentrations of menthol might actually inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. PMID:27994497

  6. Establishing a protein expression profile database for the normal human pituitary gland using two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography combined with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong; Xu, Wei; Bao, Weimin; Liu, Hang; Chen, Luping; Shen, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianhong

    2012-12-25

    In this study, we selected adult normal pituitary gland tissues from six patients during operations for pituitary microadenomas via the transsphenoidal approach for extended normal pituitary tissue resection around the tumor, and analyzed the protein expression of human normal pituitary using two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography combined with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry proteomics technology. The ten most highly expressed proteins in normal human pituitary were: alpha 3 type VI collagen isoform 5 precursor (abundance among tall pituitary proteins, 1.30%), fibrinogen beta chain preproprotein (0.99%), vimentin (0.73%), prolactin (0.69%), ATP synthase, H+ transporting and mitochondrial F1 complex beta subunit precursor (0.52%), keratin I (0.49%), growth hormone (0.45%), carbonic anhydrase I (0.40%), heat shock protein 90 kDa I (0.31%), and annexin V (0.30%). Based on the biological function classifications of these proteins, the top three categories by content were neuroendocrine proteins (abundance among all pituitary proteins, 40.1%), catalytic and metabolic proteins (28.3%), and cell signal transduction proteins (9.8%). Based on cell positioning classification, the top three categories were cell organelle (24.5%), membrane (20.8%), and cytoplasm (13.0%). Based on biological process classification, the top three categories of proteins are involved in physiological processes (42.9%), cellular processes (40.4%), and regulation of biological processes (9.1%). Our experimental findings indicate that a protein expression profile database of normal human pituitary can be precisely and efficiently established by proteomics technology.

  7. Development of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 assays utilizing homogenates of adrenal glands: Utility of monkey as a surrogate for human.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Matthew A; Csengery, Alexander; Schmenk, Jennifer; Frederick, Kosea

    2015-11-01

    Elevated levels of aldosterone are associated with arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. Aldosterone is produced predominantly in the zona glomerulosa of the cortex of the adrenal gland by the enzyme aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Treatment of the above indications by decreasing production of aldosterone is thought to be of therapeutic benefit by lessening the deleterious effects of aldosterone mediated through both the mineralocorticoid receptor and also through so called non-genomic pathways. However, inhibition of the highly similar enzyme, CYP11B1, which is responsible for the production of cortisol, must be avoided in the development of clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors due to the resulting impairment of the cortisol-induced stress response. In efforts to assess the interactions of compounds with the CYP11B enzymes, a variety of cell-based inhibitor screening assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 have been reported. Herein we report details of assays employing both cynomolgus monkey adrenal homogenate (CAH) and human adrenal homogenate (HAH) as sources of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 enzymes. Utilizing both CAH and HAH, we have characterized the kinetics of the CYP11B1-mediated conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and the CYP11B2-mediated oxidation of corticosterone to aldosterone. Inhibition assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were subsequently developed. Based on a comparison of human and monkey amino acid sequences, kinetics data, and inhibition values derived from the HAH and CAH assays, evidence is provided in support of using cynomolgus monkey tissue-derived cell homogenates as suitable surrogates for the human enzymes.

  8. [Tracheal rupture as a cause of unanticipated perioperative mortality].

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Cor J; Marsman, Marije; Knape, J T A Hans; van den Tweel, Jan G

    2013-01-01

    Here we report two cases in which healthy young patients died during surgery because ventilation was impossible by a clinical picture of massive subcutaneous emphysema. The probable diagnosis was tracheal rupture. This diagnosis was not confirmed during coroner's autopsy, but there had been no systematic search for a puncture in the trachea or the main bronchial tubes. Immediate recognition of this situation, and implementation of ventilation of one lung by pushing a narrower endobronchial tube beyond the tracheal rupture, is potentially life-saving.

  9. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of a human salivary gland cells to paraoxon: an in vitro model for organophosphate oral exposure

    PubMed Central

    Prins, John M.; Chao, Chih-Kai; Jacobson, Saskia M.; Thompson, Charles M.; George, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are used as insecticides, acaracides, and chemical agents and share a common neurotoxic mechanism of action. The biochemical alterations leading to many of the deleterious effects have been studied in neuronal cell lines, however, non-neuronal toxic effects of OPs are far less well characterized in vitro, and specifically in cell lines representing oral routes of exposure. To address this void, the human salivary gland (HSG) cell line, representing likely interactions in the oral cavity, was exposed to the representative OP paraoxon (PX; O,O-diethyl-p-nitrophenoxy phosphate) over a range of concentrations (0.01 μM to 100 μM) and analyzed for cytotoxicity. PX induced cytotoxicity in HSG cells at most of the exposure concentrations as revealed by MTT assay, however, the release of LDH only occurred at the highest concentration of PX tested (100 μM) at 48 h. Slight increases in cellular ATP levels were measured in PX-exposed (10 μM) HSG cells at 24 h. Exposing HSG cells to 10 μM PX also led to an increase in DNA fragmentation prior to loss of cellular membrane integrity implicating reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a trigger of toxicity. The ROS genes gss, gstm2, gstt2 and sod2 were upregulated, and the presence of superoxide following 10 μM PX exposure was determined via dihydroethidium fluorescence studies further implicating PX-induced oxidative stress in HSG cells. PMID:24486155

  10. Quantitative Analysis of the Human Milk Whey Proteome Reveals Developing Milk and Mammary-Gland Functions across the First Year of Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Cundiff, Judy K.; Maria, Sarah D.; McMahon, Robert J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Davidson, Barbara S.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    In-depth understanding of the changing functions of human milk (HM) proteins and the corresponding physiological adaptions of the lactating mammary gland has been inhibited by incomplete knowledge of the HM proteome. We analyzed the HM whey proteome (n = 10 women with samples at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) using a quantitative proteomic approach. One thousand three hundred and thirty three proteins were identified with 615 being quantified. Principal component analysis revealed a transition in the HM whey proteome-throughout the first year of lactation. Abundance changes in IgG, sIgA and sIgM display distinct features during the first year. Complement components and other acute-phase proteins are generally at higher levels in early lactation. Proteomic analysis further suggests that the sources of milk fatty acids (FA) shift from more direct blood influx to more de novo mammary synthesis over lactation. The abundances of the majority of glycoproteins decline over lactation, which is consistent with increased enzyme expression in glycoprotein degradation and decreased enzyme expression in glycoprotein synthesis. Cellular detoxification machinery may be transformed as well, thereby accommodating increased metabolic activities in late lactation. The multiple developing functions of HM proteins and the corresponding mammary adaption become more apparent from this study. PMID:28250401

  11. Quantitative Analysis of the Human Milk Whey Proteome Reveals Developing Milk and Mammary-Gland Functions across the First Year of Lactation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Cundiff, Judy K; Maria, Sarah D; McMahon, Robert J; Woo, Jessica G; Davidson, Barbara S; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-09-03

    In-depth understanding of the changing functions of human milk (HM) proteins and the corresponding physiological adaptions of the lactating mammary gland has been inhibited by incomplete knowledge of the HM proteome. We analyzed the HM whey proteome (n = 10 women with samples at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) using a quantitative proteomic approach. One thousand three hundred and thirty three proteins were identified with 615 being quantified. Principal component analysis revealed a transition in the HM whey proteome-throughout the first year of lactation. Abundance changes in IgG, sIgA and sIgM display distinct features during the first year. Complement components and other acute-phase proteins are generally at higher levels in early lactation. Proteomic analysis further suggests that the sources of milk fatty acids (FA) shift from more direct blood influx to more de novo mammary synthesis over lactation. The abundances of the majority of glycoproteins decline over lactation, which is consistent with increased enzyme expression in glycoprotein degradation and decreased enzyme expression in glycoprotein synthesis. Cellular detoxification machinery may be transformed as well, thereby accommodating increased metabolic activities in late lactation. The multiple developing functions of HM proteins and the corresponding mammary adaption become more apparent from this study.

  12. Cobalt chloride induces apoptosis and zinc chloride suppresses cobalt-induced apoptosis by Bcl-2 expression in human submandibular gland HSG cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kazumi; Okamura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Kaya; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ogawa-Iyehara, Hiroaki; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2007-10-01

    To determine the effects of cobalt chloride on human submandibular gland cells, HSG cells were exposed to various concentrations of cobalt chloride. Cobalt chloride induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HSG cells as determined by phase-contrast microscopy and WST-1 cell viability assay. By using the Hoechst 33342 staining, marked nuclear condensation and fragmentation of chromatin were observed in cobalt chloride-treated cells. Cobalt chloride induced DNA ladder formation in HSG cells in both dose- and time-dependent manner with maximal effect at a concentration of 0.5 mM and 48 h, respectively. Cobalt chloride inhibited the expression of both Bcl-2 protein and mRNA in dose- and time-dependent manner. Zinc chloride recovered the cobalt-suppressed Bcl-2 expression and protected against cobalt-induced apoptosis in HSG cells. Our results show that the pathway of the apoptosis in HSG cells is regulated by cobalt chloride and zinc chloride. Our results also indicate that cobalt-induced apoptotic steps in HSG cells are related to the production of Bcl-2 protein.

  13. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  14. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  15. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  16. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  17. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  18. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the anterior (front part) of the pituitary gland: Prolactin - Prolactin stimulates breast milk production after childbirth. It also affects sex ... Oxytocin – Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, ... disorder is a pituitary gland tumor. These tumors are fairly common in adults. ...

  19. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Salivary Gland Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Martin G.; Watson, Philip A.; Ho, Alan L.; Morris, Luc G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers comprise a small subset of human malignancies, and are classified into multiple subtypes that exhibit diverse histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Local disease is potentially curable with surgery, which may be combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, metastatic or unresectable tumors rarely respond to chemotherapy and carry a poorer prognosis. Recent molecular studies have shown evidence of androgen receptor signaling in several types of salivary gland cancer, mainly salivary duct carcinoma. Successful treatment with anti-androgen therapy in other androgen receptor-positive malignancies such as prostate and breast cancer has inspired researchers to investigate this treatment in salivary gland cancer as well. In this review, we describe the prevalence, biology, and therapeutic implications of androgen receptor signaling in salivary gland cancer. PMID:28208703

  20. Sebaceous gland lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna

    2009-01-01

    The principal activity of mature sebaceous glands is producing and secreting sebum, which is a complex mixture of lipids. Sebum composition is different among species and this difference is probably due to the function that sebum has to absolve. In human sebum there are unique lipids, such as squalene and wax esters not found anywhere else in the body nor among the epidermal surface lipids. Moreover, they correspond to major components supplying the skin with protection. However, the ultimate role of human sebum, as well the metabolic pathways regulating its composition and secretion rate, are far from a complete understanding. Increased sebum secretion is considered, among all features, the major one involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Along with increased sebum secretion rate, quali- and quantitative modifications of sebum are likely to occur in this pathology. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify new targets that can be addressed to achieve a selective modulation of lipid biosynthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy to correct lipid disregulations in acne and other disorders of the pilosebaceous unit. PMID:20224686

  1. Down-regulation of TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) markedly enhances the growth of a human salivary gland cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakashiro, K; Kawamata, H; Hino, S; Uchida, D; Miwa, Y; Hamano, H; Omotehara, F; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

    1998-02-01

    We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) cDNA as a new anticancer drug (Vesnarinone)-inducible gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We conducted the present study to examine whether up-regulation or down-regulation of TSC-22 can affect the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. We constructed an expression vector containing sense- or antisense-oriented human TSC-22 cDNA under the transcriptional control of the SR alpha promoter. We cotransfected TYS cells with the sense or antisense expression vector and pSV2neo and obtained more than 200 G418-resistant colonies in each sense or antisense transfectant. Approximately 80% of representative G418-resistant clones expressed the transcripts from transfected sense or antisense TSC-22 cDNA. To avoid the clonal heterogeneity of the cells, we mixed all of the G418-resistant colonies together in each sense or antisense transfectant and examined the expression of TSC-22 protein, in vitro growth, and the tumorigenicity in nude mice. The expression of TSC-22 protein was examined by solid-phase ELISA using a specific antibody against recombinant TSC-22 protein. The expression of TSC-22 protein was up-regulated in the sense transfectants and down-regulated in the antisense transfectants. Contrary to our expectation, up-regulation of TSC-22 protein did not affect both in vitro and in vivo growth of TYS cells. However, down-regulation of TSC-22 markedly enhanced the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the expression of TSC-22 mRNA in several human salivary gland tumors. The mRNA expression of TSC-22 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors was significantly decreased when compared to that in tumor-free salivary glands (P < 0.05; one-way ANOVA), and in some salivary gland tumors, the expression of TSC-22 mRNA was not detectable by reverse transcription-PCR. These results suggest that down-regulation of TSC-22 may play a major role on

  2. The indirect measurement of laryngeal and tracheal resistance.

    PubMed

    Schumann, K; Beck, C; Mann, W

    1979-06-01

    We used a body-plethysmograph to determine air-way resistances in 485 cases of laryngeal and tracheal stenoses. We decided in 143 cases to intervene after observing resistance exceeding 60 mm H2O/l and sec. A vocal chord was lateral fixated in 49 patients suffering bilateral recurrent paralysis. Optimal results were obtained at a postoperative resistance level of 30 mm H2O/l and sec (standard value: 14.77+/-6.53--n = 387). The patients could carry out work of medium intensity and had a steady voice. We performed tracheal interventions in 94 cases of tracheal stenoses. A mean, post-operative resistance of 29.9 mm H2O/l and sec, with a tracheal diameter of 7--8 mm was attained. In practice, only a few patients found the remaining obstruction a hindrance during work of maximal intensity. No recurrences were observed after treatment. Airway resistances exceeding 150 mm H2O/l and sec were found in 13 new admissions and 73 times in those undergoing therapy. In these cases asphyxiation threatens. These patients have to be tracheotomized or intubated immediately.

  3. A canine model of tracheal stenosis induced by cuffed endotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhuquan; Li, Shiyue; Zhou, Ziqing; Chen, Xiaobo; Gu, Yingying; Chen, Yu; Zhong, Changhao; Zhong, Minglu; Zhong, Nanshan

    2017-01-01

    Postintubation tracheal stenosis is a complication of endotracheal intubation. The pathological mechanism and risk factors for endotracheal intubation-induced tracheal stenosis remain not fully understood. We aimed to establish an animal model and to investigate risk factors for postintubation tracheal stenosis. Beagles were intubated with 4 sized tubes (internal diameter 6.5 to 8.0 mm) and cuff pressures of 100 to 200 mmHg for 24 hr. The status of tracheal wall was evaluated by bronchoscopic and histological examinations. The model was successfully established by cuffed endotracheal intubation using an 8.0 mm tube and an intra-cuff pressure of 200 mmHg for 24 hr. When the intra-cuff pressures were kept constant, a larger sized tube would induce a larger tracheal wall pressure and more severe injury to the tracheal wall. The degree of tracheal stenosis ranged from 78% to 91% at 2 weeks postextubation. Histological examination demonstrated submucosal infiltration of inflammatory cells, hyperplasia of granulation tissue and collapse of tracheal cartilage. In summary, a novel animal model of tracheal stenosis was established by cuffed endotracheal intubation, whose histopathological feathers are similar to those of clinical cases of postintubation tracheal stenosis. Excessive cuff pressure and over-sized tube are the risk factors for postintubation tracheal stenosis. PMID:28349955

  4. Peripheral Sweat Gland Function Improves With Humid Heat Acclimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Individual variations in structure and function of human eccrine sweat gland . Am. j. Physio!. 245, R203-R208. strydom, N.B .. Wyndham, e.H., Williams, e.G...Naval Health Research Center Peripheral Sweat Gland Function Improves With Humid Heat Acclimation . M. J. Buono S. L. Martha...Biology E!.SFVILR journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jtherbio Peripheral sweat gland function is improved with humid heat acclimation Michael

  5. Tracheal Papilloma Treated with Cryotherapy and Interferon-α: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Fatma; Türk, Murat; Demircan, Sedat; Akyürek, Nalan; Yurdakul, Ahmet Selim

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal papilloma (TP) is characterized by papillomatous growth of the bronchial epithelium that involves the trachea as a response to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection. A 40-year-old male, with 3-month history of progressive dyspnea was admitted to our hospital, and there were no any other respiratory symptoms. Physical examination was unremarkable. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed that there was a papillomatous mass at the distal trachea. The lesion occupied 80% of tracheal lumen. This patient received cryotherapy and mechanical debridement under general anesthesia and postoperative pathology showed endotracheal papillomatosis. Patient was treated with interferon-α (IFN-α) and he showed no recurrence at the 8th month of his therapy. PMID:25789192

  6. Review of 23 cases of postintubation tracheal obstructions in birds.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Neiffer, Donald; Terrell, Scott; Powell, David M; Newton, Alisa

    2013-09-01

    Although recognized as a potential complication after endotracheal intubation in birds, the complication rate of postintubation tracheal obstruction in this taxon is unknown. Twenty-three cases of postintubation obstruction in birds from two institutions are reported. Clinical signs were noted an average of 16.6 days postintubation and consisted primarily of indications of acute respiratory distress. Diagnosis was confirmed via tracheoscopy or radiology. Five birds died before treatment could be initiated. Medical treatment alone was successful in three birds that had mild changes consisting primarily of a luminal mucoid plug that could be manually removed without tracheal surgery but was unsuccessful in an additional six birds. Tracheal resection and anastamosis was successful in four birds and unsuccessful in five birds. Overall mortality was 70%. Postintubation tracheal obstruction in birds appears to be more common in zoo practice than is suggested by the literature, as a total of 1.8% (1.2-2.7%, 95% confidence interval) of intubations or 3.5% (2.3-5.3%, 95% confidence interval) of individual animals intubated in these institutions resulted in this complication. Multiple cases were found in Ciconiiformes (n = 4), Columbiformes (n = 4), Gruiformes (n = 4), Anseriformes (n = 3), Galliformes (n = 3), and Passeriformes (n = 2). No cases were found in Coraciiforms, Falconiforms, or Psittaciformes despite many (>40) recorded intubations. The specific cause of these lesions is unclear, but some type of tracheal mucosa trauma or irritation is suggested by histologic findings. Prevention may include selective intubation, use of a laryngeal mask airway in place of intubation, careful placement of an endotracheal tube, minimal movement of the head and neck after placement, humidification of anesthetic gases, and gentle positive-pressure ventilation.

  7. The cellular localization of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, potassium channel, epithelial sodium channel γ and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase in human eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Xiang; Zeng, Shaopeng; Chen, Lu; Li, Xuexue; Lin, Changmin; Zhang, Mingjun; Shu, Shenyou; Xie, Sitian; He, Yunpu; Yang, Lvjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    The secretory portions of human eccrine sweat glands secrete isotonic fluid into the lumen and then the primary fluid is rendered hypotonic during its passage to the skin surface. During the processes of sweat secretion and absorption, many enzymes and proteins play important roles. In the study, the cellular localizations of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), potassium channel (KC), epithelial sodium channel γ (γENaC) and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in human eccrine sweat glands and epidermis were detected using immunofluorescence labeling. The results revealed that in the secretory coils, the basolateral membranes showed evidence of CFTR, NHE1 and KC activities, the apical membranes showed the activities of KC and NHE1, and the nucleus showed γEaNC and V-ATPase activities; in the duct, the peripheral and luminal ductal cells showed evidence of CFTR, NHE1 and KC, the apical membranes showed the activities of CFTR and NHE1, and the nucleus showed γEaNC, V-ATPase and KC activities. The cellular localization of these proteins in eccrine sweat glands is helpful to better understand the mechanisms of sweat secretion and absorption.

