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Sample records for human transferrin receptor-1

  1. Machupo Virus Glycoprotein Determinants for Human Transferrin Receptor 1 Binding and Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Longobardi, Lindsay E.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Retterer, Cary; Dong, Lian; Clester, Jeremiah C.; Kota, Krishna; Carra, John; Bavari, Sina

    2011-01-01

    Machupo virus (MACV) is a highly pathogenic New World arenavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. MACV, as well as other pathogenic New World arenaviruses, enter cells after their GP1 attachment glycoprotein binds to their cellular receptor, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). TfR1 residues essential for this interaction have been described, and a co-crystal of MACV GP1 bound to TfR1 suggests GP1 residues important for this association. We created MACV GP1 variants and tested their effect on TfR1 binding and virus entry to evaluate the functional significance of some of these and additional residues in human and simian cells. We found residues R111, D123, Y122, and F226 to be essential, D155, and P160 important, and D114, S116, D140, and K169 expendable for the GP1-TfR1 interaction and MACV entry. Several MACV GP1 residues that are critical for the interaction with TfR1 are conserved among other New World arenaviruses, indicating a common basis of receptor interaction. Our findings also open avenues for the rational development of viral entry inhibitors. PMID:21750710

  2. Machupo virus glycoprotein determinants for human transferrin receptor 1 binding and cell entry.

    PubMed

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Longobardi, Lindsay E; Kuhn, Jens H; Retterer, Cary; Dong, Lian; Clester, Jeremiah C; Kota, Krishna; Carra, John; Bavari, Sina

    2011-01-01

    Machupo virus (MACV) is a highly pathogenic New World arenavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. MACV, as well as other pathogenic New World arenaviruses, enter cells after their GP1 attachment glycoprotein binds to their cellular receptor, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). TfR1 residues essential for this interaction have been described, and a co-crystal of MACV GP1 bound to TfR1 suggests GP1 residues important for this association. We created MACV GP1 variants and tested their effect on TfR1 binding and virus entry to evaluate the functional significance of some of these and additional residues in human and simian cells. We found residues R111, D123, Y122, and F226 to be essential, D155, and P160 important, and D114, S116, D140, and K169 expendable for the GP1-TfR1 interaction and MACV entry. Several MACV GP1 residues that are critical for the interaction with TfR1 are conserved among other New World arenaviruses, indicating a common basis of receptor interaction. Our findings also open avenues for the rational development of viral entry inhibitors.

  3. Human and Host Species Transferrin Receptor 1 Use by North American Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Min; Fofana, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT At least five New World (NW) arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fevers in South America. These pathogenic clade B viruses, as well as nonpathogenic arenaviruses of the same clade, use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) of their host species to enter cells. Pathogenic viruses are distinguished from closely related nonpathogenic ones by their additional ability to utilize human TfR1 (hTfR1). Here, we investigate the receptor usage of North American arenaviruses, whose entry proteins share greatest similarity with those of the clade B viruses. We show that all six North American arenaviruses investigated utilize host species TfR1 orthologs and present evidence consistent with arenavirus-mediated selection pressure on the TfR1 of the North American arenavirus host species. Notably, one of these viruses, AV96010151, closely related to the prototype Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV), entered cells using hTfR1, consistent with a role for a WWAV-like virus in three fatal human infections whose causative agent has not been identified. In addition, modest changes were sufficient to convert hTfR1 into a functional receptor for most of these viruses, suggesting that a minor alteration in virus entry protein may allow these viruses to use hTfR1. Our data establish TfR1 as a cellular receptor for North American arenaviruses, highlight an “arms race” between these viruses and their host species, support the association of North American arenavirus with fatal human infections, and suggest that these viruses have a higher potential to emerge and cause human diseases than has previously been appreciated. IMPORTANCE hTfR1 use is a key determinant for a NW arenavirus to cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans. All known pathogenic NW arenaviruses are transmitted in South America by their host rodents. North American arenaviruses are generally considered nonpathogenic, but some of these viruses have been tentatively implicated in human fatalities. We show that these North American

  4. Mouse mammary tumor virus uses mouse but not human transferrin receptor 1 to reach a low pH compartment and infect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Enxiu; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Ying Qihua; Davey, Robert A.; Ross, Susan R.

    2008-11-25

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a pH-dependent virus that uses mouse transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) for entry into cells. Previous studies demonstrated that MMTV could induce pH 5-dependent fusion-from-with of mouse cells. Here we show that the MMTV envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion requires both the entry receptor and low pH (pH 5). Although expression of the MMTV envelope and TfR1 was sufficient to mediate low pH-dependent syncytia formation, virus infection required trafficking to a low pH compartment; infection was independent of cathepsin-mediated proteolysis. Human TfR1 did not support virus infection, although envelope-mediated syncytia formation occurred with human cells after pH 5 treatment and this fusion depended on TfR1 expression. However, although the MMTV envelope bound human TfR1, virus was only internalized and trafficked to a low pH compartment in cells expressing mouse TfR1. Thus, while human TfR1 supported cell-cell fusion, because it was not internalized when bound to MMTV, it did not function as an entry receptor. Our data suggest that MMTV uses TfR1 for all steps of entry: cell attachment, induction of the conformational changes in Env required for membrane fusion and internalization to an appropriate acidic compartment.

  5. Nonhuman Transferrin Receptor 1 Is an Efficient Cell Entry Receptor for Ocozocoautla de Espinosa Virus

    PubMed Central

    Caì, Yíngyún; Yú, Shuĭqìng; Mazur, Steven; Dŏng, Lián; Janosko, Krisztina; Zhāng, Téngfēi; Müller, Marcel A.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus (OCEV) is a novel, uncultured arenavirus. We found that the OCEV glycoprotein mediates entry into grivet and bat cells through transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) binding but that OCEV glycoprotein precursor (GPC)-pseudotyped retroviruses poorly entered 53 human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, OCEV and Tacaribe virus could use bat, but not human, TfR1. Replacing three human TfR1 amino acids with their bat ortholog counterparts transformed human TfR1 into an efficient OCEV and Tacaribe virus receptor. PMID:24109228

  6. Transferrin receptor 1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Abraham, Jonathan; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Kuhn, Jens H; Nguyen, Dan; Li, Wenhui; Nagel, Jane; Schmidt, Paul J; Nunberg, Jack H; Andrews, Nancy C; Farzan, Michael; Choe, Hyeryun

    2007-03-01

    At least five arenaviruses cause viral haemorrhagic fevers in humans. Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus, uses the cellular receptor alpha-dystroglycan to infect cells. Machupo, Guanarito, Junin and Sabia viruses are New World haemorrhagic fever viruses that do not use alpha-dystroglycan. Here we show a specific, high-affinity association between transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and the entry glycoprotein (GP) of Machupo virus. Expression of human TfR1, but not human transferrin receptor 2, in hamster cell lines markedly enhanced the infection of viruses pseudotyped with the GP of Machupo, Guanarito and Junin viruses, but not with those of Lassa or lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses. An anti-TfR1 antibody efficiently inhibited the replication of Machupo, Guanarito, Junin and Sabia viruses, but not that of Lassa virus. Iron depletion of culture medium enhanced, and iron supplementation decreased, the efficiency of infection by Junin and Machupo but not Lassa pseudoviruses. These data indicate that TfR1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses.

  7. Interaction of human diferric transferrin with reticulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Huebers, H; Csiba, E; Josephson, B; Huebers, E; Finch, C

    1981-01-01

    Methods have been devised for preparing human transferrin with a different isotope of iron selectively labeling each of the two iron binding sites and for determining the distribution of radioiron among transferrin molecules. When diferric human transferrin was exposed to human or animal reticulocytes, there was an equal contribution of radioiron from the acid-stable and acid-labile sites. In this delivery, both atoms of iron were removed simultaneously from the diferric transferrin molecule, converting it to apotransferrin. At similar iron concentrations the amount of iron delivered by diferric transferrin was twice that delivered by monoferric transferrin. PMID:6264452

  8. Noncanonical role of transferrin receptor 1 is essential for intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alan C.; Donovan, Adriana; Ned-Sykes, Renee; Andrews, Nancy C.

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) facilitates cellular iron uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-loaded transferrin. It is expressed in the intestinal epithelium but not involved in dietary iron absorption. To investigate its role, we inactivated the Tfr1 gene selectively in murine intestinal epithelial cells. The mutant mice had severe disruption of the epithelial barrier and early death. There was impaired proliferation of intestinal epithelial cell progenitors, aberrant lipid handling, increased mRNA expression of stem cell markers, and striking induction of many genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Administration of parenteral iron did not improve the phenotype. Surprisingly, however, enforced expression of a mutant allele of Tfr1 that is unable to serve as a receptor for iron-loaded transferrin appeared to fully rescue most animals. Our results implicate Tfr1 in homeostatic maintenance of the intestinal epithelium, acting through a role that is independent of its iron-uptake function. PMID:26324903

  9. Transferrin and transferrin receptor in human hypophysis and pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed Central

    Tampanaru-Sarmesiu, A.; Stefaneanu, L.; Thapar, K.; Kontogeorgos, G.; Sumi, T.; Kovacs, K.

    1998-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf), a major transport protein for iron in the blood and an essential growth factor in some tissues, acts via specific transferrin receptor (TfR). We studied the cellular distribution of Tf and TfR gene expression in 50 human nontumorous autopsy pituitaries and 42 surgically removed pituitary adenomas. Tf and TfR mRNA accumulation was correlated with Ki-67 proliferation marker. In nontumorous pituitaries without iron deposits Tf immunoreactivity was localized in some growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin, and luteinizing hormone cells. Most adenohypophysial cells were immunopositive for TfR. In pituitaries with iron deposits, Tf and TfR were localized only in iron-free cells. Tf mRNA and protein were present in 27 and 32 adenomas, respectively; Ki-67 labeling index of tumors positive for Tf mRNA was significantly higher than in those without transcript (0.94% versus 0.51%; P < 0.025). A positive linear correlation between tumor growth fraction and Tf mRNA signal intensity was evident (r = 0.32; P = 0.04). TfR mRNA and encoded protein were demonstrated in 26 and 31 adenomas, respectively; Ki-67 immunoreactivities were not correlated with the presence of TfR transcripts and signal intensities. These data suggest that Tf may act as a growth-promoting factor for pituitary tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9466567

  10. EGFR regulates iron homeostasis to promote cancer growth through redistribution of transferrin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biao; Zhang, Jiqin; Song, Fei; Tian, Mi; Shi, Bizhi; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hai; Zhou, Min; Pan, Xiaorong; Gu, Jianren; Yang, Shengli; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Zonghai

    2016-10-28

    Dysregulation in iron metabolism can lead to a wide range of diseases including cancer. Iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) and iron responsive elements (IREs) have been established as post-transcriptional regulators of intracellular iron homeostasis. The roles of other pathways involved in this process, however, remain largely unknown. Here we report that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), an oncogenic driver, binds to and regulates the subcellular distribution of transferrin receptor 1(TfR1) through its tyrosine kinase activity and thus is required for cellular iron import. Inactivation of EGFR reduces the cell surface TfR1 expression, which leads to decreased iron import due to impaired TfR1-mediated iron uptake. This damaged iron assimilation results in cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition, which can be partially rescued by non-Tf-bound iron supplements. Evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer samples reveals a positive correlation between EGFR activation and membrane TfR1 expression. Our findings uncover a new role of EGFR in modulating cellular iron homeostasis through redistribution of TfR1, which is essential for cancer development and progression. PMID:27523281

  11. Uptake and release of iron from human transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Huebers, H; Josephson, B; Huebers, E; Csiba, E; Finch, C

    1981-01-01

    Purified fractions of human apotransferrin, monoferric transferrins with iron on the acid-labile binding site and on the acid-stable binding site, and diferric transferrin have been prepared. The iron loading and unloading behavior of these preparations has been examined by isoelectric focusing. Iron release from the two monoferric transferrin preparations to human reticulocytes was of similar magnitude. In a mixture containing equal amounts of diferic and monoferric iron, approximately 4 times the amount of iron delivered by the monoferric species was delivered by the diferric species. Iron loading of transferrin in vitro showed a random distribution between monoferric and diferric transferrin. Among the monoferric transferrins, loading of the acid-labile binding sites was greater than that of the acid-stable binding sites. In vivo iron distribution in normal subjects, as evaluated by in vitro-added 50Fe, gave similar results. Absorption of a large dose of orally administered iron in iron-deficient subjects resulted in a somewhat greater amount of diferric transferrin at low saturation and a somewhat smaller amount of diferric transferrin at higher saturations than would have been anticipated by random loading. These data would indicate that in the human, iron loading of transferrin may be considered essentially random. Unloading from the two monoferric transferrin species is of similar magnitude but far less than that delivered by diferric transferrin. PMID:6941310

  12. Erythrocytic Iron Deficiency Enhances Susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi Infection in Mice Carrying a Missense Mutation in Transferrin Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Lelliott, Patrick M.; McMorran, Brendan J.; Foote, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of iron deficiency in areas of high malaria transmission is complicated by evidence which suggests that iron deficiency anemia protects against malaria, while iron supplementation increases malaria risk. Iron deficiency anemia results in an array of pathologies, including reduced systemic iron bioavailability and abnormal erythrocyte physiology; however, the mechanisms by which these pathologies influence malaria infection are not well defined. In the present study, the response to malaria infection was examined in a mutant mouse line, TfrcMRI24910, identified during an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen. This line carries a missense mutation in the gene for transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Heterozygous mice exhibited reduced erythrocyte volume and density, a phenotype consistent with dietary iron deficiency anemia. However, unlike the case in dietary deficiency, the erythrocyte half-life, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and intraerythrocytic ferritin content were unchanged. Systemic iron bioavailability was also unchanged, indicating that this mutation results in erythrocytic iron deficiency without significantly altering overall iron homeostasis. When infected with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi adami, mice displayed increased parasitemia and succumbed to infection more quickly than their wild-type littermates. Transfusion of fluorescently labeled erythrocytes into malaria parasite-infected mice demonstrated an erythrocyte-autonomous enhanced survival of parasites within mutant erythrocytes. Together, these results indicate that TFR1 deficiency alters erythrocyte physiology in a way that is similar to dietary iron deficiency anemia, albeit to a lesser degree, and that this promotes intraerythrocytic parasite survival and an increased susceptibility to malaria in mice. These findings may have implications for the management of iron deficiency in the context of malaria. PMID:26303393

  13. Erythrocytic Iron Deficiency Enhances Susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi Infection in Mice Carrying a Missense Mutation in Transferrin Receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Lelliott, Patrick M; McMorran, Brendan J; Foote, Simon J; Burgio, Gaetan

    2015-11-01

    The treatment of iron deficiency in areas of high malaria transmission is complicated by evidence which suggests that iron deficiency anemia protects against malaria, while iron supplementation increases malaria risk. Iron deficiency anemia results in an array of pathologies, including reduced systemic iron bioavailability and abnormal erythrocyte physiology; however, the mechanisms by which these pathologies influence malaria infection are not well defined. In the present study, the response to malaria infection was examined in a mutant mouse line, Tfrc(MRI24910), identified during an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen. This line carries a missense mutation in the gene for transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Heterozygous mice exhibited reduced erythrocyte volume and density, a phenotype consistent with dietary iron deficiency anemia. However, unlike the case in dietary deficiency, the erythrocyte half-life, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and intraerythrocytic ferritin content were unchanged. Systemic iron bioavailability was also unchanged, indicating that this mutation results in erythrocytic iron deficiency without significantly altering overall iron homeostasis. When infected with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi adami, mice displayed increased parasitemia and succumbed to infection more quickly than their wild-type littermates. Transfusion of fluorescently labeled erythrocytes into malaria parasite-infected mice demonstrated an erythrocyte-autonomous enhanced survival of parasites within mutant erythrocytes. Together, these results indicate that TFR1 deficiency alters erythrocyte physiology in a way that is similar to dietary iron deficiency anemia, albeit to a lesser degree, and that this promotes intraerythrocytic parasite survival and an increased susceptibility to malaria in mice. These findings may have implications for the management of iron deficiency in the context of malaria.

  14. Human placental coated vesicles contain receptor-bound transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, A G; Wilson, M J

    1981-01-01

    Human placental coated vesicles have been purified by a method involving sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation and treatment with wheat-germ agglutinin. These preparations were free of contamination by placental microvillus fragments. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated that the coated vesicles contained a single serum protein, which was identified as transferrin. This transferrin was only observed after the vesicles were treated with a non-ionic detergent, and its behaviour during crossed hydrophobic-interaction immunoelectrophoresis suggested that a large proportion of it was receptor-bound. No other serum proteins, including immunoglobulin G, could be detected in these preparations. Receptor-bound transferrin was the only antigen common to placental coated vesicles and microvilli, implying that other plasma-membrane proteins are excluded from the region of membrane involved in coated-vesicle formation. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6272755

  15. Nonrandom distribution of iron in circulating human transferrin.

    PubMed

    Zak, O; Aisen, P

    1986-07-01

    By combining the urea gel electrophoresis technique of Makey and Seal with Western immunoblotting, a method has been developed for analyzing the distribution of iron between the two sites of circulating human transferrin. The new method avoids exposure of samples to a nonphysiologic pH that may promote removal or redistribution of iron from the protein; this facilitates examination of multiple samples at one time. Analysis of 21 freshly drawn specimens from normal human subjects confirms previous reports that iron is not randomly distributed in the specific sites of transferrin. Rather, there is a considerable range in the ratio of occupancies of N-terminal and C-terminal sites (N:C ratio), from 0.31 to 6.87 in the present study, with the N-terminal site predominantly occupied in most subjects. The N:C ratio correlates modestly with serum iron concentration (r = .54). Possible flaws in studies indicating a random occupancy of the specific sites of circulating transferrin may lie in the low pH to which samples may be exposed during procedures based on isoelectric focusing or in drawing inferences from data considering only total monoferric transferrin rather than the two distinguishable monoferric species.

  16. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human transferrin from rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deshui; Nandi, Somen; Bryan, Paula; Pettit, Steve; Nguyen, Diane; Santos, Mary Ann; Huang, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Transferrin is an essential ingredient used in cell culture media due to its crucial role in regulating cellular iron uptake, transport, and utilization. It is also a promising drug carrier used to increase a drug’s therapeutic index via the unique transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. Due to the high risk of contamination with blood-borne pathogens from the use of human- or animal plasma-derived transferrin, recombinant transferrin is preferred for use as a replacement for native transferrin. We expressed recombinant human transferrin in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at a high level of 1% seed dry weight (10 g/kg). The recombinant human transferrin was able to be extracted with saline buffers and then purified by a one step anion exchange chromatographic process to greater than 95% purity. The rice-derived recombinant human transferrin was shown to be not only structurally similar to the native human transferrin, but also functionally the same as native transferrin in terms of reversible iron binding and promoting cell growth and productivity. These results indicate that rice-derived recombinant human transferrin should be a safe and low cost alternative to human or animal plasma-derived transferrin for use in cell culture-based biopharmaceutical production of protein therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:20447458

  17. A variant of human transferrin with abnormal properties.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R W; Williams, J; Moreton, K

    1982-01-01

    Screening of human serum samples by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of 6 M-urea revealed an individual who is heterozygous for a variant transferrin. The variant transferrin is able to bind two atoms of iron, but the iron in the C-terminal binding site is bound abnormally, as judged by its spectral properties, and is dissociated from the protein on electrophoresis in the presence of 6 M-urea. The iron-free C-terminal domain of the variant protein is less stable than normal to thermal and urea denaturation. Structural changes in the variant protein have not yet been characterized. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 6. Fig. 9. PMID:7082283

  18. Physical characteristics of human transferrin from small angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed Central

    Martel, P; Kim, S M; Powell, B M

    1980-01-01

    The technique of small angle neutron scattering has been used to determine the molecular shape, the volume, and the molecular weight of pooled human transferrin in an aqueous solution isotonic with blood. Analysis of the measurements assuming a spheroidal molecular shape indicates that an oblate spheroid with semi-axes of length 46.6 +/- 1.4, 46.6 +/- 1.4 and 15.8 +/- 3.8 A, and a molecular volume of (144 +/- 45) X 10(3) A3 is the best simple approximation to the shape of the transferrin molecule. The radius of gyration, Rg, determined from a Guinier plot is 30.25 +/- 0.49 A, in agreement with Rg calculated for the oblate spheroidal shape. The molecular weight is determined to be (75 +/- 5) X 10(3). The shape-independent molecular volume is found to be (98 +/- 10) X 10(3) A3. The difference in the two volumes suggests that transferrin is not a uniform spheroid but may have a more complex shape. PMID:7260293

  19. Aluminum stimulates uptake of non-transferrin bound iron and transferrin bound iron in human glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yongbae; Olivi, Luisa; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Maertens, Alex; Bressler, Joseph P. . E-mail: Bressler@kennedykrieger.org

    2007-05-01

    Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer's disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in Brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin.

  20. Receptor-Mediated Recognition and Uptake of Iron from Human Transferrin by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Modun, Belinda; Evans, Robert W.; Joannou, Christopher L.; Williams, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis both recognize and bind the human iron-transporting glycoprotein, transferrin, via a 42-kDa cell surface protein receptor. In an iron-deficient medium, staphylococcal growth can be promoted by the addition of human diferric transferrin but not human apotransferrin. To determine whether the staphylococcal transferrin receptor is involved in the removal of iron from transferrin, we employed 6 M urea–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which separates human transferrin into four forms (diferric, monoferric N-lobe, and monoferric C-lobe transferrin and apotransferrin). S. aureus and S. epidermidis but not Staphylococcus saprophyticus (which lacks the transferrin receptor) converted diferric human transferrin into its apotransferrin form within 30 min. During conversion, iron was removed sequentially from the N lobe and then from the C lobe. Metabolic poisons such as sodium azide and nigericin inhibited the release of iron from human transferrin, indicating that it is an energy-requiring process. To demonstrate that this process is receptor rather than siderophore mediated, we incubated (i) washed staphylococcal cells and (ii) the staphylococcal siderophore, staphyloferrin A, with porcine transferrin, a transferrin species which does not bind to the staphylococcal receptor. While staphyloferrin A removed iron from both human and porcine transferrins, neither S. aureus nor S. epidermidis cells could promote the release of iron from porcine transferrin. In competition binding assays, both native and recombinant N-lobe fragments of human transferrin as well as a naturally occurring human transferrin variant with a mutation in the C-lobe blocked binding of 125I-labelled transferrin. Furthermore, the staphylococci removed iron efficiently from the iron-loaded N-lobe fragment of human transferrin. These data demonstrate that the staphylococci efficiently remove iron from transferrin via a receptor-mediated process and

  1. Transferrin receptors of human fibroblasts. Analysis of receptor properties and regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J H; Kushner, J P; Kaplan, J

    1982-01-01

    Normal human skin fibroblasts cultured in vitro exhibit specific binding sites for 125I-labelled transferrin. Kinetic studies revealed a rate constant for association (Kon) at 37 degrees C of 1.03 X 10(7) M-1 X min-1. The rate constant for dissociation (Koff) at 37 degrees C was 7.9 X 10(-2) X min-1. The dissociation constant (KD) was 5.1 X 10(-9) M as determined by Scatchard analysis of binding and analysis of rate constants. Fibroblasts were capable of binding 3.9 X 10(5) molecules of transferrin per cell. Binding of 125I-labelled diferric transferrin to cells was inhibited equally by either apo-transferrin or diferric transferrin, but no inhibition was evident with apo-lactoferrin, iron-saturated lactoferrin, or albumin. Preincubation of cells with saturating levels of diferric transferrin or apo-transferrin produced no significant change in receptor number or affinity. Preincubation of cells with ferric ammonium citrate caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in transferrin binding. After preincubation with ferric ammonium citrate for 72 h, diferric transferrin binding was 37.7% of control, but no change in receptor affinity was apparent by Scatchard analysis. These results suggest that fibroblast transferrin receptor number is modulated by intracellular iron content and not by ligand-receptor binding. PMID:6297460

  2. Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and putative stimulator of Fe transport (SFT) expression in iron deficiency and overload: an overview.

    PubMed

    Barisani, Donatella; Conte, Dario

    2002-01-01

    Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1) and putative Stimulator of Fe Transport (SFT) represent two different proteins involved in iron metabolism in mammalian cells. The expression of TfR1 in the duodenum of subjects with normal body iron stores has been mainly localized in the basolateral portion of the cytoplasm of crypt cells, supporting the idea that this molecule may be involved in the sensing of body iron stores. In iron deficiency anemia TfR1 expression demonstrated an inverse relationship with body iron stores as assessed by immunohistochemistry with anti-TfR1 antibodies. In iron overload, TfR1 expression in the duodenum differed according to the presence or absence of the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene, being increased in HFE-related hemochromatosis and similar to controls in non-HFE-related iron overload. SFT is characterized by its ability to increase iron transport both through the transferrin dependent and independent uptake, and could thus affect iron absorption in the intestine. Immunohistochemistry using anti-SFT antibodies which recognize a putative stimulator of Fe transport of approximately 80 KDa revealed a localization of this protein in the apical part of the cytoplasm of enterocytes localized at the tip of the villi. The expression of the protein recognized by these antibodies was increased in iron deficiency, as well as in patients carrying the C282Y HFE mutation. Thus, the increased expression of both proteins only in patients with HFE-related hemochromatosis suggests that other factors should be involved in determining non-HFE-related iron overload.

  3. Occupancy of the iron binding sites of human transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Huebers, H A; Josephson, B; Huebers, E; Csiba, E; Finch, C A

    1984-01-01

    The in vivo distribution of iron between the binding sites of transferrin was examined. Plasma was obtained from normal subjects under basal conditions and after in vitro and in vivo iron loading. Independent methods, including measurement of the transferrin profile after isoelectric focusing and cross immunoelectrophoresis, and determination of the iron content in the separated fractions were in agreement that there was a random distribution of iron on binding sites. This held true with in vitro loading, when iron was increased by intestinal absorption and with loading from the reticuloendothelial system. The data indicate that the distribution of apo-, monoferric, and diferric transferrins is predictable on the basis of the plasma transferrin saturation and negate the concept that iron loading of transferrin in vitro is a selective process with possible functional consequences in tissue iron delivery. PMID:6589596

  4. ALUMINUM STIMULATES UPTAKE OF NON-TRANSFERRIN BOUND IRON AND TRANSFERRIN BOUND IRON IN HUMAN GLIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yongbae; Olivi, Luisa; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Maertens, Alex; Bressler, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer’s Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer’s disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in the brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin. PMID:17376497

  5. Metabolic and cytoskeletal modulation of transferrin receptor mobility in mitogen-activated human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, G M; Galbraith, R M

    1980-01-01

    The transferrin receptors which appear on mitogen-activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes were found by the use of immunofluorescence techniques to display temperature-dependent patching and capping reactions upon binding of transferrin. Lateral mobility of ligand-occupied membrane sites was accompanied by both shedding and endocytosis of receptor-transferrin complexes. In the presence of sodium azide or the microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B, cap formation and shedding were markedly inhibited. In contrast, endocytosis of patched receptor-ligand complexes was inhibited by azide and microtubule inhibitors, including colchicine, vinblastine and vincristine. Co-capping experiments performed to elucidate further the alterations in membrane configuration involved in these reactions failed to reveal any topographical relationship between transferrin receptors and lectin-binding sites in these cells. These studied indicate that temperature-dependent mobility of transferrin receptors upon mitogen-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes is dependent upon the integrity of the cytoskeletal system and metabolic function of the cell. PMID:6258830

  6. Regulation of transferrin receptor expression and ferritin content in human mononuclear phagocytes. Coordinate upregulation by iron transferrin and downregulation by interferon gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, T F; Horwitz, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of key human iron binding proteins in mononuclear phagocytes by IFN gamma and iron transferrin. In a previous study, we demonstrated that IFN gamma downregulates the expression on human monocytes of transferrin receptors, the major source of iron for the cell. In the present study, we show that IFN gamma also downregulates the intracellular concentration of ferritin, the major iron storage protein in the cell. By radioimmunoassay, the mean ferritin content of nonactivated monocytes was 361 +/- 107 fg/monocyte (mean +/- SEM) whereas the mean ferritin content of IFN gamma-activated monocytes was 64 +/- 13 fg/monocyte, an 82% reduction with activation (P < 0.01, t test). Consistent with its downregulating effect on these iron proteins, IFN gamma treatment also results in decreased iron incorporation. IFN gamma-activated monocytes incorporated 33% less iron from 59Fe-transferrin than nonactivated monocytes (P < 0.05, t test). Gel filtration chromatography revealed that incorporated iron is located primarily in ferritin in both nonactivated and IFN gamma-activated monocytes. Ferritin in IFN gamma-activated monocytes is saturated with approximately three times as much 59Fe as ferritin in nonactivated monocytes. We have also explored the effect of iron transferrin on transferrin receptor expression and intracellular ferritin content in human monocytes. We have found that iron transferrin markedly upregulates both transferrin receptor expression and intracellular ferritin content in both nonactivated (2.3- and 1.3-fold, respectively) and IFN gamma-activated (3.4- and 2.9-fold, respectively) monocytes. This study demonstrates that transferrin receptor expression and intracellular ferritin content in human monocytes is unidirectionally and coordinately upregulated by iron transferrin and unidirectionally and coordinately downregulated by IFN gamma. PMID:8450071

  7. Iron uptake by human reticulocytes at physiologic and sub-physiologic concentrations of iron transferrin: The effect of interaction with aluminum transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.; Chawtur, V.; Jones, M.E.; Marshall, E.A. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors have studied the interaction, in vitro, between diferric transferrin (FeTr), aluminum transferrin (AlTr), and human reticulocytes harvested from human placental blood. In particular, we aimed to determine the extent to which the kinetics of AlTr and FeTr differed. Using transferrin labeled with either 59Fe or 125I, the association of radiotracer with reticulocytes, as a function both of time and of transferrin concentration, was examined. Under the conditions of the experiments, the data are consistent with a mechanism involving at least three processes. Two early processes acting in parallel behave as a high-affinity saturable receptor and a low-affinity non-saturable receptor, neither of which distinguish between AlTr and FeTr. In a subsequent process, AlTr and FeTr exhibit different kinetics. This third process may be saturated by FeTr but not by AlTr. Interpreted in terms of a current conventional view of metallo-transferrin uptake, we conjecture that the early parallel processes involve cell surface phenomena including classical transferrin-receptor binding, and that the subsequent process represents events, possibly intracellular, involved in metallo-transferrin dissociation or further iron transport. The extent to which AlTr influences the interaction of FeTr with reticulocytes offers insight into both the normal physiology of iron uptake and the potential for toxicity by aluminum.

  8. Human transferrin receptor triggers an alternative Tacaribe virus internalization pathway.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Julieta S; Martínez, María G; Forlenza, María B; Whittaker, Gary R; Candurra, Nélida A

    2016-02-01

    Tacaribe virus (TCRV) entry occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis. To explore the entry mechanism used by TCRV, the inhibitory effects of drugs and dominant negative (DN) constructions affecting the main endocytic pathways were analyzed. In cells lacking the human transferrin receptor (hTfR), compounds and DN proteins that impair clathrin-mediated endocytosis were shown to reduce virus internalization without affecting virion binding. In contrast, in cells expressing the hTfR, compounds that affect clathrin-mediated endocytosis did not affect TCRV infection. Destabilization of cholesterol-rich plasma membrane microdomains by treatment with nystatin was not able to block virus entry in the presence of hTfR. However methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which extracts cholesterol from cell membranes, reduced virus internalization in cells expressing the hTfR. Inhibition of dynamin and neutralization of the pH of intracellular vesicles reduced virus internalization in all cell lines tested. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in cells expressing the hTfR, TCRV internalization depends on the presence of cholesterol, dynamin and acidic intracellular vesicles, while in the rest of the cell lines analyzed, clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the main TCRV entry pathway and, as expected, depends on dynamin and acidic intracellular vesicles. These results represent an important contribution to the characterization of the arenavirus replication cycle. PMID:26559962

  9. Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Transferrin as a Model for Meningococcal Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Zarantonelli, Maria-Leticia; Szatanik, Marek; Giorgini, Dario; Hong, Eva; Huerre, Michel; Guillou, Florian; Alonso, Jean-Michel; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis of meningococcal disease is poorly understood due to the lack of a relevant animal model. Moreover, the use of animal models is not optimal as most meningococcal virulence determinants recognize receptors that are specifically expressed in human tissues. One major element of the host specificity is the system of meningococcal iron uptake by transferrin-binding proteins that bind specifically human transferrin but not murine transferrin. We developed a new mouse model for experimental meningococcal infection using transgenic mice expressing human transferrin. Intraperitoneal challenge of transgenic mice induced bacteremia for at least 48 h with an early stage of multiplication, whereas the initial inoculum was rapidly cleared from blood in wild-type mice. Inflammation in the subarachnoidal space with a high influx of polymorphonuclear cells was observed only in transgenic mice. Meningococcal mutants that were unable to use transferrin as a source of iron were rapidly cleared from both wild-type and transgenic mice. Thus, transgenic mice expressing human transferrin may represent an important advance as a new mouse model for in vivo studies of meningococcal virulence and immunogenicity factors. PMID:17893132

  10. Intact human holo-transferrin interaction with oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Mandal, Rupasri; Li, Xing-Fang

    2005-01-01

    We report the interaction of intact human holo-transferrin (holo-Tf) with oxaliplatin (an anticancer drug), and the characterization of a complex composed of (1:1) intact holo-Tf and the parent oxaliplatin molecule using nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nanoESI-QTOF-MS). The molecular weight of this complex was determined to be 80,077 Da, which was an increase of 397 mass units compared to the protein alone (79,680 Da), suggesting that a parent drug molecule was bound to the intact protein. We further examined the interaction between the intact protein and oxaliplatin using size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICPMS). The protein complex and free oxaliplatin were separated by HPLC and quantitatively determined by simultaneous monitoring of both 195Pt and 56Fe using ICPMS. The HPLC/ICPMS detected both Pt and Fe signals at retention time of 2.6 min, identifying the protein-drug complex. The Fe signal at 2.6 min did not change with the increase in incubation time of the reaction mixture containing holo-Tf and oxaliplatin, while the Pt signal at the same retention time increased over time, further demonstrating that the formation of this complex does not affect the protein-bound Fe. The binding constant of the (1:1) intact human holo-Tf-oxaliplatin complex was determined to be 7.7x10(5) M-1. Both nanoESI-MS and HPLC/ICPMS results support that the holo-Tf and parent oxaliplatin molecules form complexes through non-covalent binding, suggesting that holo-Tf may be a useful carrier for oxaliplatin delivery.

  11. Separation of Albumin, Ceruloplasmin, and Transferrin from Human Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Grady; Frieden, Earl

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are provided for separating the principal metalloproteins (albumin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin) from plasma using column chromatographic techniques. The experiment can be completed in two separate three-hour laboratory periods during which column chromatography is illustrated and the effect of pH on charge and affinity of a protein…

  12. Delivery of iron to human cells by bovine transferrin. Implications for the growth of human cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S P; Garner, C

    1990-01-01

    Following suggestions that transferrin present in fetal-bovine serum, a common supplement used in tissue-culture media, may not bind well to human cells, we have isolated the protein and investigated its interaction with both human and bovine cells. Bovine transferrin bound to a human cell line, K562, at 4 degrees C with a kd of 590 nM, whereas human transferrin bound with a kd of 3.57 nM, a 165-fold difference. With a bovine cell line, NBL4, bovine transferrin bound with the higher affinity, kd 9.09 nM, whereas human transferrin bound with a kd of 41.7 nM, only a 5-fold difference. These values were reflected in an 8.6-fold difference in the rate of iron delivery by the two proteins to human cells, whereas delivery to bovine cells was the same. Nevertheless, the bovine transferrin was taken up by the human cells by a specific receptor-mediated process. Human cells cultured in bovine diferric transferrin at 40 micrograms/ml, the concentration expected in the presence of 10% fetal-bovine serum, failed to thrive, whereas cells cultured in the presence of human transferrin proliferated normally. These results suggest that growth of human cells in bovine serum could give rise to a cellular iron deficiency, which may in turn lead to the selection of clones of cells adapted for survival with less iron. This has important consequences for the use of such cells as models, since they may have aberrant iron-dependent pathways and perhaps other unknown alterations in cell function. PMID:2302189

  13. How the Binding of Human Transferrin Primes the Transferrin Receptor Potentiating Iron Release at Endosomal pH

    SciTech Connect

    B Eckenroth; A Steere; N Chasteen; S Everse; A Mason

    2011-12-31

    Delivery of iron to cells requires binding of two iron-containing human transferrin (hTF) molecules to the specific homodimeric transferrin receptor (TFR) on the cell surface. Through receptor-mediated endocytosis involving lower pH, salt, and an unidentified chelator, iron is rapidly released from hTF within the endosome. The crystal structure of a monoferric N-lobe hTF/TFR complex (3.22-{angstrom} resolution) features two binding motifs in the N lobe and one in the C lobe of hTF. Binding of Fe{sub N}hTF induces global and site-specific conformational changes within the TFR ectodomain. Specifically, movements at the TFR dimer interface appear to prime the TFR to undergo pH-induced movements that alter the hTF/TFR interaction. Iron release from each lobe then occurs by distinctly different mechanisms: Binding of His349 to the TFR (strengthened by protonation at low pH) controls iron release from the C lobe, whereas displacement of one N-lobe binding motif, in concert with the action of the dilysine trigger, elicits iron release from the N lobe. One binding motif in each lobe remains attached to the same {alpha}-helix in the TFR throughout the endocytic cycle. Collectively, the structure elucidates how the TFR accelerates iron release from the C lobe, slows it from the N lobe, and stabilizes binding of apohTF for return to the cell surface. Importantly, this structure provides new targets for mutagenesis studies to further understand and define this system.

  14. Human granulocyte/pollen-binding protein. Recognition and identification as transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Sass-Kuhn, S P; Moqbel, R; Mackay, J A; Cromwell, O; Kay, A B

    1984-01-01

    Normal human serum was found to contain a heat-stable protein which promoted the binding of granulocytes to timothy grass pollen (granulocyte/pollen-binding protein [GPBP]). GPBP was purified by gel filtration, anion exchange, and affinity chromatography. Virtually all of the granulocyte/pollen-binding activity was associated with a beta-1-protein having a molecular mass of approximately 77,000 D and an isoelectric point of between 5.5 and 6.1. By immunoelectrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the protein was identified as transferrin. Monospecific antisera raised against either GPBP or transferrin removed biological activity from GPBP preparations, and GPBP and transferrin gave lines of identity with these two antisera. The apparent heterogeneity in the molecular size and charge of GPBP observed during progressive purification was minimal when GPBP was saturated with ferric ions before the separation procedures. These experiments indicate that granulocyte/pollen binding is a hitherto unrecognized property of transferrin which appears to be unrelated to iron transport and raises the possibility that transferrin might have a physiological role in the removal of certain organic matter. Images PMID:6690479

  15. Differential sedimentation-velocity and gel-filtration measurements on human apotransferrin and iron–transferrin

    PubMed Central

    Charlwood, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    Differential measurements of sedimentation velocity showed that binding of 2 atoms of iron per molecule of human apotransferrin caused an increase in s020,w of about 1.8%. Gel-filtration experiments to compare the elution volumes of apotransferrin and transferrin radioactively labelled with iron showed that binding of the first atom to a molecule produced a decrease in Stokes radius of about 0.7%, and the binding of a second atom an equal decrement. These results confirmed that saturation of human transferrin with iron alters the conformation sufficiently to produce detectable changes in the hydrodynamic properties. They also indicate that the local changes brought about by successive addition of 2 atoms of iron are very similar, if not identical. PMID:5144213

  16. Effect of synthetic carrier ampholytes on saturation of human serum transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Oratore, A; D'Alessandro, A M; D'Andrea, G

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the effect in solution of synthetic carrier ampholytes on the saturation of human serum transferrin. By spectrophotometric titrations of human serum transferrin with various Fe3+-carrier ampholyte solutions, we demonstrated that under these conditions carrier ampholytes behave as typical chelators, their binding curves being very similar to that obtained with disodium nitrilotriacetate. On performing titration experiments at three different pH values, carrier ampholytes act like nitrilotriacetate at pH 7.5, but the former are more effective iron donors at pH 8.4 and worse iron donors at pH 5.2. Spectrophotometric titrations of isolated C-terminal and N-terminal fragments obtained from human serum transferrin by thermolysin cleavage show no differences between them, and no differences with respect to the whole protein except that they contain half the number of binding sites. In order to determine a site-specificity of iron in the presence of ampholytes, the classical urea/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis technique was adopted. Under saturating conditions carrier ampholyte solutions act mostly on the C-terminal site, whereas desaturating agents remove iron preferentially from the N-terminal site. Our findings support the hypothesis that Ampholine may chelate Fe3+ as well as many other compounds. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2730592

  17. Killing of human tumor cells in culture with adriamycin conjugates of human transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, C.J.; Faulk, W.P.

    1984-07-01

    Receptors for human transferrin (Trf) in high density are found on reticulocytes and syncytiotrophoblast, but most unstimulated, normal adult cells do not bind Trf. In contrast, leukemia and breast adenocarcinoma cells have been shown to manifest Trf receptors, raising the possibility that these receptors might be employed to bind cytotoxic Trf conjugates. Trf was conjugated with adriamycin (Adr) and it was shown that the conjugates are bound by Trf receptors on plasma membranes of Daudi and HL-60 cells, following which Adr is identified in the nuclei of these cells. The biological effect of Adr is quantitated by the inhibition of tritiated thymidine uptake, and subsequent cell death is measured by trypan blue exclusion. The killing correlates directly with both the time of exposure and the amount of conjugate employed. These results suggest that such cytotoxic Trf conjugates hold promise for selective in vivo killing of some malignant cells.

  18. Expression of Angiotensin II Receptor-1 in Human Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Yuki; Matsuo, Kosuke; Murata, Minako; Yudoh, Kazuo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Beppu, Moroe; Inaba, Yutaka; Saito, Tomoyuki; Kato, Tomohiro; Masuko, Kayo

    2012-01-01

    Background. Besides its involvement in the cardiovascular system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAS) system has also been suggested to play an important role in inflammation. To explore the role of this system in cartilage damage in arthritis, we investigated the expression of angiotensin II receptors in chondrocytes. Methods. Articular cartilage was obtained from patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and traumatic fractures who were undergoing arthroplasty. Chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro with or without interleukin (IL-1). The expression of angiotensin II receptor types 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R) mRNA by the chondrocytes was analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AT1R expression in cartilage tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The effect of IL-1 on AT1R/AT2R expression in the chondrocytes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and flow cytometry. Results. Chondrocytes from all patient types expressed AT1R/AT2R mRNA, though considerable variation was found between samples. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed AT1R expression at the protein level. Stimulation with IL-1 enhanced the expression of AT1R/AT2R mRNA in OA and RA chondrocytes. Conclusions. Human articular chondrocytes, at least partially, express angiotensin II receptors, and IL-1 stimulation induced AT1R/AT2R mRNA expression significantly. PMID:23346400

  19. In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin.

    PubMed

    Ha-Duong, Nguyêt-Thanh; Eid, Chantal; Hémadi, Miryana; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    The thermodynamics of the interactions of serum apotransferrin (T) and holotransferrin (TFe(2)) with ceruloplasmin (Cp), as well as those of human lactoferrin (Lf), were assessed by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Cp interacts with two Lf molecules. The first interaction depends on pH and μ, whereas the second does not. Dissociation constants were as follows: K(11Lf) = 1.5 ± 0.2 μM, and K(12Lf) = 11 ± 2 μM. Two slightly different interactions of T or TFe(2) with Cp are detected for the first time. They are both independent of pH and μ and occur with 1:1 stoichiometry: K(1T) = 19 ± 7 μM, and K(1TFe2) = 12 ± 4 μM. These results can improve our understanding of the probable process of the transfer of iron from Cp to T in iron and copper transport and homeostasis. PMID:21049900

  20. In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin.

    PubMed

    Ha-Duong, Nguyêt-Thanh; Eid, Chantal; Hémadi, Miryana; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    The thermodynamics of the interactions of serum apotransferrin (T) and holotransferrin (TFe(2)) with ceruloplasmin (Cp), as well as those of human lactoferrin (Lf), were assessed by fluorescence emission spectroscopy. Cp interacts with two Lf molecules. The first interaction depends on pH and μ, whereas the second does not. Dissociation constants were as follows: K(11Lf) = 1.5 ± 0.2 μM, and K(12Lf) = 11 ± 2 μM. Two slightly different interactions of T or TFe(2) with Cp are detected for the first time. They are both independent of pH and μ and occur with 1:1 stoichiometry: K(1T) = 19 ± 7 μM, and K(1TFe2) = 12 ± 4 μM. These results can improve our understanding of the probable process of the transfer of iron from Cp to T in iron and copper transport and homeostasis.

  1. Formation of titanium(IV) transferrin by reaction of human serum apotransferrin with titanium complexes.

    PubMed

    Messori, L; Orioli, P; Banholzer, V; Pais, I; Zatta, P

    1999-01-15

    The reaction of human serum apotransferrin with titanium(IV) citrate under physiological conditions results in the formation of a specific bis-titanium(IV) transferrin adduct (Ti2Tf hereafter) with two titanium(IV) ions loaded at the iron binding sites. The same specific Ti2Tf complex is formed by reacting apotransferrin with titanium(III) chloride and exposing the sample to air. The derivative thus obtained was characterized by spectroscopic techniques, including absorption, UV difference, circular dichroism and 13C NMR spectroscopies, and shown to be stable within the pH range 5.5-9.0. Surprisingly, the reaction of apoTf with titanium(IV) nitrilotriacetate (NTA) does not lead to formation of appreciable amounts of Ti2Tf, even after long incubation times, although some weak interactions of Ti(IV)-NTA with apoTf are spectroscopically detected. Implications of the present results for a role of transferrin in the uptake, transport and delivery of soluble titanium(IV) compounds under physiological conditions are discussed. PMID:9928993

  2. Accurate determination of human serum transferrin isoforms: Exploring metal-specific isotope dilution analysis as a quantitative proteomic tool.

    PubMed

    Busto, M Estela del Castillo; Montes-Bayón, Maria; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-12-15

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements are considered a reliable marker for chronic alcohol consumption, and its use is becoming extensive in forensic medicine. However, CDT is not a single molecular entity but refers to a group of sialic acid-deficient transferrin isoforms from mono- to trisialotransferrin. Thus, the development of methods to analyze accurately and precisely individual transferrin isoforms in biological fluids such as serum is of increasing importance. The present work illustrates the use of ICPMS isotope dilution analysis for the quantification of transferrin isoforms once saturated with iron and separated by anion exchange chromatography (Mono Q 5/50) using a mobile phase consisting of a gradient of ammonium acetate (0-250 mM) in 25 mM Tris-acetic acid (pH 6.5). Species-specific and species-unspecific spikes have been explored. In the first part of the study, the use of postcolumn addition of a solution of 200 ng mL(-1) isotopically enriched iron (57Fe, 95%) in 25 mM sodium citrate/citric acid (pH 4) permitted the quantification of individual sialoforms of transferrin (from S2 to S5) in human serum samples of healthy individuals as well as alcoholic patients. Second, the species-specific spike method was performed by synthesizing an isotopically enriched standard of saturated transferrin (saturated with 57Fe). The characterization of the spike was performed by postcolumn reverse isotope dilution analysis (this is, by postcolumn addition of a solution of 200 ng mL(-1) natural iron in sodium citrate/citric acid of pH 4). Also, the stability of the transferrin spike was tested during one week with negligible species transformation. Finally, the enriched transferrin was used to quantify the individual isoforms in the same serum samples obtaining results comparative to those of postcolumn isotope dilution and to those previously published in the literature, demonstrating the suitability of both strategies for quantitative transferrin

  3. In-111 chelate conjugates of human transferrin (HTr) and mouse monoclonal anti human transferrin receptor antibody (. cap alpha. HTrR MoAb) for tumor imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.; Diamanti, C.I.; McCall, M.; McTigue, M.; Torti, F.; Martin, B.

    1984-01-01

    At least one of the major pathways of uptake of the commonly used tumor scanning agent Ga-67 is via the transferrin receptor. This suggested the use of stably radio-labeled HTr, and ..cap alpha..HTrR MoAb for tumor imaging in humans. HTr and mouse ..cap alpha..HTrR MoAb were alkylated with 1-(parabromacetamidobenzyl)-EDTA. The mM Alkylproteins, approx. =1 chelate/molecule were labeled with 1-3 mCi In-111 citrate pH/sub 5/ (Sp Act approx. = 100-300 Ci/m mole). Images were made 24 hours after 1 mCi IV and in some patients blood levels, urine excretion and digitized whole body scans were obtained at 1, 24,48 and 96 hours post injection. Ten patients with biopsy proven prostate cancer were studied with In-111 HTr, and four with In-111 ..cap alpha.. HTrR MoAb; all had positive mets on bone scan. In-111 HTr persisted in the circulation with a T1/2 of approx. = four days, approx. = 5%/day being excreted in the urine, to a total of approx. = 60% in 21 days. Nine of ten scans were false negative due to the high blood background. In-111 ..cap alpha..HTrR disappeared rapidly from the blood; with most in the bone marrow at 24 hours. ROI analysis of three patients showed whole body 94% at 24 hours, 89% at 48 hours, and 82% at 96 hours (T1/2 = 10.7 days); liver 19% at 1 hour, 25% at 24 hours, and 21% at 96 hours; spleen 3% at 1 hour, 8% at 24 hours, 7.3% at 48 hours, and 3% at 96 hours. The high bone marrow background allowed only a few of the bone mets seen as bone scan to be visualized. Other tumor types not located in bone may be more easily seen.

  4. Expression of transferrin receptors on mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes: relation to cellular activation and related metabolic events.

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, R M; Galbraith, G M

    1981-01-01

    Mitogen-activated normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes bind transferrin to specific membrane receptors. In this study, lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin for 0-66 hr were examined to determine the relation of this phenomenon to cellular activation and related metabolic events. Transferrin receptors were first detected at 20-24 hr. This event was consistently preceded by RNA and protein turnover which commenced during the first 6 hr of culture, whereas initiation of DNA synthesis was detected concurrently with the appearance of receptors or slightly later (24-30 hr). Exposure of cells to inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis early during culture (at 0 or 24 hr) prevented the expression of transferrin receptors, but also caused generalized metabolic failure, and abrogated cellular activation. In contrast, later addition of these agents at 48 hr did not interfere significantly with the process of activation, but did suppress the terminal increase in receptor-bearing cells observed during the final 18 hr in control cultures lacking inhibitor. After deliberate thermal stripping of receptors from activated cells, the reappearance of membrance binding sites which normally occurred within 30 min, was also blocked by cycloheximide, puromycin and actinomycin D. However, similar inhibition of DNA which was induced by hydroxyurea had much less effect upon both the initial appearance of receptors and their reappearance after ligand-induced depletion. These results demonstrate that the appearance of transferrin receptors upon human lymphocytes is dependent upon cellular activation and requires synthesis of protein and RNA. PMID:6172372

  5. Human serum transferrin: a tale of two lobes. Urea gel and steady state fluorescence analysis of recombinant transferrins as a function of pH, time, and the soluble portion of the transferrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Shaina L; Mason, Anne B

    2009-06-01

    Iron release from human serum transferrin (hTF) has been studied extensively; however, the molecular details of the mechanism(s) remain incomplete. This is in part due to the complexity of this process, which is influenced by lobe-lobe interactions, the transferrin receptor (TFR), the salt effect, the presence of a chelator, and acidification within the endosome, resulting in iron release. The present work brings together many of the concepts and assertions derived from previous studies in a methodical, uniform, and visual manner. Examination of earlier work reveals some uncertainty due to sample and technical limitations. We have used a combination of steady-state fluorescence and urea gels to evaluate the effect of conformation, pH, time, and the soluble portion of the TFR (sTFR) on iron release from each lobe of hTF. The use of authentic recombinant monoferric and locked species removes any possibility of cross-contamination by acquisition of iron. Elimination of detergent by use of the sTFR provides a further technical advantage. We find that iron release from the N-lobe is very sensitive to the conformation of the C-lobe, but is insensitive to the presence of the sTFR or to changes in pH (between 5.6 and 6.4). Specifically, when the cleft of the C-lobe is locked, the urea gels indicate that only about half of the iron is completely removed from the cleft of the N-lobe. Iron release from the C-lobe is most affected by the presence of the sTFR and changes in pH, but is unaffected by the conformation of the N-lobe. A model for iron release from diferric hTF is provided to delineate our findings.

  6. Human serum transferrin: a tale of two lobes. Urea gel and steady state fluorescence analysis of recombinant transferrins as a function of pH, time, and the soluble portion of the transferrin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.

    2009-01-01

    Iron release from human serum transferrin (hTF) has been studied extensively; however, the molecular details of the mechanism(s) remain incomplete. This is in part due to the complexity of this process, which is influenced by lobe–lobe interactions, the transferrin receptor (TFR), the salt effect, the presence of a chelator, and acidification within the endosome, resulting in iron release. The present work brings together many of the concepts and assertions derived from previous studies in a methodical, uniform, and visual manner. Examination of earlier work reveals some uncertainty due to sample and technical limitations. We have used a combination of steady-state fluorescence and urea gels to evaluate the effect of conformation, pH, time, and the soluble portion of the TFR (sTFR) on iron release from each lobe of hTF. The use of authentic recombinant monoferric and locked species removes any possibility of cross-contamination by acquisition of iron. Elimination of detergent by use of the sTFR provides a further technical advantage. We find that iron release from the N-lobe is very sensitive to the conformation of the C-lobe, but is insensitive to the presence of the sTFR or to changes in pH (between 5.6 and 6.4). Specifically, when the cleft of the C-lobe is locked, the urea gels indicate that only about half of the iron is completely removed from the cleft of the N-lobe. Iron release from the C-lobe is most affected by the presence of the sTFR and changes in pH, but is unaffected by the conformation of the N-lobe. A model for iron release from diferric hTF is provided to delineate our findings. PMID:19290554

  7. Failure to extinguish fear and genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Heitland, I; Klumpers, F; Oosting, R S; Evers, D J J; Leon Kenemans, J; Baas, J M P

    2012-01-01

    Failure to extinguish fear can lead to persevering anxiety and has been postulated as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of human anxiety disorders. In animals, it is well documented that the endogenous cannabinoid system has a pivotal role in the successful extinction of fear, most importantly through the cannabinoid receptor 1. However, no human studies have reported a translation of this preclinical evidence yet. Healthy medication-free human subjects (N=150) underwent a fear conditioning and extinction procedure in a virtual reality environment. Fear potentiation of the eyeblink startle reflex was measured to assess fear-conditioned responding, and subjective fear ratings were collected. Participants were genotyped for two polymorphisms located within the promoter region (rs2180619) and the coding region (rs1049353) of cannabinoid receptor 1. As predicted from the preclinical literature, acquisition and expression of conditioned fear did not differ between genotypes. Crucially, whereas both homozygote (G/G, N=23) and heterozygote (A/G, N=68) G-allele carriers of rs2180619 displayed robust extinction of fear, extinction of fear-potentiated startle was absent in A/A homozygotes (N=51). Additionally, this resistance to extinguish fear left A/A carriers of rs2180619 with significantly higher levels of fear-potentiated startle at the end of the extinction training. No effects of rs1049353 genotype were observed regarding fear acquisition and extinction. These results suggest for the first time involvement of the human endocannabinoid system in fear extinction. Implications are that genetic variability in this system may underlie individual differences in anxiety, rendering cannabinoid receptor 1 a potential target for novel pharmacological treatments of anxiety disorders. PMID:23010766

  8. Transfusion of human volunteers with older, stored red blood cells produces extravascular hemolysis and circulating non-transferrin-bound iron.

    PubMed

    Hod, Eldad A; Brittenham, Gary M; Billote, Genia B; Francis, Richard O; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Jhang, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Joseph; Sharma, Shruti; Sheth, Sujit; Sireci, Anthony N; Stephens, Hannah L; Stotler, Brie A; Wojczyk, Boguslaw S; Zimring, James C; Spitalnik, Steven L

    2011-12-15

    Transfusions of RBCs stored for longer durations are associated with adverse effects in hospitalized patients. We prospectively studied 14 healthy human volunteers who donated standard leuko-reduced, double RBC units. One unit was autologously transfused "fresh" (3-7 days of storage), and the other "older" unit was transfused after 40 to 42 days of storage. Of the routine laboratory parameters measured at defined times surrounding transfusion, significant differences between fresh and older transfusions were only observed in iron parameters and markers of extravascular hemolysis. Compared with fresh RBCs, mean serum total bilirubin increased by 0.55 mg/dL at 4 hours after transfusion of older RBCs (P = .0003), without significant changes in haptoglobin or lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, only after the older transfusion, transferrin saturation increased progressively over 4 hours to a mean of 64%, and non-transferrin-bound iron appeared, reaching a mean of 3.2μM. The increased concentrations of non-transferrin-bound iron correlated with enhanced proliferation in vitro of a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (r = 0.94, P = .002). Therefore, circulating non-transferrin-bound iron derived from rapid clearance of transfused, older stored RBCs may enhance transfusion-related complications, such as infection.

  9. Inhibition of gallium-67 uptake in melanoma by an anti-human transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.M.; Hoffer, P.B.; Maric, N.; Duray, P.

    1987-08-01

    The effect of an anti-human transferrin receptor (anti-TFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb), designated B3/25, and an anti-melanoma antibody, designated 96.5, on the uptake of gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga) by tumor was studied. Three groups of six athymic mice bearing a human melanoma were injected via tail vein with (a) 0.55 mg human serum albumin (HSA) (control group), (b) 0.5 mg MoAb B3/25 + 0.55 mg HSA, and (c) 0.5 mg MoAb 96.5 + 0.55 mg HSA, respectively. Twenty-four hours later, each mouse was given an intravenous dose of 5 microCi (/sup 67/Ga) citrate. Biodistribution of activity (percent injected dose per gram) determined 48 hr after injection of /sup 67/Ga showed a 75% decrease in tumor uptake in the group of mice that received B3/25 (anti-TFR MoAb) compared with the control group. In contrast, MoAb 96.5 did not show any effect on melanoma uptake of /sup 67/Ga. Histologic findings suggest that the decreased uptake was not due to cellular damage resulting from binding of B3/25 to TFR. The results of this study strongly suggest the involvement of TFR in the in vivo tumor uptake of /sup 67/Ga.

  10. Prospective Design of Anti‐Transferrin Receptor Bispecific Antibodies for Optimal Delivery into the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kanodia, JS; Gadkar, K; Bumbaca, D; Zhang, Y; Tong, RK; Luk, W; Hoyte, K; Lu, Y; Wildsmith, KR; Couch, JA; Watts, RJ; Dennis, MS; Ernst, JA; Scearce‐Levie, K; Atwal, JK; Joseph, S

    2016-01-01

    Anti‐transferrin receptor (TfR)‐based bispecific antibodies have shown promise for boosting antibody uptake in the brain. Nevertheless, there are limited data on the molecular properties, including affinity required for successful development of TfR‐based therapeutics. A complex nonmonotonic relationship exists between affinity of the anti‐TfR arm and brain uptake at therapeutically relevant doses. However, the quantitative nature of this relationship and its translatability to humans is heretofore unexplored. Therefore, we developed a mechanistic pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic (PK‐PD) model for bispecific anti‐TfR/BACE1 antibodies that accounts for antibody‐TfR interactions at the blood‐brain barrier (BBB) as well as the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of anti‐BACE1 arm. The calibrated model correctly predicted the optimal anti‐TfR affinity required to maximize brain exposure of therapeutic antibodies in the cynomolgus monkey and was scaled to predict the optimal affinity of anti‐TfR bispecifics in humans. Thus, this model provides a framework for testing critical translational predictions for anti‐TfR bispecific antibodies, including choice of candidate molecule for clinical development. PMID:27299941

  11. Prospective Design of Anti-Transferrin Receptor Bispecific Antibodies for Optimal Delivery into the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Kanodia, J S; Gadkar, K; Bumbaca, D; Zhang, Y; Tong, R K; Luk, W; Hoyte, K; Lu, Y; Wildsmith, K R; Couch, J A; Watts, R J; Dennis, M S; Ernst, J A; Scearce-Levie, K; Atwal, J K; Ramanujan, S; Joseph, S

    2016-05-01

    Anti-transferrin receptor (TfR)-based bispecific antibodies have shown promise for boosting antibody uptake in the brain. Nevertheless, there are limited data on the molecular properties, including affinity required for successful development of TfR-based therapeutics. A complex nonmonotonic relationship exists between affinity of the anti-TfR arm and brain uptake at therapeutically relevant doses. However, the quantitative nature of this relationship and its translatability to humans is heretofore unexplored. Therefore, we developed a mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for bispecific anti-TfR/BACE1 antibodies that accounts for antibody-TfR interactions at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as well as the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of anti-BACE1 arm. The calibrated model correctly predicted the optimal anti-TfR affinity required to maximize brain exposure of therapeutic antibodies in the cynomolgus monkey and was scaled to predict the optimal affinity of anti-TfR bispecifics in humans. Thus, this model provides a framework for testing critical translational predictions for anti-TfR bispecific antibodies, including choice of candidate molecule for clinical development. PMID:27299941

  12. Transferrin Coated Nanoparticles: Study of the Bionano Interface in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Pitek, Andrzej S.; O’Connell, David; Mahon, Eugene; Monopoli, Marco P.; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    It is now well established that the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) in a biological environment is immediately modified by the adsorption of biomolecules with the formation of a protein corona and it is also accepted that the protein corona, rather than the original nanoparticle surface, defines a new biological identity. Consequently, a methodology to effectively study the interaction between nanomaterials and the biological corona encountered within an organism is a key objective in nanoscience for understanding the impact of the nanoparticle-protein interactions on the biological response in vitro and in vivo. Here, we outline an integrated methodology to address the different aspects governing the formation and the function of the protein corona of polystyrene nanoparticles coated with Transferrin by different strategies. Protein-NP complexes are studied both in situ (in human plasma, full corona FC) and after washing (hard corona, HC) in terms of structural properties, composition and second-order interactions with protein microarrays. Human protein microarrays are used to effectively study NP-corona/proteins interactions addressing the growing demand to advance investigations of the extrinsic function of corona complexes. Our data highlight the importance of this methodology as an analysis to be used in advance of the application of engineered NPs in biological environments. PMID:22829881

  13. Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 mediate contraction of human oesophageal muscularis mucosae.

    PubMed

    Chang, B-S; Chang, J-C; Huang, S-C

    2010-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 mediate contraction of the human gallbladder. In the present study, we investigated effects mediated by proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) in the human oesophagus by measuring contraction of muscularis mucosae strips isolated from the human oesophagus. Both PAR(1) agonists (thrombin, SFLLRN-NH(2) and TFLLR-NH(2)) and PAR(2) agonists (trypsin, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2) and SLIGKV-NH(2)) caused concentration-dependent contraction. In contrast, PAR(1) and PAR(2) control peptides did not cause contraction. The existence of PAR(1) and PAR(2) in the human oesophageal muscularis mucosae was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. On the other hand, PAR(4) agonists, GYPGKF-NH(2), GYPGQV-NH(2) and AYPGKF-NH(2), did not cause contraction or relaxation in resting or carbachol-contracted muscularis mucosae strips, suggesting that PAR(4) is not involved in human oesophageal motility. The contractile responses to SFLLRN-NH(2) and trypsin in the human oesophagus were insensitive to atropine and tetrodotoxin, indicating that the contractile response was not neurally mediated. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PAR(1) and PAR(2) but not PAR(4) mediate contraction in human oesophageal muscularis mucosae. PAR(1) and PAR(2) may influence human oesophageal motility. PMID:19694963

  14. The distribution of iron between the metal-binding sites of transferrin human serum.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Moreton, K

    1980-02-01

    The Makey & Seal [(1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 453, 250--256] method of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in buffer containing 6 M-urea was used to determine the distribution of iron between the N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding sites of transferrin in human serum. In fresh serum the two sites are unequally occupied; there is preferential occupation of the N-terminal site. On incubation of the serum at 37 degrees C the preference of iron for the N-terminal site becomes more marked. On storage of serum at -15 degrees C the iron distribution changes so that there is a marked preference for the C-terminal site. Dialysis of serum against buffer at pH 7.4 also causes iron to be bound much more strongly by the C-terminal than by the N-terminal site. The original preference for the N-terminal site can be resroted to the dialysed serum by addition of the diffusible fraction.

  15. The distribution of iron between the metal-binding sites of transferrin human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J; Moreton, K

    1980-01-01

    The Makey & Seal [(1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 453, 250--256] method of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in buffer containing 6 M-urea was used to determine the distribution of iron between the N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding sites of transferrin in human serum. In fresh serum the two sites are unequally occupied; there is preferential occupation of the N-terminal site. On incubation of the serum at 37 degrees C the preference of iron for the N-terminal site becomes more marked. On storage of serum at -15 degrees C the iron distribution changes so that there is a marked preference for the C-terminal site. Dialysis of serum against buffer at pH 7.4 also causes iron to be bound much more strongly by the C-terminal than by the N-terminal site. The original preference for the N-terminal site can be resroted to the dialysed serum by addition of the diffusible fraction. Images Fig. 1. PMID:7396826

  16. Instrumental comparison of the determination of Cr³+ uptake by human transferrin.

    PubMed

    Quarles, C Derrick; Brumaghim, Julia L; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    UV-VIS absorbance, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and particle beam/hollow cathode-optical emission spectroscopy (PB/HC-OES) are presented as techniques for determining Cr³+ loading into transferrin (Tf), with and without Fe³+. The methods are compared based on loading percentages (i.e. 100% loading would be equal to 2 M(n+): 1 Tf) determined for Cr³+ loading into apo-transferrin. Spectral interferences and overlapping LMCT bands cause inaccurate chromium (qualitative) and iron (qualitative and quantitative) results for the UV-VIS absorbance method. The ICP-OES and PB/HC-OES methods are in good agreement providing evidence that the PB/HC-OES method is a valid technique for investigating metal-protein complexes. Maximum Cr³+ loading into apo-transferrin over a 24 h period was determined to be 26.8 3.5% by the ICP-OES method and 25.3 2.2% by the PB/HC-OES method. Loading percentages were increased to 49.7 1.9% (ICP-OES) and 55.7 3.2% (PB/HC-OES) when the metal-transferrin solution was allowed to incubate for up to 10 days. Under non-excess carbonate conditions the Cr³+ loading is elevated over a 24 h incubation time, but under physiological conditions the loading is inhibited. Equal loading of Fe³+ and Cr³+ into apo-transferrin was achieved when chromium was at a level more than 5 times in excess of iron. Inhibition of Cr³+ loading was only observed when an excess of Fe³+ was available to bind into apo-transferrin. The ability for Cr³+ to displace Fe3+ from holo-transferrin was observed as small amounts of Cr³+ were loaded into the once occupied metal binding site.

  17. Fungistatic mechanism of human transferrin for Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes: alternative to simple iron deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Artis, W M; Patrusky, E; Rastinejad, F; Duncan, R L

    1983-01-01

    Human serum, human transferrin (TF), and the iron chelator 1,10-phenanthroline (OP) produce iron-reversible fungistatic activity which has been attributed to simple iron deprivation. In this study, the influence of the size of the inoculum on the inhibitory activity of serum, TF, and OP prepared with the same iron-binding capacity (2.5 micrograms/ml) for Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was examined. Inhibition was monitored in liquid microcultures maintained at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 to 7.5 by measuring the change in absorbance density. Increasing the number of spores in the inoculum disrupted the fungistatic activity of serum and TF, but not that of OP. The dilution at which OP lost fungistatic activity was not affected by the number of spores in the inoculum and was the same for both fungi. The dilution at which TF and serum lost fungistatic activity was dependent upon both the quantity of the inoculum and the species of fungus. The number of viable spores, rather than the total number of spores in the inoculum, was determined to be important in overcoming the inhibition of fungal growth by serum and TF. The fungistatic activity of serum and TF could be diminished by the preexposure of the serum to viable but nongrowing spores. Direct and indirect fluorescence studies indicated that both T. mentagrophytes and R. oryzae absorbed TF. Glucose uptake by R. oryzae was inhibited by a 4-h exposure to 5.0 to 0.15 mg of apotransferrin per ml. These results suggest that the fungistatic activity of TF for R. oryzae and T. mentagrophytes may not be attributable to simple iron deprivation and raise the possibility of a requirement for a direct interaction. Images PMID:6885162

  18. Separation of tryptophan-derivative enantiomers with iron-free human serum transferrin by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kilár, F; Fanali, S

    1995-08-01

    Enantiomers can be separated by using human serum transferrin as a chiral phase. With the help of the native protein we were able to separate enantiomers with high efficiency, using a low ionic strength 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer, pH 6, in capillary zone electrophoresis. Tryptophan methyl, ethyl and butyl ester enantiomers-moving towards the cathode at pH 6-were resolved by passing through an iron-free transferrin zone in coated capillaries. Since the isoelectric point of the iron-free transferrin is a little higher than 6, the protein zone is either not moving in the experiment or is slowly moving towards the anode. Under the simplest experimental conditions the highest resolution was obtained for the butyl ester enantiomers and the lowest for the methyl ester ones. By changing the experimental conditions, however, this order could be reversed. The results indicate that the lengths of the alkyl chains in the enantiomers have a significant effect on the resolution, i.e., on the interaction between the protein and the separands.

  19. The structural basis of transferrin sequestration by transferrin-binding protein B

    SciTech Connect

    Calmettes, Charles; Alcantara, Joenel; Yu, Rong-Hua; Schryvers, Anthony B.; Moraes, Trevor F.

    2012-03-28

    Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of bacterial meningitis, acquires the essential element iron from the host glycoprotein transferrin during infection through a surface transferrin receptor system composed of proteins TbpA and TbpB. Here we present the crystal structures of TbpB from N. meningitidis in its apo form and in complex with human transferrin. The structure reveals how TbpB sequesters and initiates iron release from human transferrin.

  20. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hai, Jun; Serradji, Nawal; Mouton, Ludovic; Redeker, Virginie; Cornu, David; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes). In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0) x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies. PMID:26919720

  1. Interaction of Cm(III) and Am(III) with human serum transferrin studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence and EXAFS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicole; Fröhlich, Daniel R; Panak, Petra J

    2014-05-14

    The complexation of Cm(III) with human serum transferrin was investigated in a pH range from 3.5 to 11.0 using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). At pH ≥ 7.4 Cm(III) is incorporated at the Fe(III) binding site of transferrin whereas at lower pH a partially bound Cm(III) transferrin species is formed. At physiological temperature (310 K) at pH 7.4, about 70% of the partially bound and 30% of the incorporated Cm(III) transferrin species are present in solution. The Cm(III) results obtained by TRLFS are in very good agreement with Am(III) EXAFS results, confirming the incorporation of Am(III) at the Fe(III) binding site at pH 8.5.

