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Sample records for human whole-blood mononuclear

  1. Comparative in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide to study TNFalpha gene expression in fresh whole blood, fresh and frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiwang; Bruns, Anke H; Donnelly, Helen K; Wunderink, Richard G

    2010-05-31

    In vitro stimulation with fresh and frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or fresh whole blood has been widely used in animal studies and clinical trials to study the immunological features of a number of human diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in response to stimulation of fresh PBMCs, frozen PBMCs, and fresh whole blood by change of TNFalpha gene expression levels after 4-hour in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results demonstrate that TNFalpha gene expression significantly increases in both fresh PBMCs and fresh whole blood when 1 microg/ml or 10 microg/ml LPS was used but only after stimulation with 10 microg/ml LPS in frozen PBMCs. Mean fold change of TNFalpha gene expression levels after 1 microg/ml LPS stimulation was significantly higher using fresh whole blood (51.01+/-7.91) as compared to fresh PBMCs (8.92+/-2.16) or frozen PBMCs (3.04+/-0.55) (pwhole blood is the best choice for in vitro stimulation studies.

  2. Screening Vaccine Formulations in Fresh Human Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Jalil; Aboutorabian, Sepideh; To, Frederick; Ausar, Salvador F; Rahman, Nausheen; Brookes, Roger H

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring the immunological functionality of vaccine formulations is critical for vaccine development. While the traditional approach using established animal models has been relatively effective, the use of animals is costly and cumbersome, and animal models are not always reflective of a human response. The development of a human-based approach would be a major step forward in understanding how vaccine formulations might behave in humans. Here, we describe a platform methodology using fresh human whole blood (hWB) to monitor adjuvant-modulated, antigen-specific responses to vaccine formulations, which is amenable to analysis by standard immunoassays as well as a variety of other analytical techniques.

  3. Human whole-blood oxygen affinity: effect of temperature.

    PubMed

    Zwart, A; Kwant, G; Oeseburg, B; Zijlstra, W G

    1984-08-01

    phe effect of temperature changes on human whole-blood O2 affinity was measured in the blood of six healthy donors over almost the entire O2 saturation (SO2) range (1-99%). The results showed that temperature has no influence on the shape of the O2 dissociation curve, implying that the temperature coefficient (delta log PO2/delta T) is independent of SO2. Simultaneous measurements of the total (proton) Haldane factor (delta[HbH]/[delta HbO2]) at the five temperatures under study (22, 27, 32, 37, and 42 degrees C) revealed that this factor depends on temperature. The liberation of protons from hemoglobin appeared to be linear with respect to changes in SO2. We therefore conclude that the (proton) Bohr factor (H+ factor) is dependent on temperature over the entire SO2 range in the same way as previously described for SO2 = 50%. The exothermic oxygenation reaction in whole blood was accompanied by a heat evolution (delta HO2) of 42.7 kJ/mol (monomeric) hemoglobin.

  4. A Systematic Heritability Analysis of the Human Whole Blood Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Tianxiao; Liu, Chunyu; Joehanes, Roby; Zhang, Xiaoling; Chen, Brian H.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Yao, Chen; Courchesne, Paul; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Munson, Peter J.; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping may reveal common genetic variants regulating gene expression. In addition to mapping eQTLs, we systematically evaluated the heritability of the whole blood transcriptome in 5626 participants from the Framingham Heart Study. Of all gene expression measurements, about 40% exhibit evidence of being heritable (hgeneExp2>0, (p<0.05]), the average heritability was estimated to be 0.13, and 10% display hgeneExp2>0.2. In order to identify the role of eQTLs in promoting phenotype differences and disease susceptibility, we investigated the proportion of cis/trans eQTLs in different heritability categories and discovered that genes with higher heritability are more likely to have cis eQTLs that explain large proportions of variance in the expression of the corresponding genes. Single cis eQTLs explain 0.33–0.53 of variance in transcripts on average, whereas single trans eQTLs only explain 0.02–0.07. The top cis eQTLs tend to explain more variance in the corresponding gene when its hgeneExp2 is greater. Taking body mass index (BMI) as a case study, we cross-linked cis/trans eQTLs with both GWAS SNPs and differentially expressed genes for BMI. We discovered that BMI GWAS SNPs in 16p11.2 (e.g., rs7359397) are associated with several BMI differentially expressed genes in a cis manner (e.g. SULT1A1, SPNS1, and TUFM). These BMI signature genes explain a much larger proportion of variance in BMI than do the GWAS SNPs. Our results shed light the impact of eQTLs on the heritability of the human whole blood transcriptome and its relations to phenotype differences. PMID:25585846