  8. [Two cases of anesthesia mumps in the upper parotid gland after general anesthesia in the lateral position].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yushi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Itagaki, Taiga; Obata, Yukako; Doi, Matsuyuki; Sato, Shigehito

    2008-09-01

    We describe two cases of acute transient swelling of the upper side of parotid glands of the patients after general anesthesia in the lateral position. The serum amylase levels in the patients were not increased and the enlargement of the parotid gland was diagnosed as anesthesia mumps. Previous reports suggested that mechanical compression might produce the swelling of the secreting organ, but our patients showed temporal parotid enlargement in the upper free side. Although, pre-medication with atropine might become a cause of parotid gland swelling, we anesthetized these patients without anti-cholinergic drugs. Procedures of oro-tracheal intubation and stimuli of endotracheal tube may induce impairment of the normal flow of saliva and lead to enlargement of the parotid gland.

  9. Histochemical analysis of the chemical structure of blood group-related carbohydrate chains in serous cells of human submandibular glands using lectin staining and glycosidase digestion.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Nishi, K; Nakajima, M; Okamura, Y; Hirota, T

    1989-07-01

    Using lectin staining methods in combination with exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion procedures, we analyzed the chemical structure of different types of blood group-related substances in serous cells of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human submandibular glands. Serous cells produced only H antigen; A and B antigens were not present, and the expression of H antigen is dependent on the secretor status of the tissue donor. Although reactivity with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) was not markedly reduced by alpha-L-fucosidase digestion, an affinity for peanut agglutinin (PNA) was seen after fucosidase digestion in the cells from secretors. In those from nonsecretors, no PNA reactivity appeared after enzyme digestion. On the other hand, sialidase digestion elicited PNA reactivity in serous cells irrespective of the donor's secretor status. PNA reactivity observed after fucosidase or sialidase digestion was susceptible to endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (endo-GalNAc-dase) digestion. SBA reactivity in UEA-I-negative cells from secretors, or in cells from fetuses and newborn infants, was markedly reduced by beta-galactosidase digestion. After galactosidase digestion, reactivity with Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin II (GSA-II) appeared in the corresponding cells. This GSA-II reactivity was almost completely eliminated by subsequent beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase digestion. Whereas PNA reactivity in these cells was not reduced by beta-galactosidase treatment, it was significantly diminished by endo-GalNAc-dase digestion. These results suggest that at least two kinds of precursor disaccharides are produced in submandibular serous cells, i.e., SBA-reactive D-galactose-(beta 1-3,4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and PNA-reactive D-galactose-(beta 1-3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine alpha 1-serine or threonine (O-glycosidically linked Type 3 chain or T antigen). Final fucosylation and synthesis of these two types of precursor chain appear to be under the control of the secretor

  10. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  11. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  12. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC–ESI-MS–MS

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; ...

    2015-06-18

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland.more » AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.« less

  13. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC–ESI-MS–MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R.; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-18

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.

  14. The pineal gland from development to function.

    PubMed

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  15. Telocytes in parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Mihnea I; Bucur, Alexandru; Dinca, Octavian; Rusu, Mugurel C; Popescu, Laurentiu M

    2012-03-01

    The parotid histological structure includes acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells, surrounded by a connective stromal component. The parotid stroma is mostly regarded as an inert shell, consisting of septa, which divide the parenchyma. Telocytes were recently identified as a new stromal cell type in various organs, including exocrine pancreas. We aimed to evaluate telocytes presence in parotid stroma and whether their topographical features might support an involvement in parotid function modulation. Serial ultrathin sections of human and rat parotid glands were studied and compared by transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional concatenation of sequenced micrographs allowed the ultrastructural identification of parotid telocytes, with their specific long, thin, and moniliform prolongations (telopodes). Telocyte location appeared frequently as a strategic one, in close contact or vicinity of both secretory (acini and ducts) and regulatory (nerves and blood vessels) apparatuses. They were also found in the interacinar and the subductal stroma. Two previously reported telocyte markers (c-kit/CD117 and vimentin) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Actin expression was also evaluated. Telocytes are making a network, especially by branching of their long telopodes. Elements of this telocyte network are interacting with each other (homocellular connections) as well as with other cell types (heterocellular connections). These interactions are achieved either by direct contact (stromal synapse), or mediated via shed microvesicles/exosomes. Since telocyte connections include both neurovascular and exocrine elements (e.g., acini and ducts), it is attractive to think that telocytes might mediate and integrate neural and/or vascular input with parotid function.

  16. Genipin cross-linked decellularized tracheal tubular matrix for tracheal tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Jiang, Yuan; Xu, Yanfei; Shi, Hongcan; Zhang, Siquan; Liu, Xingchen; Pan, Shu; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Fangbiao; Zhong, Chonghao

    2016-01-01

    Decellularization techniques have been widely used as an alternative strategy for organ reconstruction. This study investigated the mechanical, pro-angiogenic and in vivo biocompatibility properties of decellularized airway matrices cross-linked with genipin. New Zealand rabbit tracheae were decellularized and cross-linked with genipin, a naturally derived agent. The results demonstrated that, a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the secant modulus was computed for the cross-linked tracheae, compared to the decellularized samples. Angiogenic assays demonstrated that decellularized tracheal scaffolds and cross-linked tracheae treated with 1% genipin induce strong in vivo angiogenic responses (CAM analysis). Seven, 15 and 30 days after implantation, decreased (p < 0.01) inflammatory reactions were observed in the xenograft models for the genipin cross-linked tracheae matrices compared with control tracheae, and no increase in the IgM or IgG content was observed in rats. In conclusion, treatment with genipin improves the mechanical properties of decellularized airway matrices without altering the pro-angiogenic properties or eliciting an in vivo inflammatory response. PMID:27080716

  17. Metabolic detoxication pathways for sterigmatocystin in primary tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Odile; Puel, Olivier; Botterel, Françoise; Pean, Michel; Khoufache, Khaled; Costa, Jean-Marc; Delaforge, Marcel; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2010-11-15

    Human health effects of inhaled mycotoxins remain poorly documented, despite the large amounts present in bioaerosols. Among these mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin is one of the most prevalent. Our aim was to study the metabolism and cellular consequences of sterigmatocystin once it is in contact with the airway epithelium. Metabolites were analyzed first in vitro, using recombinant P450 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2A13, and 3A4 enzymes, and subsequently in porcine tracheal epithelial cell (PTEC) primary cultures at an air-liquid interface. Expressed enzymes and PTECs were exposed to sterigmatocystin, uniformly enriched with (13)C to confirm the relationship between sterigmatocystin and metabolites. Induction of the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes upon sterigmatocystin exposure was examined by real-time quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Incubation of 50 μM sterigmatocystin with recombinant P450 1A1 led to the formation of three metabolites: monohydroxy-sterigmatocystin (M1), dihydroxy-sterigmatocystin (M2), and one glutathione adduct (M3), the latter after the formation of a transient epoxide. Recombinant P450 1A2 also led to M1 and M3. P450 3A4 led to only M3. In PTEC, 1 μM sterigmatocystin metabolism resulted in a glucuro conjugate (M4) mainly excreted at the basal side of cells. If PTEC were treated with β-naphthoflavone prior to sterigmatocystin incubation, two other products were detected, i.e., a sulfo conjugate (M5) and a glucoro conjugate (M6) of hydroxy-sterigmatocystin. Exposure of PTEC for 24 h to 1 μM sterigmatocystin induced an 18-fold increase in the mRNA levels of P450 1A1, without significantly induced 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. These data suggest that sterigmatocystin is mainly detoxified and is unable to produce significant amounts of reactive epoxide metabolites in respiratory cells. However, sterigmatocystin increases the P450 1A1 mRNA levels with unknown long-term consequences. These in vitro results obtained in

  18. Effect of antenatal tracheal occlusion on lung development in the sheep model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a morphometric analysis of pulmonary structure and maturity.

    PubMed

    Lipsett, J; Cool, J C; Runciman, S I; Ford, W D; Kennedy, J D; Martin, A J

    1998-04-01

    surface areas. Normal values for gas exchange surface area density, and alveolar density and perimeter were attained and the lungs appeared more mature than non-occluded lungs. Tracheal occlusion earlier in gestation produced a greater effect, achieving greater than normal values for lung volumes and volume densities, whereas the capillary loading value was similar to normal lung. Later occlusion achieved less than normal values for lung volumes and volume densities, with a reduced capillary loading value. We conclude that antenatal tracheal occlusion is capable of reversing structural total lung and lobar hypoplasia and immaturity caused by CDH as determined by morphometrically determined parameters. The effect is greater when tracheal occlusion is performed early rather than late in gestation. The results are encouraging for development of treatment methods for humans with antenatally diagnosed CDH.

  19. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Joos, Zachary P.; Patel, Bhupendra C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  20. Uptake of indocyanine green by hamster sebaceous glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Lo, Kai-Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2001-05-01

    Photothermal injury to the sebaceous glands is a potential curative treatment for the common skin disease acne vulgaris. Accumulation of the exogenous chromophore indocyanine green in the sebaceous glands may be accomplished using an emulsion or liposomal formulation applied to the skin surface. An emulsion containing 0.09% by weight indocyanine green (ICG) was applied to the epidermis of hamster ears ex vivo and the flank organ in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of ICG in the underlying sebaceous glands. The concentration of ICG that may be expected to accumulate in sebaceous glands of humans was then estimated on the basis of the gland size and orifice area, for the case of topical application of a more concentrated 1% ICG liposomal formulation. Monte Carlo modeling and heat transfer calculations showed that the sebaceous glands containing the exogenous chromophore may be selectively damaged by pulsed 810 nm laser radiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling.

  1. Positional variations in mammary gland development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Veltmaat, Jacqueline M; Ramsdell, Ann F; Sterneck, Esta

    2013-06-01

    Most mammals develop their mammary glands in pairs of which the two counterparts are symmetrically displaced away from the ventral midline. Based on this symmetry and the same functional outcome as a milk-producing organ, the mammary glands are easily presumed to be mere copies of one another. Based on our analysis of published data with inclusion of new results related to mammary development and pathology in mice, we argue that this presumption is incorrect: Between and within pairs, mammary glands differ from one another, and tumor incidence and biology depend on the position along the anterior-posterior and the left-right axis as well. This insight has implications for experimental designs with mouse models and for data extrapolation between mammary glands within and between species. We suggest that improved documentation of location-specific mammary gland features will lead to more insights into the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland development and cancer biology in both mice and humans.

  2. Lacrimal gland tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... B. Lacrimal gland tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ... JA. Secondary orbital tumors. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott ...

  3. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  4. [Salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Gudziol, H

    1995-11-01

    Only about 1% of head and neck tumors are neoplasms of the salivary glands. The majority [80%] of these tumors are benign. Pleomorphic adenomas, the most frequent benign tumors of the salivary glands, can transform into malignancy, especially after a long duration. Treatment of salivary gland tumors consists of complete surgical excision by a surgeon experienced in microsurgery of the facial nerve. Acute suppurative and viral sialadenitis is usually treated by the general practitioner either symptomatically or, if possible, specifically. Chronic sialadenitis, sialadenosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Frey's syndrome often need long-term follow-up and medical treatment, which is also usually delivered by the general practitioner, after the diagnosis has been established. Trauma to the salivary gland with transsection of the duct or facial nerve needs immediate microsurgical repair by an otolaryngologist. Sialolithiasis is also treated surgically in most cases.

  5. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... In other cases, the doctor can perform a minor procedure in the office. During this procedure, the ... me?Is it safe for me to have sex? Last Updated: February 2014 Tags: bartholin, cyst, gland, ...

  6. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  7. Mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  8. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tracheal cells injured by influenza infection or by endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Ramphal, R; Small, P M; Shands, J W; Fischlschweiger, W; Small, P A

    1980-02-01

    Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to normal, injured, and regenerating tracheal mucosa was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Uninfected and influenza-infected murine tracheas were exposed to six strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from human sources and one strain of platn origin. All of the strains tested adhered to desquamating cells of the infected tracheas, but not to normal mucosa, the basal cell layer, or the regenerating epithelium. Adherence increased when the incubation time of the bacteria with the trachea was prolonged. Strains isolated from human tracheas appeared to adhere better than strains derived from the urinary tract. After endotracheal intubation of ferrets, P. aeruginosa adhered only to the injured cells and to areas of exposed basement membrane. We call this phenomenon "opportunistic adherence" and propose that alteration of the cell surfaces or cell injury facilitates the adherence of this bacterium and that adherence to injured cells may be a key to the pathogenesis of opportunistic Pseudomonas infections.

  9. Massive hemoptysis caused by tracheal hemangioma treated with interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Zambudio, Antonio Ríos; Calvo, Maria Jose Roca; Lanzas, Juan Torres; Medina, J García; Paricio, Pascual Parrilla

    2003-04-01

    Capillary hemangiomas of the tracheobronchial tree are extremely rare in adults, with hemoptysis being one of the most serious forms of presentation. An operation has been the treatment of choice, although it does involve high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in emergency situations such as massive hemoptysis, which has led to the search for other therapeutic alternatives. There is no experience with embolization by interventional radiology when the hemoptysis is tracheal in origin, caused partly because the infrequency of this pathology; however, the foundations for it have been laid with the development of embolization for bronchopulmonary pathology. We report a case of a tracheal capillary hemangioma in a 66-year-old woman diagnosed with idiopathic thrombopenic purpura, which began as a massive hemoptysis and was treated successfully with embolization by interventional radiology. There has been no recurrence of the bleeding after 1 year's follow-up, and the patient's control fibrobronchoscopy is normal.

  10. [Tracheal rupture in a patient with head and thoracic injuries].

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, E; Egea, A; González, J M; Hinojosa, A; Fernández-Valderrama, A; Gil, E; Benítez, A

    1995-01-01

    A 49-year-old patient presented with cranioencephalic injuries including subdural hematoma and severe mass effect, facial and thoracic injuries with bilateral rib fractures but no parenchymatous lesions or extrapulmonary air. After surgical evacuation of the subdural hematoma, the patient entered the intensive care unit. Twenty-four hours later the patient pulled out the tubes, which were reinserted after signs of respiratory failure appeared. A series of clinical and radiological signs then followed, namely subcutaneous cervicothoracic emphysema, mediastinitis accompanied by hyperinsufflated balloon tamponade (pressures < 28 cmH2O). Tracheal rupture was suspected, but fibrebronchoscopy through the trachea revealed no damage. Surgical exploration 72 hours after admission confirmed high tracheal rupture near the pars membranacea. The damage was sutured, but sepsis with severe respiratory distress and mediastinitis led to death.

  11. Thyroid cancer with tracheal invasion: a pathological estimation.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Vincenzo; La Rosa, Stefano; Imperatori, Andrea; Rotolo, Nicola; Tanda, Maria Laura; Sessa, Andrea; Dominioni, Lorenzo; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2016-10-01

    We review the clinical and pathologic features of seven cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid that invaded the trachea and were treated by thyroidectomy, airway resection with reconstructive surgery over an interval of 15 years. We depicted the peculiarity of invasion of well differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells is perpendicularly oriented to the tracheal lumen, in between cartilaginous rings, along blood vessels and collagen fibers. Tracheal rings appear non-infiltrated in all histological sections of well differentiated PTC infiltrating the trachea. Similar description of inter-cartilage PTC infiltration into the trachea was first provided by Shin et al. in 1993. Interestingly, our pathological revision support the estimation by Shin et al., though that cartilage rings infiltration did occur in poorly differentiated thyroid cancers with exiguous prognosis.

  12. Thyroid cancer with tracheal invasion: a pathological estimation

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Vincenzo; La Rosa, Stefano; Imperatori, Andrea; Rotolo, Nicola; Tanda, Maria Laura; Sessa, Andrea; Dominioni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We review the clinical and pathologic features of seven cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid that invaded the trachea and were treated by thyroidectomy, airway resection with reconstructive surgery over an interval of 15 years. We depicted the peculiarity of invasion of well differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells is perpendicularly oriented to the tracheal lumen, in between cartilaginous rings, along blood vessels and collagen fibers. Tracheal rings appear non-infiltrated in all histological sections of well differentiated PTC infiltrating the trachea. Similar description of inter-cartilage PTC infiltration into the trachea was first provided by Shin et al. in 1993. Interestingly, our pathological revision support the estimation by Shin et al., though that cartilage rings infiltration did occur in poorly differentiated thyroid cancers with exiguous prognosis. PMID:27867870

  13. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  14. Small tidal volume ventilation using a zero deadspace tracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, C S; Raw, R; Lipman, J; Moyes, D G; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    1999-02-01

    The zero deadspace tracheal tube (ZEDS-TT) is a double-lumen endobronchial tube with a truncated bronchial limb. Functionally it is unrelated to the familiar endobronchial tube used in lung isolation surgery. It is placed in the same position as a regular tracheal tube and, by means of special connectors, one limb is used for inspiration and the other for expiration, thereby greatly reducing anatomical and apparatus deadspace. In this study, we have compared respiratory and ventilatory effects of reduction of tidal volume (VT) via a single-lumen tracheal tube and the ZEDS-TT during controlled ventilation with a Siemens Elema 900C Servo ventilator. Eleven consenting adult patients (ASA I and II) undergoing elective peripheral surgery were studied. Starting at a VT value of 10 ml kg-1, data were recorded for each tube type. VT was reduced by 2.5 ml kg-1 every 10 min and stabilized data recorded. Minute volume was kept constant by increasing ventilatory frequency at each reduction in VT. We found that the ZEDS-TT produced a significant reduction in PaCO2 and airway pressure for any VT used, while maintaining oxygenation.

  15. Evaluation of nocturnal bronchoconstriction by all night tracheal sound monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Lenclud, C.; Cuttitta, G.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Visconti, A.; Van Muylem, A.; Bellia, V.; Yernault, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of a digital tracheal sound analyser (ELENS-DSA) in predicting nocturnal changes in airways resistance in asthmatic patients. This device allows continuous measurement of the proportion of the time occupied by wheezing (Wh%). METHODS: Nocturnal polygraphic studies with simultaneous continuous monitoring of tracheal sounds and airways resistance were performed in seven patients with nocturnal asthma. In order to evaluate the possible bias in wheezing estimation, each tracheal sound recording was passed through the automatic analyser and simultaneously monitored with earphones by an experienced observer. RESULTS: The device detected audible wheezing with an optimal sensitivity and specificity of 70%. Snoring was a minor cause of the relatively poor characteristics of the system. A close correlation (p < 0.001) between Wh% and airways resistance was observed only in those patients with the highest increase in resistance; when the results of all the subjects were pooled the correlation observed was poor. The predictive value of Wh% in detecting changes in airways resistance during 10 minute intervals was lower than 70%. The positive and negative predictive values of Wh% were raised to 79% and 83%, respectively, for 30 minute intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The ELENS-DSA system is a relatively crude means of detecting wheezing and assessing bronchoconstriction quantitatively. However, it is able to detect accurately nocturnal bronchoconstriction for 30 minute intervals. This finding, along with the fact that the monitoring is non-invasive, suggests that it may be a promising tool, especially for patients during sleep. PMID:8882075

  16. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

  17. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  18. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  19. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  20. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  1. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  2. Comparative aspects of mammary gland development and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Capuco, Anthony V; Ellis, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Mammary glands are crucial to the reproductive strategy of mammals, and the milk of domesticated ruminants serves as an important source of nutrients for the human population. The majority of mammary gland development occurs postnatally, and the mammary gland undergoes cyclical periods of growth, differentiation, lactation, and regression that are coordinated to provide nutrients for offspring or are driven by strategies to manage reproduction and milk production of domesticated species. Growth and maintenance of the mammary epithelium depends on the function of mammary stem cells and progenitor cells. In this review, we provide an overview of postnatal mammary gland development, cyclical phases of mammary gland regression (regression during lactation and between successive lactations), and mammary stem cells and progenitor cells. Where possible, these processes are related to animal production and compared across species, particularly bovine, porcine, murine, and human.