  2. Neither human hephaestin nor ceruloplasmin forms a stable complex with transferrin.

    PubMed

    Hudson, David M; Krisinger, Michael J; Griffiths, Tanya A M; Macgillivray, Ross T A

    2008-04-15

    Iron homeostasis is essential for maintaining the physiological requirement for iron while preventing iron overload. Cell toxicity is caused by the generation of hydroxyl-free radicals that result from redox reactions involving Fe(II). Multicopper ferroxidases regulate the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III), circumventing the generation of these harmful by-products. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is the major multicopper ferroxidase in blood; however, hephaestin (Hp), a membrane-bound Cp homolog, was recently discovered and has been implicated in the export of iron from duodenal enterocytes into blood. In the intracellular milieu, it is likely that iron exists as reduced Fe(II), yet transferrin (Tf), the plasma iron transporter, is only capable of binding oxidized Fe(III). Due to the insoluble and reactive nature of free Fe(III), the oxidation of Fe(II) upon exiting the duodenal enterocyte may require an interaction between a ferroxidase and the iron transporter. As such, it has been suggested that as a means of preventing the release of unbound Fe(III), a direct protein-protein interaction may occur between Tf and Hp during intestinal iron export. In the present study, the putative interaction between Tf and both Cp and a soluble form of recombinant human Hp was investigated. Utilizing native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, covalent cross-linking and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), a stable interaction between the two proteins was not detected. We conclude that a stable complex between these ferroxidases and Tf does not occur under the experimental conditions used. We suggest alternative models for loading Tf with Fe(III) during intestinal iron export. PMID:18022819

  3. Plasmin is involved in inflammation via protease-activated receptor-1 activation in human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Naoto; Hashizume, Hideki; Nakao, Sumi; Matsushima, Kiyoshi; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2008-05-15

    Plasmin is a proteolytic enzyme produced from plasminogen by plasminogen activators. We investigated the function of plasmin in human dental pulp fibroblast-like cells. Plasmin induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of mRNA for protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) was detected, and the PAR-1 activating peptide SFLLRN induced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the cells. The plasmin-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. Plasmin stimulated the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release, which are involved in inflammation. These effects of plasmin on expression of IL-8 mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) release were inhibited in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. These results suggest that plasmin activates PAR-1 and is involved in inflammation in human dental pulp. PMID:18384756

  4. Interferon gamma-activated human monocytes downregulate transferrin receptors and inhibit the intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila by limiting the availability of iron.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, T F; Horwitz, M A

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the role of iron in the intracellular biology of Legionella pneumophila in human monocytes and in the effector arm of cell-mediated immune defense against this intracellular bacterial pathogen. To determine if L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication is iron dependent, we studied the effect of the iron chelator deferoxamine on L. pneumophila infection of monocytes. Deferoxamine at 15 microM completely inhibited L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication. The inhibitory effect of deferoxamine was reversed with equimolar iron-saturated transferrin but not apotransferrin. To examine the potential role of iron in monocyte activation, we investigated the influence of iron-saturated transferrin on L. pneumophila multiplication in IFN gamma-activated monocytes. Iron transferrin, but not apotransferrin, neutralized the capacity of activated monocytes to inhibit L. pneumophila multiplication. To explore a potential mechanism by which activated monocytes might limit the availability of intracellular iron, we examined transferrin receptor expression on nonactivated and activated monocytes cultured in vitro for 5 d. By fluorescence-activated flow cytometry, activated monocytes exhibited markedly fewer transferrin receptors than nonactivated monocytes. By Scatchard analysis of 125I-transferrin binding to monocytes, nonactivated monocytes had 38,300 +/- 12,700 (mean +/- SE) transferrin binding sites, whereas activated monocytes had 10,300 +/- 1,600, a reduction of 73%. Activated and nonactivated monocytes had a similar mean Kd (1.8 +/- 0.2 nM). This study demonstrates that (a) L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication is iron dependent; (b) activated monocytes inhibit L. pneumophila multiplication by limiting the availability of intracellular iron; and (c) transferrin receptors are downregulated on IFN gamma-activated monocytes. Images PMID:2496141

  5. Genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG theta power in humans.

    PubMed

    Heitland, I; Kenemans, J L; Böcker, K B E; Baas, J M P

    2014-11-01

    It has long been postulated that exogenous cannabinoids have a profound effect on human cognitive functioning. These cannabinoid effects are thought to depend, at least in parts, on alterations of phase-locking of local field potential neuronal firing. The latter can be measured as activity in the theta frequency band (4-7Hz) by electroencephalogram. Theta oscillations are supposed to serve as a mechanism in neural representations of behaviorally relevant information. However, it remains unknown whether variability in endogenous cannabinoid activity is involved in theta rhythms and therefore, may serve as an individual differences index of human cognitive functioning. To clarify this issue, we recorded resting state EEG activity in 164 healthy human subjects and extracted EEG power across frequency bands (δ, θ, α, and β). To assess variability in the endocannabinoid system, two genetic polymorphisms (rs1049353, rs2180619) within the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) were determined in all participants. As expected, we observed significant effects of rs1049353 on EEG power in the theta band at frontal, central and parietal electrode regions. Crucially, these effects were specific for the theta band, with no effects on activity in the other frequency bands. Rs2180619 showed no significant associations with theta power after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, we provide novel evidence in humans showing that genetic variability in the cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG power in the theta frequency band. This extends prior findings of exogenous cannabinoid effects on theta power to the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  6. Genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG theta power in humans.

    PubMed

    Heitland, I; Kenemans, J L; Böcker, K B E; Baas, J M P

    2014-11-01

    It has long been postulated that exogenous cannabinoids have a profound effect on human cognitive functioning. These cannabinoid effects are thought to depend, at least in parts, on alterations of phase-locking of local field potential neuronal firing. The latter can be measured as activity in the theta frequency band (4-7Hz) by electroencephalogram. Theta oscillations are supposed to serve as a mechanism in neural representations of behaviorally relevant information. However, it remains unknown whether variability in endogenous cannabinoid activity is involved in theta rhythms and therefore, may serve as an individual differences index of human cognitive functioning. To clarify this issue, we recorded resting state EEG activity in 164 healthy human subjects and extracted EEG power across frequency bands (δ, θ, α, and β). To assess variability in the endocannabinoid system, two genetic polymorphisms (rs1049353, rs2180619) within the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) were determined in all participants. As expected, we observed significant effects of rs1049353 on EEG power in the theta band at frontal, central and parietal electrode regions. Crucially, these effects were specific for the theta band, with no effects on activity in the other frequency bands. Rs2180619 showed no significant associations with theta power after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, we provide novel evidence in humans showing that genetic variability in the cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG power in the theta frequency band. This extends prior findings of exogenous cannabinoid effects on theta power to the endogenous cannabinoid system. PMID:25116250

  7. Involvement of cannabinoid receptor-1 activation in mitochondrial depolarizing effect of lipopolysaccharide in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barbonetti, A; Vassallo, M R C; Costanzo, M; Battista, N; Maccarrone, M; Francavilla, S; Francavilla, F

    2014-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria frequently involved in urogenital tract infections release the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS); its receptor, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), has been recently identified in human spermatozoa, and its direct activation has been suggested in mediating adverse effects of LPS on human spermatozoa. However, the underlying signal transduction remains to be clarified. In other cell types, LPS induces the generation of endocannabinoids, which are involved in mediating endotoxin effects. In human spermatozoa, which exhibit a completely functional endocannabinoid system, the activation of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) inhibited sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). In this study, we tested the hypothesis of a contribution of CB1 activation by sperm-generated endocannabinoids in the adverse effects exerted by LPS on human spermatozoa. The exposure of motile sperm suspensions to E. coli LPS produced a significant decrease in sperm ΔΨm, assessed at flow cytometry with JC-1, similar to that induced by Metanandamide (Met-AEA), a non-hydrolyzable analogue of the endocannabinoid AEA. The LPS-induced inhibition of ΔΨm was prevented by the selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716. However, the inhibition of ΔΨm induced by either LPS or Met-AEA did not affect sperm motility. Consistent with this finding, the CB1-mediated inhibition of ΔΨm was neither associated to mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species as evaluated by flow cytometry with MytoSox Red nor to apoptosis pathway activation as evaluated with cytoflorimetric assay for activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Any oxidative genomic damage was also ruled out with the cytoflorimetric quantification of the oxidized base adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. In conclusion, E. coli LPS inhibited sperm ΔΨm through the activation of CB1, but this effect was not accompanied to the activation of mitochondrial dysfunction-related apoptotic/oxidative mechanisms, which could

  8. Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Mouse and Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Function.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao; Walter, Nicole A R; Harkness, John H; Neve, Kim A; Williams, Robert W; Lu, Lu; Belknap, John K; Eshleman, Amy J; Phillips, Tamara J; Janowsky, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites such as tyramine, octopamine, and β-phenethylamine stimulate the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 has been implicated in human conditions including obesity, schizophrenia, depression, fibromyalgia, migraine, and addiction. Additionally TAAR1 is expressed on lymphocytes and astrocytes involved in inflammation and response to infection. In brain, TAAR1 stimulation reduces synaptic dopamine availability and alters glutamatergic function. TAAR1 is also expressed at low levels in heart, and may regulate cardiovascular tone. Taar1 knockout mice orally self-administer more MA than wild type and are insensitive to its aversive effects. DBA/2J (D2) mice express a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Taar1 that does not respond to MA, and D2 mice are predisposed to high MA intake, compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we demonstrate that endogenous agonists stimulate the recombinant B6 mouse TAAR1, but do not activate the D2 mouse receptor. Progeny of the B6XD2 (BxD) family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been used to characterize the genetic etiology of diseases, but contrary to expectations, BXDs derived 30-40 years ago express only the functional B6 Taar1 allele whereas some more recently derived BXD RI strains express the D2 allele. Data indicate that the D2 mutation arose subsequent to derivation of the original RIs. Finally, we demonstrate that SNPs in human TAAR1 alter its function, resulting in expressed, but functional, sub-functional and non-functional receptors. Our findings are important for identifying a predisposition to human diseases, as well as for developing personalized treatment options. PMID:27031617

  9. Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Mouse and Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Function

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao; Walter, Nicole A. R.; Harkness, John H.; Neve, Kim A.; Williams, Robert W.; Lu, Lu; Belknap, John K.; Eshleman, Amy J.; Phillips, Tamara J.; Janowsky, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites such as tyramine, octopamine, and β-phenethylamine stimulate the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 has been implicated in human conditions including obesity, schizophrenia, depression, fibromyalgia, migraine, and addiction. Additionally TAAR1 is expressed on lymphocytes and astrocytes involved in inflammation and response to infection. In brain, TAAR1 stimulation reduces synaptic dopamine availability and alters glutamatergic function. TAAR1 is also expressed at low levels in heart, and may regulate cardiovascular tone. Taar1 knockout mice orally self-administer more MA than wild type and are insensitive to its aversive effects. DBA/2J (D2) mice express a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Taar1 that does not respond to MA, and D2 mice are predisposed to high MA intake, compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we demonstrate that endogenous agonists stimulate the recombinant B6 mouse TAAR1, but do not activate the D2 mouse receptor. Progeny of the B6XD2 (BxD) family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been used to characterize the genetic etiology of diseases, but contrary to expectations, BXDs derived 30–40 years ago express only the functional B6 Taar1 allele whereas some more recently derived BXD RI strains express the D2 allele. Data indicate that the D2 mutation arose subsequent to derivation of the original RIs. Finally, we demonstrate that SNPs in human TAAR1 alter its function, resulting in expressed, but functional, sub-functional and non-functional receptors. Our findings are important for identifying a predisposition to human diseases, as well as for developing personalized treatment options. PMID:27031617

  10. Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Mouse and Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Function.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao; Walter, Nicole A R; Harkness, John H; Neve, Kim A; Williams, Robert W; Lu, Lu; Belknap, John K; Eshleman, Amy J; Phillips, Tamara J; Janowsky, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites such as tyramine, octopamine, and β-phenethylamine stimulate the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 has been implicated in human conditions including obesity, schizophrenia, depression, fibromyalgia, migraine, and addiction. Additionally TAAR1 is expressed on lymphocytes and astrocytes involved in inflammation and response to infection. In brain, TAAR1 stimulation reduces synaptic dopamine availability and alters glutamatergic function. TAAR1 is also expressed at low levels in heart, and may regulate cardiovascular tone. Taar1 knockout mice orally self-administer more MA than wild type and are insensitive to its aversive effects. DBA/2J (D2) mice express a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Taar1 that does not respond to MA, and D2 mice are predisposed to high MA intake, compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we demonstrate that endogenous agonists stimulate the recombinant B6 mouse TAAR1, but do not activate the D2 mouse receptor. Progeny of the B6XD2 (BxD) family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been used to characterize the genetic etiology of diseases, but contrary to expectations, BXDs derived 30-40 years ago express only the functional B6 Taar1 allele whereas some more recently derived BXD RI strains express the D2 allele. Data indicate that the D2 mutation arose subsequent to derivation of the original RIs. Finally, we demonstrate that SNPs in human TAAR1 alter its function, resulting in expressed, but functional, sub-functional and non-functional receptors. Our findings are important for identifying a predisposition to human diseases, as well as for developing personalized treatment options.

  11. Shear stress reduces protease activated receptor-1 expression in human endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Shear stress has been shown to regulate several genes involved in the thrombotic and proliferative functions of endothelial cells. Thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1: PAR-1) increases at sites of vascular injury, which suggests an important role for PAR-1 in vascular diseases. However, the effect of shear stress on PAR-1 expression has not been previously studied. This work investigates effects of shear stress on PAR-1 gene expression in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Cells were exposed to different shear stresses using a parallel plate flow system. Northern blot and flow cytometry analysis showed that shear stress down-regulated PAR-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in both HUVECs and HMECs but with different thresholds. Furthermore, shear-reduced PAR-1 mRNA was due to a decrease of transcription rate, not increased mRNA degradation. Postshear stress release of endothelin-1 in response to thrombin was reduced in HUVECs and HMECs. Moreover, inhibitors of potential signaling pathways applied during shear stress indicated mediation of the shear-decreased PAR-1 expression by protein kinases. In conclusion, shear stress exposure reduces PAR-1 gene expression in HMECs and HUVECs through a mechanism dependent in part on protein kinases, leading to altered endothelial cell functional responses to thrombin.

  12. Roles of transferrin receptors in erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Masuda, Taro; Uchiyama, Tatsuki; Ohmori, Katsuyuki; Koeffler, H Phillip; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2016-07-01

    Erythropoiesis requires large amounts of iron for hemoglobin synthesis, which is mainly provided by macrophages and the intestines in a transferrin (Tf)-bound form. Bone marrow erythroblasts incorporate Tf through endocytosis, which is mediated by transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Recently, human TFR1, aside from its role as a Tf receptor, was also found to be a receptor for the H-subunit of ferritin (FTH). In humans, hematopoietic erythroid precursor cells express high levels of TFR1 and specifically take up the FTH homopolymer (H-ferritin). H-ferritin inhibits the formation of burst forming unit-erythroid colonies in vitro. TFR2, which is also a Tf receptor, is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes and erythroid precursor cells. In the liver, TFR2 forms a complex with HFE, a hereditary hemochromatosis-associated protein, and acts as an iron sensor. In mice, hepatocyte-specific knockout of the TFR2 gene has been shown to cause systemic iron-overload with decreased expression of hepcidin, the central regulator of iron homeostasis. In erythroid cells, TFR2 forms a complex with the erythropoietin receptor and facilitates its trafficking to the cell membrane. Moreover, hematopoietic cell-specific knockout of the TFR2 gene causes microcytic erythrocytosis in mice. This review focuses on the molecular evolution and functions of these TFRs and their ligands. PMID:27498743

  13. Antagonism of Human Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 (FPR1) by Chromones and Related Isoflavones

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Cheng, Ni; Ye, Richard D.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on a variety of cell types. Because FPRs play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory reactions implicated in disease pathogenesis, FPR antagonists may represent novel therapeutics for modulating innate immunity. Previously, 4H-chromones were reported to be potent and competitive FPR1 antagonists. In the present studies, 96 additional chromone analogs, including related synthetic and natural isoflavones were evaluated for FPR1 antagonist activity. We identified a number of novel competitive FPR1 antagonists that inhibited fMLF-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in FPR1-HL60 cells and effectively competed with WKYMVm-FITC for binding to FPR1 in FPR1-HL60 and FPR1-RBL cells. Compound 10 (6-hexyl-2-methyl-3-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl acetate) was found to be the most potent FPR1-specific antagonist, with binding affinity Ki~100 nM. These chromones inhibited Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis in human neutrophils with nanomolar-micromolar IC50 values. In addition, the most potent novel FPR1 antagonists inhibited fMLF-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in FPR1-RBL cells. These antagonists were specific for FPR1 and did not inhibit WKYMVM/WKYMVm-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in FPR2-HL60 cells, FPR3-HL60 cells, RBL cells transfected with murine Fpr1, or interleukin 8-induced Ca2+ flux in human neutrophils and RBL cells transfected with CXC chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1). Moreover, pharmacophore modeling showed that the active chromones had a significantly higher degree of similarity with the pharmacophore template as compared to inactive analogs. Thus, the chromone/isoflavone scaffold represents a relevant backbone for development of novel FPR1 antagonists. PMID:25450672

  14. Structure of the Membrane Proximal Oxioreductase Domain of Human Steap3, the Dominant Ferrireductase of the Erythroid Transferrin Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sendamarai, A.K.; Ohgami, R.S.; Fleming, M.D.; Lawrence, C.M.

    2009-05-27

    The daily production of 200 billion erythrocytes requires 20 mg of iron, accounting for nearly 80% of the iron demand in humans. Thus, erythroid precursor cells possess an efficient mechanism for iron uptake in which iron loaded transferrin (Tf) binds to the transferrin receptor (TfR) at the cell surface. The Tf:TfR complex then enters the endosome via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Upon endosomal acidification, iron is released from Tf, reduced to Fe{sup 2+} by Steap3, and transported across the endosomal membrane by divalent metal iron transporter 1. Steap3, the major ferrireductase in erythrocyte endosomes, is a member of a unique family of reductases. Steap3 is comprised of an N-terminal cytosolic oxidoreductase domain and a C-terminal heme-containing transmembrane domain. Cytosolic NADPH and a flavin are predicted cofactors, but the NADPH/flavin binding domain differs significantly from those in other eukaryotic reductases. Instead, Steap3 shows remarkable, although limited homology to FNO, an archaeal oxidoreductase. We have determined the crystal structure of the human Steap3 oxidoreductase domain in the absence and presence of NADPH. The structure reveals an FNO-like domain with an unexpected dimer interface and substrate binding sites that are well positioned to direct electron transfer from the cytosol to a heme moiety predicted to be fixed within the transmembrane domain. Here, we discuss possible gating mechanisms for electron transfer across the endosomal membrane.

  15. Canine and Feline Parvoviruses Can Use Human or Feline Transferrin Receptors To Bind, Enter, and Infect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Parker, John S. L.; Murphy, William J.; Wang, Dai; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2001-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enters and infects cells by a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, and viral capsids colocalize with transferrin in perinuclear vesicles of cells shortly after entry (J. S. L. Parker and C. R. Parrish, J. Virol. 74:1919–1930, 2000). Here we report that CPV and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a closely related parvovirus, bind to the human and feline transferrin receptors (TfRs) and use these receptors to enter and infect cells. Capsids did not detectably bind or enter quail QT35 cells or a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-derived cell line that lacks any TfR (TRVb cells). However, capsids bound and were endocytosed into QT35 cells and CHO-derived TRVb-1 cells that expressed the human TfR. TRVb-1 cells or TRVb cells transiently expressing the feline TfR were susceptible to infection by CPV and FPV, but the parental TRVb cells were not. We screened a panel of feline-mouse hybrid cells for susceptibility to FPV infection and found that only those cells that possessed feline chromosome C2 were susceptible. The feline TfR gene (TRFC) also mapped to feline chromosome C2. These data indicate that cell susceptibility for these viruses is determined by the TfR. PMID:11264378

  16. Expression of Hepcidin and Ferroportin in the Placenta, and Ferritin and Transferrin Receptor 1 Levels in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood in Pregnant Women with and without Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Anqiang; Zhao, Jun; Lu, Minhua; Gu, Ying; Zhu, Yunlong; Chen, Daozhen; Fu, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regulation of iron transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta is not fully understood and the relationship between stored iron status in the mothers’ serum and gestational diabetes (GDM) in case–control studies is controversial. The present study aimed to detect circulating soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and ferritin levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. We also examined the expression of hepcidin (Hep), transferrin receptor (TfR1), and ferroportin (FPN) in the placenta in pregnant women with and without GDM at full term. Methods: Eighty-two women participated (42 with GDM and 40 without GDM [controls]). Maternal samples were collected at 37–39 weeks’ gestation. Umbilical cord blood was collected at birth. Ferritin and sTfR levels in maternal serum and umbilical cord blood, and Hep, TfR1, and FPN protein expression in plac enta were compared between the GDM and non-GDM groups. Serum ferritin (SF) was measured by electrochemiluminescence assay and sTfR was measured by ELISA. Hep, TfR1, and FPN expression was measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: Maternal serum sTfR levels were significantly elevated in the GDM group compared with the non-GDM group (p = 0.003). SF levels in cord blood in the GDM group were significantly higher than those in the non-GDM group (p = 0.003). However, maternal hemoglobin and SF, and umbilical cord sTfR levels were not different between the groups. In placental tissue, FPN expression was higher and hepcidin expression was lower in the GDM group compared with the non-GDM group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.044, respectively). There was no significant difference in TfR1 between the groups (p = 0.898). Conclusions: Women with GDM transport iron more actively than those without GDM at term pregnancy. Maternal iron metabolism in GDM may play a role in fetal/placental iron demand and in the overall outcome of pregnancy. PMID:27483296

  17. Identification and purification of human erythroid progenitor cells by monoclonal antibody to the transferrin receptor (TU 67).

    PubMed

    Herrmann, F; Griffin, J D; Sabbath, K D; Oster, W; Wernet, P; Mertelsmann, R

    1988-04-01

    Anti-TU 67 is a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes the transferrin receptor. With respect to hematopoietic cells TU 67 is expressed by human multipotent colony-forming cells (CFU-Mix), erythroid progenitor cells (BFU-E and CFU-E) and a fraction of granulocyte/monocyte colony forming cells, but is not expressed by mature hematopoietic cells including erythrocytes, platelets, lymphocytes, and peripheral blood myeloid cells. The TU 67-positive fraction of normal bone marrow, separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) or immune rosettes, contained 87% of the erythroid progenitor cells. Erythroid progenitor cells were enriched up to 50-fold by using a combination of monoclonal antibodies to deplete mature hematopoietic cells, followed by positive selection of BFU-E and CFU-E by TU 67 antibody.

  18. Up-regulation of transferrin receptor gene expression by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in human myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Y; Kataoka, T; Towatari, M; Ito, T; Inoue, H; Ogura, M; Morishima, Y; Saito, H

    1990-12-15

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced surface transferrin receptor (TfR) expression in two human myeloid leukemia cell lines, NKM-1 and NOMO-1, which possess G-CSF receptors. Radioligand-binding assay revealed that 10 ng/ml G-CSF significantly increased TfR to 186 +/- 20 and 276 +/- 38% of control for NKM-1 cells and NOMO-1 cells, respectively, in a 24-h culture. Scatchard analysis showed the increase of transferrin (Tf)-binding sites but no change in the receptor affinity. The enhanced TfR expression was not mediated either by the kinetic change of receptor cycling or by cellular iron content. Immunoprecipitation with anti-TfR antibody was used, and the increased biosynthesis of the receptor was demonstrated in G-CSF-stimulated cells. Northern blot analysis showed a 2- to 3-fold increase of TfR mRNA of NKM-1 cells cultured in medium containing Tf and G-CSF, whereas the mRNA declined without G-CSF. The effect of G-CSF on the TfR mRNA was observed within 2 h, which preceded the increase of surface TfR and the transition to the S phase of the cell cycle. G-CSF also potentiated TfR expression in freshly obtained myeloid leukemia cells. The present study shows up-regulation of TfR expression by G-CSF in myeloid leukemia cells and provides evidence that the regulation is mediated by controlling the steady-state level of the mRNA. PMID:1701357

  19. Human serum transferrin: is there a link among autism, high oxalate levels, and iron deficiency anemia?

    PubMed

    Luck, Ashley N; Bobst, Cedric E; Kaltashov, Igor A; Mason, Anne B

    2013-11-19

    It has been previously suggested that large amounts of oxalate in plasma could play a role in autism by binding to the bilobal iron transport protein transferrin (hTF), thereby interfering with iron metabolism by inhibiting the delivery of iron to cells. By examining the effect of the substitution of oxalate for the physiologically utilized synergistic carbonate anion in each lobe of hTF, we sought to provide a molecular basis for or against such a role. Our work clearly shows both qualitatively (6 M urea gels) and quantitatively (kinetic analysis by stopped-flow spectrofluorimetry) that the presence of oxalate in place of carbonate in each binding site of hTF does indeed greatly interfere with the removal of iron from each lobe (in the absence and presence of the specific hTF receptor). However, we also clearly demonstrate that once the iron is bound within each lobe of hTF, neither anion can displace the other. Additionally, as verified by urea gels and electrospray mass spectrometry, formation of completely homogeneous hTF-anion complexes requires that all iron must first be removed and hTF then reloaded with iron in the presence of either carbonate or oxalate. Significantly, experiments described here show that carbonate is the preferred binding partner; i.e., even if an equal amount of each anion is available during the iron loading process, the hTF-carbonate complex is formed.

  20. Evaluation of commercial antibodies against human sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Talmont, Franck; Moulédous, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1), also called endothelial differentiation gene 1, plays an important role in migration, proliferation, and survival of several types of cells including endothelial cells and lymphocytes and is involved in multiple sclerosis. Two commercial rabbit anti-S1P1 antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) were tested on CHO cells expressing S1P1 receptors fused to the green fluorescent protein at the C-terminal end and on Pichia pastoris and HEK cells expressing cmyc-tagged S1P1. Polyclonal antibodies did not give any signal by Western blot, immunofluorescence, and flow cytofluorometry. Monoclonal antibodies were able to reveal an unspecific band by Western blot performed on various cell types. Consequently, in our hands and using our protocols, we show that these antibodies did not specifically detect S1P1 receptors.

  1. Augmentation by transferrin of IL-2-inducible killer activity and perforin production of human CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, A; Sone, S; Nabioullin, R; Sugihara, K; Munekata, M; Nishioka, Y; Nii, A; Ogura, T

    1993-01-01

    The effects of human transferrin (Tf) on lymphokine (IL-2)-activated killer (LAK) induction from blood lymphocytes of healthy donors was examined. LAK cells were induced by 6-day incubation in medium with recombinant human IL-2 of lymphocytes, and their cytotoxic activity was assessed by measuring 51Cr release from NK-resistant Daudi cells. Tf alone did not induce any LAK activity, but in combination with IL-2, it augmented LAK induction dose- and time-dependently. This augmenting effect was completely abolished by pretreatment with anti-Tf antiserum. Tf augmented the proliferative response of lymphocytes to IL-2 and their expressions of receptors for IL-2 and Tf. CD8+ T cells were isolated from purified blood lymphocytes using antibody-bound magnetic beads. Addition of Tf to cultures of CD8+ cells resulted in significant augmentation of killer cell induction and perforin (PFP) production after 4 days stimulation with IL-2. These results indicate that Tf is important in generation of IL-2-inducible killer properties and PFP activity of human CD8+ T cells. PMID:8467561

  2. Reduced bioenergetics and toll-like receptor 1 function in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in aging.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feng; Guo, Xiuyang; Wang, Xiaomei; Yuan, Xiaoling; Chen, Shu; Malawista, Stephen E; Bockenstedt, Linda K; Allore, Heather G; Montgomery, Ruth R

    2014-02-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in immune function (immunosenescence) resulting in an increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections. Here we show reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and an underlying age-dependent deficiency in PMN bioenergetics. In older (>65 years) adults, stimulation through TLR1 led to lower activation of integrins (CD11b and CD18), lower production of the chemokine IL-8, and lower levels of the phosphorylated signaling intermediate p38 MAP kinase than in PMN from younger donors (21-30 years). In addition, loss of CD62L, a marker of PMN activation, was reduced in PMN of older adults stimulated through multiple pathways. Rescue of PMN from apoptosis by stimulation with TLR1 was reduced in PMN from older adults. In seeking an explanation for effects of aging across multiple pathways, we examined PMN energy utilization and found that glucose uptake after stimulation through TLR1 was dramatically lower in PMN of older adults. Our results demonstrate a reduction in TLR1 expression and TLR1-mediated responses in PMN with aging, and reduced efficiency of bioenergetics in PMN. These changes likely contribute to reduced PMN efficiency in aging through multiple aspects of PMN function and suggest potential therapeutic opportunities.

  3. Assessment of pro-apoptotic activity of doxorubicin-transferrin conjugate in cells derived from human solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Szwed, Marzena; Kania, Katarzyna Dominika; Jozwiak, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Conjugates of anthracyclines are a new possibility for anticancer agent delivery, which seems to be a very promising alternative to the currently used cancer treatment strategies. In our study, we investigated the ability of a doxorubicin-transferrin (DOX-TRF) conjugate to induce cell death in two solid tumor cell lines: non-small cell lung cancer (A549) and hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2). The observed effects of the DOX-TRF conjugate on these cell cultures were compared with those of free doxorubicin (DOX), a widely used antineoplastic therapeutic agent. Our results provided direct evidence that the investigated conjugate is considerably more cytotoxic to the examined human cancer cell lines than is DOX alone. Moreover, we confirmed that the antitumor efficacy of DOX-TRF conjugate is related to its apoptosis-inducing ability, which was shown during measurements of typical features of programmed cell death. In solid tumor cell lines, the DOX-TRF conjugate induced changes in cellular morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential and caspases-3 and -9 activities. Furthermore, all of the analyzed hallmarks of apoptosis were confirmed by the oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation assay and by a real-time PCR quantitative study, which displayed the superiority of the conjugate-induced programmed cell death over free drug-triggered cell death.

  4. siRNA screen of the human signaling proteome identifies the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-mTOR signaling pathway as a primary regulator of transferrin uptake

    PubMed Central

    Galvez, Thierry; Teruel, Mary N; Heo, Won Do; Jones, Joshua T; Kim, Man Lyang; Liou, Jen; Myers, Jason W; Meyer, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Background Iron uptake via endocytosis of iron-transferrin-transferrin receptor complexes is a rate-limiting step for cell growth, viability and proliferation in tumor cells as well as non-transformed cells such as activated lymphocytes. Signaling pathways that regulate transferrin uptake have not yet been identified. Results We surveyed the human signaling proteome for regulators that increase or decrease transferrin uptake by screening 1,804 dicer-generated signaling small interfering RNAs using automated quantitative imaging. In addition to known transport proteins, we identified 11 signaling proteins that included a striking signature set for the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3)-target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. We show that the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway is a positive regulator of transferrin uptake that increases the number of transferrin receptors per endocytic vesicle without affecting endocytosis or recycling rates. Conclusion Our study identifies the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-mTOR signaling pathway as a new regulator of iron-transferrin uptake and serves as a proof-of-concept that targeted RNA interference screens of the signaling proteome provide a powerful and unbiased approach to discover or rank signaling pathways that regulate a particular cell function. PMID:17640392

  5. Complexation of Cm(III) with the recombinant N-lobe of human serum transferrin studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS).

    PubMed

    Bauer, N; Smith, V C; MacGillivray, R T A; Panak, P J

    2015-01-28

    The complexation of Cm(III) with the recombinant N-lobe of human serum transferrin (hTf/2N) is investigated in the pH range from 4.0 to 11.0 using TRLFS. At pH ≥ 7.4 a Cm(III) hTf/2N species is formed with Cm(III) bound at the Fe(III) binding site. The results are compared with Cm(III) transferrin interaction at the C-lobe and indicate the similarity of the coordination environment of the C- and N-terminal binding sites with four amino acid residues of the protein, two H2O molecules and three additional ligands (e.g. synergistic anions such as carbonate) in the first coordination sphere. Measurements at c(carbonate)tot = 0.23 mM (ambient carbonate concentration) and c(carbonate)tot = 25 mM (physiological carbonate concentration) show that an increase of the total carbonate concentration suppresses the formation of the Cm(III) hTf/2N species significantly. Additionally, the three Cm(III) carbonate species Cm(CO3)(+), Cm(CO3)2(-) and Cm(CO3)3(3-) are formed successively with increasing pH. In general, carbonate complexation is a competing reaction for both Cm(III) complexation with transferrin and hTf/2N but the effect is significantly higher for the half molecule. At c(carbonate)tot = 0.23 mM the complexation of Cm(III) with transferrin and hTf/2N starts at pH ≥ 7.4. At physiological carbonate concentration the Cm(III) transferrin species II forms at pH ≥ 7.0 whereas the Cm(III) hTf/2N species is not formed until pH > 10.0. Hence, our results reveal significant differences in the complexation behavior of the C-terminal site of transferrin and the recombinant N-lobe (hTf/2N) towards trivalent actinides.

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 in human cancer: concise review and rationale for development of IMC-18F1 (Human antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jonathan D; Rowinsky, Eric K; Youssoufian, Hagop; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Wu, Yan

    2010-02-15

    The human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1, or Flt-1) is widely expressed in normal and pathologic tissue and contributes to the pathogenesis of both neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. In human cancer, VEGFR-1 mediated signaling is responsible for both direct tumor activation and angiogenesis. VEGFR-1 mediated activation of nonmalignant supporting cells, particularly stromal, dendritic, hematopoietic cells, and macrophages, is also likely important for cancer pathogenesis. VEGFR-1 is also hypothesized to enable the development of cancer metastases by means of activation and premetastatic localization in distant organs of bone marrow-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells, which express VEGFR-1. IMC-18F1 is a fully human IgG(1) antibody that binds to VEGFR-1 and has been associated with the inhibition of cancer growth in multiple in vitro and human tumor xenograft models. The preliminary results of phase 1 investigations have also indicated a favorable safety profile for IMC-18F1 at doses that confer antibody concentrations that are associated with relevant antitumor activity in preclinical models.

  7. Removal of transferrin from fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Huebers, E; Nelson, N J; Huebers, H A; Rasey, J S

    1987-12-01

    An antiserum against purified fetal bovine serum (FBS) transferrin was produced in rabbits. The isolation of anti-bovine transferrin IgG fraction was achieved by ammonium sulfate precipitation of rabbit hyperimmune plasma followed by ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) cellulose, at both an acidic and basic pH. The various antibody fractions were analyzed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a high-resolution mono-Q column. The specificity and efficiency of the antibody fractions obtained were tested by titration of a constant amount of fetal bovine serum with increasing amounts of antibody. The completeness of removal of the fetal bovine serum transferrin resulting from the formation of the highly stable antibody antigen complex was monitored by immunologic and radioisotope methods. The removal of FBS transferrin by this antibody precipitation technique did not interfere with the ability of added iron 59-tagged human transferrin to deliver iron to rat reticulocytes, as shown in an in vivo incubation model. The method proved to be effective for the fast and complete removal of bovine transferrin from fetal bovine serum in vitro and will be a prerequisite for more detailed studies of the interaction of transferrin of different species with tissue receptors on cell lines in culture without resorting to completely defined culture media. PMID:3681114

  8. Spectral and metal-binding properties of three single-point tryptophan mutants of the human transferrin N-lobe.

    PubMed Central

    He, Q Y; Mason, A B; Lyons, B A; Tam, B M; Nguyen, V; MacGillivray, R T; Woodworth, R C

    2001-01-01

    Human serum transferrin N-lobe (hTF/2N) contains three conserved tryptophan residues, Trp(8), Trp(128) and Trp(264), located in three different environments. The present report addresses the different contributions of the three tryptophan residues to the UV-visible, fluorescence and NMR spectra of hTF/2N and the effect of the mutations at each tryptophan residue on the iron-binding properties of the protein. Trp(8) resides in a hydrophobic box containing a cluster of three phenylalanine side chains and is H bonded through the indole N to an adjacent water cluster lying between two beta-sheets containing Trp(8) and Lys(296) respectively. The fluorescence of Trp(8) may be quenched by the benzene rings. The apparent increase in the rate of iron release from the Trp(8)-->Tyr mutant could be due to the interference of the mutation with the H-bond linkage resulting in an effect on the second shell network. The partial quenching in the fluorescence of Trp(128) results from the nearby His(119) residue. Difference-fluorescence spectra reveal that any protein containing Trp(128) shows a blue shift upon binding metal ion, and the NMR signal of Trp(128) broadens out and disappears upon the binding of paramagnetic metals to the protein. These data imply that Trp(128) is a major fluorescent and NMR reporter group for metal binding, and possibly for cleft closure in hTF/2N. Trp(264) is located on the surface of the protein and does not connect to any functional residues. This explains the facts that Trp(264) is the major contributor to both the absorbance and fluorescence spectra, has a strong NMR signal and the mutation at Trp(264) has little effect on the iron-binding and release behaviours of the protein. PMID:11171122

  9. Transferrin surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles-mediated delivery of a proteasome inhibitor to human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Frasco, Manuela F; Almeida, Gabriela M; Santos-Silva, Filipe; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Coelho, Manuel A N

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a drug delivery system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for an efficient and targeted action of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib against pancreatic cancer cells. The PLGA nanoparticles were formulated with a poloxamer, and further surface-modified with transferrin for tumor targeting. The nanoparticles were characterized as polymer carriers of bortezomib, and the cellular uptake and growth inhibitory effects were evaluated in pancreatic cells. Cellular internalization of nanoparticles was observed in normal and cancer cells, but with higher uptake by cancer cells. The sustained release of the loaded bortezomib from PLGA nanoparticles showed cytotoxic effects against pancreatic normal and cancer cells. Noteworthy differential cytotoxicity was attained by transferrin surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles since significant cell growth inhibition by delivered bortezomib was only observed in cancer cells. These findings demonstrate that the ligand transferrin enhanced the targeted delivery of bortezomib-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to pancreatic cancer cells. These in vitro results highlight the transferrin surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles as a promising system for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. PMID:25046528

  10. Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 in Humans with Post-Traumatic Brain Contusions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valverde, Tamara; Vidal-Jorge, Marian; Martínez-Saez, Elena; Castro, Lidia; Arikan, Fuat; Cordero, Esteban; Rădoi, Andreea; Poca, Maria-Antonia; Simard, J Marc; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Post-traumatic brain contusions (PTBCs) are traditionally considered primary injuries and can increase in size, generate perilesional edema, cause mass effect, induce neurological deterioration, and cause death. Most patients experience a progressive increase in pericontusional edema, and nearly half, an increase in the hemorrhagic component itself. The underlying molecular pathophysiology of contusion-induced brain edema and hemorrhagic progression remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate sulfonylurea 1/transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (SUR1-TRPM4) ion channel SUR1 expression in various cell types (neurons, astrocytes, endothelial cells, microglia, macrophages, and neutrophils) of human brain contusions and whether SUR1 up-regulation was related to time postinjury. Double immunolabeling of SUR1 and cell-type- specific proteins was performed in 26 specimens from traumatic brain injury patients whose lesions were surgically evacuated. Three samples from limited brain resections performed for accessing extra-axial skull-base tumors or intraventricular lesions were controls. We found SUR1 was significantly overexpresed in all cell types and was especially prominent in neurons and endothelial cells (ECs). The temporal pattern depended on cell type: 1) In neurons, SUR1 increased within 48 h of injury and stabilized thereafter; 2) in ECs, there was no trend; 3) in glial cells and microglia/macrophages, a moderate increase was observed over time; and 4) in neutrophils, it decreased with time. Our results suggest that up-regulation of SUR1 in humans point to this channel as one of the important molecular players in the pathophysiology of PTBCs. Our findings reveal opportunities to act therapeutically on the mechanisms of growth of traumatic contusions and therefore reduce the number of patients with neurological deterioration and poor neurological outcomes. PMID:26398596

  11. Uptake of Al3+ into the N-lobe of human serum transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Kubal, G; Mason, A B; Sadler, P J; Tucker, A; Woodworth, R C

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the binding of Al3+ to human serum apotransferrin (80 kDa) and recombinant N-lobe human apotransferrin (40 kDa) in 0.1 M-sodium bicarbonate solution at a pH meter reading in 2H2O (pH*) of 8.8 using 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy. The results show that for the intact protein, preferential binding of Al3+ to the N-lobe occurs. Molecular modelling combined with an analysis of ring-current-induced shifts suggest that n.m.r. spectroscopy can be used to probe hinge bending processes which accompany metal uptake in solution. PMID:1497609

  12. Leprosy and the Adaptation of Human Toll-Like Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sunny H.; Gochhait, Sailesh; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Pettersson, Fredrik H.; Teo, Yik Y.; Khor, Chiea C.; Rautanen, Anna; Chapman, Stephen J.; Mills, Tara C.; Srivastava, Amit; Rudko, Aleksey; Freidin, Maxim B.; Puzyrev, Valery P.; Ali, Shafat; Aggarwal, Shweta; Chopra, Rupali; Reddy, Belum S. N.; Garg, Vijay K.; Roy, Suchismita; Meisner, Sarah; Hazra, Sunil K.; Saha, Bibhuti; Floyd, Sian; Keating, Brendan J.; Kim, Cecilia; Fairfax, Benjamin P.; Knight, Julian C.; Hill, Philip C.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Fine, Paul E. M.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy M.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.

    2010-01-01

    Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae and remains endemic in many parts of the world. Despite several major studies on susceptibility to leprosy, few genomic loci have been replicated independently. We have conducted an association analysis of more than 1,500 individuals from different case-control and family studies, and observed consistent associations between genetic variants in both TLR1 and the HLA-DRB1/DQA1 regions with susceptibility to leprosy (TLR1 I602S, case-control P = 5.7×10−8, OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.20–0.48, and HLA-DQA1 rs1071630, case-control P = 4.9×10−14, OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.35–0.54). The effect sizes of these associations suggest that TLR1 and HLA-DRB1/DQA1 are major susceptibility genes in susceptibility to leprosy. Further population differentiation analysis shows that the TLR1 locus is extremely differentiated. The protective dysfunctional 602S allele is rare in Africa but expands to become the dominant allele among individuals of European descent. This supports the hypothesis that this locus may be under selection from mycobacteria or other pathogens that are recognized by TLR1 and its co-receptors. These observations provide insight into the long standing host-pathogen relationship between human and mycobacteria and highlight the key role of the TLR pathway in infectious diseases. PMID:20617178

  13. Role of hemoglobin and transferrin in multi-wall carbon nanotube-induced mesothelial injury and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Shi, Lei; Kohda, Hiro; Tanaka, Minoru; Taki, Kentaro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Hirayama, Tasuku; Nagasawa, Hideko; Yamashita, Yoriko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-03-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are a form of flexible fibrous nanomaterial with high electrical and thermal conductivity. However, 50-nm MWCNT in diameter causes malignant mesothelioma (MM) in rodents and, thus, the International Agency of Research on Cancer has designated them as a possible human carcinogen. Little is known about the molecular mechanism through which MWCNT causes MM. To elucidate the carcinogenic mechanisms of MWCNT in mesothelial cells, we used a variety of lysates to comprehensively identify proteins specifically adsorbed on pristine MWCNT of different diameters (50 nm, NT50; 100 nm, NT100; 150 nm, NT150; and 15 nm/tangled, NTtngl) using mass spectrometry. We identified >400 proteins, which included hemoglobin, histone, transferrin and various proteins associated with oxidative stress, among which we selected hemoglobin and transferrin for coating MWCNT to further evaluate cytotoxicity, wound healing, intracellular catalytic ferrous iron and oxidative stress in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMC). Cytotoxicity to RPMC was observed with pristine NT50 but not with NTtngl. Coating NT50 with hemoglobin or transferrin significantly aggravated cytotoxicity to RPMC, with an increase in cellular catalytic ferrous iron and DNA damage also observed. Knockdown of transferrin receptor with ferristatin II decreased not only NT50 uptake but also cellular catalytic ferrous iron. Our results suggest that adsorption of hemoglobin and transferrin on the surface of NT50 play a role in causing mesothelial iron overload, contributing to oxidative damage and possibly subsequent carcinogenesis in mesothelial cells. Uptake of NT50 at least partially depends on transferrin receptor 1. Modifications of NT50 surface may decrease this human risk.

  14. Transferrin Iron Starvation Therapy for Lethal Bacterial and Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Pantapalangkoor, Paul; Tan, Brandon; Bruhn, Kevin W.; Ho, Tiffany; Nielsen, Travis; Skaar, Eric P.; Zhang, Yaofang; Bai, Ruipeng; Wang, Amy; Doherty, Terence M.; Spellberg, Brad

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to treat antibiotic-resistant infections are urgently needed. We serendipitously discovered that stem cell conditioned media possessed broad antimicrobial properties. Biochemical, functional, and genetic assays confirmed that the antimicrobial effect was mediated by supra-physiological concentrations of transferrin. Human transferrin inhibited growth of gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram-negative (Acinetobacter baumannii), and fungal (Candida albicans) pathogens by sequestering iron and disrupting membrane potential. Serial passage in subtherapeutic transferrin concentrations resulted in no emergence of resistance. Infected mice treated with intravenous human transferrin had improved survival and reduced microbial burden. Finally, adjunctive transferrin reduced the emergence of rifampin-resistant mutants of S. aureus in infected mice treated with rifampin. Transferrin is a promising, novel antimicrobial agent that merits clinical investigation. These results provide proof of principle that bacterial infections can be treated in vivo by attacking host targets (ie, trace metal availability) rather than microbial targets. PMID:24446527

  15. Predicting long term cooperativity and specific modulators of receptor interactions in human transferrin from dynamics within a single microstate.

    PubMed

    Abdizadeh, Haleh; Atilgan, Canan

    2016-03-21

    Transferrin (Tf) is an essential transport protein circulating iron in the blood and delivering it to tissues. It displays highly pH dependent cooperativity between the two lobes each carrying an iron, and forms a tight complex with the receptor during endocytosis and recycling back to the serum. We explore short-term dynamics within selected microstates of human Tf to identify functional information relevant to long-term dynamics. While the variance-covariance matrix delineates cooperativity between the domains of Tf at serum pH which is lost at endosomal pH, its decomposition does not bring about additional information. We employ perturbation-response scanning (PRS) to extract essential components that contribute to a pre-selected conformational change. Since large-scale motions may require key residues to mediate correlated motions between different regions of the protein, we use PRS to predict those involved in the conformational transitions between the iron bound and free hTf. Physiological and endosomal conditions are mimicked to identify critical residues for holo → apo and apo → holo transitions. Iron binding motions are mainly orchestrated by residues at the synergistic anion uptake sites, a finding also corroborated by additional molecular dynamics simulations where these sites are perturbed by docking the anion. Iron release is not readily accessible at serum pH, while at endosomal pH single residue perturbations on any residue encourage the large transition that involves a complex twisting of the two domains relative to each other, simultaneously opening both lobes. The pH dependent change in the dynamics is traced to the altered electrostatic potential distribution along the surface. The examination of local dynamics in the hTf-receptor pair reveals cooperativity in the quaternary structure and explains resistance to iron release in the complex. Meanwhile, the analysis of the hTf complex with a bacterial receptor that has evolved to sequester iron

  16. Expression and Prognostic Significance of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors 1 and 3 in Gastric and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hedner, Charlotta; Borg, David; Nodin, Björn; Karnevi, Emelie; Jirström, Karin; Eberhard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas are major global cancer burdens. These cancer forms are characterized by a poor prognosis and a modest response to chemo- radio- and targeted treatment. Hence there is an obvious need for further enhanced diagnostic and treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and prognostic impact of human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER1/EGFR) and 3 (HER3), as well as the occurrence of EGFR and KRAS mutations in gastric and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and HER3 was analysed in all primary tumours and a subset of lymph node metastases in a consecutive cohort of 174 patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, cardia and esophagus. The anti-HER3 antibody used was validated by siRNA-mediated knockdown, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. EGFR and KRAS mutation status was analysed by pyrosequencing tecchnology. Results and Discussion High EGFR expression was an independent risk factor for shorter overall survival (OS), whereas high HER3 expression was associated with a borderline significant trend towards a longer OS. KRAS mutations were present in only 4% of the tumours and had no prognostic impact. All tumours were EGFR wild-type. These findings contribute to the ongoing efforts to decide on the potential clinical value of different HERs and druggable mutations in gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas, and attention is drawn to the need for more standardised investigational methods. PMID:26844548

  17. Asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 is a specific cell-surface marker for isolating hepatocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Derek T; Henderson, Christopher A; Warren, Curtis R; Friesen, Max; Xia, Fang; Becker, Caroline E; Musunuru, Kiran; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) are derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in vitro, but differentiation protocols commonly give rise to a heterogeneous mixture of cells. This variability confounds the evaluation of in vitro functional assays performed using HLCs. Increased differentiation efficiency and more accurate approximation of the in vivo hepatocyte gene expression profile would improve the utility of hPSCs. Towards this goal, we demonstrate the purification of a subpopulation of functional HLCs using the hepatocyte surface marker asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGR1). We analyzed the expression profile of ASGR1-positive cells by microarray, and tested their ability to perform mature hepatocyte functions (albumin and urea secretion, cytochrome activity). By these measures, ASGR1-positive HLCs are enriched for the gene expression profile and functional characteristics of primary hepatocytes compared with unsorted HLCs. We have demonstrated that ASGR1-positive sorting isolates a functional subpopulation of HLCs from among the heterogeneous cellular population produced by directed differentiation. PMID:27143754

  18. Methamphetamine induces trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) expression in human T lymphocytes: role in immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Uma; Cenna, Jonathan M; Haldar, Bijayesh; Fernandes, Nicole C; Razmpour, Roshanak; Fan, Shongshan; Ramirez, Servio H; Potula, Raghava

    2016-01-01

    The novel transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), represents a potential, direct target for drugs of abuse and monoaminergic compounds, including amphetamines. For the first time, our studies have illustrated that there is an induction of TAAR1 mRNA expression in resting T lymphocytes in response to methamphetamine. Methamphetamine treatment for 6 h significantly increased TAAR1 mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and protein expression (P < 0.01) at 24 h. With the use of TAAR1 gene silencing, we demonstrate that methamphetamine-induced cAMP, a classic response to methamphetamine stimulation, is regulated via TAAR1. We also show by TAAR1 knockdown that the down-regulation of IL-2 in T cells by methamphetamine, which we reported earlier, is indeed regulated by TAAR1. Our results also show the presence of TAAR1 in human lymph nodes from HIV-1-infected patients, with or without a history of methamphetamine abuse. TAAR1 expression on lymphocytes was largely in the paracortical lymphoid area of the lymph nodes with enhanced expression in lymph nodes of HIV-1-infected methamphetamine abusers rather than infected-only subjects. In vitro analysis of HIV-1 infection of human PBMCs revealed increased TAAR1 expression in the presence of methamphetamine. In summary, the ability of methamphetamine to activate trace TAAR1 in vitro and to regulate important T cell functions, such as cAMP activation and IL-2 production; the expression of TAAR1 in T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes; and our in vitro HIV-1 infection model in PBMCs suggests that TAAR1 may play an important role in methamphetamine -mediated immune-modulatory responses.

  19. Binding of Hepatitis A Virus to its Cellular Receptor 1 Inhibits T-Regulatory Cell Functions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Manangeeswaran, Mohanraj; Jacques, Jérôme; Tami, Cecilia; Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Amharref, Nadia; Perrella, Oreste; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Perrella, Alessandro; Kaplan, Gerardo G.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells suppress immune responses and control self-tolerance and immunity to pathogens, cancer, and alloantigens. Most pathogens activate Treg cells to minimize immune-mediated tissue damage and prevent clearance, which promotes chronic infections. However, hepatitis A virus (HAV) temporarily inhibits Treg-cell functions. We investigated whether the interaction of HAV with its cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), a T-cell co-stimulatory molecule, inhibits the function of Treg cells to control HAV infection. Methods We studied the effects of HAV interaction with HAVCR1 on human T cells using binding, signal transduction, apoptosis, activation, suppression, cytokine production, and confocal microscopy analyses. Cytokines were analyzed in sera from 14 patients with HAV infection using bead arrays. Results Human Treg cells constitutively express HAVCR1. Binding of HAV to HAVCR1 blocked phosphorylation of Akt, prevented activation of the T-cell receptor, and inhibited function of Treg cells. At the peak viremia, patients with acute HAV infection had no Treg-cell suppression function, produced low levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF–β), which limited leukocyte recruitment and survival, and high levels of interleukin-22, which prevented liver damage. Conclusions Interaction between HAV and its receptor HAVCR1 inhibits Treg cell function, resulting in an immune imbalance that allows viral expansion with limited hepatocellular damage during early stages of infection—a characteristic of HAV pathogenesis. The mechanism by which HAV is cleared in the absence of Treg-cell function could be used as a model to develop anti-cancer therapies, modulate autoimmune and allergic responses, and prevent transplant rejection. PMID:22430395

  20. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signalling desensitization is counteracted via PAR4 signalling in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Fälker, Knut; Haglund, Linda; Gunnarsson, Peter; Nylander, Martina; Lindahl, Tomas L; Grenegård, Magnus

    2011-06-01

    PARs (protease-activated receptors) 1 and 4 belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors which induce both G(α12/13) and G(αq) signalling. By applying the specific PAR1- and PAR4-activating hexapeptides, SFLLRN and AYPGKF respectively, we found that aggregation of isolated human platelets mediated via PAR1, but not via PAR4, is abolished upon homologous receptor activation in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. This effect was not due to receptor internalization, but to a decrease in Ca²⁺ mobilization, PKC (protein kinase C) signalling and α-granule secretion, as well as to a complete lack of dense granule secretion. Interestingly, subthreshold PAR4 activation rapidly abrogated PAR1 signalling desensitization by differentially reconstituting these affected signalling events and functional responses, which was sufficient to re-establish aggregation. The lack of ADP release and P2Y₁₂ receptor-induced G(αi) signalling accounted for the loss of the aggregation response, as mimicking G(αi/z) signalling with 2-MeS-ADP (2-methylthioadenosine-5'-O-diphosphate) or epinephrine (adrenaline) could substitute for intermediate PAR4 activation. Finally, we found that the re-sensitization of PAR1 signalling-induced aggregation via PAR4 relied on PKC-mediated release of both ADP from dense granules and fibrinogen from α-granules. The present study elucidates further differences in human platelet PAR signalling regulation and provides evidence for a cross-talk in which PAR4 signalling counteracts mechanisms involved in PAR1 signalling down-regulation. PMID:21391917

  1. TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin

    MedlinePlus

    ... suspected of having either iron deficiency or iron overload. These two tests are used to calculate the ... thus transferrin saturation becomes very low. In iron overload states, such as hemochromatosis , the iron level will ...

  2. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M. H.; Devès, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

    2003-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5 ' and 3 ' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

  3. Erythroblast transferrin receptors and transferrin kinetics in iron deficiency and various anemias

    SciTech Connect

    Muta, K.; Nishimura, J.; Ideguchi, H.; Umemura, T.; Ibayashi, H.

    1987-06-01

    To clarify the role of transferrin receptors in cases of altered iron metabolism in clinical pathological conditions, we studied: number of binding sites; affinity; and recycling kinetics of transferrin receptors on human erythroblasts. Since transferrin receptors are mainly present on erythroblasts, the number of surface transferrin receptors was determined by assay of binding of /sup 125/I-transferrin and the percentage of erythroblasts in bone marrow mononuclear cells. The number of binding sites on erythroblasts from patients with an iron deficiency anemia was significantly greater than in normal subjects. Among those with an aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and polycythemia vera compared to normal subjects, there were no considerable differences in the numbers of binding sites. The dissociation constants (Kd) were measured using Scatchard analysis. The apparent Kd was unchanged (about 10 nmol/L) in patients and normal subjects. The kinetics of endocytosis and exocytosis of /sup 125/I-transferrin, examined by acid treatment, revealed no variations in recycling kinetics among the patients and normal subjects. These data suggest that iron uptake is regulated by modulation of the number of surface transferrin receptors, thereby reflecting the iron demand of the erythroblast.

  4. Structure and chromosomal assignment of the human lectin-like oxidized low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, T; Sawamura, T; Furutani, Y; Matsuoka, R; Yoshida, M C; Fujiwara, H; Masaki, T

    1999-01-01

    We have reported the cDNA cloning of a modified low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, designated lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), which is postulated to be involved in endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here, we determined the organization of the human LOX-1 gene, including the 5'-regulatory region. The 5'-regulatory region contained several potential cis-regulatory elements, such as GATA-2 binding element, c-ets-1 binding element, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-responsive element and shear-stress-responsive elements, which may mediate the endothelium-specific and inducible expression of LOX-1. The major transcription-initiation site was found to be located 29 nucleotides downstream of the TATA box and 61 nucleotides upstream from the translation-initiation codon. The minor initiation site was found to be 5 bp downstream from the major site. Most of the promoter activity of the LOX-1 gene was ascribed to the region (-150 to -90) containing the GC and CAAT boxes. The coding sequence was divided into 6 exons by 5 introns. The first 3 exons corresponded to the different functional domains of the protein (cytoplasmic, transmembrane and neck domains), and the residual 3 exons encoded the carbohydrate-recognition domain similar to the case of other C-type lectin genes. The LOX-1 gene was a single-copy gene and assigned to the p12.3-p13.2 region of chromosome 12. Since the locus for a familial hypertension has been mapped to the overlapping region, LOX-1 might be the gene responsible for the hypertension. PMID:10085242

  5. Calorimetric, spectroscopic, and model studies provide insight into the transport of Ti(IV) by human serum transferrin.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Arthur D; Incarvito, Christopher D; Valentine, Ann M

    2007-03-21

    Evidence suggests that transferrin can bind Ti(IV) in an unhydrolyzed form (without bound hydroxide or oxide) or in a hydrolyzed form. Ti(IV) coordination by N,N'-di(o-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) at different pH values models the two forms of Ti(IV)-loaded transferrin spectrally and structurally. 13C NMR and stopped-flow kinetic experiments reveal that when the metal is delivered to the protein using an unhydrolyzed source, Ti(IV) can coordinate in the typical distorted octahedral environment with a bound synergistic anion. The crystal structure of TiHBED obtained at low pH models this type of coordination. The solution structure of the complex compares favorably with the solid state from pH 3.0 to 4.0, and the complex can be reduced with E1/2 = -641 mV vs NHE. Kinetic and thermodynamic competition studies at pH 3.0 reveal that Ti(citrate)3 reacts with HBED via a dissociative mechanism and that the stability of TiHBED (log beta = 34.024) is weaker than that of the Fe(III) complex. pH stability studies show that Ti(IV) hydrolyzes ligand waters at higher pH but still remains bound to HBED until pH 9.5. Similarly, at a pH greater than 8.0 the synergistic anion that binds Ti(IV) in transferrin is readily displaced by irreversible metal hydrolysis although the metal remains bound to the protein until pH 9.5. Thermal denaturation studies conducted optically and by differential scanning calorimetry reveal that Ti(IV)-bound transferrin experiences only minimal enhanced thermal stability unlike when Fe(III) is bound. The C- and N-lobe transition Tm values shift to a few degrees higher. The stability, competition, and redox studies performed provide insight into the possible mechanism of Ti2-Tf transport in cells. PMID:17315875

  6. Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R W; Williams, J

    1978-01-01

    1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:100104

  7. Neptunium uptake by serum transferrin.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Isabelle; Den Auwer, Christophe; Moisy, Philippe; Ansoborlo, Eric; Vidaud, Claude; Funke, Harld

    2005-04-01

    Although of major impact in terms of biological and environmental hazards, interactions of actinide cations with biological molecules are only partially understood. Human serum transferrin (Tf) is one of the major iron carriers in charge of iron regulation in the cell cycle and consequently contamination by actinide cations is a critical issue of nuclear toxicology. Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and near infrared absorption spectrometry were used to characterize a new complex between Tf and Np (IV) with the synergistic nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) anion. Description of the neptunium polyhedron within the iron coordination site is given.

  8. Insights into endosomal maturation of human holo-transferrin in the enteric parasite Entamoeba histolytica: essential roles of Rab7A and Rab5 in biogenesis of giant early endocytic vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kuldeep; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Datta, Sunando

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica is one of the causative agents of health hazards in tropical countries. It causes amoebic dysentery, colitis and liver abscesses in human. Iron is one of the essential nutritional resources for survival and chronic infection caused by the amoeba. The parasite has developed multiple ways to import, sequester and utilize iron from various iron-binding proteins from its host. In spite of its central role in pathogenesis, the mechanism of iron uptake by the parasite is largely unknown. Here, we carried out a systematic study to understand the role of some of the amoebic homologues of mammalian endocytic Rab GTPases (Rab5 and Rab21, Rab7A and Rab7B) in intracellular transport of human holo-transferrin by the parasite. Flow cytometry and quantitative microscopic image analysis revealed that Rab5 and Rab7A are required for the biogenesis of amoebic giant endocytic vacuoles (GEVs) and regulate the early phase of intracellular trafficking of transferrin. Rab7B is involved in the late phase, leading to the degradation of transferrin in the amoebic lysosome-like compartments. Using time-lapse fluorescence imaging in fixed trophozoites, we determined the kinetics of the vesicular transport of transferrin through Rab5-, Rab7A- and Rab7B-positive compartments. The involvement of Rab7A in the early phase of endocytosis by the parasite marks a significant divergence from its host in terms of spatiotemporal regulation by the Rab GTPases. PMID:26096601

  9. Transferrin synthesis by small cell lung cancer cells acts as an autocrine regulator of cellular proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Vostrejs, M; Moran, P L; Seligman, P A

    1988-01-01

    Since transferrin is required for cellular proliferation, we investigated transferrin synthesis by a small cell lung cancer line (NCI-H510) that survives in serum-free media without added transferrin. Immunoassays for human transferrin demonstrated that these cells contained immunoreactive human transferrin. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the protein is expressed on the surface of cells, presumably bound to transferrin receptor. Media conditioned by NCI-H510 cells support proliferation of human leukemic cells that would not survive in media lacking transferrin. [35S]Methionine incorporation documented transferrin synthesis by NCI-H510 cells as well as three other small cell lines. Transferrin synthesis by NCI-H510 cells increased more than 10-fold when cells entered active phases of the cell cycle, and this increase was seen before large increases in transferrin-receptor expression. Further experiments examining the effects of agents that affect iron metabolism show that the addition of transferrin-iron or hemin to the media is associated with a more rapid initial rate of proliferation and lower rates of transferrin synthesis than control cells. Gallium salts, which inhibit iron uptake, inhibited proliferation of these cells. If the cells recovered from this effect, transferrin synthesis remained greatly increased compared to control. We conclude that transferrin synthesis by these malignant cells is ultimately related to an iron requirement for cellular proliferation. It appears that this synthesized transferrin acts as part of an important autocrine mechanism permitting proliferation of these cells, and perhaps permitting tumor cell growth in vivo in areas not well vascularized. Images PMID:2839550

  10. Transferrin subtypes in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farhud, D D; Daneshmand, P; Saffari, M; Hackler, R; Altland, K

    1990-01-01

    The frequency of transferrin Tf C subtypes has been determined by double one-dimensional electrophoresis of plasma samples from Moslems (n = 91), Zoroastrians (n = 97), Jews (n = 88) and Armenians (n = 88) of Iran. The Zoroastrians show the lowest frequency of TfC1 (0.4999) and highest frequencies of TfC2 and TfC3 (.02215, and 0.2783, respectively). The Jews have the highest TfC1- and the lowest TfC2- and TfC3 frequencies (0.8011, 0.1478, and 0.0512, respectively). It could be shown that the differences between Zoroastrians and Jews are highly significant (p less than 0.001). Arbitrary subtyping of transferrin Tf B and TfD phenotypes could be done on samples from three regional groups of Iran: North: n = 282, Central: n = 548, and South: n = 587 into Tf B (Iran 1, 2, 3 and 4) and Tf D (Iran 1, 2 and 3) was performed according to mobilities relative to the transferrin C protein during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by relative pI deviations from the Fe2-transferrin C1 protein after isoelectric focussing. The allele frequencies found in the total sample (n = 1417) are: TfB1 = 0.0003, TfB2 = 0.0010, TfB3 = 0.0042, TfB4 = 0.0007; TfD1 = 0.0017, TfD2 = 0.0014, and TfD3 = 0.0010.

  11. Expression of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 in human and murine macrophages: upregulated expression by TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, H; Kume, N; Kataoka, H; Murase, T; Nishi, E; Sawamura, T; Masaki, T; Kita, T

    1998-11-27

    Uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and subsequent foam cell transformation have been implicated in early atherogenesis. Although multiple molecules, including class A and B scavenger receptors, have been identified as Ox-LDL receptors, additional receptors may also be involved in this process. Here, we provide evidence that lectin-like Ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), a novel Ox-LDL receptor initially identified in vascular endothelial cells, is also expressed in macrophages in humans and mice. Expression of LOX-1 can be induced after macrophage-like differentiation in vitro in human peripheral blood monocytes and the related cell line THP-1 cells. Furthermore, LOX-1 expression can also be detected in resident peritoneal macrophages, and can be upregulated by an inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. These results suggest that LOX-1 in macrophages may play an important role in Ox-LDL uptake and subsequent foam cell formation in this cell type.

  12. Pulmonary transvascular flux of transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; Malik, A.B. )

    1989-11-01

    We compared the pulmonary transvascular fluxes of transferrin and albumin in the intact sheep lung. Anesthetized sheep were prepared with lung lymph fistulas. The vascular blood pool was marked with {sup 99m}Tc-erythrocytes, autologous transferrin was labeled with {sup 113m}In, and albumin was labeled with {sup 125}I. Samples of blood, plasma, lymph, and lung were obtained up to 180 min after tracer infusion. Lymph tissue radioactivities were corrected for the intravascular component and expressed as extravascular-to-plasma concentration ratios. Clearance of transferrin and albumin from the plasma space followed a two-compartment model. The clearance rate constant was 2.1 {plus minus} 0.1 x 10(-3) min for albumin and 2.4 {plus minus} 0.1 x 10(-3) min for transferrin (P less than 0.05). Lymph-to-plasma ratios for albumin and transferrin were not different. However, the extravascular-to-plasma ratio for albumin was greater than transferrin (P less than 0.05). The lymph and lung data were deconvoluted for the plasma input function and fit to a two-compartment model. The results indicate that albumin and transferrin have similar permeabilities across the vascular barrier but have different pulmonary circulation to lymph kinetics because the extravascular volume of distribution of albumin is greater than transferrin.

  13. The electrophoresis of transferrins in urea/polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R W; Williams, J

    1980-01-01

    The denaturation of transferrin by urea has been studied by (a) electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels incorporating a urea gradient, (b) measurements of the loss of iron-binding capacity and (c) u.v. difference spectrometry. In human serum transferrin and hen ovotransferrin the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the iron-free protein were found to denature at different urea concentrations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:7213345

  14. Crystal structures and iron release properties of mutants (K206A and K296A) that abolish the dilysine interaction in the N-lobe of human transferrin.

    PubMed

    Nurizzo, D; Baker, H M; He, Q Y; MacGillivray, R T; Mason, A B; Woodworth, R C; Baker, E N

    2001-02-13

    Human transferrin (Tf) is responsible for the binding and transport of iron in the bloodstream of vertebrates. Delivery of this bound iron to cells occurs by a process of receptor-mediated endocytosis during which Tf releases its iron at the reduced endosomal pH of approximately 5.6. Iron release from Tf involves a large conformational change in which the two domains that enclose the binding site in each lobe move apart. We have examined the role of two lysines, Lys206 and Lys296, that form a hydrogen-bonded pair close to the N-lobe binding site of human Tf and have been proposed to form a pH-sensitive trigger for iron release. We report high-resolution crystal structures for the K206A and K296A mutants of the N-lobe half-molecule of Tf, hTf/2N, and quantitative iron release data on these mutants and the double mutant K206A/K296A. The refined crystal structures (for K206A, R = 19.6% and R(free) = 23.7%; for K296A, R= 21.2% and R(free) = 29.5%) reveal a highly conserved hydrogen bonding network in the dilysine pair region that appears to be maintained even when individual hydrogen bonding groups change. The iron release data show that the mutants retain iron to a pH 1 unit lower than the pH limit of wild type hTf/2N, and release iron much more slowly as a result of the loss of the dilysine interaction. Added chloride ions are shown to accelerate iron release close to the pH at which iron is naturally lost and the closed structure becomes destabilized, and to retard it at higher pH. PMID:11327820

  15. HPLC-ICPMS and stable isotope-labeled approaches to assess quantitatively Ti(IV) uptake by transferrin in human blood serum.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-González, Alejandro; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge; Cantarero-Roldán, Alicia M; Marchante-Gayón, Juan M; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2008-11-15

    Little is known about the effects of titanium found in patients wearing prostheses or about the biochemical pathways of this metal when used as an anticancer drug (e.g., titanocene dichloride). In this work, transferrin has been confirmed as the only carrier protein binding Ti in human blood serum samples by making use of different HPLC protein separations followed by element-specific Ti detection by ICPMS. Besides, isotope dilution analysis has been applied to the quantitative speciation of Ti-Tf in standards and human blood serum samples. Species-unspecific and species-specific isotope dilution modes have been explored. In the first case, very low Ti-Tf results were obtained even using two different chromatographic mechanisms, anion exchange (20-24%) and size exclusion (33-36%). Surprisingly, no major Ti species except Ti-Tf were observed in the chromatograms, suggesting that Ti(IV) hydrolysis and precipitation as inactive titanium oxide species could take place inside the chromatographic columns. These results demonstrate that chemical degradation of metalloproteins during analytical separations could ruin the sought speciation quantitative results. The isotope dilution species-specific mode, much more accurate in such cases, has been instrumental in demonstrating the possibility of gross errors in final metalloprotein quantification. For this purpose, an isotopically enriched standard of (49)Ti-Tf was synthesized and applied to the quantitative speciation of Ti-Tf again. Using this species-specific spike, Ti-Tf dissociation inside the chromatographic columns used could be corrected, and thus, quantitative Ti-Tf binding in serum (92-102%) was observed. In other words, the usefulness and potential of a species-specific isotope dilution analysis approach to investigate quantitatively metal-protein associations, which can be dissociated at certain experimental conditions, is demonstrated here for the first time.

  16. Co-migration and internalization of transferrin and its receptor on K562 cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of iron into human cells involves the binding of diferric transferrin to a specific cell surface receptor. We studied the process of endocytosis in K562, a human erythroid cell line, by using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled transferrin (TRITC- transferrin) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Fab fragments of goat antireceptor IgG preparation (FITC-Fab-antitransferrin receptor antibody). Because the antireceptor antibody and transferrin bind to different sites on the transferrin receptor molecule it was possible to simultaneously and independently follow ligand and receptor. At 4 degrees C, the binding of TRITC-transferrin or FITC-Fab antitransferrin receptor antibody exhibited diffuse membrane fluorescence. At 20 degrees C, the binding of TRITC-transferrin was followed by the rapid formation of aggregates. However, the FITC-Fab antitransferrin receptor did not show similar aggregation at 20 degrees C unless transferrin was present. In the presence of transferrin, the FITC-Fab antitransferrin receptor antibody formed aggregates at the same sites and within the same time period as TRITC transferrin, indicating co-migration. Although the diffuse surface staining of either label was removed by proteolysis, the larger aggregates were not susceptible to enzyme degradation, indicating that they were intracellular. The internal location of the aggregates was also demonstrated using permeabilized cells that had been preincubated with transferrin and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. These cells showed aggregated receptor in the interior of the cell when reacted with fluorescein-labeled antibody to the receptor. This indicated that the transferrin and the transferrin receptor co-internalize and migrate to the same structures within the cell. PMID:6309864

  17. Binding of trivalent chromium to serum transferrin is sufficiently rapid to be physiologically relevant.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ge; Wu, Kristi; Cruce, Alex A; Bowman, Michael K; Vincent, John B

    2015-02-01

    Transferrin, the major iron transport protein in the blood, also transports trivalent chromium in vivo. Recent in vitro studies have, however, suggested that the binding of chromic ions to apotransferrin is too slow to be biologically relevant. Nevertheless, the in vitro studies have generally failed to adequately take physiological bicarbonate concentrations into account. In aqueous buffer (with ambient (bi)carbonate concentrations), the binding of chromium to transferrin is too slow to be physiologically relevant, taking days to reach equilibrium with the protein's associated conformational changes. However, in the presence of 25mM (bi)carbonate, the concentration in human blood, chromic ions bind rapidly and tightly to transferrin. Details of the kinetics of chromium binding to human serum transferrin and conalbumin (egg white transferrin) in the presence of bicarbonate and other major potential chromium ligands are described and are consistent with transferrin being the major chromic ion transporter from the blood to tissues.

  18. Abnormal immune complex processing and spontaneous glomerulonephritis in complement factor H-deficient mice with human complement receptor 1 on erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jessy J; Hack, Bradley K; Jacob, Alexander; Chang, Anthony; Haas, Mark; Finberg, Robert W; Quigg, Richard J

    2010-09-15

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) on human erythrocytes (Es) and complement factor H (CFH) on rodent platelets perform immune adherence, which is a function that allows the processing of immune complexes (ICs) bearing C3 by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Similar immune adherence occurs in the glomerular podocyte by CR1 in humans and CFH in rodents. As a model for human IC processing, we studied transgenic mice lacking CFH systemically but with human CR1 on Es. These CR1(hu)Tg/CFH(-/-) mice spontaneously developed proliferative glomerulonephritis, which was accelerated in a chronic serum sickness model by active immunization with heterologous apoferritin. ICs containing Ag, IgG and C3 bound to Es in CR1(hu)Tg/CFH(-/-) mice. In this setting, there was increased IC deposition in glomeruli, attributable to the presence of CR1 on Es, together with the absence of CFH on platelets and podocytes. In the absence of plasma CFH, the accumulated ICs activated complement, which led to spontaneous and chronic serum sickness-induced proliferative glomerulonephritis. These findings illustrate the complexities of complement-dependent IC processing by blood cells and in the glomerulus, and the importance of CFH as a plasma complement regulator.