  5. An adjuvant-modulated vaccine response in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Jalil; Azizi, Ali; Ausar, Salvador F; Todryk, Stephen M; Rahman, Nausheen; Brookes, Roger H

    2017-09-02

    The restimulation of an immune memory response by in vitro culture of blood cells with a specific antigen has been used as a way to gauge immunity to vaccines for decades. In this commentary we discuss a less appreciated application to support vaccine process development. We report that human whole blood from pre-primed subjects can generate a profound adjuvant-modulated, antigen-specific response to several different vaccine formulations. The response is able to differentiate subtle changes in the quality of an immune memory response to vaccine formulations and can be used to select optimal conditions relating to a particular manufacture process step. While questions relating to closeness to in vivo vaccination remain, the approach is another big step nearer to the more relevant human response. It has special importance for new adjuvant development, complementing other preclinical in vivo and in vitro approaches to considerably de-risk progression of novel vaccines before and throughout early clinical development. Broader implications of the approach are discussed.

  6. Gene expression analysis of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymphoblastoid cell lines from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Barb, Jennifer J.; Raghavachari, Nalini; Liu, Poching; Woodhouse, Kimberly A.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Munson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of reports of gene expression analysis from blood-derived RNA sources, there have been few systematic comparisons of various RNA sources in transcriptomic analysis or for biomarker discovery in the context of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As a pilot study of the Systems Approach to Biomarker Research (SABRe) in CVD Initiative, this investigation used Affymetrix Exon arrays to characterize gene expression of three blood-derived RNA sources: lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), whole blood using PAXgene tubes (PAX), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Their performance was compared in relation to identifying transcript associations with sex and CVD risk factors, such as age, high-density lipoprotein, and smoking status, and the differential blood cell count. We also identified a set of exons that vary substantially between participants, but consistently in each RNA source. Such exons are thus stable phenotypes of the participant and may potentially become useful fingerprinting biomarkers. In agreement with previous studies, we found that each of the RNA sources is distinct. Unlike PAX and PBMC, LCL gene expression showed little association with the differential blood count. LCL, however, was able to detect two genes related to smoking status. PAX and PBMC identified Y-chromosome probe sets similarly and slightly better than LCL. PMID:22045913

  7. Potent Innate Immune Response to Pathogenic Leptospira in Human Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Schuller, Simone; Monahan, Avril M.; Nally, Jarlath E.; van der Poll, Tom; van 't Veer, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The bacteria enter the human body via abraded skin or mucous membranes and may disseminate throughout. In general the clinical picture is mild but some patients develop rapidly progressive, severe disease with a high case fatality rate. Not much is known about the innate immune response to leptospires during haematogenous dissemination. Previous work showed that a human THP-1 cell line recognized heat-killed leptospires and leptospiral LPS through TLR2 instead of TLR4. The LPS of virulent leptospires displayed a lower potency to trigger TNF production by THP-1 cells compared to LPS of non-virulent leptospires. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the host response and killing of virulent and non-virulent Leptospira of different serovars by human THP-1 cells, human PBMC's and human whole blood. Virulence of each leptospiral strain was tested in a well accepted standard guinea pig model. Virulent leptospires displayed complement resistance in human serum and whole blood while in-vitro attenuated non-virulent leptospires were rapidly killed in a complement dependent manner. In vitro stimulation of THP-1 and PBMC's with heat-killed and living leptospires showed differential serovar and cell type dependence of cytokine induction. However, at low, physiological, leptospiral dose, living virulent complement resistant strains were consistently more potent in whole blood stimulations than the corresponding non-virulent complement sensitive strains. At higher dose living virulent and non-virulent leptospires were equipotent in whole blood. Inhibition of different TLRs indicated that both TLR2 and TLR4 as well as TLR5 play a role in the whole blood cytokine response to living leptospires. Conclusions/Significance Thus, in a minimally altered system as human whole blood, highly virulent Leptospira are potent inducers of the cytokine response. PMID:21483834