  3. A Case of Symptomatic Tracheal Diverticulum and Surgical Resection as a Treatment Modality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin-Young; Joo, Seok; Lee, Geun Dong; Ham, Seok Jin; Park, Chul Hwan; Lee, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal diverticulum is often diagnosed incidentally and, due to its rarity, there is no standard treatment. It is a benign entity, but has the potential to cause specific symptoms, such as chronic upper respiratory infection and chronic cough. Symptomatic tracheal diverticulum can be medically treated, but likelihood of recurrence is high. We report a case of surgical resection of symptomatic tracheal diverticulum to prevent recurrence. PMID:27734005

  4. Teaching tracheal intubation: Airtraq is superior to Macintosh laryngoscope

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tracheal intubation with Macintosh laryngoscope is taught to medical students as it is a lifesaving procedure. However, it is a difficult technique to learn and the consequences of intubation failure are potentially serious. The Airtraq optical laryngoscope is a relatively novel intubation device, which allows visualization of the glottic plane without alignment of the oral, pharyngeal, and tracheal axes, possessing advantages over Macintosh for novice personnel. We introduced a teaching mode featured with a progressive evaluation scheme for preparation and performance of tracheal intubation with medical students in this prospective randomized crossover trial who had no prior airway management experience to find the superior one. Methods Twenty-six medical students of the 8-year programme in the 6th year participated in this trial, when they did their one-week rotation in the department of anaesthesiology. Each of the students intubated 6 patients, who were scheduled for surgeries under general anaesthesia, each laryngoscope for 3 patients respectively. One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients scheduled for surgical procedures requiring tracheal intubation were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to undergo tracheal intubation using Macintosh (n = 75) or Airtraq (n =74) laryngoscope. The progressive evaluation scheme was applied to each intubation attempt. Results Intubation success rate was significantly higher in Airtraq group than Macintosh group (87.8% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.05). Duration of glottis exposure was significantly shorter in Airtraq group compared to Macintosh group (50 ± 19 s vs. 81 ± 27 s, P < 0.001). A grade I Cormack and Lehane glottic view was obtained in 94.6% of patients in the Airtraq group versus 32% of patients in the Macintosh group (P <0.001). Duration of intubation in Airtraq group was significantly shorter (68 ± 21 s vs. 96 ± 22 s, P < 0.05) compared to Macintosh group

  5. [Missing cuff from the oro-tracheal tube during percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy].

    PubMed

    Damm, Anders Aarup Munk; Bundgaard, Helle

    2015-06-29

    During a percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy (PDT) performed at the intensive care unit of a regional hospital, subsequent to completion of the PDT a small segment of the cuff from the oro-tracheal tube was found missing, once the oro-tracheal tube was removed. The oto-rhino-laryngologist was called upon to carry out a flexible bronchoscopy and laryngoscopic examination of the patient. After deflation, the missing piece was located at the level of the tracheal tube cuff and removed successfully. We recommend examining the condition of the oro-tracheal tube cuff upon completion of the PDT procedure.

  6. Multiple tracheal resections and anastomoses in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna).

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Gwen; Nevarez, Javier G; Beaufrere, Hugues; Baumgartner, Wes; Reed, Scott; Tully, Thomas N; Hedlund, Cheryl; Hennig, Geoff; Huck, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    A 1.5-year-old, male blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was anesthetized for a health examination and blood collection. The following day it was returned for episodes of coughing. The bird was presented again 13 days after the initial presentation with severe dyspnea. A tracheal stenosis was diagnosed by endoscopy and treated by surgical resection of 5 tracheal rings and tracheal anastomosis. The bird was discharged but returned 2 days later with a recurrent stenosis. Bougienage and balloon dilation of the stenotic area were performed separately; each resulted in less than 48 hours' improvement in clinical signs after treatment. A second tracheal resection and anastomosis was performed, during which an additional 10 tracheal rings were removed. This second anastomosis was significantly more difficult to complete given the marked variation in diameter of the proximal and distal tracheal segments. The macaw recovered without complication and has had no recurrence of respiratory abnormalities 2 years after the second surgery. This report describes the longest total tracheal segment to be resected, followed by tracheal anastomosis, in a psittacine bird. The positive outcome in this case suggests that, when surgical therapy is elected, an aggressive approach is necessary to prevent recurrence of tracheal stenosis. In addition, macaws can recover well even after significant lengths of the trachea are resected.

  7. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted endotracheal intubation in a patient with a large tracheal tumor.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lei; Feng, Yan-Hua; Ma, Hai-Chun; Dong, Su

    2015-04-01

    In the event of a high degree of airway obstruction, endotracheal intubation can be impossible and even dangerous, because it can cause complete airway obstruction, especially in patients with high tracheal lesions. However, a smaller endotracheal tube under the guidance of a bronchoscope can be insinuated past obstructive tumor in most noncircumferential cases. Here we report a case of successful fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted endotracheal intubation in a patient undergoing surgical resection of a large, high tracheal tumor causing severe tracheal stenosis. A 42-year-old Chinese man presented with dyspnea, intermittent irritable cough, and sleep deprivation for one and a half years. X-rays and computed tomography scan of the chest revealed an irregular pedunculated soft tissue mass within the tracheal lumen. The mass occupied over 90% of the lumen and caused severe tracheal stenosis. Endotracheal intubation was done to perform tracheal tumor resection under general anesthesia. After several failed conventional endotracheal intubation attempts, fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted intubation was successful. The patient received mechanical ventilation and then underwent tumor resection and a permanent tracheostomy. This case provides evidence of the usefulness of the fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted intubation technique in management of an anticipated difficult airway and suggests that tracheal intubation can be performed directly in patients with a tracheal tumor who can sleep in the supine position, even if they have occasional sleep deprivation and severe tracheal obstruction as revealed by imaging techniques.

  8. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  9. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel As; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A

    2013-02-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6-2.3 L, with the hands (80-160 g.h-1) and feet (50-150 g.h-1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40-75 g.h-1) and all remaining sites losing 15-60 g.h-1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm-2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm-2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min-1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm-2.min-1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm-2.min-1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm-2.min-1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm-2.min-1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm-2.min-1, sodium losses of 26.5-49.7 mmol.L-1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8-36.7 mmol.L-1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise.

  10. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined.

  11. ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) as a novel target of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in the human adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Shah, Sonia; Jina, Nipurna; Hubank, Mike; Dattani, Mehul T.; Achermann, John C.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a key regulator of adrenal and gonadal biology. Disruption of SF-1 can lead to disorders of adrenal development, while increased SF-1 dosage has been associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify a novel subset of SF-1 target genes in the adrenal by using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) combined with systems analysis. SF-1 ChIP-on-chip was performed in NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells using promoter tiling arrays, leading to the identification of 445 gene loci where SF-1-binding regions were located from 10 kb upstream to 3 kb downstream of a transcriptional start. Network analysis of genes identified as putative SF-1 targets revealed enrichment for angiogenic process networks. A 1.1-kb SF-1-binding region was identified in the angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) promoter in a highly repetitive region, and SF-1-dependent activation was confirmed in luciferase assays. Angiogenesis is paramount in adrenal development and tumorigenesis, but until now a direct link between SF-1 and vascular remodeling has not been established. We have identified Ang2 as a potentially important novel target of SF-1 in the adrenal gland, indicating that regulation of angiogenesis might be an important additional mechanism by which SF-1 exerts its actions in the adrenal gland.—Ferraz-de-Souza, B., Lin, L., Shah, S., Jina, N., Hubank, M., Dattani, M. T., Achermann, J. C. ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) as a novel target of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in the human adrenal gland. PMID:21163858

  12. Binding sites of Ulex europaeus-lectin I in human parotid gland. A light-microscopic and ultrastructural study using the immunoperoxidase technique and immunocryoultramicrotomy.

    PubMed

    Born, I A; Zimmer, K P; Schwechheimer, K; Maier, H; Möller, P

    1987-05-01

    Twenty non-neoplastic parotid glands (removed during neck dissection for regional tumours) were examined for cellular and subcellular binding sites of Ulex europaeus-lectin I (UEA-I), a lectin reported to be specific for alpha-L-fucose. For light microscopy, an extended peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was applied; for the evaluation of the subcellular localization of bound lectin, three of these glands were examined following immunocryoultramicrotomy and staining by the protein A-gold technique. In addition to the known cytoplasmic affinity of UEA-I for capillary endothelium, acinar cells bound the lectin within the cytoplasmic compartment; the number and distribution of stained acinar cells varied among individuals. Furthermore, cytomembrane-bound labelling that occurred most markedly at the luminar surface was observed in striated-duct epithelium. Using the electron microscope, protein A-gold particles were seen in zymogen granules and in Golgi cisternae of serous acinar cells; primary saliva secreted in the lumina exhibited strong labelling; serous acinar cells had binding sites on their cell membranes, striated-duct epithelium had binding sites on its surface membrane and in the vicinity of apical vesicles. Our results show that UEA-I is a useful tool for the study of the structure and functional states of the parotid gland epithelium and its associated pathological alterations.

  13. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  14. Descartes and the pineal gland in animals: a frequent misinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Finger, S

    1995-01-01

    René Descartes presented a number of reasons for his choice of the pineal gland as a logical place for the soul to interact with the physical machinery of the body. It is often stated that one of his reasons was that he believed animals do not have pineal glands, whereas humans alone possess a soul and this small structure. This is a misinterpretation of Descartes. The philosopher knew that barnyard and other animals possess pineal glands, having seen this with his own eyes. His point was that the pineal is unique in humans only because of a special function - acting as the seat for the rational soul.

  15. The effect of aging on the anatomic position of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bann, Darrin V; Kim, Yesul; Zacharia, Thomas; Goldenberg, David

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid disease is common among elderly patients, frequently necessitating thyroid gland examination, imaging, and surgery. However, no prior studies have determined the effect of age on the anatomic position of the thyroid gland in the anterior neck. We hypothesized that the thyroid gland resides at a more caudal position in the neck in elderly patients as compared to younger patients. Head and neck CT scans were collected from 122 atraumatic patients without thyroid disease aged 18-39 years, 40-59 years, 60-79 years, and 80+ years. Measurements of thyroid gland position and other aspects of head and neck anatomy were conducted in the mid-sagittal plane. The distance between the thyroid gland and the sternal notch decreased from 45 ± 10.4 mm in the 18-39 age group to 30.8 ± 9 mm in the 80+ age group (P < 0.001). The position of the gland did not change significantly relative to anatomic landmarks in the head or neck, although the trachea was angled more closely to the horizontal plane in elderly patients (P < 0.001). Cervical spine height was also lower among patients ≥60 years of age compared to those <60 years of age (P < 0.001). Multivariate linear modeling suggested that thyroid gland position was dependent on changes in cervical spine height, hyoid bone to hard palate distance, and tracheal angle (P = 1.7 × 10(-11) ; r(2)  = 0.37). Clinicians should be aware of the more caudad positioning of the gland when planning surgery or screening for thyroid disease in the elderly. Clin. Anat. 30:205-212, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 3D printed polyurethane prosthesis for partial tracheal reconstruction: a pilot animal study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soo Yeon; Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Ha Yeong; Park, Hae Sang; Wang, Zhan; Kim, Hyun Jun; Yoo, James J; Chung, Sung Min; Kim, Han Su

    2016-10-27

    A ready-made, acellular patch-type prosthesis is desirable in repairing partial tracheal defects in the clinical setting. However, many of these prostheses may not show proper biological integration and biomechanical function when they are transplanted. In this study, we developed a novel 3D printed polyurethane (PU) tracheal scaffold with micro-scale architecture to allow host tissue infiltration and adequate biomechanical properties to withstand physiological tracheal condition. A half-pipe shaped PU scaffold (1.8 cm of height, 0.18 cm thickness, and 2 cm of diameter) was fabricated by 3D printing of PU 200 μm PU beam. The 3D printed tracheal scaffolds consisted of a porous inner microstructure with 200 × 200 × 200 μm(3) sized pores and a non-porous outer layer. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were 3.21 ± 1.02 MPa of ultimate tensile strength, 2.81 ± 0.58 MPa of Young's modulus, and 725% ± 41% of elongation at break. To examine the function of the 3D printed tracheal scaffolds in vivo, the scaffolds were implanted into 1.0 × 0.7 cm(2) sized anterior tracheal defect of rabbits. After implantation, bronchoscopic examinations revealed that the implanted tracheal scaffolds were patent for a 16 week-period. Histologic findings showed that re-epithelialization after 4 weeks of implantation and ciliated respiratory epithelium with ciliary beating after 8 weeks of implantation were observed at the lumen of the implanted tracheal scaffolds. The ingrowth of the connective tissue into the scaffolds was observed at 4 weeks after implantation. The biomechanical properties of the implanted tracheal scaffolds were continually maintained for 16 week-period. The results demonstrated that 3D printed tracheal scaffold could provide an alternative solution as a therapeutic treatment for partial tracheal defects.

  17. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  18. Parathyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and will remove the diseased glands with the instruments. Endoscopic parathyroidectomy: Your surgeon will make two or three small cuts in the front of your neck and one cut above the top of your collarbone. This reduces visible scarring, pain, and recovery time. This cut is less than ...

  19. Long-term results after 110 tracheal resections

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, Godehard; Kyriss, Thomas; Leitenberger, Andrea; Toomes, Heikki

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Among the many therapeutic options for treating tracheal stenosis (e.g. bouginage, laser resection and stenting), segmental resection and reconstruction with end-to-end anastomosis is the method of choice. We verified this in an analysis of clinical material. Patients and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 110 tracheal sleeve resections performed between 1985 and 2001. Data before and after resection were analyzed, and the patients were interviewed. Results: The aetiology of stenosis was mainly postintubation injury (n = 92) (83.6%), followed by goiter with malacia (n = 8) (7.3%) and tumor (n = 6) (5.5%). There were a few other causes (n = 3) (2.7%). 48 patients (43.6%) had undergone prior conservative or surgical treatment other than sleeve resection. A cervical approach was used in 93 (84.6%), a cervicomediastinal in 15 (13.6%), and a transthoracic in two. Healing of anastomosis was uncomplicated in 101 patients (91.8%). Major and minor complications occurred in 29 patients (26.4); there were 4 dehiscences (3.6%), 3 restenoses (2.7%), 2 suture line granulations (1.8%) and 4 vocal cord dysfunctions (3.6%). The 30-day mortality rate was 0.9%. 77 patients were interviewed after surgery (median 80.1 months); 93.5% (n = 72) were satisfied with the surgical treatment. Conclusions: Resection and reconstruction offer the best treatment for tracheal stenosis. Lethal complications were due to severe comorbidity. Many patients today still undergo unsuccessful conservative treatment before being referred to surgery. PMID:19675708

  20. Thermoforming of Tracheal Cartilage: Viability, Shape Change, and Mechanical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Yongseok; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Holden, Paul K.; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Trauma, emergent tracheostomy, and prolonged intubation are common causes of severe deformation and narrowing of the trachea. Laser technology may be used to reshape tracheal cartilage using minimally invasive methods. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the dependence of tracheal cartilage shape change on temperature and laser dosimetry using heated saline bath immersion and laser irradiation, respectively, (2) the effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of cartilage, and (3) tissue viability as a function of laser dosimetry. Materials and Methods Ex vivo rabbit trachea cartilage specimens were bent and secured around a cylinder (6 mm), and then immersed in a saline bath (45 and 72°C) for 5– 100 seconds. In separate experiments, tracheal specimens were irradiated with a diode laser (λ = 1.45 μm, 220–400 J/cm2). Mechanical analysis was then used to determine the elastic modulus in tension after irradiation. Fluorescent viability assays combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were employed to image and identify thermal injury regions. Results Shape change transition zones, between 62 and 66°C in the saline heating bath and above power densities of 350 J/cm2 (peak temperatures 65±10°C) for laser irradiation were identified. Above these zones, the elastic moduli were higher (8.2±4 MPa) than at lower temperatures (4.5±3 MPa). LSCM identified significant loss of viable chondrocytes within the laser-irradiation zones. Conclusion Our results indicate a change in mechanical properties occurs with laser irradiation and further demonstrates that significant thermal damage is concurrent with clinically relevant shape change in the elastic cartilage tissues of the rabbit trachea using the present laser and dosimetry parameters. PMID:18798288

  1. Endothelin stimulates chloride secretion across canine tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Plews, P I; Abdel-Malek, Z A; Doupnik, C A; Leikauf, G D

    1991-08-01

    The endothelins (ET) are a group of isopeptides produced by a number of cells, including canine tracheal epithelial cells. Because these compounds are endogenous peptides that may activate eicosanoid metabolism, we investigated the effects of ET on Cl secretion in canine tracheal epithelium. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) was found to produce a dose-dependent change in short-circuit current (Isc) that increased slowly and reached a maximal value within 10-15 min. When isopeptides of ET were compared, 300 nM ET-1 and ET-2 produced comparable maximal increases in Isc, whereas ET-3 produced smaller changes in Isc (half-maximal concentrations of 2.2, 7.2, and 10.4 nM, respectively). Ionic substitution of Cl with nontransported anions, iodide and gluconate, reduced ET-1-induced changes in Isc. Furthermore, the response was inhibited by the NaCl cotransport inhibitor, furosemide. In paired tissues, ET-1 significantly increased mucosal net 36Cl flux without significant effect on 22Na flux. The increase in Isc induced by ET was diminished by pretreatment with indomethacin. The second messengers mediating the increase in Isc were investigated in cultured canine tracheal epithelial cells. ET-1 stimulated the release of [3H]arachidonate from membrane phospholipids, increased intracellular Ca2+ (occasionally producing oscillations), and increased adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate accumulation. The latter was diminished by indomethacin. Thus ET is a potent agonist of Cl secretion (with the isopeptides having the following potency: ET-1 greater than or equal to ET-2 greater than ET-3) and acts, in part, through a cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanism.

  2. A case of bilateral tracheal bronchus: report of a rare association in multidetector computed tomography bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Candace; Doros, Caius; Miclaus, Gratian D; Matusz, Petru; Loukas, Marios

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral tracheal bronchus is a rare variation of the tracheobronchial tree. We present a 1-year 7-month-old male patient who presented with sepsis following endotracheal intubation. Upon review of multidetector computed tomography images, the patient was diagnosed with displaced bilateral tracheal bronchus. Imaging showed a right-sided anomalous bronchus arising 0.9 cm proximal to the carina. The left-sided anomalous bronchus arose 0.7 cm proximal to the carina, mimicking a tracheal trifurcation. When viewed together, the close proximity of both the right and left tracheal bronchi to the carina created a distinct tracheal quadrifurcation. This rare anatomic variation was additionally associated with an anorectal malformation (anal atresia). Unrecognized tracheal bronchus in patients undergoing endotracheal intubation can lead to serious complications. While bilateral tracheal bronchus is described in the literature, we are unaware of any case similar to this patient presentation. We present and analyze this unusual case of bilateral tracheal bronchus. The anatomy and clinical significance of this variation is then discussed.