  19. Preclinical and first-in-human phase I studies of KW-2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with insulin-like growth factor receptor-1/insulin receptor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary K; Dickson, Mark A; LoRusso, Patricia M; Sausville, Edward A; Maekawa, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Kashima, Naomi; Nakashima, Daisuke; Akinaga, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Numerous solid tumors overexpress or have excessively activated insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R). We summarize preclinical studies and the first-in-human study of KW-2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with IGF-1R and insulin receptor (IR) inhibitory activity. Preclinical activity of KW-2450 was evaluated in various in vitro and in vivo models. It was then evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in 13 patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT00921336). In vitro, KW-2450 inhibited human IGF-1R and IR kinases (IC50 7.39 and 5.64 nmol/L, respectively) and the growth of various human malignant cell lines. KW-2450 40 mg/kg showed modest growth inhibitory activity and inhibited IGF-1-induced signal transduction in the murine HT-29/GFP colon carcinoma xenograft model. The maximum tolerated dose of KW-2450 was 37.5 mg once daily continuously; dose-limiting toxicity occurred in two of six patients at 50 mg/day (both grade 3 hyperglycemia) and in one of seven patients at 37.5 mg/day (grade 3 rash). Four of 10 evaluable patients showed stable disease. Single-agent KW-2450 was associated with modest antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with solid tumors and is being further investigated in combination therapy with lapatinib/letrozole in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-postive metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26850678

  20. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR(1)) and PAR(2) but not PAR(4) mediate contraction in human and guinea-pig gallbladders.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-C; Huang, S-C

    2008-04-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR(1)) and PAR(2) mediate contraction in the guinea-pig gallbladder. To investigate and compare the effects mediated by PARs in the human gallbladder with those in the guinea-pig gallbladder, we measured contractions of isolated human and guinea-pig gallbladder strips caused by PAR agonists. Results in human were similar to those in guinea-pig gallbladder. The PAR(1) agonists, thrombin, TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2, as well as the PAR(2) agonists, trypsin, SLIGKV-NH2 and SLIGRL-NH2, caused contraction in both human and guinea-pig gallbladders. These indicate the existence of PAR(1) and PAR(2) mediating gallbladder contraction. Furthermore, the existence of PAR(1) and PAR(2) in the human gallbladder was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In contrast, FSLLR-NH2, a PAR(1) control peptide, and VKGILS-NH2, a PAR(2) control peptide, as well as three PAR(4) agonists, GYPGKF-NH2, GYPGQV-NH2 and AYPGKF-NH2, did not cause any contraction or relaxation. The contractile responses to TFLLR-NH2, SFLLRN-NH2 and trypsin in both human and guinea-pig gallbladders were insensitive to atropine and tetrodotoxin, suggesting direct effects. These results demonstrate that, similar to the guinea-pig gallbladder, both PAR(1) and PAR(2) but not PAR(4) mediate muscle contraction in the human gallbladder. PAR(1) and PAR(2) may play important roles in the control of both human and guinea-pig gallbladder motility. PMID:18179608

  1. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Feng, Liuxing; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-07-16

    Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with (34)S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and (34)S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m(sp)/m(sam)) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5-3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation process. Moreover, the application of species-unspecific isotope dilution GE-LA-ICP-MS has the potential to offer reliable, direct and simultaneous quantification of proteins after conventional 1D and 2D gel electrophoretic separations.

  2. Inequivalent Contribution of the Five Tryptophan Residues in the C-lobe of Human Serum Transferrin to the Fluorescence Increase when Iron is Released

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas G.; Byrne, Shaina L.; Steere, Ashley N.; Smith, Valerie C.; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.; Mason, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    Human serum transferrin (hTF), with two Fe3+ binding lobes transports iron into cells. Diferric hTF preferentially binds to a specific receptor (TFR) on the surface of cells and the complex undergoes clathrin dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis. The clathrin-coated vesicle fuses with an endosome where the pH is lowered, facilitating iron release from hTF. On a biologically relevant timescale (2-3 min), the factors critical to iron release include pH, anions, a chelator and the interaction of hTF with the TFR. Previous work, in which the increase in the intrinsic fluorescence signal was used to monitor iron release from the hTF/TFR complex, established that the TFR significantly enhances the rate of iron release from the C-lobe of hTF. In the current study, the role of the five C-lobe Trp residues in reporting the fluorescence change has been evaluated (± sTFR). Only four of the five recombinant Trp→ Phe mutants produced well. A single slow rate constant for iron release is found for the monoferric C-lobe (FeC hTF) and the four Trp mutants in the FeC hTF background. The three Trp residues equivalent to those in the N-lobe differed from the N-lobe and each other in their contributions to the fluorescent signal. Two rate constants are observed for the FeC hTF control and the four Trp mutants in complex with the TFR: kobsC1 reports conformational change(s) in the C-lobe initiated by the TFR and kobsC2 is ascribed to iron release. Excitation at 295 nm (Trp only) and at 280 nm (Trp and Tyr) reveals interesting and significant differences in the rate constants for the complex. PMID:19281173

  3. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of SCH 530348 (Vorapaxar), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Anima; Lu, Xiaowen; Penner, Natalia; Gao, Lan; Ramanathan, Ragu; Chowdhury, Swapan K; Kishnani, Narendra S; Alton, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Vorapaxar (SCH 530348), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist, is being developed as an antiplatelet agent for patients with established vascular disease. The objective of this study was to identify the human liver cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) responsible for the metabolism of SCH 530348. Human liver microsomes metabolized SCH 530348 to M19, an amine metabolite formed via carbamate cleavage, and M20 (monohydroxy-SCH 530348). Recombinant human CYP3A4 exhibited the most activity (11.5% profiled radioactivity) for the formation of M19, followed by markedly less substrate conversion with CYP1A1 and CYP2C19. Trace levels of M19, a major excreted human metabolite, were detected with CYP1A2, CYP3A5, and CYP4F3A. Formation of M19 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole (IC(50), 0.73 μM), 34% by tranylcypromine, and 89% by anti-CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. There was a significant correlation between the rate of M19 formation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation (r = 0.75) or M19 formation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation (r = 0.92). The results of screening, inhibition, and correlation studies confirmed that CYP3A4 is the major P450 enzyme responsible for M19 formation from SCH 530348. In contrast, formation of M20, a major circulating human metabolite at steady state, was primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP2J2. M20 is pharmacologically equipotent to SCH 530348, whereas M19 is an inactive metabolite. Formation of M20 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole, 75% by astemizole (a CYP2J2 inhibitor), and 43% by CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP2J2 are both involved in the formation of M20 metabolite. PMID:20926621

  4. Scara5 is a Ferritin Receptor Mediating Non-Transferrin Iron Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jau Yi; Paragas, Neal; Ned, Renee M.; Qiu, Andong; Viltard, Melanie; Leete, Thomas; Drexler, Ian R.; Chen, Xia; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Mohammed, Farah; Williams, David; Lin, Chyuan Sheng; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M.; Andrews, Nancy C.; Barasch, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Summary Developing organs require iron for a myriad of functions, but embryos deleted of the major adult transport protein, transferrin or its receptor transferrin receptor1 (TfR1−/−) initiate organogenesis, suggesting that non-transferrin pathways are important. To examine these pathways, we developed chimeras composed of fluorescence-tagged TfR1−/− cells and untagged wild type cells. In the kidney, TfR1−/− cells populated capsule and stroma, mesenchyme and nephron, but were underrepresented in ureteric bud tips. Consistently, TfR1 provided transferrin to the ureteric bud, but not to the capsule or the stroma. Instead of transferrin, we found that the capsule internalized ferritin. Since the capsule expressed a novel receptor called Scara5, we tested its role in ferritin uptake and found that Scara5 bound serum ferritin and stimulated its endocytosis from the cell surface with consequent iron delivery. These data implicate cell type-specific mechanisms of iron traffic in organogenesis, which alternatively utilize transferrin or non-transferrin iron delivery pathways. PMID:19154717

  5. Affinity maturation of a novel antagonistic human monoclonal antibody with a long VH CDR3 targeting the Class A GPCR formyl-peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Douthwaite, Julie A; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Huntington, Catherine; Hammersley, Jayne; Marwood, Rose; Hakulinen, Jonna K; Ek, Margareta; Sjögren, Tove; Rider, David; Privezentzev, Cyril; Seaman, Jonathan C; Cariuk, Peter; Knights, Vikki; Young, Joyce; Wilkinson, Trevor; Sleeman, Matthew; Finch, Donna K; Lowe, David C; Vaughan, Tristan J

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are desirable for intervention in a wide range of disease processes. The discovery of such antibodies is challenging due to a lack of stability of many GPCRs as purified proteins. We describe here the generation of Fpro0165, a human anti-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) antibody generated by variable domain engineering of an antibody derived by immunization of transgenic mice expressing human variable region genes. Antibody isolation and subsequent engineering of affinity, potency and species cross-reactivity using phage display were achieved using FPR1 expressed on HEK cells for immunization and selection, along with calcium release cellular assays for antibody screening. Fpro0165 shows full neutralization of formyl peptide-mediated activation of primary human neutrophils. A crystal structure of the Fpro0165 Fab shows a long, protruding VH CDR3 of 24 amino acids and in silico docking with a homology model of FPR1 suggests that this long VH CDR3 is critical to the predicted binding mode of the antibody. Antibody mutation studies identify the apex of the long VH CDR3 as key to mediating the species cross-reactivity profile of the antibody. This study illustrates an approach for antibody discovery and affinity engineering to typically intractable membrane proteins such as GPCRs.

  6. Transferrin-bearing maghemite nano-constructs for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piraux, H.; Hai, J.; Gaudisson, T.; Ammar, S.; Gazeau, F.; El Hage Chahine, J. M.; Hémadi, M.

    2015-05-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in biomedicine for hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imagery. Targeting them to specific cancerous cells is, therefore, of a great value for therapy and diagnostic. Transferrin and its receptor constitute the major iron-acquisition system in human. The former crosses the plasma membrane within a few minutes by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Thus, transferrin can be a valuable vector for the delivery of NPs to specific cells and across the blood brain barrier. For such a purpose, three different sizes of maghemite NPs (5, 10, and 15 nm) were synthesized by the polyol method, coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and coupled to transferrin by amide bonds. The number of transferrins per nanoparticle was determined. Raw nanoparticles and the "transferrin-nanoparticle" constructs were characterized. The magnetic properties and the colloidal stability of raw NPs and transferrin-NP constructs were measured and analyzed in relation to their inorganic core size variation. They all proved to be good candidates for nanoparticle targeting for biomedical application.

  7. Differential recruitment of co-regulatory proteins to the human estrogen receptor 1 in response to xenoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Smith, L Cody; Clark, Jessica C; Bisesi, Joseph H; Ferguson, P Lee; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2016-09-01

    The diverse biological effects of xenoestrogens may be explained by their ability to differentially recruit co-regulatory proteins to the estrogen receptor (ER). We employed high-throughput receptor affinity binding and co-regulatory protein recruitment screening assays based on fluorescence polarization and time resolved florescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET), respectively, to assess xenoestrogen-specific binding and co-regulatory protein recruitment to the ER. Then we used a functional proteomic assay based on co-immunoprecipitation of ER-bound proteins to isolate and identify intact co-regulatory proteins recruited to a ligand-activated ER. Through these approaches, we revealed differential binding affinity of bisphenol-A (BPA) and genistein (GEN) to the human ERα (ESR1) and ligand-dependent recruitment of SRC-1 and SRC-3 peptides. Recruitment profiles were variable for each ligand and in some cases were distinct compared to 17β-estradiol (E2). For example, E2 and GEN recruited both SRC-1 and -3 peptides whereas BPA recruited only SRC-1 peptides. Results of the functional proteomic assay showed differential recruitment between ligands where E2 recruited the greatest number of proteins followed by BPA then GEN. A number of proteins share previously identified relationships with ESR1 as determined by STRING analysis. Although there was limited overlap in proteins identified between treatments, all ligands recruited proteins involved in cell growth as determined by subnetwork enrichment analysis (p<0.05). A comparative, in silico analysis revealed that fewer interactions exist between zebrafish (Danio rerio) esr1 and zebrafish orthologs of proteins identified in our functional proteomic analysis. Taken together these results identify recruitment of known and previously unknown co-regulatory proteins to ESR1 and highlight new methods to assay recruitment of low abundant and intact, endogenous co-regulatory proteins to ESR1 or other nuclear receptors, in

  8. Regulation of cell surface transferrin receptor-2 by iron-dependent cleavage and release of a soluble form.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Alessia; Vieillevoye, Maud; Nai, Antonella; Rausa, Marco; Ladli, Meriem; Lacombe, Catherine; Mayeux, Patrick; Verdier, Frédérique; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Transferrin receptor-2 is a transmembrane protein whose expression is restricted to hepatocytes and erythroid cells. Transferrin receptor-2 has a regulatory function in iron homeostasis, since its inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Hepatic transferrin receptor-2 participates in iron sensing and is involved in hepcidin activation, although the mechanism remains unclear. Erythroid transferrin receptor-2 associates with and stabilizes erythropoietin receptors on the erythroblast surface and is essential to control erythrocyte production in iron deficiency. We identified a soluble form of transferrin receptor-2 in the media of transfected cells and showed that cultured human erythroid cells release an endogenous soluble form. Soluble transferrin receptor-2 originates from a cleavage of the cell surface protein, which is inhibited by diferric transferrin in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, the shedding of the transferrin receptor-2 variant G679A, mutated in the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid motif and unable to bind diferric transferrin, is not modulated by the ligand. This observation links the process of transferrin receptor-2 removal from the plasma membrane to iron homeostasis. Soluble transferrin receptor-2 does not affect the binding of erythropoietin to erythropoietin receptor or the consequent signaling and partially inhibits hepcidin promoter activation only in vitro. Whether it is a component of the signals released by erythropoiesis in iron deficiency remains to be investigated. Our results indicate that membrane transferrin receptor-2, a sensor of circulating iron, is released from the cell membrane in iron deficiency. PMID:25637053

  9. Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) Contribute to Human Tooth Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Modesto, Adriana; Meira, Raquel; Barbosa, Anna Renata Schneider; Lidral, Andrew C.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic characteristics expressed in syndromes give clues to the factors involved in the cause of isolated forms of the same defects. We investigated two genes responsible for craniofacial syndromes, FGFR1 and IRF6, in a collection of families with isolated tooth agenesis. Cheek swab samples were obtained for DNA analysis from 116 case/parent trios. Probands had at least one developmentally missing tooth, excluding third molars. In addition, we studied 89 cases and 50 controls from Ohio to replicate any positive findings. Genotyping was performed by kinetic polymerase chain-reaction or TaqMan assays. Linkage disequilibrium analysis and transmission distortion of the marker alleles were performed. The same variants in the IRF6 gene that are associated with isolated orofacial clefts are also associated with human tooth agenesis (rs861019, P = 0.058; rs17015215—V274I, P = 0.0006; rs7802, P = 0.004). Mutations in IRF6 cause Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes. The craniofacial phenotypic characteristics of these syndromes include oral clefts and preferential tooth agenesis of incisors and premolars, besides pits on the lower lips. Also it appears that preferential premolar agenesis is associated with FGFR1 (P = 0.014) and IRF6 (P = 0.002) markers. There were statistically significant data suggesting that IRF6 interacts not only with MSX1 (P = 0.001), but also with TGFA (P = 0.03). PMID:17318851

  10. Coordinate activation of human platelet protease-activated receptor-1 and -4 in response to subnanomolar alpha-thrombin.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Frederick A; Dewar, Lori; Craven, Sharon J; Song, Yingqi; Cedrone, Aisha; Freedman, John; Fenton, John W

    2008-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that human platelets activated with SFLLRN release PAR-1 activation peptide, PAR-1-(1-41), even in the presence of hirudin. This observation suggests that during their activation, platelets generate a protease that activates PAR-1. In this study, PAR-1 and -4 activation peptides were detected 10 s after

  11. Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 is expressed on human megakaryocytes and negatively regulates the maturation of primary megakaryocytic progenitors and cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jiangnan; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Haiya; Fu, Qiang; Cao, Yanning; Wang, Yuesi; Feng, Xiaoying; Fu, Aili

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} LAIR-1 is expressed on human megakaryocytes from an early stage. {yields} Up-regulation of LAIR-1 negatively regulates megakaryocytic differentiation of cell line. {yields} LAIR-1 negatively regulates the differentiation of primary megakaryocytic progenitors. -- Abstract: Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is an inhibitory collagen receptor which belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Although the inhibitory function of LAIR-1 has been extensively described in multiple leukocytes, its role in megakaryocyte (MK) has not been explored so far. Here, we show that LAIR-1 is expressed on human bone marrow CD34{sup +}CD41a{sup +} and CD41a{sup +}CD42b{sup +} cells. LAIR-1 is also detectable in a fraction of human cord blood CD34{sup +} cell-derived MK that has morphological characteristics of immature MK. In megakaryoblastic cell line Dami, the membrane protein expression of LAIR-1 is up-regulated significantly when cells are treated with phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Furthermore, cross-linking of LAIR-1 in Dami cells with its natural ligand or anti-LAIR-1 antibody leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and PMA-promoted differentiation when examined by the MK lineage-specific markers (CD41a and CD42b) and polyploidization. In addition, we also observed that cross-linking of LAIR-1 results in decreased MK generation from primary human CD34{sup +} cells cultured in a cytokines cocktail that contains TPO. These results suggest that LAIR-1 is a likely candidate for an early marker of MK differentiation, and provide initial evidence indicating that LAIR-1 serves as a negative regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis.

  12. Transferrin changes in haemodialysed patients.

    PubMed

    Formanowicz, Dorota; Formanowicz, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycoprotein responsible for iron transport in the human body. Physiologically in reaction with Concanavalin A, Tf occurs in four distinct variants Tf1, Tf2, Tf3 (apo-Tf) and Tf4. It was reported recently that Tf is changing, particularly during acute phase response, taking place among others in end-stage renal disease. In this study, we wanted to find the answer to three main questions: firstly, how Tf is changing in patients treated with maintenance haemodialysis (mHD), secondly, whether there are any Tf changes in the course of mHD treatment, and thirdly, what factors can affect Tf microheterogeneity in these patients. Studies were performed on 80 haemodialysed patients and 21 healthy volunteers. The Tf concentration was determined by the rocket immunoelectrophoresis, and its microheterogeneity was assessed by the ConA crossed immunoaffinity electrophoresis. During the annual observation of the distribution of the Tf variants, we have found both changes of the percentage contents of all Tf variants in the whole Tf concentration and a significant decrease in Tf2, Tf3 and Tf4 serum concentrations. Moreover, we found that decrease in the renal function, duration of mHD, and inflammation may contribute to these above-mentioned changes, which are probably the factors that should be taken into account when explaining the mechanisms of persistence of anaemia in haemodialysed patients.

  13. Transferrin: Endocytosis and Cell Signaling in Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Luna, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element on Earth and the most abundant metal in the human body. This element is crucial for life because almost all organisms need iron for several biological activities. This is the case with pathogenic organisms, which are at the vanguard in the battle with the human host for iron. The latest regulates Fe concentration through several iron-containing proteins, such as transferrin. The transferrin receptor transports iron to each cell that needs it and maintains it away from pathogens. Parasites have developed several strategies to obtain iron as the expression of specific transferrin receptors localized on plasma membrane, internalized through endocytosis. Signal transduction pathways related to the activation of the receptor have functional importance in proliferation. The study of transferrin receptors and other proteins with action in the signaling networks is important because these proteins could be used as therapeutic targets due to their specificity or to differences with the human counterpart. In this work, we describe proteins that participate in signal transduction processes, especially those that involve transferrin endocytosis, and we compare these processes with those found in T. brucei, T. cruzi, Leishmania spp., and E. histolytica parasites. PMID:26090431

  14. The importance of the stem cell marker prominin-1/CD133 in the uptake of transferrin and in iron metabolism in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bourseau-Guilmain, Erika; Griveau, Audrey; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Garcion, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    As the pentaspan stem cell marker CD133 was shown to bind cholesterol and to localize in plasma membrane protrusions, we investigated a possible function for CD133 in endocytosis. Using the CD133 siRNA knockdown strategy and non-differentiated human colon cancer Caco-2 cells that constitutively over-expressed CD133, we provide for the first time direct evidence for a role of CD133 in the intracellular accumulation of fluorescently labeled extracellular compounds. Assessed using AC133 monoclonal antibody, CD133 knockdown was shown to improve Alexa488-transferrin (Tf) uptake in Caco-2 cells but had no impact on FITC-dextran or FITC-cholera-toxin. Absence of effect of the CD133 knockdown on Tf recycling established a role for CD133 in inhibiting Tf endocytosis rather than in stimulating Tf exocytosis. Use of previously identified inhibitors of known endocytic pathways and the positive impact of CD133 knockdown on cellular uptake of clathrin-endocytosed synthetic lipid nanocapsules supported that CD133 impact on endocytosis was primarily ascribed to the clathrin pathway. Also, cholesterol extraction with methyl-β-cyclodextrine up regulated Tf uptake at greater intensity in the CD133(high) situation than in the CD133(low) situation, thus suggesting a role for cholesterol in the inhibitory effect of CD133 on endocytosis. Interestingly, cell treatment with the AC133 antibody down regulated Tf uptake, thus demonstrating that direct extracellular binding to CD133 could affect endocytosis. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy established that down regulation of CD133 improved the accessibility to the TfR from the extracellular space, providing a mechanism by which CD133 inhibited Tf uptake. As Tf is involved in supplying iron to the cell, effects of iron supplementation and deprivation on CD133/AC133 expression were investigated. Both demonstrated a dose-dependent down regulation here discussed to the light of transcriptional and post-transciptional effects

  15. Oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 mediates oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: role of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-ping; Xun, Ke-li; Wu, Qin; Zhang, Tian-tai; Shi, Jing-shan; Du, Guan-hua

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) elicits both necrotic and apoptotic cell death and several mechanisms have been proposed. Ox-LDL induces reactive oxygen species (ROS), a second messenger that might be involved in apoptosis, formation in different types of cells including endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). As lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) was the main receptor for ox-LDL, this study was designed to determine whether the apoptosis induced by ox-LDL was mediated by LOX-1 in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and whether there is an association between LOX-1 mediated apoptosis and the production of ROS. After exposure to ox-LDL (50,100, and 150 microg/ml for 18 h), HUVECs exhibit typical apoptotic characteristics as determined by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry analysis in a dose-dependent pattern. Ox-LDL increases intracellular ROS formation including superoxide anion (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with anti-LOX-1 mAb, Vitamin C, apocynin or catalase significantly reduced ROS production and prevented ox-LDL-induced apoptosis, while indomethacin or allopurinol had no effect. These results suggest that LOX-1 mediates ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells and that ROS production and NADPH oxidase might play an important role in ox-LDL-induced apoptosis.

  16. Iron release from transferrin by pyoverdin and elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Wolz, C; Hohloch, K; Ocaktan, A; Poole, K; Evans, R W; Rochel, N; Albrecht-Gary, A M; Abdallah, M A; Döring, G

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the siderophores pyoverdin and pyochelin as well as receptors for siderophores in response to iron deprivation. Previously, it has been shown in vitro that at neutral pH purified pyoverdin acquires iron from transferrin only in the presence of P. aeruginosa elastase (LasB), which proteolytically degrades transferrin. We constructed a LasB-negative mutant, PAO1E, by insertional mutagenesis to investigate whether this mutant differs in growth from the parental strain PAO1 in an iron-depleted medium supplemented with transferrin or human serum. PAO1 and PAO1E did not differ in growth with 1.25 microM Fe2-transferrin as the only iron source. Urea gel electrophoresis indicated iron release from intact transferrin during the logarithmic growth phase of PAO1 and PAO1E. A total of 333 microM LasB was synthesized from PAO1 after onset of stationary-phase growth. Quantification of pyoverdin by spectroscopy revealed that up to 900 microM pyroverdin was produced during growth of the strains in medium supplemented with Fe2-transferrin or 10% human serum. Incubation of Fe2-transferrin and purified pyoverdin in concentrations similar to those found in the culture supernatant resulted in release iron from transferrin after 10 h at 37 degrees C. However, LasB significantly enhanced the rate constant for iron acquisition of pyoverdin from transferrin. We conclude that P. aeruginosa can use transferrin as an iron source without further need of LasB or pH changes. This is further supported by experiments with P. aeruginosa K437, which has a defective iron uptake system, and its LasB-negative mutant, K437E. Though K437 and K437E did not differ in growth with Fe2-transferrin as the only iron source, their growth was significantly reduced relative to that of PAO1 and PAO1E. Images PMID:8063422

  17. The PET Radioligand 18F-FIMX Images and Quantifies Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 in Proportion to the Regional Density of Its Gene Transcript in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Xu, Rong; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Liow, Jeih-San; Fujita, Masahiro; Veronese, Mattia; Gladding, Robert L.; Rallis-Frutos, Denise; Hong, Jinsoo; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    A recent study from our laboratory found that 18F-FIMX is an excellent PET radioligand for quantifying metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) in monkey brain. This study evaluated the ability of 18F-FIMX to quantify mGluR1 in humans. A second goal was to use the relative density of mGluR1 gene transcripts in brain regions to estimate specific uptake and nondisplaceable uptake (VND) in each brain region. Methods After injection of 189 ± 3 MBq of 18F-FIMX, 12 healthy volunteers underwent a dynamic PET scan over 120 min. For 6 volunteers, images were acquired until 210 min. A metabolite-corrected arterial input function was measured from the radial artery. Four other subjects underwent whole-body scanning to estimate radiation exposure. Results 18F-FIMX uptake into the human brain was high (SUV = 4–6 in the cerebellum), peaked at about 10 min, and washed out rapidly. An unconstrained 2-tissue-compartment model fitted the data well, and distribution volume (VT) (mL·cm−3) values ranged from 1.5 in the caudate to 11 in the cerebellum. A 120-min scan provided stable VT values in all regions except the cerebellum, for which an acquisition time of at least 170 min was necessary. VT values in brain regions correlated well with mGluR1 transcript density, and the correlation suggested that VND of 18F-FIMX was quite low (0.5 mL·cm−3). This measure of VND in humans was similar to that from a receptor blocking study in monkeys, after correcting for differences in plasma protein binding. Similar to other 18F-labeled ligands, the effective dose was about 23 µSv/MBq. Conclusion 18F-FIMX can quantify mGluR1 in the human brain with a 120- to 170-min scan. Correlation of brain uptake with the relative density of mGluR1 transcript allows specific receptor binding of a radioligand to be quantified without injecting pharmacologic doses of a blocking agent. PMID:26514176

  18. Identification of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-histidine adducts that serve as ligands for human lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Kumano-Kuramochi, Miyuki; Shimozu, Yuuki; Wakita, Chika; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Shibata, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko; Watanabe, Jun; Goto, Masao; Xie, Qiuhong; Komba, Shiro; Uchida, Koji; Machida, Sachiko

    2012-02-15

    LOX-1 (lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1) is an endothelial scavenger receptor that is important for the uptake of OxLDL (oxidized low-density lipoprotein) and contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the precise structural motifs of OxLDL that are recognized by LOX-1 are unknown. In the present study, we have identified products of lipid peroxidation of OxLDL that serve as ligands for LOX-1. We used CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells that stably express LOX-1 to evaluate the ability of BSA modified by lipid peroxidation to compete with AcLDL (acetylated low-density lipoprotein). We found that HNE (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal)-modified proteins most potently inhibited the uptake of AcLDL. On the basis of the findings that HNE-modified BSA and oxidation of LDL resulted in the formation of HNE-histidine Michael adducts, we examined whether the HNE-histidine adducts could serve as ligands for LOX-1. The authentic HNE-histidine adduct inhibited the uptake of AcLDL in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found the interaction of LOX-1 with the HNE-histidine adduct to have a dissociation constant of 1.22×10(-8) M using a surface plasmon resonance assay. Finally, we showed that the HNE-histidine adduct stimulated the formation of reactive oxygen species and activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) in HAECs (human aortic endothelial cells); these signals initiate endothelial dysfunction and lead to atherosclerosis. The present study provides intriguing insights into the molecular details of LOX-1 recognition of OxLDL.

  19. Complex of transferrin with ruthenium for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Richards, P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.

    1984-05-15

    A novel ruthenium-transferrin complex is disclosed which is prepared by reacting iron-free human transferrin dissolved in a sodium acetate solution at pH 7 with ruthenium by heating at about 40 C for about 2 hours. The complex is purified by means of gel chromotography with pH 7 sodium acetate as eluent. The mono- or di-metal complex produced can be used in nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and/or treatment of tumors and abscesses. Comparative results with Ga-67-citrate, which is the most widely used tumor-localizing agent in nuclear medicine, indicate increased sensitivity of detection and greater tumor uptake with the Ru-transferrin complex. No Drawings

  20. Complex of transferrin with ruthenium for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Richards, Powell; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.

    1984-05-15

    A novel Ruthenium-transferrin complex, prepared by reacting iron-free human transferrin dissolved in a sodium acetate solution at pH 7 with ruthenium by heating at about 40.degree. C. for about 2 hours, and purifying said complex by means of gel chromotography with pH 7 sodium acetate as eluent. The mono- or di-metal complex produced can be used in nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and/or treatment of tumors and abscesses. Comparative results with Ga-67-citrate, which is the most widely used tumor-localizing agent in nuclear medicine, indicate increased sensitivity of detection and greater tumor uptake with the Ru-transferrin complex.

  1. A Compartment Model of VEGF Distribution in Humans in the Presence of Soluble VEGF Receptor-1 Acting as a Ligand Trap

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Florence T. H.; Stefanini, Marianne O.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), through its activation of cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases including VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, is a vital regulator of stimulatory and inhibitory processes that keep angiogenesis – new capillary growth from existing microvasculature – at a dynamic balance in normal physiology. Soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR1) – a naturally-occurring truncated version of VEGFR1 lacking the transmembrane and intracellular signaling domains – has been postulated to exert inhibitory effects on angiogenic signaling via two mechanisms: direct sequestration of angiogenic ligands such as VEGF; or dominant-negative heterodimerization with surface VEGFRs. In pre-clinical studies, sVEGFR1 gene and protein therapy have demonstrated efficacy in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis; while in clinical studies, sVEGFR1 has shown utility as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in a widening array of angiogenesis–dependent diseases. Here we developed a novel computational multi-tissue model for recapitulating the dynamic systemic distributions of VEGF and sVEGFR1. Model features included: physiologically-based multi-scale compartmentalization of the human body; inter-compartmental macromolecular biotransport processes (vascular permeability, lymphatic drainage); and molecularly-detailed binding interactions between the ligand isoforms VEGF121 and VEGF165, signaling receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, non-signaling co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1), as well as sVEGFR1. The model was parameterized to represent a healthy human subject, whereupon we investigated the effects of sVEGFR1 on the distribution and activation of VEGF ligands and receptors. We assessed the healthy baseline stability of circulating VEGF and sVEGFR1 levels in plasma, as well as their reliability in indicating tissue-level angiogenic signaling potential. Unexpectedly, simulated results showed that sVEGFR1 – acting as a diffusible VEGF sink alone, i.e., without sVEGFR1-VEGFR heterodimerization

  2. 21 CFR 866.5880 - Transferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transferrin immunological test system. 866.5880 Section 866.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-binding and transporting serum protein) in serum, plasma, and other body fluids. Measurement...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5880 - Transferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transferrin immunological test system. 866.5880 Section 866.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5880 - Transferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transferrin immunological test system. 866.5880 Section 866.5880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  5. Transferrin-Mediated Cellular Iron Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Ashley N.; Mason, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    Essential to iron homeostasis is the transport of iron by the bilobal protein human serum transferrin (hTF). Each lobe (N- and C-lobe) of hTF forms a deep cleft which binds a single Fe3+. Iron-bearing hTF in the blood binds tightly to the specific transferrin receptor (TFR), a homodimeric transmembrane protein. After undergoing endocytosis, acidification of the endosome initiates the release of Fe3+ from hTF in a TFR-mediated process. Iron-free hTF remains tightly bound to the TFR at acidic pH; following recycling back to the cell surface, it is released to sequester more iron. Efficient delivery of iron is critically dependent on hTF/TFR interactions. Therefore, identification of the pH-specific contacts between hTF and the TFR is crucial. Recombinant protein production has enabled deconvolution of this complex system. The studies reviewed herein support a model in which pH-induced interrelated events control receptor-stimulated iron release from each lobe of hTF. PMID:23046645

  6. Hafnium binding to comparison: comparison between lactoferrin and other transferrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.; Appel, H.; Neu, M.; Schwab, F. J.; Thies, W.-G.

    1993-03-01

    The TDPAC method was used to study the electric field gradients at the metal sites of human and bovine lactoferrin. Two specific binding configurations were observed. The distribution between these configurations depends on the phosphate content, the pH, and the temperature of the samples. The electric field gradients are compared with the results of previous studies for human and rat serum transferrin, and hen ovotransferrin.

  7. Intermolecular disulfide bonds are not required for the expression of the dimeric state and functional activity of the transferrin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, E; Gironès, N; Davis, R J

    1989-01-01

    The human transferrin receptor is expressed as a disulfide-linked dimer at the cell surface. The sites of intermolecular disulfide bonds are Cys-89 and Cys-98. We have examined the functional significance of the covalent dimeric structure of the transferrin receptor by substitution of Cys-89 and Cys-98 with serine residues. Wild-type and mutated transferrin receptors were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (clone TF-) that lack detectable endogenous transferrin receptors. The rates of receptor endocytosis and recycling were measured and the accumulation of iron by cells incubated with [59Fe]diferric transferrin was investigated. No significant differences between these rates were observed when cells expressing wild-type and mutated receptors were compared. The structure of the mutant receptor lacking intermolecular disulfide bonds was investigated. The presence of a population of mutant receptors with a non-covalent dimeric structure was indicated by cross-linking studies using diferric [125I]transferrin and the bifunctional reagent disuccinimidyl suberimidate. However, sucrose density gradient sedimentation analysis of Triton X-100 solubilized transferrin receptors demonstrated that the mutant receptor existed as a monomer in the absence of diferric transferrin and as an apparent dimer in the presence of this receptor ligand. We conclude that the covalent dimeric structure of the transferrin receptor is not required for the expression of the dimeric state and functional activity of the receptor. Images PMID:2507316

  8. The labelling of human serum transferrin with 99mTc and a study concerning uptake of the complex by tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, T A D; Walton, P H

    2002-11-01

    The direct labelling of serum transferrin (sTf) with 99mTc on high-affinity binding sites, producing a complex of excellent stability, is described. The high-affinity binding sites were prepared by pre-treating sTf with 2-mercaptoethanol. For the radiolabelling step, thiourea was used as an exchange ligand and a filtration procedure used to remove 99mTc that had not complexed with the protein. RT112 bladder tumour cells incubated in the presence of labelled sTf showed a rapid initial uptake of 99mTc, reaching a plateau after about 20 min. Radiolabelling was also carried out without a pre-reduction step in an attempt to form a co-ordination complex between 99mTc and the Fe3+-binding site of sTf, analogous to that formed by Fe3+. The tumour cell uptake of sTf labelled without pre-reduction was then examined. In contrast to 59Fe3+ and other radio-metals co-ordinated with the Fe3+-binding site which show a continuous increase in incorporation with time, the uptake of 99mTc rapidly reached a plateau.

  9. Specific, sensitive and accurate quantification of albumin, retinol binding protein and transferrin in human urine and serum by zone immunoelectrophoresis assay (ZIA).

    PubMed

    Vesterberg, O

    1994-05-01

    For zone immunoelectrophoresis assay (ZIA) glass tubes, ID 2 mm and 90 mm high, are filled to 2/3 with buffer containing agarose and antibodies against the protein to be quantified, each sample being pipetted on top of separate agarose gel rods. On electrophoresis at 35-150 V for several hours, the sample proteins enter the gel with resultant immunoprecipitates, visualized by staining. The extension of each immunoprecipitation zone from the upper gel surface (measured with a ruler) is directly proportional to the amount of protein in each sample and can easily be quantitated by comparison with a linear calibration curve. ZIA can be used for quantification of several proteins in blood serum and plasma as well as in urine, as is illustrated for albumin, retinol-binding protein (RBP) and transferrin. The recovery of the pure proteins added to urine is often close to 100%. ZIA has many advantages: (i) simple apparatus and procedure (no gel punching nor cooling), (ii) minimal antiserum consumption (1 mL may allow > 1000 assays), (iii) electrophoresis can be performed within a few hours or overnight, (iv) low coefficient of variation (often < 4%), (v) linear calibration curves, (vi) low detection limit (< 20 ng/mL), (vii) wide concentration ranges, (viii) no kits nor unique antisera preparation are required, and (ix) good agreement with the results from other methods.

  10. Erythropoiesis-driven regulation of hepcidin in human red cell disorders is better reflected through concentrations of soluble transferrin receptor rather than growth differentiation factor 15.

    PubMed

    Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Lanaro, Carolina; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda; de Albuquerque, Dulcinéia Martins; de Mello, Mariana Rezende Bandeira; Pallis, Flávia Rubia; Bezerra, Marcos André Cavalcanti; Hatzlhofer, Betania Lucena Domingues; Olbina, Gordana; Saad, Sara Terezinha Olalla; da Silva Araújo, Aderson; Westerman, Mark; Costa, Fernando Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a bone marrow-derived cytokine whose ability to suppress iron regulator hepcidin in vitro and increased concentrations found in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis (IE)suggest that hepcidin deficiency mediated by GDF-15 may be the pathophysiological explanation for nontransfusional iron overload. We aimed to compare GDF-15 production in anemic states with different types of erythropoietic dysfunction. Complete blood counts, biochemical markers of iron status, plasma hepcidin, GDF-15, and known hepcidin regulators [interleukin-6 and erythropoietin (EPO)] were measured in 87 patients with red cell disorders comprising IE and hemolytic states: thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and cobalamin deficiency. Healthy volunteers were also evaluated for comparison. Neither overall increased EPO,nor variable GDF-15 concentrations correlated with circulating hepcidin concentrations (P = 0.265 and P = 0.872). Relative hepcidin deficiency was found in disorders presenting with concurrent elevation of GDF-15 and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), a biomarker of erythropoiesis, and sTfR had the strongest correlation with hepcidin (r(s) = 0.584, P < 0.0001). Our data show that high concentrations of GDF-15 in vivo are not necessarily associated with pathological hepcidin reduction, and hepcidin deficiency was only found when associated with sTfR overproduction. sTfR elevation may be a necessary common denominator of erythropoiesis-driven mechanisms to favor iron absorption in anemic states and appears a suitable target for investigative approaches to iron disorders. PMID:24860871

  11. Immunoregulation by low density lipoproteins in man. Inhibition of mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation by interference with transferrin metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, J A; Lipsky, P E

    1984-01-01

    Human low density lipoprotein (LDL, d = 1.020-1.050 g/ml) inhibits mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte DNA synthesis. Because both LDL and transferrin bind to specific cell surface receptors and enter cells by the similar means of receptor-mediated endocytosis, and because transferrin is necessary for lymphocyte DNA synthesis, we investigated the possibility that LDL may inhibit mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte responses by interfering with transferrin metabolism. LDL inhibited mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte [3H]thymidine incorporation in a concentration-dependent manner. The degree of inhibition was most marked in serum-free cultures, but was also observed in serum-containing cultures. The addition of transferrin not only augmented mitogen-induced lymphocyte [3H]thymidine incorporation in serum-free medium but also completely reversed the inhibitory effect of LDL in both serum-free and serum-containing media. Similar results were obtained when lymphocyte proliferation was assayed by counting the number of cells in culture. Transferrin also reversed the inhibition of lymphocyte responses caused by very low density lipoproteins and by cholesterol. The ability of transferrin to reverse the inhibitory effect of lipoproteins was specific, in that native but not denatured transferrin was effective whereas a variety of other proteins were ineffective. These results indicate that LDL inhibits mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte responses by interfering with transferrin metabolism. LDL only inhibited lymphocyte responses after a 48-h incubation if present from the initiation of the culture. By contrast, transferrin reversed inhibition when added after 24 h of the 48-h incubation. LDL did not inhibit lymphocyte responses by nonspecifically associating with transferrin. In addition, the acquisition of specific lymphocyte transferrin receptors was not blocked by LDL. Moreover, transferrin did not prevent the binding and uptake of fluorescent-labeled LDL by activated lymphocytes

  12. Dual role of Lys206-Lys296 interaction in human transferrin N-lobe: iron-release trigger and anion-binding site.

    PubMed

    He, Q Y; Mason, A B; Tam, B M; MacGillivray, R T; Woodworth, R C

    1999-07-27

    The unique structural feature of the dilysine (Lys206-Lys296) pair in the transferrin N-lobe (hTF/2N) has been postulated to serve a special function in the release of iron from the protein. These two lysines, which are located in opposite domains, hydrogen bond to each other in the iron-containing hTF/2N at neutral pH but are far apart in the apo-form of the protein. It has been proposed that charge repulsion resulting from the protonation of the dilysines at lower pH may be the trigger to open the cleft and facilitate iron release. The fact that the dilysine pair is positively charged and resides in a location close to the metal-binding center has also led to the suggestion that the dilysine pair is an anion-binding site for chelators. The present report provides comprehensive evidence to confirm that the dilysine pair plays this dual role in modulating release of iron. When either of the lysines is mutated to glutamate or glutamine or when both are mutated to glutamate, release of iron is much slower compared to the wild-type protein. This is due to the fact that the driving force for cleft opening is absent in the mutants or is converted to a lock-like interaction (in the case of the K206E and K296E mutants). Direct titration of the apo-proteins with anions as well as anion-dependent iron release studies show that the dilysine pair is part of an active anion-binding site which exists with the Lys296-Tyr188 interaction as a core. At this site, Lys296 serves as the primary anion-binding residue and Tyr188 is the main reporter for electronic spectral change, with smaller contributions from Lys206, Tyr85, and Tyr95. In iron-loaded hTF/2N, anion binding becomes invisible as monitored by UV-vis difference spectra since the spectral reporters Tyr188 and Tyr95 are bound to iron. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that the apo-hTF/2N exists in equilibrium between the open and closed conformations, because only in the closed form is Lys296 in direct contact with

  13. Transferrin Saturation: A Body Iron Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, M E; Sharif, M U; Stack, A G

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for several metabolic pathways and physiological processes. The maintenance of iron homeostasis within the human body requires a dynamic and highly sophisticated interplay of several proteins, as states of iron deficiency or excess are both potentially deleterious to health. Among these is plasma transferrin, which is central to iron metabolism not only through iron transport between body tissues in a soluble nontoxic form but also through its protective scavenger role in sequestering free toxic iron. The transferrin saturation (TSAT), an index that takes into account both plasma iron and its main transport protein, is considered an important biochemical marker of body iron status. Its increasing use in many health systems is due to the increased availability of measurement methods, such as calorimetry, turbidimetry, nephelometry, and immunochemistry to estimate its value. However, despite its frequent use in clinical practice to detect states of iron deficiency or iron overload, careful attention should be paid to the inherent limitations of the test especially in certain settings such as inflammation in order to avoid misinterpretation and erroneous conclusions. Beyond its usual clinical use, an emerging body of evidence has linked TSAT levels to major clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular mortality. This has the potential to extend the utility of TSAT index to risk stratification and prognostication. However, most of the current evidence is mainly driven by observational studies where the risk of residual confounding cannot be fully eliminated. Indeed, future efforts are required to fully explore this capability in well-designed clinical trials or prospective large-scale cohorts.

  14. Survival of Aspergillus fumigatus in serum involves removal of iron from transferrin: the role of siderophores.

    PubMed

    Hissen, A H T; Chow, J M T; Pinto, L J; Moore, M M

    2004-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungus which can cause invasive disease in immunocompromised individuals. A. fumigatus can grow in medium containing up to 80% human serum, despite very low concentrations of free iron. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which A. fumigatus obtains iron from the serum iron-binding protein transferrin. In iron-depleted minimal essential medium (MEM), A. fumigatus growth was supported by the addition of holotransferrin (holoTf) or FeCl(3) but not by the addition of apotransferrin (apoTf). Proteolytic degradation of transferrin by A. fumigatus occurred in MEM-serum; however, transferrin degradation did not occur until late logarithmic phase. Moreover, transferrin was not degraded by A. fumigatus incubated in MEM-holoTf. Urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that in MEM-holoTf, holoTf was completely converted to apoTf by A. fumigatus. In human serum, all of the monoferric transferrin was converted to apoTf within 8 h. Siderophores were secreted by A. fumigatus after 8 h of growth in MEM-serum and 12 h in MEM-holoTf. The involvement of small molecules in iron acquisition was confirmed by the fact that transferrin was deferrated by A. fumigatus even when physically separated by a 12-kDa-cutoff membrane. Five siderophores were purified from A. fumigatus culture medium, and the two major siderophores were identified as triacetylfusarinine C and ferricrocin. Both triacetylfusarinine C and ferricrocin removed iron from holoTf with an affinity comparable to that of ferrichrome. These data indicate that A. fumigatus survival in human serum in vitro involves siderophore-mediated removal of iron from transferrin. Proteolytic degradation of transferrin may play a secondary role in iron acquisition. PMID:14977945

  15. Transferrin protein nanospheres: a nanoplatform for receptor-mediated cancer cell labeling and gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael A.; Spurlin, Tighe A.; Tona, Alessandro; Elliott, John T.; Halter, Michael; Plant, Anne L.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the use of transferrin protein nanospheres (TfpNS) for targeting cancer cells in vitro. Protein nanospheres represent an easily prepared and modifiable nanoplatform for receptor-specific targeting, molecular imaging and gene delivery. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate conjugated TfpNS (RBITC-TfpNS) show significantly enhanced uptake in vitro in SK-MEL-28 human malignant melanoma cells known to overexpress transferrin receptors compared to controls. RBITCTfpNS labeling of the cancer cells is due to transferrin receptor-mediated uptake, as demonstrated by competitive inhibition with native transferrin. Initial fluorescence microscopy studies indicate GFP plasmid can be transfected into melanoma cells via GFP plasmid encapsulated by TfpNS.

  16. Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin.

    PubMed

    Barber, Matthew F; Elde, Nels C

    2014-12-12

    Iron sequestration provides an innate defense, termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to scavenge iron from hosts. Although the molecular basis of this battle for iron is established, its potential as a force for evolution at host-pathogen interfaces is unknown. We show that the iron transport protein transferrin is engaged in ancient and ongoing evolutionary conflicts with TbpA, a transferrin surface receptor from bacteria. Single substitutions in transferrin at rapidly evolving sites reverse TbpA binding, providing a mechanism to counteract bacterial iron piracy among great apes. Furthermore, the C2 transferrin polymorphism in humans evades TbpA variants from Haemophilus influenzae, revealing a functional basis for standing genetic variation. These findings identify a central role for nutritional immunity in the persistent evolutionary conflicts between primates and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25504720

  17. Kinetics of iron release from transferrin bound to the transferrin receptor at endosomal pH

    PubMed Central

    Steere, Ashley N.; Byrne, Shaina L.; Chasteen, N. Dennis; Mason, Anne B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human serum transferrin (hTF) is a bilobal glycoprotein that reversibly binds Fe3+ and delivers it to cells by the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Despite decades of research, the precise events resulting in iron release from each lobe of hTF within the endosome have not been fully delineated. Scope of Review We provide an overview of the kinetics of iron release from hTF ± the transferrin receptor (TFR) at endosomal pH (5.6). A critical evaluation of the array of biophysical techniques used to determine accurate rate constants is provided. General Significance Delivery of Fe3+ by to actively dividing cells by hTF is essential; too much or too little Fe3+ directly impacts the well-being of an individual. Because the interaction of hTF with the TFR controls iron distribution in the body, an understanding of this process at the molecular level is essential. Major Conclusions Not only does TFR direct the delivery of iron to the cell through the binding of hTF, kinetic data demonstrate that it also modulates iron release from the N- and C-lobes of hTF. Specifically, the TFR balances the rate of iron release from each lobe, resulting in efficient Fe3+ release within a physiologically relevant time frame. PMID:21699959

  18. Identification of small molecule agonists of human relaxin family receptor 1 (RXFP1) by utilizing a homogenous cell-based cAMP assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Catherine Z.; Southall, Noel; Xiao, Jingbo; Marugan, Juan J.; Ferrer, Marc; Hu, Xin; Jones, Raisa E.; Feng, Shu; Agoulnik, Irina U.

    2016-01-01

    The relaxin hormone is involved in a variety of biological functions including female reproduction and parturition, regulation of cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, and hepatic functions. It regulates extracellular matrix remodeling, cell invasiveness, proliferation, differentiation, and overall tissue homeostasis. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) RXFP1, relaxin family receptor 1, is a cognate relaxin receptor that mainly signals through cyclic AMP second messenger. While agonists of the receptor could have a wide range of pharmacological utility, up to date, there are no reported small molecule agonists for relaxin receptors. Here, we report the development of quantitative high-throughput platform for RXFP1 agonist screen based on homogenous cell-based HTRF cAMP assay technology. Two small molecules of similar structure were independently identified from a screen of more than 365,677 compounds. Neither compound showed activity in a counter screen with HEK293T cells transfected with an unrelated GPCR vasopressin 1b receptor. These small molecule agonists also demonstrated selectivity against the RXFP2 receptor, providing a basis for future medicinal chemistry optimization of selective relaxin receptor agonists. PMID:23212924

  19. Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor 1-Expressing Human Natural Killer Cell Subsets Differentially Recognize Isolates of Human Cytomegalovirus through the Viral Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Homolog UL18

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin C.; Banat, Jareer J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immune responses of natural killer (NK) cell are controlled by the balance between activating and inhibitory receptors, but the expression of these receptors varies between cells within an individual. Although NK cells are a component of the innate immune system, particular NK cell subsets expressing Ly49H are positively selected and increase in frequency in response to cytomegalovirus infection in mice. Recent evidence suggests that in humans certain NK subsets also have an increased frequency in the blood of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected individuals. However, whether these subsets differ in their capacity of direct control of HCMV-infected cells remains unclear. In this study, we developed a novel in vitro assay to assess whether human NK cell subsets have differential abilities to inhibit HCMV growth and dissemination. NK cells expressing or lacking NKG2C did not display any differences in controlling viral dissemination. However, when in vitro-expanded NK cells were used, cells expressing or lacking the inhibitory receptor leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LIR1) were differentially able to control dissemination. Surprisingly, the ability of LIR1+ NK cells to control virus spread differed between HCMV viral strains, and this phenomenon was dependent on amino acid sequences within the viral ligand UL18. Together, the results here outline an in vitro technique to compare the long-term immune responses of different human NK cell subsets and suggest, for the first time, that phenotypically defined human NK cell subsets may differentially recognize HCMV infections. IMPORTANCE HCMV infection is ubiquitous in most populations; it is not cleared by the host after primary infection but persists for life. The innate and adaptive immune systems control the spread of virus, for which natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role. NK cells can respond to HCMV infection by rapid, short-term, nonspecific innate responses, but evidence from murine

  20. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M. P.; Gorman-Lewis, D.; Aryal, B. P.; Paunesku, T.; Vogt, S.; Rickert, P. G.; Seifert, S.; Lai, B.; Woloschak, G. E.; Soderholm, L.

    2011-08-01

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway -- receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however, only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small-angle scattering show that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein's C-terminal lobe (C-lobe) and iron bound in the N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) (Pu{sub c}Fe{sub N}Tf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.

  1. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Rickert, Paul G; Seifert, Soenke; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E; Soderholm, L

    2011-06-26

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway--receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however, only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small-angle scattering show that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein's C-terminal lobe (C-lobe) and iron bound in the N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) (Pu(C)Fe(N)Tf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.

  2. Transferrin-polycation conjugates as carriers for DNA uptake into cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E; Zenke, M; Cotten, M; Beug, H; Birnstiel, M L

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a high-efficiency nucleic acid delivery system that uses receptor-mediated endocytosis to carry DNA macromolecules into cells. We accomplished this by conjugating the iron-transport protein transferrin to polycations that bind nucleic acids. Human transferrin, as well as the chicken homologue conalbumin, has been covalently linked to the small DNA-binding protein protamine or to polylysines of various sizes through a disulfide linkage. These modified transferrin molecules maintain their ability to bind their cognate receptor and to mediate efficient iron transport into the cell. The transferrin-polycation molecules form electrophoretically stable complexes with double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and modified RNA molecules independent of nucleic acid size (from short oligonucleotides to DNA of 21 kilobase pairs). When complexes of transferrin-polycation and a bacterial plasmid DNA containing the gene for Photinus pyralis luciferase are supplied to eukaryotic cells, high-level expression of the luciferase gene occurs, demonstrating transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis and expression of the imported DNA. We refer to this delivery system as "transferrinfection." Images PMID:2333290

  3. The bicarbonate-dependence of zinc(II)-transferrin binding.

    PubMed

    Harris, W R; Stenback, J Z

    1988-07-01

    The binding of zinc(II) to human serum transferrin has been studied as a function of the solution concentration of sodium bicarbonate in 100 mM, pH 7.4 hepes buffer at 25 degrees C. The apparent molar absorptivity of the zinc-transferrin complex has been determined from the initial slopes of titration curves of delta epsilon versus the ratio of [Zn]/[Tf]. This absorptivity represents the difference between the positive absorbance of the ternary Zn-HCO3-Tf species in the sample cuvette and the negative absorbance of binary HCO3-Tf species in the reference cuvette. Higher concentrations of bicarbonate increase the degree of saturation of apo-Tf with bicarbonate and thus increase the apparent absorptivity of the zinc-Tf complex. Titrations of apo- and monoferric transferrins with bicarbonate indicate that there is little, if any, difference in the bicarbonate binding constants of the two specific transferrin binding sites. An equilibrium constant of log K = 2.49 has been used to calculate the degree of saturation of the C-terminal binding site with bicarbonate. The zinc-binding affinity of this site depends linearly on this degree of saturation. The scatter in the zinc-binding constants of the weaker N-terminal site precludes a similar analysis of the bicarbonate-dependence of binding at this site. The results strongly support the previous proposal that binding of the synergistic bicarbonate anion is responsible for the uv absorption observed upon addition of bicarbonate to apoTf.

  4. Enhancement of p53 gene transfer efficiency in hepatic tumor mediated by transferrin receptor through trans-arterial delivery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Teng, Gao-Jun; Zhang, Yue; Niu, Huan-Zhang; Zhu, Guang-Yu; An, Yan-Li; Yu, Hui; Li, Guo-Zhao; Qiu, Ding-Hong; Wu, Chuan-Ging

    2008-02-01

    Transferrin-DNA complex mediated by transferrin receptor in combination with interventional trans-arterial injection into a target organ may be a duel-target-oriented delivery means to achieve an efficient gene therapy. In this study, transferrin receptor expression in normal human hepatocyte and two hepatocellular-carcinoma cells (Huh7/SK-Hep1) was determined. p53-LipofectAMINE with different amounts of transferrin was transfected into the cells and the gene transfection efficiency was evaluated. After VX2 rabbit hepatocarcinoma model was established, the transferrin-p53-LipofectAMINE complex was delivered into the hepatic artery via interventional techniques to analyze the therapeutic p53 gene transfer efficiency in vivo by Western blot, immunohistochemical/immunofluorescence staining analysis and survival time. The results were transferrin receptor expression in Huh7 and SK-Hep1 cells was higher than in normal hepatocyte. Transfection efficiency of p53 was increased in vitro in both Huh7 and SK-Hep1 cells with increasing transferrin in a dose-dependent manner. As compared to intravenous administration, interventional injection of p53-gene complex into hepatic tumor mediated by transferrin-receptor, could enhance the gene transfer efficiency in vivo as evaluated by Western blot, immunohistochemical/immunofluorenscence staining analyses and improved animal survival (H = 12.567, p = 0.0019). These findings show the transferrin-transferrin receptor system combined with interventional techniques enhanced p53-gene transfer to hepatic tumor and the duel-target-oriented gene delivery may be an effective approach for gene therapy. PMID:18347429

  5. Association of phorbol ester-induced hyperphosphorylation and reversible regulation of transferrin membrane receptors in HL60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    May, W S; Jacobs, S; Cuatrecasas, P

    1984-01-01

    Phorbol diesters are tumor-promoting agents that cause differentiation of HL60 human leukemic cells and concomitantly alter surface transferrin-receptor expression [Rovera, G., Ferreo, D., Pagliardi, G. L., Vartikar, J., Pessano, S., Bottero, L., Abraham, S. & Lebman, D. (1982) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 397, 211-220]. Transferrin-receptor regulation is shown here to result from a rapid and reversible internalization process that is temporally associated with reversible increased phosphorylation (hyperphosphorylation) of the transferrin receptor. Such a reversible mechanism involving regulation of these surface proteins could result in the rapid generation of an early signal for HL60 cellular differentiation. Images PMID:6326098

  6. Direct spectrophotometric determination of the two site binding of aluminum to transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.; Cochran, M.; Coates, J.H.; Kurucsev, T.

    1987-06-15

    Difference UV spectrophotometry is used to determine the conditional binding constants for aluminum to human transferrin in the presence of HCO3 of initial concentration 18 mM according to a two site model. Possible consequences arising for the transport of aluminum in human serum are discussed.

  7. Mouse and human eosinophils degranulate in response to PAF and lysoPAF via a PAF-receptor independent mechanism: evidence for a novel receptor1

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Kimberly D.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Xie, Zhihui; Yang, Zhao; Kim, John Dongil; Davoine, Francis; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Druey, Kirk M.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2012-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF; 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a phospholipid mediator released from activated macrophages, mast cells, and basophils that promotes pathophysiologic inflammation. Eosinophil responses to PAF are complex and incompletely elucidated. We show here that PAF and its 2-deacetylated metabolite, lysoPAF, promote degranulation (release of eosinophil peroxidase), via a mechanism that is independent of the characterized PAF receptor (PAFR). Specifically, we demonstrate that receptor antagonists CV-3988 and WEB-2086, and pertussis toxin have no impact on PAF- or lysoPAF-mediated degranulation. Furthermore, cultured mouse eosinophils from PAFR−/− bone marrow progenitors degranulate in response to PAF and lysoPAF in a manner indistinguishable from their wild-type counterparts. In addition to PAF and lysoPAF, human eosinophils degranulate in response to lysophosphatidylcholine, but not phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylethanolamine, demonstrating selective responses to phospholipids with a choline head-group and minimal substitution at the sn-2 hydroxyl. Human eosinophils release preformed cytokines in response to PAF, but not lysoPAF, also via a PAFR-independent mechanism. Mouse eosinophils do not release cytokines in response to PAF or lysoPAF, but are capable of doing so in response to IL-6. Overall, our work provides the first direct evidence for a role for PAF in activating and inducing degranulation of mouse eosinophils, a crucial feature for the interpretation of mouse models of PAF-mediated asthma and anaphylaxis. Likewise, we document and define PAF and lysoPAF-mediated activities that are not dependent on signaling via PAFR, suggesting the existence of other, as yet to be explored, molecular signaling pathways mediating responses from PAF, lysoPAF and closely-related phospholipid mediators. [250 words] PMID:20421642

  8. Immunity, transferrin, and survival in kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Adcock, K J; Adeshina, H; Cooke, A R; Akene, J; McFAarlane, H

    1970-10-31

    In a study of 40 children with kwashiorkor, serum albumin, transferrin, and immunoglobulin levels were measured. Treatment included chloroquine, pyrimethamine, multivitamins, folic acid, iron compounds, and a high-protein diet. After two weeks the mean serum transferrin values in the children who survived and those who died were 1.30 mg./ml. and 0.33 mg./ml., respectively. Many of the children died immediately after treatment started, and it is suggested that in children with severe kwashiorkor and low serum transferrin levels any increase in free-circulating iron may result in overwhelming infection and death. Thus the appropriate time for instituting iron therapy in such patients should be reconsidered.

  9. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/βKlotho Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Chen, Mark Z.; Tong, Raymond; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Kates, Lance; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Ross, Jed; Wyatt, Shelby K.; Gandham, Vineela D.; Carano, Richard A.D.; Dunshee, Diana Ronai; Wu, Ai-Luen; Haley, Benjamin; Anderson, Keith; Warming, Søren; Rairdan, Xin Y.; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Zhang, Yingnan; Gutierrez, Johnny; Baruch, Amos; Gelzleichter, Thomas R.; Stevens, Dale; Rajan, Sharmila; Bainbridge, Travis W.; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y. Gloria; Ziai, James; Soriano, Robert H.; Brauer, Matthew J.; Chen, Yongmei; Stawicki, Scott; Kim, Hok Seon; Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Luis, Elizabeth; Spiess, Christoph; Wu, Yan; Ernst, James A.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Peterson, Andrew S.; Sonoda, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT) has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin. PMID:26288846

  10. Soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 and IL-6 plasma levels in humans subjected to the sleep deprivation model of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, W. T.; Reuben, J. M.; Mullington, J. M.; Price, N. J.; Lee, B. N.; Smith, E. O.; Szuba, M. P.; Van Dongen, H. P.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent to which sleep loss may predispose astronauts to a state of altered immunity during extended space travel prompts evaluation with ground-based models. OBJECTIVE: We sought to measure plasma levels of selected cytokines and their receptors, including the putative sleep-regulation proteins soluble TNF-alpha receptor (sTNF-alpha R) I and IL-6, in human subjects undergoing 2 types of sleep deprivation during environmental confinement with performance demands. METHODS: Healthy adult men (n = 42) were randomized to schedules that varied in severity of sleep loss: 4 days (88 hours) of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) involving two 2-hour naps per day or 4 days of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Plasma samples were obtained every 6 hours across 5 days and analyzed by using enzyme-linked immunoassays for sTNF-alpha RI, sTNF-alpha RII, IL-6, soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: Interactions between the effects of time and sleep deprivation level were detected for sTNF-alpha RI and IL-6 but not for sTNF-alpha RII, soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. Relative to the PSD condition, subjects in the TSD condition had elevated plasma levels of sTNF-alpha RI on day 2 (P =.04), day 3 (P =.01), and across days 2 to 4 of sleep loss (P =.01) and elevated levels of IL-6 on day 4 (P =.04). CONCLUSIONS: Total sleep loss produced significant increases in plasma levels of sTNF-alpha RI and IL-6, messengers that connect the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. These changes appeared to reflect elevations of the homeostatic drive for sleep because they occurred in TSD but not PSD, suggesting that naps may serve as the basis for a countermeasures approach to prolonged spaceflight.

  11. Peptide length and folding state govern the capacity of staphylococcal β-type phenol-soluble modulins to activate human formyl-peptide receptors 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Dorothee; Rautenberg, Maren; Linke, Dirk; Peschel, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Most staphylococci produce short α-type PSMs and about twice as long β-type PSMs that are potent leukocyte attractants and toxins. PSMs are usually secreted with the N-terminal formyl group but are only weak agonists for the leukocyte FPR1. Instead, the FPR1-related FPR2 senses PSMs efficiently and is crucial for leukocyte recruitment in infection. Which structural features distinguish FPR1 from FPR2 ligands has remained elusive. To analyze which peptide properties may govern the capacities of β-type PSMs to activate FPRs, full-length and truncated variants of such peptides from Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were synthesized. FPR2 activation was observed even for short N- or C-terminal β-type PSM variants once they were longer than 18 aa, and this activity increased with length. In contrast, the shortest tested peptides were potent FPR1 agonists, and this property declined with increasing peptide length. Whereas full-length β-type PSMs formed α-helices and exhibited no FPR1-specific activity, the truncated peptides had less-stable secondary structures, were weak agonists for FPR1, and required N-terminal formyl-methionine residues to be FPR2 agonists. Together, these data suggest that FPR1 and FPR2 have opposed ligand preferences. Short, flexible PSM structures may favor FPR1 but not FPR2 activation, whereas longer peptides with α-helical, amphipathic properties are strong FPR2 but only weak FPR1 agonists. These findings should help to unravel the ligand specificities of 2 critical human PRRs, and they may be important for new, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory strategies.

  12. Haptoglobin and transferrin types in Eti-Turks.

    PubMed

    Dinçol, G; Aksoy, M; Erdem, S; Dinçol, K

    1985-01-01

    Haptoglobin and transferrin types were examined in Eti-Turks. The Hp1 frequency was 0.26. With the exception of two individuals with transferrin D, only the transferrin C was observed. The gene frequencies were in the range of most of the Asiatic populations including Turks.

  13. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Rickert, Paul G.; Seifert, Soenke; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Soderholm, L.

    2012-01-01

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway, receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small angle scattering demonstrate that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein’s C-terminal lobe and iron bound in the N-lobe (PuCFeNTf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin’s two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake. PMID:21706034

  14. Complex of transferrin with ruthenium for medical applications. [Ru 97, Ru 103

    DOEpatents

    Richards, P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.

    1980-11-03

    A novel Ruthenium-transferrin complex, prepared by reacting iron-free human transferrin dissolved in a sodium acetate solution at pH 7 with ruthenium by heating at about 40/sup 0/C for about 2 hours, and purifying said complex by means of gel chromatography with pH 7 sodium acetate as eluent. The mono- or di-metal complex produced can be used in nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and/or treatment of tumors and abscesses. Comparitive results with Ga-67-citrate, which is the most widely used tumor-localizing agent in nuclear medicine, indicate increased sensitivity of detection and greater tumor uptake with the Ru-transferrin complex.

  15. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    At 4 degrees C transferrin bound to receptors on the reticulocyte plasma membrane, and at 37 degrees C receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin occurred. Uptake at 37 degrees C exceeded binding at 4 degrees C by 2.5-fold and saturated after 20-30 min. During uptake at 37 degrees C, bound transferrin was internalized into a trypsin- resistant space. Trypsinization at 4 degrees C destroyed surface receptors, but with subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C, surface receptors rapidly appeared (albeit in reduced numbers), and uptake occurred at a decreased level. After endocytosis, transferrin was released, apparently intact, into the extracellular space. At 37 degrees C colloidal gold-transferrin (AuTf) clustered in coated pits and then appeared inside various intracellular membrane-bounded compartments. Small vesicles and tubules were labeled after short (5-10 min) incubations at 37 degrees C. Larger multivesicular endosomes became heavily labeled after longer (20-35 min) incubations. Multivesicular endosomes apparently fused with the plasma membrane and released their contents by exocytosis. None of these organelles appeared to be lysosomal in nature, and 98% of intracellular AuTf was localized in acid phosphatase-negative compartments. AuTf, like transferrin, was released with subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C. Freeze-dried and freeze-fractured reticulocytes confirmed the distribution of AuTf in reticulocytes and revealed the presence of clathrin-coated patches amidst the spectrin coating the inner surface of the plasma membrane. These data suggest that transferrin is internalized via coated pits and vesicles and demonstrate that transferrin and its receptor are recycled back to the plasma membrane after endocytosis. PMID:6309857

  16. Inactivation of transferrin iron binding capacity by the neutrophil myeloperoxidase system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.A.; Pearson, D.W.

    1989-06-05

    Human serum apotransferrin was exposed to the isolated myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system or to phorbol ester-activated human neutrophils. Such treatment resulted in a marked loss in transferrin iron binding capacity as well as concomitant iodination of transferrin. Each component of the cell-free system (myeloperoxidase, H2O2, iodide) or neutrophil system (neutrophils, phorbol ester, iodide) was required in order to observe these changes. In the cell-free system, the H2O2 requirement was fulfilled by either reagent H2O2 or the peroxide-generating system glucose oxidase plus glucose. Both loss of iron binding capacity and transferrin iodination by either the myeloperoxidase system or activated neutrophils were blocked by azide or catalase. The isolated peroxidase system had an acidic pH optimum, whereas the intact cell system was more efficient at neutral pH. The kinetics of changes in iron binding capacity and iodination closely paralleled one another, exhibiting t1/2 values of less than 1 min for the myeloperoxidase-H2O2 system, 3-4 min for the myeloperoxidase-glucose oxidase system, and 8 min for the neutrophil system. That the occupied binding site is protected from the myeloperoxidase system was suggested by (1) a failure to mobilize iron from iron-loaded transferrin, (2) an inverse correlation between initial iron saturation and myeloperoxidase-mediated loss of iron binding capacity, and (3) decreased myeloperoxidase-mediated iodination of iron-loaded versus apotransferrin. Since as little as 1 atom of iodide bound per molecule of transferrin was associated with substantial losses in iron binding capacity, there appears to be a high specificity of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed iodination for residues at or near the iron binding sites. Amino acid analysis of iodinated transferrin (approximately 2 atoms/molecule) demonstrated that iodotyrosine was the predominant iodinated species.

  17. Identification of TbpA residues required for transferrin-iron utilization by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Noto, Jennifer M; Cornelissen, Cynthia Nau

    2008-05-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae requires iron for survival in the human host and therefore expresses high-affinity receptors for iron acquisition from host iron-binding proteins. The gonococcal transferrin-iron uptake system is composed of two transferrin binding proteins, TbpA and TbpB. TbpA is a TonB-dependent, outer membrane transporter critical for iron acquisition, while TbpB is a surface-exposed lipoprotein that increases the efficiency of iron uptake. The precise mechanism by which TbpA mediates iron acquisition has not been elucidated; however, the process is distinct from those of characterized siderophore transporters. Similar to these TonB-dependent transporters, TbpA is proposed to have two distinct domains, a beta-barrel and a plug domain. We hypothesize that the TbpA plug coordinates iron and therefore potentially functions in multiple steps of transferrin-mediated iron acquisition. To test this hypothesis, we targeted a conserved motif within the TbpA plug domain and generated single, double, and triple alanine substitution mutants. Mutagenized TbpAs were expressed on the gonococcal cell surface and maintained wild-type transferrin binding affinity. Single alanine substitution mutants internalized iron at wild-type levels, while the double and triple mutants showed a significant decrease in iron uptake. Moreover, the triple alanine substitution mutant was unable to grow on transferrin as a sole iron source; however, expression of TbpB compensated for this defect. These data indicate that the conserved motif between residues 120 and 122 of the TbpA plug domain is critical for transferrin-iron utilization, suggesting that this region plays a role in iron acquisition that is shared by both TbpA and TbpB. PMID:18347046

  18. High-level production of animal-free recombinant transferrin from saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal-free recombinant proteins provide a safe and effective alternative to tissue or serum-derived products for both therapeutic and biomanufacturing applications. While recombinant insulin and albumin already exist to replace their human counterparts in cell culture media, until recently there has been no equivalent for serum transferrin. Results The first microbial system for the high-level secretion of a recombinant transferrin (rTf) has been developed from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originally engineered for the commercial production of recombinant human albumin (Novozymes' Recombumin® USP-NF) and albumin fusion proteins (Novozymes' albufuse®). A full-length non-N-linked glycosylated rTf was secreted at levels around ten-fold higher than from commonly used laboratory strains. Modification of the yeast 2 μm-based expression vector to allow overexpression of the ER chaperone, protein disulphide isomerase, further increased the secretion of rTf approximately twelve-fold in high cell density fermentation. The rTf produced was functionally equivalent to plasma-derived transferrin. Conclusions A Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system has enabled the cGMP manufacture of an animal-free rTf for industrial cell culture application without the risk of prion and viral contamination, and provides a high-quality platform for the development of transferrin-based therapeutics. PMID:21083917

  19. Selection of cell lines resistant to anti-transferrin receptor antibody: evidence for a mutation in transferrin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Lesley, J F; Schulte, R J

    1984-01-01

    Some anti-murine transferrin receptor monoclonal antibodies block iron uptake in mouse cell lines and inhibit cell growth. We report here the selection and characterization of mutant murine lymphoma cell lines which escape this growth inhibition by anti-transferrin receptor antibody. Growth assays and immunoprecipitation of transferrin receptor in hybrids between independently derived mutants or between mutants and antibody-susceptible parental cell lines indicate that all of the selected lines have a similar genetic alteration that is codominantly expressed in hybrids. Anti-transferrin receptor antibodies and transferrin itself still bind to the mutant lines with saturating levels and Kd values very similar to those of the parental lines. However, reciprocal clearing experiments by immunoprecipitation and reciprocal blocking of binding to the cell surface with two anti-transferrin receptor antibodies indicate that the mutant lines have altered a fraction of their transferrin receptors such that the growth-inhibiting antibody no longer binds, whereas another portion of their transferrin receptors is similar to those of the parental lines and binds both antibodies. These results argue that the antibody-selected mutant cell lines are heterozygous in transferrin receptor expression, probably with a mutation in one of the transferrin receptor structural genes. Images PMID:6092931

  20. 21 CFR 866.5880 - Transferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-binding and transporting serum protein) in serum, plasma, and other body fluids. Measurement of transferrin levels aids in the diagnosis of malnutrition, acute inflammation, infection, and red blood...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5880 - Transferrin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-binding and transporting serum protein) in serum, plasma, and other body fluids. Measurement of transferrin levels aids in the diagnosis of malnutrition, acute inflammation, infection, and red blood...

  2. Crossing the blood-brain-barrier with transferrin conjugated carbon dots: A zebrafish model study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanghao; Peng, Zhili; Dallman, Julia; Baker, James; Othman, Abdelhameed M; Blackwelder, Patrica L; Leblanc, Roger M

    2016-09-01

    Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) in biological systems remains a major medical challenge due to the tight junctions between endothelial cells known as the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Here we use a zebrafish model to explore the possibility of using transferrin-conjugated carbon dots (C-Dots) to ferry compounds across the BBB. C-Dots have previously been reported to inhibit protein fibrillation, and they are also used to deliver drugs for disease treatment. In terms of the potential medical application of C-Dots for the treatment of CNS diseases, one of the most formidable challenges is how to deliver them inside the CNS. To achieve this in this study, human transferrin was covalently conjugated to C-Dots. The conjugates were then injected into the vasculature of zebrafish to examine the possibility of crossing the BBB in vivo via transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis. The experimental observations suggest that the transferrin-C-Dots can enter the CNS while C-Dots alone cannot.