  8. Multiplexed immunophenotyping of human antigen-presenting cells in whole blood by polychromatic flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Erik; Esposito, Laura; Todd, John A.; Wicker, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe two modular protocols for immunostaining and multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of major human antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, B lymphocytes) in minimally manipulated whole blood. Simultaneous detection of up to eight colors is enabled by careful selection and testing of cell-subset-defining monoclonal antibodies (anchor markers) in the appropriate fluorochrome combinations, to demonstrate the quantification of surface expression levels of molecules involved in chemotaxis (e.g. CX3CR1, CCR2), adhesion (e.g. CD11b, CD62L), antigen presentation (e.g. CD83, CD86, CD209) and immune regulation (e.g. CD101) on circulating antigen-presenting cells. Each immunostaining reaction requires as little as 50–100 μl of peripheral whole blood, no density-gradient separation, and the entire procedure from preparation of reagents to flow cytometry can be completed in <5 h. PMID:20134434

  9. Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Wong, Amy P; Gupta, Malancha; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Whitesides, George M

    2008-12-01

    This paper demonstrates that a hand-powered egg beater can be modified to serve as a centrifuge for separating plasma from human whole blood. Immunoassays used to diagnose infectious diseases often require plasma from whole blood, and obtaining plasma typically requires electrically-powered centrifuges, which are not widely available in resource-limited settings. Human whole blood was loaded into polyethylene (PE) tubing, and the tubing was attached to the paddle of an egg beater. Spinning the paddle pelleted the blood cells to the distal end of the PE tubing; the plasma remained as the supernatant. A cholesterol assay (run on patterned paper) demonstrated the suitability of this plasma for use in diagnostic assays. The physics of the system was also analyzed as a guide for the selection of other rotating systems for use in centrifugation. Egg beaters, polyethylene tubing, and paper are readily available devices and supplies that can facilitate the use of point-of-care diagnostics at sites far from centralized laboratory facilities.

  10. Investigation of prothrombin time in human whole-blood samples with a quartz crystal biosensor.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lothar; Sinn, Stefan; Drechsel, Hartmut; Ziegler, Christiane; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Northoff, Hinnak; Gehring, Frank K

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis is an important issue in treatment of patients with cardiovascular problems and in surgery when blood gets into contact with artificial surfaces. In this work a new method for measuring the coagulation time (prothrombin time, PT) of human whole-blood samples based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor is presented. The 10 MHz sensors used in this work respond with a frequency shift to changes in viscosity during blood clot formation. For driving and for readout of the quartz, both a network analyzer and an oscillator circuit were utilized. The sensor surfaces were specifically coated with a thin polyethylene layer. We found that both frequency analysis methods are suitable to measure exact prothrombin times in a very good conformity with a mechanical coagulometer as a reference. The anticoagulant effect of heparin on the prothrombin time was exemplarily shown as well as the reverse effect of the heparin antagonist polybrene. The change of the viscoelastic properties during blood coagulation, reflected by the ratio of frequency and dissipation shifts, is discussed for different dilutions of the whole-blood samples. In conclusion, QCM is a distinguished biosensor technique to determine prothrombin time and to monitor heparin therapy in whole-blood samples. Due to the excellent potential of miniaturization and the availability of direct digital signals, the method is predestinated for incorporation and integration into other devices and is thus opening the field of application for inline coagulation diagnostic in extracorporeal blood circuits.

  11. Toxicodynamic analysis of the combined cholinesterase inhibition by paraoxon and methamidophos in human whole blood

    SciTech Connect

    Bosgra, Sieto Eijkeren, Jan C.H. van; Schans, Marcel J. van der; Langenberg, Jan P.; Slob, Wout