  3. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  8. A simple, yet accurate method for detecting and quantifying secretions from human minor salivary glands using the iodine-starch reaction.

    PubMed

    Shoji, N; Sasano, T; Inukai, K; Satoh-Kuriwada, S; Iikubo, M; Furuuchi, T; Sakamoto, M

    2003-11-01

    The lack of published information about the minor salivary glands is due in part to the difficulties experienced in collecting and quantifying their secretions. In fact, no method exists for measuring their secretions that is both simple and accurate. This investigation examined the accuracy of our newly developed method (which simply employs the iodine-starch reaction) in 10 healthy non-medicated adults. A strip painted with a solution of iodine in absolute alcohol then with a fine starch powder mixed with castor oil was placed at a designated location on the lower-lip mucosa for 2 min to collect saliva. Black-stained spots of various sizes corresponding to the individual glands could be accurately visualized. After removal of the strip, the total stained area (mm2) was calculated by digitizing the spot areas using a computer system. The correlation coefficient (r) between known volumes of saliva and stain size was 0.995, indicating a close correlation. The correlation coefficient (r) between area values obtained in the first trial in each subject (Y) and the second (X; 10 min later) was 0.963, and the simple regression equation was close to Y=X, indicating good reproducibility. The mean flow rate microl/cm2 per min) obtained by converting mean total area to volume and thence to flow rate was 0.49+/-0.26, in good agreement with published values obtained by others. These results suggest that our newly developed method allows both the distribution and secretion rate of the minor salivary glands to be observed, and that it should be of practical value due to its simplicity, accuracy, and reproducibility.

  9. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Repair of Tracheal Injury during Transhiatal Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fermin, Lilibeth; Arnold, Sarah; Nunez, Lorena; Yakoub, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for repair of tracheal injury during transhiatal esophagectomy Tracheal injury is a rare but potentially fatal complication of esophagectomies requiring prompt recognition and treatment. We describe a case of tracheal injury recognized in the operative period of an open transhiatal esophagectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the mid to distal esophagus. When injury was discovered, attempts to improve oxygenation and ventilation by conventional methods were unsuccessful. Therefore, peripheral ECMO was used to support oxygenation during the tracheal defect repair. The use of ECMO for the repair of a tracheal injury during esophagectomy is very uncommon but, in our case, provided adequate oxygenation and ventilation while the surgeon repaired the injury and the patient was able to be promptly weaned from ECMO support and extubated not long after. PMID:28074826

  10. Development of a patient specific artificial tracheal prosthesis: design, mechanical behavior analysis and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Chua C H, Matthew; Chui, Chee Kong; Rai, Bina; Lau D P, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to create patient specific organ replacements as there are differences in the anatomical dimensions among individuals. High failure rates in tracheal prosthesis are attributed to the lack of mechanical strength and flexibility, slow rate of growth of ciliated epithelium and leakage of interstitial fluid into the lumen. This paper proposes a methodology of design, simulations and fabrication of a patient specific artificial tracheal prosthesis for implantation to closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the natural trachea, and describes the prototype device and its materials. Results show that the patient-specific trachea prosthesis has mechanical properties approximate that of normal tracheal rings. The user centric tracheal prosthesis is demonstrated to be a promising candidate for tracheal replacement.

  11. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for repair of tracheal injury during transhiatal esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Fermin, Lilibeth; Arnold, Sarah; Nunez, Lorena; Yakoub, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for repair of tracheal injury during transhiatal esophagectomy Tracheal injury is a rare but potentially fatal complication of esophagectomies requiring prompt recognition and treatment. We describe a case of tracheal injury recognized in the operative period of an open transhiatal esophagectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the mid to distal esophagus. When injury was discovered, attempts to improve oxygenation and ventilation by conventional methods were unsuccessful. Therefore, peripheral ECMO was used to support oxygenation during the tracheal defect repair. The use of ECMO for the repair of a tracheal injury during esophagectomy is very uncommon but, in our case, provided adequate oxygenation and ventilation while the surgeon repaired the injury and the patient was able to be promptly weaned from ECMO support and extubated not long after.

  12. Penicillium species as a rare isolate in tracheal granulation tissue: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Premjit S; Nouraei, SA Reza; Howard, David J; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Petrou, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Granulation tissue formation is a major problem complicating the treatment of upper airway stenosis. We present two cases of recurrent tracheal granulation tissue colonisation by Penicillium species in patients undergoing laryngotracheal reconstructive surgery for post-intubation tracheal stenosis. We believe that although most Penicillium species do not cause invasive disease they can be a contributory factor to the occurrence of upper airway stenosis. Case presentation A microbiological and mycological study of tracheal granulation tissue in two patients with recurrent laryngotracheal stenosis was carried out. Penicillium species was seen microscopically and cultured from tracheal granulation tissue. Neither patient grew any bacteria known to be associated with airway granulation tissue formation. Amphotericin B, itraconazole, flucytosine voriconazole and caspofungin were highly active against both isolates. Conclusion A search for a fungal cause should form part of the investigation for recurrent tracheal granulation tissue during laryngotracheal reconstruction. PMID:18346276

  13. Distribution of the AQP4 water channel in normal human tissues: protein and tissue microarrays reveal expression in several new anatomical locations, including the prostate gland and seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, Ali; Marples, David; Young, Iain S; Floyd, Rachel V; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Frigeri, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Aquaporins facilitate osmotically driven water movement across cell membranes. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a major water channel in the central nervous system where it participates in cerebral water balance. AQP4 is also present in basolateral membranes of lower respiratory tract airway and renal collecting duct epithelial cells, gastric parietal cells and skeletal muscle cells. However, the distribution of AQP4 in many other tissues is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and relative abundance of AQP4 in human Tissue MicroArrays (TMAs) and human protein microarrays by immunohistochemistry and chemiluminescence. In the central nervous system AQP4 was abundantly expressed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex (purkinje/granular layer), ependymal cell layer, hippocampus and spinal cord. Lower levels were detected in choroid plexus, white matter and meninges. In the musculoskeletal system AQP4 was highly expressed in the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle from the chest and neck. In the male genital system AQP4 was moderately expressed in seminiferous tubules, seminal vesicles, prostate and epidiymis. In the respiratory system AQP4 was moderately expressed in lung and bronchus. AQP expression was abundant in the kidney. In the gastrointestinal system AQP4 was moderately present in basolateral membranes of parietal cells at the base of gastric glands. AQP4 was also detected in salivary glands, adrenals, anterior pituitary, prostate and seminal vesicles. Human protein microarrays verified the TMA data. Our findings suggest that AQP4 is expressed more widely than previously thought in human organs and may be involved in prostatic and seminal fluid formation.

  14. Luminal acetylcholine does not affect the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Nikolaus P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Fluid homeostasis mediated by the airway epithelium is required for proper lung function, and the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) Cl(-) channel is crucial for these processes. Luminal acetylcholine (ACh) acts as an auto-/paracrine mediator to activate Cl(-) channels in airway epithelia and evidence exists showing that nicotinic ACh receptors activate CFTR in murine airway epithelia. The present study investigated whether or not luminal ACh regulates CFTR activity in airway epithelia of pigs, an emerging model for investigations of human airway disease and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Transepithelial ion currents of freshly dissected pig tracheal preparations were measured with Ussing chambers. Application of luminal ACh (100 μM) induced an increase of the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The ACh effect was mimicked by muscarine and pilocarpine (100 μM each) and was sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine). No changes of the I(SC) were observed by nicotine (100 μM) and ACh responses were not affected by nicotine or mecamylamine (25 μM). Luminal application of IBMX (I, 100 μM) and forskolin (F, 10 μM), increase the I(SC) and the I/F-induced current were decreased by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101 (GlyH, 50 μM) indicating increased CFTR activity by I/F. In contrast, GlyH did not affect the ACh-induced current, indicating that the ACh response does not involve the activation of the CFTR. Results from this study suggest that luminal ACh does not regulate the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs which opposes observation from studies using mice airway epithelium.

  15. Right Lung Agenesis with Tracheal Stenosis due to Complete Tracheal Rings and Postpneumonectomy Like Syndrome Treated with Tissue Expander Placement

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Congenital lung agenesis is an extremely rare condition with an estimated prevalence of 34 in 1,000,000 live births. It is often associated with other congenital malformations of the skeletal, cardiovascular, urogenital, and gastrointestinal systems. We discuss the case of a 5-month-old who presented with increasing stridor over 1 month. Imaging revealed right lung agenesis, complete dextromalposition of heart, and compression of distal trachea. An intrathoracic saline tissue expander was placed which marked improved distal tracheal stenosis. In patients who are symptomatic it becomes imperative to perform surgeries to increase survival as was the case in this patient. PMID:27882259

  16. Tracheal dead space influences regional ventilation measurement in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Delaunois, L.; Boileau, R.; Martin, R.R. )

    1990-02-01

    The lung volume at which airway closure begins during expiration (closing volume, CV) can be measured (1) with a radioactive bolus inspired at residual volume (RV) and (2) with the single-breath N2 elimination test. In previous studies in dogs, we observed that N2 CV was systematically larger than 133Xe bolus CV (Xe CV) (N2 CV %vital capacity (VC) = 35 +/- 2.3 (SE) vs. Xe CV %VC = 24 +/- 2.2, P less than 0.01). Because the regional RV in the dog is evenly distributed throughout the lung and all airways closed at RV, N2 CV is related to the regional distribution of the tracheal N2; differences between N2 and Xe CV could then be related to the size of the inhaled dead space. Simultaneous measurements of Xe and N2 CV were performed at various sites of Xe bolus injection while the regional distribution of the bolus was measured. Injections at the level of the carina increased Xe CV to a value (30 +/- 1.4%VC) near simultaneous N2 CV (32 +/- 1.5%VC) and increased the unevenness of regional distribution of the Xe bolus. The difference between N2 and Xe CV is then the result of the size of the inspired tracheal dead space. Moreover, comparisons between different values of Xe CV require injections of the boluses at the same distance from the carina.

  17. Biomechanical and biocompatibility characteristics of electrospun polymeric tracheal scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Lim, Mei Ling; Lemon, Greg; Haag, Johannes C; Gustafsson, Ylva; Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Baiguera, Silvia; Bianco, Alessandra; Jungebluth, Philipp; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    The development of tracheal scaffolds fabricated based on electrospinning technique by applying different ratios of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyurethane (PU) is introduced here. Prior to clinical implantation, evaluations of biomechanical and morphological properties, as well as biocompatibility and cell adhesion verifications are required and extensively performed on each scaffold type. However, the need for bioreactors and large cell numbers may delay the verification process during the early assessment phase. Hence, we investigated the feasibility of performing biocompatibility verification using static instead of dynamic culture. We performed bioreactor seeding on 3-dimensional (3-D) tracheal scaffolds (PET/PU and PET) and correlated the quantitative and qualitative results with 2-dimensional (2-D) sheets seeded under static conditions. We found that an 8-fold reduction for 2-D static seeding density can essentially provide validation on the qualitative and quantitative evaluations for 3-D scaffolds. In vitro studies revealed that there was notably better cell attachment on PET sheets/scaffolds than with the polyblend. However, the in vivo outcomes of cell seeded PET/PU and PET scaffolds in an orthotopic transplantation model in rodents were similar. They showed that both the scaffold types satisfied biocompatibility requirements and integrated well with the adjacent tissue without any observation of necrosis within 30 days of implantation.

  18. Preauricular skin tags and difficult tracheal intubation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moschini, V; Collini, R

    2009-10-01

    Despite the large variety of equipment available for pediatric intubations, difficult tracheal intubation is still a main factor in deaths associated with anesthesia, especially in children with congenital anomalies of the airways or with rare diseases and syndromes. The aim of this study was to focus attention on the possibility of difficult intubation in children with preauricular tags. This condition is reported as both isolated and associated with more complex syndromes, including nephrourological anomalies and multiple craniofacial dysmorphysms. We retrospectively analyzed the anesthesia procedures for seven children (aged between 3 and 18 months) who underwent surgical ablation of preauricular tags between October 2006 and April 2008 at the Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli and Regina Elena of Milan. Two of these children, both native residents of Sri Lanka, presented with a problematic airway and difficult tracheal intubation, which was suspected in one case but totally unexpected in the other. Considering the International Guidelines for difficult intubation in pediatrics and the data of other authors, our conclusions for how to approach a child with preauricular tags are: 1) to verify whether the defect is isolated or associated with other malformations; 2) to analyze the medical history and to perform an accurate physical examination to identify a possibly difficult airway; and 3) to not exceed three attempts to intubate and, if possible, to choose an alternative strategy.

  19. Glycoprotein secretion in a tracheal organ culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Warunek, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Glycoprotein secretion in the rat trachea was studied in vitro, utilizing a modified, matrix embed/perfusion chamber. Baseline parameters of the culture environment were determined by enzymatic and biochemical procedures. The effect of pilocarpine on the release of labelled glycoproteins from the tracheal epithelium was assessed. After a single stimulation with the drug, there was a significant increase in the release of /sup 14/C-glucosamine and /sup 3/H-fucose-labelled glycoprotein. The response was dose-dependent. Similar results were obtained after a second exposure to pilocarpine. However, no dose response was observed. Morphological analyses of the tracheal epithelial secretory cells by Alcian Blue/Periodic Acid Schiff staining showed a significant decrease in the total number of Alcian Blue staining cells and an increase in the mixed cell population after a single exposure to pilocarpine. Second stimulation with the drug showed that the trachea was able to respond again, this time with a further decrease in the number of Alcian Blue staining cells and a decrease in the PAS staining cells as well. Carbohydrate analyses after the first simulation with pilocarpine showed increased levels of N-acetyl neuraminic acid and the neutral carbohydrates, fucose and galactose, in the precipitated glycoproteins.

  20. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland abnormalities and salivary dysfunction are important orofacial disorders. Patients with such problems are usually seen in the dental office for evaluation and therapy, and the dental practitioner is required to make a diagnosis and institute care. Therefore, it is necessary for the dentist to be knowledgeable regarding the more common pathologic entities that involve the salivary apparatus, and also be familiar with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools that are available. Successful diagnosis is dependent on the organized integration of the information derived from past history, clinical examination, salivary volume study, imaging, serology, and histopathologic examination. This article discusses the most common disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center and indicates the current approaches to diagnosis. Improvement in diagnostic skills will avoid serious complications and lead to specific and effective therapy.

  1. Human combinatorial autoantibodies and mouse monoclonal antibodies to PDC-E2 produce abnormal apical staining of salivary glands in patients with coexistent primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsuneyama, K; Van de Water, J; Nakanuma, Y; Cha, S; Ansari, A; Coppel, R; Gershwin, M E

    1994-10-01

    An increase in the incidence of Sjögren's syndrome in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis has been noted. Indeed, primary biliary cirrhosis has been described as a ductal disease with involvement not only of the biliary tract but of epithelial ductal cells in other organs. We have previously reported the development of a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies directed at PDC-E2, the major autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis. One such antibody, C355.1, but none of the other monoclonal antibodies, reacted not only with mitochondria but also with the apical region of biliary epithelium of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not in similar specimens from patients with other liver disease or normal human liver. In addition, we have reported the development of human combinatorial antibodies specific for PDC-E2; these reagents also reacted uniquely with the biliary epithelium of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. In this paper, we have performed a similar study and have compared the staining of monoclonal antibody C355.1 and a human combinatorial antibody, SP4, with control monoclonal antibodies with respect to their reactivity of salivary glands in 9 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis associated with Sjögren's syndrome, 11 patients with Sjögren's syndrome alone and 7 control patients. Interestingly, the apical region of the salivary gland epithelial cells of approximately 50% of patients with coexisting primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjögren's syndrome had a staining pattern similar to that seen in primary biliary cirrhosis biliary epithelium. In contrast, we did not observe this reactivity in any patient with Sjögren's syndrome alone or in any control patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. COMPARISON OF THE RADIOGRAPHIC AND TRACHEOSCOPIC APPEARANCE OF THE DORSAL TRACHEAL MEMBRANE IN LARGE AND SMALL BREED DOGS.

    PubMed

    Lindl Bylicki, Britany J; Johnson, Lynelle R; Pollard, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and clinical significance of increased radiographic opacity along the dorsal margin of the tracheal lumen has long been debated. Most often, this opacity is attributed to redundancy of the dorsal tracheal membrane (DTM), a condition that occurs with tracheal collapse. We hypothesized that the underlying etiology of this radiographic opacity differs between small breed dogs with tracheal collapse and small or large breed dogs without tracheal collapse. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to compare the radiographic appearance of an increased opacity within the trachea to tracheoscopy findings in a group of small and large breed dogs. A total of 17 small breed dogs and 16 large breed dogs were included. Of these, only one did not have a radiographically visible DTM. Small breed dogs were divided into groups with tracheal collapse (n = 8) and those without (n = 9) based on tracheoscopy. Tracheal collapse was absent in larger breed dogs, however both large and small breed dogs demonstrated inward invagination of the DTM. In dogs with tracheal collapse, the DTM occupied a larger percentage of the tracheal luminal height on radiographs and a larger percentage of tracheal circumference on tracheoscopy vs. dogs with an invaginated DTM on tracheoscopy and dogs with no collapse and no invagination of the DTM. Findings supported the hypothesis that increased radiographic opacity along the dorsal margin of the trachea arises from different etiologies in dogs with and without tracheal collapse.

  3. Ciliated cells in vitamin A-deprived cultured hamster tracheal epithelium do divide

    SciTech Connect

    Rutten, A.A.; Beems, R.B.; Wilmer, J.W.; Feron, V.J.

    1988-09-01

    The pseudostratified tracheal epithelium, composed of a heterogeneous phenotypically varying cell population, was studied with respect to the in vitro cell proliferative activity of differentiated epithelial cells. Ciliated tracheal epithelial cells so far have been considered to be terminally differentiated, nonproliferating cells. Tracheal organ cultures obtained from vitamin A-deprived Syrian Golden hamsters were cultured in a vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In vitamin A-deprived tracheal epithelium treated with physiologically active all-trans retinol and low cigarette-smoke condensate concentrations it is possible to stimulate the cell proliferation of both basal and columnar cells. Therefore, the probability of finding proliferating columnar cells was increased compared with the in vivo and the vitamin A-deprived situation in which cell proliferative activity is relatively low. In the presence of cigarette-smoke condensate in a noncytotoxic concentration, basal, small mucous granule, ciliated, and indifferent tracheal epithelial cells incorporated (methyl-3H)-thymidine into the DNA during the S phase. The finding that ciliated cells were labeled was supported by serial sections showing the same labeled ciliated cell in two section planes separated by 2 to 3 micron, without labeled epithelial cells next to the ciliated cell. Furthermore, a ciliated tracheal epithelial cell incorporating (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA was also seen in tracheal cultures of vitamin A-deprived hamsters treated with all-trans retinol in a physiologic concentration.