  3. Transferrin Binding to Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Activated by Phytohemagglutinin Involves a Specific Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Robert M.; Werner, Phillip; Arnaud, Philippe; Galbraith, Gillian M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Immunohistological studies have indicated that membrane sites binding transferrin are present upon activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In this study, we have investigated transferrin uptake in human lymphocytes exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), by quantitative radiobinding and immunofluorescence in parallel. In stimulated lymphocytes, binding was maximal after a 30-min incubation, being greatest at 37°C, and greater at 22°C than at 4°C. Although some shedding and endocytosis of transferrin occurred at 22° and 37°C, these factors, and resulting synthesis of new sites, did not affect measurement of binding which was found to be saturable, reversible, and specific for transferrin (Ka 0.5-2.5 × 108 M−1). Binding was greater after a 48-h exposure to PHA than after 24 h, and was maximal at 66 h. Sequential Scatchard analysis revealed no significant elevation in affinity of interaction. However, although the total number of receptors increased, the proportion of cells in which binding of ligand was detected immunohistologically increased in parallel, and after appropriate correction, the cellular density of receptors remained relatively constant throughout (60,000-80,000 sites/cell). Increments in binding during the culture period were thus due predominantly to expansion of a population of cells bearing receptors. Similar differences in binding were apparent upon comparison of cells cultured in different doses of PHA, and in unstimulated cells binding was negligible. Transferrin receptors appear, therefore, to be readily detectable only upon lymphocytes that have been activated. Images PMID:6253523

  4. GLUT4 and transferrin receptor are differentially sorted along the endocytic pathway in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, M L; Bonzelius, F; Scully, R M; Kelly, R B; Herman, G A

    1998-02-01

    The trafficking of GLUT4, a facilitative glucose transporter, is examined in transfected CHO cells. In previous work, we expressed GLUT4 in neuroendocrine cells and fibroblasts and found that it was targeted to a population of small vesicles slightly larger than synaptic vesicles (Herman, G.A, F. Bonzelius, A.M. Cieutat, and R.B. Kelly. 1994. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91: 12750-12754.). In this study, we demonstrate that at 37 degrees C, GLUT4-containing small vesicles (GSVs) are detected after cell surface radiolabeling of GLUT4 whereas uptake of radioiodinated human transferrin does not show appreciable accumulation within these small vesicles. Immunofluorescence microscopy experiments show that at 37 degrees C, cell surface-labeled GLUT4 as well as transferrin is internalized into peripheral and perinuclear structures. At 15 degrees C, endocytosis of GLUT4 continues to occur at a slowed rate, but whereas fluorescently labeled GLUT4 is seen to accumulate within large peripheral endosomes, no perinuclear structures are labeled, and no radiolabeled GSVs are detectable. Shifting cells to 37 degrees C after accumulating labeled GLUT4 at 15 degrees C results in the reappearance of GLUT4 in perinuclear structures and GSV reformation. Cytosol acidification or treatment with hypertonic media containing sucrose prevents the exit of GLUT4 from peripheral endosomes as well as GSV formation, suggesting that coat proteins may be involved in the endocytic trafficking of GLUT4. In contrast, at 15 degrees C, transferrin continues to traffic to perinuclear structures and overall labels structures similar in distribution to those observed at 37 degrees C. Furthermore, treatment with hypertonic media has no apparent effect on transferrin trafficking from peripheral endosomes. Double-labeling experiments after the internalization of both transferrin and surface-labeled GLUT4 show that GLUT4 accumulates within peripheral compartments that exclude the transferrin receptor (TfR) at

  5. Iterative endocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S P; Bomford, A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of iron on the exocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells was studied by first allowing the cells to endocytose apotransferrin or diferric transferrin. Subsequent release of the apotransferrin was very rapid with a t 1/2 of 3.01 min, compared with 5.5 min for diferric transferrin. Release of apotransferrin was slowed by the weak base methylamine, t 1/2 8.0 min, but the effect of this agent was substantially greater when iron-transferrin was used, t 1/2 18.65 min, suggesting that methylamine affects both iron removal and receptor recycling. Release of iron-transferrin could be accelerated to a rate comparable with that of apotransferrin by addition of the permeant iron-chelator desferrioxamine. The difference in the rates of release of different forms of the protein could be explained by the re-endocytosis of the iron-rich protein, a process detected by the accelerated release of transferrin when the cells were washed in medium at pH 5.5 containing an iron-chelator or treated with a protease-containing medium to digest transferrin accessible at the cell surface. It appears that in cells incubated under control conditions, re-endocytosis of transferrin, which is incompletely depleted of iron, occurs and that a transferrin molecule may make two passes through the cell before all the iron is removed. This mechanism helps to explain why very little iron-transferrin is released from cells and why the efficiency of the iron uptake process is so high. PMID:8129715

  6. Transferrin receptor facilitates TGF-β and BMP signaling activation to control craniofacial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lei, R; Zhang, K; Liu, K; Shao, X; Ding, Z; Wang, F; Hong, Y; Zhu, M; Li, H; Li, H

    2016-01-01

    The Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS), consisting of cleft palate, glossoptosis and micrognathia, is a common human birth defect. However, how this abnormality occurs remains largely unknown. Here we report that neural crest cell (NCC)-specific knockout of transferrin receptor (Tfrc), a well known transferrin transporter protein, caused micrognathia, cleft palate, severe respiratory distress and inability to suckle in mice, which highly resemble human PRS. Histological and anatomical analysis revealed that the cleft palate is due to the failure of palatal shelves elevation that resulted from a retarded extension of Meckel's cartilage. Interestingly, Tfrc deletion dramatically suppressed both transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in cranial NCCs-derived mandibular tissues, suggesting that Tfrc may act as a facilitator of these two signaling pathways during craniofacial morphogenesis. Together, our study uncovers an unknown function of Tfrc in craniofacial development and provides novel insight into the etiology of PRS. PMID:27362800

  7. Transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic gold nanoparticles for photosensitizer delivery in brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Suraj; Novak, Thomas; Miller, Kayla; Zhu, Yun; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Broome, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not only inefficient, but also nonspecific to brain stroma. These are major limitations in the effective treatment of brain cancer. Transferrin peptide (Tfpep) targeted gold nanoparticles (Tfpep-Au NPs) loaded with the photodynamic pro-drug, Pc 4, have been designed and compared with untargeted Au NPs for delivery of the photosensitizer to brain cancer cell lines. In vitro studies of human glioma cancer lines (LN229 and U87) overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR) show a significant increase in cellular uptake for targeted conjugates as compared to untargeted particles. Pc 4 delivered from Tfpep-Au NPs clusters within vesicles after targeting with the Tfpep. Pc 4 continues to accumulate over a 4 hour period. Our work suggests that TfR-targeted Au NPs may have important therapeutic implications for delivering brain tumor therapies and/or providing a platform for noninvasive imaging.

  8. Transferrin Fusion Technology: A Novel Approach to Prolonging Biological Half-Life of Insulinotropic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Joon; Zhou, Jie; Martin, Bronwen; Carlson, Olga D.; Maudsley, Stuart; Greig, Nigel H.; Mattson, Mark P.; Ladenheim, Ellen E.; Wustner, Jay; Turner, Andrew; Sadeghi, Homayoun

    2010-01-01

    Fusion proteins made up of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and exendin-4 (EX-4) fused to a nonglycosylated form of human transferrin (GLP-1-Tf or EX-4-Tf) were produced and characterized. GLP-1-Tf activated the GLP-1 receptor, was resistant to inactivation by peptidases, and had a half-life of approximately 2 days, compared with 1 to 2 min for native GLP-1. GLP-1-Tf retained the acute, glucose-dependent insulin-secretory properties of native GLP-1 in diabetic animals and had a profound effect on proliferation of pancreatic β-cells. In addition, Tf and the fusion proteins did not cross the blood-brain-barrier but still reduced food intake after peripheral administration. EX-4-Tf proved to be as effective as EX-4 but had longer lived effects on blood glucose and food intake. This novel transferrin fusion technology could improve the pharmacology of various peptides. PMID:20498254

  9. The transferrin-iron import system from pathogenic Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Buchanan, Susan K; Cornelissen, Cynthia Nau

    2012-10-01

    Two pathogenic species within the genus Neisseria cause the diseases gonorrhoea and meningitis. While vaccines are available to protect against four N. meningitidis serogroups, there is currently no commercial vaccine to protect against serogroup B or against N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the available vaccines have significant limitations and with antibiotic resistance becoming an alarming issue, the search for effective vaccine targets to elicit long-lasting protection against Neisseria species is becoming more urgent. One strategy for vaccine development has targeted the neisserial iron import systems. Without iron, the Neisseriae cannot survive and, therefore, these iron import systems tend to be relatively well conserved and are promising vaccine targets, having the potential to offer broad protection against both gonococcal and meningococcal infections. These efforts have been boosted by recent reports of the crystal structures of the neisserial receptor proteins TbpA and TbpB, each solved in complex with human transferrin, an iron binding protein normally responsible for delivering iron to human cells. Here, we review the recent structural reports and put them into perspective with available functional studies in order to derive the mechanism(s) for how the pathogenic Neisseriae are able to hijack human iron transport systems for their own survival and pathogenesis. PMID:22957710

  10. The transferrin-iron import system from pathogenic Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Noinaj, Nicholas; Buchanan, Susan K; Cornelissen, Cynthia Nau

    2012-10-01

    Two pathogenic species within the genus Neisseria cause the diseases gonorrhoea and meningitis. While vaccines are available to protect against four N. meningitidis serogroups, there is currently no commercial vaccine to protect against serogroup B or against N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the available vaccines have significant limitations and with antibiotic resistance becoming an alarming issue, the search for effective vaccine targets to elicit long-lasting protection against Neisseria species is becoming more urgent. One strategy for vaccine development has targeted the neisserial iron import systems. Without iron, the Neisseriae cannot survive and, therefore, these iron import systems tend to be relatively well conserved and are promising vaccine targets, having the potential to offer broad protection against both gonococcal and meningococcal infections. These efforts have been boosted by recent reports of the crystal structures of the neisserial receptor proteins TbpA and TbpB, each solved in complex with human transferrin, an iron binding protein normally responsible for delivering iron to human cells. Here, we review the recent structural reports and put them into perspective with available functional studies in order to derive the mechanism(s) for how the pathogenic Neisseriae are able to hijack human iron transport systems for their own survival and pathogenesis.

  11. Transferrin-antibody fusion proteins are effective in brain targeting.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, S U; Friden, P; Moran, M; Olson, T; Kang, Y S; Pardridge, W M; Morrison, S L

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, the receptor binding potential of transferrin (Tf) was linked to an antibody binding specificity. Human Tf was fused to mouse-human chimeric IgG3 at three positions: at the end of heavy chain constant region 1 (CH1), after the hinge, and after CH3. The resulting Tf-antibody fusion proteins were able to bind antigen and the Tf receptor. The CH3-Tf fusion protein showed no complement-mediated cytolysis but possessed IgG receptor I (Fc gamma RI) binding activity. Most importantly, all of the fusion proteins demonstrated significant uptake into brain parenchyma, with 0.3% of the injected dose of the hinge-Tf fusion protein rapidly targeted to the brain. Recovery of iodinated CH3-Tf fusion protein from the brain parenchyma demonstrated that the fusion proteins can cross the blood-brain barrier intact. The binding specificity of these fusion proteins can be used for brain delivery of noncovalently bound ligands, such as drugs and peptides, or for targeting antigens present within the brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:7708731

  12. Transferrin-modified nanostructured lipid carriers as multifunctional nanomedicine for codelivery of DNA and doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yiqun; Zhang, Ying; Li, Danni; Chen, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jiping; Kong, Fansheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), composed of solid and liquid lipids, and surfactants are potentially good colloidal drug carriers. The aim of this study was to develop surface-modified NLC as multifunctional nanomedicine for codelivery of enhanced green fluorescence protein plasmid (pEGFP) and doxorubicin (DOX). Methods Two different nanocarriers: pEGFP- and DOX-loaded NLC, and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were prepared. Transferrin-containing ligands were used for the surface coating of the vectors. Their average size, zeta potential, and drug encapsulation capacity were evaluated. In vitro transfection efficiency of the modified vectors was evaluated in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 cells), and in vivo transfection efficiency of the modified vectors was evaluated in a mouse bearing A549 cells model. Results Transferrin-modified DOX and pEGFP coencapsulated NLC (T-NLC) has a particle size of 198 nm and a +19 mV surface charge. The in vitro cell viabilities of the T-NLC formulations were over 80% compared with the control. T-NLC displayed remarkably greater gene transfection efficiency and enhanced antitumor activity than DOX- and pEGFP-coencapsulated SLN in vivo. Conclusion The results demonstrate that T-NLC noticeably enhanced antitumor activity through the combination of gene therapy with chemotherapy. Also coating of active transferrin improved the lung cancer cell-targeting of the carriers. In summary, the novel gene and drug delivery system offers a promising strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:25187713

  13. Pseudomonas and neutrophil products modify transferrin and lactoferrin to create conditions that favor hydroxyl radical formation.

    PubMed Central

    Britigan, B E; Edeker, B L

    1991-01-01

    In vivo most extracellular iron is bound to transferrin or lactoferrin in such a way as to be unable to catalyze the formation of hydroxyl radical from superoxide (.O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). At sites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection bacterial and neutrophil products could possibly modify transferrin and/or lactoferrin forming catalytic iron complexes. To examine this possibility, diferrictransferrin and diferriclactoferrin which had been incubated with pseudomonas elastase, pseudomonas alkaline protease, human neutrophil elastase, trypsin, or the myeloperoxidase product HOCl were added to a hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase .O2-/H2O2 generating system. Hydroxyl radical formation was only detected with pseudomonas elastase treated diferrictransferrin and, to a much lesser extent, diferriclactoferrin. This effect was enhanced by the combination of pseudomonas elastase with other proteases, most prominently neutrophil elastase. Addition of pseudomonas elastase-treated diferrictransferrin to stimulated neutrophils also resulted in hydroxyl radical generation. Incubation of pseudomonas elastase with transferrin which had been selectively iron loaded at either the NH2- or COOH-terminal binding site yielded iron chelates with similar efficacy for hydroxyl radical catalysis. Pseudomonas elastase and HOCl treatment also decreased the ability of apotransferrin to inhibit hydroxyl radical formation by a Fe-NTA supplemented hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system. However, apotransferrin could be protected from the effects of HOCl if bicarbonate anion was present during the incubation. Apolactoferrin inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation was unaffected by any of the four proteases or HOCl. Alteration of transferrin by enzymes and oxidants present at sites of pseudomonas and other bacterial infections may increase the potential for local hydroxyl radical generation thereby contributing to tissue injury. Images PMID:1655825

  14. SIDEROPHILIN METAL COORDINATION. 1. COMPLEXATION OF THORIUM BY TRANSFERRIN: STRUCTURE-FUNCTION IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Wesley R.; Carrano, Carl J.; Pecoraro, Vincent L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1980-08-01

    As part of a program to develop actinide-specific sequestering agents, the coordination of actinide ions by human transferrin is being investigated. Therapeutically useful synthetic ligands must be able to compete with this iron-transport protein for the bound actinide ion. As in the Fe(III) complex of the native protein, two Th(IV) ions bind at pH 7. This coordination has been monitored at several pH values by using difference ultraviolet spectroscopy. The corresponding coordination of a phenolic ligand, ethylene-bis-(o-hydroxyphenylglycine) [EHPG], has been used to determine {Delta}{epsilon} for a tyrosyl group coordinated to Th(IV), in contrast to the common practice of assuming the {Delta}{epsilon} for protons and all metal ions is the same. This in turn is used to determine, from the observed {Delta}{epsilon} upon protein coordination, the number of transferrin tyrosine residues that coordinate. Maxima in the Th(IV) + EHPG difference UV spectra occur at 292 and 238 nm, with corresponding {Delta}{epsilon} values per phenolic group of 2330 and 8680 cm{sup -1} M{sup -1}, respectively. At pH 7.2, the Th(IV) transferrin spectrum is closely similar to the TH(IV) EHPG spectrum, with maxima at 292 and 240 nm. The {Delta}{epsilon} at 240 nm reaches a maximum of 24700 cm{sup -1} M{sup -1}, which corresponds to coordination of three tyrosine residues in the dithorium-transferrin complex; the stronger binding site (“A” or C-terminal) coordinates via two tyrosines and the weaker (“B” or N-terminal) via one. There is evidence suggesting that the N-terminal site is slightly smaller than the C-terminal site; while Th(IV) easily fits into the C-terminal site, the large ionic radius of Th(IV) makes this ion of borderline size to fit into the N-terminal site. This may be an important biological difference between Th(IV) and the slightly smaller Pu(IV), which should easily fit into both sites. At pH values below 7, the complexation of Th(IV) by transferrin decreases

  15. Terephthalamide-containing ligands: fast removal of iron from transferrin.

    PubMed

    Abergel, Rebecca J; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2008-02-01

    The mechanism and effectiveness of iron removal from transferrin by three series of new potential therapeutic iron sequestering agents have been analyzed with regard to the structures of the chelators. All compounds are hexadentate ligands composed of a systematically varied combination of methyl-3,2-hydroxypyridinone (Me-3,2-HOPO) and 2,3-dihydroxyterephthalamide (TAM) binding units linked to a polyamine scaffold through amide linkers; each series is based on a specific backbone: tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, spermidine, or 5-LIO(TAM), where 5-LIO is 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethylamine. Rates of iron removal from transferrin were determined spectrophotometrically for the ten ligands, which all efficiently acquire ferric ion from diferric transferrin with a hyperbolic dependence on ligand concentration (saturation kinetics). The effect of the two iron-binding subunits Me-3,2-HOPO and TAM and of the scaffold structures on iron removal ability is discussed. At the low concentrations corresponding to therapeutic dose, TAM-containing ligands exhibit the fastest rates of iron removal, which correlates with their high affinity for ferric ion and suggests the insertion of such binding units into future therapeutic chelating agents. In addition, urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to measure the individual microscopic rates of iron removal from the three iron-bound transferrin species (diferric transferrin, N-terminal monoferric transferrin, C-terminal monoferric transferrin) by the representative chelators 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO)(2)(TAM) and 5-LIO(TAMmeg)(2)(TAM), where TAMmeg is 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(methoxyethylcarbamoyl)terephthalamide. Both ligands show preferential removal from the C-terminal site of the iron-binding protein. However, cooperative effects between the two binding sites differ with the chelator. Replacement of hydroxypyridinone moieties by terephthalamide groups renders the N-terminal site more accessible to the ligand and may represent an advantage for iron

  16. HFE and transferrin directly compete for transferrin receptor in solution and at the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Anthony M; Björkman, Pamela J

    2004-06-11

    Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a dimeric cell surface protein that binds both the serum iron transport protein transferrin (Fe-Tf) and HFE, the protein mutated in patients with the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. HFE and Fe-Tf can bind simultaneously to TfR to form a ternary complex, but HFE binding to TfR lowers the apparent affinity of the Fe-Tf/TfR interaction. This apparent affinity reduction could result from direct competition between HFE and Fe-Tf for their overlapping binding sites on each TfR polypeptide chain, from negative cooperativity, or from a combination of both. To explore the mechanism of the affinity reduction, we constructed a heterodimeric TfR that contains mutations such that one TfR chain binds only HFE and the other binds only Fe-Tf. Binding studies using a heterodimeric form of soluble TfR demonstrate that TfR does not exhibit cooperativity in heterotropic ligand binding, suggesting that some or all of the effects of HFE on iron homeostasis result from competition with Fe-Tf for TfR binding. Experiments using transfected cell lines demonstrate a physiological role for this competition in altering HFE trafficking patterns. PMID:15056661

  17. Manganese transport via the transferrin mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Thomas E; Gerstner, Brent; Gunter, Karlene K; Malecki, Jon; Gelein, Robert; Valentine, William M; Aschner, Michael; Yule, David I

    2013-01-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) uptake by brain cells, particularly in regions like the basal ganglia, can lead to toxicity. Mn(2+) is transported into cells via a number of mechanisms, while Mn(3+) is believed to be transported similarly to iron (Fe) via the transferrin (Tf) mechanism. Cellular Mn uptake is therefore determined by the activity of the mechanisms transporting Mn into each type of cell and by the amounts of Mn(2+), Mn(3+) and their complexes to which these cells are exposed; this complicates understanding the contributions of each transporter to Mn toxicity. While uptake of Fe(3+) via the Tf mechanism is well understood, uptake of Mn(3+) via this mechanism has not been systematically studied. The stability of the Mn(3+)Tf complex allowed us to form and purify this complex and label it with a fluorescent (Alexa green) tag. Using purified and labeled Mn(3+)Tf and biophysical tools, we have developed a novel approach to study Mn(3+)Tf transport independently of other Mn transport mechanisms. This approach was used to compare the uptake of Mn(3+)Tf into neuronal cell lines with published descriptions of Fe(3+) uptake via the Tf mechanism, and to obtain quantitative information on Mn uptake via the Tf mechanism. Results confirm that in these cell lines significant Mn(3+) is transported by the Tf mechanism similarly to Fe(3+)Tf transport; although Mn(3+)Tf transport is markedly slower than other Mn transport mechanisms. This novel approach may prove useful for studying Mn toxicity in other systems and cell types.

  18. Manganese Transport via the Transferrin Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Thomas E.; Gerstner, Brent; Gunter, Karlene K.; Malecki, Jon; Gelein, Robert; Valentine, William M.; Aschner, Michael; Yule, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) uptake by brain cells, particularly in regions like the basal ganglia, can lead to toxicity. Mn2+ is transported into cells via a number of mechanisms, while Mn3+ is believed to be transported similarly to iron (Fe) via the transferrin (Tf) mechanism. Cellular Mn uptake is therefore determined by the activity of the mechanisms transporting Mn into each type of cell and by the amounts of Mn2+, Mn3+ and their complexes to which these cells are exposed; this complicates understanding the contributions of each transporter to Mn toxicity. While uptake of Fe3+ via the Tf mechanism is well understood, uptake of Mn3+ via this mechanism has not been systematically studied. The stability of the Mn3+Tf complex allowed us to form and purify this complex and label it with a fluorescent (Alexa green) tag. Using purified and labeled Mn3+Tf and biophysical tools, we have developed a novel approach to study Mn3+Tf transport independently of other Mn transport mechanisms. This approach was used to compare the uptake of Mn3+Tf into neuronal cell lines with published descriptions of Fe3+ uptake via the Tf mechanism, and to obtain quantitative information on Mn uptake via the Tf mechanism. Results confirm that in these cell lines significant Mn3+ is transported by the Tf mechanism similarly to Fe3+Tf transport; although Mn3+Tf transport is markedly slower than other Mn transport mechanisms. This novel approach may prove useful for studying Mn toxicity in other systems and cell types. PMID:23146871

  19. Association between glutathione, haemoglobin and transferrin in finnsheep.

    PubMed

    Atroshi, F; Osterberg, S; Lindström, U B

    1980-04-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin (Tf) types were determined in 760 Finnsheep and correlated with the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels of packed erythrocytes. The gene frequencies of the two haemoglobin alleles A and B were: HbA = 0.748 and HbB = 0.252. Five transferrin alleles were found: A, B, C, D and E, with gene frequencies of 0.056, 0.226, 0.620, 0.075 and 0.023, respectively. The Hb B group had significantly higher GSH levels and lower haematocrit values than heterozygotes (Hb AB) and homozygote (Hb AA). There was no significant difference in GSH concentration among the haemoglobin types in lambs. Erythrocyte glutathione levels of Tf BC ewes were significantly higher than the levels in sheep with other transferrin types, whereas young lambs of Tf AB types had the highest GSH levels. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  20. Estrogen regulation of the avian transferrin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, R E; Idzerda, R L; Brinster, R L; McKnight, G S

    1986-01-01

    The intact chicken transferrin gene was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs, and the resulting transgenic animals were used to produce lines of mice containing integrated copies of the chicken gene. The levels of expression of the chicken gene were quantitated in various tissues, and the response of the gene to estrogen stimulation was measured after chronic or acute estrogen exposure. Two of the three mouse lines studied maintained stable levels of expression in successive generations of offspring, and the third line had two- to threefold-higher levels in offspring than in the original parent. In the third line, the original transgenic parent was found to be a mosaic. The chicken transferrin gene was expressed at 10- to 20-fold-higher levels in liver than in any other tissue; however, the levels of chicken transferrin mRNA in kidney were higher than expected, indicating that the tissue specificity was only partial. In all three lines, the foreign gene was induced by estrogen administration. After 10 days of estrogen administration, there was a twofold increase in both transferrin mRNA and transcription of the chicken transferrin gene. A single injection of estradiol led to a fourfold increase in transferrin mRNA synthesis at 4h. As a control the levels of mouse albumin were measured, and both the level of albumin mRNA and its rate of transcription declined about twofold after estrogen administration. Our results indicate that the intact chicken gene with 2.2 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence contains signals for both tissue specificity and steroid regulation that can be recognized in mice. Images PMID:3785157

  1. Chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Ma, Yuting; Baracco, Elisa E; Sistigu, Antonella; Enot, David P; Pietrocola, Federico; Yang, Heng; Adjemian, Sandy; Chaba, Kariman; Semeraro, Michaela; Signore, Michele; De Ninno, Adele; Lucarini, Valeria; Peschiaroli, Francesca; Businaro, Luca; Gerardino, Annamaria; Manic, Gwenola; Ulas, Thomas; Günther, Patrick; Schultze, Joachim L; Kepp, Oliver; Stoll, Gautier; Lefebvre, Céline; Mulot, Claire; Castoldi, Francesca; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Ladoire, Sylvain; Apetoh, Lionel; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Lucattelli, Monica; Delarasse, Cécile; Boige, Valérie; Ducreux, Michel; Delaloge, Suzette; Borg, Christophe; André, Fabrice; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Vitale, Ilio; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-11-20

    Antitumor immunity driven by intratumoral dendritic cells contributes to the efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in cancer. We identified a loss-of-function allele of the gene coding for formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) that was associated with poor metastasis-free and overall survival in breast and colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The therapeutic effects of anthracyclines were abrogated in tumor-bearing Fpr1(-/-) mice due to impaired antitumor immunity. Fpr1-deficient dendritic cells failed to approach dying cancer cells and, as a result, could not elicit antitumor T cell immunity. Experiments performed in a microfluidic device confirmed that FPR1 and its ligand, annexin-1, promoted stable interactions between dying cancer cells and human or murine leukocytes. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of FPR1 in chemotherapy-induced anticancer immune responses. PMID:26516201

  2. Phorbol diesters and transferrin modulate lymphoblastoid cell transferrin receptor expression by two different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alcantara, O.; Phillips, J.L.; Boldt, D.H.

    1986-12-01

    Expression of transferrin receptors (TfR) by activated lymphocytes is necessary for lymphocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Regulation of TfR expression, therefore, is a mechanism by which the lymphocyte's proliferative potential may be directed and controlled. The authors studied mechanisms by which lymphoblastoid cells modulate TfR expression during treatment with phorbol diesters or iron transferrin (FeTf), agents which cause downregulation of cell surface TfR. Phorbol diester-induced TfR downregulation occurred rapidly, being detectable at 2 min and reaching maximal decreases of 50% by 15 min. It was inhibited by cold but not by agents that destabilize cytoskeletal elements. Furthermore, this downregulation was reversed rapidly by washing or by treatment with the membrane interactive agent, chlorpromazine. In contrast, FeTf-induced TfR downregulation occurred slowly. Decreased expression of TfR was detectable only after 15 min and maximal downregulation was achieved after 60 min. Although FeTf-induced downregulation also was inhibited by cold, it was inhibited in addition by a group of microtubule destabilizing agents (colchicine, vinblastine, podophyllotoxin) or cytochalasin B, a microfilament inhibitor. Furthermore, FeTf-induced downregulation was not reversed readily by washing or by treatment with chlorpromazine. Phorbol diesters cause TfR downregulation by a cytoskeleton-independent mechanism. These data indicate that TfR expression is regulated by two independent mechanisms in lymphoblastoid cells, and they provide the possibility that downregulation of TfR by different mechanisms may result in different effects in these cells.

  3. Cells can use their transferrin receptors for locomotion.

    PubMed Central

    Bretscher, M S

    1992-01-01

    Cells of the B lymphoblastoid cell line JY attach to substrata made of antibodies to the transferrin receptor. Many of these attached cells migrate considerable distances. JY cells also attach to an anti-integrin substratum (anti LFA-1), but on this surface they do not migrate. These results suggest that a circulating receptor--the transferrin receptor--can be used for locomotory purposes, whereas LFA-1, which is not endocytosed in these cells, cannot be used for locomotion. This indicates that the endocytotic cycle can drive cell locomotion. Images PMID:1537325

  4. Structural insight into equine lentivirus receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lei; Han, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinqi

    2015-05-01

    Equine lentivirus receptor 1 (ELR1) has been identified as a functional cellular receptor for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Herein, recombinant ELR1 and EIAV surface glycoprotein gp90 were respectively expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, and purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) analyses indicated that both ELR1 and gp90 existed as individual monomers in solution and formed a complex with a stoichiometry of 1:1 when mixed. The structure of ELR1 was first determined with the molecular replacement method, which belongs to the space group P42 21 2 with one molecule in an asymmetric unit. It contains eight antiparallel β-sheets, of which four are in cysteine rich domain 1 (CRD1) and two are in CRD2 and CRD3, respectively. Alignment of ELR1 with HVEM and CD134 indicated that Tyr61, Leu70, and Gly72 in CRD1 of ELR1 are important residues for binding to gp90. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments further confirmed that Leu70 and Gly72 are the critical residues.

  5. Transferrin receptor-dependent cytotoxicity of artemisinin-transferrin conjugates on prostate cancer cells and induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Ikuhiko; Gallis, Byron; Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka; Oh, Steve; Lacoste, Eric; Singh, Narendra P; Goodlett, David R; Tanaka, Seigo; Futaki, Shiroh; Lai, Henry; Sasaki, Tomikazu

    2009-02-18

    Artemisinin, a natural product isolated from Artemisia annua, contains an endoperoxide group that can be activated by intracellular iron to generate toxic radical species. Cancer cells over-express transferrin receptors (TfR) for iron uptake while most normal cells express nearly undetectable levels of TfR. We prepared a series of artemisinin-tagged transferrins (ART-Tf) where different numbers of artemisinin units are attached to the N-glycoside chains of transferrin (Tf). The Tf bearing approximately 16 artemisinins retains the functionality of both Tf and artemisinin. Reduction of TfRs by TfR siRNA transfection significantly impaired the ability of ART-Tf, but not dihydroartemisinin, to kill cells. We also demonstrate that the ART-Tf conjugate kills the prostate carcinoma cell line DU 145 by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. PMID:19006645

  6. Phosphate inhibits in vitro Fe3+ loading into transferrin by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex: a potential non-transferrin bound iron species.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Robert J; Seare, Matthew C; Andros, N David; Kenealey, Zachary; Orozco, Catalina Matias; Webb, Michael; Watt, Richard K

    2012-05-01

    In chronic kidney diseases, NTBI can occur even when total iron levels in serum are low and transferrin is not saturated. We postulated that elevated serum phosphate concentrations, present in CKD patients, might disrupt Fe(3+) loading into apo-transferrin by forming Fe(III)-phosphate species. We report that phosphate competes with apo-transferrin for Fe(3+) by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex. Once formed, the Fe(III)-phosphate complex is not a substrate for donating Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin. Phosphate (1-10mM) does not chelate Fe(III) from diferric transferrin under the conditions examined. Complexed forms of Fe(3+), such as iron nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe(3+)-NTA), and Fe(III)-citrate are not susceptible to this phosphate complexation reaction and efficiently deliver Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin in the presence of phosphate. This reaction suggests that citrate might play an important role in protecting against Fe(III), phosphate interactions in vivo. In contrast to the reactions of Fe(3+) and phosphate, the addition of Fe(2+) to a solution of apo-transferrin and phosphate lead to rapid oxidation and deposition of Fe(3+) into apo-transferrin. These in vitro data suggest that, in principle, elevated phosphate concentrations can influence the ability of apo-transferrin to bind iron, depending on the oxidation state of the iron.

  7. Pyrophosphate-Mediated Iron Acquisition from Transferrin in Neisseria meningitidis Does Not Require TonB Activity

    PubMed Central

    Biville, Francis; Brézillon, Christophe; Giorgini, Dario; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2014-01-01

    The ability to acquire iron from various sources has been demonstrated to be a major determinant in the pathogenesis of Neisseria meningitidis. Outside the cells, iron is bound to transferrin in serum, or to lactoferrin in mucosal secretions. Meningococci can extract iron from iron-loaded human transferrin by the TbpA/TbpB outer membrane complex. Moreover, N. meningitidis expresses the LbpA/LbpB outer membrane complex, which can extract iron from iron-loaded human lactoferrin. Iron transport through the outer membrane requires energy provided by the ExbB-ExbD-TonB complex. After transportation through the outer membrane, iron is bound by periplasmic protein FbpA and is addressed to the FbpBC inner membrane transporter. Iron-complexing compounds like citrate and pyrophosphate have been shown to support meningococcal growth ex vivo. The use of iron pyrophosphate as an iron source by N. meningitidis was previously described, but has not been investigated. Pyrophosphate was shown to participate in iron transfer from transferrin to ferritin. In this report, we investigated the use of ferric pyrophosphate as an iron source by N. meningitidis both ex vivo and in a mouse model. We showed that pyrophosphate was able to sustain N. meningitidis growth when desferal was used as an iron chelator. Addition of a pyrophosphate analogue to bacterial suspension at millimolar concentrations supported N. meningitidis survival in the mouse model. Finally, we show that pyrophosphate enabled TonB-independent ex vivo use of iron-loaded human or bovine transferrin as an iron source by N. meningitidis. Our data suggest that, in addition to acquiring iron through sophisticated systems, N. meningitidis is able to use simple strategies to acquire iron from a wide range of sources so as to sustain bacterial survival. PMID:25290693

  8. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin: a marker for alcohol abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, A.; Wild, G.; Milford-Ward, A.; Triger, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin as detected by isoelectric focusing on agarose as an indicator of alcohol abuse. DESIGN--Coded analysis of serum samples taken from patients with carefully defined alcohol intake both with and without liver disease. Comparison of carbohydrate deficient transferrin with standard laboratory tests for alcohol abuse. SETTING--A teaching hospital unit with an interest in general medicine and liver disease. PATIENTS--22 "Self confessed" alcoholics admitting to a daily alcohol intake of at least 80 g for a minimum of three weeks; 15 of the 22 self confessed alcoholics admitted to hospital for alcohol withdrawal; 68 patients with alcoholic liver disease confirmed by biopsy attending outpatient clinics and claiming to be drinking less than 50 g alcohol daily; 47 patients with non-alcoholic liver disorders confirmed by biopsy; and 38 patients with disorders other than of the liver and no evidence of excessive alcohol consumption. INTERVENTION--Serial studies performed on the 15 patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal in hospital. MAIN OUTCOME measure--Determination of relative value of techniques for detecting alcohol abuse. RESULTS--Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was detected in 19 of the 22 (86%) self confessed alcohol abusers, none of the 47 patients with non-alcoholic liver disease, and one of the 38 (3%) controls. Withdrawal of alcohol led to the disappearance of carbohydrate deficient transferrin at a variable rate, though in some subjects it remained detectable for up to 15 days. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was considerably superior to the currently available conventional markers for alcohol abuse. CONCLUSION--As the technique is fairly simple, sensitive, and inexpensive we suggest that it may be valuable in detecting alcohol abuse. Images FIG 1 PMID:2571374

  9. Transferrin receptors in rat brain: neuropeptide-like pattern and relationship to iron distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J M; Ruff, M R; Weber, R J; Pert, C B

    1985-01-01

    We have characterized and visualized the binding of 125I-labeled transferrin to sections of rat brain. This saturable, reversible, high-affinity (Kd = 1 X 10(-9) M) binding site appears indistinguishable from transferrin receptors previously characterized in other tissues. Moreover, a monoclonal antibody raised to rat lymphocyte transferrin receptors could immunoprecipitate recovered intact transferrin solubilized from labeled brain slices, indicating that labeling was to the same molecular entity previously characterized as the transferrin receptor. The pattern of transferrin receptor distribution visualized in brain with both 125I-labeled transferrin and an anti-transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody are almost indistinguishable but differ from the pattern of iron distribution. Iron-rich brain areas generally receive neuronal projections from areas with abundant transferrin receptors, suggesting that iron may be transported neuronally. However, many brain areas with a high density of transferrin receptors appear unrelated to iron uptake and neuronal transport and form a receptor distribution pattern similar to that of other known neuropeptides. This "neuropeptide-like" distribution pattern suggests that transferrin may have neuromodulatory, perhaps behavioral, function in brain. Images PMID:2989832

  10. Patterns of structural and sequence variation within isotype lineages of the Neisseria meningitidis transferrin receptor system

    PubMed Central

    Adamiak, Paul; Calmettes, Charles; Moraes, Trevor F; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis inhabits the human upper respiratory tract and is an important cause of sepsis and meningitis. A surface receptor comprised of transferrin-binding proteins A and B (TbpA and TbpB), is responsible for acquiring iron from host transferrin. Sequence and immunological diversity divides TbpBs into two distinct lineages; isotype I and isotype II. Two representative isotype I and II strains, B16B6 and M982, differ in their dependence on TbpB for in vitro growth on exogenous transferrin. The crystal structure of TbpB and a structural model for TbpA from the representative isotype I N. meningitidis strain B16B6 were obtained. The structures were integrated with a comprehensive analysis of the sequence diversity of these proteins to probe for potential functional differences. A distinct isotype I TbpA was identified that co-varied with TbpB and lacked sequence in the region for the loop 3 α-helix that is proposed to be involved in iron removal from transferrin. The tightly associated isotype I TbpBs had a distinct anchor peptide region, a distinct, smaller linker region between the lobes and lacked the large loops in the isotype II C-lobe. Sequences of the intact TbpB, the TbpB N-lobe, the TbpB C-lobe, and TbpA were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The phylogenetic clustering of TbpA and the TbpB C-lobe were similar with two main branches comprising the isotype 1 and isotype 2 TbpBs, possibly suggesting an association between TbpA and the TbpB C-lobe. The intact TbpB and TbpB N-lobe had 4 main branches, one consisting of the isotype 1 TbpBs. One isotype 2 TbpB cluster appeared to consist of isotype 1 N-lobe sequences and isotype 2 C-lobe sequences, indicating the swapping of N-lobes and C-lobes. Our findings should inform future studies on the interaction between TbpB and TbpA and the process of iron acquisition. PMID:25800619

  11. Bioactivation pathways of the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Moa Andresen; Isin, Emre M; Castagnoli, Neal; Milne, Claire E

    2011-10-01

    In the present work, the characterization of the biotransformation and bioactivation pathways of the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant (Acomplia) is described. Rimonabant was approved in Europe in 2006 for the treatment of obesity but was withdrawn in 2008 because of a significant drug-related risk of serious psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present work is to characterize the biotransformation and potential bioactivation pathways of rimonabant in vitro in human and rat liver microsomes. The observation of a major iminium ion metabolite led us to perform reactive metabolite trapping, covalent binding to proteins, and time-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 studies. The major biotransformation pathways were oxidative dehydrogenation of the piperidinyl ring to an iminium ion, hydroxylation of the 3 position of the piperidinyl ring, and cleavage of the amide linkage. In coincubations with potassium cyanide, three cyanide adducts were detected. A high level of covalent binding of rimonabant in human liver microsomes was observed (920 pmol equivalents/mg protein). In coincubations with potassium cyanide and methoxylamine, the covalent binding was reduced by approximately 40 and 30%, respectively, whereas GSH had no significant effect on covalent binding levels. Rimonabant was also found to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 irreversibly in a time-dependent manner. In view of these findings, it is noteworthy that, to date, no toxicity findings related to the formation of reactive metabolites from rimonabant have been reported. PMID:21733882

  12. The amino terminus of GLUT4 functions as an internalization motif but not an intracellular retention signal when substituted for the transferrin receptor cytoplasmic domain

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain of GLUT4 contains a phenylalanine-based targeting motif that determines its steady state distribution between the surface and the interior of cells (Piper, R. C., C. Tai, P. Kuleza, S. Pang, D. Warnock, J. Baenziger, J. W. Slot, H. J. Geuze, C. Puri, and D. E. James. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:1221). To directly measure the effect that the GLUT4 amino terminus has on internalization and subsequent recycling back to the cell surface, we constructed chimeras in which this sequence was substituted for the amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the human transferrin receptor. The chimeras were stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells and their endocytic behavior characterized. The GLUT4-transferrin receptor chimera was recycled back to the cell surface with a rate similar to the transferrin receptor, indicating that the GLUT4 sequence was not promoting intracellular retention of the chimera. The GLUT4-transferrin receptor chimera was internalized at half the rate of the transferrin receptor. Substitution of an alanine for phenylalanine at position 5 slowed internalization of the chimera by twofold, to a level characteristic of bulk membrane internalization. However, substitution of a tyrosine increased the rate of internalization to the level of the transferrin receptor. Neither of these substitutions significantly altered the rate at which the chimeras were recycled back to the cell surface. These results demonstrate that the major function of the GLUT4 amino-terminal domain is to promote the effective internalization of the protein from the cell surface, via a functional phenylalanine-based internalization motif, rather than retention of the transporter within intracellular structures. PMID:8120093

  13. Leonurus sibiricus herb extract suppresses oxidative stress and ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in C57BL/6 mice and TNF-alpha induced expression of adhesion molecules and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ja; Lee, Hye-Sook; Park, Sun-Dong; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Won-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In Leonurus sibiricus herb extract (LHE)-supplemented animals, plasma cholesterol decreased and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased, resulting in a lowered atherogenic index. The plasma trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, levels of hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and protein carbonyl values decreased significantly in LHE-supplemented mice (p<0.05), whereas the hepatic antioxidant indicators were all significantly elevated (p<0.05). In human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha, LHE significantly suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species, LOX-1, and adhesion molecules. LHE supplementation may modulate the lipoprotein composition and attenuate oxidative stress by elevated antioxidant processes, thus suppressing the activation of inflammatory mediators. This is a possible mechanism of the anti-atherogenic effect.

  14. Specificity of human anti-variable heavy (VH ) chain autoantibodies and impact on the design and clinical testing of a VH domain antibody antagonist of tumour necrosis factor-α receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Cordy, J C; Morley, P J; Wright, T J; Birchler, M A; Lewis, A P; Emmins, R; Chen, Y Z; Powley, W M; Bareille, P J; Wilson, R; Tonkyn, J; Bayliffe, A I; Lazaar, A L

    2015-11-01

    During clinical trials of a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-R1 domain antibody (dAb™) antagonist (GSK1995057), infusion reactions consistent with cytokine release were observed in healthy subjects with high levels of a novel, pre-existing human anti-VH (HAVH) autoantibody. In the presence of HAVH autoantibodies, GSK1995057 induced cytokine release in vitro due to binding of HAVH autoantibodies to a framework region of the dAb. The epitope on GSK1995057 was characterized and dAbs with reduced binding to HAVH autoantibodies were generated; pharmacological comparability was determined in human in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal experiments. A Phase I clinical trial was conducted to investigate the safety and tolerability of the modified dAb (GSK2862277). A significant reduction in HAVH binding was achieved by adding a single alanine residue at the C-terminus to create GSK2862277. Screening a pool of healthy donors demonstrated a reduced frequency of pre-existing autoantibodies from 51% to 7%; in all other respects, GSK2862277 and the parent dAb were comparable. In the Phase I trial, GSK2862277 was well tolerated by both the inhaled and intravenous routes. One subject experienced a mild infusion reaction with cytokine release following intravenous dosing. Subsequently, this subject was found to have high levels of a novel pre-existing antibody specific to the extended C-terminus of GSK2862277. Despite the reduced binding of GSK2862277 to pre-existing HAVH autoantibodies, adverse effects associated with the presence of a novel pre-existing antibody response specific to the modified dAb framework were identified and highlight the challenge of developing biological antagonists to this class of receptor.

  15. Heterodimerization of human orexin receptor 1 and kappa opioid receptor promotes protein kinase A/cAMP-response element binding protein signaling via a Gαs-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Rumin; Chen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Chunmei; Cai, Xin; Liu, Haiqing; Jiang, Yunlu; Liu, Chuanxin; Bai, Bo

    2015-07-01

    Orexin and dynorphin are co-expressed in the same synaptic vesicles of hypothalamic neurons and play opposing roles in cocaine self-administration, brain stimulation reward, and impulsivity in ventral tegmental area (VTA), where dopamine neurons express both OX1R and KORs. However, detailed mechanisms of how the coreleased peptides and both receptors fine-tune their signalings and physiological/behavioral effects together remain unclear. Here we explore the possibility of heterodimerization between OX1R and KOR and reveal novel signal transduction mechanisms. First, we demonstrated co-expression of OX1R and KOR in rat hippocampal neurons by single-cell PCR. Furthermore, heterodimerization between OX1R and KOR was examined using bioluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BRET and FRET). Our data revealed that human OX1R and KOR heterodimerize, and this heterodimer associates with Gαs, leading to increased protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway activity, including upregulation of intracellular cAMP levels and cAMP-response element (CRE) luciferase reporter activity, resulting in increased cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. These results support the view that OX1R and KOR heterodimerization might have an anti-depressive role.

  16. Transferrin: evidence for two common subtypes of the TfC allele.

    PubMed

    Kühnl, P; Spielmann, W

    1978-07-12

    Evidence is presented for an extended polymorphism of human transferrin (Tf). Three common phenotypes were observed among TfC individuals after isoelectric focusing of sera on polyacrylamide gels. They are explained in terms of two subtypes of the TfC allele, tentatively designated TfC1 and TfC2. The distribution of the phenotypes Tf C1, C2-1, and C2 provides a good fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equation. In our population sample (n = 942) the following frequencies were calculated: TfC1 = 0.8195, TfC2 = 0.1720, TfB2 = 0.0064, TfB1-2 = 0.0016, and TfD1 = 0.0005. Family studies (n = 112) indicate an autosomal codominant way of inheritance. The observed subheterogeneity is detectable in purified transferrin after isofocusing and subsequent immunofixation. The subtypes are still present after treatment of sera with neuraminidase. PMID:669722

  17. Quantitative synchrotron X-ray fluorescence study of the penetration of transferrin-conjugated gold nanoparticles inside model tumour tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianqing; Kempson, Ivan; de Jonge, Martin; Howard, Daryl L.; Thierry, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    The next generation of therapeutic nanoparticles in the treatment of cancer incorporate specific targeting. There is implicit importance in understanding penetration of targeted nanomedicines within tumour tissues via accurate and quantitative temporospatial measurements. In this study we demonstrate the potential of state-of-the-art synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to provide such insights. To this end, quantitative mapping of the distribution of transferrin-conjugated gold nanoparticles inside multicellular tumour spheroids was achieved using XFM and compared with qualitative data obtained using reflectance confocal microscopy. Gold nanoparticles conjugated with human transferrin with a narrow size-distribution and high binding affinity to tumour cells were prepared as confirmed by cellular uptake studies performed on 2D monolayers. Although the prepared 100 nm transferrin-conjugated gold nanoparticles had high targeting capability to cancer cells, penetration inside multicellular spheroids was limited even after 48 hours as shown by the quantitative XFM measurements. The rapid, quantitative and label-free nature of state-of-the-art synchrotron XFM make it an ideal technology to provide the structure-activity relationship understanding urgently required for developing the next generation of immuno-targeted nanomedicines.

  18. Effect of transferrin saturation on internal iron exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bergamaschi, G.; Eng, M.J.; Huebers, H.A.; Finch, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Radioiron was introduced into the intestinal lumen to evaluate absorption, injected as nonviable red cells to evaluate reticuloendothelial (RE) processing of iron, and injected as hemoglobin to evaluate hepatocyte iron processing. Redistribution of iron through the plasma was evaluated in control animals and animals whose transferrin was saturated by iron infusion. Radioiron introduced into the lumen of the gut as ferrous sulfate and as transferrin-bound iron was absorbed about half as well in iron-infused animals, and absorbed iron was localized in the liver. The similar absorption of transferrin-bound iron suggested that absorption of ferrous iron occurred via the mucosal cell and did not enter by diffusion. The decrease in absorption was associated with an increase in mucosal iron and ferritin content produced by the iron infusion. An inverse relationship (r = -0.895) was shown between mucosal ferritin iron and absorption. When iron was injected as nonviable red cells, it was deposited predominantly in reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. Return of this radioiron to the plasma was only 6% of that in control animals. While there was some movement of iron from spleen to liver, this could be accounted for by intravascular hemolysis. Injected hemoglobin tagged with radioiron was for the most part taken up and held by the liver. Some 13% initially localized in the marrow in iron-infused animals was shown to be storage iron unavailable for hemoglobin synthesis. These studies demonstrate the hepatic trapping of absorbed iron and the inability of either RE cell or hepatocyte to release iron in the transferrin-saturated animal.

  19. [Transferrin variants: significance and identification in paternity cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mauff, G; Doppelfeld, E; Weber, W

    1975-08-01

    Transferrin phenotypes were determined in 3380 sera of unrelated persons of the western region of Germany with 97.60 percent for TfC and 2.40 percent for Tf variants. Identification was achieved by immunochemical means or through autoradiography. Relative mobilities in some variants were measured using Tf B2C (0.7) as reference. Application of Tf variants is demonstrated in paternity cases.

  20. Role of pyocyanin in the acquisition of iron from transferrin.

    PubMed

    Cox, C D

    1986-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a blue pigment called pyocyanin. In the presence of oxidizable substrates, bacteria reduce this pigment to a colorless product, leukopyocyanin. Pyocyanin can also be nonenzymatically reduced by NADH. Leukopyocyanin formed by cell- or NADH-mediated reduction nonenzymatically reduces oxygen or Fe(III). Pyocyanin-dependent iron reduction by whole bacterial cells was measured by the formation of the ferrous-ferrozine complex. In addition, leukopyocyanin reduced chelated Fe(III) including ferric iron in complex with transferrin, the serum iron-binding protein. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to display the reductive removal of iron from transferrin and the accumulation of iron in the ferrous-ferrozine complex. Pyocyanin stimulated the accumulation of 55Fe from [55Fe]transferrin when it was added to bacteria incubated under low-oxygen conditions. Although bacteria grown in the presence of 100 microM FeCl3 reduced pyocyanin just as rapidly as iron-limited bacteria, these cells did not accumulate iron in the presence or absence of pyocyanin. Therefore, P. aeruginosa participates indiscriminantly in the reduction of pyocyanin, but soluble or available iron generated by the pyocyanin is taken up specifically by iron-limited bacteria. PMID:2937736

  1. Bacterial receptors for host transferrin and lactoferrin: molecular mechanisms and role in host-microbe interactions.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Ari; Pogoutse, Anastassia; Adamiak, Paul; Moraes, Trevor F; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2013-12-01

    Iron homeostasis in the mammalian host limits the availability of iron to invading pathogens and is thought to restrict iron availability for microbes inhabiting mucosal surfaces. The presence of surface receptors for the host iron-binding glycoproteins transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) in globally important Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of humans and food production animals suggests that Tf and Lf are important sources of iron in the upper respiratory or genitourinary tracts, where they exclusively reside. Lf receptors have the additional function of protecting against host cationic antimicrobial peptides, suggesting that the bacteria expressing these receptors reside in a niche where exposure is likely. In this review we compare Tf and Lf receptors with respect to their structural and functional features, their role in colonization and infection, and their distribution among pathogenic and commensal bacteria. PMID:24266357

  2. Exposure of K562 cells to anti-receptor monoclonal antibody OKT9 results in rapid redistribution and enhanced degradation of the transferrin receptor

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    When the human erythroleukemia cell line K562 is treated with OKT9, a monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor, effects on receptor dynamics and degradation ensue. The apparent half-life of the receptor is decreased by greater than 50% as a result of OKT9 treatment. The transferrin receptor is also rapidly redistributed in response to OKT9 such that a lower percentage of the cellular receptors are displayed on the cell surface. OKT9 treatment also leads to a decrease in the total number of receptors participating in the transferrin cycle for cellular iron uptake. The reduction in iron uptake that results from the loss of receptors from the cycle leads to enhanced biosynthesis of the receptor. Receptors with bound OKT9 continue to participate in multiple cycles of iron uptake. However, OKT9 treatment appears to result in a relatively small increase per cycle in the departure of receptors from participation in iron uptake to a pathway leading to receptor degradation. Radiolabeled OKT9 is itself degraded by K562 cells and this degradation is inhibitable by leupeptin or chloroquine. In the presence of leupeptin, OKT9 treatment results in the enhanced intracellular accumulation of transferrin. Because the time involved in the transferrin cycle is shorter (12.5 min) than the normal half-life of the receptor (8 h), a small change in recycling efficiency caused by OKT9 treatment could account for the marked decrease in receptor half-life. In this paper the implications of these findings are discussed as they relate to systems in which receptor number is regulated by ligand. PMID:3005341

  3. The effect of the iron saturation of transferrin on its binding and uptake by rabbit reticulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S P; Bomford, A; Williams, R

    1984-01-01

    Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in urea was used to prepare the four molecular species of transferrin:diferric transferrin, apotransferrin and the two monoferric transferrins with either the C-terminal or the N-terminal metal-binding site occupied. The interaction of these 125I-labelled proteins with rabbit reticulocytes was investigated. At 4 degrees C the average value for the association constant for the binding of transferrin to reticulocytes was found to increase with increasing iron content of the protein. The association constant for apotransferrin binding was 4.6 X 10(6)M-1, for monoferric (C-terminal iron) 2.5 X 10(7)M-1, for monoferric (N-terminal iron) 2.8 X 10(7)M-1 and for diferric transferrin, 1.1 X 10(8)M-1. These differences in the association constants did not affect the processing of the transferrin species by the cells at 37 degrees C. Accessibility of the proteins to extracellular proteinase indicated that the transferrin was internalized by the cells regardless of the iron content of the protein, since in each case 70% was inaccessible. Cycling of the cellular receptors may also occur in the absence of bound transferrin. PMID:6743230

  4. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis.

  5. Overexpression of the MRI Reporter Genes Ferritin and Transferrin Receptor Affect Iron Homeostasis and Produce Limited Contrast in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sofia M.; Moss, Diana; Williams, Steve R.; Murray, Patricia; Taylor, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Imaging technologies that allow the non-invasive monitoring of stem cells in vivo play a vital role in cell-based regenerative therapies. Recently, much interest has been generated in reporter genes that enable simultaneous monitoring of the anatomical location and viability of cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we investigate the efficacy of ferritin heavy chain-1 (Fth1) and transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1) as reporters for tracking mesenchymal stem cells. The overexpression of TfR1 was well tolerated by the cells but Fth1 was found to affect the cell’s iron homeostasis, leading to phenotypic changes in the absence of iron supplementation and an upregulation in transcript and protein levels of the cell’s endogenous transferrin receptor. Neither the sole overexpression of Fth1 nor TfR1 resulted in significant increases in intracellular iron content, although significant differences were seen when the two reporter genes were used in combination, in the presence of high concentrations of iron. The supplementation of the culture medium with iron sources was a more efficient means to obtain contrast than the use of reporter genes, where high levels of intracellular iron were reflected in transverse (T2) relaxation. The feasibility of imaging iron-supplemented cells by MRI is shown using a 3R-compliant chick embryo model. PMID:26184159

  6. Enhanced blood-brain barrier transmigration using a novel transferrin embedded fluorescent magneto-liposome nanoformulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hong; Sagar, Vidya; Agudelo, Marisela; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Subba Rao Atluri, Venkata; Raymond, Andrea; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Nair, Madhavan P.

    2014-02-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered as the primary impediment barrier for most drugs. Delivering therapeutic agents to the brain is still a big challenge to date. In our study, a dual mechanism, receptor mediation combined with external non-invasive magnetic force, was incorporated into ferrous magnet-based liposomes for BBB transmigration enhancement. The homogenous magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), with a size of ˜10 nm, were synthesized and confirmed by TEM and XRD respectively. The classical magnetism assay showed the presence of the characteristic superparamagnetic property. These MNPs encapsulated in PEGylated fluorescent liposomes as magneto-liposomes (MLs) showed mono-dispersion, ˜130 ± 10 nm diameter, by dynamic laser scattering (DLS) using the lipid-extrusion technique. Remarkably, a magnetite encapsulation efficiency of nearly 60% was achieved. Moreover, the luminescence and hydrodynamic size of the MLs was stable for over two months at 4 ° C. Additionally, the integrity of the ML structure remained unaffected through 120 rounds of circulation mimicking human blood fluid. After biocompatibility confirmation by cytotoxicity evaluation, these fluorescent MLs were further embedded with transferrin and applied to an in vitro BBB transmigration study in the presence or absence of external magnetic force. Comparing with magnetic force- or transferrin receptor-mediated transportation alone, their synergy resulted in 50-100% increased transmigration without affecting the BBB integrity. Consequently, confocal microscopy and iron concentration in BBB-composed cells further confirmed the higher cellular uptake of ML particles due to the synergic effect. Thus, our multifunctional liposomal magnetic nanocarriers possess great potential in particle transmigration across the BBB and may have a bright future in drug delivery to the brain.

  7. Enhanced blood-brain barrier transmigration using a novel transferrin embedded fluorescent magneto-liposome nanoformulation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Sagar, Vidya; Agudelo, Marisela; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Raymond, Andrea; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Nair, Madhavan P

    2014-02-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered as the primary impediment barrier for most drugs. Delivering therapeutic agents to the brain is still a big challenge to date. In our study, a dual mechanism, receptor mediation combined with external non-invasive magnetic force, was incorporated into ferrous magnet-based liposomes for BBB transmigration enhancement. The homogenous magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), with a size of ∼10 nm, were synthesized and confirmed by TEM and XRD respectively. The classical magnetism assay showed the presence of the characteristic superparamagnetic property. These MNPs encapsulated in PEGylated fluorescent liposomes as magneto-liposomes (MLs) showed mono-dispersion, ∼130 ± 10 nm diameter, by dynamic laser scattering (DLS) using the lipid-extrusion technique. Remarkably, a magnetite encapsulation efficiency of nearly 60% was achieved. Moreover, the luminescence and hydrodynamic size of the MLs was stable for over two months at 4 ° C. Additionally, the integrity of the ML structure remained unaffected through 120 rounds of circulation mimicking human blood fluid. After biocompatibility confirmation by cytotoxicity evaluation, these fluorescent MLs were further embedded with transferrin and applied to an in vitro BBB transmigration study in the presence or absence of external magnetic force. Comparing with magnetic force- or transferrin receptor-mediated transportation alone, their synergy resulted in 50-100% increased transmigration without affecting the BBB integrity. Consequently, confocal microscopy and iron concentration in BBB-composed cells further confirmed the higher cellular uptake of ML particles due to the synergic effect. Thus, our multifunctional liposomal magnetic nanocarriers possess great potential in particle transmigration across the BBB and may have a bright future in drug delivery to the brain. PMID:24406534

  8. Therapeutic effects of dihydroartemisinin and transferrin against glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suk Hee; Kang, Seong Hee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Artemisinin, a natural product isolated from Gaeddongssuk (artemisia annua L.) and its main active derivative, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), have long been used as antimalarial drugs. Recent studies reported that artemisinin is efficacious for curing diseases, including cancers, and for improving the immune system. Many researchers have shown the therapeutic effects of artemisinin on tumors such as breast cancer, liver cancer and kidney cancer, but there is still insufficient data regarding glioblastoma (GBM). Glioblastoma accounts for 12-15% of brain cancer, and the median survival is less than a year, despite medical treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of DHA and transferrin against glioblastoma (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM). MATERIALS/METHODS This study was performed through in vitro experiments using C6 cells. The toxicity dependence of DHA and transferrin (TF) on time and concentration was analyzed by MTT assay and cell cycle assay. Observations of cellular morphology were recorded with an optical microscope and color digital camera. The anti-cancer mechanism of DHA and TF against GBM were studied by flow cytometry with Annexin V and caspase 3/7. RESULTS MTT assay revealed that TF enhanced the cytotoxicity of DHA against C6 cells. An Annexin V immune-precipitation assay showed that the percentages of apoptosis of cells treated with TF, DHA alone, DHA in combination with TF, and the control group were 7.15 ± 4.15%, 34.3 ± 5.15%, 66.42 ± 5.98%, and 1.2 ± 0.15%, respectively. The results of the Annexin V assay were consistent with those of the MTT assay. DHA induced apoptosis in C6 cells through DNA damage, and TF enhanced the effects of DHA. CONCLUSION The results of this study demonstrated that DHA, the derivative of the active ingredient in Gaeddongssuk, is effective against GBM, apparently via inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by a pharmacological

  9. Metabolic Catastrophe in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Tomasa; Laothamatas, Indira; Koves, Timothy R.; Soderblom, Erik J.; Bryan, Miles; Moseley, M. Arthur; Muoio, Deborah M.; Andrews, Nancy C.

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (Tfr1) is ubiquitously expressed, but its roles in non-hematopoietic cells are incompletely understood. We used a tissue-specific conditional knockout strategy to ask whether skeletal muscle required Tfr1 for iron uptake. We found that iron assimilation via Tfr1 was critical for skeletal muscle metabolism, and that iron deficiency in muscle led to dramatic changes, not only in muscle, but also in adipose tissue and liver. Inactivation of Tfr1 incapacitated normal energy production in muscle, leading to growth arrest and a muted attempt to switch to fatty acid β oxidation, using up fat stores. Starvation signals stimulated gluconeogenesis in the liver, but amino acid substrates became limiting and hypoglycemia ensued. Surprisingly, the liver was also iron deficient, and production of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin was depressed. Our observations reveal a complex interaction between iron homeostasis and metabolism that has implications for metabolic and iron disorders. PMID:26870796

  10. Transferrin receptor expression by stimulated cells in mixed lymphocyte culture.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, M; Bacon, P A; Symmons, D P; Walton, K W

    1985-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TRFr) expression by cells in mixed lymphocyte culture increases steadily for the first 5 days, but then reaches a plateau. By the sixth day in culture, about 20% of viable cells express TRFr in two-way mixed lymphocyte reactions. This subpopulation of TRFr-positive cells represents the proliferating population; it is heterogeneous, containing T-cell blasts and smaller cells which are a mixture of T and non-T cells. A small group of non-T cells have phenotypic similarity to natural killer (NK) cells. T cells appear to divide earlier in the course of the response than non-T cells. The biphasic nature of this response and the slower non-T reactivity may be due to a secondary stimulation of non-T cells by factors released from activated T cells (such as interleukin-2). PMID:2982734

  11. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels in a female population.

    PubMed

    La Grange, L; Anton, R F; Garcia, S; Herrbold, C

    1995-02-01

    Female college students (n = 49) from a small southwestern United States university participated in the 9-month study. Data collected included the assessment of drinking habits and other related substance use habits and serum levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT). Each subject provided an interview and blood sample on three occasions at 90-day intervals. Appended to the interview were a series of questions regarding stage of menstrual cycle and the diagnoses of certain diseases. The CDT values obtained were consistent with those obtained in other studies. Moderate-drinking subjects had significantly higher CDT values than did the abstainers and light drinkers. Females using oral contraceptives had significantly higher CDT values than those who were not taking oral contraceptives. Finally, although CDT values varied over time, they did not appear to vary as a function of menstrual cycle stage. PMID:7771634

  12. Transferrin C subtypes and ethnic heterogeneity in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sikström, C; Nylander, P O

    1990-01-01

    Transferrin (TF) C subtypes were studied in Swedish Lapps (Saami) and in Swedes from northern, central and southern Sweden, and the allele frequencies were compared with those in other European populations. The Swedish Lapps were found to have the lowest frequency of the TF*C3 allele (1-2%) so far observed in Europe. Most European populations have TF*C3 allele frequencies between 5 and 7%. Finns differ by having high TF*C3 frequencies (13-14%). The relatively high TF*C3 frequencies found in northeastern Sweden (13%) and in central Sweden (9%) are most likely due to eastern influence. Unlike other genetic markers of eastern influence (e.g. TF*DCHI), which are of Asiatic Mongoloid origin, TF*C3 appears to originate from Finno-Ugric populations.

  13. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjing; Barrientos, Tomasa; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Sauve, Anthony A; Andrews, Nancy C

    2015-10-20

    Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1) might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure. PMID:26456827

  14. Metabolic Catastrophe in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in Muscle.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Tomasa; Laothamatas, Indira; Koves, Timothy R; Soderblom, Erik J; Bryan, Miles; Moseley, M Arthur; Muoio, Deborah M; Andrews, Nancy C

    2015-11-01

    Transferrin receptor (Tfr1) is ubiquitously expressed, but its roles in non-hematopoietic cells are incompletely understood. We used a tissue-specific conditional knockout strategy to ask whether skeletal muscle required Tfr1 for iron uptake. We found that iron assimilation via Tfr1 was critical for skeletal muscle metabolism, and that iron deficiency in muscle led to dramatic changes, not only in muscle, but also in adipose tissue and liver. Inactivation of Tfr1 incapacitated normal energy production in muscle, leading to growth arrest and a muted attempt to switch to fatty acid β oxidation, using up fat stores. Starvation signals stimulated gluconeogenesis in the liver, but amino acid substrates became limiting and hypoglycemia ensued. Surprisingly, the liver was also iron deficient, and production of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin was depressed. Our observations reveal a complex interaction between iron homeostasis and metabolism that has implications for metabolic and iron disorders.

  15. Transferrin Receptor Controls AMPA Receptor Trafficking Efficiency and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lei, Run; Li, Qiong; Wang, Xin-Xin; Wu, Qian; An, Peng; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhu, Minyan; Xu, Zhiheng; Hong, Yang; Wang, Fudi; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TFR) is an important iron transporter regulating iron homeostasis and has long been used as a marker for clathrin mediated endocytosis. However, little is known about its additional function other than iron transport in the development of central nervous system (CNS). Here we demonstrate that TFR functions as a regulator to control AMPA receptor trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. The conditional knockout (KO) of TFR in neural progenitor cells causes mice to develop progressive epileptic seizure, and dramatically reduces basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). We further demonstrate that TFR KO remarkably reduces the binding efficiency of GluR2 to AP2 and subsequently decreases AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling. Thus, our study reveals that TFR functions as a novel regulator to control AMPA trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26880306

  16. Transferrin conjugates of triazacyclononane-based bifunctional NE3TA chelates for PET imaging: Synthesis, Cu-64 radiolabeling, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chi Soo; Wu, Ningjie; Chen, Yunwei; Sun, Xiang; Bandara, Nilantha; Liu, Dijie; Lewis, Michael R; Rogers, Buck E; Chong, Hyun-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Three different polyaminocarboxylate-based bifunctional NE3TA (7-[2-[carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl]-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid) chelating agents were synthesized for potential use in copper 64-PET imaging applications. The bifunctional chelates were comparatively evaluated using transferrin (Tf) as a model targeting vector that binds to the transferrin receptor overexpressed in many different cancer cells. The transferrin conjugates of the NE3TA-based bifunctional chelates were evaluated for radiolabeling with (64)Cu. In vitro stability and cellular uptake of (64)Cu-radiolabeled conjugates were evaluated in human serum and prostate (PC-3) cancer cells, respectively. Among the three NE3TA-Tf conjugates tested, N-NE3TA-Tf was identified as the best conjugate for radiolabeling with (64)Cu. N-NE3TA-Tf rapidly bound to (64)Cu (>98% radiolabeling efficiency, 1min, RT), and (64)Cu-N-NE3TA-Tf remained stable in human serum for 2days and demonstrated high uptake in PC-3 cancer cells. (64)Cu-N-NE3TA-Tf was shown to have rapid blood clearance and increasing tumor uptake in PC-3 tumor bearing mice over a 24h period. This bifunctional chelate presents highly efficient chelation chemistry with (64)Cu under mild condition that can be applied for radiolabeling of various tumor-specific biomolecules with (64)Cu for potential use in PET imaging applications.

  17. Receptor recognition of transferrin bound to lanthanides and actinides: a discriminating step in cellular acquisition of f-block metals.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Mason, Anne B; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2013-06-01

    Following an internal contamination event, the transport of actinide (An) and lanthanide (Ln) metal ions through the body is facilitated by endogenous ligands such as the human iron-transport protein transferrin (Tf). The recognition of resulting metallo-transferrin complexes (M2Tf) by the cognate transferrin receptor (TfR) is therefore a critical step for cellular uptake of these metal ions. A high performance liquid chromatography-based method has been used to probe the binding of M2Tf with TfR, yielding a direct measurement of the successive thermodynamic constants that correspond to the dissociation of TfR(M2Tf)2 and TfR(M2Tf) complexes for Fe(3+), Ga(3+), La(3+), Nd(3+), Gd(3+), Yb(3+), Lu(3+), (232)Th(4+), (238)UO2(2+), and (242)Pu(4+). Important features of this method are (i) its ability to distinguish both 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes formed between the receptor and the metal-bound transferrin, and (ii) the requirement for very small amounts of each binding partner (<1 nmol of protein per assay). Consistent with previous reports, the strongest receptor affinity is found for Fe2Tf (Kd1 = 5 nM and Kd2 = 20 nM), while the lowest affinity was measured for Pu2Tf (Kd1 = 0.28 μM and Kd2 = 1.8 μM) binding to the TfR. Other toxic metal ions such as Th(IV) and U(VI), when bound to Tf, are well recognized by the TfR. Under the described experimental conditions, the relative stabilities of TfR:(MxTf)y adducts follow the order Fe(3+) > Th(4+) ~ UO2(2+) ~ Cm(3+) > Ln(3+) ~ Ga(3+) > Yb(3+) ~ Pu(4+). This study substantiates a role for Tf in binding lanthanide fission products and actinides, and transporting them into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:23446908

  18. Receptor recognition of transferrin bound to lanthanides and actinides: a discriminating step in cellular acquisition of f-block metals.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Mason, Anne B; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2013-06-01

    Following an internal contamination event, the transport of actinide (An) and lanthanide (Ln) metal ions through the body is facilitated by endogenous ligands such as the human iron-transport protein transferrin (Tf). The recognition of resulting metallo-transferrin complexes (M2Tf) by the cognate transferrin receptor (TfR) is therefore a critical step for cellular uptake of these metal ions. A high performance liquid chromatography-based method has been used to probe the binding of M2Tf with TfR, yielding a direct measurement of the successive thermodynamic constants that correspond to the dissociation of TfR(M2Tf)2 and TfR(M2Tf) complexes for Fe(3+), Ga(3+), La(3+), Nd(3+), Gd(3+), Yb(3+), Lu(3+), (232)Th(4+), (238)UO2(2+), and (242)Pu(4+). Important features of this method are (i) its ability to distinguish both 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes formed between the receptor and the metal-bound transferrin, and (ii) the requirement for very small amounts of each binding partner (<1 nmol of protein per assay). Consistent with previous reports, the strongest receptor affinity is found for Fe2Tf (Kd1 = 5 nM and Kd2 = 20 nM), while the lowest affinity was measured for Pu2Tf (Kd1 = 0.28 μM and Kd2 = 1.8 μM) binding to the TfR. Other toxic metal ions such as Th(IV) and U(VI), when bound to Tf, are well recognized by the TfR. Under the described experimental conditions, the relative stabilities of TfR:(MxTf)y adducts follow the order Fe(3+) > Th(4+) ~ UO2(2+) ~ Cm(3+) > Ln(3+) ~ Ga(3+) > Yb(3+) ~ Pu(4+). This study substantiates a role for Tf in binding lanthanide fission products and actinides, and transporting them into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  19. Receptor recognition of transferrin bound to lanthanides and actinides: a discriminating step in cellular acquisition of f-block metals

    PubMed Central

    Deblonde, Gauthier J.-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Mason, Anne B.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Following an internal contamination event, the transport of actinide and lanthanide metal ions through the body is facilitated by endogenous ligands such as the human iron-transport protein transferrin (Tf). The recognition of resulting metallo-transferrin complexes (M2Tf) by the cognate transferrin receptor (TfR) is therefore a critical step for cellular uptake of these metal ions. A high performance liquid chromatography-based method has been used to probe the binding of M2Tf with TfR, yielding a direct measurement of the successive thermodynamic constants that correspond to the dissociation of TfR(M2Tf)2 and TfR(M2Tf) complexes for Fe3+, Ga3+, La3+, Nd3+, Gd3+, Yb3+, Lu3+, 232Th4+, 238UO22+, and 242Pu4+. Important features of this method are (i) its ability to distinguish both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes formed between the receptor and the metal-bound transferrin, and (ii) the requirement for very small amounts of each binding partner (<1 nmol of protein per assay). Consistent with previous reports, the strongest receptor affinity is found for Fe2Tf (Kd1 = 5 nM and Kd2 = 20 nM), while the lowest affinity was measured for Pu2Tf (Kd1 = 0.28 µM and Kd2 = 1.8 µM) binding to the TfR. Other toxic metal ions such as ThIV and UVI, when bound to Tf, are well recognized by the TfR. Under the described experimental conditions, the relative stabilities of TfR:(MxTf)y adducts follow the order Fe3+ >> Th4+ □ UO22+ □ Cm3+ > Ln3+ □ Ga3+ >>> Yb3+ □ Pu4+. This study substantiates a role for Tf in binding lanthanide fission products and actinides, and transporting them into cells by receptor mediated endocytosis. PMID:23446908

  20. HFE gene mutation and transferrin saturation in very low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Maier, R.; Witt, H.; Buhrer, C.; Monch, E.; Kottgen, E.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To determine if there is an association between high transferrin saturation and the C282Y HFE gene mutation in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants.
METHODS—One hundred and forty three VLBW infants receiving recombinant erythropoietin and 3 to 9 mg/kg/day of enteral iron were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from filter paper cards. The C282Y mutation was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
RESULTS—Six infants were heterozygous for the mutation; none was homozygous. Ten infants had a transferrin saturation above 80% at least once. No infant was positive for both transferrin saturation above 80% and the mutation.
CONCLUSIONS—The data strongly suggest that there is no association between high transferrin saturation and the HFE gene mutation in VLBW infants during the first weeks of life.