    2009-04-01

    Theoretical work has shown that the isobole method is not generally valid as a method for testing the absence or presence of interaction (in the biochemical sense) between chemicals. The present study illustrates how interaction can be tested by fitting a toxicodynamic model to the results of a mixture experiment. The inhibition of cholinesterases (ChE) in human whole blood by various dose combinations of paraoxon and methamidophos was measured in vitro. A toxicodynamic model describing the processes related to both OPs in inhibiting AChE activity was developed, and fit to the observed activities. This model, not containing any interaction between the two OPs, described the results from the mixture experiment well, and it was concluded that the OPs did not interact in the whole blood samples. While this approach of toxicodynamic modeling is the most appropriate method for predicting combined effects, it is not rapidly applicable. Therefore, we illustrate how toxicodynamic modeling can be used to explore under which conditions dose addition would give an acceptable approximation of the combined effects from various chemicals. In the specific case of paraoxon and methamidophos in whole blood samples, it was found that dose addition gave a reasonably accurate prediction of the combined effects, despite considerable difference in some of their rate constants, and mildly non-parallel dose-response curves. Other possibilities of validating dose-addition using toxicodynamic modeling are briefly discussed.

  12. Heat-induced changes in optical properties of human whole blood in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Vladimir Y.; Chekhov, Dmitriy I.; Leonov, Alexei G.; Leonov, Pavel G.; Ryaboshapka, Olga M.; Semenov, S. Y.; Splinter, Robert; Svenson, Robert H.; Tatsis, George P.

    1999-05-01

    The effect of anomalous optical behavior of biological tissue at high-intensity laser irradiation can be caused by heat- induced changes in optical properties of consisting components, mainly muscle tissue and blood. We registered the spectral transmission of fresh human whole blood and serum samples in the wavelength range of 300 - 700 nm at the heating of samples in the temperature range of 35 - 65 degrees Celsius. The results showed an increase of 10 - 15% in the transmission of blood serum at the temperature rising up to 50 - 60 degrees Celsius. In the case of diluted whole blood a sharply enhanced transmission was observed at the temperature of 56 - 60 degrees Celsius, while further heating resulted in a decreased transmission down to the initial level. The significant changes (of a three orders of magnitude) in the transmission of whole blood at the wavelength of Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) were observed. The obtained results can be considered as one of the possible explanations of the anomalous light distribution in certain tissues.

  13. Human whole-blood culture system for ex vivo characterization of designer-cell function.

    PubMed

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Encapsulated designer cells implanted into mice are currently used to validate the efficacy of therapeutic gene networks for the diagnosis and treatment of various human diseases in preclinical research. Because many human conditions cannot be adequately replicated by animal models, complementary and alternative procedures to test future treatment strategies are required. Here we describe a novel approach utilizing an ex vivo human whole-blood culture system to validate synthetic biology-inspired designer cell-based treatment strategies. The viability and functionality of transgenic mammalian designer cells co-cultured with primary human immune cells were characterized. We demonstrated that transgenic mammalian designer cells required adequate insulation from the human blood microenvironment to maintain viability and functionality. The biomaterial alginate-(poly-l-lysine)-alginate used to encapsulate the transgenic designer cells did neither affect the viability of primary granulocytes and lymphocytes nor the functionality of lymphocytes. Additionally, alginate-encapsulated transgenic designer cells remained responsive to the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from the whole-blood culture upon exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TNF diffused into the alginate capsules, bound to the specific TNF receptors on the transgenic designer cells' surface and triggered the expression of the reporter gene SEAP (human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase) that was rewired to the TNF-specific signaling cascade. Human whole-blood culture systems can therefore be considered as valuable complementary assays to animal models for the validation of synthetic circuits in genetically modified mammalian cells and may speed up preclinical research in a world of personalized medicine.

  14. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  15. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  16. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  17. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  18. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  19. Extraction of human genomic DNA from whole blood using a magnetic microsphere method.

    PubMed

    Gong, Rui; Li, Shengying

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of molecular biology and the life sciences, magnetic extraction is a simple, automatic, and highly efficient method for separating biological molecules, performing immunoassays, and other applications. Human blood is an ideal source of human genomic DNA. Extracting genomic DNA by traditional methods is time-consuming, and phenol and chloroform are toxic reagents that endanger health. Therefore, it is necessary to find a more convenient and efficient method for obtaining human genomic DNA. In this study, we developed urea-formaldehyde resin magnetic microspheres and magnetic silica microspheres for extraction of human genomic DNA. First, a magnetic microsphere suspension was prepared and used to extract genomic DNA from fresh whole blood, frozen blood, dried blood, and trace blood. Second, DNA content and purity were measured by agarose electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The human genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was then subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis to further confirm its quality. The results of this study lay a good foundation for future research and development of a high-throughput and rapid extraction method for extracting genomic DNA from various types of blood samples.