  4. Tracheal rupture caused by blunt chest trauma: radiological and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Kunisch-Hoppe, M; Hoppe, M; Rauber, K; Popella, C; Rau, W S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess radiomorphologic and clinical features of tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma. From 1992 until 1998 the radiomorphologic and clinical key findings of all consecutive tracheal ruptures were retrospectively analyzed. The study included ten patients (7 men and 3 women; mean age 35 years); all had pneumothoraces which were persistent despite suction drainage. Seven patients developed a pneumomediastinum as well as a subcutaneous emphysema on conventional chest X-rays. In five patients, one major hint leading to the diagnosis was a cervical emphysema, discovered on the lateral cervical spine view. Contrast-media-enhanced thoracic CT was obtained in all ten cases and showed additional injuries (atelectasis n = 5; lung contusion n = 4; lung laceration n = 2; hematothorax n = 2 and hematomediastinum n = 4). The definite diagnosis of tracheal rupture was made by bronchoscopy, which was obtained in all patients. Tracheal rupture due to blunt chest trauma occurs rarely. Key findings were all provided by conventional chest X-ray. Tracheal rupture is suspected in front of a pneumothorax, a pneumomediastinum, or a subcutaneous emphysema on lateral cervical spine and chest films. Routine thoracic CT could also demonstrate these findings but could not confirm the definite diagnosis of an tracheal rupture except in one case; in the other 9 cases this was done by bronchoscopy. Thus, bronchoscopy should be mandatory in all suspicious cases of tracheal rupture and remains the gold standard.

  5. Cell autonomy of HIF effects in Drosophila: tracheal cells sense hypoxia and induce terminal branch sprouting.

    PubMed

    Centanin, Lázaro; Dekanty, Andrés; Romero, Nuria; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Gorr, Thomas A; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila tracheal terminal branches are plastic and have the capacity to sprout out projections toward oxygen-starved areas, in a process analogous to mammalian angiogenesis. This response involves the upregulation of FGF/Branchless in hypoxic tissues, which binds its receptor Breathless on tracheal cells. Here, we show that extra sprouting depends on the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-alpha homolog Sima and on the HIF-prolyl hydroxylase Fatiga that operates as an oxygen sensor. In mild hypoxia, Sima accumulates in tracheal cells, where it induces breathless, and this induction is sufficient to provoke tracheal extra sprouting. In nontracheal cells, Sima contributes to branchless induction, whereas overexpression of Sima fails to attract terminal branch outgrowth, suggesting that HIF-independent components are also required for full induction of the ligand. We propose that the autonomous response to hypoxia that occurs in tracheal cells enhances tracheal sensitivity to increasing Branchless levels, and that this mechanism is a cardinal step in hypoxia-dependent tracheal sprouting.

  6. Function of salivary glands and sialochemistry in sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Arglebe, C

    1983-01-01

    Human sialadenosis is a non-inflammatory disease affecting the cephalic salivary glands, mainly the parotid, characterized by a mostly bilateral, painless swelling due to a substantial increase of the glandular parenchyma. After the presentation of clinical, cytological and biochemical data the probable etiology of this disease is discussed. It is concluded that sialadenosis is not a disease of the salivary glands themselves but of their sympathetic innervation.

  7. Efficacy of two iso-propanol-based skin antiseptics applied to human skin with many sebaceous glands for 2 and 10 minutes

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Sammann, Andreas; Pitten, Frank-Albert; Christiansen, Bärbel; Heeg, Peter; Nowak, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent research suggests that specific ethanol-based skin antiseptics exhibit their efficacy on the resident skin flora of the forehead in only 2.5 minutes. We have now looked at the efficacy of two skin antiseptics based on 63% (w/w) propan-2-ol (iso-propanol) and applied for 10 and 2 minutes on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands. Methods: Each experiment was performed in a reference-controlled cross-over design with at least 20 participants. Application of isopropanol (70%, v/v) for 10 minutes to the forehead served as the reference treatment. Pre-values and post-values (immediately after the application and after 30 min) were obtained by swabbing a marked area of 5 cm2 for about 10 s. Swabs were vortexed in tryptic soy broth containing valid neutralizing agents. After serial dilution aliquots were spread on tryptic soy agar. Colonies were counted after incubation of plates at 36°C for 48 h. The mean log10 reduction of bacteria was calculated. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used for a comparison of treatments. Results: Skin antiseptic A applied for 10 min (one experiment) was equally effective to the reference treatment. When applied for 2 min (two experiments) it was still equally effective to the reference treatment immediately after application (e.g. 1.6 versus 1.4 log10 reduction) and after 30 min (1.7 versus 1.4 log10 reduction). Skin antiseptic B applied for 10 and 2 min (one experiment each) was also equally effective to the reference treatment both immediately after application and after 30 min. Conclusions: The clear and coloured skin antiseptics applied for 2 min on the skin of the forehead fulfilled the national efficacy requirements for skin antisepsis. The shorter application time on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands will allow acting more efficiently in clinical practice. PMID:24653974

  8. Effects of ozone on lamb tracheal mucosa. Quantitative glycoconjugate histochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mariassy, A.T.; Sielczak, M.W.; McCray, M.N.; Abraham, W.M.; Wanner, A. )

    1989-11-01

    Whether or not the previously reported O3-induced abnormality in the postnatal development of tracheal secretory function in lambs is accompanied by changes in epithelial cell populations and their glycoconjugate composition was determined. Six lambs were killed at birth and 12 lambs at age 2 weeks. Of the latter 12, six were exposed to O3 (1 ppm, 4 hours daily for 5 days during the 1st week of life) and five had air-sham exposures (controls). Tracheal glycoconjugates were localized in situ with lectins to detect N-acetyl-galactosamine (galNAc), alpha-D-galactose (alpha-gal), beta-D-gal(1----3)-galNAc (beta-gal), and fucose (fuc). Mean (+/- SD) epithelial cell density (cells/mm basal lamina) was 418 +/- 57 in the newborns, 385 +/- 63 in controls (P was not significant), and 342 +/- 47 in O3-exposed lambs (P less than 0.05). Mucous cell density was 87 +/- 12 in newborns, 63 +/- 10 in controls (P less than 0.05), and 76 +/- 10 in O3 exposed lambs (P was not significant). Ciliated cells remained unchanged from birth to 2 weeks (P was not significant), but decreased (P less than 0.05) in O3-exposed lambs. All counted mucous cells contained fuc and galNAc at birth and retained these residues after sham and O3 exposure. The alpha-gal-containing mucous cells declined from 97 +/- 13 to 7 +/- 1 (P less than 0.05) and beta-gal containing cells from 39 +/- 5 to 25 +/- 4 in controls. In contrast, cells containing alpha-gal 71 +/- 10 remained at newborn levels (97 +/- 13) and beta-gal-containing cells increased from 40 +/- 5 at birth to 58 +/- 8 in O3-exposed animals (P less than 0.05). It was concluded that early postnatal exposure of lambs to O3 causes a decrease in epithelial cell density, but retards the developmental decrease in the number of tracheal mucous cells and alters the lectin detectable carbohydrate composition of mucus in these cells.

  9. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pape, S A; MacLeod, R I; McLean, N R; Soames, J V

    1995-09-01

    Sialadenosis (sialosis) is an uncommon, non-inflammatory condition which usually causes bilateral, diffuse enlargement of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid. We present a series of 7 patients with sialadenosis. Two had bilateral and 4 unilateral parotid involvement. One patient had unilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. One patient had bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular gland sialadenosis. The clinicopathological features and management of the condition are reviewed.

  10. [Sonography of the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Rüeger, R

    2005-03-02

    In the abdominal ultrasonography, the representation of normal adrenal glands is frequently problematic, also for experienced practitioners in ultrasonography. During a seminary at the congress of the SGUM in Davos, in June 2004, it was specially entered to this problematic by anatomical illustrations and live demonstrations. These statements will be summarized in the following article. Also, the technics of examination of the adrenal glands will be explained, especially in comparison to anatomical cut-preparations. It will be entered to particular pathological statements of the adrenal glands. The proceeding will be described by the localisation of accidentally detected tumours of adrenal glands.

  11. Pediatric tracheal tumor masked by a history of travel: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Pugnale, Marci J; Maresh, Alison; Sinha, Pranava; Rossi, Christopher; Murnick, Jonathan; Reilly, Brian K

    2015-04-01

    A previously healthy 10-year-old female reported a 1-month history of wheezing and hemoptysis. Initial evaluation and treatment were focused on refractory reactive airway disease and infectious etiologies prompted by her recent travels in Africa. Worsening respiratory distress prompted emergent evaluation with imaging and endoscopy. Bronchoscopy diagnosed a distal tracheal tumor; pathology of this tumor was benign fibrous histiocytoma. Successful management of this condition included imaging, rigid bronchoscopy with biopsy, and tracheal resection to surgically excise the lesion. Although rare, tracheal tumors should be considered when presentation of asthma is atypical and nonresponsive to medical interventions.

  12. Novel technique for relieving anastomotic tension using halo-vest immobilization after tracheal sleeve resection.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Saito, Hajime; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Motoyama, Satoru; Sato, Yusuke; Shimada, Yoichi; Ogawa, Jun-ichi

    2013-07-01

    We describe a novel technique of using halo-vest-enforced immobilization to relieve anastomotic tension after tracheal sleeve resection. Immediately after the tracheal sleeve resection, four halo titanium pins were inserted in the skulls of the patients to secure the halo-vest. All patients fitted with halo-vests were able to eat and drink and their clinical course was good. Bronchoscopy confirmed the absence of anastomotic leaks and stenoses, and there were no complications associated with the halo-vest. We believe that ensuring neck flexion using a halo-vest after tracheal sleeve resection is an excellent way of relieving anastomotic tension that would predispose the wound to dehiscence.

  13. PCR-based detection of a tracheal mite of the honey bee Acarapis woodi.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuriko; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-10-01

    The effects of the tracheal mite Acarapis woodi on the health of honey bees have been neglected since the prevalence of Varroa mites to Apis mellifera colonies. However, tracheal mite infestation of honey bee colonies still occurs worldwide and could impose negative impact on apiculture. The detection of A. woodi requires the dissection of honey bees followed by microscopic observation of the tracheal sacs. We thus developed PCR methods to detect A. woodi. These methods facilitate rapid and sensitive detection of A. woodi in many honey bee samples for epidemiologic surveys.

  14. Intraoperative Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal During Apneic Oxygenation with an EZ-Blocker in Tracheal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Marco; Nespoli, Moana Rossella; Mattiacci, Dario Maria; Esposito, Marianna; Corcione, Antonio; Buono, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    Tracheal surgery requires continued innovation to manage the anesthetic during an open airway phase. A common approach is apneic oxygenation with continuous oxygen flow, but the lack of effective ventilation causes hypercapnia, with respiratory acidosis. We used extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal for intraoperative decapneization during apneic oxygenation in a 64-year-old woman who was scheduled for tracheal surgery because of tracheal stenosis caused by long-term intubation. Our findings demonstrate that even after 40 minutes of total apnea, using an EZ-blocker for oxygenation and external decapneization, hemodynamic and gas exchange variables never demonstrated any dangerous alterations.

  15. [Contact allergy-induced tracheal stenosis caused by vulcanization accelerators in the endotracheal tube?].

    PubMed

    Niehaus, H H; Enzmann, H

    1995-07-01

    Tracheal stenoses occur mainly under iatrogenic conditions: they develop specially after long-term intubation, but also after tracheotomy. Etiological-pathogenic relevant factors include the mechanical irritation of mucosa, perichondrium and cartilage in addition to infected tracheal secretions. An allergic cell-mediated reaction in the respiratory tract has been already described. It is seldom recognized. The possibility of such a hyperergic, allergic, delayed reaction (Type IV Coombs-Gell response) with subsequent tracheal stenosis caused by rubber chemicals (accelerators) found in endotracheal tubes is presented in the following case report.

  16. Incidence Rate of Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis in Patients Admitted to Five Intensive Care Units in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farzanegan, Roya; Farzanegan, Behrooz; Zangi, Mahdi; Golestani Eraghi, Majid; Noorbakhsh, Shahram; Doozandeh Tabarestani, Neda; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam

    2016-01-01

    Background Tracheal stenosis is one of the worst complications associated with endotracheal intubation and it is the most common reason for reconstructive airway surgeries. Due to various local risk factors, the incidence rate of tracheal stenosis may vary in different countries. In order to estimate the incidence rate of post-intubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), a follow-up study was planned. As there was no similar methodological model in the literature, a feasibility step was also designed to examine the whole project and to enhance the follow-up rate. Objectives To estimate the PITS incidence rate in patients admitted to ICUs, as well as to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in five hospitals in two provinces (Tehran and Arak) of Iran from November 2011 to March 2013. All patients admitted to ICUs who underwent more than 24 hours of endotracheal intubation were included. Upon their discharge from the ICUs, the patients received oral and written educational materials intended to ensure a more successful follow-up. The patients were asked to come back for follow-up three months after their extubation, or sooner in case of any symptoms developing. Those with dyspnea or stridor underwent a bronchoscopy. The asymptomatic patients were given a spirometry and then they underwent a bronchoscopy if the flow-volume loop suggested airway stenosis. Results Some seventy-three patients (70% men) were included in the study. Multiple trauma secondary to motor vehicle accidents (52%) was the most common cause of intubation. Follow-ups were completed in only 14 (19.2%, CI = 0.109 - 0.300) patients. One patient (7%, CI = 0.007 - 0.288) developed symptomatic tracheal stenosis that was confirmed by bronchoscopy. The barriers to a successful follow-up were assessed on three levels: ineffective oral education upon discharge, improper usage of educational materials, and

  17. Endoscopic laser treatment of subglottic and tracheal stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Alex J.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Reinisch, Lou

    1999-06-01

    The ideal laser produces discrete wounds in a reproducible manner. The CO2 laser with its 10.6 micron wavelength is highly absorbed by water, its energy concentrated at the point of impact and the longer wavelength creates less scatter in tissue. The development of binocular endoscopic delivery system for use with binocular microlaryngoscopes have aided in using CO2 laser to treat patients with subglottic and tracheal stenosis. Often, patients with these disease processes require multiple endoscopic or open reconstructive procedures and my ultimately become tracheotomy dependent. The canine model of subglottic stenosis that has been develop allows testing of new agents as adjuncts to laser treatment. Mitomycin-C is an antibiotic with antitumor activity used in chemotherapy and also in ophthalmologic surgery due to its known inhibition of fibroblast proliferation. Current studies indicate this drug to have significant potential for improving our current management of this disease process.

  18. Culture and differentiation of mouse tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    You, Yingjian; Brody, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Airway epithelial cell biology has been greatly advanced by studies of genetically defined and modified mice; however it is often difficult to isolate, manipulate, and assay epithelial cell-specific responses in vivo. In vitro proliferation and differentiation of mouse airway epithelial cells are made possible by a high-fidelity system for primary culture of mouse tracheal epithelial cells described in this chapter. Using this method, epithelial cells purified from mouse tracheas proliferate in growth factor-enriched medium. Subsequent culture in defined medium and the use of the air-liquid interface condition result in the development of well-differentiated epithelia composed of ciliated and non-ciliated cells with characteristics of native airways. Methods are also provided for manipulation of differentiation and analysis of differentiation and gene expression. These approaches allow the assessment of global responses and those of specific cell subpopulations within the airway epithelium.

  19. Evolutional trends in the management of tracheal and bronchial injuries

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal and Bronchial injuries are potentially life threatening complications which require urgent diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. They typically occur in association with blunt and penetrating chest trauma although they are increasingly being encountered in patients following endobronchial intervention and percutaneous tracheostomy insertion. Their precise incidence is unknown. Presenting features include dyspnoea, stridor, respiratory and haemodynamic compromise, haemoptysis, surgical emphysema, pneumothorax and persistent significant airleak. There may be other additional injuries to consider in trauma patients with large airway injury. Familiarity with the diagnosis and management of large airway injuries is important for medical teams engaged in emergency medicine, thoracic surgery and medicine, anaesthesia and intensive care. Although early surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment, endobronchial manoeuvres to seal defects are receiving increasing attention particularly for patients with medical co-morbidities which may contraindicate formal surgery or transfer or where local surgical expertise is not available. PMID:28203439

  20. Massive surgical emphysema secondary to iatrogenic tracheal laceration

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Sarah; Rahman, Habib; Frunza, Gabriela; Wickham, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman was admitted for a revision total hip replacement following a failed dynamic hip screw placed emergently 4 months earlier. Anaesthetic management consisted of general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation and femoral nerve block. The patient's perioperative course was unremarkable except for a promptly recognised and corrected oesophageal intubation and a short period of breathing against a closed adjustable pressure limiting valve. In recovery, following a period of hypotension resistant to fluid therapy, she suddenly desaturated, developed severe facial and upper thoracic subcutaneous emphysema and type 2 respiratory failure. She was diagnosed with bilateral pneumothoraces, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium and surgical emphysema. This was treated emergently with supplemental oxygen and bilateral chest drains. A CT scan demonstrated a tracheal laceration, which was managed conservatively in the critical care unit. The patient had a tracheostomy on day 5 to treat an on-going air leak and later made a full recovery. PMID:25750221

  1. [Tracheal rupture after orotracheal intubation in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Hayi-Slayman, D; Page, M; Ben Cheikh, A; Christin, F; Ber, C-E; Rimmelé, T

    2007-06-01

    We report a case of an iatrogenic tracheal rupture following an endotracheal intubation. The 78-year-old patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of an acute respiratory failure related to a severe nosocomial pneumonia occurring 21 days after an abdominal aorta surgery. His main antecedent was a cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immediately after being intubated, a traumatic tracheobronchial rupture was suspected because of the sudden appearance of cervicothoracic subcutaneous emphysema. A thoracic computed tomography with multiplanar reformations confirmed the diagnosis and the evolution was unfortunately rapidly unfavourable. Risk factors, clinical and radiological aspects, and management of this rare but serious complication of endotracheal intubation will be discussed.

  2. X-ray microanalysis of hamster tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, A.J.; Roomans, G.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelia are of great interest if we are to understand the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystic fibrosis in which ion transport is abnormal. Concentrations of elements were determined in various subcellular regions of normal or isoproterenol-treated hamster tracheal epithelium, using X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections. Samples of trachea were taken from animals under anesthesia and either frozen in situ or dissected and plunge frozen. Concentrations of Mg, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were higher in cytoplasm and nuclei of control epithelial cells in dissected samples than in cryoneedle samples. Following treatment with isoproterenol, a large decrease in the concentration of Cl was observed. The results confirm that cyclic AMP-regulated chloride secretion is unaffected by anesthesia.

  3. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kerémi, Beáta; Beck, Anita; Fábián, Tibor Károly; Fábián, Gábor; Szabó, Géza; Nagy, Ákos; Varga, Gábor

    2017-02-15

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients.