 PMID:10448186

  1. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883

  2. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883

  3. Applying 89Zr-Transferrin To Study the Pharmacology of Inhibitors to BET Bromodomain Containing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin modifying proteins are attractive drug targets in oncology, given the fundamental reliance of cancer on altered transcriptional activity. Multiple transcription factors can be impacted downstream of primary target inhibition, thus making it challenging to understand the driving mechanism of action of pharmacologic inhibition of chromatin modifying proteins. This in turn makes it difficult to identify biomarkers predictive of response and pharmacodynamic tools to optimize drug dosing. In this report, we show that 89Zr-transferrin, an imaging tool we developed to measure MYC activity in cancer, can be used to identify cancer models that respond to broad spectrum inhibitors of transcription primarily due to MYC inhibition. As a proof of concept, we studied inhibitors of BET bromodomain containing proteins, as they can impart antitumor effects in a MYC dependent or independent fashion. In vitro, we show that transferrin receptor biology is inhibited in multiple MYC positive models of prostate cancer and double hit lymphoma when MYC biology is impacted. Moreover, we show that bromodomain inhibition in one lymphoma model results in transferrin receptor expression changes large enough to be quantified with 89Zr-transferrin and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo. Collectively, these data further underscore the diagnostic utility of the relationship between MYC and transferrin in oncology, and provide the rationale to incorporate transferrin-based PET into early clinical trials with bromodomain inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:26725682

  4. Molecular cloning of bullfrog saxiphilin: a unique relative of the transferrin family that binds saxitoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, M A; Moczydlowski, E

    1994-01-01

    Plasma and tissue of certain vertebrates contain a protein called saxiphilin that specifically binds the neurotoxin saxitoxin with nanomolar affinity. We describe the isolation of a cDNA clone of saxiphilin from liver of the North American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The cDNA sequence encodes a protein that is evolutionarily related to members of the transferrin family of Fe(3+)-binding proteins. Pairwise sequence alignment of saxiphilin with various transferrins reveals amino acid identity as high as 51% and predicts 14 disulfide bonds that are highly conserved. The larger size of saxiphilin (91 kDa) versus serum transferrin (approximately 78 kDa) is primarily due to a unique insertion of 144 residues. This insertion contains a 49-residue domain classified as a type 1 repetitive element of thyroglobulin, which is shared by a variety of membrane, secreted, and extracellular matrix proteins. Saxiphilin also differs from transferrins in 9 of 10 highly conserved amino acids in the two homologous Fe3+/HCO3-binding sites of transferrin. Identification of saxiphilin implies that transferrin-like proteins comprise a diverse superfamily with functions other than iron binding. Images PMID:8146142

  5. Neoplastic transformation of rat liver epithelial cells is enhanced by non-transferrin-bound iron

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Donald J; Kowdley, Kris V

    2008-01-01

    Background Iron overload is associated with liver toxicity, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. While most iron circulates in blood as transferrin-bound iron, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) also becomes elevated and contributes to toxicity in the setting of iron overload. The mechanism for iron-related carcinogenesis is not well understood, in part due to a shortage of suitable experimental models. The primary aim of this study was to investigate NTBI-related hepatic carcinogenesis using T51B rat liver epithelial cells, a non-neoplastic cell line previously developed for carcinogenicity and tumor promotion studies. Methods T51B cells were loaded with iron by repeated addition of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) to the culture medium. Iron internalization was documented by chemical assay, ferritin induction, and loss of calcein fluorescence. Proliferative effects were determined by cell count, toxicity was determined by MTT assay, and neoplastic transformation was assessed by measuring colony formation in soft agar. Cyclin levels were measured by western blot. Results T51B cells readily internalized NTBI given as FAC. Within 1 week of treatment at 200 μM, there were significant but well-tolerated toxic effects including a decrease in cell proliferation (30% decrease, p < 0.01). FAC alone induced little or no colony formation in soft agar. In contrast, FAC addition to cells previously initiated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) resulted in a concentration dependent increase in colony formation. This was first detected at 12 weeks of FAC treatment and increased at longer times. At 16 weeks, colony formation increased more than 10 fold in cells treated with 200 μM FAC (p < 0.001). The iron chelator desferoxamine reduced both iron uptake and colony formation. Cells cultured with 200 μM FAC showed decreased cyclin D1, decreased cyclin A, and increased cyclin B1. Conclusion These results establish NTBI as a tumor promoter in T51B rat liver

  6. Downregulation of transferrin receptor surface expression by intracellular antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Jilin; Wu Sha; Zhao Xiaoping; Wang Min; Li Wenhan; Shen Xin; Liu Jing; Lei Ping; Zhu Huifen; Shen Guanxin . E-mail: guanxin_shen@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-03-23

    To deplete cellular iron uptake, and consequently inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, we attempt to block surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by intracellular antibody technology. We constructed two expression plasmids (scFv-HAK and scFv-HA) coding for intracellular single-chain antibody against TfR with or without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, respectively. Then they were transfected tumor cells MCF-7 by liposome. Applying RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscope experiments, we insure that scFv-HAK intrabody was successfully expressed and retained in ER contrasted to the secreted expression of scFv-HA. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the TfR surface expression was markedly decreased approximately 83.4 {+-} 2.5% in scFv-HAK transfected cells, while there was not significantly decrease in scFv-HA transfected cells. Further cell growth and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated by cell cycle analysis, nuclei staining and MTT assay. Results indicated that expression of scFv-HAK can dramatically induce cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, and consequently significantly suppress proliferation of tumor cells compared with other control groups. For First time this study demonstrates the potential usage of anti-TfR scFv-intrabody as a growth inhibitor of TfR overexpressing tumors.

  7. Necessity of transferrin for RNA synthesis in chick myotubes.

    PubMed

    Shoji, A; Ozawa, E

    1986-06-01

    Chick transferrin (Tf) is essential not only for growth and differentiation but also for the maintenance of chick myotubes in culture. Its removal from the culture medium gives rise to degeneration of the myotubes. The analysis of this process revealed that the removal resulted in decrease in total and messenger RNA content in the myotubes; this was mainly due to a decrease in RNA synthesis. Activity of in vitro RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei from myotubes cultured without Tf was lower than the activity in nuclei from myotubes cultured with Tf and increased with the addition of FeCl3. Although RNA degradation in myotubes was also enhanced following Tf removal, the degree was small. The synthesis of most proteins was reduced. In contrast to this, a few new proteins of unknown nature were synthesised in myotubes cultured in Tf-free medium. The role of Fe ion carried into the cells by Tf in promoting myogenic cell growth and differentiation and in preventing the myotubes from degeneration can be explained, at least in part, on the basis of its effect on RNA synthesis. Since we have found that Fe is required for activation of RNA polymerase purified from embryonic muscles (Shoji and Ozawa, 1985b), these effects may be ascribed to this activating effect. PMID:2423539

  8. Amorphous carbon nanoparticle used as novel resonance energy transfer acceptor for chemiluminescent immunoassay of transferrin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongfei; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Zhenxing; Han, Jing; Fu, Zhifeng

    2014-03-28

    Amorphous carbon nanoparticles (ACNPs) showing highly efficient quenching of chemiluminescence (CL) were prepared from candle soot with a very simple protocol. The prepared ACNP was employed as the novel energy acceptor for a chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET)-based immunoassay. In this work, ACNP was linked with transferrin (TRF), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was conjugated to TRF antibody (HRP-anti-TRF). The immunoreaction rendered the distance between the ACNP acceptor and the HRP-catalyzed CL emitter to be short enough for CRET occurring. In the presence of TRF, this antigen competed with ACNP-TRF for HRP-anti-TRF, thus led to the decreased occurrence of CRET. A linear range of 20-400 ng mL(-1) and a limit of detection of 20 ng mL(-1) were obtained in this immunoassay. The proposed method was successfully applied for detection of TRF levels in human sera, and the results were in good agreement with ELISA method. Moreover, the ACNPs show higher energy transfer efficiency than other conventional nano-scaled energy acceptors such as graphene oxide in CRET assay. It is anticipated that this approach can be developed for determination of other analytes with low cost, simple manipulation and high specificity. PMID:24636417

  9. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-03-11

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26869514

  10. Synthesis and anti-cancer activity of covalent conjugates of artemisinin and a transferrin-receptor targeting peptide.

    PubMed

    Oh, Steve; Kim, Byung Ju; Singh, Narendra P; Lai, Henry; Sasaki, Tomikazu

    2009-02-01

    Artemisinin, a natural product isolated from Artemisia annua L., shows a unique anti-cancer activity by an iron dependent mechanism. Artemisinin was covalently conjugated to a transferrin-receptor targeting peptide, HAIYPRH that binds to a cavity on the surface of transferrin receptor. This enables artemisinin to be co-internalized with receptor-bound transferrin. The iron released from transferrin can activate artemisinin to generate toxic radical species to kill cells. The artemisinin-peptide conjugates showed potent anti-cancer activity against Molt-4 leukemia cells with a significantly improved cancer/normal cells selectivity. PMID:18838215

  11. The role of transferrin in actinide(IV) uptake: comparison with iron(III).

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Aurélie; Ferrand, M; Funke, Harald; Hennig, Christoph; Moisy, Philippe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Vidaud, Claude; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2010-01-25

    The impact of actinides on living organisms has been the subject of numerous studies since the 1950s. From a general point of view, these studies show that actinides are chemical poisons as well as radiological hazards. Actinides in plasma are assumed to be mainly complexed to transferrin, the iron carrier protein. This paper casts light on the uptake of actinides(IV) (thorium, neptunium, plutonium) by transferrin, focusing on the pH dependence of the interaction and on a molecular description of the cation binding site in the protein. Their behavior is compared with that of iron(III), the endogenous transferrin cation, from a structural point of view. Complementary spectroscopic techniques (UV/Vis spectrophotometry, microfiltration coupled with gamma spectrometry, and X-ray absorption fine structure) have been combined in order to propose a structural model for the actinide-binding site in transferrin. Comparison of our results with data available on holotransferrin suggests some similarities between the behavior of Fe(III) and Np(IV)/Pu(IV)/ Np(IV) is not complexed at pH <7, whereas at pH approximately 7.4 complexation can be regarded as quantitative. This pH effect is consistent with the in vivo transferrin "cycle". Pu(IV) also appears to be quantitatively bound by apotransferrin at around pH approximately 7.5, whereas Th(IV) was never complexed under our experimental conditions. EXAFS data at the actinide edge have allowed a structural model of the actinide binding site to be elaborated: at least one tyrosine residue could participate in the actinide coordination sphere (two for iron), forming a mixed hydroxo-transferrin complex in which actinides are bound with transferrin both through An-tyrosine and through An--OH bonds. A description of interatomic distances is provided.

  12. Preparation, characterization and in vitro efficacy of magnetic nanoliposomes containing the artemisinin and transferrin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemisinin is the major sesquiterpene lactones in sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.), and its combination with transferrin exhibits versatile anti-cancer activities. Their non-selective targeting for cancer cells, however, limits their application. The aim of this study was to prepare the artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes in thermosensitive and non-thermosensitive forms and evaluate their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells for better tumor-targeted therapy. Methods Artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes was prepared by extrusion method using various concentrations of lipids. These formulations were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index and shape morphology. The artemisinin and transferrin-loading efficiencies were determined using HPLC. The content of magnetic iron oxide in the nanoliposomes was analysed by spectrophotometry. The in vitro release of artemisinin, transferrin and magnetic iron oxide from vesicles was assessed by keeping of the nanoliposomes at 37°C for 12 h. The in vitro cytotoxicity of prepared nanoliposomes was investigated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells using MTT assay. Results The entrapment efficiencies of artemisinin, transferrin and magnetic iron oxide in the non-thermosensitive nanoliposomes were 89.11% ± 0.23, 85.09% ± 0.31 and 78.10% ± 0.24, respectively. Moreover, the thermosensitive formulation showed a suitable condition for thermal drug release at 42°C and exhibited high antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in the presence of a magnetic field. Conclusions Our results showed that the thermosensitive artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes would be an effective choice for tumor-targeted therapy, due to its suitable stability and high effectiveness. PMID:24887240

  13. Cell entry by human pathogenic arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Rojek, Jillian M; Kunz, Stefan

    2008-04-01

    The arenaviruses Lassa virus (LASV) in Africa and Machupo (MACV), Guanarito (GTOV) and Junin viruses (JUNV) in South America cause severe haemorrhagic fevers in humans with fatality rates of 15-35%. The present review focuses on the first steps of infection with human pathogenic arenaviruses, the interaction with their cellular receptor molecules and subsequent entry into the host cell. While similarities exist in genomic organization, structure and clinical disease caused by pathogenic Old World and New World arenaviruses these pathogens use different primary receptors. The Old World arenaviruses employ alpha-dystroglycan, a cellular receptor for proteins of the extracellular matrix, and the human pathogenic New World arenaviruses use the cellular cargo receptor transferrin receptor 1. While the New World arenavirus JUNV enters cells via clathrin-dependent endocytosis, evidence occurred for clathrin-independent entry of the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Upon internalization, arenaviruses are delivered to the endosome, where pH-dependent membrane fusion is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein (GP). While arenavirus GPs share characteristics with class I fusion GPs of other enveloped viruses, unusual mechanistic features of GP-mediated membrane fusion have recently been discovered for arenaviruses with important implications for viral entry.

  14. Regulation of the transferrin-independent iron transport system in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J; Jordan, I; Sturrock, A

    1991-02-15

    Mammalian cells accumulate iron via the binding of transferrin to high affinity surface receptors, or through a transferrin-independent pathway which involves the uptake of iron-organic anion chelates by a membrane-based transport system. Previously we determined that the transferrin-independent transport system was present on a wide variety of cultured cells (Sturrock, A., Alexander, J., Lamb, J., Craven, C. M., and Kaplan, J. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 3139-3145). In this communication we demonstrate that the transferrin-independent iron uptake system is regulated differently than the transferrin-mediated pathway. The activity of the transferrin-independent system was unaffected by changes in cellular growth rate, induction of DNA synthesis and cell division, or depletion of cellular iron. Exposure of cells to ferric or ferrous iron, however, resulted in a time-dependent increase in transport activity, due to a change in Vmax with no change in Km. Increased transport activity was seen in a variety of cultured cell types, occurred in the presence of cycloheximide, and persisted for hours after removal of iron. The ability of other transition metals to induce changes in transport, or to compete with iron for accumulation by the transferrin-independent uptake system, was critically dependent on the composition of the media in which the cells were incubated. Metals such as Cu2+ or Zn2+, but not Cd2+ or Mn2+, when dissolved in a balanced salt solution buffered with 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid, induced changes in the transferrin-independent iron transport system. The same metals which induced changes in transport were ineffective in media containing amino acids, ascorbate, or N-[2-hydroxy-1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl]glycine. The Vmax of the transferrin-independent iron transport system was also elevated by increases in intracellular Ca2+. The effect of iron on transport activity, however, did not result from an iron-induced release of

  15. Pseudechis australis venomics: adaptation for a defense against microbial pathogens and recruitment of body transferrin.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Dessislava; Seifert, Jana; Öhler, Michaela; von Bergen, Martin; Spencer, Patrick; Arni, Raghuvir K; Genov, Nicolay; Betzel, Christian

    2011-05-01

    The venom composition of Pseudechis australis, a widely distributed in Australia reptile, was analyzed by 2-DE and mass spectrometric analysis. In total, 102 protein spots were identified as venom toxins. The gel is dominated by horizontal trains of spots with identical or very similar molecular masses but differing in the pI values. This suggests possible post-translational modifications of toxins, changing their electrostatic charge. The results demonstrate a highly specialized biosynthesis of toxins destroying the hemostasis (P-III metalloproteases, SVMPs), antimicrobial proteins (L-amino acid oxidases, LAAOs, and transferrin-like proteins, TFLPs), and myotoxins (phospholipase A(2)s, PLA(2)s). The three transferrin isoforms of the Australian P. australis (Elapidae snake) venom are highly homologous to the body transferrin of the African Lamprophis fuliginosus (Colubridae), an indication for the recruitment of body transferrin. The venomic composition suggests an adaptation for a defense against microbial pathogens from the prey. Transferrins have not previously been reported as components of elapid or other snake venoms. Ecto-5'-nucleotidases (5'-NTDs), nerve growth factors (VNGFs), and a serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) were also identified. The venom composition and enzymatic activities explain the clinical manifestation of the king brown snakebite. The results can be used for medical, scientific, and biotechnological purposes. PMID:21417486

  16. Pseudechis australis venomics: adaptation for a defense against microbial pathogens and recruitment of body transferrin.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Dessislava; Seifert, Jana; Öhler, Michaela; von Bergen, Martin; Spencer, Patrick; Arni, Raghuvir K; Genov, Nicolay; Betzel, Christian

    2011-05-01

    The venom composition of Pseudechis australis, a widely distributed in Australia reptile, was analyzed by 2-DE and mass spectrometric analysis. In total, 102 protein spots were identified as venom toxins. The gel is dominated by horizontal trains of spots with identical or very similar molecular masses but differing in the pI values. This suggests possible post-translational modifications of toxins, changing their electrostatic charge. The results demonstrate a highly specialized biosynthesis of toxins destroying the hemostasis (P-III metalloproteases, SVMPs), antimicrobial proteins (L-amino acid oxidases, LAAOs, and transferrin-like proteins, TFLPs), and myotoxins (phospholipase A(2)s, PLA(2)s). The three transferrin isoforms of the Australian P. australis (Elapidae snake) venom are highly homologous to the body transferrin of the African Lamprophis fuliginosus (Colubridae), an indication for the recruitment of body transferrin. The venomic composition suggests an adaptation for a defense against microbial pathogens from the prey. Transferrins have not previously been reported as components of elapid or other snake venoms. Ecto-5'-nucleotidases (5'-NTDs), nerve growth factors (VNGFs), and a serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) were also identified. The venom composition and enzymatic activities explain the clinical manifestation of the king brown snakebite. The results can be used for medical, scientific, and biotechnological purposes.

  17. Radiogallium localization in tumors: blood binding and transport and the role of transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.R.; Harwig, J.F.; Siemsen, J.K.; Wolf, W.

    1980-07-01

    As a crucial step toward the understanding of the tumor localization of gallium, we have re-investigated its binding and transport in blood. The studies were performed in vivo by injection of gallium-67 citrate in rabbits, and in vitro by incubation of gallium-67 citrate with individual plasma proteins. By ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography, rabbit plasma samples showed essentially complete protein binding, whereas dialysis indicated considerable nonprotein-bound gallium, the amount depending on the dialysis medium. According to electrophoresis, total binding was inversely proportional to electrophoresis time. Affinity chromatography showed all gallium to be bound to transferrin, whereas electrophoresis caused continuous dissociation of gallium from transferrin, with the resulting unbound radioactivity appearing in various other protein bands. Similarly, the binding of gallium to transferrin in the in vitro incubation studies was inversely proportional to electrophoresis time, whereas ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography showed all gallium to be transferrin-bound. No binding of gallium to other proteins, such as albumin, was observed. This study demonstrates that gallium at the tracer level in blood is exclusively bound to and transported by transferrin, and indicates that electrophoresis and dialysis of easily dissociable metal complexes are subject to significant artifacts. Accurate determination of protein binding of radiopharmaceuticals requires a combination of analytical techniques and cautious interpretation of the results.

  18. Identification of transferrin as the principal neptunium-binding protein in the blood serum of rats.

    PubMed

    Wirth, R; Taylor, D M; Duffield, J

    1985-01-01

    The binding of 239Np(V) to blood serum components of rats was examined in vivo and in vitro. After gel filtration of the serum using a Sephacryl S-300 column, 98% of the applied activity appeared with protein fractions representing coeluted albumins and transferrin. A separation of the albumin- and transferrin-proteins by ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose showed the 239Np being entirely bound to the iron-carrier protein transferrin. The high elution yields from the ion-exchange columns, greater than 90%, suggest that the binding may be quite strong. The binding capacity of transferrin for neptunium in vivo was found to decline when the iron level in blood serum was increased. Precipitation experiments showed that 84 +/- 2% of the 239Np was precipitated with 10% (w/v) trichloracetic acid, 77 +/- 3% with 90% ethanol but only 6 +/- 1% with saturated ammonium sulphate at pH 7.4. The available data indicate that as for plutonium, thorium, americium and curium, the iron transport protein, transferrin, may be the main carrier protein for neptunium in mammalian blood serum.

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies two loci strongly affecting transferrin glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Kutalik, Zoltán; Benyamin, Beben; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Waeber, Gérard; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Beckmann, Jacques S; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Whitfield, John B

    2011-09-15

    Polysaccharide sidechains attached to proteins play important roles in cell-cell and receptor-ligand interactions. Variation in the carbohydrate component has been extensively studied for the iron transport protein transferrin, because serum levels of the transferrin isoforms asialotransferrin + disialotransferrin (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, CDT) are used as biomarkers of excessive alcohol intake. We conducted a genome-wide association study to assess whether genetic factors affect CDT concentration in serum. CDT was measured in three population-based studies: one in Switzerland (CoLaus study, n = 5181) and two in Australia (n = 1509, n = 775). The first cohort was used as the discovery panel and the latter ones served as replication. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing data were used to identify loci with significant associations with CDT as a percentage of total transferrin (CDT%). The top three SNPs in the discovery panel (rs2749097 near PGM1 on chromosome 1, and missense polymorphisms rs1049296, rs1799899 in TF on chromosome 3) were successfully replicated , yielding genome-wide significant combined association with CDT% (P = 1.9 × 10(-9), 4 × 10(-39), 5.5 × 10(-43), respectively) and explain 5.8% of the variation in CDT%. These allelic effects are postulated to be caused by variation in availability of glucose-1-phosphate as a precursor of the glycan (PGM1), and variation in transferrin (TF) structure.

  20. An unusual case of iron deficiency anemia is associated with extremely low level of transferrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuangying; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Li, Juan; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-01-01

    A case study of a female patient, diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia, was unresponsive to oral iron treatment and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy, a clinical profile resembling the iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) disorder. However, the patient failed to exhibit microcytic phenotype, one of the IRIDA hallmarks. Biochemical assays revealed that serum iron, hepcidin, interluekin 6, and transferrin saturation were within the normal range of references or were comparable to her non-anemic offspring. Iron contents in serum and red blood cells and hemoglobin levels were measured, which confirmed the partial improvement of anemia after parenteral iron therapy. Strikingly, serum transferrin receptor in patient was almost undetectable, reflecting the very low activity of bone-marrow erythropoiesis. Our data demonstrate that this is not a case of systemic iron deficiency, but rather cellular iron deficit due to the low level of transferrin receptor, particularly in erythroid tissue. PMID:26339443

  1. An unusual case of iron deficiency anemia is associated with extremely low level of transferrin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuangying; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Li, Juan; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-01-01

    A case study of a female patient, diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia, was unresponsive to oral iron treatment and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy, a clinical profile resembling the iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) disorder. However, the patient failed to exhibit microcytic phenotype, one of the IRIDA hallmarks. Biochemical assays revealed that serum iron, hepcidin, interluekin 6, and transferrin saturation were within the normal range of references or were comparable to her non-anemic offspring. Iron contents in serum and red blood cells and hemoglobin levels were measured, which confirmed the partial improvement of anemia after parenteral iron therapy. Strikingly, serum transferrin receptor in patient was almost undetectable, reflecting the very low activity of bone-marrow erythropoiesis. Our data demonstrate that this is not a case of systemic iron deficiency, but rather cellular iron deficit due to the low level of transferrin receptor, particularly in erythroid tissue.

  2. Rapid Lymphatic Dissemination of Encapsulated Group A Streptococci via Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Receptor-1 Interaction.

    PubMed

    Lynskey, Nicola N; Banerji, Suneale; Johnson, Louise A; Holder, Kayla A; Reglinski, Mark; Wing, Peter A C; Rigby, David; Jackson, David G; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2015-09-01

    The host lymphatic network represents an important conduit for pathogen dissemination. Indeed, the lethal human pathogen group A streptococcus has a predilection to induce pathology in the lymphatic system and draining lymph nodes, however the underlying basis and subsequent consequences for disease outcome are currently unknown. Here we report that the hyaluronan capsule of group A streptococci is a crucial virulence determinant for lymphatic tropism in vivo, and further, we identify the lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 as the critical host receptor for capsular hyaluronan in the lymphatic system. Interference with this interaction in vivo impeded bacterial dissemination to local draining lymph nodes and, in the case of a hyper-encapsulated M18 strain, redirected streptococcal entry into the blood circulation, suggesting a pivotal role in the manifestation of streptococcal infections. Our results reveal a novel function for bacterial capsular polysaccharide in directing lymphatic tropism, with potential implications for disease pathology.

  3. Rapid Lymphatic Dissemination of Encapsulated Group A Streptococci via Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Receptor-1 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Louise A.; Holder, Kayla A.; Reglinski, Mark; Wing, Peter A. C.; Rigby, David; Jackson, David G.; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2015-01-01

    The host lymphatic network represents an important conduit for pathogen dissemination. Indeed, the lethal human pathogen group A streptococcus has a predilection to induce pathology in the lymphatic system and draining lymph nodes, however the underlying basis and subsequent consequences for disease outcome are currently unknown. Here we report that the hyaluronan capsule of group A streptococci is a crucial virulence determinant for lymphatic tropism in vivo, and further, we identify the lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1 as the critical host receptor for capsular hyaluronan in the lymphatic system. Interference with this interaction in vivo impeded bacterial dissemination to local draining lymph nodes and, in the case of a hyper-encapsulated M18 strain, redirected streptococcal entry into the blood circulation, suggesting a pivotal role in the manifestation of streptococcal infections. Our results reveal a novel function for bacterial capsular polysaccharide in directing lymphatic tropism, with potential implications for disease pathology. PMID:26352587

  4. Transferrin patterns in the Eastern India in normal and malignant cases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1977-12-01

    A series of 200 normal serum samples obtained from healthy blood donors belonging to different religious communities and casters were examined for transferrin phenotypes by vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Of these, 196 showed the common CC phenotype, while 4 showed CD phenotype, without any correlation with the caste or community. In another study involving 102 cases of malignancy, no relationship was observed between th transferrin phenotype and the type of malignancy, except in the case of Hodgkin's disease, which showed B2C phenotype.

  5. Transferrin binding and iron uptake by mouse lymph node cells during transformation in response to concanavalin A.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, J H; Rankin, M C

    1981-01-01

    Mouse lymph node cells cultured with Concanavalin A (Con A) in serum-free medium containing 59Fe-transferrin took up 59Fe more rapidly than cells cultured without Con-A. Uptake of iron commenced rapidly and preceded the onset of DNA synthesis in stimulated cells. Total uptake of transferrin during culture was much lower than that of iron, indicating that cells could remove iron from transferrin. The released transferrin appeared to be undergraded. Lymphoblasts bound six times more transferrin per cell than small lymphocytes. Lymphocytes also took up iron from citrate and nitrilotriacetate complexes, and iron so acquired was not readily removed by desferrioxamine, indicating that it was not bound extracellularly. PMID:7251060

  6. Characterization of iron uptake from transferrin by murine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, R; Savigni, D L; Morgan, E H; Baker, E

    2000-01-01

    Iron is required by the brain for normal function, however, the mechanisms by which it crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are poorly understood. The uptake and efflux of transferrin (Tf) and Fe by murine brain-derived (bEND3) and lymph node-derived (m1END1) endothelial cell lines was compared. The effects of iron chelators, metabolic inhibitors and the cellular activators, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), on Tf and Fe uptake were investigated. Cells were incubated with 59Fe-125I-Tf; Fe uptake was shown to increase linearly over time for both cell lines, while Tf uptake reached a plateau within 2 h. Both Tf and Fe uptake were saturable. bEND3 cells were shown to have half as many Tf receptors as m1END1 cells, but the mean cycling times of a Tf molecule were the same. Tf and Fe efflux from the cells were measured over time, revealing that after 2 h only 25% of the Tf but 80% of the Fe remained associated with the cells. Of 7 iron chelators, only deferriprone (L1) markedly decreased Tf uptake. However, Fe uptake was reduced by more than 50% by L1, pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) and desferrithiocin (DFT). The cellular activators TNF-alpha or LPS had little effect on Tf turnover, but they accelerated Fe uptake in both endothelial cell types. Phenylarsenoxide (PhAsO) and N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), inhibitors of Tf endocytosis, reduced both Tf and Fe uptake in both cell lines, while bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, reduced Fe uptake but did not affect Tf uptake. The results suggest that Tf and Fe uptake by both bEND3 and m1END1 is via receptor-mediated endocytosis with release of Fe from Tf within the cell and recycling of apo-Tf. On the basis of Tf- and Fe-metabolism both cell lines are similar and therefore well suited for use in in vitro models for Fe transport across the BBB.

  7. Characterization of iron uptake from transferrin by murine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, R; Savigni, D L; Morgan, E H; Baker, E

    2000-01-01

    Iron is required by the brain for normal function, however, the mechanisms by which it crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are poorly understood. The uptake and efflux of transferrin (Tf) and Fe by murine brain-derived (bEND3) and lymph node-derived (m1END1) endothelial cell lines was compared. The effects of iron chelators, metabolic inhibitors and the cellular activators, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), on Tf and Fe uptake were investigated. Cells were incubated with 59Fe-125I-Tf; Fe uptake was shown to increase linearly over time for both cell lines, while Tf uptake reached a plateau within 2 h. Both Tf and Fe uptake were saturable. bEND3 cells were shown to have half as many Tf receptors as m1END1 cells, but the mean cycling times of a Tf molecule were the same. Tf and Fe efflux from the cells were measured over time, revealing that after 2 h only 25% of the Tf but 80% of the Fe remained associated with the cells. Of 7 iron chelators, only deferriprone (L1) markedly decreased Tf uptake. However, Fe uptake was reduced by more than 50% by L1, pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) and desferrithiocin (DFT). The cellular activators TNF-alpha or LPS had little effect on Tf turnover, but they accelerated Fe uptake in both endothelial cell types. Phenylarsenoxide (PhAsO) and N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), inhibitors of Tf endocytosis, reduced both Tf and Fe uptake in both cell lines, while bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, reduced Fe uptake but did not affect Tf uptake. The results suggest that Tf and Fe uptake by both bEND3 and m1END1 is via receptor-mediated endocytosis with release of Fe from Tf within the cell and recycling of apo-Tf. On the basis of Tf- and Fe-metabolism both cell lines are similar and therefore well suited for use in in vitro models for Fe transport across the BBB. PMID:10865941

  8. Cannabinoid receptor 1 is a major mediator of renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lecru, Lola; Desterke, Christophe; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Devocelle, Aurore; Vernochet, Amelia; Ivanovski, Ninoslav; Ledent, Catherine; Ferlicot, Sophie; Dalia, Meriem; Saïd, Myriam; Beaudreuil, Séverine; Charpentier, Bernard; Vazquez, Aimé; Giron-Michel, Julien; Azzarone, Bruno; Durrbach, Antoine; François, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease, secondary to renal fibrogenesis, is a burden on public health. There is a need to explore new therapeutic pathways to reduce renal fibrogenesis. To study this, we used unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice as an experimental model of renal fibrosis and microarray analysis to compare gene expression in fibrotic and normal kidneys. The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) was among the most upregulated genes in mice, and the main endogenous CB1 ligand (2-arachidonoylglycerol) was significantly increased in the fibrotic kidney. Interestingly, CB1 expression was highly increased in kidney biopsies of patients with IgA nephropathy, diabetes, and acute interstitial nephritis. Both genetic and pharmacological knockout of CB1 induced a profound reduction in renal fibrosis during UUO. While CB2 is also involved in renal fibrogenesis, it did not potentiate the role of CB1. CB1 expression was significantly increased in myofibroblasts, the main effector cells in renal fibrogenesis, upon TGF-β1 stimulation. The decrease in renal fibrosis during CB1 blockade could be explained by a direct action on myofibroblasts. CB1 blockade reduced collagen expression in vitro. Rimonabant, a selective CB1 endocannabinoid receptor antagonist, modulated the macrophage infiltrate responsible for renal fibrosis in UUO through a decrease in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 synthesis. Thus, CB1 has a major role in the activation of myofibroblasts and may be a new target for treating chronic kidney disease.

  9. Altered pupillary light reflex in PACAP receptor 1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Engelund, Anna; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Harrison, Adrian; Luuk, Hendrik; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-05-01

    The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is regulated by the classical photoreceptors, rods and cones, and by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin. IpRGCs receive input from rods and cones and project to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), which is the primary visual center involved in PLR. Mice lacking either the classical photoreceptors or melanopsin exhibit some changes in PLR, whereas the reflex is completely lost in mice deficient of all three photoreceptors. The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is co-stored with melanopsin in ipRGCs and mediates light signaling to the brain via the specific PACAP receptor 1 (PAC1R). Here, we examined the occurrence of PACAP and PAC1R in the mouse OPN, and studied if lack of PAC1R affected the PLR. PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were shown in the mouse OPN, and by in situ hybridization histochemistry, we demonstrated the presence of PAC1R mRNA. Mice lacking PAC1R exhibited a significantly attenuated PLR compared to wild type mice upon light stimulation, and the difference became more pronounced as light intensity was increased. Our findings accord well with observations of the PLR in the melanopsin-deficient mouse. We conclude that PACAP/PAC1R signaling is involved in the sustained phase of the PLR at high irradiances.

  10. Conformational thermostabilisation of corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Kean, James; Bortolato, Andrea; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Marshall, Fiona H; Jazayeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Recent technical advances have greatly facilitated G-protein coupled receptors crystallography as evidenced by the number of successful x-ray structures that have been reported recently. These technical advances include novel detergents, specialised crystallography techniques as well as protein engineering solutions such as fusions and conformational thermostabilisation. Using conformational thermostabilisation, it is possible to generate variants of GPCRs that exhibit significantly increased stability in detergent micelles whilst preferentially occupying a single conformation. In this paper we describe for the first time the application of this technique to a member of a class B GPCR, the corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1R). Mutational screening in the presence of the inverse agonist, CP-376395, resulted in the identification of a construct with twelve point mutations that exhibited significantly increased thermal stability in a range of detergents. We further describe the subsequent construct engineering steps that eventually yielded a crystallisation-ready construct which recently led to the solution of the first x-ray structure of a class B receptor. Finally, we have used molecular dynamic simulation to provide structural insight into CRF1R instability as well as the stabilising effects of the mutants, which may be extended to other class B receptors considering the high degree of structural conservation. PMID:26159865

  11. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Promotes the Endocytosis of Transferrin in the African Trypanosome.

    PubMed

    Guyett, Paul J; Xia, Shuangluo; Swinney, David C; Pollastri, Michael P; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo

    2016-07-01

    Human parasite Trypanosoma brucei proliferates in the blood of its host, where it takes up iron via receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin (Tf). Mechanisms of Tf endocytosis in the trypanosome are not fully understood. Small molecule lapatinib inhibits Tf endocytosis in T. brucei and associates with protein kinase GSK3β (TbGSK3β). Therefore, we hypothesized that Tf endocytosis may be regulated by TbGSK3β, and we used three approaches (both genetic and small molecule) to test this possibility. First, the RNAi knock-down of TbGSK3β reduced Tf endocytosis selectively, without affecting the uptake of haptaglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). Second, the overexpression of TbGSK3β increased the Tf uptake. Third, small-molecule inhibitors of TbGSK3β, TWS119 (IC50 = 600 nM), and GW8510 (IC50 = 8 nM) reduced Tf endocytosis. Furthermore, TWS119, but not GW8510, selectively blocked Tf uptake. Thus, TWS119 phenocopies the selective endocytosis effects of a TbGSK3β knockdown. Two new inhibitors of TbGSK3β, LY2784544 (IC50 = 0.6 μM) and sorafenib (IC50 = 1.7 μM), were discovered in a focused screen: at low micromolar concentrations, they prevented Tf endocytosis as well as trypanosome proliferation (GI50's were 1.0 and 3.1 μM, respectively). These studies show that (a) TbGSK3β regulates Tf endocytosis, (b) TWS119 is a small-molecule tool for investigating the endocytosis of Tf, PMID:27626104

  12. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α Controls Iron Metabolism and Regulates Transferrin Receptor 2 in Mouse Liver*

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Masayuki; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mizui, Yumiko; Sasaki, Shota; Fujimura, Takafumi; Takizawa, Masayuki; Ariga, Nagayuki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Inoue, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential element in biological systems, but excess iron promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in cellular toxicity. Several iron-related genes are highly expressed in the liver, a tissue in which hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) plays a critical role in controlling gene expression. Therefore, the role of hepatic HNF4α in iron homeostasis was examined using liver-specific HNF4α-null mice (Hnf4aΔH mice). Hnf4aΔH mice exhibit hypoferremia and a significant change in hepatic gene expression. Notably, the expression of transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) mRNA was markedly decreased in Hnf4aΔH mice. Promoter analysis of the Tfr2 gene showed that the basal promoter was located at a GC-rich region upstream of the transcription start site, a region that can be transactivated in an HNF4α-independent manner. HNF4α-dependent expression of Tfr2 was mediated by a proximal promoter containing two HNF4α-binding sites located between the transcription start site and the translation start site. Both the GC-rich region of the basal promoter and the HNF4α-binding sites were required for maximal transactivation. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of HNF4α suppressed TFR2 expression in human HCC cells. These results suggest that Tfr2 is a novel target gene for HNF4α, and hepatic HNF4α plays a critical role in iron homeostasis. PMID:26527688

  13. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α Controls Iron Metabolism and Regulates Transferrin Receptor 2 in Mouse Liver.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Masayuki; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Mizui, Yumiko; Sasaki, Shota; Fujimura, Takafumi; Takizawa, Masayuki; Ariga, Nagayuki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Gonzalez, Frank J; Inoue, Yusuke

    2015-12-25

    Iron is an essential element in biological systems, but excess iron promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in cellular toxicity. Several iron-related genes are highly expressed in the liver, a tissue in which hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) plays a critical role in controlling gene expression. Therefore, the role of hepatic HNF4α in iron homeostasis was examined using liver-specific HNF4α-null mice (Hnf4a(ΔH) mice). Hnf4a(ΔH) mice exhibit hypoferremia and a significant change in hepatic gene expression. Notably, the expression of transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) mRNA was markedly decreased in Hnf4a(ΔH) mice. Promoter analysis of the Tfr2 gene showed that the basal promoter was located at a GC-rich region upstream of the transcription start site, a region that can be transactivated in an HNF4α-independent manner. HNF4α-dependent expression of Tfr2 was mediated by a proximal promoter containing two HNF4α-binding sites located between the transcription start site and the translation start site. Both the GC-rich region of the basal promoter and the HNF4α-binding sites were required for maximal transactivation. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of HNF4α suppressed TFR2 expression in human HCC cells. These results suggest that Tfr2 is a novel target gene for HNF4α, and hepatic HNF4α plays a critical role in iron homeostasis.

  14. Corneal avascularity is due to soluble VEGF receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Balamurali K; Nozaki, Miho; Singh, Nirbhai; Takeda, Atsunobu; Jani, Pooja D; Suthar, Tushar; Albuquerque, Romulo J C; Richter, Elizabeth; Sakurai, Eiji; Newcomb, Michael T; Kleinman, Mark E; Caldwell, Ruth B; Lin, Qing; Ogura, Yuichiro; Orecchia, Angela; Samuelson, Don A; Agnew, Dalen W; St Leger, Judy; Green, W Richard; Mahasreshti, Parameshwar J; Curiel, David T; Kwan, Donna; Marsh, Helene; Ikeda, Sakae; Leiper, Lucy J; Collinson, J Martin; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Khurana, Tejvir S; Shibuya, Masabumi; Baldwin, Megan E; Ferrara, Napoleone; Gerber, Hans-Peter; De Falco, Sandro; Witta, Jassir; Baffi, Judit Z; Raisler, Brian J; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2006-10-26

    Corneal avascularity-the absence of blood vessels in the cornea-is required for optical clarity and optimal vision, and has led to the cornea being widely used for validating pro- and anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies for many disorders. But the molecular underpinnings of the avascular phenotype have until now remained obscure and are all the more remarkable given the presence in the cornea of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a potent stimulator of angiogenesis, and the proximity of the cornea to vascularized tissues. Here we show that the cornea expresses soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1; also known as sflt-1) and that suppression of this endogenous VEGF-A trap by neutralizing antibodies, RNA interference or Cre-lox-mediated gene disruption abolishes corneal avascularity in mice. The spontaneously vascularized corneas of corn1 and Pax6+/- mice and Pax6+/- patients with aniridia are deficient in sflt-1, and recombinant sflt-1 administration restores corneal avascularity in corn1 and Pax6+/- mice. Manatees, the only known creatures uniformly to have vascularized corneas, do not express sflt-1, whereas the avascular corneas of dugongs, also members of the order Sirenia, elephants, the closest extant terrestrial phylogenetic relatives of manatees, and other marine mammals (dolphins and whales) contain sflt-1, indicating that it has a crucial, evolutionarily conserved role. The recognition that sflt-1 is essential for preserving the avascular ambit of the cornea can rationally guide its use as a platform for angiogenic modulators, supports its use in treating neovascular diseases, and might provide insight into the immunological privilege of the cornea.

  15. Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 in the CNS of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lam, C S; Rastegar, S; Strähle, U

    2006-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cb1) mediates the psychoactive effect of marijuana. In mammals, there is abundant evidence advocating the importance of cannabinoid signaling; activation of Cb1 exerts diverse functions, chiefly by its ability to modulate neurotransmission. Thus, much attention has been devoted to understand its role in health and disease and to evaluate its therapeutic potential. Here, we have cloned zebrafish cb1 and investigated its expression in developing and adult zebrafish brain. Sequence analysis showed that there is a high degree of conservation, especially in residues demonstrated to be critical for function in mammals. In situ hybridization revealed that zebrafish cb1 appears first in the preoptic area at 24 hours post-fertilization. Subsequently, transcripts are detected in the dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus, pretectum and torus longitudinalis. A similar pattern of expression is recapitulated in the adult brain. While cb1 is intensively stained in the medial zone of the dorsal telencephalon, expression elsewhere is weak by comparison. In particular, localization of cb1 in the telencephalic periventricular matrix is suggestive of the involvement of Cb1 in neurogenesis, bearing strong resemblance in terms of expression and function to the proliferative mammalian hippocampal formation. In addition, a gradient-like expression of cb1 is detected in the torus longitudinalis, a teleost specific neural tissue. In relation to dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalic posterior tuberculum (considered to be the teleostean homologue of the mammalian midbrain dopaminergic system), both cb1 and tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing cells occupy non-overlapping domains. However there is evidence that they are co-localized in the caudal zone of the hypothalamus, implying a direct modulation of dopamine release in this particular region. Collectively, our data indicate the propensity of zebrafish cb1 to participate in multiple neurological processes.

  16. Cannabinoid receptor 1-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Winters, Bradley D; Krüger, Juliane M; Huang, Xiaojie; Gallaher, Zachary R; Ishikawa, Masago; Czaja, Krzysztof; Krueger, James M; Huang, Yanhua H; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan

    2012-10-01

    Endocannabinoid signaling critically regulates emotional and motivational states via activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in the brain. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) functions to gate emotional and motivational responses. Although expression of CB1 in the NAc is low, manipulation of CB1 signaling within the NAc triggers robust emotional/motivational alterations related to drug addiction and other psychiatric disorders, and these effects cannot be exclusively attributed to CB1 located at afferents to the NAc. Rather, CB1-expressing neurons in the NAc, although sparse, appear to be critical for emotional and motivational responses. However, the cellular properties of these neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we generated a knock-in mouse line in which CB1-expressing neurons expressed the fluorescent protein td-Tomato (tdT). Using these mice, we demonstrated that tdT-positive neurons within the NAc were exclusively fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs). These FSIs were electrically coupled with each other, and thus may help synchronize populations/ensembles of NAc neurons. CB1-expressing FSIs also form GABAergic synapses on adjacent medium spiny neurons (MSNs), providing feed-forward inhibition of NAc output. Furthermore, the membrane excitability of tdT-positive FSIs in the NAc was up-regulated after withdrawal from cocaine exposure, an effect that might increase FSI-to-MSN inhibition. Taken together with our previous findings that the membrane excitability of NAc MSNs is decreased during cocaine withdrawal, the present findings suggest that the basal functional output of the NAc is inhibited during cocaine withdrawal by multiple mechanisms. As such, CB1-expressing FSIs are targeted by cocaine exposure to influence the overall functional output of the NAc. PMID:23012412

  17. Delivery of Transferrin-Conjugated Polysaccharide Nanoparticles in 9L Gliosacoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Young-Wook; Jung, Shin; Pei, Jian; Wen, Min; Li, Song-Yuan; Ryu, Hyang-Hwa; Lim, Jung Cheol; Jang, Woo-Youl; Kim, In-Young; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Jung, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of drug targeting via the transferrin receptor-mediated pathway, iron-saturated transferrin was conjugated with chitosan (Tr-chitosan) and complexed with doxorubicin-conjugated methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-dextran succinate (DEX-DOX). DEX-DOX nanoparticles have spherical morphologies with less than 150 nm particle sizes. When Tr-chitosan was complexed with DEX-DOX nanoparticles (TR nanoparticle), particle sizes were increased to higher than 200 nm. Viability of 9L cells with treatment of doxorubicin (DOX) or DEX-DOX nanoparticle was dose-dependently decreased regardless of transferrin receptor blocking. However, cytotoxicity of TR nanoparticles was reduced by blocking of transferrin receptor. Flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopic observation showed that fluorescence intensity of tumor cells with treatment of TR nanoparticles was significantly decreased by blocking of transferring receptor while DEX-DOX nanoparticles were not affected by blocking of transferring receptor. These results indicated that TR nanoparticles are promising candidates for brain tumor drug delivery. PMID:26328315

  18. Cationic lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles associated with transferrin for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaogang; Guan, Jingjiao; Yoo, Jung-Woo; Epstein, Arthur J.; Lee, L. James; Lee, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Cationic lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MPs) associated with transferrin were evaluated as gene transfer vectors in the presence of a static magnetic field. MPs were prepared by chemical precipitation and were surface-coated with cationic lipids, composed of DDAB/soy PC (60:40 mole/mole). These cationic MPs were then combined with polyethylenimine (PEI) condensed plasmid DNA, followed by transferrin. The resulting magnetic electrostatic complexes retained relatively compact particle size and showed complete DNA condensation. Their transfection activity in the presence of a static magnetic field was evaluated by luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes. The magnetic complexes exhibited up to 300-fold higher transfection activity compared to commonly used cationic liposomes or cationic polymer complexes, based on luciferase assay. The enhancement in transfection activity was maximized when the cells were exposed to the vectors for a relatively short period of time (15 min), or were treated in media containing 10% serum. Incorporation of transferrin further improved transfection efficiency of the cationic MPs. However, when cells were incubated for 4 h in serum-free media, magnetic and non-magnetic vectors showed similar transfection efficiencies. In conclusion, transferrin-associated cationic MPs are excellent gene transfer vectors that can mediate very rapid and efficient gene transfer in vitro in the presence of a magnetic field. PMID:18384982

  19. High-affinity binding by the periplasmic iron-binding protein from Haemophilus influenzae is required for acquiring iron from transferrin

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ali G.; Shouldice, Stephen R.; Kirby, Shane D.; Yu, Rong-hua; Tari, Leslie W.; Schryvers, Anthony B.

    2007-01-01

    The periplasmic iron-binding protein, FbpA (ferric-ion-binding protein A), performs an essential role in iron acquisition from transferrin in Haemophilus influenzae. A series of site-directed mutants in the metal-binding amino acids of FbpA were prepared to determine their relative contribution to iron binding and transport. Structural studies demonstrated that the mutant proteins crystallized in an open conformation with the iron atom associated with the C-terminal domain. The iron-binding properties of the mutant proteins were assessed by several assays, including a novel competitive iron-binding assay. The relative ability of the proteins to compete for iron was pH dependent, with a rank order at pH 6.5 of wild-type, Q58L, H9Q>H9A, E57A>Y195A, Y196A. The genes encoding the mutant FbpA were introduced into H. influenzae and the resulting strains varied in the level of ferric citrate required to support growth on iron-limited medium, suggesting a rank order for metal-binding affinities under physiological conditions comparable with the competitive binding assay at pH 6.5 (wild-type=Q58L>H9Q>H9A, E57A>Y195A, Y196A). Growth dependence on human transferrin was only obtained with cells expressing wild-type, Q58L or H9Q FbpAs, proteins with stability constants derived from the competition assay >2.0×1018 M−1. These results suggest that a relatively high affinity of iron binding by FbpA is required for removal of iron from transferrin and its transport across the outer membrane. PMID:17313366

  20. Incretin-like effects of small molecule trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Susanne; Wang, Haiyan; Uhles, Sabine; Cole, Nadine; Alvarez-Sanchez, Ruben; Künnecke, Basil; Ullmer, Christoph; Matile, Hugues; Bedoucha, Marc; Norcross, Roger D.; Ottaway-Parker, Nickki; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Conde Knape, Karin; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Hoener, Marius C.; Sewing, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes and obesity are emerging pandemics in the 21st century creating worldwide urgency for the development of novel and safe therapies. We investigated trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) as a novel target contributing to the control of glucose homeostasis and body weight. Methods We investigated the peripheral human tissue distribution of TAAR1 by immunohistochemistry and tested the effect of a small molecule TAAR1 agonist on insulin secretion in vitro using INS1E cells and human islets and on glucose tolerance in C57Bl6, and db/db mice. Body weight effects were investigated in obese DIO mice. Results TAAR1 activation by a selective small molecule agonist increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion in INS1E cells and human islets and elevated plasma PYY and GLP-1 levels in mice. In diabetic db/db mice, the TAAR1 agonist normalized glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test. Sub-chronic treatment of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with the TAAR1 agonist resulted in reduced food intake and body weight. Furthermore insulin sensitivity was improved and plasma triglyceride levels and liver triglyceride content were lower than in controls. Conclusions We have identified TAAR1 as a novel integrator of metabolic control, which acts on gastrointestinal and pancreatic islet hormone secretion. Thus TAAR1 qualifies as a novel and promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:26844206

  1. Binding of Chromium(III) to Transferrin Could Be Involved in Detoxification of Dietary Chromium(III) Rather than Transport of an Essential Trace Element.

    PubMed

    Levina, Aviva; Pham, T H Nguyen; Lay, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    Cr(III) binding to transferrin (Tf; the main Fe(III) transport protein) has been postulated to mediate cellular uptake of Cr(III) to facilitate a purported essential role for this element. Experiments using HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells, which were chosen because of high levels of the transferrin receptor, showed that Cr(III) binding to vacant Fe(III) -binding sites of human Tf effectively blocks cellular Cr(III) uptake. Through bio-layer interferometry studies of the Tf cycle, it was found that both exclusion and efflux of Cr2 (III) Tf from cells was caused by 1) relatively low Cr2 Tf affinity to cell-surface Tf receptors compared to Fe2 Tf, and 2) disruption of metal release under endosomal conditions and post-endosomal Tf dissociation from the receptor. These data support mounting evidence that Cr(III) is not essential and that Tf binding is likely to be a natural protective mechanism against the toxicity and potential genotoxicity of dietary Cr through blocking Cr(III) cellular accumulation. PMID:27197571

  2. The effect of iron binding on the conformation of transferrin. A small angle x-ray scattering study.

    PubMed Central

    Kilár, F; Simon, I

    1985-01-01

    Distance distribution functions, p(r), radii of gyration, Rg, and radii of gyration of cross section, Rq, of apotransferrin, monoferric transferrin, and diferric transferrin have been compared. The alteration of Rg and Rq upon iron binding has been determined by a difference method. An unusual feature of the stepwise structural changes of transferrin upon iron saturation is that binding of the first ferric ion is responsible for more than half of the whole change in Rq, whereas Rg alters significantly only after the binding of the second ferric ion. PMID:4074838

  3. METAL-TYROSYL COORDINATION IN TRANSFERRIN. 2. DIFFERENCE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF DI-, TRI-, AND TETRAVALENT METAL IONS WITH ETHYLENE-BIS(0-DYDROXYPHENYLGLY-CINE).

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoraro, Vincent L.; Harris, Wesley R.; Carrano, Carl J.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1980-08-01

    In order to probe the metal ion coordination site in the human iron transport protein, transferrin, the complexation of a series of metal ions by the chelate analogue ethylene-bis(o-hydroxyphenylglycine) (EHPG) has been studied by difference uv spectroscopy, in which {Delta}{epsilon} values per coordinated phenol have been determined for the metal complex versus the protonated form of the ligand. With the exception of the.Cu {sup 2+} complex, maxima are observed at 242 nm and 290 nm with a minimum at 269 nm. The {Delta}{epsilon} values at 242 fall into two groups. Complexes of divalent metal ions (Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}) have 6£ values ranging from 5000 to 6600 M{sup -1} cm{sup -1} whereas larger {Delta}{epsilon} values are observed for complexes of tri- and tetra- valent metal ions (Th{sup 4+}, Ga{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, • Ho{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 2+}, VO{sup 2+}), 7400 - 8700 M{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. It is known that the transferrin binding sites contain tyrosyl residues, but there has been considerable debate concerning the precise number of tyrosine groups which bind to specific metal ions. Since it has been the common practice to assume the {Delta}{epsilon} values for coordination by all metal ions are identical, the larger range of {Delta}{epsilon} values actually observed here shows that such an assumption can actually lead to an erroneous tyrosine/metal site ratio. The difference spectra of transferrin and EHPG complexes are very similar, and we have taken the {Delta}{epsilon} values of the EHPG complexes as estimates for the intrinsic {Delta}{epsilon} for coordination of a single tyrosine ligand. The number of tyrosines bound per metal ion is then calculated based on previously reported total {Delta}{epsilon} values of several di(metallo)transferrin complexes. The results show that two tyrosines are coordinated per metal ion for all the transition metals and the smaller lanthanides. Very large metal ions have difficulty fitting

  4. Protease Activated Receptor-1 Deficiency Diminishes Bleomycin-Induced Skin Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Duitman, JanWillem; Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta R; Shi, Kun; de Boer, Onno J; Borensztajn, Keren S; Florquin, Sandrine; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Spek, C Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) plays an important role in the development of fibrosis, including lung fibrosis. However, whether PAR-1 also plays a role in the development of skin fibrosis remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PAR-1 in the development of skin fibrosis. To explore possible mechanisms by which PAR-1 could play a role, human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were stimulated with specific PAR-1 agonists or antagonists. To investigate the role of PAR-1 in skin fibrosis, we subjected wild-type and PAR-1-deficient mice to a model of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. PAR-1 activation leads to increased proliferation and extra cellular matrix (ECM) production, but not migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) in vitro. Moreover, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β production was increased in keratinocytes upon PAR-1 activation, but not in HDF. The loss of PAR-1 in vivo significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. The bleomycin-induced increase in dermal thickness and ECM production was reduced significantly in PAR-1-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, TGF-β expression and the number of proliferating fibroblasts were reduced in PAR-1-deficient mice although the difference did not reach statistical significance. This study demonstrates that PAR-1 contributes to the development of skin fibrosis and we suggest that PAR-1 potentiates the fibrotic response mainly by inducing fibroblast proliferation and ECM production. PMID:24842054

  5. Oxytocin receptor and vasopressin receptor 1a genes are respectively associated with emotional and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Uzefovsky, F; Shalev, I; Israel, S; Edelman, S; Raz, Y; Mankuta, D; Knafo-Noam, A; Ebstein, R P

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is the ability to recognize and share in the emotions of others. It can be considered a multifaceted concept with cognitive and emotional aspects. Little is known regarding the underlying neurochemistry of empathy and in the current study we used a neurogenetic approach to explore possible brain neurotransmitter pathways contributing to cognitive and emotional empathy. Both the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) genes contribute to social cognition in both animals and humans and hence are prominent candidates for contributing to empathy. The following research examined the associations between polymorphisms in these two genes and individual differences in emotional and cognitive empathy in a sample of 367 young adults. Intriguingly, we found that emotional empathy was associated solely with OXTR, whereas cognitive empathy was associated solely with AVPR1a. Moreover, no interaction was observed between the two genes and measures of empathy. The current findings contribute to our understanding of the distinct neurogenetic pathways involved in cognitive and emotional empathy and underscore the pervasive role of both oxytocin and vasopressin in modulating human emotions.

  6. Malaria inhibits surface expression of complement receptor-1 in monocyte/macrophages causing decreased immunecomplex internalization

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Arias, Cristina; Lopez, Jean Pierre; Hernandez-Perez, Jean Nikolae; Bautista-Ojeda, Maria Dolores; Branch, OraLee; Rodriguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) expressed on the surface of phagocytic cells binds complement-bound IC playing an important role in the clearance of circulating immunecomplexes (IC). This receptor is critical to prevent accumulation of IC, which can contribute to inflammatory pathology. Accumulation of circulating IC is frequently observed during malaria, although the factors contributing to this accumulation are not clearly understood. We have observed that the surface expression of CR1 on monocyte/macrophages and B cells is strongly reduced in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii, a rodent malaria model. Monocyte/macrophages from these infected mice present a specific inhibition of complement-mediated internalization of IC caused by the decreased CR1 expression. Accordingly, mice show accumulation of circulating IC and deposition of IC in the kidneys that inversely correlates with the decrease in CR1 surface expression. Our results indicate that malaria induces a significant decrease on surface CR1 expression in the monocyte/macrophage population that results in deficient internalization of IC by monocyte/macrophages. To determine whether this phenomenon is found in human malaria patients, we have analyzed 92 patients infected with either P. falciparum (22) or P. vivax (70), the most prevalent human malaria parasites. The levels of surface CR1 on peripheral monocyte/macrophages and B cells of these patients show a significant decrease compared to uninfected control individuals in the same area. We propose that this decrease in CR1 plays an essential role in impaired IC clearance during malaria. PMID:23440418

  7. Increased hepcidin in transferrin-treated thalassemic mice correlates with increased liver BMP2 expression and decreased hepatocyte ERK activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huiyong; Choesang, Tenzin; Li, Huihui; Sun, Shuming; Pham, Petra; Bao, Weili; Feola, Maria; Westerman, Mark; Li, Guiyuan; Follenzi, Antonia; Blanc, Lionel; Rivella, Stefano; Fleming, Robert E.; Ginzburg, Yelena Z.

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload results in significant morbidity and mortality in β-thalassemic patients. Insufficient hepcidin is implicated in parenchymal iron overload in β-thalassemia and approaches to increase hepcidin have therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that exogenous apo-transferrin markedly ameliorates ineffective erythropoiesis and increases hepcidin expression in Hbbth1/th1 (thalassemic) mice. We utilize in vivo and in vitro systems to investigate effects of exogenous apo-transferrin on Smad and ERK1/2 signaling, pathways that participate in hepcidin regulation. Our results demonstrate that apo-transferrin increases hepcidin expression in vivo despite decreased circulating and parenchymal iron concentrations and unchanged liver Bmp6 mRNA expression in thalassemic mice. Hepatocytes from apo-transferrin-treated mice demonstrate decreased ERK1/2 pathway and increased serum BMP2 concentration and hepatocyte BMP2 expression. Furthermore, hepatocyte ERK1/2 phosphorylation is enhanced by neutralizing anti-BMP2/4 antibodies and suppressed in vitro in a dose-dependent manner by BMP2, resulting in converse effects on hepcidin expression, and hepatocytes treated with MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 in combination with BMP2 exhibit an additive increase in hepcidin expression. Lastly, bone marrow erythroferrone expression is normalized in apo-transferrin treated thalassemic mice but increased in apo-transferrin injected wild-type mice. These findings suggest that increased hepcidin expression after exogenous apo-transferrin is in part independent of erythroferrone and support a model in which apo-transferrin treatment in thalassemic mice increases BMP2 expression in the liver and other organs, decreases hepatocellular ERK1/2 activation, and increases nuclear Smad to increase hepcidin expression in hepatocytes. PMID:26635037

  8. Transferrin receptor expression in rat liver: immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis of the effect of age and iron storage.

    PubMed

    Sciot, R; Verhoeven, G; Van Eyken, P; Cailleau, J; Desmet, V J

    1990-03-01

    Hepatic transferrin receptors were studied in normal male rats at 1 to 59 wk after weaning, using immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. The number of transferrin receptors measured and the intensity of the staining in situ decreased rapidly during the first 10 wk of life and more slowly thereafter. Immunohistochemistry further demonstrated changes in the topographical and (sub)cellular localization of the transferrin receptor. In the young rat livers, staining was almost exclusively present on hepatocytes in acinar zone 2 + 3 in a honeycomb to sinusoidal pattern. With aging, a panacinar heterogeneous and mainly sinusoidal staining of hepatocytes was more frequent. Kupffer cell positivity was more obvious as compared with the young rat livers. The observed changes in transferrin receptor expression may partly be explained by age-dependent alterations in DNA synthesis and proliferative potential of the liver cells. A series of rats were iron loaded with carbonyl iron up to 39 wk and "unloaded" by administration of a normal diet during 20 wk. In these animals, serial histochemical studies showed predominantly parenchymal (7 to 14 wk), mixed parenchymal and reticuloendothelial (39 wk) and almost exclusive reticuloendothelial siderosis (59 wk). In the siderotic livers transferrin receptor numbers tended to be lower than in the controls with significant differences after 14 and 39 wk. Immunohistochemistry showed decreased parenchymal but increased reticuloendothelial transferrin receptor expression with iron load. After the period of unloading, parenchymal transferrin receptors were virtually absent despite the negligible siderosis of these cells. In contrast, siderotic reticuloendothelial cells were intensely positive. These findings support down-regulation of parenchymal transferrin receptor resulting from iron storage. However, the positivity of siderotic reticuloendothelial cells and the absence of re-emergence of parenchymal receptors in conditions of

  9. Effect of wortmannin and phorbol ester on Paramecium fluid-phase uptake in the presence of transferrin.

    PubMed

    Wiejak, J; Surmacz, L; Wyroba, E

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of the uptake of the fluid phase marker Lucifer Yellow (LY), and its alteration by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K), and the PKC modulators: GF 109203 X, an inhibitor, and phorbol ester, an activator was studied in eukaryotic model Paramecium aurelia. Spectrophotometric quantification of LY accumulation was performed in the presence or absence of transferrin, a marker of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Internalization of LY showed a curvilinear kinetics: the high initial rate of LY uptake (575 ng LY/mg protein/hr) decreased almost 5-fold within 15 min, reaching plateau at 126 ng/mg protein/hr. Transferrin induced a small increase (7.5%) in the fluid phase uptake rate (after 5 min) followed by a small decrease at longer incubation times. Lucifer Yellow and transferrin (visualized by streptavidin-FITC) were localized in Paramecium by 3-D reconstruction by confocal microscopy. LY showed a scattered, diffuse fluorescence typical of fluid phase uptake whereas transferrin accumulated in membrane-surrounded endosomes. Wortmannin did not affect LY accumulation but decreased it when transferrin was present in the incubation medium. This suggests an effect on the transferrin uptake pathway, presumably on the stage of internalization in "mixing" endosomes to which transferrin and LY were targeted. Phorbol ester diminished LY accumulation by 22% and this effect persisted up to 25 min of incubation. PKC inhibitor did not affect LY uptake. However, in the presence of transferrin, the LY uptake increased within the first 15 minutes followed by a rapid 20% decrease in comparison to the control. Such an effect of PKC modulators suggests that PMA action on fluid phase uptake is not directly mediated by PKC.

  10. Experimental treatment of breast cancer-bearing BALB/c mice by artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Amir; Faezizadeh, Zohreh; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Ali Reza; Saravani, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The combination of artemisinin and transferrin exhibits versatile anticancer activities. In previous, we successfully prepared artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes and evaluated their anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines in vitro. In this study, we investigate the in vivo anti-breast cancer activity of artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposome against breast transplanted tumors in BALB/c mice model. Materials and Methods: Artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes were prepared and characterized for some physiochemical properties. Pieces of tumor tissue from the breast cancer-bearing BALB/c mice were transplanted subcutaneously to the syngeneic female BALB/c mice. In the presence of the external magnet that placed at the breast tumor site, the tissue distribution and tumor-suppressing effects of prepared nanoliposomes on tumor growth was evaluated. Results: The prepared nanoliposomes have fine spherical shape, rough surface, nano-sized diameter and magnetic properties. At 2 h after treatment, the intravenous administration of artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes followed using the magnetic field approximately produced 10- and 5.5-fold higher levels of artemisinin and transferrin in the tumors, respectively, compared with free artemisinin and transferrin. Moreover, in the presence of an external magnetic field, the prepared nanoliposomes could significantly induce apoptosis in the mice breast cancer cells as well as could reduce tumor volume in tumorized mice at 15 days after treatment. Conclusion: The data suggested that the artemisinin and transferrin-loaded magnetic nanoliposomes would be a good choice for the breast tumor-targeted therapy, due to its high targeting efficiency. PMID:26109756

  11. The Mammalian Neuroendocrine Hormone Norepinephrine Supplies Iron for Bacterial Growth in the Presence of Transferrin or Lactoferrin

    PubMed Central

    Freestone, Primrose P. E.; Lyte, Mark; Neal, Christopher P.; Maggs, Anthony F.; Haigh, Richard D.; Williams, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Norepinephrine stimulates the growth of a range of bacterial species in nutritionally poor SAPI minimal salts medium containing 30% serum. Addition of size-fractionated serum components to SAPI medium indicated that transferrin was required for norepinephrine stimulation of growth of Escherichia coli. Since bacteriostasis by serum is primarily due to the iron-withholding capacity of transferrin, we considered the possibility that norepinephrine can overcome this effect by supplying transferrin-bound iron for growth. Incubation with concentrations of norepinephrine that stimulated bacterial growth in serum-SAPI medium resulted in loss of bound iron from iron-saturated transferrin, as indicated by the appearance of monoferric and apo- isoforms upon electrophoresis in denaturing gels. Norepinephrine also caused the loss of iron from lactoferrin. The pharmacologically inactive metabolite norepinephrine 3-O-sulfate, by contrast, did not result in iron loss from transferrin or lactoferrin and did not stimulate bacterial growth in serum-SAPI medium. Norepinephrine formed stable complexes with transferrin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin. Norepinephrine-transferrin and norepinephrine-lactoferrin complexes, but not norepinephrine-apotransferrin or norepinephrine-albumin complexes, stimulated bacterial growth in serum-SAPI medium in the absence of additional norepinephrine. Norepinephrine-stimulated growth in medium containing 55Fe complexed with transferrin or lactoferrin resulted in uptake of radioactivity by bacterial cells. Moreover, norepinephrine-stimulated growth in medium containing [3H]norepinephrine indicated concomitant uptake of norepinephrine. In each case, addition of excess iron did not affect growth but significantly reduced levels of radioactivity (55Fe or 3H) associated with bacterial cells. A role for catecholamine-mediated iron supply in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases is proposed. PMID:11029429

  12. Snx3 regulates recycling of the transferrin receptor and iron assimilation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Caiyong; Garcia-Santos, Daniel; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Seguin, Alexandra; Li, Liangtao; Fegan, Katherine H; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Shah, Dhvanit I; Cooney, Jeffrey D; Chen, Wen; King, Matthew J; Yien, Yvette Y; Schultz, Iman J; Anderson, Heidi; Dalton, Arthur J; Freedman, Matthew L; Kingsley, Paul D; Palis, James; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Lodish, Harvey F; Ward, Diane M; Kaplan, Jerry; Maeda, Takahiro; Ponka, Prem; Paw, Barry H

    2013-03-01

    Sorting of endocytic ligands and receptors is critical for diverse cellular processes. The physiological significance of endosomal sorting proteins in vertebrates, however, remains largely unknown. Here we report that sorting nexin 3 (Snx3) facilitates the recycling of transferrin receptor (Tfrc) and thus is required for the proper delivery of iron to erythroid progenitors. Snx3 is highly expressed in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues. Silencing of Snx3 results in anemia and hemoglobin defects in vertebrates due to impaired transferrin (Tf)-mediated iron uptake and its accumulation in early endosomes. This impaired iron assimilation can be complemented with non-Tf iron chelates. We show that Snx3 and Vps35, a component of the retromer, interact with Tfrc to sort it to the recycling endosomes. Our findings uncover a role of Snx3 in regulating Tfrc recycling, iron homeostasis, and erythropoiesis. Thus, the identification of Snx3 provides a genetic tool for exploring erythropoiesis and disorders of iron metabolism.

  13. Cell uptake of a biosensor detected by hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR: the transferrin case.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Céline; Stopin, Antoine; Lenda, Fatimazohra; Brotin, Thierry; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; Jamin, Nadège; Sanson, Alain; Boulard, Yves; Leteurtre, François; Huber, Gaspard; Bogaert-Buchmann, Aurore; Tassali, Nawal; Desvaux, Hervé; Carrière, Marie; Berthault, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    For detection of biological events in vitro, sensors using hyperpolarized (129)Xe NMR can become a powerful tool, provided the approach can bridge the gap in sensitivity. Here we propose constructs based on the non-selective grafting of cryptophane precursors on holo-transferrin. This biological system was chosen because there are many receptors on the cell surface, and endocytosis further increases this density. The study of these biosensors with K562 cell suspensions via fluorescence microscopy and (129)Xe NMR indicates a strong interaction, as well as interesting features such as the capacity of xenon to enter the cryptophane even when the biosensor is endocytosed, while keeping a high level of polarization. Despite a lack of specificity for transferrin receptors, undoubtedly due to the hydrophobic character of the cryptophane moiety that attracts the biosensor into the cell membrane, these biosensors allow the first in-cell probing of biological events using hyperpolarized xenon. PMID:21605977

  14. The genes that encode the gonococcal transferrin binding proteins, TbpB and TbpA, are differentially regulated by MisR under iron-replete and iron-depleted conditions.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Justin L; Acevedo, Rosuany Vélez; Dickinson, Mary Kathryne; Cash, Devin R; Shafer, William M; Cornelissen, Cynthia Nau

    2016-10-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae produces two transferrin binding proteins, TbpA and TbpB, which together enable efficient iron transport from human transferrin. We demonstrate that expression of the tbp genes is controlled by MisR, a response regulator in the two-component regulatory system that also includes the sensor kinase MisS. The tbp genes were up-regulated in the misR mutant under iron-replete conditions but were conversely down-regulated in the misR mutant under iron-depleted conditions. The misR mutant was capable of transferrin-iron uptake at only 50% of wild-type levels, consistent with decreased tbp expression. We demonstrate that phosphorylated MisR specifically binds to the tbpBA promoter and that MisR interacts with five regions upstream of the tbpB start codon. These analyses confirm that MisR directly regulates tbpBA expression. The MisR binding sites in the gonococcus are only partially conserved in Neisseria meningitidis, which may explain why tbpBA was not MisR-regulated in previous studies using this related pathogen. This is the first report of a trans-acting protein factor other than Fur that can directly contribute to gonococcal tbpBA regulation.