  20. Extraction of human genomic DNA from whole blood using a magnetic microsphere method

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Rui; Li, Shengying

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of molecular biology and the life sciences, magnetic extraction is a simple, automatic, and highly efficient method for separating biological molecules, performing immunoassays, and other applications. Human blood is an ideal source of human genomic DNA. Extracting genomic DNA by traditional methods is time‐consuming, and phenol and chloroform are toxic reagents that endanger health. Therefore, it is necessary to find a more convenient and efficient method for obtaining human genomic DNA. In this study, we developed urea–formaldehyde resin magnetic microspheres and magnetic silica microspheres for extraction of human genomic DNA. First, a magnetic microsphere suspension was prepared and used to extract genomic DNA from fresh whole blood, frozen blood, dried blood, and trace blood. Second, DNA content and purity were measured by agarose electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The human genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was then subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis to further confirm its quality. The results of this study lay a good foundation for future research and development of a high‐throughput and rapid extraction method for extracting genomic DNA from various types of blood samples. PMID:25143727

  1. A new method of preparing monocyte suspensions from human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Stoll, H P; Krämer, S; Oberhausen, E

    1986-01-01

    A method of isolating monocytes from human whole blood is described. The technique is primarily based on simple centrifugation steps that follow Tylose-sedimentation as well as on the use of the new density gradient medium Nycodens. Counterflow centrifugation is not involved. The final monocyte suspension is free of platelets. The contaminating cells are predominantly lymphocytes. As a whole, the method is a modification of the Nycodens technique published by Boyum in 1983, which leads to a total elimination of platelet contamination in the final cell suspension.

  2. Viable capture and release of cancer cells in human whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Il; Yoo, Hwan-il; Cho, Young-Ho; Lee, Jinseon; Kwan Kim, Hong; Kim, Jhingook

    2012-07-01

    We present viable cancer cell isolation devices utilizing the physical properties of cells. The tapered slit structure is proposed to isolate cancer cells from blood cells and collect them by reversed flow. From the experimental study using the spiked cancer cells in human whole blood, we verified the capability of the present cancer cell isolation chip in terms of capture efficiency, viability, and release rate. The viable cancer cells obtained from the present chip can be used for the further applications of cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and new target drug development for cancer stem cells.

  3. Correlation Between DNA Methylation of TRPA1 and Chronic Pain States in Human Whole Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Sukenaga, Norihiko; Ikeda-Miyagawa, Yasuko; Tanada, Daisuke; Tunetoh, Takashi; Nakano, Susumu; Inui, Takae; Satoh, Kazumi; Okutani, Hiroai; Noguchi, Koichi; Hirose, Munetaka

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-immune interactions with functional changes in the peripheral blood cells including changes in the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) appear to play a pivotal role in the development of chronic pain in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between TRPA1 DNA methylation in whole blood cells and the pain states in chronic pain patients. After collecting blood samples from 12 chronic pain patients, the authors measured DNA methylation levels in whole blood cells. Significant associations between the patient's demographic data and the chronic pain states were determined by a multiple linear regression analysis that used age, body mass index, pain duration, depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment, activities of daily living, neuropathic pain, and pain states as the dependent variables, and the TRPA1 DNA methylation levels as the independent variables. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between increases of the methylation levels of the CpG island in the TRPA1 gene and increases in the number of neuropathic pain symptoms, which were evaluated using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) questionnaire. Decreases in the TRPA1 mRNA expression were also significantly related to increases in the DN4 score. The presence of a burning sensation, which is one of pain symptoms in the DN4 questionnaire, was significantly correlated with the increase in DNA methylation level of TRPA1. TRPA1 DNA methylation levels in whole blood cells appear to be associated with pain symptoms in chronic pain patients. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Rapid determination of nine barbiturates in human whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Lin, Zebin; Li, Jiaolun; Huang, Zhibin; Rao, Yulan; Liang, Hao; Yan, Jie; Zheng, Feng