  4. Functional genetic characterization of salivary gland development in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the devastating global impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on human health, very little is known about mosquito developmental biology. In this investigation, functional genetic analysis of embryonic salivary gland development was performed in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever vector and an emerging model for vector mosquito development. Although embryonic salivary gland development has been well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about this process in mosquitoes or other arthropods. Results Mosquitoes possess orthologs of many genes that regulate Drosophila melanogaster embryonic salivary gland development. The expression patterns of a large subset of these genes were assessed during Ae. aegypti development. These studies identified a set of molecular genetic markers for the developing mosquito salivary gland. Analysis of marker expression allowed for tracking of the progression of Ae. aegypti salivary gland development in embryos. In Drosophila, the salivary glands develop from placodes located in the ventral neuroectoderm. However, in Ae. aegypti, salivary marker genes are not expressed in placode-like patterns in the ventral neuroectoderm. Instead, marker gene expression is detected in salivary gland rudiments adjacent to the proventriculus. These observations highlighted the need for functional genetic characterization of mosquito salivary gland development. An siRNA- mediated knockdown strategy was therefore employed to investigate the role of one of the marker genes, cyclic-AMP response element binding protein A (Aae crebA), during Ae. aegypti salivary gland development. These experiments revealed that Aae crebA encodes a key transcriptional regulator of the secretory pathway in the developing Ae. aegypti salivary gland. Conclusions The results of this investigation indicated that the initiation of salivary gland development in Ae. aegypti significantly differs from that of D. melanogaster. Despite these differences

  5. Modeling expiratory flow from excised tracheal tube laws.

    PubMed

    Aljuri, N; Freitag, L; Venegas, J G

    1999-11-01

    Flow limitation during forced exhalation and gas trapping during high-frequency ventilation are affected by upstream viscous losses and by the relationship between transmural pressure (Ptm) and cross-sectional area (A(tr)) of the airways, i.e., tube law (TL). Our objective was to test the validity of a simple lumped-parameter model of expiratory flow limitation, including the measured TL, static pressure recovery, and upstream viscous losses. To accomplish this objective, we assessed the TLs of various excised animal tracheae in controlled conditions of quasi-static (no flow) and steady forced expiratory flow. A(tr) was measured from digitized images of inner tracheal walls delineated by transillumination at an axial location defining the minimal area during forced expiratory flow. Tracheal TLs followed closely the exponential form proposed by Shapiro (A. H. Shapiro. J. Biomech. Eng. 99: 126-147, 1977) for elastic tubes: Ptm = K(p) [(A(tr)/A(tr0))(-n) - 1], where A(tr0) is A(tr) at Ptm = 0 and K(p) is a parametric factor related to the stiffness of the tube wall. Using these TLs, we found that the simple model of expiratory flow limitation described well the experimental data. Independent of upstream resistance, all tracheae with an exponent n < 2 experienced flow limitation, whereas a trachea with n > 2 did not. Upstream viscous losses, as expected, reduced maximal expiratory flow. The TL measured under steady-flow conditions was stiffer than that measured under expiratory no-flow conditions, only if a significant static pressure recovery from the choke point to atmosphere was assumed in the measurement.

  6. Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, C; MacBean, A

    2012-01-01

    Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

  7. Tissue-specific ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, J L; Shimizu, N; Gitlin, J D

    1991-01-01

    Using a ceruloplasmin cDNA clone in RNA blot analysis, a single 3.7 kb ceruloplasmin-specific transcript was detected in rat mammary gland tissue from pregnant and lactating animals. Ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland was tissue-specific, with no evidence of expression in brain, heart or other extrahepatic tissues. Ceruloplasmin mRNA was also detected in mammary gland tissue from male, virgin female and non-pregnant/multiparous animals, and the abundance of ceruloplasmin-specific transcripts in virgin female rats was independent of their stage of oestrus. In virgin female mammary gland the content of ceruloplasmin mRNA was 20% of that in hepatic tissue from these animals and approx. 2-3-fold greater than that found in mammary gland tissue of pregnant or lactating animals. Development studies revealed ceruloplasmin gene expression in male and female mammary gland by only 2 weeks of age, prior to the onset of puberty. Biosynthetic studies indicated that the ceruloplasmin mRNA in mammary gland tissue was translated into a 132 kDa protein qualitatively similar to that synthesized in liver. By in situ hybridization, ceruloplasmin gene expression was localized to the epithelium lining the mammary gland alveolar ducts, without evidence of expression in the surrounding mesenchyme. Ceruloplasmin gene expression was also detected in a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line and in biopsy tissue from women with invasive ductal carcinoma. Taken together, these data indicate that the mammary gland is a prominent site of extrahepatic ceruloplasmin gene expression and add to the evidence that ceruloplasmin biosynthesis is associated with growth and differentiation in non-hepatic tissues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1764031

  8. Infected tracheal diverticulum: a rare association with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Cecília Beatriz Alves; Silva, Sónia; Feijó, Salvato

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal diverticulum, defined as a benign outpouching of the tracheal wall, is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice. It can be congenital or acquired in origin, and most cases are asymptomatic, typically being diagnosed postmortem. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who was hospitalized after presenting with fever, fatigue, pleuritic chest pain, and a right neck mass complicated by dysphagia. Her medical history was significant: pulmonary emphysema (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency); bronchiectasis; and thyroidectomy. On physical examination, she presented diminished breath sounds and muffled heart sounds, with a systolic murmur. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, a CT scan showed an air-filled, multilocular mass in the right tracheal wall, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the CT findings. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy failed to reveal any abnormalities. Nevertheless, the patient was diagnosed with tracheal diverticulum. The treatment approach was conservative, consisting mainly of antibiotics. After showing clinical improvement, the patient was discharged.

  9. Tracheal varices caused by mediastinal compression of a large intrathoracic goiter: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    LUCCHINI, R.; SANTOPRETE, S.; TRIOLA, R.; POLISTENA, A.; MONACELLI, M.; AVENIA, S.; SANGUINETTI, A.; PUMA, F.; AVENIA, N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tracheal varices are a rare condition but they can be an important source of massive or recurrent haemoptysis. Usually they are related to increased pressure in the pulmonary veins. Mediastinal goiter is often associated to compressive effects on the surrounding structures, including mediastinal vessels with potential superior vena cava syndrome. Case report We describe a case, not previously reported in literature, of mediastinal goiter with hemoptysis as first clinical manifestation. Bleeding was attributed to a superior vena cava syndrome associated to a tracheal fragile mucosa with an easily bleeding intramural nodule which was diagnosed as tracheal varices after total thyroidectomy. The nodule in fact disappeared together with the venous hypertensive signs after venous decompression of the mediastinum. Conclusions Compressive symptoms including tracheal varices, related to mediastinal goiter, can be treated surgically by total thyroidectomy via cervicotomy and when required with associated median sternotomy. PMID:25827666

  10. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  11. Immunodepletion experiments suggest that acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) protein plays a major catalytic role in adult human liver, adrenal gland, macrophages, and kidney, but not in intestines.

    PubMed

    Lee, O; Chang, C C; Lee, W; Chang, T Y

    1998-08-01

    The first acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) cDNA cloned and expressed in 1993 is designated as ACAT-1. In various human tissue homogenates, ACAT-1 protein is effectively solubilized with retention of enzymatic activity by the detergent CHAPS along with high salt. After using anti-ACAT-1 antibodies to quantitatively remove ACAT-1 protein from the solubilized enzyme, measuring the residual ACAT activity remaining in the immunodepleted supernatants allows us to assess the functional significance of ACAT-1 protein in various human tissues. The results showed that ACAT activity was immunodepleted 90% in liver (83% in hepatocytes), 98% in adrenal gland, 91% in macrophages, 80% in kidney, and 19% in intestines, suggesting that ACAT-1 protein plays a major catalytic role in all of the human tissue/cell homogenates examined except intestines. Intestinal ACAT activity is largely resistant to immunodepletion and is much more sensitive to inhibition by the ACAT inhibitor Dup 128 than liver ACAT activity.

  12. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tracheal cells injured by influenza infection or by endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R; Small, P M; Shands, J W; Fischlschweiger, W; Small, P A

    1980-01-01

    Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to normal, injured, and regenerating tracheal mucosa was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Uninfected and influenza-infected murine tracheas were exposed to six strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from human sources and one strain of platn origin. All of the strains tested adhered to desquamating cells of the infected tracheas, but not to normal mucosa, the basal cell layer, or the regenerating epithelium. Adherence increased when the incubation time of the bacteria with the trachea was prolonged. Strains isolated from human tracheas appeared to adhere better than strains derived from the urinary tract. After endotracheal intubation of ferrets, P. aeruginosa adhered only to the injured cells and to areas of exposed basement membrane. We call this phenomenon "opportunistic adherence" and propose that alteration of the cell surfaces or cell injury facilitates the adherence of this bacterium and that adherence to injured cells may be a key to the pathogenesis of opportunistic Pseudomonas infections. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:6769805

  13. Hedgehog is a positive regulator of FGF signalling during embryonic tracheal cell migration.

    PubMed

    Butí, Elisenda; Mesquita, Duarte; Araújo, Sofia J

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a widespread and complex process that is crucial for morphogenesis and for the underlying invasion and metastasis of human cancers. During migration, cells are steered toward target sites by guidance molecules that induce cell direction and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. The spatio-temporal regulation of the expression of these guidance molecules is of extreme importance for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. One way to achieve this precise regulation is by combinatorial inputs of different transcription factors. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster mutants with migration defects in the ganglionic branches of the tracheal system to further clarify guidance regulation during cell migration. By studying the cellular consequences of overactivated Hh signalling, using ptc mutants, we found that Hh positively regulates Bnl/FGF levels during embryonic stages. Our results show that Hh modulates cell migration non-autonomously in the tissues surrounding the action of its activity. We further demonstrate that the Hh signalling pathway regulates bnl expression via Stripe (Sr), a zinc-finger transcription factor with homology to the Early Growth Response (EGR) family of vertebrate transcription factors. We propose that Hh modulates embryonic cell migration by participating in the spatio-temporal regulation of bnl expression in a permissive mode. By doing so, we provide a molecular link between the activation of Hh signalling and increased chemotactic responses during cell migration.

  14. H1- and H2-receptor characterization in the tracheal circulation of sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Webber, S. E.; Salonen, R. O.; Widdicombe, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of histamine, the specific H1-agonist SKF 71481-A2 and the H2-agonist dimaprit were examined on tracheal vascular resistance in sheep anaesthetized with pentobarbitone. Tracheal vascular resistance was determined by perfusing the cranial tracheal arteries at constant flows and measuring inflow pressures. Changes in tracheal smooth muscle tone were also measured. 2. Histamine and SKF 71481-A2 contracted the tracheal smooth muscle and this effect was blocked by the H1-antagonist mepyramine. Stimulation of H2-receptors with dimaprit had no effect on tracheal smooth muscle tone. 3. Histamine had a complex action on the tracheal vasculature producing either a triphasic change (early dilatation then constriction followed by late dilatation) or just a constriction. SKF 71481-A2 always produced a biphasic change in vascular resistance (dilatation followed by constriction). Dimaprit dilated the tracheal vasculature. 4. The late dilatation produced by histamine in some sheep was blocked by bilateral cervical vagotomy but the mechanism for this effect is not known. No other responses to histamine, SKF 71481-A2 or dimaprit were affected by vagotomy. 5. The vasoconstriction produced by histamine and SKF 71481-A2 was antagonized by mepyramine indicating a H1-receptor-mediated effect. Cimetidine had no effect on the vasoconstriction to histamine suggesting a lack of involvement of H2-receptors. 6. The vasodilatation produced by histamine and SKF 71481-A2 was also antagonized by mepyramine, again suggesting a H1-receptor-mediated action. Cimetidine had no effect on the vasodilator response to histamine indicating no involvement of H2-receptors in this response. 7. The dilator effect of dimaprit was antagonized by cimetidine suggesting this effect was mediated by H2-receptors. 8. We conclude that H1-receptors in the various parts of the sheep tracheal vasculature can cause increases and decreases in total tracheal vascular resistance; that H2-receptors decrease

  15. Elements within the beta-lactoglobulin gene inhibit expression of human serum albumin cDNA and minigenes in transfected cells but rescue their expression in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Barash, I; Nathan, M; Kari, R; Ilan, N; Shani, M; Hurwitz, D R

    1996-01-01

    Two new beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)/human serum albumin (HSA) hybrid gene vectors were constructed and tested for expression in COS-7 cells and in transgenic mice. The HSA sequences were inserted between the second and sixth BLG exons. Transient transfection experiments with these vectors as well as a series of additional vectors with either the BLG 5'- or 3'- intragenic sequences revealed that sequences within BLG exon 1/intron 1/exon 2 abrogated BLG- directed HSA expression in vitro, regardless of the presence of HSA introns or the origin of the 3' polyadenylation signal. In contrast, the same BLG expression cassette enabled the efficient expression of HSA cDNA or minigene in the mammary gland of transgenic mice with subsequent secretion of the corresponding protein into the milk of 56 and 82%, respectively of the mouse strains at levels up to 0.3 mg/ml. Previous attempts to express HSA cDNA inserted into exon 1 of the BLG gene had failed [Shani,M., Barash,I., Nathan,M., Ricca,G., Searfoss,G.H., Dekel,I., Faerman,A., Givol,D. and Hurwitz,D.R. (1992) Transgenic Res. 1, 195- 208]. The new BLG expression cassette conferred more stringent tissue specific expression than previously described BLG/HSA constructs [Barash,I, Faerman,A., Ratovitsky,T, Puzis,R., Nathan,M., Hurwitz,D.R. and Shani, M. (1994) Transgenic Res. 3, 141-151]. However, it was not able to insulate the transgenes from the surrounding host DNA sequences and did not result in copy number dependent expression in transgenics. Together, the in vitro and in vivo results suggest both positive and negative regulatory elements within the BLG intragenic sequences evaluated. The new BLG construct represents an extremely valuable vector for the efficient expression of cDNAs in the mammary gland of transgenic animals. PMID:8604300

  16. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of tracheal and bronchial injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhengwei; Zhang, Tianyi; Yin, Xunliang; Zhao, Jinbo; Li, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal and bronchial injury, including iatrogenic injury and traumatic injury, the former usually occurred in the operation, intubation or bronchoscopy. The latter was occurred in a variety of blunt trauma, often combined with a variety of complex injuries. The therapeutic approach can be differentiated, surgical or conservative, no criteria has been universally accepted. Successful treatment of tracheobronchial injuries requires early diagnostic evaluation. This article aims to review the indications and therapeutic options for tracheal and bronchial injuries. PMID:28203437

  17. Correlated patterns of tracheal compression and convective gas exchange in a carabid beetle.

    PubMed

    Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Harrison, Jon F; Waters, James S; Fezzaa, Kamel; Westneat, Mark W

    2008-11-01

    Rhythmic tracheal compression is a prominent feature of internal dynamics in multiple orders of insects. During compression parts of the tracheal system collapse, effecting a large change in volume, but the ultimate physiological significance of this phenomenon in gas exchange has not been determined. Possible functions of this mechanism include to convectively transport air within or out of the body, to increase the local pressure within the tracheae, or some combination thereof. To determine whether tracheal compressions are associated with excurrent gas exchange in the ground beetle Pterostichus stygicus, we used flow-through respirometry and synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging to simultaneously record CO(2) emission and observe morphological changes in the major tracheae. Each observed tracheal compression (which occurred at a mean frequency and duration of 15.6+/-4.2 min(-1) and 2.5+/-0.8 s, respectively) was associated with a local peak in CO(2) emission, with the start of each compression occurring simultaneously with the start of the rise in CO(2) emission. No such pulses were observed during inter-compression periods. Most pulses occurred on top of an existing level of CO(2) release, indicating that at least one spiracle was open when compression began. This evidence demonstrates that tracheal compressions convectively pushed air out of the body with each stroke. The volume of CO(2) emitted per pulse was 14+/-4 nl, representing approximately 20% of the average CO(2) emission volume during x-ray irradiation, and 13% prior to it. CO(2) pulses with similar volume, duration and frequency were observed both prior to and after x-ray beam exposure, indicating that rhythmic tracheal compression was not a response to x-ray irradiation per se. This study suggests that intra-tracheal and trans-spiracular convection of air driven by active tracheal compression may be a major component of ventilation for many insects.

  18. [Effect of the hyaluronic acid on tracheal healing. A canine experimental mode].

    PubMed

    Olmos-Zúñiga, J R; Santos-Cordero, J A; Jasso-Victoria, R; Sotres-Vega, A; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, M O; Mora-Fol, J R; Franco-Oropeza, J A; Santillan-Doherty, P

    2004-02-01

    Several drugs have been used to modulate of the tracheal healing process in order to prevent tracheal stenosis. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a modulator of the fibrogenesis. In this work we evaluate the effect in order the application of hyaluronic acid has on tracheal healing, after cervical tracheoplasty in dogs. A cervical tracheal resection and tracheoplasty was performed in 12 dogs and they were treated following surgery as follows: Group I (n = 6) Topical application of normal saline solution (0.9%) on the anastomosis site. Group II Topical application of hyaluronic acid on the trachea anastomosed. The animals were evaluated clinical, radiological and tracheoscopically during 4 weeks and were submitted to euthanasia. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the tracheal anastomotic healing were evaluated. Biochemical collagen quantification by the Woessner method was performed to evaluate the collagen development at the anastomotic site. All the animals survived the surgical procedure and the study time. No animal presented differences in clinical evaluation. Radiological and endoscopical findings both two showed more development of the tracheal stenosis in-group than in group II. The tracheoscopy and macroscopic studies showed major inflammation and development of fibrotic tissue with a firm consistency in the healing of the group I than in group II. Microscopic examination in group I showed severe fibrosis and inflammatory reaction. The group II presented deposits of a thin and organized collagen fibers and minimal inflammatory reaction. Biochemical collagen concentration was larger in-group I, however significantly. We conclude that the hyaluronic acid applied after cervical tracheoplasty in dogs reduces postsurgical tracheal stenosis and inflammation, as well as improve the quality of the tracheal healing.

  19. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Diciotti, Stefano; Bigazzi, Francesca; Lombardo, Simone; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Paoletti, Matteo; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT) and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28) and in females (n=27). Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10) showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001). Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second), and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD are closely correlated. In patients with a predominant emphysematous phenotype, a reduced collapsibility may reflect the mechanical properties of the stiff hyperinflated emphysematous lung. The high collapsibility in patients with predominant airway disease, mild airway obstruction, and in women with this phenotype may reflect chronic airway inflammation. The lack of relationship with such symptoms as wheezing, cough, and dyspnea could indicate that intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility itself should be considered neither an abnormal feature of COPD nor a relevant clinical finding. PMID:25960647

  20. [Delayed iatrogenic tracheal post-intubation rupture. A short review of the aetiopathology and treatment].

    PubMed

    Pinegger, S; Gómez-Ríos, M A; Vizcaíno, L; Carillo, M

    2013-05-01

    Iatrogenic tracheal rupture is a rare complication with a high morbidity and mortality. Tracheal intubation is the main cause and its origin is multifactorial. The diagnosis is based on non-specific but highly suggestive signs and symptoms, such as subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, respiratory distress, or haemoptysis. Confirmation of the diagnosis requires an examination by bronchoscopy. Surgical repair has traditionally been the treatment of choice although the current trend is conservative management.

  1. Airtraq® versus Macintosh laryngoscope: A comparative study in tracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Geeta; Shahi, K. S.; Asad, Mohammad; Bhakuni, Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Background: The curved laryngoscope blade described by Macintosh in 1943 remains the most widely used device to facilitate tracheal intubation. The Airtraq® (Prodol Meditec S.A, Vizcaya, Spain) is a new, single use, indirect laryngoscope introduced into clinical practice in 2005. It has wan exaggerated blade curvature with internal arrangement of optical lenses and a mechanism to prevent fogging of the distal lens. A high quality view of the glottis is provided without the need to align the oral, pharyngeal and tracheal axis. We evaluated Airtraq and Macintosh laryngoscopes for success rate of tracheal intubation, overall duration of successful intubation, optimization maneuvers, POGO (percentage of glottic opening) score, and ease of intubation. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated by computer-generated random table to one of the two groups, comprising 40 patients each, group I (Airtraq) and group II (Macintosh). After induction of general anesthesia, tracheal intubation was attempted with the Airtraq or the Macintosh laryngoscope as per group. Primary end points were overall success rate of tracheal intubation, overall duration of successful tracheal intubation, optimization maneuvers, POGO score and ease of intubation between the two groups. Results: We observed that Airtraq was better than the Macintosh laryngoscope as duration of successful intubation was shorter in Airtraq 18.15 seconds (±2.74) and in the Macintosh laryngoscope it was 32.72 seconds (±8.31) P < 0.001. POGO was also better in the Airtraq group 100% grade 1 versus 67.5% in the Macintosh group, P < 0.001. Ease of intubation was also better in the Airtraq group. It was easy in 97.5% versus 42.5% in the Macintosh group, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Both Airtraq and Macintosh laryngoscopes are equally effective in tracheal intubation in normal airways. Duration of successful tracheal intubation was shorter in the Airtraq group which was statistically significant. PMID:25885839

  2. Systemic overexpression of matricellular protein CCN1 exacerbates obliterative bronchiolitis in mouse tracheal allografts.