  15. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    PubMed

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  16. Mechanism of indium(III) exchange between NTA and transferrin: a kinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Biver, Tarita; Friani, Rossella; Gattai, Chiara; Secco, Fernando; Tiné, Maria Rosaria; Venturini, Marcella

    2008-09-25

    The equilibria and kinetics for the process of In(3+) exchange between nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and bovine serum transferrin (T) have been investigated in aqueous solution containing sodium bicarbonate. The metal exchange equilibria have been measured by difference ultraviolet spectroscopy at 25 degrees C, pH=7.4, and I=0.2 M (NaClO4). The acid dissociation constants of NTA and the binding constants of In(III) to NTA have also been measured. Kinetic experiments revealed that the process of In(3+) uptake by transferrin from [In(NTA)2](3-) is biphasic, the fast phase being completed in a few seconds, the slow phase lasting for hours. The fast phase has been investigated by the stopped-flow method and results in monoexponential kinetics. It involves rapid interaction of the 1:1 complex ML (M=In, L=NTA) with TB (T=transferrin, B=CO3(2-)) to give a quaternary intermediate MLTB which then evolves to an "open" MTB* ternary complex complex with expulsion of L. In turn, this complex interconverts to a "closed", more stable, form MTB. Neither the prevailing complex M2L nor the TB2 form of transferrin are directly involved in the exchange process but act as metal and protein reservoirs. The pH dependence of the reaction has been also investigated. The slow phase has not been investigated in detail; it takes several hours to go to the completeness, its slowness being ascribed to metal redistribution between the C-site and N-site of the protein, and/or metal release from polynuclear In(III) species. PMID:18761435

  17. Absolute quantification of transferrin in blood samples of harbour seals using HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Mechthild; Pröfrock, Daniel; Kakuschke, Antje; Broekaert, Jose A C; Prange, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are bio-indicators for the assessment of their habitat and environmental changes. Besides population parameters and trends (survival, age structure, sex ratio), the individual health status represents a further important parameter for this assessment. The health status of seals is a complex and vague term, determined by a wide range of diagnostic parameters. Quantities of important blood proteins such as transferrin (Tf), as well as altered distribution patterns of its glycoforms, are frequently used as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. Within this context Tf quantities and a varying pattern of its glycoforms are used as indicator for e.g. certain liver diseases, which also represents one of the most frequently observed pathological indication in harbour seals of the North Sea. Currently, most assay based quantification methods for Tf are limited since they often provide only information regarding the total Tf concentration rather than information of its different glycoforms. Due to a lack of suitable seal Tf antibodies also the application of more specific antibody based approaches is not possible. Within this background a new approach for the absolute quantification of the iron-transport protein Tf in the blood of harbour seals using its characteristic iron content and HPLC-ICP-MS detection is described. Method validation was performed using a certified human serum reference material (ERM-DA470K/IFCC). A Tf concentration of 2.33 ± 0.03 g L(-1) (sum of all quantified glycoforms) has been calculated, which is in good agreement with the certified total Tf concentration of 2.35 ± 0.08 g L(-1), confirming the accuracy of the proposed analytical method. Finally, different seal samples were analysed to demonstrate the suitability of the procedure for the quantification of Tf in real samples as well as to observe modified glycoform patterns. Compared to our previous studies for the first time it was possible to quantify the serum Tf

  18. Non-specific binding of transferrin and lactoferrin to polystyrene culture tubes: role of the radioligand.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, S; Goldsmith, S J

    1983-01-01

    While evaluating the role of iron-binding glycoproteins on the in vitro uptake of 67Ga and 59Fe by tumor cells, it was observed that these radiometals bind to polystyrene culture tubes in the presence of transferrin or lactoferrin. The amount of 67Ga or 59Fe bound to the tube increases with glycoprotein concentrations up to 20 microgram/ml and decreases thereafter. This biphasic response is a reflection of metal-protein affinity and is greatest for 59Fe-lactoferrin. With 125I-labeled transferrin and lactoferrin, the amount of tube-bound radioactivity was inversely dependent on the glycoprotein concentration suggesting that glycoproteins bind to a limited number of binding sites on the tube wall. Approximately 10(13) glycoprotein molecules were bound per tube with an affinity constant of 1.89 X 10(7) 1/M for transferrin and 1.08 X 10(7) l/M for lactoferrin. These sites are not specific since addition of albumin inhibited the binding of radiolabeled glycoproteins to the tube. In the light of these observations, caution is required in interpreting results of cell culture experiments which have not directed attention to protein-plastic interaction.

  19. The discoidin domain receptor 1 gene has a functional A2RE sequence.

    PubMed

    Roig, Barbara; Moyano, Sílvia; Martorell, Lourdes; Costas, Javier; Vilella, Elisabet

    2012-02-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is expressed in myelin oligodendrocytes and co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP). Alternative splicing of DDR1 generates five isoforms designated DDR1a-e. The MBP mRNA contains an hnRNP A2 response element (A2RE) sequence that is recognized by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, which is responsible for transport of the MBP mRNA to oligodendrocyte processes. We hypothesized that DDR1 could have a functional A2RE sequence. By in silico analysis, we identified an A2RE-like sequence in the human DDR1 mRNA. We observed nuclear and dendrite cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, indicating that DDR1 and hnRNP A2/B1 co-localize in human oligodendrocytes and in differentiated HOG16 cells. The A2RE-like sequence of DDR1 contains the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2267641, and we found that in the human brain, the minor allele is associated with lower and higher levels DDR1b and DDR1c mRNA expression, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation between DDR1c and the myelin genes myelin-associated glycoprotein and oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 was found. Differentiated HOG16 cells transfected with an hnRNP A2/B1 siRNA simultaneously show a decrease and an increase in the DDR1c and DDR1b mRNA expression levels, respectively, which was accompanied by a decrease in DDR1 protein levels at the cytoplasmic edges. These results suggest that the DDR1 A2RE sequence is functionally involved in the hnRNP A2/B1-mediated splicing and transport of the DDR1c mRNA.

  20. Pravastatin and C reactive protein modulate protease- activated receptor-1 expression in vitro blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Chu, L-X; Zhou, S-X; Yang, F; Qin, Y-Q; Liang, Z-S; Mo, C-G; Wang, X-D; Xie, J; He, L-P

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) plays an important role in mediating activation of human platelets by thrombin. However, mechanism of statin in ADP-induced platelet PAR-1 expression is also unknown. Aggregometry, flow cytometry, immunoblotting and ELISA were used to determine role of pravastatin participating in ADP-induced platelet activation and PAR-1 expression. ADP stimulation significantly increased PAR-1 expression on platelets. PAR-1 antagonist SCH-79797 inhibited platelet aggregation as well as decreased platelet P-selectin expression induced by ADP. CRP inhibited PAR-1 expression induced by ADP in a concentration-dependent manner. Pravastatin treatment reduced PAR-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Combination treatment of CRP and Pravastatin significantly reduced platelet PAR-1 expression induced by ADP. By western-blot analysis, pravastatin treatment did not influence total PAR-1 after ADP treatment. CRP decreased platelet total PAR-1 expression induced by ADP. Pravastatin and CRP reduced TXB2 formation by ADP significantly. CRP decreased thrombin fragment F1+2 level with ADP treatment. Pravastatin, in contrast, did not influence F1+2 level. Upon treatment with Pravastatin reduced platelet LOX-1 expression induced by ADP. In conclusion, PAR-1 served as a critical mechanism to relay platelet activation process induced by ADP. CRP and pravastatin reduce PAR-1 expression in platelet by ADP pathway. PMID:26950455

  1. Molecular basis for antagonistic activity of anifrolumab, an anti-interferon-α receptor 1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Oganesyan, Vaheh; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F; Damschroder, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Anifrolumab (anifrolumab) is an antagonist human monoclonal antibody that targets interferon α receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Anifrolumab has been developed to treat autoimmune diseases and is currently in clinical trials. To decipher the molecular basis of its mechanism of action, we engaged in multiple epitope mapping approaches to determine how it interacts with IFNAR1 and antagonizes the receptor. We identified the epitope of anifrolumab using enzymatic fragmentation, phage-peptide library panning and mutagenesis approaches. Our studies revealed that anifrolumab recognizes the SD3 subdomain of IFNAR1 with the critical residue R(279). Further, we solved the crystal structure of anifrolumab Fab to a resolution of 2.3 Å. Guided by our epitope mapping studies, we then used in silico protein docking of the anifrolumab Fab crystal structure to IFNAR1 and characterized the corresponding mode of binding. We find that anifrolumab sterically inhibits the binding of IFN ligands to IFNAR1, thus blocking the formation of the ternary IFN/IFNAR1/IFNAR2 signaling complex. This report provides the molecular basis for the mechanism of action of anifrolumab and may provide insights toward designing antibody therapies against IFNAR1.

  2. Expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in smooth muscle cells after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Hideyuki; Miyata, Masaaki . E-mail: miyatam@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Kume, Noriaki; Minami, Manabu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Orihara, Koji; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Biro, Sadatoshi; Otsuji, Yutaka; Kita, Toru; Tei, Chuwa

    2006-03-10

    Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an oxidized LDL receptor, and its role in restenosis after angioplasty remains unknown. We used a balloon-injury model of rabbit aorta, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that LOX-1 mRNA expression was modest in the non-injured aorta, reached a peak level 2 days after injury, and remained elevated until 24 weeks after injury. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that LOX-1 was not detected in the media of non-injured aorta but expressed in both medial and neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) at 2 and 24 weeks after injury. Low concentrations of ox-LDL (10 {mu}g/mL) stimulated the cultured SMC proliferation, which was inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides of LOX-1 mRNA. Double immunofluorescense staining showed the colocalization of LOX-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in human restenotic lesion. These results suggest that LOX-1 mediates ox-LDL-induced SMC proliferation and plays a role in neointimal formation after vascular injury.

  3. Association of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) haplotypes with listening to music.

    PubMed

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Oikkonen, Jaana; Onkamo, Päivi; Karma, Kai; Raijas, Pirre; Järvelä, Irma

    2011-04-01

    Music is listened in all cultures. We hypothesize that willingness to produce and perceive sound and music is social communication that needs musical aptitude. Here, listening to music was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire and musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test) and Carl Seashores tests for pitch and for time. Three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (RS3, RS1 and AVR) of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) gene, previously associated with social communication and attachment, were genotyped and analyzed in 31 Finnish families (n=437 members) using family-based association analysis. A positive association between the AVPR1A haplotype (RS1 and AVR) and active current listening to music (permuted P=0.0019) was observed. Other AVPR1A haplotype (RS3 and AVR) showed association with lifelong active listening to music (permuted P=0.0022). In addition to AVPR1A, two polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and variable number of tandem repeat) of human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), a candidate gene for many neuropsychiatric disorders and previously associated with emotional processing, were analyzed. No association between listening to music and the polymorphisms of SLC6A4 were detected. The results suggest that willingness to listen to music is related to neurobiological pathways affecting social affiliation and communication.

  4. Discoidin domain receptor-1 and periostin: new players in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Carlo; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Simonini, Paola; Ikehata, Masami; Dussaule, Jean Claude; Chadjichristos, Christos E; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Messa, Piergiorgio; Chatziantoniou, Christos

    2015-12-01

    The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease represents an important problem for public health. In renal diseases, the main histologic alterations derive from the development of renal fibrosis which results from the loss of the balance between pro- and anti-fibrotic factors. Tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) and matricellular proteins (MPs) are nowadays studied as potential modulators of renal injury. RTKs regulate cell cycle, migration, metabolism and cellular differentiation. Discoidin domain receptor-1 (DDR-1) is an RTK that has been extensively studied in cancer, and lung and renal diseases. It modulates inflammatory recruitment, extracellular matrix deposition and fibrosis; in renal diseases, it appears to act independently of the underlying disease. MPs regulate cell-matrix interactions and matrix accumulation, cellular adhesion and migration, and expression of inflammatory cells. Periostin is an MP, mainly studied in bone, heart, lung and cancer. Several studies demonstrated that it mediates cell-matrix interactions, migration of inflammatory cells and development of fibrosis. Recently, it has been reported in several nephropathies. In this review, we discuss the potential pathological roles of DDR-1 and periostin focussing on the kidney in both experimental models and human diseases.

  5. Changes in transferrin saturation after treatment with the oral iron chelator deferiprone in patients with iron overload.

    PubMed Central

    al-Refaie, F N; De Silva, C E; Wonke, B; Hoffbrand, A V

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the changes in transferrin saturation in patients with iron overload following the oral administration of the iron chelator deferiprone; to assess the correlation between the degree of transferrin desaturation, the deferiprone dose, and urinary iron excretion. METHODS--Serum samples were obtained from 16 patients with iron overload at different time intervals following the oral administration of deferiprone (50 mg/kg). These samples were analysed using 6M urea/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (UPAGE). This method is able to resolve serum transferrin into four different forms (free iron, two forms of monoferric, and diferric). The deferiprone concentration in these samples was estimated using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Zero time samples (t0) from 10 patients were incubated with 150 microM deferiprone or normal saline either at room temperature or at 37 degrees C for 30 minutes and 24 hours, and also at -20 degrees C for six weeks. Samples were then analysed using UPAGE. RESULTS--A maximum decrease in transferrin saturation from (mean (SD)) 93.0 (10.6)% to 54.5 (17.2)% was observed 72.5 (50.0) minutes after deferiprone administration and in most of the patients coincided with peak deferiprone concentration. This was associated with a maximum rise in the percentage of iron free transferrin (apotransferrin) from 2.9 (7.0)% to 27.3 (17.8)%. The total amount of iron estimated to be removed from transferrin constituted 21.3 (20.2)% of the 24 hour urinary iron excretion measured during the study. When deferiprone (150 mumol/l) was incubated in vitro with t0 samples from 10 patients for 30 minutes and 24 hours at room temperature, 37 degrees C, and at -20 degrees C for six weeks, deferiprone was more efficient at removing iron from transferrin at 37 degrees C, with maximum transferrin desaturation accomplished within 30 minutes compared with 24 hours at room temperature. CONCLUSIONS--The results confirm that deferiprone can remove iron

  6. A Polyethylenimine-Containing and Transferrin-Conjugated Lipid Nanoparticle System for Antisense Oligonucleotide Delivery to AML

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiming; Zhang, Lijing; Cao, Hua; Yang, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Yang, Xiao-juan

    2016-01-01

    Limited success of antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) in clinical anticancer therapy calls for more effective delivery carriers. The goal of this study was to develop a nanoparticle system for delivery of ASO G3139, which targets mRNA of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The synthesized nanoparticle Tf-LPN-G3139 contained a small molecular weight polyethylenimine and two cationic lipids as condensing agents, with transferrin on its surface for selective binding and enhanced cellular uptake. The optimized nitrogen to phosphate (N/P) ratio was 4 to achieve small particle size and high G3139 entrapment efficiency. The Tf-LPN-G3139 exhibited excellent colloidal stability during storage for at least 12 weeks and remained intact for 4 hours in nuclease-containing serum. The cellular uptake results showed extensive internalization of fluorescence-labelled G3139 in MV4-11 cells through Tf-LPN. Following transfection, Tf-LPN-G3139 at 1 µM ASO level induced 54% Bcl-2 downregulation and >20-fold apoptosis compared to no treatment. When evaluated in mice bearing human xenograft AML tumors, Tf-LPN-G3139 suppressed tumor growth by ~60% at the end of treatment period, accompanied by remarkable pharmacological effect of Bcl-2 inhibition in tumor. In conclusion, Tf-LPN-G3139 is a promising nanoparticle system for ASO G3139 delivery to AML and warrants further investigations. PMID:27034925

  7. Role of phosphate-containing compounds in the transfer of indium-111 and gallium-67 from transferrin to ferritin.

    PubMed

    Weiner, R E

    1989-01-01

    Physiologic concentrations of ATP stimulate the translocation of gallium-67 (67Ga) from human transferrin (TF) to horse ferritin (HoFE). The mechanism of this translocation was examined. One millimolar ATP did not speed the binding of 67Ga or indium-111 (111In) to HoFE. ATP and pyrophosphate (PPi) at 1 mM, did not form high affinity complexes with 67Ga or 111In. ATP and PPi interacted directly with the [67Ga]TF complex and could within minutes increase the amount of nonprotein-bound 67Ga. Serum HCO3- concentration, 30 mM, prevented the ATP-induced dissociation of 67Ga from TF, whereas intracellular concentrations (0.4 and 5 mM) did not. Using a dialysis technique, ATP also stimulated the translocation of 111In from TF to HoFE; however, this process was much slower than with 67Ga. ATP caused an increase in the nonprotein-bound 111In compared to the control. These results suggest the formation of nonprotein-bound nuclide by these phosphate-containing compounds in a kinetically labile form is important to the translocation mechanism. PMID:2536083

  8. Transferrin-PEG-PE modified dexamethasone conjugated cationic lipid carrier mediated gene delivery system for tumor-targeted transfection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Fang; Ge, Linfu; Liu, Ximin; Kong, Fansheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The main barriers to non-viral gene delivery include cellular and nuclear membranes. As such, the aim of this study was to develop a type of vector that can target cells through receptor-mediated pathways and by using nuclear localization signal (NLS) to increase the nuclear uptake of genetic materials. Methods A dexamethasone (Dexa)-conjugated lipid was synthesized as the material of the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), and transferrin (Tf) was linked onto polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) to obtain Tf-PEG-PE ligands for the surface modification of the carriers. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human hepatoma carcinoma cell lines, and in vivo effects were observed in an animal model. Results Tf-PEG-PE modified SLNs/enhanced green fluorescence protein plasmid (pEGFP) had a particle size of 222 nm and a gene loading quantity of 90%. Tf-PEG-PE-modified SLNs/pEGFP (Tf-SLNs/pEGFP) displayed remarkably higher transfection efficiency than non-modified SLNs/pEGFP and the vectors not containing Dexa, both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion It can be concluded that Tf and Dexa could function as an excellent active targeting ligand to improve the cell targeting and nuclear targeting ability of the carriers, and the resulting nanomedicine could be a promising active targeting drug/gene delivery system. PMID:22679364

  9. Classification of congenital disorders of glycosylation based on analysis of transferrin glycopeptides by capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Albert; Giménez, Estela; Benavente, Fernando; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we describe a multivariate data analysis approach for data exploration and classification of the complex and large data sets generated to study the alteration of human transferrin (Tf) N-glycopeptides in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Tf from healthy individuals and two types of CDG patients (CDG-I and CDG-II) is purified by immunoextraction from serum samples before trypsin digestion and separation by capillary liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (CapLC-MS). Following a targeted data analysis approach, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is applied to the relative abundance of Tf glycopeptide glycoforms obtained after integration of the extracted ion chromatograms of the different samples. The performance of PLS-DA for classification of the different samples and for providing a novel insight into Tf glycopeptide glycoforms alteration in CDGs is demonstrated. Only six out of fourteen of the detected glycoforms are enough for an accurate classification. This small glycoform set may be considered a sensitive and specific novel biomarker panel for CDGs. PMID:27591658

  10. Vasopeptidase-activated latent ligands of the histamine receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François

    2013-11-01

    Whether peptidases present in vascular cells can activate prodrugs active on vascular cells has been tested with 2 potential latent ligands of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). First, a peptide consisting of the antihistamine cetirizine (CTZ) condensed at the N-terminus of ε-aminocaproyl-bradykinin (εACA-BK) was evaluated for an antihistamine activity that could be revealed by degradation of the peptide part of the molecule. CTZ-εACA-BK had a submicromolar affinity for the BK B2 receptor (B2R; IC50 of 590 nM, [(3)H]BK binding competition), but a non-negligible affinity for the human H1 receptor (H1R; IC50 of 11 μM for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding). In the human isolated umbilical vein, a system where both endogenous B2R and H1R mediate strong contractions, CTZ-εACA-BK exerted mild antagonist effects on histamine-induced contraction that were not modified by omapatrilat or by a B2R antagonist that prevents endocytosis of the BK conjugate. Cells expressing recombinant ACE or B2R incubated with CTZ-εACA-BK did not release a competitor of [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. Thus, there is no evidence that CTZ-εACA-BK can release free cetirizine in biological environments. The second prodrug was a blocked agonist, L-alanyl-histamine, potentially activated by aminopeptidase N (APN). This compound did not compete for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. The human umbilical vein contractility assay responded to L-alanyl-histamine (EC50 54.7 μM), but the APN inhibitor amastatin massively (17-fold) reduced its apparent potency. Amastatin did not influence the potency of histamine as a contractile agent. One of the 2 tested latent H1R ligands, L-alanyl-histamine, supported the feasibility of pro-drug activation by vascular ectopeptidases.

  11. Protease cleavage of iron-transferrin augments pyocyanin-mediated endothelial cell injury via promotion of hydroxyl radical formation.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R A; Rasmussen, G T; Cox, C D; Britigan, B E

    1996-01-01

    Although a number of bacterium- and host-derived factors have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-associated tissue injury, the mechanism remains unclear. We have previously shown that protease modification of iron (Fe)-transferrin generates new iron chelates capable of catalyzing hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation from superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The latter two oxidants are generated during redox cycling of another P. aeruginosa secretory product, pyocyanin. The lung is a major site of P. aeruginosa infection, with damage to local endothelial cells contributing to the pathogenesis of such infections. Endothelial cells are highly susceptible to oxidant-mediated injury. Therefore, we examined whether pseudomonas elastase-cleaved Fe-transferrin and pyocyanin synergistically enhance pulmonary artery endothelial cell injury via .OH formation. By measuring 51Cr release from cultured endothelial cell monolayers, pseudomonas elastase-cleaved Fe-transferrin significantly augmented cell injury resulting from cellular exposure to sublethal concentrations of pyocyanin. This enhancement in injury was not protease specific, as similar results were obtained with pyocyanin in combination with trypsin- or porcine pancreatic elastase-cleaved Fe-transferrin. The association of iron with the transferrin appeared to be necessary in this process. Supporting the involvement of .OH generation via the Haber-Weiss reaction in augmenting cell injury, catalase, dimethyl thiourea, superoxide dismutase, deferoxamine, and dimethyl sulfoxide significantly inhibited cell injury resulting from exposure to pyocyanin and protease-cleaved Fe-transferrin. Furthermore, spin trapping demonstrated the production of .OH in this cellular system. We conclude that .OH formation resulting from the interaction of protease-cleaved Fe-transferrin and endothelial cell redox cycling of pyocyanin may contribute to P. aeruginosa-associated tissue injury via endothelial cell

  12. The lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1: a new potential molecular target in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Murdocca, Michela; Mango, Ruggiero; Pucci, Sabina; Biocca, Silvia; Testa, Barbara; Capuano, Rosamaria; Paolesse, Roberto; Sanchez, Massimo; Orlandi, Augusto; di Natale, Corrado; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2016-03-22

    The identification of new biomarkers and targets for tailored therapy in human colorectal cancer (CRC) onset and progression is an interesting challenge. CRC tissue produces an excess of ox-LDL, suggesting a close correlation between lipid dysfunction and malignant transformation. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved in several mechanisms closely linked to tumorigenesis. Here we report a tumor specific LOX-1 overexpression in human colon cancers: LOX-1 results strongly increased in the 72% of carcinomas (P<0.001), and strongly overexpressed in 90% of highly aggressive and metastatic tumours (P<0.001), as compared to normal mucosa. Moreover LOX-1 results modulated since the early stage of the disease (adenomas vs normal mucosa; P<0.001) suggesting an involvement in tumor insurgence and progression. The in vitro knockdown of LOX-1 in DLD-1 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells by siRNA and anti-LOX-1 antibody triggers to an impaired proliferation rate and affects the maintenance of cell growth and tumorigenicity. The wound-healing assay reveals an evident impairment in closing the scratch. Lastly knockdown of LOX-1 delineates a specific pattern of volatile compounds characterized by the presence of a butyrate derivative, suggesting a potential role of LOX-1 in tumor-specific epigenetic regulation in neoplastic cells. The role of LOX-1 as a novel biomarker and molecular target represents a concrete opportunity to improve current therapeutic strategies for CRC. In addition, the innovative application of a technology focused to the identification of LOX-1 driven volatiles specific to colorectal cancer provides a promising diagnostic tool for CRC screening and for monitoring the response to therapy. PMID:26895376

  13. Neutrophils Interact with Adenovirus Vectors via Fc Receptors and Complement Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Matthew J.; Zaiss, Anne K.; Muruve, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutrophils are effectors of the innate immune response to adenovirus vectors. Following the systemic administration of Cy2-labeled AdLuc in mice, flow cytometry and PCR analysis of liver leukocytes revealed that 25% of recruited neutrophils interacted with adenovirus vectors. In vitro, flow cytometry of human neutrophils incubated with Cy2-labeled AdLuc also demonstrated a significant interaction with adenovirus vectors. Fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed vector internalization by neutrophils. The AdLuc-neutrophil interaction reduced vector transduction efficiency by more than 50% in coincubation assays in epithelium-derived cells. Adenovirus vector uptake by neutrophils occurred independently of coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor (CAR) and capsid RGD motifs, since neutrophils do not express CAR and uptake of the RGD-deleted vector AdL.PB* was similar to that of AdLuc. Furthermore, both AdLuc and AdL.PB* activated neutrophils and induced similar degrees of L-selectin shedding. Neutrophil uptake of AdLuc was dependent on the presence of complement and antibodies, since the interaction between AdLuc and neutrophils was significantly reduced when they were incubated in immunoglobulin G-depleted or heat-inactivated human serum. Blocking of complement receptor 1 (CD35) but not complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18) significantly reduced neutrophil uptake of AdLuc. Blocking of FcγRI (CD64), FcγRII (CD32), and FcγRIII (CD16) individually or together also reduced neutrophil uptake of AdLuc, although less than blocking of CD35 alone. Combined CR1 and Fc receptor blockade synergistically inhibited neutrophil-AdLuc interactions close to baseline. These results demonstrate opsonin-dependent adenovirus vector interactions with neutrophils and their corresponding receptors. PMID:16282462

  14. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 Expression and Its Polymorphic Variants Associate with Breast Cancer Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Madhura S.; Dolfi, Sonia C.; Bronfenbrener, Roman; Bilal, Erhan; Chen, Chunxia; Moore, Dirk; Lin, Yong; Rahim, Hussein; Aisner, Seena; Kersellius, Romona D.; Teh, Jessica; Chen, Suzie; Toppmeyer, Deborah L.; Medina, Dan J.; Ganesan, Shridar; Vazquez, Alexei; Hirshfield, Kim M.

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a link between melanoma and breast cancer. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1), which is involved in many cellular processes including proliferation and differentiation, has been implicated in melanomagenesis, with ectopic expression of GRM1 causing malignant transformation of melanocytes. This study was undertaken to evaluate GRM1 expression and polymorphic variants in GRM1 for associations with breast cancer phenotypes. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRM1 were evaluated for associations with breast cancer clinicopathologic variables. GRM1 expression was evaluated in human normal and cancerous breast tissue and for in vitro response to hormonal manipulation. Genotyping was performed on genomic DNA from over 1,000 breast cancer patients. Rs6923492 and rs362962 genotypes associated with age at diagnosis that was highly dependent upon the breast cancer molecular phenotype. The rs362962 TT genotype also associated with risk of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive breast cancer. In vitro analysis showed increased GRM1 expression in breast cancer cells treated with estrogen or the combination of estrogen and progesterone, but reduced GRM1 expression with tamoxifen treatment. Evaluation of GRM1 expression in human breast tumor specimens demonstrated significant correlations between GRM1 staining with tissue type and molecular features. Furthermore, analysis of gene expression data from primary breast tumors showed that high GRM1 expression correlated with a shorter distant metastasis-free survival as compared to low GRM1 expression in tamoxifen-treated patients. Additionally, induced knockdown of GRM1 in an estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cell line correlated with reduced cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings suggest a functional role for GRM1 in breast cancer. PMID:23922822

  15. Prokineticin Receptor 1 as a Novel Suppressor of Preadipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation to Control Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Messaddeq, Nadia; Valet, Phillippe; Boulberdaa, Mounia; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Nebigil, Canan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adipocyte renewal from preadipocytes occurs throughout the lifetime and contributes to obesity. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that control preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Prokineticin-2 is an angiogenic and anorexigenic hormone that activate two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): PKR1 and PKR2. Prokineticin-2 regulates food intake and energy metabolism via central mechanisms (PKR2). The peripheral effect of prokineticin-2 on adipocytes/preadipocytes has not been studied yet. Methodology/Principal Findings Since adipocytes and preadipocytes express mainly prokineticin receptor-1 (PKR1), here, we explored the role of PKR1 in adipose tissue expansion, generating PKR1-null (PKR1−/−) and adipocyte-specific (PKR1ad−/−) mutant mice, and using murine and human preadipocyte cell lines. Both PKR1−/− and PKR1ad−/− had excessive abdominal adipose tissue, but only PKR1−/− mice showed severe obesity and diabetes-like syndrome. PKR1ad−/−) mice had increased proliferating preadipocytes and newly formed adipocyte levels, leading to expansion of adipose tissue. Using PKR1-knockdown in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we show that PKR1 directly inhibits preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. These PKR1 cell autonomous actions appear targeted at preadipocyte cell cycle regulatory pathways, through reducing cyclin D, E, cdk2, c-Myc levels. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest PKR1 to be a crucial player in the preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our data should facilitate studies of both the pathogenesis and therapy of obesity in humans. PMID:24324673

  16. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-1 Contributes to Progression in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Malathi; Speyer, Cecilia L.; Semma, Sara N.; Osuala, Kingsley O.; Kounalakis, Nicole; Torres Torres, Keila E.; Barnard, Nicola J.; Kim, Hyunjin J.; Sloane, Bonnie F.; Miller, Fred R.; Goydos, James S.; Gorski, David H.

    2014-01-01

    TNBC is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that does not express hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptors, ER and PR) or amplified human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), and there currently exist no targeted therapies effective against it. Consequently, finding new molecular targets in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is critical to improving patient outcomes. Previously, we have detected the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor-1 (gene: GRM1; protein: mGluR1) in TNBC and observed that targeting glutamatergic signaling inhibits TNBC growth both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we explored how mGluR1 contributes to TNBC progression, using the isogenic MCF10 progression series, which models breast carcinogenesis from nontransformed epithelium to malignant basal-like breast cancer. We observed that mGluR1 is expressed in human breast cancer and that in MCF10A cells, which model nontransformed mammary epithelium, but not in MCF10AT1 cells, which model atypical ductal hyperplasia, mGluR1 overexpression results in increased proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasiveness. In contrast, mGluR1 knockdown results in a decrease in these activities in malignant MCF10CA1d cells. Similarly, pharmacologic inhibition of glutamatergic signaling in MCF10CA1d cells results in a decrease in proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Finally, transduction of MCF10AT1 cells, which express c-Ha-ras, using a lentiviral construct expressing GRM1 results in transformation to carcinoma in 90% of resultant xenografts. We conclude that mGluR1 cooperates with other factors in hyperplastic mammary epithelium to contribute to TNBC progression and therefore propose that glutamatergic signaling represents a promising new molecular target for TNBC therapy. PMID:24404125

  17. The lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1: a new potential molecular target in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murdocca, Michela; Mango, Ruggiero; Pucci, Sabina; Biocca, Silvia; Testa, Barbara; Capuano, Rosamaria; Paolesse, Roberto; Sanchez, Massimo; Orlandi, Augusto; di Natale, Corrado; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2016-01-01

    The identification of new biomarkers and targets for tailored therapy in human colorectal cancer (CRC) onset and progression is an interesting challenge. CRC tissue produces an excess of ox-LDL, suggesting a close correlation between lipid dysfunction and malignant transformation. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved in several mechanisms closely linked to tumorigenesis. Here we report a tumor specific LOX-1 overexpression in human colon cancers: LOX-1 results strongly increased in the 72% of carcinomas (P<0.001), and strongly overexpressed in 90% of highly aggressive and metastatic tumours (P<0.001), as compared to normal mucosa. Moreover LOX-1 results modulated since the early stage of the disease (adenomas vs normal mucosa; P<0.001) suggesting an involvement in tumor insurgence and progression. The in vitro knockdown of LOX-1 in DLD-1 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells by siRNA and anti-LOX-1 antibody triggers to an impaired proliferation rate and affects the maintenance of cell growth and tumorigenicity. The wound-healing assay reveals an evident impairment in closing the scratch. Lastly knockdown of LOX-1 delineates a specific pattern of volatile compounds characterized by the presence of a butyrate derivative, suggesting a potential role of LOX-1 in tumor-specific epigenetic regulation in neoplastic cells. The role of LOX-1 as a novel biomarker and molecular target represents a concrete opportunity to improve current therapeutic strategies for CRC. In addition, the innovative application of a technology focused to the identification of LOX-1 driven volatiles specific to colorectal cancer provides a promising diagnostic tool for CRC screening and for monitoring the response to therapy. PMID:26895376

  18. Characterization of a new peptide agonist of the protease-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yingying; Jin, Jianguo; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2008-01-15

    A new peptide (TFRRRLSRATR), derived from the c-terminal of human platelet P2Y(1) receptor, was synthesized and its biological function was evaluated. This peptide activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner, causing shape change, aggregation, secretion and calcium mobilization. Of the several receptor antagonists tested, only BMS200261, a protease activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) specific antagonist, totally abolished the peptide-induced platelet aggregation, secretion and calcium mobilization. The TFRRR-peptide-pretreated washed platelets failed to aggregate in response to SFLLRN (10 microM) but not to AYPGKF (500 microM). In addition, in mouse platelets, peptide concentrations up to 600 microM failed to cause platelet activation, indicating that the TFRRR-peptide activated platelets through the PAR-1 receptor, rather than through the PAR-4 receptor. The shape change induced by 10 microM peptide was totally abolished by Y-27632, an inhibitor of p160(ROCK) which is a downstream mediator of G12/13 pathways. The TFRRR-peptide, YFLLRNP, and the physiological agonist thrombin selectively activated G12/13 pathways at low concentrations and began to activate both Gq and G12/13 pathways with increasing concentrations. Similar to SFLLRN, the TFRRR-peptide caused phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in a P2Y(12) receptor-dependent manner, and p-38 MAP kinase activation in a P2Y(12)-independent manner. The effects of this peptide are elicited by the first six amino acids (TFRRRL) whereas the remaining peptide (LSRATR), TFERRN, or TFEERN had no effects on platelets. We conclude that TFRRRL activates human platelets through PAR-1 receptors. PMID:17950254

  19. A new approach to quantitate carbohydrate-deficient transferrin isoforms in alcohol abusers: partial iron saturation in isoelectric focusing/immunoblotting and laser densitometry.

    PubMed

    Bean, P; Peter, J B

    1993-12-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (Tf) represents a significant advance over previous markers of alcohol abuse. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) analysis of affinity-purified Tf, under conditions of total iron saturation, identifies a major isoform at pI 5.4 in both normal consumers and alcohol abusers; three additional Tf isoforms (pI 5.6, 5.7, and 5.8) are associated with alcohol abuse. Under conditions of partial iron saturation, IEF analysis of affinity-purified Tf reveals up to seven isoforms (pI range 5.3-6.0) common to normal consumers and alcohol abusers; three additional transferrin isoforms (pI range 6.1-6.3) are present in 68% (15/22) of the alcohol abuser specimens, but in only 8% (1/12) of the specimens from normal consumers and in none of the three specimens from abstainers. These three diagnostic bands comigrate with a set of defined Tf isoforms: human iron-free Tf containing two sialic acid residues, human sialic acid-free Tf with one iron molecule, and human sialic acid-free, iron-free Tf. Serum specimens from normal consumers and alcohol abusers, analyzed for Tf isoforms by an IEF-immunoblot method under conditions of partial iron saturation, expressed Tf isoforms similar to those found using affinity-purified Tf in standard IEF. Visual examination of the immunoblots reveals the diagnostic bands in 67% (32/48) of patients with histories of sustained alcohol abuse compared with only 17% (8/48) of the normal consumers. Scanning densitometry and volume integration analysis of the immunoblots representative of normal consumer and alcohol abuser populations results in mean (+/- SE) values of 4.1 +/- 0.8 and 19.3 +/- 3.6 units, respectively (p < 0.0002).

  20. Photoreceptor avascular privilege is shielded by soluble VEGF receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ling; Uehara, Hironori; Zhang, Xiaohui; Das, Subrata K; Olsen, Thomas; Holt, Derick; Simonis, Jacquelyn M; Jackman, Kyle; Singh, Nirbhai; Miya, Tadashi R; Huang, Wei; Ahmed, Faisal; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Le, Yun Zheng; Mamalis, Christina; Chiodo, Vince A; Hauswirth, William W; Baffi, Judit; Lacal, Pedro M; Orecchia, Angela; Ferrara, Napoleone; Gao, Guangping; Young-hee, Kim; Fu, Yingbin; Owen, Leah; Albuquerque, Romulo; Baehr, Wolfgang; Thomas, Kirk; Li, Dean Y; Chalam, Kakarla V; Shibuya, Masabumi; Grisanti, Salvatore; Wilson, David J; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Ambati, Balamurali K

    2013-01-01

    Optimal phototransduction requires separation of the avascular photoreceptor layer from the adjacent vascularized inner retina and choroid. Breakdown of peri-photoreceptor vascular demarcation leads to retinal angiomatous proliferation or choroidal neovascularization, two variants of vascular invasion of the photoreceptor layer in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible blindness in industrialized nations. Here we show that sFLT-1, an endogenous inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), is synthesized by photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and is decreased in human AMD. Suppression of sFLT-1 by antibodies, adeno-associated virus-mediated RNA interference, or Cre/lox-mediated gene ablation either in the photoreceptor layer or RPE frees VEGF-A and abolishes photoreceptor avascularity. These findings help explain the vascular zoning of the retina, which is critical for vision, and advance two transgenic murine models of AMD with spontaneous vascular invasion early in life. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00324.001 PMID:23795287

  1. Molecular mechanisms of non-transferrin-bound and transferring-bound iron uptake in primary hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Ji, Changyi; Kosman, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms of iron trafficking in neurons have not been elucidated. In this study, we characterized the expression and localization of ferrous iron transporters Zip8, Zip14 and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferrireductases Steap2 and stromal cell-derived receptor 2 in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Steap2 and Zip8 partially co-localize, indicating these two proteins may function in Fe(3+) reduction prior to Fe(2+) permeation. Zip8, DMT1, and Steap2 co-localize with the transferrin receptor/transferrin complex, suggesting they may be involved in transferrin receptor/transferrin-mediated iron assimilation. In brain interstitial fluid, transferring-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) exist as potential iron sources. Primary hippocampal neurons exhibit significant iron uptake from TBI (Transferrin-(59) Fe(3+)) and NTBI, whether presented as (59) Fe(2+) -citrate or (59) Fe(3+) -citrate; reductase-independent (59) Fe(2+) uptake was the most efficient uptake pathway of the three. Kinetic analysis of Zn(2+) inhibition of Fe(2+) uptake indicated that DMT1 plays only a minor role in the uptake of NTBI. In contrast, localization and knockdown data indicate that Zip8 makes a major contribution. Data suggest also that cell accumulation of (59) Fe from TBI relies at least in part on an endocytosis-independent pathway. These data suggest that Zip8 and Steap2 play a major role in iron accumulation from NTBI and TBI by hippocampal neurons. Analysis of the expression and localization of known iron uptake transporters demonstrated that Zip8 makes a major contribution to iron accumulation in primary cultures of rat embryonic hippocampal neurons. These cells exhibit uptake pathways for ferrous and ferric iron (non-transferrin-bound iron, NTBI in figure) and for transferrin-bound iron; the ferrireductases Steap2 and SDR2 support the uptake of ferric iron substrates. Zip8 and Steap2 are strongly expressed in the plasma membrane of both soma

  2. Enhanced Efficacy of Artemisinin Loaded in Transferrin-Conjugated Liposomes versus Stealth Liposomes against HCT-8 Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Leto, Isabella; Coronnello, Marcella; Righeschi, Chiara; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Mini, Enrico; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-08-19

    Artemisinin (ART) is a unique sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua that is well known for antimalarial properties and was recently reported as a promising anticancer drug. The aim of our work was to develop a novel nanocarrier for enhanced ART delivery and activation in cancer tissues, because transferrin receptors are largely expressed in cancer cells and the iron content is higher than in normal cells. ART was loaded in transferrin-conjugated liposomes (ART-L-Tf), and the performance was compared with ART loaded in stealth liposomes (ART-L). All of the liposomes were fully characterized in terms of size, drug-entrapment efficiency, transferrin coupling moieties, and stability. Both cell uptake and cytotoxicity studies of the developed nanocarriers were tested in the HCT-8 cell line, selected among several cell lines because of transferrin receptor overexpression. The results confirmed the enhanced delivery of ART-L-Tf in comparison with ART-L in the targeting of the HCT-8 cell line and an improved cytotoxicity as a result of the presence of iron ions, which resulted in concomitant synergism derived from the increased expression of transferrin receptors on the surface of the tumor cells.

  3. Enhanced Efficacy of Artemisinin Loaded in Transferrin-Conjugated Liposomes versus Stealth Liposomes against HCT-8 Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Leto, Isabella; Coronnello, Marcella; Righeschi, Chiara; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Mini, Enrico; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-08-19

    Artemisinin (ART) is a unique sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua that is well known for antimalarial properties and was recently reported as a promising anticancer drug. The aim of our work was to develop a novel nanocarrier for enhanced ART delivery and activation in cancer tissues, because transferrin receptors are largely expressed in cancer cells and the iron content is higher than in normal cells. ART was loaded in transferrin-conjugated liposomes (ART-L-Tf), and the performance was compared with ART loaded in stealth liposomes (ART-L). All of the liposomes were fully characterized in terms of size, drug-entrapment efficiency, transferrin coupling moieties, and stability. Both cell uptake and cytotoxicity studies of the developed nanocarriers were tested in the HCT-8 cell line, selected among several cell lines because of transferrin receptor overexpression. The results confirmed the enhanced delivery of ART-L-Tf in comparison with ART-L in the targeting of the HCT-8 cell line and an improved cytotoxicity as a result of the presence of iron ions, which resulted in concomitant synergism derived from the increased expression of transferrin receptors on the surface of the tumor cells. PMID:26999297

  4. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 disrupts mammary acinar architecture and initiates malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Teh, Jessica L F; Shah, Raj; La Cava, Stephanie; Dolfi, Sonia C; Mehta, Madhura S; Kongara, Sameera; Price, Sandy; Ganesan, Shridar; Reuhl, Kenneth R; Hirshfield, Kim M; Karantza, Vassiliki; Chen, Suzie

    2015-05-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1/Grm1) is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, which was once thought to only participate in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability, but has more recently been implicated in non-neuronal tissue functions. We previously described the oncogenic properties of Grm1 in cultured melanocytes in vitro and in spontaneous melanoma development with 100 % penetrance in vivo. Aberrant mGluR1 expression was detected in 60-80 % of human melanoma cell lines and biopsy samples. As most human cancers are of epithelial origin, we utilized immortalized mouse mammary epithelial cells (iMMECs) as a model system to study the transformative properties of Grm1. We introduced Grm1 into iMMECs and isolated several stable mGluR1-expressing clones. Phenotypic alterations in mammary acinar architecture were assessed using three-dimensional morphogenesis assays. We found that mGluR1-expressing iMMECs exhibited delayed lumen formation in association with decreased central acinar cell death, disrupted cell polarity, and a dramatic increase in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Orthotopic implantation of mGluR1-expressing iMMEC clones into mammary fat pads of immunodeficient nude mice resulted in mammary tumor formation in vivo. Persistent mGluR1 expression was required for the maintenance of the tumorigenic phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by an inducible Grm1-silencing RNA system. Furthermore, mGluR1 was found be expressed in human breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor biopsies. Elevated levels of extracellular glutamate were observed in mGluR1-expressing breast cancer cell lines and concurrent treatment of MCF7 xenografts with glutamate release inhibitor, riluzole, and an AKT inhibitor led to suppression of tumor progression. Our results are likely relevant to human breast cancer, highlighting a putative role of mGluR1 in the pathophysiology of breast cancer and the potential

  5. Protein kinase C does not phosphorylate the externalized form of the transferrin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M A; Johnstone, R M

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the phosphorylation of transferrin receptors both in intact sheep reticulocytes and in isolated plasma membranes. Phosphorylation of the receptor in intact cells or isolated plasma membranes is stimulated by phorbol diesters, suggesting that protein kinase C may be involved. Identical [32P] phosphopeptide tryptic maps are formed in the presence and absence of phorbol diesters. Using heat-treated membranes (which are devoid of endogenous kinase activity) exogenous protein kinase C phosphorylates the same peptides as the endogenous kinase(s). During maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes, the transferrin receptor is released to the medium in vesicular form. In cells labelled with [32P]Pi, the released receptor is not labelled with 32P and the exocytosed vesicles do not phosphorylate receptor with [gamma-32P]ATP. The absence of 32P in the released receptor appears to be due to a change in the receptor, since, even in the presence of exogenous protein kinase C, the exocytosed receptor is phosphorylated to approximately 8% of the level obtained with receptors from the plasma membrane. These data suggest that during maturation and externalization the receptor is altered so that it loses its capacity to act as a substrate for exogenous protein kinase C as well as the endogenous kinase(s). This change may be a signal which segregates the receptor for externalization from the receptor pool remaining for transferrin recycling during the final stages of red cell maturation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3593234

  6. Anaemia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Based on Iron Studies and Soluble Transferrin Receptor Levels

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Preeti; Wakhlu, Anupam; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mehrotra, Raj; Mittal, Saumya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Haematological alterations such as anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are frequent in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Ferritin being an acute phase reactant can be falsely elevated in lupus cases. Aim To evaluate the haematological alterations and to re-categorise the types of anemia by soluble transferrin receptor levels in diagnosed cases of SLE. Materials and Methods A sample of 30 newly diagnosed ANA positive SLE patients was taken. Complete blood counts, ESR, reticulocyte count, coagulation studies, diluted Russel Viper Venom Test (dRVVT), mixing studies, serological tests, high sensitivity CRP along with iron profile, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sol TFR) levels, anti-beta2 glycoprotein1, direct and indirect Coomb’s test were estimated in cases diagnosed as SLE. Clinical symptoms were co-related with and Systemic Lupus Erythaematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was estimated. Results Anaemia was the most prevalent haematological alteration followed by thrombocytopenia. Further sub typing of anaemia was done by serum ferritin levels and using sol TFR assays. Ferritin is an acute phase reactant; it underestimated iron deficiency in patients of SLE. When sol TFR was used; patients with pure Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) reduced from 68% to 26%, those with pure IDA reduced from 32% to 16% and a group with co-existing IDA & ACD (58%) was defined {Agreement=53%, p=0.09} by sol TFR which co-related with clinical response to Iron therapy in these patients. CRP was significantly raised in association with disease activity. Fever (p<0.0001), arthritis (p<0.03) were significantly related and CRP was elevated (p<0.04) in cases with high SLEDAI (severe flare). Conclusion Thus, in SLE, anaemia is the most frequent hematological alteration; iron deficiencies supercede in contrast to ACD and further autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Sol TFR emerged as a better parameter to detect iron deficiency in patients of non

  7. Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action of Transferrins: Selective Inhibition of H+-ATPase ▿

    PubMed Central

    Andrés, María T.; Fierro, José F.

    2010-01-01

    Two bacterial species with different metabolic features, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactococcus lactis, were used as a comparative experimental model to investigate the antimicrobial target and mechanism of transferrins. In anaerobiosis, P. aeruginosa cells were not susceptible to lactoferrin (hLf) or transferrin (hTf). In aerobiosis, the cells were susceptible but O2 consumption was not modified, indicating that components of the electron transport chain (ETC) were not targeted. However, the respiratory chain inhibitor piericidin A significantly reduced the killing activity of both proteins. Moreover, 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP), a reducing agent that accepts electrons from the ETC coupled to H+ extrusion, made P. aeruginosa susceptible to hLf and hTf in anaerobiosis. These results indicated that active cooperation of the cell was indispensable for the antimicrobial effect. For L. lactis cells lacking an ETC, the absence of a detectable transmembrane electrical potential in hLf-treated cells suggested a loss of H+-ATPase activity. Furthermore, the inhibition of ATPase activity and H+ translocation (inverted membrane vesicles) provided direct evidence of the ability of hLf to inhibit H+-ATPase in L. lactis. Based on these data, we propose that hLf and hTf also inhibit the H+-ATPase of respiring P. aeruginosa cells. Such inhibition thereby interferes with reentry of H+ from the periplasmic space to the cytoplasm, resulting in perturbation of intracellular pH and the transmembrane proton gradient. Consistent with this hypothesis, periplasmic H+ accumulation was prevented by anaerobiosis or by piericidin A or was induced by DCIP in anaerobiosis. Collectively, these results indicate that transferrins target H+-ATPase and interfere with H+ translocation, yielding a lethal effect in vitro. PMID:20625147

  8. TNF Receptor 1 Signaling is Critically Involved in Mediating Angiotensin-II-induced Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Duerrschmid, Clemens; Crawford, Jeffrey R.; Reineke, Erin; Taffet, George E.; Trial, JoAnn; Entman, Mark L.; Haudek, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is associated with many conditions involving heart failure and pathologic hypertrophy. Ang-II induces the synthesis of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 that mediates the uptake of CD34+CD45+ monocytic cells into the heart. These precursor cells differentiate into collagen-producing fibroblasts and are responsible for the Ang-II-induced development of non-adaptive cardiac fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that in vitro, using a human monocyte-to-fibroblast differentiation model, Ang-II required the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) to induce fibroblast maturation from monocytes. In vivo, mice deficient in both TNF receptors did not develop cardiac fibrosis in response to 1 week Ang-II infusion. We then subjected mice deficient in either TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1-KO) or TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2-KO) to continuous Ang-II infusion. Compared to wild-type, in TNFR1-KO, but not in TNFR2-KO hearts, collagen deposition was greatly attenuated, and markedly fewer CD34+CD45+ cells were present. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a striking reduction of key fibrosis-related, as well as inflammation-related mRNA expression in Ang-II-treated TNFR1-KO hearts. TNFR1-KO animals also developed less cardiac remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension compared to wild-type and TNFR2-KO in response to Ang-II. Our data suggest that TNF induced Ang-II-dependent cardiac fibrosis by signaling through TNFR1, which enhances the generation of monocytic fibroblast precursors in the heart. PMID:23337087

  9. Amplification of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in breast cancer and the effects of brivanib alaninate.

    PubMed

    Shiang, Christine Y; Qi, Yuan; Wang, Bailiang; Lazar, Vladimir; Wang, Jing; Fraser Symmans, W; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Andre, Fabrice; Pusztai, Lajos

    2010-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) is amplified in 10% of human breast cancers. The goal of this study was to test the correlation between FGFR-1 amplification and expression and sensitivity to brivanib, an FGFR-1 small molecule inhibitor, in breast cancer cell lines in vitro. Using CGH array and gene expression profiling, FGFR-1 DNA copy number, mRNA, and protein expression were measured in 21 cell lines and correlated with growth inhibition by brivanib. We examined FGFR-1 autophosphorylation and kinase activity, as well as phosphorylation of downstream signaling molecules in response to bFGF and brivanib exposure. CAMA, MDA-MB-361, and HCC38 cells had FGFR-1 amplification and protein overexpression. Brivanib GI(50) values were significantly lower in the gene amplified (15.17 μM, n = 3) compared to normal copy number (69.09 μM, n = 11) or FGFR-1 deleted (76.14 μM, n = 7) cells (P = 0.0107). Among nonamplified cells, there was no correlation between FGFR-1 mRNA or protein expression levels and brivanib sensitivity. Two of three FGFR-1 amplified cells were sensitive to bFGF-induced growth stimulation, which was blocked by brivanib. In cells with amplified FGFR-1, brivanib decreased receptor autophosphorylation, inhibited bFGF-induced tyrosine kinase activity, and reduced phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Breast cancer cell lines with FGFR-1 gene amplification and protein overexpression are more sensitive to growth inhibition by brivanib than nonamplified cells. These findings suggest that FGFR-1 amplification or protein overexpression in breast cancers may be an indicator for brivanib treatment, where it may have direct anti-proliferative effects in addition to its' anti-angiogenic effects.

  10. Identification of transferrin as the main binding site for protactinium in rat blood serum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D M; Farrow, L C

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of 233Pa in rat serum at periods between 5 and 50 min after i.v. injection of a solution of protactinium chloride was studied by gel chromatography. Sequential analysis of sera on Sephacryl S-300 and DEAE-Sephadex showed that 233Pa was associated only with the transferrin fraction of the serum proteins. This finding was confirmed by iso-electric focusing electrophoresis. In the cytosol fractions prepared from the liver and kidneys of the 233Pa injected rats the nuclide was also shown to be protein bound.

  11. Identification of transferrin as the main binding site for protactinium in rat blood serum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D M; Farrow, L C

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of 233Pa in rat serum at periods between 5 and 50 min after i.v. injection of a solution of protactinium chloride was studied by gel chromatography. Sequential analysis of sera on Sephacryl S-300 and DEAE-Sephadex showed that 233Pa was associated only with the transferrin fraction of the serum proteins. This finding was confirmed by iso-electric focusing electrophoresis. In the cytosol fractions prepared from the liver and kidneys of the 233Pa injected rats the nuclide was also shown to be protein bound. PMID:3583752

  12. A targeting drug delivery system for ovarian carcinoma: transferrin modified lipid coated paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Zhang, Q; Wang, X-y; Chen, X-g; He, Y-x; Yang, W-y; Yang, X

    2014-10-01

    The transferring modified lipid coated PLGA nanoparticles, as a targetable vector, were developed for the targeting delivery of anticancer drugs with paclitaxel (PTX) as a model drug to the ovarian carcinoma, which combines the advantages and avoids disadvantages of polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes in drug delivery. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the lipid coating on the polymeric core. Physicochemical characterizations of TFLPs, such as particle size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro PTX release, were also evaluated. In the cellular uptake study, the TFLPs were more efficiently endocytosed by the A2780 cells with high expression of transferrin receptors than HUVEC cells without the transferrin receptors. Furthermore, the anticancer efficacy of TFLPs on the tumor spheroids was stronger than that of lipid coated PLGA nanoparticles (LPs) and PLGA nanoparticles. In the in vivo study, the TFLPs showed the best inhibition effect of the tumor growth for the ovarian carcinoma-bearing mice. In brief, the TFLPs were proved to be an efficient targeting drug delivery system for ovarian carcinoma.

  13. Targeted transferrin-modified polymeric micelles: enhanced efficacy in vitro and in vivo in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Rupa R; Jhaveri, Aditi M; Koshkaryev, Alexander; Zhu, Lin; Qureshi, Farooq; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2014-02-01

    In this study, transferrin (Tf)-modified poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphatidylethanolamine (mPEG-PE) micelles loaded with the poorly water-soluble drug, R547 (a potent and selective ATP-competitive cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor), were prepared and evaluated for their targeting efficiency and cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo to A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells, which overexpress transferrin receptors (TfR). At 10 mM lipid concentration, both Tf-modified and plain micelles solubilized 800 μg of R547. Tf-modified micelles showed enhanced interaction with A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro. The involvement of TfR in endocytosis of Tf-modified micelles was confirmed by colocalization studies of micelle-treated cells with the endosomal marker Tf-Alexa488. We confirmed endocytosis of micelles in an intact form with micelles loaded with a fluorescent dye and additionally labeled with fluorescent lipid. The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo tumor growth inhibition studies in A2780-tumor bearing mice confirmed the enhanced efficacy of Tf-modified R547-loaded micelles compared to free drug solution and to nonmodified micelles. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application of Tf-conjugated polymeric micelles in the treatment of tumors overexpressing TfR. PMID:24325630

  14. Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Harshala J.; Huang, Jing-Hong; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Liu, Ru-Shi; Wang, Jui-Ling; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Tsai, Din Ping; Chuang, Shih-Yi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.

    2011-09-01

    The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  15. Effect of cadmium on Fe/sup +3/-transferrin formation in the rat intestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, N.; Chen, B.Q.; Sugawara, C.; Miyake, H.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of cadmium (Cd) on iron (Fe) metabolism has been an important subject for Cd toxicity, since anemia is usually observed in Itai-Itai patients who are exposed for long periods to Cd from the surrounding environment. It was previously accepted that Cd-induced anemia was not dependent on the route of administration. Thereafter, however, it was shown that oral Cd administration was essential for the development of anemia. Studies suggest that one of the possible sensitive sites of competition between Cd and Fe is in the gastrointestinal tract. Cd competes with Fe at one or more steps in the transport system and these metals undergo the same step(s) during their absorption. An hypothesis implies that these two metals possess a common carrier. Two Fe-binding proteins, ferritin and transferrin are well documented in the case of Fe deficiency but not in Cd exposed animals. Recently, the authors reported that the status of mucosal Fe-binding proteins in rats fed with Cd was similar to that in the Fe deficient rats. The present work was performed in an attempt to clarify the effect of in vivo and in vitro Cd on mucosal transferrin formation, which is one of two main Fe-binding proteins.

  16. [Non-transferrin-bound iron: a promising biomarker in iron overload disorders].

    PubMed

    Maas, Roderick P P W M; Voets, Philip J G M; de Swart, Louise; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2013-01-01

    Iron overload disorders are common and, if left untreated, severe systemic diseases that can have both genetic and acquired causes. Hereditary haemochromatosis, β-thalassaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and sickle cell disease are among the most important examples. Iron that is not bound to transferrin, haem or ferritin (non-transferrin-bound iron, NTBI) seems to play a key role in the pathophysiology of these disorders. NTBI is a heterogeneous group of potentially toxic iron complexes in plasma which are generated almost exclusively under pathological conditions. Cellular uptake of NTBI contributes to its toxicity and is mediated by several organ-specific transporters and receptors. NTBI-induced toxicity is the result of oxidative damage to various macromolecules by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the near future, we hypothesize that NTBI will have important implications for both diagnosis and treatment of iron overload disorders. However, before NTBI can be applied to patient care, the currently available assays need further clinical and analytical validation. PMID:24299624

  17. Genetic changes at the transferrin locus in the red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi)

    SciTech Connect

    Mihok, S.; Fuller, W.A.; Canham, R.P.; McPhee, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Genetic changes at the transferrin locus in Clethrionomys gapperi were intermittently monitored in a subarctic population from 1966 to 1978. Over this 13-year period, only minor fluctuations in gene frequency were observed. Gene frequency of Tf/sup J/ increased over winter during declines from high nonbreeding density in autumn. This phenomenon may have been responsible for a general negative correlation between the frequency of Tf/sup J/ and population density. Outside of winter, no frequency changes were detected within trappable age-classes of voles from relatively discrete seasonal generations. Excess of Tf/sup M/J/ heterozygotes occurred in three of four samples of young voles that matured in the year of their birth. A similar heterozygote excess occurred in one of six samples of overwintered voles taken in a year characterized by a high rate of population growth. These results suggest that selection may occur during ecologically different conditions of high density or population growth. A heterozygote advantage in early-season cohorts may account for the maintenance of transferrin polymorphism. This hypothesis requires further data on the breeding structure and early life history of voles.

  18. Transferrin and cell-penetrating peptide dual-functioned liposome for targeted drug delivery to glioma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chuanyi; Ma, Chunyang; Bai, Enqi; Yang, Kun; Xu, Ruxiang

    2015-01-01

    A brain drug delivery system for glioma chemotherapy based on transferrin and cell-penetrating peptide dual-functioned liposome, Tf/TAT-lip, was made and evaluated with doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug. TAT conjugated liposome (TAT-lip) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) were prepared by the thin film hydration methods (lip-DOX) and then conjugated with transferrin (Tf) to yield Tf/TAT-lip-DOX which was characterized for their various physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties. Cellular uptakes were explored in both brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) of rats and U87 cells. The blood brain barrier model in vitro was established to evaluate the trans-endothelial ability crossing the BBB. The biodistribution of each formulation was further identified. The Tf/TAT-lip-DOX presents the best anti-proliferative activity against U87 cells. The orthotropic glioma model was established for the evaluation of anti-glioma effect. In conclusion, the experimental data in vitro and in vivo indicated that the Tf/TAT-lip was a promising brain drug delivery system due to its high delivery efficiency across the BBB. PMID:25932094

  19. Transferrin-Targeted Polymeric Micelles Co-Loaded with Curcumin and Paclitaxel: Efficient Killing of Paclitaxel-Resistant Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abouzeid, Abraham H.; Patel, Niravkumar R.; Sarisozen, Can

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The ability to successfully treat advanced forms of cancer remains a challenge due to chemotherapy resistance. Numerous studies indicate that NF-κB, a protein complex that controls the expression of numerous genes, as being a key factor in producing chemo-resistant tumors. In this study, the therapeutic potential of transferrin (TF)-targeted mixed micelles, made of PEG-PE and vitamin E co-loaded with curcumin (CUR), a potent NF-κB inhibitor, and paclitaxel (PCL), was examined. Methods The cytotoxicity of non-targeted and TF-targeted CUR and PCL micelles as a single agent or in combination was investigated against SK-OV-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma along with its multi-drug resistant (MDR) version SK-OV-3-PCL-resistant (SK-OV-3TR) cells in vitro. Results Our results indicated that the TF-targeted combination micelles were able to improve the net cytotoxic effect of CUR and PCL to clear synergistic one against the SK-OV-3 cells. In addition, even though the non-targeted combination treatment demonstrated a synergistic effect against the SK-OV-3TR cells, the addition of the TF-targeting moiety significantly increased this cytotoxic effect. While keeping CUR constant at 5 and 10 μM and varying the PCL concentration, the PCL IC50 decreased from ~ 1.78 and 0.68 μM for the non-targeted formulations to ~ 0.74 and 0.1 μM for the TF-targeted ones, respectively. Conclusion Our results indicate that such co-loaded targeted mixed micelles could have significant clinical advantages for the treatment of resistant ovarian cancer and provide a clear rational for further in vivo investigation. PMID:24522815

  20. Anti-cancer activity of doxorubicin-loaded liposomes co-modified with transferrin and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Salzano, Giusseppina; Sarisozen, Can; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    Cancer-specific drug delivery represents an attractive approach to prevent undesirable side-effects and increase the accumulation of the drug in the tumor. Surface modification of nanoparticles such as liposomes with targeting moieties specific to the up-regulated receptors on the surface of tumor cells thus represents an effective strategy. Furthermore, since this receptor expression can be heterogeneous, using a dual-combination of targeting moieties may prove advantageous. With this in mind, the anti-cancer activity of PEGylated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes targeted with folic acid (F), transferrin (Tf) or both (F+Tf) was evaluated. The dual-targeted liposomes showed a 7-fold increase in cell association compared to either of the single-ligand targeted ones in human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell monolayers. The increased penetration and cell association of the dual-targeted liposomes were also demonstrated using HeLa cell spheroids. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the doxorubicin liposomes (LD) was then evaluated using HeLa and A2780-ADR ovarian carcinoma cell monolayers. In both these cell lines, the (F+Tf) LD showed significantly higher cytotoxic effects than the untargeted, or single-ligand targeted liposomes. In a HeLa xenograft model in nude mice, compared to the untreated group, though the untargeted LD showed 42% tumor growth inhibition, both the (F) LD and (F+Tf) LD showed 75% and 79% tumor growth inhibition respectively. These results thus highlight that though the dual-targeted liposomes represent an effective cytotoxic formulation in the in vitro setting, they were equally effective as the folic acid-targeted liposomes in reducing tumor burden in the more complex in vivo setting in this particular model. PMID:27264717

  1. Molecular mechanisms of non-transferrin-bound and transferring-bound iron uptake in primary hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Changyi; Kosman, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of iron trafficking in neurons have not been elucidated. In this study, we characterized the expression and localization of ferrous iron transporters Zip8, Zip14 and DMT1, and ferrireductases Steap2 and SDR2 in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Steap2 and Zip8 partially co-localize, indicating these two proteins may function in Fe3+ reduction prior to Fe2+ permeation. Zip8, DMT1 and Steap2 co-localize with the transferrin receptor (TfR)/transferrin (Tf) complex, suggesting they may be involved in TfR/Tf-mediated iron assimilation. In brain interstitial fluid, transferring-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) exist as potential iron sources. Primary hippocampal neurons exhibit significant iron uptake from TBI (Transferrin-59Fe3+) and NTBI, whether presented as 59Fe2+-citrate or 59Fe3+-citrate; reductase-independent 59Fe2+ uptake was the most efficient uptake pathway of the three. Kinetic analysis of Zn2+ inhibition of Fe2+ uptake indicated that DMT1 plays only a minor role in the uptake of NTBI. In contrast, localization and knockdown data indicate that Zip8 makes a major contribution. Data suggest also that cell accumulation of 59Fe from TBI relies at least in part on an endocytosis-independent pathway. These data suggest that Zip8 and Steap2 play a major role in iron accumulation from NTBI and TBI by hippocampal neurons. PMID:25649872

  2. Deoxynivalenol induces ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 and thereby inhibits the TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Seiya; Kataoka, Takao

    2013-02-15

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are known to inhibit eukaryotic translation and to trigger the ribotoxic stress response, which regulates gene expression via the activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily. In this study, we found that deoxynivalenol induced the ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNFRSF1A) and thereby inhibited the TNF-α-induced signaling pathway. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol inhibited the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) induced by TNF-α more strongly than that induced by interleukin 1α (IL-1α), whereas T-2 toxin and verrucarin A exerted nonselective inhibitory effects. Deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol also inhibited the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway induced by TNF-α, but not that induced by IL-1α. Consistent with these findings, deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol induced the ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 by TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE), also known as a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). In addition to the TACE inhibitor TAPI-2, the MAP kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580, but not the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, suppressed the ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 induced by deoxynivalenol and reversed its selective inhibition of TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression. Our results demonstrate that deoxynivalenol induces the TACE-dependent ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 via the activation of ERK and p38 MAP kinase, and thereby inhibits the TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling pathway.

  3. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders.

    PubMed

    de Swart, Louise; Hendriks, Jan C M; van der Vorm, Lisa N; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Evans, Patricia J; Hod, Eldad A; Brittenham, Gary M; Furman, Yael; Wojczyk, Boguslaw; Janssen, Mirian C H; Porter, John B; Mattijssen, Vera E J M; Biemond, Bart J; MacKenzie, Marius A; Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo; Hider, Robert C; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron) as part of an international inter-laboratory study. Serum samples from 60 patients with four different iron-overload disorders in various treatment phases were coded and sent in duplicate for analysis to five different laboratories worldwide. Some laboratories provided multiple assays. Overall, highest assay levels were observed for patients with untreated hereditary hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia intermedia, patients with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndromes and patients with transfusion-dependent and chelated β-thalassemia major. Absolute levels differed considerably between assays and were lower for labile plasma iron than for non-transferrin-bound iron. Four assays also reported negative values. Assays were reproducible with high between-sample and low within-sample variation. Assays correlated and correlations were highest within the group of non-transferrin-bound iron assays and within that of labile plasma iron assays. Increased transferrin saturation, but not ferritin, was a good indicator of the presence of forms of circulating non-transferrin-bound iron. The possibility of using non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron measures as clinical indicators of overt iron overload and/or of treatment efficacy would largely depend on the rigorous validation and standardization of assays.

  4. Transferrin Sialylation in Smoking and Non-Smoking Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Wrześniak, Marta; Kepinska, Marta; Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron. Various sialylation levels of Tf are observed during physiological and pathological processes. We studied if the changes in iron stores as well as tobacco smoke may have an impact on foetal development and in consequence lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester of pregnancy, lower levels of 4-sialoTf isoform and higher levels of 5-sialoTf were observed in the serum of non-smoking women with IUGR in comparison to the control group. On the day of labour, level of 2-sialoTf was significantly lower and level of 3-sialo was Tf higher in the serum of non-smoking women. Level of 4-sialo was found lower in the serum of smoking women with IUGR than in the control group. The observed changes may suggest a connection between iron stores, transport of iron to the foetus and foetal development.

  5. Transferrin receptor bearing cells in the peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, M; Bacon, P A; Symmons, D P; Blann, A D

    1985-01-01

    Activated, proliferating lymphocytes are a feature of rheumatoid arthritis. They are present both in the synovial membrane and in the peripheral circulation. The expression of transferrin receptors(TFR) is a good marker of cellular proliferation. This study shows increased levels of circulating TFR-bearing lymphocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The TFR+ population contains a disproportionately large number of T4+ cells, leading to a high T4:T8 ratio (5:1 in the TFR+ population, compared to 2:1 in the total circulating pool of lymphocytes). This reflects the pattern found in the rheumatoid synovium and suggests that lymphocyte activation in RA may be an extra-articular phenomenon. The TFR+ population also contains a range of non-T cells, including B cells, and a population bearing phenotypic similarities to natural killer (NK) cells. PMID:3002686

  6. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  7. Transferrin Decorated Thermoresponsive Nanogels as Magnetic Trap Devices for Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Asadian-Birjand, Mazdak; Biglione, Catalina; Bergueiro, Julian; Cappelletti, Ariel; Rahane, Chinmay; Chate, Govind; Khandare, Jayant; Klemke, Bastian; Strumia, Miriam C; Calderón, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    A rational design of magnetic capturing nanodevices, based on a specific interaction with circulating tumor cells (CTCs), can advance the capturing efficiency and initiate the development of modern smart nanoformulations for rapid isolation and detection of these CTCs from the bloodstream. Therefore, the development and evaluation of magnetic nanogels (MNGs) based on magnetic nanoparticles and linear thermoresponsive polyglycerol for the capturing of CTCs with overexpressed transferrin (Tf(+) ) receptors has been presented in this study. The MNGs are synthesized using a strain-promoted "click" approach which has allowed the in situ surface decoration with Tf-polyethylene glycol (PEG) ligands of three different PEG chain lengths as targeting ligands. An optimal value of around 30% of cells captures is achieved with a linker of eight ethylene glycol units. This study shows the potential of MNGs for the capture of CTCs and the necessity of precise control over the linkage of the targeting moiety to the capturing device.

  8. Maxi-circles, glycosomes, gene transposition, expression sites, transsplicing, transferrin receptors and base J.

    PubMed

    Borst, Piet

    2016-01-01

    This is a personal story of the author of his research on trypanosomatids, covering a period of 1970-2015. Some of the highlights include the discovery of new aspects of kDNA, the mini-circle heterogeneity and the maxi-circle; the glycosome; the discovery of gene transposition as a major mechanism for antigenic variation; trans-splicing as an essential step in the synthesis of all trypanosome mRNAs; Pulsed Field Gradient gels to size-fractionate chromosome-sized DNA molecules of protozoa; the sequence of trypanosome telomeres and their growth and contraction; the first ABC-transporter of trypanosomatids, LtpgpA; the variable transferrin receptor of T. brucei and its role in Fe uptake; and base J, its structure, biosynthesis and function.

  9. Transferrin Decorated Thermoresponsive Nanogels as Magnetic Trap Devices for Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Asadian-Birjand, Mazdak; Biglione, Catalina; Bergueiro, Julian; Cappelletti, Ariel; Rahane, Chinmay; Chate, Govind; Khandare, Jayant; Klemke, Bastian; Strumia, Miriam C; Calderón, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    A rational design of magnetic capturing nanodevices, based on a specific interaction with circulating tumor cells (CTCs), can advance the capturing efficiency and initiate the development of modern smart nanoformulations for rapid isolation and detection of these CTCs from the bloodstream. Therefore, the development and evaluation of magnetic nanogels (MNGs) based on magnetic nanoparticles and linear thermoresponsive polyglycerol for the capturing of CTCs with overexpressed transferrin (Tf(+) ) receptors has been presented in this study. The MNGs are synthesized using a strain-promoted "click" approach which has allowed the in situ surface decoration with Tf-polyethylene glycol (PEG) ligands of three different PEG chain lengths as targeting ligands. An optimal value of around 30% of cells captures is achieved with a linker of eight ethylene glycol units. This study shows the potential of MNGs for the capture of CTCs and the necessity of precise control over the linkage of the targeting moiety to the capturing device. PMID:26691543

  10. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  11. Transferrin receptors and the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Tracy R.; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Rodríguez, José A.; Patel, Shabnum; Kozman, Maggie; Chiappetta, Diego A.; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y.; Helguera, Gustavo; Penichet, Manuel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional cancer therapy can be successful in destroying tumors, but can also cause dangerous side effects. Therefore, many targeted therapies are in development. The transferrin receptor (TfR) functions in cellular iron uptake through its interaction with transferrin. This receptor is an attractive molecule for the targeted therapy of cancer since it is upregulated on the surface of many cancer types and is efficiently internalized. This receptor can be targeted in two ways: 1) for the delivery of therapeutic molecules into malignant cells or 2) to block the natural function of the receptor leading directly to cancer cell death. Scope of review In the present article we discuss the strategies used to target the TfR for the delivery of therapeutic agents into cancer cells. We provide a summary of the vast types of anti-cancer drugs that have been delivered into cancer cells employing a variety of receptor binding molecules including Tf, anti-TfR antibodies, or TfR-binding peptides alone or in combination with carrier molecules including nanoparticles and viruses. Major conclusions Targeting the TfR has been shown to be effective in delivering many different therapeutic agents and causing cytotoxic effects in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. General significance The extensive use of TfR for targeted therapy attests to the versatility of targeting this receptor for therapeutic purposes against malignant cells. More advances in this area are expected to further improve the therapeutic potential of targeting the TfR for cancer therapy leading to an increase in the number of clinical trials of molecules targeting this receptor. PMID:21851850

  12. Evaluation of Nonferrous Metals as Potential In Vivo Tracers of Transferrin-Based Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hanwei; Wang, Shunhai; Nguyen, Son N.; Elci, S. Gokhan; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2016-02-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a promising candidate for targeted drug delivery. While development of such products is impossible without the ability to monitor biodistribution of Tf-drug conjugates in tissues and reliable measurements of their levels in blood and other biological fluids, the presence of very abundant endogenous Tf presents a significant impediment to such efforts. Several noncognate metals have been evaluated in this work as possible tracers of exogenous transferrin in complex biological matrices using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) as a detection tool. Placing Ni(II) on a His-tag of recombinant Tf resulted in formation of a marginally stable protein-metal complex, which readily transfers the metal to ubiquitous physiological scavengers, such as serum albumin. An alternative strategy targeted iron-binding pockets of Tf, where cognate Fe(III) was replaced by metal ions known to bind this protein. Both Ga(III) and In(III) were evaluated, with the latter being vastly superior as a tracer (stronger binding to Tf unaffected by the presence of metal scavengers and the retained ability to associate with Tf receptor). Spiking serum with indium-loaded Tf followed by ICP MS detection demonstrated that protein quantities as low as 0.04 nM can be readily detected in animal blood. Combining laser ablation with ICP MS detection allows distribution of exogenous Tf to be mapped within animal tissue cross-sections with spatial resolution exceeding 100 μm. The method can be readily extended to a range of other therapeutics where metalloproteins are used as either carriers or payloads.

  13. The preparation and partial characterization of N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding fragments from rabbit serum transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Heaphy, S; Williams, J

    1982-01-01

    Two iron-binding fragments of Mr 36 000 and 33 000 corresponding to the N-terminal domain of rabbit serum transferrin were prepared. One iron-binding fragment of Mr 39 000 corresponding to the C-terminal domain was prepared. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of rabbit serum transferrin is: Val-Thr-Glu-Lys-Thr-Val-Asn-Trp-?-Ala-Val-Ser. One glycan unit is presented in rabbit serum transferrin and it is located in the C-terminal domain. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6816218

  14. Neurotensin-induced miR-133α expression regulates neurotensin receptor 1 recycling through its downstream target aftiphilin.

    PubMed

    Law, Ivy Ka Man; Jensen, Dane; Bunnett, Nigel W; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2016-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) triggers signaling in human colonic epithelial cells by activating the G protein-coupled receptor, the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1). Activated NTR1 traffics from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, and then recycles. Although sustained NT/NTR1 signaling requires efficient NTR1 recycling, little is known about the regulation of NTR1 recycling. We recently showed that NT/NTR1 signaling increases expression of miR-133α. Herein, we studied the mechanism of NT-regulated miR-133α expression and examined the role of miR-133α in intracellular NTR1 trafficking in human NCM460 colonocytes. We found that NT-induced miR-133α upregulation involves the negative transcription regulator, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1. Silencing of miR-133α or overexpression of aftiphilin (AFTPH), a binding target of miR-133α, attenuated NTR1 trafficking to plasma membrane in human colonocytes, without affecting NTR1 internalization. We localized AFTPH to early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in unstimulated human colonic epithelial cells. AFTPH overexpression reduced NTR1 localization in early endosomes and increased expression of proteins related to endosomes and the TGN trafficking pathway. AFTPH overexpression and de-acidification of intracellular vesicles increased NTR1 expression. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of GPCR trafficking in human colonic epithelial cells by which a microRNA, miR-133α regulates NTR1 trafficking through its downstream target AFTPH. PMID:26902265

  15. Neurotensin-induced miR-133α expression regulates neurotensin receptor 1 recycling through its downstream target aftiphilin

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ivy Ka Man; Jensen, Dane; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2016-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) triggers signaling in human colonic epithelial cells by activating the G protein-coupled receptor, the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1). Activated NTR1 traffics from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, and then recycles. Although sustained NT/NTR1 signaling requires efficient NTR1 recycling, little is known about the regulation of NTR1 recycling. We recently showed that NT/NTR1 signaling increases expression of miR-133α. Herein, we studied the mechanism of NT-regulated miR-133α expression and examined the role of miR-133α in intracellular NTR1 trafficking in human NCM460 colonocytes. We found that NT-induced miR-133α upregulation involves the negative transcription regulator, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1. Silencing of miR-133α or overexpression of aftiphilin (AFTPH), a binding target of miR-133α, attenuated NTR1 trafficking to plasma membrane in human colonocytes, without affecting NTR1 internalization. We localized AFTPH to early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in unstimulated human colonic epithelial cells. AFTPH overexpression reduced NTR1 localization in early endosomes and increased expression of proteins related to endosomes and the TGN trafficking pathway. AFTPH overexpression and de-acidification of intracellular vesicles increased NTR1 expression. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of GPCR trafficking in human colonic epithelial cells by which a microRNA, miR-133α regulates NTR1 trafficking through its downstream target AFTPH. PMID:26902265

  16. Mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron generation: insights from comparing transfused diamond blackfan anaemia with sickle cell and thalassaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Porter, John B; Walter, Patrick B; Neumayr, Lynne D; Evans, Patricia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Garbowski, Maciej; Weyhmiller, Marcela G; Harmatz, Paul R; Wood, John C; Miller, Jeffery L; Byrnes, Colleen; Weiss, Guenter; Seifert, Markus; Grosse, Regine; Grabowski, Dagmar; Schmidt, Angelica; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2014-12-01

    In transfusional iron overload, extra-hepatic iron distribution differs, depending on the underlying condition. Relative mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) generation may account for these differences. Markers of iron metabolism (plasma NTBI, labile iron, hepcidin, transferrin, monocyte SLC40A1 [ferroportin]), erythropoiesis (growth differentiation factor 15, soluble transferrin receptor) and tissue hypoxia (erythropoietin) were compared in patients with Thalassaemia Major (TM), Sickle Cell Disease and Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia (DBA), with matched transfusion histories. The most striking differences between these conditions were relationships of NTBI to erythropoietic markers, leading us to propose three mechanisms of NTBI generation: iron overload (all), ineffective erythropoiesis (predominantly TM) and low transferrin-iron utilization (DBA).

  17. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; P<0.05) at all examined time points (2 to 24 hours). mRNA half-life studies showed that this response was not due to increased mRNA instability. tPA mRNA expression was decreased (to 10% of stationary control; P<0.05) by low shear stress after 12 hours of exposure and was increased (to 250% of stationary control; P<0.05) after 24 hours at high shear stress. The same trends in PAR-1 mRNA levels were observed in rat smooth muscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  18. Effects of Trace Amine-associated Receptor 1 Agonists on the Expression, Reconsolidation, and Extinction of Cocaine Reward Memory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Thorn, David A; Zhang, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a modulator of dopaminergic system, trace amine-associated receptor 1 has been shown to play a critical role in regulating the rewarding properties of additive drugs. It has been demonstrated that activation of trace amine-associated receptor 1 decreased the abuse-related behaviors of cocaine in rats. However, the role of trace amine-associated receptor 1 in specific stages of cocaine reward memory is still unclear. Methods: Here, using a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference model, we tested the effects of a selective trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonist RO5166017 on the expression, reconsolidation, and extinction of cocaine reward memory. Results: We found that RO5166017 inhibited the expression but not retention of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. RO5166017 had no effect on the reconsolidation of cocaine reward memory. Pretreatment with RO5166017 before extinction hindered the formation of extinction long-term memory. RO5166017 did not affect the movement during the conditioned place preference test, indicating the inhibitory effect of RO5166017 on the expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference was not caused by locomotion inhibition. Using a cocaine i.v. self-administration model, we found that the combined trace amine-associated receptor 1 partial agonist RO5263397 with extinction had no effect on the following cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Repeated administration of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonist during extinction showed a continually inhibitory effect on the expression of cocaine reward memory both in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and cocaine self-administration models. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicate that activation of trace amine-associated receptor 1 specifically inhibited the expression of cocaine reward memory. The inhibitory effect of trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonists on cocaine reward memory suggests

  19. Sleep-wake behavior and responses to sleep deprivation of mice lacking both interleukin-1 beta receptor 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, Francesca; Opp, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    Data indicate that interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Previous studies demonstrate that mice lacking the IL-1 beta type 1 receptor spend less time in NREMS during the light period, whereas mice lacking the p55 (type 1) receptor for TNFalpha spend less time in NREMS during the dark period. To further investigate roles for IL-1 beta and TNFalpha in sleep regulation we phenotyped sleep and responses to sleep deprivation of mice lacking both the IL-1 beta receptor 1 and TNFalpha receptor 1 (IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO). Male adult mice (IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO, n=14; B6129SF2/J, n=14) were surgically instrumented with EEG electrodes and with a thermistor to measure brain temperature. After recovery and adaptation to the recording apparatus, 48 h of undisturbed baseline recordings were obtained. Mice were then subjected to 6h sleep deprivation at light onset by gentle handling. IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice spent less time in NREMS during the last 6h of the dark period and less time in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) during the light period. There were no differences between strains in the diurnal timing of delta power during NREMS. However, there were strain differences in the relative power spectra of the NREMS EEG during both the light period and the dark period. In addition, during the light period relative power in the theta frequency band of the REMS EEG differed between strains. After sleep deprivation, control mice exhibited prolonged increases in NREMS and REMS, whereas the duration of the NREMS increase was shorter and there was no increase in REMS of IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice. Delta power during NREMS increased in both strains after sleep deprivation, but the increase in delta power during NREMS of IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice was of greater magnitude and of longer duration than that observed in control mice. These results provide additional evidence that the IL-1 beta and TNFalpha cytokine systems

  20. A pivotal role for enhanced brainstem Orexin receptor 1 signaling in the central cannabinoid receptor 1-mediated pressor response in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Badr Mostafa; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2015-10-01

    Orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) signaling is implicated in cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) modulation of feeding. Further, our studies established the dependence of the central CB1R-mediated pressor response on neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the RVLM. Here, we tested the novel hypothesis that brainstem orexin-A/OX1R signaling plays a pivotal role in the central CB1R-mediated pressor response. Our multiple labeling immunofluorescence findings revealed co-localization of CB1R, OX1R and the peptide orexin-A within the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Activation of central CB1R following intracisternal (i.c.) WIN55,212-2 (15μg/rat) in conscious rats caused significant increases in BP and orexin-A level in RVLM neuronal tissue. Additional studies established a causal role for orexin-A in the central CB1R-mediated pressor response because (i) selective blockade of central CB1R (AM251, 30μg/rat; i.c.) abrogated WIN55,212-2-evoked increases in RVLM orexin-A level, (ii) the selective OX1R antagonist SB-408124 (10nmol/rat; i.c.) attenuated orexin-A (3nmol/rat; i.c.) or WIN55,212-2 (15μg/rat; i.c.)-evoked pressor response while selective CB1R blockade (AM251) had no effect on orexin-A (3nmol/rat; i.c.)-evoked pressor response, (iii) direct CB1R activation in the RVLM (WIN55,212-2; 0.1μg/rat) increased RVLM orexin-A and BP. Finally, SB-408124 attenuated WIN55,212-2-evoked increases in RVLM nNOS and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and BP. Our findings suggest that orexin-A/OX1R dependent activation of the RVLM nNOS/ERK1/2 cascade is essential neurochemical mechanism for the central CB1R-mediated pressor response in conscious rats.

  1. Sleep-wake behavior and responses to sleep deprivation of mice lacking both interleukin-1 beta receptor 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, Francesca; Opp, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    Data indicate that interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Previous studies demonstrate that mice lacking the IL-1 beta type 1 receptor spend less time in NREMS during the light period, whereas mice lacking the p55 (type 1) receptor for TNFalpha spend less time in NREMS during the dark period. To further investigate roles for IL-1 beta and TNFalpha in sleep regulation we phenotyped sleep and responses to sleep deprivation of mice lacking both the IL-1 beta receptor 1 and TNFalpha receptor 1 (IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO). Male adult mice (IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO, n=14; B6129SF2/J, n=14) were surgically instrumented with EEG electrodes and with a thermistor to measure brain temperature. After recovery and adaptation to the recording apparatus, 48 h of undisturbed baseline recordings were obtained. Mice were then subjected to 6h sleep deprivation at light onset by gentle handling. IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice spent less time in NREMS during the last 6h of the dark period and less time in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) during the light period. There were no differences between strains in the diurnal timing of delta power during NREMS. However, there were strain differences in the relative power spectra of the NREMS EEG during both the light period and the dark period. In addition, during the light period relative power in the theta frequency band of the REMS EEG differed between strains. After sleep deprivation, control mice exhibited prolonged increases in NREMS and REMS, whereas the duration of the NREMS increase was shorter and there was no increase in REMS of IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice. Delta power during NREMS increased in both strains after sleep deprivation, but the increase in delta power during NREMS of IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice was of greater magnitude and of longer duration than that observed in control mice. These results provide additional evidence that the IL-1 beta and TNFalpha cytokine systems

  2. DNA Methylation at the Neonatal State and at the Time of Diagnosis: Preliminary Support for an Association with the Estrogen Receptor 1, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor 1, and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Female Adolescent Patients with OCD.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Judith Becker; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Starnawska, Anna; Mattheisen, Manuel; Børglum, Anders Dupont; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hollegaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder. Non-genetic factors and their interaction with genes have attracted increasing attention. Epigenetics is regarded an important interface between environmental signals and activation/repression of genomic responses. Epigenetic mechanisms have not previously been examined in OCD in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of selected genes in blood spots from neonates later diagnosed with OCD and in the same children/adolescents at the time of diagnosis compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Furthermore, we wanted to characterize the association of the differential methylation profiles with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome. Dried and new blood spot samples were obtained from 21 female children/adolescents with verified OCD and 12 female controls. The differential methylation was analyzed using a linear model and the correlation with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome was analyzed using the Pearson correlation. We evaluated selected Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip probes within and up to 100,000 bp up- and downstream of 14 genes previously associated with OCD (SLC1A1, SLC25A12, GABBR1, GAD1, DLGAP1, MOG, BDNF, OLIG2, NTRK2 and 3, ESR1, SL6A4, TPH2, and COMT). The study found no significantly differential methylation. However, preliminary support for a difference was found for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 (cg10234998, cg17099072) in blood samples at birth and for the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) (cg10939667), the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (cg16650906), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (cg14080521) in blood samples at the time of diagnosis. Preliminary support for an association was observed between the methylation profiles of GABBR1 and MOG and baseline severity, treatment effect, and responder status; and between the methylation profile of ESR1 and baseline

  3. DNA Methylation at the Neonatal State and at the Time of Diagnosis: Preliminary Support for an Association with the Estrogen Receptor 1, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor 1, and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Female Adolescent Patients with OCD

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Judith Becker; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Starnawska, Anna; Mattheisen, Manuel; Børglum, Anders Dupont; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hollegaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder. Non-genetic factors and their interaction with genes have attracted increasing attention. Epigenetics is regarded an important interface between environmental signals and activation/repression of genomic responses. Epigenetic mechanisms have not previously been examined in OCD in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of selected genes in blood spots from neonates later diagnosed with OCD and in the same children/adolescents at the time of diagnosis compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Furthermore, we wanted to characterize the association of the differential methylation profiles with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome. Dried and new blood spot samples were obtained from 21 female children/adolescents with verified OCD and 12 female controls. The differential methylation was analyzed using a linear model and the correlation with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome was analyzed using the Pearson correlation. We evaluated selected Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip probes within and up to 100,000 bp up- and downstream of 14 genes previously associated with OCD (SLC1A1, SLC25A12, GABBR1, GAD1, DLGAP1, MOG, BDNF, OLIG2, NTRK2 and 3, ESR1, SL6A4, TPH2, and COMT). The study found no significantly differential methylation. However, preliminary support for a difference was found for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 (cg10234998, cg17099072) in blood samples at birth and for the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) (cg10939667), the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (cg16650906), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (cg14080521) in blood samples at the time of diagnosis. Preliminary support for an association was observed between the methylation profiles of GABBR1 and MOG and baseline severity, treatment effect, and responder status; and between the methylation profile of ESR1 and baseline

  4. Competition between transferrin and the serum ligands citrate and phosphate for the binding of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Harris, Wesley R; Wang, Zhepeng; Hamada, Yahia Z

    2003-05-19

    A key issue regarding the speciation of Al(3+) in serum is how well the ligands citric acid and phosphate can compete with the iron transport protein serum transferrin for the aluminum. Previous studies have attempted to measure binding constants for each ligand separately, but experimental problems make it very difficult to obtain stability constants with the accuracy required to make a meaningful comparison between these ligands. In this study, effective binding constants for Al-citrate and Al-phosphate at pH 7.4 have been determined using difference UV spectroscopy to monitor the direct competition between these ligands and transferrin. The analysis of this competition equilibrium also includes the binding of citrate and phosphate as anions to apotransferrin. The effective binding constants are 10(11.59) for the 1:1 Al-citrate complexes and 10(14.90) for the 1:2 Al-citrate complexes. The effective binding constant for the 1:2 Al-phosphate complex is 10(12.02). No 1:1 Al-phosphate complex was detected. Speciation calculations based on these effective binding constants indicate that, at serum concentrations of citrate and phosphate, citrate will be the primary low-molecular-mass ligand for aluminum. Formal stability constants for the Al-citrate system have also been determined by potentiometric methods. This equilibrium system is quite complex, and information from both electrospray mass spectrometry and difference UV experiments has been used to select the best model for fitting the potentiometric data. The mass spectra contain peaks that have been assigned to complexes having aluminum:citrate stoichiometries of 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 2:3, and 3:3. The difference UV results were used to determine the stability constant for Al(H(-1)cta)-, which was then used in the least-squares fitting of the potentiometric data to determine stability constants for Al(Hcta)+, Al(cta), Al(cta)2(3-), Al(H(-1)cta)(cta)(4-), Al2(H(-1)cta)2(2-), and Al3(H(-1)cta)3(OH)(4-).

  5. Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Transferrin Receptor-Ferritin Index.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Vered; Borderie, Didier; Polin, Vanessa; Maksimovic, Fanny; Sarfati, Gilles; Esch, Anouk; Tabouret, Tessa; Dhooge, Marion; Dreanic, Johann; Perkins, Geraldine; Coriat, Romain; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2015-07-01

    Iron deficiency is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but can be difficult to diagnose in the presence of inflammation because ferritin is an acute phase reactant. The transferrin receptor-ferritin index (TfR-F) has a high sensitivity and specificity for iron deficiency diagnosis in chronic diseases. The diagnostic efficacy of TfR-F is little known in patients with IBD. The aim of the study was to assess the added value of TfR-F to iron deficiency diagnosis in a prospective cohort of patients with IBD.Consecutive IBD patients were prospectively enrolled. Patients were excluded in case of blood transfusion, iron supplementation, or lack of consent. IBD activity was assessed on markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, endoscopy, fecal calprotectin). Hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin B9 and B12, Lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were assayed. TfR-F was calculated as the ratio sTfR/log ferritin. Iron deficiency was defined by ferritin <30 ng/mL or TfR-F >2 in the presence of inflammation.One-hundred fifty patients with median age 38 years (16-78) and Crohn disease (n = 105), ulcerative colitis (n = 43), or unclassified colitis (n = 2) were included. Active disease was identified in 45.3%. Anemia was diagnosed in 28%. Thirty-six patients (24%) had ferritin <30 ng/mL. Thirty-two patients (21.3%) had ferritin levels from 30 to 100 ng/ml and inflammation: 2 had vitamin B12 deficiency excluding TfR-F analysis, 13 of 30 (43.3%) had TfR-F >2. Overall, iron deficiency was diagnosed in 32.7% of the patients.TfR-F in addition to ferritin <30 ng/mL criterion increased by 36% diagnosis rates of iron deficiency. TfR-F appeared as a useful biomarker that could help physicians to diagnose true iron deficiency in patients with active IBD. PMID:26131803

  6. Luminescent quantum clusters of gold in transferrin family protein, lactoferrin exhibiting FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Paulrajpillai Lourdu; Chaudhari, Kamalesh; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Pal, Samir Kumar; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2010-12-01

    We report the synthesis of highly luminescent, water soluble quantum clusters (QCs) of gold, which are stabilized by an iron binding transferrin family protein, lactoferrin (Lf). The synthesized AuQC@Lfclusters were characterized using UV-Visiblespectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), matrix assisted laser desorption ionizationmass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy along with picosecond-resolved lifetime measurements. Detailed investigations with FTIR and CD spectroscopy have revealed changes in the secondary structure of the protein in the cluster. We have also studied Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurring between the protein and the cluster. The ability of the clusters to sense cupric ions selectively at ppm concentrations was tested. The stability of clusters in widely varying pH conditions and their continued luminescence make it feasible for them to be used for intracellular imaging and molecular delivery, particularly in view of Lf protection.We report the synthesis of highly luminescent, water soluble quantum clusters (QCs) of gold, which are stabilized by an iron binding transferrin family protein, lactoferrin (Lf). The synthesized AuQC@Lfclusters were characterized using UV-Visiblespectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), matrix assisted laser desorption ionizationmass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy along with picosecond-resolved lifetime measurements. Detailed investigations with FTIR and CD spectroscopy have revealed changes in the secondary structure of the protein in the cluster. We have also studied Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurring between the protein and the cluster. The ability of the clusters to sense cupric ions selectively at ppm concentrations was tested. The

  7. Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Transferrin Receptor-Ferritin Index.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Vered; Borderie, Didier; Polin, Vanessa; Maksimovic, Fanny; Sarfati, Gilles; Esch, Anouk; Tabouret, Tessa; Dhooge, Marion; Dreanic, Johann; Perkins, Geraldine; Coriat, Romain; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2015-07-01

    Iron deficiency is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but can be difficult to diagnose in the presence of inflammation because ferritin is an acute phase reactant. The transferrin receptor-ferritin index (TfR-F) has a high sensitivity and specificity for iron deficiency diagnosis in chronic diseases. The diagnostic efficacy of TfR-F is little known in patients with IBD. The aim of the study was to assess the added value of TfR-F to iron deficiency diagnosis in a prospective cohort of patients with IBD.Consecutive IBD patients were prospectively enrolled. Patients were excluded in case of blood transfusion, iron supplementation, or lack of consent. IBD activity was assessed on markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, endoscopy, fecal calprotectin). Hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin B9 and B12, Lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were assayed. TfR-F was calculated as the ratio sTfR/log ferritin. Iron deficiency was defined by ferritin <30 ng/mL or TfR-F >2 in the presence of inflammation.One-hundred fifty patients with median age 38 years (16-78) and Crohn disease (n = 105), ulcerative colitis (n = 43), or unclassified colitis (n = 2) were included. Active disease was identified in 45.3%. Anemia was diagnosed in 28%. Thirty-six patients (24%) had ferritin <30 ng/mL. Thirty-two patients (21.3%) had ferritin levels from 30 to 100 ng/ml and inflammation: 2 had vitamin B12 deficiency excluding TfR-F analysis, 13 of 30 (43.3%) had TfR-F >2. Overall, iron deficiency was diagnosed in 32.7% of the patients.TfR-F in addition to ferritin <30 ng/mL criterion increased by 36% diagnosis rates of iron deficiency. TfR-F appeared as a useful biomarker that could help physicians to diagnose true iron deficiency in patients with active IBD.

  8. Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin. [Diagnostic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P; Oster, Z H; Fairchild, R G; Atkins, H L; Brill, A B; Gil, M C; Srivastava, S C; Meinken, G E; Goldman, A G; Richards, P

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image. (ERB)

  9. Gene diversity for haptoglobin and transferrin classical markers among Hindu and Muslim populations of Aligarh City, India.

    PubMed

    Ara, G; Siddique, Y H; Afzal, M

    2011-06-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of serum protein markers viz. haptoglobin and transferrin in two major groups of Aligarh city of North India. In present study we have undertaken a survey of 538 individuals belonging to eight different populations, four from the Hindu community i.e. Brahmin, Bania, Rajput and Jatav, and the rest four among the Muslim community i.e. Syed, Sheikh, Pathan and Ansari. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.2939 (Ansari) to 0.4873 (Brahmin) for haptoglobin and from 0.000 (Rajput) to 0.1498 (Pathan) for transferrin. The values of D(ST) are 0.4122 and 0.4406, and that of G(ST) are 0.5059 and 0.9726 for haptoglobin and transferrin markers respectively. Through F(ST) test, it has been concluded that there is a high genetic differentiation of populations within Hindu and Muslim groups, though there is absence of any significant differences between these groups. PMID:21866866

  10. Protease-cleaved iron-transferrin augments oxidant-mediated endothelial cell injury via hydroxyl radical formation.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R A; Britigan, B E

    1995-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the Pseudomonas-derived protease, pseudomonas elastase (PAE), can modify transferrin to form iron complexes capable of catalyzing the formation of hydroxyl radical (.OH) from neutrophil (PMN)-derived superoxide (.O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). As the lung is a major site of Pseudomonas infection, the ability of these iron chelates to augment oxidant-mediated pulmonary artery endothelial cell injury via release of 51Cr from prelabeled cells was examined. Diferrictransferrin previously cleaved with PAE significantly enhanced porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayer injury from 2.3-6.3 to 15.8-17.0% of maximum, resulting from exposure to H2O2, products of the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction, or PMA-stimulated PMNs. Iron associated with transferrin appeared to be responsible for cell injury. Spin trapping and the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive 2-deoxyribose oxidation products demonstrated the production of .OH in this system. The addition of catalase, dimethyl thiourea, and the hydrophobic spin trap, alpha-phenyl-n-terbutyl-nitrone, offered significant protection from injury (27.8-58.2%). Since sites of Pseudomonas infection contain other proteases, the ability of porcine pancreatic elastase and trypsin to substitute for PAE was examined. Results were similar to those observed with PAE. We conclude .OH formation resulting from protease alteration of transferrin may serve as a mechanism of tissue injury at sites of bacterial infection and other processes characterized by increased proteolytic activity. Images PMID:7769095

  11. Supporting data for the MS identification of distinct transferrin glycopeptide glycoforms and citrullinated peptides associated with inflammation or autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rosal-Vela, A.; Barroso, A.; Giménez, E.; García-Rodríguez, S.; Longobardo, V.; Postigo, J.; Iglesias, M.; Lario, A.; Merino, J.; Merino, R.; Zubiaur, M.; Sanz-Nebot, V.; Sancho, J.

    2016-01-01

    This data article presents the results of all the statistical analyses applied to the relative intensities of the detected 2D-DiGE protein spots for each of the 3 performed DiGE experiments. The data reveals specific subsets of protein spots with significant differences between WT and CD38-deficient mice with either Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), or with chronic inflammation induced by CFA, or under steady-state conditions. This article also shows the MS data analyses that allowed the identification of the protein species which serve to discriminate the different experimental groups used in this study. Moreover, the article presents MS data on the citrullinated peptides linked to specific protein species that were generated in CIA+ or CFA-treated mice. Lastly, this data article provides MS data on the efficiency of the analyses of the transferrin (Tf) glycopeptide glycosylation pattern in spleen and serum from CIA+ mice and normal controls. The data supplied in this work is related to the research article entitled “identification of multiple transferrin species in spleen and serum from mice with collagen-induced arthritis which may reflect changes in transferrin glycosylation associated with disease activity: the role of CD38” [1]. All mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with identifiers PRIDE: PXD002644, PRIDE: PXD002643, PRIDE: PXD003183 and PRIDE: PXD003163. PMID:26909372

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in a child with complete Interferon-γ Receptor 1 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Olbrich, Peter; Martínez-Saavedra, Maria Teresa; Hurtado, José Maria Perez; Sanchez, Cristina; Sanchez, Berta; Deswarte, Carolina; Obando, Ignacio; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Speckmann, Carsten; Bustamante, Jacinta; Rodriguez-Gallego, Carlos; Neth, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive (AR) complete Interferon-γ Receptor1 (IFN-γR1) deficiency is a rare variant of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Whilst hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment, outcomes are heterogeneous; delayed engraftment and/or graft rejection being commonly observed. This case report and literature review expands the knowledge about this rare but potentially fatal pathology, providing details regarding diagnosis, antimicrobial treatment, transplant performance and outcome that may help to guide physicians caring for patients with AR complete IFN-γR1 or IFN-γR2 deficiency. PMID:26173802

  13. Evolution of physicochemical properties of melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHr1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anders

    2016-10-01

    One pharmacological principle for the treatment of obesity is blockade of the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHr1), which in rodents has been shown to be strongly associated with food intake and energy expenditure. However, discovery of safe and efficacious MCHr1 antagonists has proved to be complex. So far, six compounds have been progressed into clinical trials, but clinical validation of the concept is still lacking. An account of discovery of the three most recent clinical candidates targeting the MCHr1 receptor is given, with an emphasis on their physicochemical properties.

  14. Evolution of physicochemical properties of melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHr1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anders

    2016-10-01

    One pharmacological principle for the treatment of obesity is blockade of the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHr1), which in rodents has been shown to be strongly associated with food intake and energy expenditure. However, discovery of safe and efficacious MCHr1 antagonists has proved to be complex. So far, six compounds have been progressed into clinical trials, but clinical validation of the concept is still lacking. An account of discovery of the three most recent clinical candidates targeting the MCHr1 receptor is given, with an emphasis on their physicochemical properties. PMID:27595423

  15. Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) is Activated by Amiodarone Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Aaron N.; Miyakawa, Motonori; Tan, Edwin S.; Scanlan, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    Amiodarone (Cordarone, Wyeth-Ayerst Pharmaceuticals) is a clinically available drug used to treat a wide variety of cardiac arrhythmias. We report here the synthesis and characterization of a panel of potential amiodarone metabolites that have significant structural similarity to thyroid hormone and its metabolites the iodothyronamines. Several of these amiodarone derivatives act as specific agonists of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). This result demonstrates a novel molecular target for amiodarone derivatives with potential clinical significance. PMID:18752950

  16. Cannabinoid receptor 1 signaling in cardiovascular regulating nuclei in the brainstem: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Badr M.; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids elicit complex hemodynamic responses in experimental animals that involve both peripheral and central sites. Centrally administered cannabinoids have been shown to predominantly cause pressor response. However, very little is known about the mechanism of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R)-centrally evoked pressor response. In this review, we provided an overview of the contemporary knowledge regarding the cannabinoids centrally elicited cardiovascular responses and the possible underlying signaling mechanisms. The current review focuses on the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) as the primary brainstem nucleus implicated in CB1R-evoked pressor response. PMID:25685481

  17. Effects of obesity on severity of colitis and cytokine expression in mouse mesenteric fat. Potential role of adiponectin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Sideri, Aristea; Stavrakis, Dimitris; Bowe, Collin; Shih, David Q; Fleshner, Phillip; Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan; Turner, Jerrold R; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Karagiannides, Iordanes

    2015-04-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity is associated with worsening of the course of disease. Here, we examined the role of obesity in the development of colitis and studied mesenteric fat-epithelial cell interactions in patients with IBD. We combined the diet-induce obesity with the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis mouse model to create groups with obesity, colitis, and their combination. Changes in the mesenteric fat and intestine were assessed by histology, myeloperoxidase assay, and cytokine mRNA expression by real-time PCR. Medium from human mesenteric fat and cultured preadipocytes was obtained from obese patients and those with IBD. Histological analysis showed inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased histological damage in the intestine and mesenteric fat of obese mice with colitis compared with all other groups. Obesity also increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine, while it decreased the TNBS-induced increases in IL-2 and IFN-γ in mesenteric adipose and intestinal tissues. Human mesenteric fat isolated from obese patients and those with and IBD demonstrated differential release of adipokines and growth factors compared with controls. Fat-conditioned media reduced adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) expression in human NCM460 colonic epithelial cells. AdipoR1 intracolonic silencing in mice exacerbated TNBS-induced colitis. In conclusion, obesity worsens the outcome of experimental colitis, and obesity- and IBD-associated changes in adipose tissue promote differential mediator release in mesenteric fat that modulates colonocyte responses and may affect the course of colitis. Our results also suggest an important role for AdipoR1 for the fat-intestinal axis in the regulation of inflammation during colitis.

  18. Constitutive activation of transforming growth factor Beta receptor 1 in the mouse uterus impairs uterine morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Burghardt, Robert C; Bayless, Kayla J; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function.

  19. Constitutive Activation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor 1 in the Mouse Uterus Impairs Uterine Morphology and Function1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Bayless, Kayla J.; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function. PMID:25505200

  20. Functional Genetic Variation of the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Cannabis Use Interact on Prefrontal Connectivity and Related Working Memory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Colizzi, Marco; Fazio, Leonardo; Ferranti, Laura; Porcelli, Annamaria; Masellis, Rita; Marvulli, Daniela; Bonvino, Aurora; Ursini, Gianluca; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid signaling is involved in different brain functions and it is mediated by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), which is encoded by the CNR1 gene. Previous evidence suggests an association between cognition and cannabis use. The logical interaction between genetically determined cannabinoid signaling and cannabis use has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated whether CNR1 variation predicts CNR1 prefrontal mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal human tissue. Then, we studied whether functional variation in CNR1 and cannabis exposure interact in modulating prefrontal function and related behavior during working memory processing. Thus, 208 healthy subjects (113 males) were genotyped for the relevant functional SNP and were evaluated for cannabis use by the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. All individuals performed the 2-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. CNR1 rs1406977 was associated with prefrontal mRNA and individuals carrying a G allele had reduced CNR1 prefrontal mRNA levels compared with AA subjects. Moreover, functional connectivity MRI demonstrated that G carriers who were also cannabis users had greater functional connectivity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced working memory behavioral accuracy during the 2-back task compared with the other groups. Overall, our results indicate that the deleterious effects of cannabis use are more evident on a specific genetic background related to its receptor expression. PMID:25139064

  1. Functional genetic variation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 and cannabis use interact on prefrontal connectivity and related working memory behavior.

    PubMed

    Colizzi, Marco; Fazio, Leonardo; Ferranti, Laura; Porcelli, Annamaria; Masellis, Rita; Marvulli, Daniela; Bonvino, Aurora; Ursini, Gianluca; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    Cannabinoid signaling is involved in different brain functions and it is mediated by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), which is encoded by the CNR1 gene. Previous evidence suggests an association between cognition and cannabis use. The logical interaction between genetically determined cannabinoid signaling and cannabis use has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated whether CNR1 variation predicts CNR1 prefrontal mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal human tissue. Then, we studied whether functional variation in CNR1 and cannabis exposure interact in modulating prefrontal function and related behavior during working memory processing. Thus, 208 healthy subjects (113 males) were genotyped for the relevant functional SNP and were evaluated for cannabis use by the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. All individuals performed the 2-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. CNR1 rs1406977 was associated with prefrontal mRNA and individuals carrying a G allele had reduced CNR1 prefrontal mRNA levels compared with AA subjects. Moreover, functional connectivity MRI demonstrated that G carriers who were also cannabis users had greater functional connectivity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced working memory behavioral accuracy during the 2-back task compared with the other groups. Overall, our results indicate that the deleterious effects of cannabis use are more evident on a specific genetic background related to its receptor expression. PMID:25139064

  2. Proteinase Activated Receptor 1 Mediated Fibrosis in a Mouse Model of Liver Injury: A Role for Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kallis, Yiannis N.; Scotton, Christopher J.; MacKinnon, Alison C.; Goldin, Robert D.; Wright, Nicholas A.; Iredale, John P.; Chambers, Rachel C.; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis results from the co-ordinated actions of myofibroblasts and macrophages, a proportion of which are of bone marrow origin. The functional effect of such bone marrow-derived cells on liver fibrosis is unclear. We examine whether changing bone marrow genotype can down-regulate the liver's fibrotic response to injury and investigate mechanisms involved. Proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is up-regulated in fibrotic liver disease in humans, and deficiency of PAR1 is associated with reduced liver fibrosis in rodent models. In this study, recipient mice received bone marrow transplantation from PAR1-deficient or wild-type donors prior to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. Bone marrow transplantation alone from PAR1-deficient mice was able to confer significant reductions in hepatic collagen content and activated myofibroblast expansion on wild-type recipients. This effect was associated with a decrease in hepatic scar-associated macrophages and a reduction in macrophage recruitment from the bone marrow. In vitro, PAR1 signalling on bone marrow-derived macrophages directly induced their chemotaxis but did not stimulate proliferation. These data suggest that the bone marrow can modulate the fibrotic response of the liver to recurrent injury. PAR1 signalling can contribute to this response by mechanisms that include the regulation of macrophage recruitment. PMID:24475094

  3. The contribution of protease-activated receptor 1 to neuronal damage caused by transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Junge, Candice E; Sugawara, Taku; Mannaioni, Guido; Alagarsamy, Sudar; Conn, P Jeffrey; Brat, Daniel J; Chan, Pak H; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2003-10-28

    The serine proteases tissue plasminogen activator, plasmin, and thrombin and their receptors have previously been suggested to contribute to neuronal damage in certain pathological situations. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) have a 3.1-fold reduction in infarct volume after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of PAR1 antagonist BMS-200261 reduced infarct volume 2.7-fold. There are no detectable differences between PAR1-/- and WT mice in cerebrovascular anatomy, capillary density, or capillary diameter, demonstrating that the neuroprotective phenotype is not likely related to congenital abnormalities in vascular development. We also show that the exogenously applied serine proteases thrombin, plasmin, and tissue plasminogen activator can activate PAR1 signaling in brain tissue. These data together suggest that if blood-derived serine proteases that enter brain tissue in ischemic situations can activate PAR1, this sequence of events may contribute to the harmful effects observed. Furthermore, PAR1 immunoreactivity is present in human brain, suggesting that inhibition of PAR1 may provide a novel potential therapeutic strategy for decreasing neuronal damage associated with ischemia and blood-brain barrier breakdown.

  4. Effects of anti-transferrin receptor antibodies on the growth of neoplastic cells.

    PubMed

    Kemp, J D; Smith, K M; Mayer, J M; Gomez, F; Thorson, J A; Naumann, P W

    1992-01-01

    One approach to creating a state of iron deprivation in tumors is to expose them to monoclonal antibodies against the transferrin receptor (ATRAs). This paper reviews the recent history of studies with ATRAs. Both multivalent (IgM or IgA) and bivalent (IgG) ATRAs exhibit anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo, but IgG ATRAs appear to be most effective when used with an iron chelator such as deferoxamine or when used in pairs. Much more information is needed in order to understand: (1) how ATRAs work by themselves and in conjunction with chelators; (2) why ATRAs differ from one another in terms of their inhibitory potency; (3) whether ATRAs can be used successfully in conjunction with other anti-tumor agents, and (4) why tumors exhibit marked differences in their sensitivity to the effects of ATRAs. The toxicity of iron deprivation arising from ATRA treatment alone seems modest, but only further experimental work in vivo and in phase-1 clinical trials can determine whether the most recent observations can be converted into truly useful therapeutic tools.

  5. Endosome-mitochondria interactions are modulated by iron release from transferrin.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Nag, Sagarika; Mason, Anne B; Barroso, Margarida M

    2016-09-26

    Transient "kiss and run" interactions between endosomes containing iron-bound transferrin (Tf) and mitochondria have been shown to facilitate direct iron transfer in erythroid cells. In this study, we used superresolution three-dimensional (3D) direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy to show that Tf-containing endosomes directly interact with mitochondria in epithelial cells. We used live-cell time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, followed by 3D rendering, object tracking, and a distance transformation algorithm, to track Tf-endosomes and characterize the dynamics of their interactions with mitochondria. Quenching of iron sensor RDA-labeled mitochondria confirmed functional iron transfer by an interacting Tf-endosome. The motility of Tf-endosomes is significantly reduced upon interaction with mitochondria. To further assess the functional role of iron in the ability of Tf-endosomes to interact with mitochondria, we blocked endosomal iron release by using a Tf K206E/K534A mutant. Blocking intraendosomal iron release led to significantly increased motility of Tf-endosomes and increased duration of endosome-mitochondria interactions. Thus, intraendosomal iron regulates the kinetics of the interactions between Tf-containing endosomes and mitochondria in epithelial cells. PMID:27646275

  6. Effects of carboxylic acids on the uptake of non-transferrin-bound iron by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Belinda M; Robinson, Stephen R; Bishop, Glenda M

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of non-transferrin-bound iron are elevated in the brain during pathological conditions such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Astrocytes are specialised for sequestering this iron, however little is known about the mechanisms involved. Carboxylates, such as citrate, have been reported to facilitate iron uptake by intestinal cells. Citrate binds iron and limits its redox activity. The presence of high citrate concentrations in the interstitial fluid of the brain suggests that citrate may be an important ligand for iron transport by astrocytes. This study investigates whether iron accumulation by cultured rat astrocytes is facilitated by citrate or other carboxylates. Contrary to expectations, citrate, tartrate and malate were found to block iron accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner; alpha-ketoglutarate had limited effects, while fumarate, succinate and glutarate had no effect. This blockade was not due to an inhibition of ferric reductase activity. Instead, it appeared to be related to the capacity of these carboxylates to bind iron, since phosphate, which also binds iron, diminished the capacity of citrate, tartrate and malate to block the cellular accumulation of iron. These findings raise the possibility that citrate may have therapeutic potential in the management of neurodegenerative conditions that involve cellular iron overload.

  7. Plasmid pORF-hTRAIL targeting to glioma using transferrin-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Li, Jianfeng; Jiang, Chen; Hong, Bo; Hao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A gene drug delivery system for glioma therapy based on transferrin (Tf)-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) was prepared. Gene drug, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (hTRAIL)-encoding plasmid open reading frame (pORF-hTRAIL, Trail), was condensed by Tf-modified PAMAM to form nanoparticles (NPs). PAMAM-PEG-Tf/DNA NPs showed higher cellular uptake, in vitro gene expression, and cytotoxicity than PAMAM-PEG/DNA NPs in C6 cells. The in vivo targeting efficacy of NPs was visualized by ex vivo fluorescence imaging. Tf-modified NPs showed obvious glioma-targeting trend. Plasmid encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP) was also condensed by modified or unmodified PAMAM to evaluate the in vivo gene expression level. The PAMAM-PEG-Tf/plasmid encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein (pEGFP) NPs exhibited higher GFP expression level than PAMAM-PEG/pEGFP NPs. TUNEL assay revealed that Tf-modified NPs could induce much more tumor apoptosis. The median survival time of PAMAM-PEG-Tf/Trail-treated rats (28.5 days) was longer than that of rats treated with PAMAM-PEG/Trail (25.5 days), temozolomide (24.5 days), PAMAM-PEG-Tf/pEGFP (19 days), or saline (17 days). The therapeutic effect was further confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. This study demonstrated that targeting gene delivery system had potential application for the treatment of glioma. PMID:26719669

  8. Characteristics of sequential targeting of brain glioma for transferrin-modified cisplatin liposome.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qing; Li, Li-Min; Han, Min; Tang, Xin-Jiang; Yao, Jin-Na; Ying, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fan-Zhu; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2013-02-28

    Methods on how to improve the sequential targeting of glioma subsequent to passing of drug through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been occasionally reported. However, the characteristics involved are poorly understood. In the present study, cisplatin (Cis) liposome (lipo) was modified with transferrin (Tf) to investigate the characteristics of potential sequential targeting to glioma. In bEnd3/C6 co-culture BBB models, higher transport efficiency across the BBB and cytotoxicity in basal C6 cells induced by Cis-lipo(Tf) than Cis-lipo and Cis-solution, suggest its sequential targeting effect. Interestingly, similar liposomal morphology as that of donor compartment was first demonstrated in the receptor solution of BBB models. Meanwhile, a greater acquisition in the lysosome of bEnd3, distributed sequentially into the nucleus of C6 cells were found for the Cis-lipo(Tf). Pre-incubation of chlorpromazine and Tf inhibited this process, indicating that a clathrin-dependent endocytosis is involved in the transport of Cis-lipo(Tf) across the BBB.

  9. Endosome-mitochondria interactions are modulated by iron release from transferrin.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Nag, Sagarika; Mason, Anne B; Barroso, Margarida M

    2016-09-26

    Transient "kiss and run" interactions between endosomes containing iron-bound transferrin (Tf) and mitochondria have been shown to facilitate direct iron transfer in erythroid cells. In this study, we used superresolution three-dimensional (3D) direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy to show that Tf-containing endosomes directly interact with mitochondria in epithelial cells. We used live-cell time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, followed by 3D rendering, object tracking, and a distance transformation algorithm, to track Tf-endosomes and characterize the dynamics of their interactions with mitochondria. Quenching of iron sensor RDA-labeled mitochondria confirmed functional iron transfer by an interacting Tf-endosome. The motility of Tf-endosomes is significantly reduced upon interaction with mitochondria. To further assess the functional role of iron in the ability of Tf-endosomes to interact with mitochondria, we blocked endosomal iron release by using a Tf K206E/K534A mutant. Blocking intraendosomal iron release led to significantly increased motility of Tf-endosomes and increased duration of endosome-mitochondria interactions. Thus, intraendosomal iron regulates the kinetics of the interactions between Tf-containing endosomes and mitochondria in epithelial cells.

  10. Transferrin modified PEG-PLA-resveratrol conjugates: in vitro and in vivo studies for glioma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanhua; Li, Aimei; Jia, Zhijun; Yuan, Yi; Dai, Haifeng; Li, Hongxiu

    2013-10-15

    Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant brain tumors with a poor prognosis. In this study, we examined the effects of transferrin (Tf)-modified poly ethyleneglycol-poly lactic acid (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles conjugated with resveratrol (Tf-PEG-PLA-RSV) to glioma therapy in vitro and in vivo. The cell viability of Tf-PEG-PLA-RSV on C6 and U87 glioma cells was determined by the MTT assay. In vivo biodistribution and antitumor activity were investigated in Brain glioma bearing rat model of C6 glioma by i.p. administration of RSV-polymer conjugates. We found that the average diameter of each Tf-PEG-PLA-RSV is around 150 nm with 32 molecules of Tf on surface. In vitro cytotoxicity of PEG-PLA-RSV against C6 and U87 cells was higher than that of free RSV, and further the modification of Tf enhanced the cytotoxicity of the RSV-polymer conjugates as a result of the increased cellular uptake of the RSV-modified conjugates by glioma cells. In comparison with free RSV, RSV conjugates could significantly decrease tumor volume and accumulate in brain tumor, which resulted in prolonging the survival of C6 glioma-bearing rats. These results suggest that Tf-NP-RSV had a potential of therapeutic effect to glioma both in vitro and in vivo and might be a potential candidate for targeted therapy of glioma and worthy of further investigation.

  11. The Role of Cell-Penetrating Peptide and Transferrin on Enhanced Delivery of Drug to Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gitanjali; Lakkadwala, Sushant; Modgil, Amit; Singh, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of effectively delivering therapeutic agents to brain has led to an entire field of active research devoted to overcome the blood brain barrier (BBB) and efficiently deliver drugs to brain. This review focusses on exploring the facets of a novel platform designed for the delivery of drugs to brain. The platform was constructed based on the hypothesis that a combination of receptor-targeting agent, like transferrin protein, and a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) will enhance the delivery of associated therapeutic cargo across the BBB. The combination of these two agents in a delivery vehicle has shown significantly improved (p < 0.05) translocation of small molecules and genes into brain as compared to the vehicle with only receptor-targeting agents. The comprehensive details of the uptake mechanisms and properties of various CPPs are illustrated here. The application of this technology, in conjunction with nanotechnology, can potentially open new horizons for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. PMID:27231900

  12. Characteristics of sequential targeting of brain glioma for transferrin-modified cisplatin liposome.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qing; Li, Li-Min; Han, Min; Tang, Xin-Jiang; Yao, Jin-Na; Ying, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fan-Zhu; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2013-02-28

    Methods on how to improve the sequential targeting of glioma subsequent to passing of drug through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been occasionally reported. However, the characteristics involved are poorly understood. In the present study, cisplatin (Cis) liposome (lipo) was modified with transferrin (Tf) to investigate the characteristics of potential sequential targeting to glioma. In bEnd3/C6 co-culture BBB models, higher transport efficiency across the BBB and cytotoxicity in basal C6 cells induced by Cis-lipo(Tf) than Cis-lipo and Cis-solution, suggest its sequential targeting effect. Interestingly, similar liposomal morphology as that of donor compartment was first demonstrated in the receptor solution of BBB models. Meanwhile, a greater acquisition in the lysosome of bEnd3, distributed sequentially into the nucleus of C6 cells were found for the Cis-lipo(Tf). Pre-incubation of chlorpromazine and Tf inhibited this process, indicating that a clathrin-dependent endocytosis is involved in the transport of Cis-lipo(Tf) across the BBB. PMID:23347891

  13. Study of maternal influences on fetal iron status at term using cord blood transferrin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, D; Savage, G; Tubman, T; Lappin, T; Halliday, H

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine effects of maternal iron depletion and smoking on iron status of term babies using serum transferrin receptors (STfR) and their ratio to ferritin (TfR-F index) in cord blood.
METHODS—Iron, ferritin, STfR, and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration were measured and TfR-F index calculated in 67 cord /maternal blood pairs. Twenty six mothers were iron depleted (ferritin <10 µg/l) and 28 were smokers.
RESULTS—Maternal iron depletion was associated with decreased cord ferritin (113 v 171 µg/l) and Hb (156 v 168 g/l) but no change in STfR or TfR-F index. Smoking was associated with increased cord Hb (168 v 157 g/l) and TfR-F index (4.1 v 3.4), and decreased ferritin (123 v 190 µg/l). Cord TfR-F index and Hb were positively correlated (r = 0.48).
CONCLUSIONS—Maternal iron depletion is associated with reduced fetal iron stores but no change in free iron availability. Smoking is associated with increased fetal iron requirements for erythropoiesis.

 PMID:11124923

  14. Improving the systemic drug delivery efficacy of nanoparticles using a transferrin variant for targeting.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ricky Y T; Tsuji, Takuma; Wang, Stephanie J; Wang, Juntian; Liu, Christina T; Kamei, Daniel T

    2014-04-28

    Targeted therapy for the treatment of cancers using nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with transferrin (Tf) has been relatively successful, as several such nanocarriers are currently undergoing clinical trials. However, since native Tf has a low probability of delivering its payload due to its short residence time in the cell, or low cellular association, there is room to significantly improve the potency of current systems. We pioneered the redesign of this targeting ligand by altering the ligand-metal interaction, as suggested by our mathematical model, and here we present the first study to investigate the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of NPs conjugated to our engineered oxalate Tf. Our mathematical model was first used to predict that NPs conjugated to oxalate Tf will exhibit a higher degree of cellular association compared to native Tf-conjugated NPs. Our in vitro trafficking experiments validated the model prediction, and subsequent in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies demonstrated that this increase in cellular association further translates into an enhanced ability to deliver chemotherapeutics. Our findings signify the importance of the cellular trafficking properties of targeting ligands, as they may significantly influence therapeutic potency when such ligands are conjugated to NPs. Given the early success of a number of native Tf-conjugated NPs in clinical trials, there is potential for using Tf-variant based therapeutics in systemic drug delivery applications for cancer treatment.

  15. Analysis of the structural requirements for lysosomal membrane targeting using transferrin receptor chimeras.

    PubMed

    White, S; Hatton, S R; Siddiqui, M A; Parker, C D; Trowbridge, I S; Collawn, J F

    1998-06-01

    The sorting of membrane proteins to the lysosome requires tyrosine- or dileucine-based targeting signals. Recycling receptors have similar signals, yet these proteins seldom enter the latter stages of the endocytic pathway. To determine how lysosomal and internalization signals differ, we prepared chimeric molecules consisting of the cytoplasmic tails of CD3 gamma-chain, lysosomal acid phosphatase, and lysosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein-1, each fused to the transmembrane and extracellular domains of the transferrin receptor (TR). Each chimera was expressed on the cell surface and rapidly internalized. Metabolic pulse-chase experiments showed that the CD3 gamma-chain and lysosomal acid phosphatase chimeras, unlike the lysosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein chimera, were rapidly degraded in a post-Golgi compartment following normal glycosylation. Transplantation of signals from CD3 gamma-chain and lysosomal acid phosphatase into the TR cytoplasmic tail in place of the native signal, Y20TRF23, indicated that each signal was sufficient to promote endocytosis but not lysosomal targeting of the resulting mutant. Transplantation of two CD3 signals at specific sites in the TR cytoplasmic tail or a single tyrosine-based signal in a truncated TR tail, however, was sufficient to promote lysosomal targeting. Our results therefore suggest that the relative position of the signal within the cytoplasmic tail is a critical feature that distinguishes lysosomal targeting signals from internalization signals.

  16. Anti-transferrin receptor antibody and antibody-drug conjugates cross the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed Central

    Friden, P M; Walus, L R; Musso, G F; Taylor, M A; Malfroy, B; Starzyk, R M

    1991-01-01

    Delivery of nonlipophilic drugs to the brain is hindered by the tightly apposed capillary endothelial cells that make up the blood-brain barrier. We have examined the ability of a monoclonal antibody (OX-26), which recognizes the rat transferrin receptor, to function as a carrier for the delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier. This antibody, which was previously shown to bind preferentially to capillary endothelial cells in the brain after intravenous administration (Jefferies, W. A., Brandon, M. R., Hunt, S. V., Williams, A. F., Gatter, K. C. & Mason, D. Y. (1984) Nature (London) 312, 162-163), labels the entire cerebrovascular bed in a dose-dependent manner. The initially uniform labeling of brain capillaries becomes extremely punctate approximately 4 hr after injection, suggesting a time-dependent sequestering of the antibody. Capillary-depletion experiments, in which the brain is separated into capillary and parenchymal fractions, show a time-dependent migration of radiolabeled antibody from the capillaries into the brain parenchyma, which is consistent with the transcytosis of compounds across the blood-brain barrier. Antibody-methotrexate conjugates were tested in vivo to assess the carrier ability of this antibody. Immunohistochemical staining for either component of an OX-26-methotrexate conjugate revealed patterns of cerebrovascular labeling identical to those observed with the unaltered antibody. Accumulation of radiolabeled methotrexate in the brain parenchyma is greatly enhanced when the drug is conjugated to OX-26. Images PMID:2052557

  17. A transferrin gene associated with development and 2-tridecanone tolerance in Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L; Shang, Q; Lu, Y; Zhao, Q; Gao, X

    2015-01-01

    The full-length cDNA (2320 bp) encoding a putative iron-binding transferrin protein from Helicoverpa armigera was cloned and named HaTrf. The putative HaTrf sequence included 670 amino acids with a molecular mass of approximately 76 kDa. Quantitative PCR results demonstrated that the transcriptional level of HaTrf was significantly higher in the sixth instar and pupa stages as compared with other developmental stages. HaTrf transcripts were more abundant in fat bodies and in the epidermis than in malpighian tubules. Compared with the control, the expression of HaTrf increased dramatically 24 h after treatment with 2-tridecanone. Apparent growth inhibition with a dramatic body weight decrease was observed in larvae fed with HaTrf double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), as compared with those fed with green fluorescent protein dsRNA. RNA interference of HaTrf also significantly increased the susceptibility of larvae to 2-tridecanone. These results indicate the possible involvement of HaTrf in tolerance to plant secondary chemicals. PMID:25430818

  18. Soluble form of canine transferrin receptor inhibits canine parvovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Anti-transferrin receptor antibody and antibody-drug conjugates cross the blood-brain barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Friden, P.M.; Walus, L.R.; Musso, G.F.; Taylor, M.A.; Malfroy, B.; Starzyk, R.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Delivery of nonlipophilic drugs to the brain is hindered by the tightly apposed capillary endothelial cells that make up the blood-brain barrier. The authors have examined the ability of a monoclonal antibody (OX-26), which recognizes the rat transferrin receptor, to function as a carrier for the delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier. This antibody, which was previously shown to bind preferentially to capillary endothelial cells in the brain after intravenous administration, labels the entire cerebrovascular bed in a dose-dependent manner. The initially uniform labeling of brain capillaries becomes extremely punctate {approximately} 4 hr after injection, suggesting a time-dependent sequestering of the antibody. Capillary-depletion experiments, in which the brain is separated into capillary and parenchymal fractions, show a time-dependent migration of radiolabeled antibody from the capillaries into the brain parenchyma, which is consistent with the transcytosis of compounds across the blood-brain barrier. Antibody-methotrexate conjugates were tested in vivo to assess the carrier ability of this antibody. Immunohistochemical staining for either component of an OX-26-methotrexate conjugate revealed patterns of cerebrovascular labeling identical to those observed with the unaltered antibody. Accumulation of radiolabeled methotrexate in the brain parenchyma is greatly enhanced when the drug is conjugated to OX-26.

  20. Binding studies of hydroxylated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to hemoglobin, gamma globulin and transferrin.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Kandiyil, Shirona Thazae; Sivakumar, Amaravathy; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    Biocompatibility of nanoparticles depends on their binding behavior with biomolecules. Herein, we have reported the interaction of three different biological macromolecules such as hemoglobin, gamma globulin and transferrin with hydroxyl group functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs). Multiple spectroscopic methods were utilized to identify the binding cum structural changes in biomolecules upon their interaction. Hyperchromic effect observed in the UV-visible spectra, and the quenching behavior from fluorescence emission evidences the existence of bio-nanotube complex formation. Synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of biomolecules, in correspondence with Trp and Tyr residues showed the possible disturbance towards their aromatic micro-environment. Changes observed in the FTIR and FT-Raman amide bands, and amino acid residue position of biomolecules upon interaction with CNTs showed the possible effect towards their secondary structure. Further studies with CD spectroscopy indicated the loss of alpha-helical structures quantitatively. The study remains significant in evaluating the biosafety profile of functionalized MWCNTs for their in vivo biomedical applications.

  1. Aluminum access to the brain: A role for transferrin and its receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Roskams, A.J.; Connor, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The toxicity of aluminum in plant and animal cell biology is well established, although poorly understood. Several recent studies have identified aluminum as a potential, although highly controversial, contributory factor in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dialysis dementia. For example, aluminum has been found in high concentrations in senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which occur in the brains of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. However, a mechanism for the entry of aluminum (Al{sup 3+}) into the cells of the central nervous system (CNS) has yet to be found. Here the authors describe a possible route of entry for aluminum into the cells of the CNS via the same high-affinity receptor-ligand system that has been postulated for iron (Fe{sup 3}) aluminum is able to gain access to the central nervous system under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these data suggest that the interaction between transferrin and its receptor may function as a general metal ion regulatory system in the CNS, extending beyond its postulated role in iron regulation.

  2. Plasmid pORF-hTRAIL targeting to glioma using transferrin-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Li, Jianfeng; Jiang, Chen; Hong, Bo; Hao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A gene drug delivery system for glioma therapy based on transferrin (Tf)-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) was prepared. Gene drug, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (hTRAIL)-encoding plasmid open reading frame (pORF-hTRAIL, Trail), was condensed by Tf-modified PAMAM to form nanoparticles (NPs). PAMAM-PEG-Tf/DNA NPs showed higher cellular uptake, in vitro gene expression, and cytotoxicity than PAMAM-PEG/DNA NPs in C6 cells. The in vivo targeting efficacy of NPs was visualized by ex vivo fluorescence imaging. Tf-modified NPs showed obvious glioma-targeting trend. Plasmid encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP) was also condensed by modified or unmodified PAMAM to evaluate the in vivo gene expression level. The PAMAM-PEG-Tf/plasmid encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein (pEGFP) NPs exhibited higher GFP expression level than PAMAM-PEG/pEGFP NPs. TUNEL assay revealed that Tf-modified NPs could induce much more tumor apoptosis. The median survival time of PAMAM-PEG-Tf/Trail-treated rats (28.5 days) was longer than that of rats treated with PAMAM-PEG/Trail (25.5 days), temozolomide (24.5 days), PAMAM-PEG-Tf/pEGFP (19 days), or saline (17 days). The therapeutic effect was further confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. This study demonstrated that targeting gene delivery system had potential application for the treatment of glioma. PMID:26719669

  3. The second transferrin receptor regulates red blood cell production in mice.

    PubMed

    Nai, Antonella; Lidonnici, Maria Rosa; Rausa, Marco; Mandelli, Giacomo; Pagani, Alessia; Silvestri, Laura; Ferrari, Giuliana; Camaschella, Clara

    2015-02-12

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) contributes to hepcidin regulation in the liver and associates with erythropoietin receptor in erythroid cells. Nevertheless, TFR2 mutations cause iron overload (hemochromatosis type 3) without overt erythroid abnormalities. To clarify TFR2 erythroid function, we generated a mouse lacking Tfr2 exclusively in the bone marrow (Tfr2(BMKO)). Tfr2(BMKO) mice have normal iron parameters, reduced hepcidin levels, higher hemoglobin and red blood cell counts, and lower mean corpuscular volume than normal control mice, a phenotype that becomes more evident in iron deficiency. In Tfr2(BMKO) mice, the proportion of nucleated erythroid cells in the bone marrow is higher and the apoptosis lower than in controls, irrespective of comparable erythropoietin levels. Induction of moderate iron deficiency increases erythroblasts number, reduces apoptosis, and enhances erythropoietin (Epo) levels in controls, but not in Tfr2(BMKO) mice. Epo-target genes such as Bcl-xL and Epor are highly expressed in the spleen and in isolated erythroblasts from Tfr2(BMKO) mice. Low hepcidin expression in Tfr2(BMKO) is accounted for by erythroid expansion and production of the erythroid regulator erythroferrone. We suggest that Tfr2 is a component of a novel iron-sensing mechanism that adjusts erythrocyte production according to iron availability, likely by modulating the erythroblast Epo sensitivity. PMID:25499454

  4. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 coordinates Rab5 activity and transferrin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Muralidharan; Lee, Unn Hwa; Yoon, Nal Ae; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ko, Myoung Seok; Seol, Wongi; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg; Lee, Byung Ju; Moon, Chang Hoon; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 regulates the early endocytic pathway of transferrin (Tfn), and Rab5 deactivation is required for Tfn recycling. Rab5 deactivation is achieved by RabGAP5, a GTPase-activating protein, on the endosomes. Here we report that recruitment of RabGAP5 is insufficient to deactivate Rab5 and that developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) is required for Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. DRG2 was associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate–containing endosomes. It colocalized and interacted with EEA1 and Rab5 on endosomes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–dependent manner. DRG2 depletion did not affect Tfn uptake and recruitment of RabGAP5 and Rac1 to Rab5 endosomes. However, it resulted in impairment of interaction between Rab5 and RabGAP5, Rab5 deactivation on endosomes, and Tfn recycling. Ectopic expression of shRNA-resistant DRG2 rescued Tfn recycling in DRG2-depleted cells. Our results demonstrate that DRG2 is an endosomal protein and a key regulator of Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. PMID:26582392

  5. A Functional Slow Recycling Pathway of Transferrin is Required for Growth of Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Scot P.; Carabeo, Rey A.

    2010-01-01

    An inhibitor of host cell lysophospholipid acyltransferase, an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism blocked growth of the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia through its action on the transport of transferrin (Tf) via the slow pathway of recycling. A detailed characterization of this inhibition revealed that Tf accumulated in vesicles positive for Rab11, with a concomitant reduction in the level of Tf found within the transport intermediate Rab4/11 hybrid vesicles. The net result was the failure to be recycled to the plasma membrane. In chlamydiae-infected cells, the Tf-containing Rab11-positive vesicles were typically found intimately associated with the inclusion, and treatment with the inhibitor caused their accumulation, suggesting that the timely progression and completion of Tf recycling was necessary for proper chlamydial growth. Growth inhibition by the compound could be negated by the simple removal of the Tf-containing fraction of the serum, a further indication that accumulation of Tf around the chlamydial inclusion was deleterious to the pathogen. Thus, it appears that manipulating the slow recycling pathway can have biological consequences for Chlamydia and implies the need to regulate carefully the interaction of the inclusion with this host trafficking pathway. PMID:21607082

  6. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT)--a biomarker for long-term alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Wiese, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a biomarker for chronic alcohol intake of more than 60 g ethanol/d. It has been reported to be superior to conventional markers like gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and mean corpuscular volume MCV). This review covers theoretical and analytical aspects, with data from controlled drinking experiments and from different population subgroups such as subjects with different liver diseases or different drinking patterns. CDT determinations are particularly indicated in (1) cases of chronic alcohol consumption and relapses after withdrawal, (2) license reapplication after driving under alcohol influence, (3) differentiating patients with enzyme-inducing medication from those with alcohol abuse, 4) congenital disorders of glycosylation such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome Ia (CDGS Ia), and (5) patients treated for galactosemia. The main advantage of CDT is its high specificity, as evidenced in combination with increased alcohol consumption. CDT values are not markedly influenced by medication except in immunosuppressed patients, who may show low CDT values. In general, CDT values appear less elevated after alcohol intake in women. The main disadvantage is the relatively low sensitivity. Hence, this parameter is not suitable for screening for subjects with alcohol abuse in the general population. As CDT, GGT, and MCV are connected with chronic alcohol consumption by different pathophysiological mechanisms, a combination of these parameters will further improve the diagnostic value.

  7. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a biomarker in persons suspected of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Sondermann, Rolf; Reich, Susanne E; Wiese, Andreas

    2004-06-15

    The coherence of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a biomarker of alcohol abuse was investigated with 15 conventional laboratory parameters, with the self-reported medical history and with clinical findings, all previously reported to be associated with chronic alcohol intake. In total, 100 male persons who were at least suspected of abusing alcohol were assessed. Medical history, clinical picture and physical examination were taken, and laboratory parameters regarding blood count, liver enzymes, serum lipids, iron balance, Ig A and uric acid were determined. These data were correlated with the CDT values, the daily ethanol intakes reported, and several findings from medical history and clinical examination. The mean CDT level (mean+/-S.D.) of the entire group was 29.4+/-19.7 U/l. Eighty-one patients admitted a daily ethanol intake of 60 g or more. The ratio AST/ALT (de Ritis ratio) appeared as the best conventional parameter correlated with both CDT and ethanol intake. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, AST and red blood cell count also correlated significantly with CDT. CDT, AST and ferritin correlated significantly with the reported daily ethanol intake. It is concluded that CDT provides a reliable estimate of long-term alcohol intake.

  8. Hepatitis E virus ORF1 encoded macro domain protein interacts with light chain subunit of human ferritin and inhibits its secretion.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Nishant Kumar; Lole, Kavita S

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is the major causative agent of acute hepatitis in developing countries. Its genome has three open reading frames (ORFs)-called as ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3. ORF1 encodes nonstructural polyprotein having multiple domains, namely: Methyltransferase, Y domain, Protease, Macro domain, Helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In the present study, we show that HEV-macro domain specifically interacts with light chain subunit of human ferritin (FTL). In cultured hepatoma cells, HEV-macro domain reduces secretion of ferritin without causing any change in the expression levels of FTL. This inhibitory effect was further enhanced upon Brefeldin-A treatment. The levels of transferrin Receptor 1 or ferroportin, two important proteins in iron metabolism, remained unchanged in HEV-macro domain expressing cells. Similarly, there were no alterations in the levels of cellular labile iron pool and reactive oxygen species, indicating that HEV-macro domain does not influence cellular iron homeostasis/metabolism. As ferritin is an acute-phase protein, secreted in higher level in infected persons and HEV-macro domain has the property of reducing synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, we propose that by directly binding to FTL, macro domain prevents ferritin from entering into circulation and helps in further attenuation of the host immune response.

  9. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27127795

  10. IAPs limit activation of RIP kinases by TNF receptor 1 during development.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Maryline; Anderton, Holly; Voss, Anne K; Thomas, Tim; Wong, Wendy Wei-Lynn; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Feltham, Rebecca; Chau, Diep; Cook, Wendy D; Silke, John; Vaux, David L

    2012-04-01

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP (X-linked IAP) regulate apoptosis and cytokine receptor signalling, but their overlapping functions make it difficult to distinguish their individual roles. To do so, we deleted the genes for IAPs separately and in combination. While lack of any one of the IAPs produced no overt phenotype in mice, deletion of cIap1 with cIap2 or Xiap resulted in mid-embryonic lethality. In contrast, Xiap(-/-)cIap2(-/-) mice were viable. The death of cIap2(-/-)cIap1(-/-) double mutants was rescued to birth by deletion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1, but not TNFR2 genes. Remarkably, hemizygosity for receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (Ripk1) allowed Xiap(-/-)cIap1(-/-) double mutants to survive past birth, and prolonged cIap2(-/-)cIap1(-/-) embryonic survival. Similarly, deletion of Ripk3 was able to rescue the mid-gestation defect of cIap2(-/-)cIap1(-/-) embryos, as these embryos survived to E15.5. cIAPs are therefore required during development to limit activity of RIP kinases in the TNF receptor 1 signalling pathway.

  11. Structure based virtual screening of ligands to identify cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Srinivas; Marri, Vijaya Kumar; Kasera, Priyadarshani; Kovuri, Purnima; Girdhar, Amandeep; Mittal, Deepti Raj; Ikram, Sabeen; Gv, Ravi; Nayarisseri, Anuraj

    2014-01-01

    Montelukast and Zafirlukast are known leukotriene receptor antagonists prescribed in asthma treatment. However, these fall short as mono therapy and are frequently used in combination with inhaled glucocorticosteroids with or without long acting beta 2 agonists. Therefore, it is of interest to apply ligand and structure based virtual screening strategies to identify compounds akin to lead compounds Montelukast and Zafirlukast. Hence, compounds with structures having 95% similarity to these compounds were retrieved from NCBI׳s PubChem database. Compounds similar to lead were grouped and docked at the antagonist binding site of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1. This exercise identified compounds UNII 70RV86E50Q (Pub Cid 71587778) and Sure CN 9587085 (Pub Cid 19793614) with higher predicted binding compared to Montelukast and Zafirlukast. It is shown that the compound Sure CN 9587085 showed appreciable ligand receptor interaction compared to UNII 70RV86E50Q. Thus, the compound Sure CN 9587085 is selected as a potent antagonist to cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 for further consideration in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:25489175

  12. Assignment of the lactotransferrin gene to human chromosome 3 and to mouse chromosome 9.

    PubMed

    Teng, C T; Pentecost, B T; Marshall, A; Solomon, A; Bowman, B H; Lalley, P A; Naylor, S L

    1987-11-01

    Lactotransferrin (LTF), a member of the transferrin family of genes, is the major iron-binding protein in milk and body secretions. The amino acid sequence of LTF consists of two homologous domains homologous to proteins in the transferrin family. Recent isolation of cDNA encoding mouse LTF has expedited the mapping of both mouse and human LTF genes. Southern blot analysis of DNA from mouse-Chinese hamster and human-mouse somatic cell hybrids maps the LTF gene to mouse chromosome 9 and to human chromosome 3, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of cell hybrids containing defined segments of human chromosome 3 demonstrates that the gene is located in the 3q21-qter region. These results suggest that LTF and associated genes of the transferrin family have existed together on the same chromosomal region for 300-500 million years. PMID:3478818

  13. Expression of hepcidin and other iron-related genes in type 3 hemochromatosis due to a novel mutation in transferrin receptor-2

    PubMed Central

    Pelucchi, Sara; Mariani, Raffaella; Trombini, Paola; Coletti, Sabina; Pozzi, Matteo; Paolini, Valentina; Barisani, Donatella; Piperno, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2) regulates hepatic hepcidin secretion and when mutated causes type-3 hemochromatosis. No functional study is available in humans. We studied a 47 year-old woman with hemochromatosis. TFR2 DNA and its hepatic transcript were directly sequenced. Hepatic expression of hepcidin and other iron-related genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Urinary hepcidin was measured at baseline and after an oral iron challenge (ferrous sulfate, 65 mg) by SELDI-TOF-MS. A novel homozygous TFR2 mutation was identified in the splicing donor site of intron 4 (c.614+4 A>G) causing exon 4 skipping. Hepcidin and hemojuvelin expression were markedly reduced. Urinary hepcidin was lower than normal and further decreased after iron challenge. This is the first description of iron-related gene expression profiles in a TFR2 mutated patient. The decreased hepatic and urinary expression of hepcidin and lack of acute response to iron challenge confirms the primary role of TFR2 in iron homeostasis. PMID:19144662

  14. Targeted lung cancer therapy: preparation and optimization of transferrin-decorated nanostructured lipid carriers as novel nanomedicine for co-delivery of anticancer drugs and DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhenyu; Shao, Jingyu; Tan, Bingxu; Guan, Shanghui; Liu, Zhulong; Zhao, Zengjun; He, Fangfang; Zhao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) represent an improved generation of lipid nanoparticles. They have specific nanostructures to accommodate drugs/genes, and thus achieve higher loading capacity. The aim of this study was to develop transferrin (Tf)-decorated NLC as multifunctional nanomedicine for co-delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and enhanced green fluorescence protein plasmid. Methods Firstly, Tf-conjugated ligands were synthesized. Secondly, PTX- and DNA-loaded NLC (PTX-DNA-NLC) was prepared. Finally, Tf-containing ligands were used for the surface decoration of NLC. Their average size, zeta potential, drug, and gene loading were evaluated. Human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (NCl-H460 cells) was used for the testing of in vitro transfection efficiency, and in vivo transfection efficiency of NLC was evaluated on mice bearing NCl-H460 cells. Results Tf-decorated PTX and DNA co-encapsulated NLC (Tf-PTX-DNA-NLC) were nano-sized particles with positive zeta potential. Tf-PTX-DNA-NLC displayed low cytotoxicity, high gene transfection efficiency, and enhanced antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion The results demonstrated that Tf-PTX-DNA-NLC can achieve impressive antitumor activity and gene transfection efficiency. Tf decoration also enhanced the active targeting ability of the carriers to NCl-H460 cells. The novel drug and gene delivery system offers a promising strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:25709444

  15. Alpha-synuclein up-regulation and aggregation during MPP+-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells: intermediacy of transferrin receptor iron and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kalivendi, Shasi V; Cunningham, Sonya; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Joseph, Joy; Hillard, Cecilia J; Kalyanaraman, B

    2004-04-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is a neurotoxin that causes Parkinson's disease in experimental animals and humans. Despite the fact that intracellular iron was shown to be crucial for MPP(+)-induced apoptotic cell death, the molecular mechanisms for the iron requirement remain unclear. We investigated the role of transferrin receptor (TfR) and iron in modulating the expression of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) in MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Results show that MPP(+) inhibits mitochondrial complex-1 and aconitase activities leading to enhanced H(2)O(2) generation, TfR expression and alpha-syn expression/aggregation. Pretreatment with cell-permeable iron chelators, TfR antibody (that inhibits TfR-mediated iron uptake), or transfection with glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) enzyme inhibits intracellular oxidant generation, alpha-syn expression/aggregation, and apoptotic signaling as measured by caspase-3 activation. Cells overexpressing alpha-syn exacerbated MPP(+) toxicity, whereas antisense alpha-syn treatment totally abrogated MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells without affecting oxidant generation. The increased cytotoxic effects of alpha-syn in MPP(+)-treated cells were attributed to inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase and proteasomal function. We conclude that MPP(+)-induced iron signaling is responsible for intracellular oxidant generation, alpha-syn expression, proteasomal dysfunction, and apoptosis. Relevance to Parkinson's disease is discussed. PMID:14742448

  16. Interaction between holo transferrin and HSA-PPIX complex in the presence of lomefloxacin: an evaluation of PPIX aggregation in protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Zohreh; Iranfar, Hediye; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Mazhari, Mahboobeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2012-11-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) and holo transferrin (TF) are two serum carrier proteins that are able to interact with each other, thereby altering their binding behavior toward their ligands. During the course of this study, the interaction between HSA-PPIX and TF, in the presence and absence of lomefloxacin (LMF), was for the first time investigated using different spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed in order to study conformational changes of proteins. The RLS technique was utilized to investigate the effect of LMF on J-aggregation of PPIX, which is the first report of its kind. Our findings present clear-cut evidence for the alteration of interactions between HSA and TF in the presence of PPIX and changes in drug-binding to HSA and HSA-PPIX complex upon interaction with TF. Moreover, molecular modeling studies suggested that the binding site for LMF became switched in the presence of PPIX, and that LMF bound to the site IIA of HSA. The obtained results should give new insight into research in this field and may cast some light on the dynamics of drugs in biological systems.