    PubMed

    Raissadati, Alireza; Nykänen, Antti I; Tuuminen, Raimo; Syrjälä, Simo O; Krebs, Rainer; Arnaudova, Ralica; Rouvinen, Eeva; Wang, Xiaomin; Poller, Wolfgang; Lemström, Karl B

    2015-12-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) involves airway epithelial detachment, fibroproliferation, and inflammation, resulting in chronic rejection and transplant failure. Cysteine-rich 61 (CCN1) is an integrin receptor antagonist with a context-dependent role in inflammatory and fibroproliferative processes. We used a mouse tracheal OB model to investigate the role of CCN1 in the development of lung allograft OB. C57Bl/6 mice received a systemic injection of CCN1-expressing adenoviral vectors 2 days prior to subcutaneous implantation of tracheal allografts from major MHC-mismatched BALB/c mice. We treated another group of tracheal allograft recipients with cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide to dissect the role of αvβ3-integrin signaling in mediating CCN1 effects in tracheal allografts. Allografts were removed 4 weeks after transplantation and analyzed for luminal occlusion, inflammation, and vasculogenesis. CCN1 overexpression induced luminal occlusion (P < 0.05), fibroproliferation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation (P < 0.05). Selective activation of αvβ3-integrin receptor failed to mimic the actions of CCN1, and blocking failed to inhibit the effects of CCN1 in tracheal allografts. In conclusion, CCN1 exacerbates tracheal OB by enhancing fibroproliferation via an αvβ3-integrin-independent pathway. Further experiments are required to uncover its potentially harmful role in the development of OB after lung transplantation.

  3. Fascin links Btl/FGFR signalling to the actin cytoskeleton during Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okenve-Ramos, Pilar; Llimargas, Marta

    2014-02-01

    A key challenge in normal development and in disease is to elucidate the mechanisms of cell migration. Here we approach this question using the tracheal system of Drosophila as a model. Tracheal cell migration requires the Breathless/FGFR pathway; however, how the pathway induces migration remains poorly understood. We find that the Breathless pathway upregulates singed at the tip of tracheal branches, and that this regulation is functionally relevant. singed encodes Drosophila Fascin, which belongs to a conserved family of actin-bundling proteins involved in cancer progression and metastasis upon misregulation. We show that singed is required for filopodia stiffness and proper morphology of tracheal tip cells, defects that correlate with an abnormal actin organisation. We propose that singed-regulated filopodia and cell fronts are required for timely and guided branch migration and for terminal branching and branch fusion. We find that singed requirements rely on its actin-bundling activity controlled by phosphorylation, and that active Singed can promote tip cell features. Furthermore, we find that singed acts in concert with forked, another actin cross-linker. The absence of both cross-linkers further stresses the relevance of tip cell morphology and filopodia for tracheal development. In summary, our results on the one hand reveal a previously undescribed role for forked in the organisation of transient actin structures such as filopodia, and on the other hand identify singed as a new target of Breathless signal, establishing a link between guidance cues, the actin cytoskeleton and tracheal morphogenesis.

  4. [Use of a gum elastic bougie for tracheal intubation with Pentax-AWS airway scope].

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Hironobu; Asai, Takashi; Shingu, Koh; Inoue, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Enomoto, Yoshiro; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2008-01-01

    Pentax-AWS laryngoscope (Pentax, Tokyo, Japan) consists of a disposable anatomically shaped blade, a 12-cm cable with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a 2.4-inch liquid crystal device (LCD) color monitor display. A tracheal tube can be attached to the right side of the blade. The device may be useful in patients with difficult airways. One limitation of the device is that intubation may be difficult if it is difficult to position the glottis to the target symbol on the monitor display. We experienced such a difficulty in four patients, and the use of a gum elastic bougie enabled intubation. In a 57-year-old woman with a difficult airway, tracheal intubation using either a Macintosh laryngoscope or a fiberscope had failed. By inserting the AWS laryngoscope, the glottis was easily seen on the monitor display. Nevertheless, it was difficult to position the glottis to the target symbol, and advancing a tracheal tube collided with the tissue around the glottis. A bougie was passed through the tracheal tube, and it became possible to insert the bougie into the trachea by adjusting the angle of its tip. The tracheal tube was then easily passed over the bougie into the trachea. We successfully used the same technique in other three patients. We believe that the gum elastic bougie can be useful for tracheal intubation using the Pentax-AWS laryngoscope.

  5. Tracheal rupture related to endotracheal intubation after thyroid surgery: a case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohan; Xing, Na; Chang, Yanzi; Du, Yingying; Li, Zhisong; Wang, Zhongyu; Yan, Jie; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Tracheobronchial rupture is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of endotracheal intubation. The most likely cause of tracheal injury is massive overinflation of the endotracheal tube cuff and pre-existing tracheal wall weakness. We review the relevant literature and predisposing factors contributing to this complication. Only articles that reported at least the demographic data (age and sex), the treatment performed and the outcome were included. Papers that did not detail these variables were excluded. We also focus on a case of tracheal laceration after tracheal intubation in a patient with severe thyroid carcinoma. This patient received surgical repair and recovered uneventfully. Two hundred and eight studies that reported cases or case series were selected for analysis. Most of the reported cases (57·2%) showed an uneventful recovery after surgical therapy. The overall mortality was 19·2% (40 patients). Our patient too recovered without any serious complication. Careful prevention, early detection and proper treatment of the problem are necessary when tracheal rupture occurs. The morbidity and mortality associated with tracheal injury mandate a high level of suspicion and expedient management.

  6. Prediction of the mid-tracheal level using surface anatomical landmarks in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Young-Eun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Ryu, Ho-Geoul; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endotracheal tube (ETT) should be placed at the optimal level to avoid single lung ventilation or accidental extubation. This study was performed to estimate the mid-tracheal level by using surface anatomical landmarks in adult patients. Neck computed tomography images of 329 adult patients between the ages of 16 and 79 years were reviewed. In the midline sagittal plane, the levels corresponding to the vocal cords, cricoid cartilage, suprasternal notch, manubriosternal junction, and carina were identified. The surface distances from the cricoid cartilage to the suprasternal notch (extCC-SSN) and that from the suprasternal notch to the manubriosternal junction (extSSN-MSJ) were measured. The relationship between mid-tracheal level and the surface distances was analyzed using Bland–Altman plot. The difference between the extCC-SSN and the mid-tracheal level was −6.6 (12.5) mm, and the difference between the extSSN-MSJ and the mid-tracheal level was −19.2 (6.1) mm. The difference between the extCC-SSN and the mid-tracheal level was smaller in females compared with males [−1.7 (11.7) mm vs −12.8 (10.7) mm; P < 0.001]. The mid-tracheal level, which is helpful in planning the insertion depth of an ETT, can be predicted by the surface distance between the cricoid cartilage and suprasternal notch in adults, especially in females. PMID:28328810

  7. Mechanical properties of tracheal tubes in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Matthew R.; De Vita, Raffaella; Twigg, Jeffrey N.; Socha, John J.

    2011-09-01

    Insects breathe using an extensive network of flexible air-filled tubes. In some species, the rapid collapse and reinflation of these tubes is used to drive convective airflow, a system that may have bio-inspired engineering applications. The mechanical behavior of these tracheal tubes is critical to understanding how they function in this deformation process. Here, we performed quasi-static tensile tests on ring sections of the main thoracic tracheal trunks from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) to determine the tracheal mechanical properties in the radial direction. The experimental findings indicate that the stress-strain relationships of these tracheal tubes exhibit some nonlinearities. The elastic modulus of the linear region of the stress-strain curves tubes was found to be 1660 ± 512 MPa. The ultimate tensile strength, ultimate strain and toughness were found to be 23.7 ± 7.33 MPa, 2.0 ± 0.7% and 0.207 ± 0.153 MJ m-3, respectively. This study is the first experimental quantification of insect tracheal tissue, and represents a necessary step toward understanding the mechanical role of tracheal tubes in insect respiration.

  8. Conservative management of post-intubation tracheal tears—report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Just, Tino; Dommerich, Steffen; Hingst, Volker; Böttcher, Arne; Schuldt, Tobias; Guder, Ellen; Mencke, Thomas; Pau, Hans-Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic tracheal rupture is a rare complication after intubation. We present three patients with tracheal tears. In all of these patients, a common finding was a lesion of the posterior tracheal wall with postoperative subcutaneous and emphysema as the first clinical sign of the rupture. Diagnosis and follow-up were based on clinical and endoscopic findings and chest computed tomography (CT) scans. In our cases with progressive subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema or dyspnea, we performed a tracheotomy and bypassed the lesion with a tracheostomy tube to avoid an increase in air leakage into the mediastinum. Under broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, no mediastinitis occurred and all patients survived without sequelae. Closure of tracheostomy was scheduled for 1-2 months after tracheal injury. Analysis of surgical and anesthesiological procedures revealed no abnormalities and the accumulation of tracheal injuries was considered as accidental. We found that in clinically stable patients with spontaneous breathing and with no mediastinitis, a conservative management of tracheal tears is a safe procedure. PMID:24977034

  9. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  10. Organizing the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  11. Human eyelid meibomian glands and tarsal muscle are recognized by autoantibodies from patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S.; Hashimoto, Takashi; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previously, we described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF). Objective Continuing our characterization of this variant of EPF, we now focus on one of our previously reported clinical findings: the presence of ocular lesions. These ocular lesions are seen in patients having extensive skin involvement, as measured by the Lund and Browder scale, which is generally used for patients with skin burns. Methods We specifically searched for evidence of autoreactivity to various eyelid structures in these patients and correlated our immunologic data with the clinical findings. We performed indirect immunofluorescence studies using normal-appearing human eyelid skin from routine blepharoplasties as substrate tissue. We tested sera from 12 patients with El Bagre-EPF and ocular lesions, 5 patients with sporadic (nonendemic) pemphigus foliaceus, and 20 healthy control subjects (10 from the El Bagre-EPF endemic area and 10 from nonendemic areas). We used fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated goat antiserum to human total IgG/IgA/IgM as a secondary antibody. In addition, we used fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated antibodies to human fibrinogen, albumin, IgG, IgE, C1q, and C3, Texas Red (Rockland Immunochemicals, Inc, Gilbertsville, PA), Alexa Fluor 555, or Alexa Fluor 594 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Ki-67 (a cell proliferation marker) was used to determine the cell proliferation rate, and nuclear counterstaining was performed with either 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole or Topro III (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Results We observed autoreactivity to multiple eyelid structures, including meibomian glands and tarsal muscle bundles at different levels, and some areas of the epidermis and the dermis close to the isthmus of the eyelids. Tarsal plate autoreactivity was seen in 10 of 12 of the El Bagre-EPF sera and in one control with pemphigus erythematosus. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation using an eyelid sample as a

  12. Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.

    PubMed

    Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries.

  13. Intensity of swimming exercise influences tracheal reactivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Brito, Aline F; Silva, Alexandre S; Souza, Iara L L; Pereira, Joedna C; Martins, Italo R R; Silva, Bagnólia A

    2015-01-01

    Studies that evaluate the mechanisms for increased airway responsiveness are very sparse, although there are reports of exercise-induced bronchospasm. Therefore, we have evaluated the tracheal reactivity and the rate of lipid peroxidation after different intensities of swimming exercise in rats. Thus, male Wistar rats (age 8 weeks; 250-300 g) underwent a forced swimming exercise for 1h whilst carrying attached loads of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8% of their body weight (groups G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8, respectively; n=5 each). Immediately after the test, the trachea of each rat was removed and suspended in an organ bath to evaluate contractile and relaxant responses. The rate of lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde levels. According to a one-way ANOVA, all trained groups showed a significant decrease in the relaxation induced by aminophylline (10(-12)-10(-1) M) (pD2=3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.3 and 3.2, respectively for G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8) compared to the control group (pD2=4.6) and the Emax values of G5, G6, G8 groups were reduced by 94.2, 88.0 and 77.0%, respectively. Additionally, all trained groups showed a significant increase in contraction induced by carbachol (10(-9)-10 (-3) M) (pD2=6.0, 6.5, 6.5, 7.2 and 7.3, respectively for G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8) compared to the control group (pD2=5.7). Lipid peroxidation levels of G3, G4 and G5 were similar in both the trachea and lung, however G6 and G8 presented an increased peroxidation in the trachea. In conclusion, a single bout of swimming exercise acutely altered tracheal responsiveness in an intensity-related manner and the elevation in lipid peroxidation indicates a degree of oxidative stress involvement.

  14. Intensity of swimming exercise influences tracheal reactivity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Aline F.; Silva, Alexandre S.; Souza, Iara L. L.; Pereira, Joedna C.; Martins, Italo R. R.; Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies that evaluate the mechanisms for increased airway responsiveness are very sparse, although there are reports of exercise-induced bronchospasm. Therefore, we have evaluated the tracheal reactivity and the rate of lipid peroxidation after different intensities of swimming exercise in rats. Thus, male Wistar rats (age 8 weeks; 250–300 g) underwent a forced swimming exercise for 1 h whilst carrying attached loads of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8% of their body weight (groups G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8, respectively; n=5 each). Immediately after the test, the trachea of each rat was removed and suspended in an organ bath to evaluate contractile and relaxant responses. The rate of lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde levels. According to a one-way ANOVA, all trained groups showed a significant decrease in the relaxation induced by aminophylline (10−12–10−1 M) (pD2=3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.3 and 3.2, respectively for G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8) compared to the control group (pD2=4.6) and the Emax values of G5, G6, G8 groups were reduced by 94.2, 88.0 and 77.0%, respectively. Additionally, all trained groups showed a significant increase in contraction induced by carbachol (10−9–10−3 M) (pD2=6.0, 6.5, 6.5, 7.2 and 7.3, respectively for G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8) compared to the control group (pD2=5.7). Lipid peroxidation levels of G3, G4 and G5 were similar in both the trachea and lung, however G6 and G8 presented an increased peroxidation in the trachea. In conclusion, a single bout of swimming exercise acutely altered tracheal responsiveness in an intensity-related manner and the elevation in lipid peroxidation indicates a degree of oxidative stress involvement. PMID:26497013

  15. Comparison of nonciliated tracheal epithelial cells in six mammalian species: ultrastructure and population densities.

    PubMed

    Plopper, C G; Mariassy, A T; Wilson, D W; Alley, J L; Nishio, S J; Nettesheim, P

    1983-12-01

    Three types of nonciliated epithelial cells in mammalian conducting respiratory airways are thought to be secretory: mucous (goblet) cells, serous epithelial cells, and Clara cells. Mucous and serous cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the trachea. Clara cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the most distal conducting airways or bronchioles. To ascertain if mucous and serous epithelial cells are common to the tracheal epithelium of mammalian species, we characterized the ultrastructure and population densities of tracheal epithelial cells in six species: hamster (H), rat (Rt), rabbit (Rb), cat (C), Bonnet monkey (M. radiata) (B), and sheep (S). Following fixation by airway infusion with glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde, tracheal tissue was processed for light and electron microscopy (EM) by a selective embedding technique. Tracheal epithelium over cartilage was quantitated by light microscopy and characterized by transmission EM. Mucous cells were defined by abundant large nonhomogeneous granules, numerous Golgi complexes, basally located nuclei and granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER). The percentage of mucous cells in the tracheal epithelium was: H (0%), Rt (0.5%), Rb (1.3%), C (20.2%), B (8%), S (5.1%). Serous cells had homogeneous, electron-dense granules and extensive GER. Serous cells were present only in rats (39.2%). Clara cells had homogeneous electron-dense granules, abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum (AER) and basal GER. Clara cells were found in hamsters (41.4%) and rabbits (17.6%). In sheep trachea, 35.9% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, abundant AER and numerous Golgi complexes. In Bonnet monkey trachea, 16% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, numerous polyribosomes, perinuclear Golgi apparatus and moderate GER. In cat trachea, 5.4% of the epithelial cells lacked granules, and had moderate numbers of mitochondria, moderate amounts of polyribosomes, a central nucleus, and

  16. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  17. The mystery of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daniel; Ellis, Harold

    2016-09-01

    The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago (Miller , Tissue Antigens 63:509-517). Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus (Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr 2:877-881). Until Miller (, Lancet 278:748-749) eventually proved its primarily immunological role, the history of this mysterious gland has closely mirrored the history of medicine itself, troubling the minds of pathologists such as Virchow (, Ueber die Chlorose und die damit zusammenhängenden Anomalien im Gefässapparate, insbesondere über "Endocarditis puerperalis," vorgetragen in der Sitzung der Berliner Geburtshülflichen Gesellschaft vom 12) and Grawitz (, Deut Med Wochenschr 22:429-431), surgeons such as Astley Cooper (, The Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) and Keynes (1953, Ann R Coll Surg 12:88), and eminent medical epidemiologists such as Greenwood and Woods [, J Hyg (Lond) 26:305-326]. This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike. Clin. Anat. 29:679-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Direct writing of polymeric coatings on magnesium alloy for tracheal stent applications.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica; Xu, Zhigang; Smith, Christopher; Roy, Abhijit; Kumta, Prashant N; Waterman, Jenora; Conklin, Dawn; Desai, Salil

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the direct-write inkjet method for depositing multi-layer coatings of biodegradable polymers on magnesium alloy surface. Immersion studies were conducted on Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and poly-ester urethane urea (PEUU) coatings to determine the corrosion behavior of different samples based on their varying degradation properties. Using the inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, a reduction in magnesium ion concentration was observed from the polymer-coated samples indicative of the lower corrosion rates as compared to the uncoated Mg substrate. Findings also showed correlation between the release of the magnesium ions and the health of fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells via evaluation of key biomarkers of inflammation and toxicity, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), respectively. The induction of COX-2 gene expression was proportional to the increase in magnesium exposure. In addition, the release of higher magnesium content from uncoated and PCL polymer coated samples resulted in lower LDH activity based on the favorable response of the NHBE cells. PEUU and PLGA polymer coatings provided good barrier layer corrosion protection. This research evaluates candidate polymer coatings as a source for therapeutic agents and barrier layer to control the corrosion of magnesium alloys for tracheal applications.

  19. In vivo imaging of tracheal epithelial cells in mice during airway regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ki; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Wain, John; Zhao, Rui; Jung, Keehoon; Choi, Jinwoo; Lam, Adam; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Breton, Sylvie; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2012-12-01

    Many human lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiolitis obliterans, and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by changes in the cellular composition and architecture of the airway epithelium. Intravital fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach in mechanistic studies of diseases, but it has been difficult to apply this tool for in vivo respiratory cell biology in animals in a minimally invasive manner. Here, we describe a novel miniature side-view confocal probe capable of visualizing the epithelium in the mouse trachea in vivo at a single-cell resolution. We performed serial real-time endotracheal fluorescence microscopy in live transgenic reporter mice to view the three major cell types of the large airways, namely, basal cells, Clara cells, and ciliated cells. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we monitored the regeneration of Clara cells over 18 days after a sulfur dioxide injury. Our results show that in vivo tracheal microscopy offers a new approach in the study of altered, regenerating, or metaplastic airways in animal models of lung diseases.

  20. Vilse, a conserved Rac/Cdc42 GAP mediating Robo repulsion in tracheal cells and axons.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Annika; Gallio, Marco; Englund, Camilla; Steneberg, Pär; Hemphälä, Johanna; Aspenström, Pontus; Keleman, Krystyna; Falileeva, Ludmilla; Dickson, Barry J; Samakovlis, Christos

    2004-09-01

    Slit proteins steer the migration of many cell types through their binding to Robo receptors, but how Robo controls cell motility is not clear. We describe the functional analysis of vilse, a Drosophila gene required for Robo repulsion in epithelial cells and axons. Vilse defines a conserved family of RhoGAPs (Rho GTPase-activating proteins), with representatives in flies and vertebrates. The phenotypes of vilse mutants resemble the tracheal and axonal phenotypes of Slit and Robo mutants at the CNS midline. Dosage-sensitive genetic interactions between vilse, slit, and robo mutants suggest that vilse is a component of robo signaling. Moreover, overexpression of Vilse in the trachea of robo mutants ameliorates the phenotypes of robo, indicating that Vilse acts downstream of Robo to mediate midline repulsion. Vilse and its human homolog bind directly to the intracellular domains of the corresponding Robo receptors and promote the hydrolysis of RacGTP and, less efficiently, of Cdc42GTP. These results together with genetic interaction experiments with robo, vilse, and rac mutants suggest a mechanism whereby Robo repulsion is mediated by the localized inactivation of Rac through Vilse.

  1. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-06-25

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  2. Intraspecific variation in tracheal volume in the American locust, Schistocerca americana, measured by a new inert gas method.

    PubMed

    Lease, Hilary M; Wolf, Blair O; Harrison, Jon F

    2006-09-01

    The volume of a tracheal system influences breath-holding capacity and provides an index of an insect's investment in its respiratory system. Here, we describe a new, generally applicable method to measure tracheal volume that enables repeatable determinations on live animals. Animals are isolated in a closed chamber of a known volume and equilibrated with a helium:oxygen gas mixture. The chamber is then rapidly flushed with a nitrogen:oxygen gas mixture to eliminate the helium surrounding the animal, and sealed. After a period of time sufficient to allow equilibration of helium between tracheal system and chamber air, a gas sample is taken from the chamber, and tracheal volumes are calculated from the helium content of the sample, using a gas chromatograph. We show that relative investment in the tracheal system increases with age/size in the grasshopper; tracheal volume scales with mass to the power 1.3. This increased proportional investment in the tracheal system provides a mechanistic basis for the enhanced respiratory capacity of older grasshoppers. Tracheal volumes decrease strongly as grasshoppers grow within an instar stage, explaining reduced safety margins for oxygen delivery. Finally, tracheal volumes are smaller in gravid females than males, probably due to compression of air sacs by eggs.

  3. Direct Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal Intubation Complicated by Anterior Tracheal Laceration Secondary to Protrusion of Preloaded Endotracheal Tube Stylet.

    PubMed

    Warner, Matthew A; Fox, Jonathan F

    2016-02-15

    Tracheal wall disruption is a rare complication of endotracheal intubation, typically occurring in the posterior (membranous) trachea lacking cartilaginous support. We present the case of a 68-year-old man who developed an anterior tracheal tear after routine endotracheal intubation, most likely occurring secondary to protrusion of a factory-preloaded stylet beyond the distal orifice of the endotracheal tube. Tracheal disruption should be considered in any patient with subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory distress after tracheal extubation and confirmed with bronchoscopy. Conservative management may be appropriate for those with small tears, hemodynamic stability, and the ability to isolate the tear from positive pressure ventilation.

  4. Tracheal ulcer due to Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takeo; Fujisaki, Hideaki; Nishio, Suehiro; Hiroshige, Shigeo; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a tracheal stenosis circumscribed with soft tissue density and a left pulmonary nodule. Open biopsy of a right submandibular lymph node revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and the malignant cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus gene products. Bronchofiberscopy revealed a tracheal necrotizing ulcer. After chemotherapy, the tracheal ulcer resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly with a tracheal ulcer.

  5. Mucosal adenosine stimulates chloride secretion in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, A.D.; Clancy, G.; Welsh, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    Adenosine is a local regulator of a variety of physiological functions in many tissues and has been observed to stimulate secretion in several Cl-secreting epithelia. In canine tracheal epithelium the authors found that adenosine stimulates Cl secretion from both the mucosal and submucosal surfaces. Addition of adenosine, or its analogue 2-chloroadenosine, to the mucosal surface potently stimulated Cl secretion with no effect on the rate of Na absorption. Stimulation resulted from an interaction of adenosine with adenosine receptors, because it was blocked by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. The adenosine receptor was a stimulatory receptor as judged by the rank-order potency of adenosine and its analogues and by the increase in cellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels produced by 2-chloroadenosine. Adenosine also stimulated Cl secretion when it was added to the submucosal surface, although the maximal increase in secretion was less and it was much less potent. The observation that mucosal 8-phenyletheophylline blocked the effect of submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, whereas submucosal 8-phenyltheophylline did not prevent a response to mucosal or submucosal 2-chloroadenosine, suggests that adenosine receptors are located on the mucosal surface. Thus submucosal adenosine may stimulate secretion by crossing the epithelium and interacting with receptors located on the mucosal surface. Because adenosine can be released from mast cells located in the airway lumen in response to inhaled material, and because adenosine stimulated secretion from the mucosal surface, it may be in a unique position to control the epithelium on a regional level.

  6. Tolerance following organophophate poisoning of tracheal muscle. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, J.M.; Dwyer, T.M.

    1987-07-21

    The effects of subacute exposure to the organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (diisoprophylfluorophosphate, soman, sarin, and VX) on the binding properties of muscarinic receptors, the contractile responses, and the electrophysiological properties of swine tracheal smooth muscle were studied. Subacute organophosphate treatment decreased the number of muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle homogenates and in the surface membrane of isolated cells by 50-77%. DFP was the most potent, followed by sarin, VX, and soman. The organophosphates induced a change in the coupling of the receptor to the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, which resulted in a decrease in the number of high-affinity receptors available for agonist-induced actions. The sensitivity of the muscle to acetylcholine and bethanechol was largely unchanged by any of the organophosphates. It is concluded that tolerance development is a complex process and involves: changes in receptor number and coupling of these receptors to intra-cellular processes; changes in the sensitivity of the ganglia to cholinergic agonists; and changes in the membrane processes and channels controlling membrane potential. Surprisingly, the response of the muscle to agonists is not greatly affected even though 70% of the receptors are lost from the cell surface.

  7. Tracheal gas insufflation: catheter effectiveness determined by expiratory flush volume.

    PubMed

    Ravenscraft, S A; Shapiro, R S; Nahum, A; Burke, W C; Adams, A B; Nakos, G; Marini, J J

    1996-06-01

    Used adjunctively during mechanical ventilation, tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) improves CO2 elimination, principally by decreasing effective anatomic dead space. Continuing lung deflation at end- expiration raises the end-expiratory C02 concentration within the proximal airway, and could theoretically reduce the efficiency of a given catheter flow. To test this possibility, we designed a series of experiments that examined the influence of TGI delivery patterns on the efficiency of CO2 elimination. Using a gating device, catheter flow was delivered selectively during desired portions of expiration. Paralyzed, ventilated dogs were studied at short and extended inspiratory time fractions (TI/TT) with inspiratory tidal volume and ventilator frequency held constant. The expiratory flush volume, not the pattern of gas delivery, determined the observed decline in PaCO2, provided that the end-expiratory period was included in the catheter flush period. Despite continuing end-expiratory lung deflation (extended TI/TT), catheter effectiveness remained the same at matched expiratory flush volumes. To determine if enhanced distal mixing at the higher catheter flows required during the extended TI/TT (to match expiratory flush volume) masked a decrease in efficiency, we repeated the experiment with a tip-inverted catheter. We again found that matched catheter delivered expiratory volumes were similarly effective. With or without ongoing lung deflation, the volume of gas flushed during the expiratory period determined the effectiveness of TGI, provided that inspired minute ventilation remains unchanged and end-expiration is included in the catheter flush period.

  8. Confirmation of correct tracheal tube placement in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Schmölzer, Georg M; O'Reilly, Megan; Davis, Peter G; Cheung, Po-Yin; Roehr, Charles Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Tracheal intubation remains a common procedure during neonatal intensive care. Rapid confirmation of correct tube placement is important because tube malposition is associated with serious adverse outcomes. The current gold standard test to confirm tube position is a chest radiograph, however this is often delayed until after ventilation has commenced. Hence, point of care methods to confirm correct tube placement have been developed. The aim of this article is to review the available literature on tube placement in newborn infants. We reviewed books, resuscitation manuals and articles from 1830 to the present with the search terms "Infant, Newborn", "Endotracheal intubation", "Resuscitation", "Clinical signs", "Radiography", "Respiratory Function Tests", "Laryngoscopy", "Ultrasonography", and "Bronchoscopy". Various techniques have been studied to help clinicians assess tube placement. However, despite 85 years of clinical practice, the search for higher success rates and quicker intubation continues. Currently, chest radiography remains the gold standard test to confirm tube position. However, rigorous evaluation of new techniques is required to ensure the safety of newborn infants.

  9. Use of tracheal organ cultures in toxicity testing.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B P; Miller, S L; Drummond, E J

    1976-01-01

    Fragments of tracheal epithelium alone or in continuity with connective tissues, can be maintained in culture medium and used for short term or long term studies of toxicity of a variety of chemicals. Large numbers of uniform cultures are prepared with the aid of a slicing device or by application of simple method for dissecting sheets of epithelium free from underlying cartilage. The cultures may be placed in an exposure chamber-incubator mounted on a microscope stage and monitored continually for ciliostasis and exfoliation of cells. Morphology is further studied by fixation of selected specimens and preparation for light microscopy and electron microscopy. Synthetic functions are evaluated by autoradiographic measurement of incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules and other dynamic features are indirectly assessed by histochemical and histoenzymatic methods. Short-term studies using these several techniques have shown that ciliostasis does not correlate with cell injury in all instances, and a long-term study has demonstrated dose dependence of a cytotoxic agent when duration of culture viability is measured. The method lends itself to a broad range of investigations in which dose, period of exposure, and role of cofactors must be independently and quantitatively assessed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:1017423

  10. Dynamic decellularization and cross-linking of rat tracheal matrix.

    PubMed

    Baiguera, Silvia; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Kuevda, Elena; Gonfiotti, Alessandro; Bianco, Alessandra; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Decellularized tissues and organs represent a suitable option for tissue engineering when specific scaffolds are needed. However, the optimal conditions to completely remove all the cellular components and minimally affect the biochemical and structural properties of the extracellular matrix are still to be found. For this aim, bioreactors could be an alternative means to dynamically treat the biological samples, automatically controlling all the variables involved in the process and speeding up the entire procedure in order to deal with a suitable scaffold within a limited time period. This paper presents the characterization of rat tracheae decellularized in dynamic conditions, implementing a detergent-enzymatic method, previously considered. Only 6 cycles were enough to generate a tracheal matrix that was histologically and structurally similar to the native one. The network of collagen, reticular and elastic fibers was well preserved, such as the epithelial cilia, the luminal basement membrane and the main matrix components. The elastin content decreased, even if not significantly, after the decellularization protocol. Mechanical properties of the treated tissues were slightly affected by the procedure, and were partially recovered after crosslinking with genipin, a naturally-derived agent. The use of bioreactors could enhance the decellularization procedure of tissues/organs, but a careful selection of the processing parameters is needed in order to prevent large modifications compared to the native condition.

  11. Sulfate transport in apical membrane vesicles isolated from tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Elgavish, A.; DiBona, D.R.; Norton, P.; Meezan, E.

    1987-09-01

    Sulfate uptake in apical membrane vesicles isolated from bovine tracheal epithelium is shown to occur into an osmotically sensitive intravesicular space, via a carrier-mediated system. This conclusion is based on three lines of evidence: 1) saturation kinetics: 2) substrate specificity; and 3) inhibition by the anion transport inhibitors SITS and DIDS. The affinity of the transport system is highest in low ionic strength media and decreases in the presence of gluconate. Chloride appears to cis-inhibit sulfate uptake and to trans-stimulate sulfate efflux. Cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation studies with a variety of anions indicate that this exchange system may be shared by HCO/sub 3//sup -/, S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/, SeO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ but not by H/sub 2/PO/sub 4//sup -/ or HAsO/sub 4//sup 2/. Studies indicate that protons may play two distinct roles in sulfate transport in this system. These studies show that the carrier-mediated system can function in the absence of chloride. The overshoot observed in the presence of a proton gradient indicates that under those conditions the mechanism of transport may be a SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-OH/sup -/ exchange.

  12. Craniosynostosis with tracheal sleeve: a patient with Pfeiffer syndrome, tracheal sleeve and additional malformations in whom an FGFR2 mutation was found.

    PubMed

    Zackai, Elaine H; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Stolle, Catherine; Huff, Dale S

    2003-07-01

    We discuss a patient with Pfeiffer syndrome who had a tracheal sleeve and an FGFR2 mutation. In the light of our findings, and previous reports of patients with craniosynostosis that also reported similar mutations, we suggest that genomic screening for FGFR2 may be useful in cases with negative FGFR2 mutation testing.

  13. Relationship between histology, development and tumorigenesis of mammary gland in female rat

    PubMed Central

    LÍŠKA, Ján; BRTKO, Július; DUBOVICKÝ, Michal; MACEJOVÁ, Dana; KISSOVÁ, Viktória; POLÁK, Štefan; UJHÁZY, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes structural and functional changes associated with growth, reproduction, and post-menopausal regression. The postnatal transformations of the epithelium and stromal cells of the mammary gland may contribute to its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The increased cancer incidence in mammary glands of humans and similarly of rodents in association with their development is believed to be partly explained by proliferative activity together with lesser degree of differentiation, but it is not completely understood how the virgin gland retains its higher susceptibility to carcinogenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer. An early first full-term pregnancy may have a protective effect. Rodent models are useful for investigating potential breast carcinogens. The purpose of this review is to help recognizing histological appearance of the epithelium and the stroma of the normal mammary gland in rats, and throughout its development in relation to tumorigenic potential. PMID:26424555

  14. Relationship between histology, development and tumorigenesis of mammary gland in female rat.

    PubMed

    Líška, Ján; Brtko, Július; Dubovický, Michal; Macejová, Dana; Kissová, Viktória; Polák, Štefan; Ujházy, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes structural and functional changes associated with growth, reproduction, and post-menopausal regression. The postnatal transformations of the epithelium and stromal cells of the mammary gland may contribute to its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The increased cancer incidence in mammary glands of humans and similarly of rodents in association with their development is believed to be partly explained by proliferative activity together with lesser degree of differentiation, but it is not completely understood how the virgin gland retains its higher susceptibility to carcinogenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer. An early first full-term pregnancy may have a protective effect. Rodent models are useful for investigating potential breast carcinogens. The purpose of this review is to help recognizing histological appearance of the epithelium and the stroma of the normal mammary gland in rats, and throughout its development in relation to tumorigenic potential.

  15. [Inflammation of the parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Sheu, S-Y; Schmid, K W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the parathyroid glands is rare when compared to other endocrine organs. This leads to the use of descriptive terms as well as the lack of a generally accepted classification for inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid glands. This review article proposes that parathyroid inflammation be subdivided morphologically into (a) non-specific lymphocytic infiltration, which is more an expression of damage to small vessels, due to e. g. severe systemic inflammation or myocardial infarction, (b) autoimmunogenic lymphocytic parathyroiditis, (c) nonimmunogenic inflammation caused by granulomatous diseases or infections and (d) invasive sclerosing (peri) parathyroiditis. As only parathyroid glands removed due to hyperparathyroidism and normal parathyroid glands incidentally removed during thyroid surgery are seen almost exclusively in routine histopathology, virtually no information about the morphological correlate of hypoparathyroidism is available.

  16. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  17. Wakayama Symposium: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jester, James V.; Brown, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have shown that mouse and human meibomian glands undergo specific age-related changes, including decreased acinar cell proliferation, acinar atrophy, and altered peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) localization from cytoplasmic-vesicular/nuclear in young mice and humans to nuclear in old mice and humans. Since PPARγ is a lipid-sensitive, nuclear receptor implicated in regulating adipocyte and sebocyte differentiation and lipogenesis, our findings suggest that PPARγ may be involved in modulating meibomian gland differentiation during aging. Based on these findings, we propose that aging of the meibomian gland results in downregulation of PPARγ, leading to decreased meibocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis, gland atrophy, and a hyposecretory meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:23084144

  18. Immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in equine fetal adrenal glands during mid-late gestation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qiang; Tanaka, Yumiko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Tsunoda, Nobuo; Nambo, Yasuo; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2007-10-01

    To elucidate the relationship between steroidogenic hormones and developing adrenal glands, we investigated the immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in equine fetal adrenal glands during mid-late gestation. Fetal adrenal glands were obtained from three horses at 217, 225 and 235 days of gestation. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), human placental 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), porcine testicular 17alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) and human placental aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom). Histologically, cortex and medulla cells were clearly observed in the three fetal adrenal gland tissue samples. P450scc and P450c17 were identified in cortex cells close to medulla cells and in some medulla cells in the fetal adrenal glands. P450arom was present in both cortex and medulla cells in the fetal adrenal glands. However, 3betaHSD was not found in any of the equine fetal adrenal gland tissue samples. These results suggest that equine fetal adrenal glands have the ability to synthesize androgen and estrogen, which may play an important physiological role in the development of equine fetal adrenal glands.

  19. Non-GMO Low Seed Gossypol Lines with Glands-Improving Cottonseed for Animal Feed Rations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated cotton and its wild relatives typically have glands on both the reproductive and vegetative parts of the plant. These glands contain compounds that are toxic to a number of insects and possibly inhibit some diseases. Unfortunately these same compounds are also detrimental to humans and no...

  20. Bronchial artery aneurysm suggested to be caused by metalic tracheal stent migration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiyoshi; Fumimoto, Satoshi; Fukada, Takehisa; Ochi, Kaoru; Kataoka, Takayuki; Ichihashi, Yoshio; Satomi, Hidetoshi; Morita, Takuya; Hanaoka, Nobuharu; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Katsumata, Takahiro

    2016-12-01

    Occurrence of bronchial artery aneurysm is rare, and it has been detected in less than 1 % of all selective bronchial arteriography cases. Here, we present a case of a bronchial artery aneurysm caused by a tracheal stent migration. A 59-year-old man was operated on for esophageal cancer, where an esophageal-tracheal fistula occurred 1 week after operation. Surgical repair of the esophageal-tracheal fistula was performed using a muscle flap, but this not results in fistula closure. Consequently, a self-expanding covered metallic tracheal stent was implanted for rescue, and this resulted in fistula closure. After 1 year, there was frequent hemoptysis caused by migration of the stent. He was referred to our hospital where removal of the stent was planned. A sudden occurrence of massive bleeding from trachea occurred, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used. Although removal of tracheal stent was performed successfully, the patient subsequently died from multi-organ failure. Post-mortem autopsy revealed that the massive bleeding is originated from the rupture of a bronchial artery aneurysm.