  17. Interferon-gamma is a strong modulator of NK susceptibility and expression of beta 2-microglobulin but not of transferrin receptors of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, A; Kiessling, R; Fiers, W

    1985-10-01

    The human cell line K562 was treated with human natural leukocyte interferon (IFN-alpha) and recombinant immune interferon (IFN-gamma). Cell cultures exposed to both types of IFNs displayed a reduced susceptibility to the cytotoxic activity of human PBL (NK activity). While this effect occurred preferentially at high doses of IFN-alpha, as little as 10 U/ml of IFN-gamma caused a marked decrease in susceptibility to NK-cell-mediated lysis. Using a monoclonal antibody against human beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) a low level of specific binding to K562 cells was detected. The binding increased after treatment with IFN-alpha (1.4-fold) and IFN-gamma (1.7-fold). The expression of transferrin receptors (TR) was not changed significantly. A hybrid cell line between K562 and a Burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell line displayed a similar pattern of response to IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma as did K562, when effects on NK susceptibility, beta2M expression, and TR expression were studied. The Burkitt's lymphoma line PUT showed no consistent changes in expression of beta2M and TR. These results demonstrate that IFN-gamma is highly efficient in modulating the NK susceptibility, and the expression of beta2M on K562. The presented data do not support a role for expression of TR as the only property that determines the degree of NK susceptibility, since there was no correlation between NK susceptibility and TR expression among the cell lines tested or when IFN-treated and untreated cells were compared.

  18. Impacts of Nonsynonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Adiponectin Receptor 1 Gene on Corresponding Protein Stability: A Computational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Md. Abu; Solayman, Md.; Paul, Sudip; Saha, Moumoni; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Despite the reported association of adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) gene mutations with vulnerability to several human metabolic diseases, there is lack of computational analysis on the functional and structural impacts of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human ADIPOR1 at protein level. Therefore, sequence- and structure-based computational tools were employed in this study to functionally and structurally characterize the coding nsSNPs of ADIPOR1 gene listed in the dbSNP database. Our in silico analysis by SIFT, nsSNPAnalyzer, PolyPhen-2, Fathmm, I-Mutant 2.0, SNPs&GO, PhD-SNP, PANTHER, and SNPeffect tools identified the nsSNPs with distorting functional impacts, namely, rs765425383 (A348G), rs752071352 (H341Y), rs759555652 (R324L), rs200326086 (L224F), and rs766267373 (L143P) from 74 nsSNPs of ADIPOR1 gene. Finally the aforementioned five deleterious nsSNPs were introduced using Swiss-PDB Viewer package within the X-ray crystal structure of ADIPOR1 protein, and changes in free energy for these mutations were computed. Although increased free energy was observed for all the mutants, the nsSNP H341Y caused the highest energy increase amongst all. RMSD and TM scores predicted that mutants were structurally similar to wild type protein. Our analyses suggested that the aforementioned variants especially H341Y could directly or indirectly destabilize the amino acid interactions and hydrogen bonding networks of ADIPOR1. PMID:27294143

  19. Impacts of Nonsynonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Adiponectin Receptor 1 Gene on Corresponding Protein Stability: A Computational Approach.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Md Abu; Solayman, Md; Paul, Sudip; Saha, Moumoni; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    Despite the reported association of adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) gene mutations with vulnerability to several human metabolic diseases, there is lack of computational analysis on the functional and structural impacts of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human ADIPOR1 at protein level. Therefore, sequence- and structure-based computational tools were employed in this study to functionally and structurally characterize the coding nsSNPs of ADIPOR1 gene listed in the dbSNP database. Our in silico analysis by SIFT, nsSNPAnalyzer, PolyPhen-2, Fathmm, I-Mutant 2.0, SNPs&GO, PhD-SNP, PANTHER, and SNPeffect tools identified the nsSNPs with distorting functional impacts, namely, rs765425383 (A348G), rs752071352 (H341Y), rs759555652 (R324L), rs200326086 (L224F), and rs766267373 (L143P) from 74 nsSNPs of ADIPOR1 gene. Finally the aforementioned five deleterious nsSNPs were introduced using Swiss-PDB Viewer package within the X-ray crystal structure of ADIPOR1 protein, and changes in free energy for these mutations were computed. Although increased free energy was observed for all the mutants, the nsSNP H341Y caused the highest energy increase amongst all. RMSD and TM scores predicted that mutants were structurally similar to wild type protein. Our analyses suggested that the aforementioned variants especially H341Y could directly or indirectly destabilize the amino acid interactions and hydrogen bonding networks of ADIPOR1. PMID:27294143

  20. Antidepressant/anxiolytic potential and adverse effect liabilities of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonists in animal models.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Shigeyuki; Shimazaki, Toshiharu; Nishiguchi, Mariko; Funakoshi, Takeo; Iijima, Michihiko; Ito, Akie; Kanuma, Kosuke; Sekiguchi, Yoshinori

    2015-08-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH1 receptor) is known to be involved in the control of mood and stress, in addition to the regulation of feeding. Here, we report further evidence that the blockade of the MCH1 receptor exhibits antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in a variety of animal models using TASP0382650 and TASP0489838, newly synthesized MCH1 receptor antagonists, with different scaffolds. Both TASP0382650 and TASP0489838 exhibited high affinities for human MCH1 receptor with IC50 values of 7.13 and 3.80nM, respectively. Both compounds showed potent antagonist activities at the MCH1 receptor, as assessed using MCH-increased [(35)S]GTPγS binding to human MCH1 receptor and an MCH-induced [Ca(2+)]i assay in rat MCH1 receptor expressing cells. In contrast, neither TASP0382650 nor TASP0489838 showed an affinity for the MCH2 receptor, another MCH receptor subtype. The oral administration of TASP0382650 or TASP0489838 significantly reduced the immobility time during the forced swimming test in rats, and reduced hyperemotionality induced by an olfactory bulbectomy, both of which are indicative of an antidepressant-like potential. In the olfactory bulbectomy model, the antidepressant effect of TASP0382650 appeared following a single administration, suggesting a faster onset of action, compared with current medications. Moreover, both TASP0382650 and TASP0489838 exhibited anxiolytic effects in several animal models of anxiety. In contrast, both TASP0382650 and TASP0489838 did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, motor function, spatial memory during the Morris water maze task, or the convulsion threshold to pentylenetetrazole. These findings provide additional evidence that the blockade of the MCH1 receptor exhibits antidepressant- and anxiolytic activities with no adverse effects in experimental animal models.

  1. Synergistic bombesin and insulin stimulation of DNA synthesis in human fetal kidney in serum-free culture.

    PubMed

    Brière, N; Chailler, P

    1993-05-01

    The respective influences of growth factors during kidney development can be directly evaluated using the chemically-defined serum-free culture system perfected in our laboratory. Since, in this culture model, conditions are minimal for growth and differentiation, DNA synthesis sharply decreases during the first 48 h. The addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF, 100 ng/ml), insulin (5 micrograms/ml) and transferrin (5 micrograms/ml) significantly restores this important cellular function. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of bombesin, a potent mitogen, supplemented alone or in combination with insulin, transferrin and/or EGF. Cortical explants of human fetal kidneys (17-20 weeks) were maintained during 5 days in culture. When compared with 5 day controls (L-15 medium only), bombesin generated a maximal though weak effect on DNA synthesis at a concentration of 0.3 nM, corresponding to a stimulation index (SI) of 22%. When combined with either transferrin or EGF, or with transferrin plus EGF, bombesin did not alter the SI of individual factors. Insulin, in turn, greatly increased DNA synthesis (SI = 169%), while bombesin strongly potentiated this effect (SI = 275%). Transferrin also enhanced insulin SI from 169 to 240%. When added as a third factor, bombesin further potentiated the effectiveness (SI = 338%) of the combination insulin plus transferrin. These results indicate that bombesin controls cell proliferation in synergism with other regulators and hence may act as a competence growth factor during nephrogenesis.

  2. Linkage and association analysis of candidate genes for TB and TNFalpha cytokine expression: evidence for association with IFNGR1, IL-10, and TNF receptor 1 genes.

    PubMed

    Stein, Catherine M; Zalwango, Sarah; Chiunda, Allan B; Millard, Christopher; Leontiev, Dmitry V; Horvath, Amanda L; Cartier, Kevin C; Chervenak, Keith; Boom, W Henry; Elston, Robert C; Mugerwa, Roy D; Whalen, Christopher C; Iyengar, Sudha K

    2007-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a growing public health threat globally and several studies suggest a role of host genetic susceptibility in increased TB risk. As part of a household contact study in Kampala, Uganda, we have taken a unique approach to the study of genetic susceptibility to TB by developing an intermediate phenotype model for TB susceptibility, analyzing levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) in response to culture filtrate as the phenotype. In the present study, we analyzed candidate genes related to TNFalpha regulation and found that interleukin (IL)-10, interferon-gamma receptor 1 (IFNGR1), and TNFalpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) genes were linked and associated to both TB and TNFalpha. We also show that these associations are with progression to active disease and not susceptibility to latent infection. This is the first report of an association between TB and TNFR1 in a human population and our findings for IL-10 and IFNGR1 replicate previous findings. By observing pleiotropic effects on both phenotypes, we show construct validity of our intermediate phenotype model, which enables the characterization of the role of these genetic polymorphisms on TB pathogenesis. This study further illustrates the utility of such a model for disentangling complex traits.

  3. Design and Synthesis of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonists for Peripheral Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Seltzman, Herbert; Zhang, Yanan; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Antagonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) have potential for the treatment of several diseases such as obesity, liver disease and diabetes. Recently, development of several CB1 antagonists was halted due to adverse central nervous system (CNS) related side effects observed with rimonabant, the first clinically approved CB1 inverse agonist. However, recent studies indicate that regulation of peripherally expressed CB1 with CNS-sparing compounds is a viable strategy to treat several important disorders. Our efforts aimed at rationally designing peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists have resulted in compounds that have limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS exposure in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. Typically, compounds with high topological polar surface areas (TPSAs) do not cross the BBB passively. Compounds with TPSAs higher than rimonabant (rimonabant TPSA = 50) and excellent functional activity with limited CNS penetration were identified. These compounds will serve as templates for further optimization. PMID:22372835

  4. Trace amine-associated receptor 1: a promising target for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Li; Li, Jun-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of and addiction to psychostimulants remains a challenging clinical issue, yet no effective pharmacotherapy is available. Trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR 1) is increasingly recognized as a novel drug target that participates in the modulation of drug abuse. This review analyzed existing preclinical evidence from electrophysiological, biochemical to behavioral aspects regarding the functional interactions between TAAR 1 and dopaminergic system. TAAR 1 knockout mice demonstrate increased sensitivity to dopaminergic activation while TAAR 1 agonists reduce the neurochemical effects of cocaine and amphetamines, attenuate abuse- and addiction-related behavioral effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. It is concluded that TAAR 1 activation functionally modulate the dopaminergic activity and TAAR 1 agonists appear to be promising pharmacotherapies against psychostimulant addiction. PMID:26092759

  5. Function of G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-1 in Reproductive System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hongyan; Xuan, Jingxiu; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Guixiu

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), also known as GPR30, is a novel estrogen receptor mediating estrogen receptor signaling in multiple cell types. The progress of estrogen-related cancer is promoted by GPER-1 activation through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathways. However, this promoting effect of GPER-1 is nonclassic estrogen receptor (ER) dependent manner. In addition, clinical evidences revealed that GPER-1 is associated with estrogen resistance in estrogen-related cancer patients. These give a hint that GPER-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the estrogen-related cancers. However, preclinical studies also found that GPER-1 activation of its special agonist G-1 inhibits cancer cell proliferation. This review aims to summarize the characteristics and complex functions of GPER-1 in cancers. PMID:27314054

  6. Trace amine-associated receptor 1: A promising target for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction.

    PubMed

    Jing, Li; Li, Jun-Xu

    2015-08-15

    Abuse of and addiction to psychostimulants remains a challenging clinical issue; yet no effective pharmacotherapy is available. Trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR 1) is increasingly recognized as a novel drug target that participates in the modulation of drug abuse. This review analyzed existing preclinical evidence from electrophysiological, biochemical to behavioral aspects regarding the functional interactions between TAAR 1 and dopaminergic system. TAAR 1 knockout mice demonstrate increased sensitivity to dopaminergic activation while TAAR 1 agonists reduce the neurochemical effects of cocaine and amphetamines, attenuate abuse- and addiction-related behavioral effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. It is concluded that TAAR 1 activation functionally modulates the dopaminergic activity and TAAR 1 agonists appear to be promising pharmacotherapies against psychostimulant addiction.

  7. Exosomes: Tunable Nano Vehicles for Macromolecular Delivery of Transferrin and Lactoferrin to Specific Intracellular Compartment.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Himanshu; Sheokand, Navdeep; Kumar, Santosh; Chauhan, Anoop S; Kumar, Manoj; Jakhar, Priyanka; Boradia, Vishant M; Raje, Chaaya I; Raje, Manoj

    2016-05-01

    Due to their abundant ubiquitous presence, rapid uptake and increased requirement in neoplastic tissue, the delivery of the iron carrier macromolecules transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) into mammalian cells is the subject of intense interest for delivery of drugs and other target molecules into cells. Utilizing exosomes obtained from cells of diverse origin we confirmed the presence of the multifunctional protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) which has recently been characterized as a Tf and Lf receptor. Using a combination of biochemical, biophysical and imaging based methodologies, we demonstrate that GAPDH present in exosomes captures Tf and Lf and subsequently effectively delivers these proteins into mammalian cells. Exosome vesicles prepared had a size of 51.2 ± 23.7 nm. They were found to be stable in suspension with a zeta potential (ζ-potential) of -28.16 ± 1.15 mV. Loading of Tf/Lf did not significantly affect ζ-potential of the exosomes. The carrier protein loaded exosomes were able to enhance the delivery of Tf/Lf by 2 to 3 fold in a diverse panel of cell types. Ninety percent of the internalized cargo via this route was found to be specifically delivered into late endosome and lysosomes. We also found exosomes to be tunable nano vehicles for cargo delivery by varying the amount of GAPDH associated with exosome. The current study opens a new avenue of research for efficient delivery of these vital iron carriers into cells employing exosomes as a nano delivery vehicle. PMID:27305829

  8. The Invasion and Reproductive Toxicity of QDs-Transferrin Bioconjugates on Preantral Follicle in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaixia; Lin, Suxia; Law, Wing-Cheung; Roy, Indrajit; Lin, Xiaotan; Mei, Shujiang; Ma, Hanwu; Chen, Siping; Niu, Hanben; Wang, Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of QD has been extensively studied over the past decade. However, the potential toxicity of QDs impedes its use for clinical research. In this work, we established a preantral follicle in vitro culture system to investigate the effects of QD-Transferrin (QDs-Tf) bioconjugates on follicle development and oocyte maturation. The preantral follicles were cultured and exposed to CdTe/ZnTe QDs-Tf bioconjugates with various concentrations and the reproductive toxicity was assessed at different time points post-treatment. The invasion of QDs-Tf for oocytes was verified by laser scanning confocal microscope. Steroid production was evaluated by immunoassay. C-band Giemsa staining was performed to observe the chromosome abnormality of oocytes. The results showed that the QDs-Tf bioconjugates could permeate into granulosa cells and theca cells, but not into oocyte. There are no obvious changes of oocyte diameter, the mucification of cumulus-oocyte-complexes and the occurrence of aneulpoidy as compared with the control group. However, delay in the antrum formation and decrease in the ratio of oocytes with first polar body were observed in QDs-Tf-treated groups. The matured oocytes with first polar body decreased significantly by ~16% (from 79.6±10 % to 63±2.9 %) when the concentration of QDs-Tf bioconjugates exceeded 2.89 nmol·L-1 (P < 0.05). Our results implied that the CdTe/ZnTe QDs-Tf bioconjugates were reproductive toxic for follicle development, and thus also revealed that this in vitro culture system of preantral follicle is a highly sensitive tool for study on the reproductive toxicity of nanoparticles. PMID:22916073

  9. Functional consequences of transferrin receptor-2 mutations causing hereditary hemochromatosis type 3

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Ricky; Shvartsman, Maya; Morán, Erica; Lois, Sergi; Aranda, Jessica; Barqué, Anna; de la Cruz, Xavier; Bruguera, Miquel; Vagace, José Manuel; Gervasini, Guillermo; Sanz, Cristina; Sánchez, Mayka

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) type 3 is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism characterized by excessive iron deposition in the liver and caused by mutations in the transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) gene. Here, we describe three new HH type 3 Spanish families with four TFR2 mutations (p.Gly792Arg, c.1606-8A>G, Gln306*, and Gln672*). The missense variation p.Gly792Arg was found in homozygosity in two adult patients of the same family, and in compound heterozygosity in an adult proband that also carries a novel intronic change (c.1606-8A>G). Two new nonsense TFR2 mutations (Gln306* and Gln672*) were detected in a pediatric case. We examine the functional consequences of two TFR2 variants (p.Gly792Arg and c.1606-8A>G) using molecular and computational methods. Cellular protein localization studies using immunofluorescence demonstrated that the plasma membrane localization of p.Gly792Arg TFR2 is impaired. Splicing studies in vitro and in vivo reveal that the c.1606-8A>G mutation leads to the creation of a new acceptor splice site and an aberrant TFR2 mRNA. The reported mutations caused HH type 3 by protein truncation, altering TFR2 membrane localization or by mRNA splicing defect, producing a nonfunctional TFR2 protein and a defective signaling transduction for hepcidin regulation. TFR2 genotyping should be considered in adult but also in pediatric cases with early-onset of iron overload. PMID:26029709

  10. Recombinant immunocytokines targeting the mouse transferrin receptor: construction and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Dreier, T; Lode, H N; Xiang, R; Dolman, C S; Reisfeld, R A; Kang, A S

    1998-01-01

    Localized cytokine therapies with recombinant monoclonal antibody-cytokine fusion proteins, designated immunocytokines, have become of increasing interest for tumor immunotherapy, since they direct immunomodulatory cytokines into the tumor microenvironment. To investigate their mechanisms of action in a variety of syngeneic tumor models, recombinant mouse cytokines IL2 and GM-CSF were engineered as fusion proteins to the carboxyl terminus of a chimeric rat/mouse antitransferrin receptor antibody, ch17217 and expressed in stable-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. The recombinant immunocytokines were readily purified by affinity chromatography and their binding characteristics were identical to those shown for the ch17217 antibody. The IL2 immunocytokine had an activity similar to recombinant mouse IL2, whereas the GM-CSF immunocytokine had enhanced cytokine activity relative to recombinant mouse GM-CSF. The clearance rates of ch17217 and the GM-CSF and IL2 immunocytokines were relatively similar with elimination phases (t1/2alpha) of 1.8 h and distribution phases (t1/2beta) of 83, 88, and 91 h, respectively. Both immunocytokines demonstrated effective antitumor activity by suppressing the growth of hepatic metastases of mouse neuroblastoma and pulmonary metastases of mouse colon carcinoma in syngeneic A/J and BALB/c mice, respectively. These results indicate that biologically effective IL2 and GM-CSF immunocytokines combine the targeting ability of an antitransferrin receptor monoclonal antibody with the immunomodulatory functions of each cytokine. Because of the universal expression of the transferrin receptor on mouse tumor cell lines, these constructs should prove useful to determine their efficacy in a wide variety of syngeneic mouse tumor models and to perform detailed studies of their modes of action.

  11. Transferrin-Targeted Nanoparticles Containing Zoledronic Acid as a Potential Tool to Inhibit Glioblastoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Salzano, G; Zappavigna, S; Luce, A; D'Onofrio, N; Balestrieri, M L; Grimaldi, A; Lusa, S; Ingrosso, D; Artuso, S; Porru, M; Leonetti, C; Caraglia, M; De Rosa, G

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is a challenge for the biomedical research since cures remain elusive. Its current therapy, consisted on surgery, radiotherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ), is often uneffective. Here, we proposed the use of zoledronic acid (ZOL) as a potential agent for the treatment of GBM. Our group previously developed self-assembling nanoparticles, also named PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of prostate cancer. Here, we updated the previously developed nanoparticles (NPs) by designing transferrin (Tf)-targeted self-assembling NPs, also named Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of brain tumors, e.g., GBM. The efficacy of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was evaluated in different GBM cell lines and in an animal model of GBM, in comparison with PLCaPZ NPs and free ZOL. Tf-PLCaPZ NPs were characterized by a narrow size distribution and a high incorporation efficiency of ZOL. Moreover, the presence of Tf significantly reduced the hemolytic activity of the formulation. In vitro, in LN229 cells, a significant uptake and cell growth inhibition after treatment with Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was achieved. Moreover, the sequential therapy of TMZ and Tf-PLCaPZ NPs lead to a superior therapeutic activity compared to their single administration. The results obtained in mice xenografted with U373MG, revealed a significant anticancer activity of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, while the tumors remained unaffected with free TMZ. These promising results introduce a novel type of easy-to-obtain NPs for the delivery of ZOL in the treatment of GBM tumors.

  12. Transferrin-Targeted Nanoparticles Containing Zoledronic Acid as a Potential Tool to Inhibit Glioblastoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Salzano, G; Zappavigna, S; Luce, A; D'Onofrio, N; Balestrieri, M L; Grimaldi, A; Lusa, S; Ingrosso, D; Artuso, S; Porru, M; Leonetti, C; Caraglia, M; De Rosa, G

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is a challenge for the biomedical research since cures remain elusive. Its current therapy, consisted on surgery, radiotherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ), is often uneffective. Here, we proposed the use of zoledronic acid (ZOL) as a potential agent for the treatment of GBM. Our group previously developed self-assembling nanoparticles, also named PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of prostate cancer. Here, we updated the previously developed nanoparticles (NPs) by designing transferrin (Tf)-targeted self-assembling NPs, also named Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of brain tumors, e.g., GBM. The efficacy of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was evaluated in different GBM cell lines and in an animal model of GBM, in comparison with PLCaPZ NPs and free ZOL. Tf-PLCaPZ NPs were characterized by a narrow size distribution and a high incorporation efficiency of ZOL. Moreover, the presence of Tf significantly reduced the hemolytic activity of the formulation. In vitro, in LN229 cells, a significant uptake and cell growth inhibition after treatment with Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was achieved. Moreover, the sequential therapy of TMZ and Tf-PLCaPZ NPs lead to a superior therapeutic activity compared to their single administration. The results obtained in mice xenografted with U373MG, revealed a significant anticancer activity of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, while the tumors remained unaffected with free TMZ. These promising results introduce a novel type of easy-to-obtain NPs for the delivery of ZOL in the treatment of GBM tumors. PMID:27301207

  13. Role of porin proteins in acquisition of transferrin iron by enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Sara; Masania, Rikesh; Zia, Fatima; Haigh, Richard; Freestone, Primrose

    2013-12-01

    Acquisition of iron from key innate immune defence proteins such as transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin is an important mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria obtain essential iron for growth within their host. Bacterial species that do not produce siderophores often use specific Tf-binding proteins, the best characterized being the Neisseriaceae-type Tf-binding proteins TbpA and TbpB. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that siderophore-producing enteric species such as Escherichia coli also readily bind Tf, although no genomic evidence exists for Tbp-like Tf-binding proteins. Application of proteomic analyses and molecular mutagenesis strategies to an enteropathogenic E. coli identified the OmpA and OmpC porins as Tf-binding proteins. Mutagenesis of the ompA or ompC genes affected E. coli Tf binding and, furthermore, compromised the ability of the ompA mutant to respond to growth promotion by certain catecholamine stress hormones. Evidence was also found to implicate the OmpA porin as an entry point for catecholamine stress hormones. Further proteomic analyses in other bacterial pathogens revealed wide-scale involvement of porins in Tf binding: Salmonella typhimurium (OmpC), and Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri and Shigella boydii (OmpC and/or OmpA). This study shows that in addition to their existing housekeeping functions, the Gram-negative porin family of proteins can also act as Tf-capture proteins for those bacteria that lack the classical Neisseriaceae-type Tf-binding proteins.

  14. The influence of the synergistic anion on iron chelation by ferric binding protein, a bacterial transferrin.

    PubMed

    Dhungana, Suraj; Taboy, Celine H; Anderson, Damon S; Vaughan, Kevin G; Aisen, Philip; Mietzner, Timothy A; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2003-04-01

    Although the presence of an exogenous anion is a requirement for tight Fe(3+) binding by the bacterial (Neisseria) transferrin nFbp, the identity of the exogenous anion is not specific in vitro. nFbp was reconstituted as a stable iron containing protein by using a number of different exogenous anions [arsenate, citrate, nitrilotriacetate, pyrophosphate, and oxalate (symbolized by X)] in addition to phosphate, predominantly present in the recombinant form of the protein. Spectroscopic characterization of the Fe(3+)anion interaction in the reconstituted protein was accomplished by UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies. The affinity of the protein for Fe(3+) is anion dependent, as evidenced by the effective Fe(3+) binding constants (K'(eff)) observed, which range from 1 x 10(17) M(-1) to 4 x 10(18) M(-1) at pH 6.5 and 20 degrees C. The redox potentials for Fe(3+)nFbpXFe(2+)nFbpX reduction are also found to depend on the identity of the synergistic anion required for Fe(3+) sequestration. Facile exchange of exogenous anions (Fe(3+)nFbpX + X' --> Fe(3+)nFbpX' + X) is established and provides a pathway for environmental modulation of the iron chelation and redox characteristics of nFbp. The affinity of the iron loaded protein for exogenous anion binding at pH 6.5 was found to decrease in the order phosphate > arsenate approximately pyrophosphate > nitrilotriacetate > citrate approximately oxalate carbonate. Anion influence on the iron primary coordination sphere through iron binding and redox potential modulation may have in vivo application as a mechanism for periplasmic control of iron delivery to the cytosol. PMID:12646708

  15. Exosomes: Tunable Nano Vehicles for Macromolecular Delivery of Transferrin and Lactoferrin to Specific Intracellular Compartment.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Himanshu; Sheokand, Navdeep; Kumar, Santosh; Chauhan, Anoop S; Kumar, Manoj; Jakhar, Priyanka; Boradia, Vishant M; Raje, Chaaya I; Raje, Manoj

    2016-05-01

    Due to their abundant ubiquitous presence, rapid uptake and increased requirement in neoplastic tissue, the delivery of the iron carrier macromolecules transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) into mammalian cells is the subject of intense interest for delivery of drugs and other target molecules into cells. Utilizing exosomes obtained from cells of diverse origin we confirmed the presence of the multifunctional protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) which has recently been characterized as a Tf and Lf receptor. Using a combination of biochemical, biophysical and imaging based methodologies, we demonstrate that GAPDH present in exosomes captures Tf and Lf and subsequently effectively delivers these proteins into mammalian cells. Exosome vesicles prepared had a size of 51.2 ± 23.7 nm. They were found to be stable in suspension with a zeta potential (ζ-potential) of -28.16 ± 1.15 mV. Loading of Tf/Lf did not significantly affect ζ-potential of the exosomes. The carrier protein loaded exosomes were able to enhance the delivery of Tf/Lf by 2 to 3 fold in a diverse panel of cell types. Ninety percent of the internalized cargo via this route was found to be specifically delivered into late endosome and lysosomes. We also found exosomes to be tunable nano vehicles for cargo delivery by varying the amount of GAPDH associated with exosome. The current study opens a new avenue of research for efficient delivery of these vital iron carriers into cells employing exosomes as a nano delivery vehicle.

  16. Transferrin is required for normal distribution of 59Fe and 54Mn in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Malecki, E A; Cook, B M; Devenyi, A G; Beard, J L; Connor, J R

    1999-11-30

    Hypotransferrinemia (hpx/hpx) is a genetic defect in mice resulting in <1% of normal plasma transferrin (Tf) concentrations; heterozygotes for this mutation (+/hpx) have low circulating Tf concentrations. These mice provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of Tf in Fe and Mn transport in the brain. Twenty weanling wild-type BALB/cJ mice, 15 +/hpx mice, and 12 hpx/hpx mice of both sexes were injected i.v. with either 54MnCl(2) or 59FeCl(3) either 1 h or 1 week before killing at 12 weeks of age. Total brain counts of 54Mn and 59Fe were measured, and regional brain distributions were assessed by autoradiography. Hypotransferrinemia did not affect total brain Mn uptake. However, 1 week after i.v. injection, hpx/hpx mice had less 54Mn in forebrain structures including cerebral cortex, corpus callosum, striatum, and substantia nigra. The +/hpx mice had the highest total brain 59Fe accumulation 1 h after i.v. injection. A striking effect of regional distribution of 59Fe was noted 1 week after injection; in hpx/hpx mice, 59Fe was located primarily in choroid plexus, whereas in +/+ and +/hpx mice 59Fe was widely distributed, with relatively high amounts in cerebral cortex and cerebellum. We interpret these data to mean that Tf is necessary for the transport of Fe but not Mn across the blood-brain barrier, and that there is a Tf-independent uptake mechanism for iron in the choroid plexus. Additionally, these data suggest that endogenous synthesis of Tf is necessary for Fe transport from the choroid plexus. PMID:10561526

  17. Targeting etoposide to acute myelogenous leukaemia cells using nanostructured lipid carriers coated with transferrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajavinia, Amir; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Jafarian Dehkordi, Abbas

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diverse properties of transferrin (Tf)-conjugated nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) prepared using three different fatty amines, including stearylamine (SA), dodecylamine (DA) and spermine (SP), and two different methods for Tf coupling. Etoposide-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method followed by probe sonication. Chemical coupling of NLCs with Tf was mediated by an amide linkage between the surface-exposed amino group of the fatty amine and the carboxyl group of the protein. The physical coating was performed in a Ringer-Hepes buffer medium. NLCs were characterized by their particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, drug entrapment percentage, drug release profiles and Tf-coupling efficiency. The cytotoxicity of NLCs on K562 acute myelogenous leukaemia cells was studied by MTT assay, and their cellular uptake was studied by a flow cytometry method. SA-containing NLCs showed the lowest particle size, the highest zeta potential and the largest coupling efficiency values. The drug entrapment percentage and the zeta potential decreased after Tf coupling, but the average particle size increased. SP-containing formulations released their drug contents comparatively slower than SA- or DA-containing NLCs. Unconjugated NLCs released moderately more drug than Tf-NLCs. Flow cytometry studies revealed enhanced cellular uptake of Tf-NLCs compared to unconjugated ones. Blocking Tf receptors resulted in a significantly higher cell survival rate for Tf-NLCs. The highest cytotoxic activity was observed in the chemically coupled SA-containing nanoparticles, with an IC50 value of 15-fold lower than free etoposide.

  18. Normal systemic iron homeostasis in mice with macrophage-specific deletion of transferrin receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Gautam; Secondes, Eriza S; Wallace, Daniel F; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2016-02-01

    Iron is an essential element, since it is a component of many macromolecules involved in diverse physiological and cellular functions, including oxygen transport, cellular growth, and metabolism. Systemic iron homeostasis is predominantly regulated by the liver through the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin expression is itself regulated by a number of proteins, including transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2). TFR2 has been shown to be expressed in the liver, bone marrow, macrophages, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Studies from our laboratory have shown that mice with a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Tfr2 recapitulate the hemochromatosis phenotype of the global Tfr2 knockout mice, suggesting that the hepatic expression of TFR2 is important in systemic iron homeostasis. It is unclear how TFR2 in macrophages contributes to the regulation of iron metabolism. We examined the role of TFR2 in macrophages by analysis of transgenic mice lacking Tfr2 in macrophages by crossing Tfr2(f/f) mice with LysM-Cre mice. Mice were fed an iron-rich diet or injected with lipopolysaccharide to examine the role of macrophage Tfr2 in iron- or inflammation-mediated regulation of hepcidin. Body iron homeostasis was unaffected in the knockout mice, suggesting that macrophage TFR2 is not required for the regulation of systemic iron metabolism. However, peritoneal macrophages of knockout mice had significantly lower levels of ferroportin mRNA and protein, suggesting that TFR2 may be involved in regulating ferroportin levels in macrophages. These studies further elucidate the role of TFR2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis and its role in regulation of ferroportin and thus macrophage iron homeostasis.

  19. Gender-dependent association of type 2 diabetes with the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Paladini, Fabiana; Adinolfi, Valerio; Cocco, Elisa; Ciociola, Ester; Tamburrano, Giulia; Cascino, Isabella; Lucantoni, Federica; Morano, Susanna; Sorrentino, Rosa

    2012-02-10

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by an inadequate pancreatic beta-cell response to the progressive insulin resistance. Its pathogenesis is complex and has been connected with a state of preclinical chronic inflammation. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its receptors play a relevant role in the homeostasis of insulin secretion as well as in the control of inflammation. In particular, VIP receptor 1 (VPAC1) has been found to be down-modulated during inflammation, and to be associated with several diseases. The objective of this study was to compare the distribution of SNPs mapping in the VIP receptor 1 gene in cases with type 2 diabetes and matched controls. Seven hundred cases with type 2 diabetes (423 males and 277 females) and 830 random controls (419 males and 411 females) were analyzed for the distribution of three common SNPs mapping in the VPAC1 gene. The results show a significantly different genotype distribution of the SNP rs9677 in the 3'-UTR of VPAC1 in female cases with type 2 diabetes compared to gender-matched controls (ptrend=6×10(-4)). The rs9677 CC genotype confers the highest risk (OR: 2.1) and correlates with worse clinical parameters such as higher level of total cholesterol, higher LDL/HDL ratio and a higher HbA1c concentration. The genetic association reported here indicates that VIP/VPAC1 signaling can be a relevant pathway in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in females suggesting that at least some aspects of the genetic predisposition to this disease can be gender-specific.

  20. Alteration of Serum Concentrations of Manganese, Iron, Ferritin, and Transferrin Receptor Following Exposure to Welding Fumes Among Career Welders

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling; Zhang, Long-lian; Li, G. Jane; Guo, Wenrui; Liang, Wannian; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine airborne manganese levels during welding practice and to establish the relationship between long-term, low-level exposure to manganese and altered serum concentrations of manganese, iron, and proteins associated with iron metabolism in career welders. Ninety-seven welders (average age of 36 years) who have engaged in electric arc weld in a vehicle manufacturer were recruited as the exposed group. Welders worked 7–8 h per day with employment duration of 1–33 years. Control subjects consisted of 91 employees (average age of 35 years) in the same factory but not in the welding profession. Ambient manganese levels in welders’ breathing zone were the highest inside the vehicle (1.5 ± 0.7 mg/m3), and the lowest in the center of the workshop (0.2 ± 0.05 mg/m3). Since the filter size was 0.8 μm, it is possible that these values may be likely an underestimation of the true manganese levels. Serum levels of manganese and iron in welders were about three-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.2-fold (p < 0.01), respectively, higher than those of controls. Serum concentrations of ferritin and transferrin were increased among welders, while serum transferrin receptor levels were significantly decreased in comparison to controls. Linear regression analyses revealed a lack of association between serum levels of manganese and iron. However, serum concentrations of iron and ferritin were positively associated with years of welder experience (p < 0.05). Moreover, serum transferrin receptor levels were inversely associated with serum manganese concentrations (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that exposure to welding fume among welders disturbs serum homeostasis of manganese, iron, and the proteins associated with iron metabolism. Serum manganese may serve as a reasonable biomarker for assessment of recent exposure to airborne manganese. PMID:15713346

  1. Pharmacological profile of a bifunctional ligand of the formyl peptide receptor1 fused to the myc epitope.

    PubMed

    Charest-Morin, Xavier; Roy, Caroline; Fernandes, Maria J G; Marceau, François

    2015-03-01

    In human peripheral blood neutrophils or in myeloid PLB-985 cells differentiated towards a neutrophil-like phenotype, the peptide N-formyl-L-norleucyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-norleucyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-fluorescein isothiocyanate (f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-FITC) binds to and activates formyl peptide receptor1 (FPR1) and is submitted to receptor-mediated endocytosis (microscopy, cytofluorometry). This peptide may be considered a C-terminally extended version of f-Met-Leu-Phe which carries a fluorescent cargo into cells. By analogy to other peptide hormones for which we have evaluated epitope-tagged agonists as carriers of antibody cargoes, we have designed and evaluated f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-myc, C-terminally extended with the 10-residue myc tag. This peptide is as potent as f-Met-Leu-Phe to compete for f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-FITC uptake by PLB-985 cells, but did not mediate (10-1000nM) the internalization of the fluorescent anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6 added to the extracellular fluid at ~7nM (microscopy). The nonfluorescent version of the antibody (28nM) acts as a pre-receptor antagonist of f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-myc, but not of f-Met-Leu-Phe (superoxide release assay in differentiated PLB-985 cells). A further prolonged analog, f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-(Asn-Gly)5-myc, designed to decrease the possible steric hindrance between FPR1 and the bound anti-myc antibody, has little affinity for the receptor, precluding a direct assessment of this issue. Thus, the relatively low-affinity anti-myc antibody used at a high concentration functionally behaves as a selective pre-receptor antagonist of the agonist f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-myc.

  2. Characterization of Thrombin-Bound Dabigatran Effects on Protease-Activated Receptor-1 Expression and Signaling In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Buxin; Soto, Antonio G.; Coronel, Luisa J.; Goss, Ashley; van Ryn, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Thrombin, the key effector protease of the coagulation cascade, drives fibrin deposition and activates human platelets through protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1). These processes are critical to the progression of thrombotic diseases. Thrombin is the main target of anticoagulant therapy, and major efforts have led to the discovery of new oral direct inhibitors of thrombin. Dabigatran is the first oral anticoagulant licensed for the prevention of thromboembolisms associated with orthopedic surgery and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor that effectively blocks thrombin’s catalytic activity but does not preclude thrombin’s exosites and binding to fibrinogen. Thus, we hypothesized that catalytically inactive thrombin retains the capacity to bind to PAR1 through exosite-I and may modulate its function independent of receptor cleavage and activation. Here, we report that dabigatran at clinically relevant concentrations is an effective and acute inhibitor of thrombin-induced PAR1 cleavage, activation, internalization, and β-arrestin recruitment in vitro. Interestingly, prolonged exposure to catalytic inactive thrombin incubated with dabigatran at 20-fold higher therapeutic concentration resulted in increased PAR1 cell-surface expression, which correlated with higher detectable levels of ubiquitinated receptor. These findings are consistent with ubiquitin function as a negative regulator of PAR1 constitutive internalization. Increased PAR1 expression also enhanced agonist-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis and endothelial barrier permeability. Thus, catalytically inactive thrombin appears to modulate PAR1 function in vitro by stabilizing receptor cell-surface expression; but given the high clearance rate of thrombin, the high concentration of dabigatran required to achieve this effect the in vivo physiologic relevance is unknown. PMID:25934730

  3. Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) activates cancer-related pathways and is widely expressed in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, V; Ezer, S; Sundman, L; Hagström, J; Remes, S; Söderhäll, C; Greco, D; Dario, G; Haglund, C; Kere, J; Arola, J

    2014-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from disseminated neuroendocrine cells and express general and specific neuroendocrine markers. Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) is expressed in neuroendocrine cells and its ligand neuropeptide S (NPS) affects cell proliferation. Our aim was to study whether NPS/NPSR1 could be used as a biomarker for neuroendocrine neoplasms and to identify the gene pathways affected by NPS/NPSR1. We collected a cohort of NETs comprised of 91 samples from endocrine glands, digestive tract, skin, and lung. Tumor type was validated by immunostaining of chromogranin-A and synaptophysin expression and tumor grade was analyzed by Ki-67 proliferation index. NPS and NPSR1 expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against NPS and monoclonal antibodies against the amino-terminus and carboxy-terminus of NPSR1 isoform A (NPSR1-A). The effects of NPS on downstream signaling were studied in a human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line which overexpresses NPSR1-A and is of neuroendocrine origin. NPSR1 and NPS were expressed in most NET tissues, with the exception of adrenal pheochromocytomas in which NPS/NPSR1 immunoreactivity was very low. Transcriptome analysis of NPSR1-A overexpressing cells revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, circadian activity, focal adhesion, transforming growth factor beta, and cytokine-cytokine interactions were the most altered gene pathways after NPS stimulation. Our results show that NETs are a source of NPS and NPSR1, and that NPS affects cancer-related pathways. PMID:24915894

  4. Molecular expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, prokineticin receptor-1 and other biomarkers in infiltrating canalicular carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Angélica; Morimoto, Sumiko; Vilchis, Felipe; Taniyama, Natsuko; Bautista, Claudia J.; Robles, Carlos; Bargalló, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is important in the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. In 2001, another angiogenic factor, endocrine gland-derived VEGF (EG-VEGF), was characterized and sequenced. EG-VEGF activity appears to be restricted to endothelial cells derived from endocrine glands. At the molecular level, its expression is regulated by hypoxia and steroid hormones. Although VEGF and EG-VEGF are structurally different, they function in a coordinated fashion. Since the majority of mammary tumors are hormone-dependent, it was hypothesized that EG-VEGF would be expressed in these tumors, and therefore, represent a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of VEGF, EG-VEGF and its receptor (prokineticin receptor-1), as well as that of breast cancer resistant protein, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, in 50 breast samples of infiltrating canalicular carcinoma (ICC) and their correlation with tumor staging. The samples were analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Both angiogenic growth factors were identified in all samples. However, in 90% of the samples, the expression level of VEGF was significantly higher than that of EG-VEGF (P=0.024). There was no association between the expression of VEGF, EG-VEGF or its receptor with tumor stage. In ICC, the predominant angiogenic factor expressed was VEGF. The expression level of either factor was not correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage. Although ICC is derived from endothelial cells, EG-VEGF expression was not the predominant angiogenic/growth factor in ICC. PMID:27703528

  5. Engineering superactive granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor transferrin fusion proteins as orally-delivered candidate agents for treating neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Heinzelman, Pete; Priebe, Molly C

    2015-01-01

    Intravenously injected granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has shown efficacy in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) animal studies and is undergoing clinical evaluation. The likely need for dosing of GM-CSF to patients over months or years motivates pursuit of avenues for delivering GM-CSF to circulation via oral administration. Flow cytometric screening of 37 yeast-displayed GM-CSF saturation mutant libraries revealed residues P12, H15, R23, R24, and K72 as key determinants of GM-CSF's CD116 and CD131 GM-CSF receptor (GM-CSFR) subunit binding affinity. Screening combinatorial GM-CSF libraries mutated at positions P12, H15, and R23 yielded variants with increased affinities toward both CD116 and CD131. Genetic fusion of GM-CSF to human transferrin (Trf), a strategy that enables oral delivery of other biopharmaceuticals in animals, yielded bioactive wild type and variant cytokines upon secretion from cultured Human Embryonic Kidney cells. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements showed that all evaluated variants possess decreases in CD116 and CD131 binding KD values of up to 2.5-fold relative to wild type. Improved affinity led to increased in vitro bioactivity; the most bioactive variant, P12D/H15L/R23L, had a leukocyte proliferation assay EC50 value 3.5-fold lower than the wild type GM-CSF/Trf fusion. These outcomes are important first steps toward our goal of developing GM-CSF/Trf fusions as orally available AD and PD therapeutics. PMID:25737095

  6. Hypocretin/Orexin Regulation of Dopamine Signaling and Cocaine Self-Administration Is Mediated Predominantly by Hypocretin Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that the hypocretins/orexins influence cocaine reinforcement and dopamine signaling via actions at hypocretin receptor 1. By comparison, the involvement of hypocretin receptor 2 in reward and reinforcement processes has received relatively little attention. Thus, although there is some evidence that hypocretin receptor 2 regulates intake of some drugs of abuse, it is currently unclear to what extent hypocretin receptor 2 participates in the regulation of dopamine signaling or cocaine self-administration, particularly under high effort conditions. To address this, we examined the effects of hypocretin receptor 1, and/or hypocretin receptor 2 blockade on dopamine signaling and cocaine reinforcement. We used in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry to test the effects of hypocretin antagonists on dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and a progressive ratio schedule to examine the effects of these antagonists on cocaine self-administration. Results demonstrate that blockade of either hypocretin receptor 1 or both hypocretin receptor 1 and 2 significantly reduces the effects of cocaine on dopamine signaling and decreases the motivation to take cocaine. In contrast, blockade of hypocretin receptor 2 alone had no significant effects on dopamine signaling or self-administration. These findings suggest a differential involvement of the two hypocretin receptors, with hypocretin receptor 1 appearing to be more involved than hypocretin receptor 2 in the regulation of dopamine signaling and cocaine self-administration. When considered with the existing literature, these data support the hypothesis that hypocretins exert a permissive influence on dopamine signaling and motivated behavior via preferential actions on hypocretin receptor 1. PMID:25496218

  7. Hypocretin/Orexin regulation of dopamine signaling and cocaine self-administration is mediated predominantly by hypocretin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Prince, Courtney D; Rau, Andrew R; Yorgason, Jordan T; España, Rodrigo A

    2015-01-21

    Extensive evidence suggests that the hypocretins/orexins influence cocaine reinforcement and dopamine signaling via actions at hypocretin receptor 1. By comparison, the involvement of hypocretin receptor 2 in reward and reinforcement processes has received relatively little attention. Thus, although there is some evidence that hypocretin receptor 2 regulates intake of some drugs of abuse, it is currently unclear to what extent hypocretin receptor 2 participates in the regulation of dopamine signaling or cocaine self-administration, particularly under high effort conditions. To address this, we examined the effects of hypocretin receptor 1, and/or hypocretin receptor 2 blockade on dopamine signaling and cocaine reinforcement. We used in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry to test the effects of hypocretin antagonists on dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and a progressive ratio schedule to examine the effects of these antagonists on cocaine self-administration. Results demonstrate that blockade of either hypocretin receptor 1 or both hypocretin receptor 1 and 2 significantly reduces the effects of cocaine on dopamine signaling and decreases the motivation to take cocaine. In contrast, blockade of hypocretin receptor 2 alone had no significant effects on dopamine signaling or self-administration. These findings suggest a differential involvement of the two hypocretin receptors, with hypocretin receptor 1 appearing to be more involved than hypocretin receptor 2 in the regulation of dopamine signaling and cocaine self-administration. When considered with the existing literature, these data support the hypothesis that hypocretins exert a permissive influence on dopamine signaling and motivated behavior via preferential actions on hypocretin receptor 1. PMID:25496218

  8. Synthesis and characterization of tumor-targeted copolymer nanocarrier modified by transferrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming; Bao, Wen; Xia, Guohua; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Jian; Xu, Yuanlong; Guo, Liting; Chen, Baoan

    2015-01-01

    To increase the encapsulation of hydrophilic antitumor agent daunorubicin (DNR) and multidrug resistance reversal agent tetrandrine (Tet) in the drug delivery system of nano-particles (NPs), a functional copolymer NP composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly-L-lysine (PLL), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was synthesized and then loaded with DNR and Tet simultaneously to construct DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-NPs using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. And to increase the targeted antitumor effect, DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-NPs were further modified with transferrin (Tf) due to its specific binding to Tf receptors (TfR), which is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells. In this study, the influence of the diversity of formulation parameters was investigated systematically, such as drug loading, mean particle size, molecular weight, the concentration of PLGA-PLL-PEG-Tf, volume ratio of acetone to dichloromethane, the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the external aqueous phase, the volume ratio of the internal aqueous phase to the external aqueous phase, and the type of surfactants in the internal aqueous phase. Meanwhile, its possible effect on cell viability was evaluated. Our results showed that the regular spherical DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-Tf-NPs with a smooth surface, a relatively low polydispersity index, and a diameter of 213.0±12.0 nm could be produced. The encapsulation efficiency was 70.23%±1.91% for DNR and 86.5%±0.70% for Tet, the moderate drug loading was 3.63%±0.15% for DNR and 4.27%±0.13% for Tet. Notably, the accumulated release of DNR and Tet could be sustained over 1 week, and the Tf content was 2.18%±0.04%. In cell viability tests, DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-Tf-NPs could inhibit the proliferation of K562/ADR cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration value (total drug) of DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-Tf-NPs was lower than that of DNR, a mixture of DNR and Tet, and DNR

  9. Examination of the mechanism of action of nitrogen monoxide on iron uptake from transferrin.

    PubMed

    Watts, R N; Richardson, D R

    2000-08-01

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) exerts many of its functions by binding to iron (Fe) in the active sites of a number of key proteins. Previously we have shown that NO produced by NO-generating agents decreased cellular Fe uptake from transferrin (Tf). However, the mechanism of this effect was not elucidated. In this study we examined the possible mechanisms whereby NO could interfere with Fe uptake. Our experiments demonstrate that NO produced by the NO generator S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine was slightly more effective than the Fe chelator deferoxamine at reducing iron 59 uptake from 59Fe-labeled Tf by LMTK- fibroblasts. Other NO generators including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and spermine-NONOate also decreased 59Fe uptake from 59Fe-labeled Tf. In contrast, precursors of these compounds that do not release NO had no effect. When the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was activated to produce NO by incubation with lipopolysaccharide or lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, a decrease in 59Fe uptake from 59Fe-labeled Tf was also observed. Experiments with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultraviolet-Vis spectrophotometry demonstrated that NO did not prevent Fe uptake by binding to the Fe-ligating sites of Tf, suggesting that it acted more distally. Because the uptake of Fe is an energy-dependent process, and since NO inhibits mitochondrial respiration, cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was estimated after incubation with GSNO. In the presence of D-glucose (D-G), GSNO reduced ATP levels by 35% as compared with the control, while in the absence of D-G, GSNO reduced ATP by 72%. When the same experiments were performed with D-fructose (D-F), which cannot be efficiently metabolized by fibroblasts, no "rescue" effect was observed on ATP levels. The addition of D-G to GSNO prevented the decrease in 59Fe uptake from 59Fe-labeled Tf while D-F did not, in good correlation with their effects on ATP levels. These results suggest that D-G acts as a salvage

  10. Regulation of iron uptake and transport by transferrin in Caco-2 cells, an intestinal cell line.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Hernandez, X; Smith, M; Glass, J

    1994-06-22

    Caco-2 cells grown in bicameral chambers, a model of intestinal epithelial iron transport (Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1991) 1070, 205-208), were used to study the effect of apo-transferrin (apo-Tf) in the basal chamber on 59Fe uptake from the apical surface, intracellular 59Fe distribution, and 59Fe transport into the basal chamber. Caco-2 cells were grown with varying amounts of iron to achieve cells that were either iron-deficient (FeD), or normal iron status (FeN), or iron-loaded (FeH). The effect of apo-Tf was most marked in FeD cells with the transport of 59Fe from 1 microM 59Fe-ascorbate on the apical side to the basal chamber measured as (22.2 +/- 3.0) x 10(4), (8.2 +/- 0.6) x 10(4), and (2.7 +/- 0.4) x 10(4) atoms 59Fe/cell/min in the presence of apo-Tf, BSA, and no added protein, respectively. Unexpectedly in FeD cells total 59Fe uptake (i.e., both 59Fe in the cells and that transported into the basal chamber) was decreased by basolateral apo-Tf with total uptake of (2.6 +/- 0.3) x 10(5), (4.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(5), and (4.8 +/- 0.7) x 10(5) atoms/cell/min with apo-Tf, BSA, and no additions, respectively. Analysis of intracellular 59Fe by isoelectrofocusing in polyacrylamide gels demonstrated 59Fe migrating both with a basic pI and with the pI values of ferritin (Ft) at a ratio of 200:1 (basic pI moiety: ferritin) in FeD cells. The presence of Tf further decreased the small amount of 59Fe in Ft. These studies demonstrate that basolateral Tf affects the apical uptake of 59Fe, the intracellular distribution of 59Fe, and the transport of 59Fe across intestinal epithelium, the latter effect occurring even when cellular content of ferritin is high.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of tumor-targeted copolymer nanocarrier modified by transferrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming; Bao, Wen; Xia, Guohua; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Jian; Xu, Yuanlong; Guo, Liting; Chen, Baoan

    2015-01-01

    To increase the encapsulation of hydrophilic antitumor agent daunorubicin (DNR) and multidrug resistance reversal agent tetrandrine (Tet) in the drug delivery system of nano-particles (NPs), a functional copolymer NP composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly-L-lysine (PLL), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was synthesized and then loaded with DNR and Tet simultaneously to construct DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-NPs using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. And to increase the targeted antitumor effect, DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-NPs were further modified with transferrin (Tf) due to its specific binding to Tf receptors (TfR), which is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells. In this study, the influence of the diversity of formulation parameters was investigated systematically, such as drug loading, mean particle size, molecular weight, the concentration of PLGA-PLL-PEG-Tf, volume ratio of acetone to dichloromethane, the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the external aqueous phase, the volume ratio of the internal aqueous phase to the external aqueous phase, and the type of surfactants in the internal aqueous phase. Meanwhile, its possible effect on cell viability was evaluated. Our results showed that the regular spherical DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-Tf-NPs with a smooth surface, a relatively low polydispersity index, and a diameter of 213.0±12.0 nm could be produced. The encapsulation efficiency was 70.23%±1.91% for DNR and 86.5%±0.70% for Tet, the moderate drug loading was 3.63%±0.15% for DNR and 4.27%±0.13% for Tet. Notably, the accumulated release of DNR and Tet could be sustained over 1 week, and the Tf content was 2.18%±0.04%. In cell viability tests, DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-Tf-NPs could inhibit the proliferation of K562/ADR cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration value (total drug) of DNR/Tet-PLGA-PLL-PEG-Tf-NPs was lower than that of DNR, a mixture of DNR and Tet, and DNR

  12. Synthesis and characterization of tumor-targeted copolymer nanocarrier modified by transferrin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming; Bao, Wen; Xia, Guohua; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Jian; Xu, Yuanlong; Guo, Liting; Chen, Baoan

    2015-01-01

    To increase the encapsulation of hydrophilic antitumor agent daunorubicin (DNR) and multidrug resistance reversal agent tetrandrine (Tet) in the drug delivery system of nano-particles (NPs), a functional copolymer NP composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly-L-lysine (PLL), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was synthesized and then loaded with DNR and Tet simultaneously to construct DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG-NPs using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. And to increase the targeted antitumor effect, DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG-NPs were further modified with transferrin (Tf) due to its specific binding to Tf receptors (TfR), which is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells. In this study, the influence of the diversity of formulation parameters was investigated systematically, such as drug loading, mean particle size, molecular weight, the concentration of PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf, volume ratio of acetone to dichloromethane, the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the external aqueous phase, the volume ratio of the internal aqueous phase to the external aqueous phase, and the type of surfactants in the internal aqueous phase. Meanwhile, its possible effect on cell viability was evaluated. Our results showed that the regular spherical DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf-NPs with a smooth surface, a relatively low polydispersity index, and a diameter of 213.0±12.0 nm could be produced. The encapsulation efficiency was 70.23%±1.91% for DNR and 86.5%±0.70% for Tet, the moderate drug loading was 3.63%±0.15% for DNR and 4.27%±0.13% for Tet. Notably, the accumulated release of DNR and Tet could be sustained over 1 week, and the Tf content was 2.18%±0.04%. In cell viability tests, DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf-NPs could inhibit the proliferation of K562/ADR cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration value (total drug) of DNR/Tet–PLGA–PLL–PEG–Tf-NPs was lower than that of DNR

  13. Effect of phorbol esters on iron uptake in human hematopoietic cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, U.; Titeux, M.; Louache, F.; Thomopoulos, P.; Rochant, H.

    1984-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on iron uptake into human hematopoietic cell lines K562, U937, and HL-60. TPA inhibited both cell growth and iron uptake by these cell lines. This effect was rapid, which is typical of phorbol esters which are biologically active, and it occurred at very low concentrations of TPA. This effect of TPA was dependent upon an inhibition of the transferrin-binding capacity as estimated on intact cells. However, experiments with transferrin binding on cell samples dissolved in 1% Triton X-100 showed that TPA-treated cells exhibited a transferrin-binding capacity similar to that of control cells. On the basis of this result, it is suggested that TPA modified a part of transferrin receptors present in the cells; as a result of this modification, these receptors became unavailable for binding transferrin, but they remained physically present in the cell. Other compounds capable of inducing the differentiation of leukemic cells, such as dimethyl sulfoxide, butyrate, retinoic acid, and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3, did not acutely inhibit iron uptake. We also investigated the effect of TPA on transferrin receptors in a cellular system in which phorbol esters stimulate cell proliferation. At 16 X 10(-9) M, TPA markedly stimulated the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. However, in spite of this marked stimulation of cell proliferation, TPA-stimulated lymphocytes exhibited a transferrin-binding capacity much inferior to cells stimulated by other mitogens, such as phytohemagglutinin.

  14. A Lectin Purified from Blood Red Bracket Mushroom, Pycnoporus sanguineus (Agaricomycetidae), Mycelium Displayed Affinity Toward Bovine Transferrin.

    PubMed

    Albores, Silvana; Moros, Maria; Cerdeiras, Maria Pia; de la Fuente, Jesus Martinez; Grazu, Valeria; Fraguas, Laura Franco

    2016-01-01

    Fungal lectins constitute excellent ligands for development of affinity adsorbents useful in affinity chromatography. In this work, a lectin was purified from Pycnoporus sanguineus (PSL) mycelium using 3 procedures: by affinity chromatography, using magnetic galactosyl-nanoparticles or galactose coupled to Sepharose, and by ionic exchange chromatography (IEC). The highest lectin yield was achieved by IEC (55%); SDS-PAGE of PSL showed 2 bands with molecular mass of 68.7 and 55.2 kDa and IEC displayed 2 bands at pi 5.5 and 5.2. The lectin agglutinates rat erythrocytes, exhibiting broad specificity toward several monosaccharides, including galactose. The agglutination was also inhibited by the glycoproteins fetal calf fetuin, bovine lactoferrin, bovine transferrin, and horseradish peroxidase. The lectin was then used to synthesize an affinity adsorbent (PSL-Sepharose) and the interaction with glycoproteins was evaluated by analyzing their chromatographic behaviors. The strongest interaction with the PSL-derivative was observed with transferrin, although lower interactions were also displayed toward fetuin and lactoferrin. These results indicate that the purified PSL constitutes an interesting ligand for the design of affinity adsorbents to be used (i.e., in glycoprotein purification). PMID:27279446

  15. Self-assembled IR780-loaded transferrin nanoparticles as an imaging, targeting and PDT/PTT agent for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kaikai; Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Juan; Yuan, Ahu; Sun, Minjie; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Combination of photothermal and photodynamic therapy (PTT/PDT) offer unique advantages over PDT alone. However, to achieve synergetic PDT/PTT effect, one generally needs two lasers with different wavelengths. Near-infrared dye IR-780 could be used as photosensitizer both for PTT and PDT, but its lipophilicity limits its practical use and in vivo efficiency. Herein, a simple multifunctional IR780-loaded nanoplatform based on transferrin was developed for targeted imaging and phototherapy of cancer compatible with a single-NIR-laser irradiation. The self-assembled transferrin-IR780 nanoparticles (Tf-IR780 NPs) exhibited narrow size distribution, good photo-stability, and encouraging photothermal performance with enhanced generation of ROS under laser irradiation. Following intravenous injection, Tf-IR780 NPs had a high tumor-to-background ratio in CT26 tumor-bearing mice. Treatment with Tf-IR780 NPs resulted in significant tumor suppression. Overall, the Tf-IR780 NPs show notable targeting and theranostic potential in cancer therapy. PMID:27263444

  16. Surface engineered polymeric nanocarriers mediate the delivery of transferrin-methotrexate conjugates for an improved understanding of brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Atul; Jain, Ashay; Garg, Neeraj K; Tyagi, Rajeev K; Singh, Bhupinder; Katare, Om Prakash; Webster, Thomas J; Soni, Vandana

    2015-09-01

    The objective of present study was to enhance permeation of bioactive molecules across blood brain barrier (BBB) through polysorbate 80 coated poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with methotrexate-transferrin (Tw-Mtx-Tf-NP) conjugates (Mtx-Tf). The easy trans-BBB migration of developed formulations through endocytosis, and inhibition of P-gp efflux pump present in brain were established by Pluronic F-68 and/or polysorbate 80 (Tween 80/Tw). The over-expression of transferrin (Tf) receptors on cancer cell surface allowed targeted and sustained delivery of Mtx-Tf conjugated to brain cancer cells by receptor mediated endocytosis. The developed formulations showed improved penetration in comparison to non-targeting experimental NP controls. The transportation potential and bio-distribution studies of such nanosized polymeric carriers showing successful migration and trans-BBB passage was carried out by administering FITC labeled drug loaded NPs to albino rats through intravenous route. We have validated anti-tumor efficiency of newly formulated and drug loaded NPs compared to controls in experimentally induced tumor-harboring rat model. The present study suggests greater compatibility, less organ toxicity and higher anti-tumor activity of developed formulations due to their targeting and sustained delivery potential in cancer therapeutic interventions. In conclusion, our findings of targeted and sustained drug delivery potential of NPs for are corroborated with in vitro and in vivo evidence, and formulated novel delivery vehicle shows its value in developing new tools for treating brain cancer.

  17. Self-assembled targeted nanoparticles based on transferrin-modified eight-arm-polyethylene glycol–dihydroartemisinin conjugate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kefeng; Dai, Lin; Li, Chunxiao; Liu, Jing; Wang, Luying; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-07-01

    Poor delivery of insoluble anticancer drugs has so far precluded their clinical application. In this study, an efficient tumor targeted-nanoparticle delivery system, transferrin-eight-arm-polyethylene glycol–dihydroartemisinin nanoparticles (TF-8arm-PEG-DHA NPs) for the vehiculation of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was first prepared and evaluated for its targeting efficiency and cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo to Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, which overexpress transferrin receptors (TFRs). The synthesized TF-8arm-PEG–DHA NPs had high solubility (~102 fold of free DHA), relatively high drug loading (~10 wt% DHA), long circulating half-life and moderate particle size (~147 nm). The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo tumor growth inhibition studies in LLC-tumor bearing mice confirmed the enhanced efficacy of TF-modified 8arm-PEG-DHA NPs compared to free DHA and non-modified 8arm-PEG-DHA NPs. All these results together supported that the formulation developed in this work exhibited great potential as an effective tumor targeting delivery system for insoluble anticancer drugs.

  18. Subgroup differences in 'brain-type' transferrin and α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Akioh; Fukatsu, Masahiko; Hoshi, Kyoka; Ito, Hiromi; Nollet, Kenneth; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Ishii, Ryotaro; Tokuda, Takahiko; Miyajima, Masakazu; Arai, Hajime; Kato, Takeo; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akio; Takeda, Atsushi; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Two transferrin (Tf) glycan-isoforms were previously found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); one appears to be derived from serum (Tf-2) and the other from choroid plexus, a CSF-producing tissue (Tf-1). To analyse metabolic differences associated with the two isoforms, their ratio (Tf-2/Tf-1) was defined as the Tf index. Here we report that Tf indices of patients with tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (2.29 + 0.64) were similar to those of neurological controls (2.07 + 0.87) (P = 0.147). In contrast, Tf indices with Parkinson's disease (PD, 3.38 ± 1.87) and multiple system atrophy (MSA, 3.15 ± 1.72) were higher than those of the controls (2.07 ± 0.87), the P-values being < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively. Tf indices of PD and MSA did not appear to be normally distributed. Indeed, detrended normal Quantile-Quantile plot analysis revealed the presence of an independent subgroup showing higher Tf indices in PD and MSA. The subgroup of PD showed higher levels of CSF α-synuclein (38.3 ± 17.8 ng/ml) than the rest (25.3 ± 11.3 ng/ml, P = 0.012). These results suggest that PD (and MSA) includes two subgroups, which show different metabolism of CSF transferrin and α-synuclein. PMID:26970280

  19. Dihydroartemisinin and transferrin dual-dressed nano-graphene oxide for a pH-triggered chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijuan; Wei, Yanchun; Zhai, Shaodong; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2015-09-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a unique anti-malarial drug isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. Recently, it has been studied as an alternative modality for cancer therapy, utilizing its reactive oxygen species (ROS) yielding mechanism from interacting with Ferrous ion (Fe (II)). In this work, a novel nanodrug (DHA-GO-Tf) is constructed based on nanoscale Graphene oxide (GO) dual-dressed with DHA and Transferrin (Tf). Tf dually functions as a pilot for the nanoparticle to target tumor cell with over expressed Transferrin receptor (TfR) and a ferric ion carrier. Upon tumor cellular endocytosis, Ferric ion (Fe(III)) is released from the Tf, triggered by the low pH in the lysosomes of the tumor cell. The intracellular Fe (III) is reduced to Fe (II) and interacts with DHA to increase its cytotoxicity. The potential of this alternative anti-tumor modality is demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Comparing with DHA alone, the nanodrug DHA-GO-Tf resulted in a significantly enhanced tumor delivery specificity and cytotoxicity, and achieved a complete tumor cure in mice with minimal side-effects. PMID:26022978

  20. Self-assembled targeted nanoparticles based on transferrin-modified eight-arm-polyethylene glycol–dihydroartemisinin conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kefeng; Dai, Lin; Li, Chunxiao; Liu, Jing; Wang, Luying; Lei, Jiandu

    2016-01-01

    Poor delivery of insoluble anticancer drugs has so far precluded their clinical application. In this study, an efficient tumor targeted-nanoparticle delivery system, transferrin-eight-arm-polyethylene glycol–dihydroartemisinin nanoparticles (TF-8arm-PEG-DHA NPs) for the vehiculation of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was first prepared and evaluated for its targeting efficiency and cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo to Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, which overexpress transferrin receptors (TFRs). The synthesized TF-8arm-PEG–DHA NPs had high solubility (~102 fold of free DHA), relatively high drug loading (~10 wt% DHA), long circulating half-life and moderate particle size (~147 nm). The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo tumor growth inhibition studies in LLC-tumor bearing mice confirmed the enhanced efficacy of TF-modified 8arm-PEG-DHA NPs compared to free DHA and non-modified 8arm-PEG-DHA NPs. All these results together supported that the formulation developed in this work exhibited great potential as an effective tumor targeting delivery system for insoluble anticancer drugs. PMID:27377918

  1. Characterization of Inhibitors and Monoclonal Antibodies That Modulate the Interaction between Plasmodium falciparum Adhesin PfRh4 with Its Erythrocyte Receptor Complement Receptor 1*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Harder, Markus J.; Kennedy, Alexander T.; Lin, Clara S.; Weir, Christopher; Cowman, Alan F.; Call, Melissa J.; Schmidt, Christoph Q.; Tham, Wai-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites must invade red blood cells to survive within humans. Entry into red blood cells is governed by interactions between parasite adhesins and red blood cell receptors. Previously we identified that P. falciparum reticulocyte binding protein-like homologue 4 (PfRh4) binds to complement receptor 1 (CR1) to mediate entry of malaria parasites into human red blood cells. In this report we characterize a collection of anti-PfRh4 monoclonal antibodies and CR1 protein fragments that modulate the interaction between PfRh4 and CR1. We identify an anti-PfRh4 monoclonal that blocks PfRh4-CR1 interaction in vitro, inhibits PfRh4 binding to red blood cells, and as a result abolishes the PfRh4-CR1 invasion pathway in P. falciparum. Epitope mapping of anti-PfRh4 monoclonal antibodies identified distinct functional regions within PfRh4 involved in modulating its interaction with CR1. Furthermore, we designed a set of protein fragments based on extensive mutagenesis analyses of the PfRh4 binding site on CR1 and determined their interaction affinities using surface plasmon resonance. These CR1 protein fragments bind tightly to PfRh4 and also function as soluble inhibitors to block PfRh4 binding to red blood cells and to inhibit the PfRh4-CR1 invasion pathway. Our findings can aid future efforts in designing specific single epitope antibodies to block P. falciparum invasion via complement receptor 1. PMID:26324715

  2. Cyclic strain increases protease-activated receptor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Frye, S. R.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic strain regulates many vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functions through changing gene expression. This study investigated the effects of cyclic strain on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression in VSMCs and the possible signaling pathways involved, on the basis of the hypothesis that cyclic strain would enhance PAR-1 expression, reflecting increased thrombin activity. Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of PAR-1, as assessed by cell proliferation in response to thrombin, was also increased by cyclic strain. In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. Preincubation of cells with protein kinase inhibitors (staurosporine or Ro 31-8220) enhanced strain-increased PAR-1 expression, whereas inhibitors of NO synthase, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases had no effect. Cyclic strain in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor induced PAR-1 mRNA levels beyond the effect of cyclic strain alone, whereas no additive effect was observed between cyclic strain and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. Our findings that cyclic strain upregulates PAR-1 mRNA expression but that shear stress downregulates this gene in VSMCs provide an opportunity to elucidate signaling differences by which VSMCs respond to different mechanical forces.

  3. Endocytosis of Ligand-Activated Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Mediated by the Clathrin-Pathway.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Patrick M; Kang, Yuan-Lin; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is one of five G protein-coupled receptors activated by the lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Stimulation of S1PR1 by binding S1P or the synthetic agonist FTY720P results in rapid desensitization, associated in part with depletion of receptor from the cell surface. We report here combining spinning disc confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to show that rapid internalization of activated S1PR1 relies on a functional clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Uptake of activated S1PR1 was strongly inhibited in cells disrupted in their clathrin-mediated endocytosis by depleting clathrin or AP-2 or by treating cells with dynasore-OH. The uptake of activated S1P1R was strongly inhibited in cells lacking both β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2, indicating that activated S1PR1 follows the canonical route of endocytosis for G-protein coupled receptor's (GPCR)'s.