    2017-04-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine barbiturates (barbital, phenobarbital, pentobarbital, amobarbital, secobarbital, thiopental, butalbital, butabarbital, and hexobarbital) in human whole blood. Barbiturates were extracted from 100 μL of human whole blood samples using a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure, and detected by LC-MS/MS. An UPLC C18 (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 µm) column was used at 40 °C for the separation and acetonitrile/water system was used as the mobile phase with gradient elution. This method showed excellent accuracy (86-111%) and precision (relative standard deviation <15%). The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.2 ng/mL for barbital and secobarbital and 0.5 ng/mL for the other barbiturates. The linearity ranged from 2 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL, with r(2)  > 0.99 over the range. This method achieved the separation and detection of pentobarbital and amobarbital at the same time in a convenient way. Moreover, it was both simple and sensitive for the determination of nine most commonly used barbiturate drugs, which was meaningful in the field of clinical and forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. [Comparing and evaluating six methods of extracting human genomic DNA from whole blood].

    PubMed

    Chang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Su-Hua; Li, Li

    2009-04-01

    Comparing the differences in purity and yield among six methods of extracting human genomic DNA from whole blood, which included Classic Phenol-chloroform extraction, modified combined technique composed of improved Phenol-chloroform extraction and Chelex-100 extraction, Chelex-100 extraction, IQ, Qiagen and SP. Ten samples of intravenous whole blood (5 mL/sample) were collected and human genomic DNA was extracted with these six methods. The purity and concentration of the DNA products were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and fluorescent quantitation technique, the yield was calculated and tested with statistical software. The Chelex-100 extraction was inferior in DNA purity to other methods while the other five methods showed no statistical difference. Modified combined technique was the poorest and IQ was the best in yield among the six methods of extraction. Statistical result showed that the extraction with high quality kits was better than that with classic Phenol-chloroform extraction, Chelex-100 extraction and modified combined technique composed of improved Phenol-chloroform. There was statistical difference between them. Comparing to Phenol-chloroform extraction and Chelex-100 extraction, high quality kits are more useful in DNA extraction from forensic materials.

  6. High-yield extraction of Escherichia coli RNA from human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Brennecke, Johannes; Kraut, Simone; Zwadlo, Klara; Gandi, Senthil Kumar; Pritchard, David; Templeton, Kate; Bachmann, Till

    2017-03-01

    Studies of bacterial transcriptomics during bloodstream infections are limited to-date because unbiased extraction of bacterial mRNA from whole blood in sufficient quantity and quality has proved challenging. Problems include the high excess of human cells, the presence of PCR inhibitors and the short intrinsic half-life of bacterial mRNA. This study aims to provide a framework for the choice of the most suitable sample preparation method. Escherichia coli cells were spiked into human whole blood and the bacterial gene expression was stabilized with RNAprotect either immediately or after lysis of the red blood cells with Triton X-100, saponin, ammonium chloride or the commercial MolYsis buffer CM. RNA yield, purity and integrity were assessed by absorbance measurements at 260 and 280 nm, real-time PCR and capillary electrophoresis. For low cell numbers, the best mRNA yields were obtained by adding the commercial RNAprotect reagent directly to the sample without prior lyses of the human blood cells. Using this protocol, significant amounts of human RNA were co-purified, however, this had a beneficial impact on the yields of bacterial mRNA. Among the tested lysis agents, Triton X-100 was the most effective and reduced the human RNA background by three to four orders of magnitude. For most applications, lysis of the human blood cells is not required. However, co-purified human RNA may interfere with some downstream processes such as RNA sequencing. In this case, blood cell lysis with Triton X-100 is desirable.

  7. In vitro study of thimerosal reactions in human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples.

    PubMed

    Trümpler, Stefan; Meermann, Björn; Nowak, Sascha; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe; Sperling, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Because of its bactericidal and fungicidal properties, thimerosal is used as a preservative in drugs and vaccines and is thus deliberately injected into the human body. In aqueous environment, it decomposes into thiosalicylic acid and the ethylmercury cation. This organomercury fragment is a potent neurotoxin and is suspected to have similar toxicity and bioavailability like the methylmercury cation. In this work, human whole blood and physiological simulation solutions were incubated with thimerosal to investigate its behaviour and binding partners in the blood stream. Inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for total mercury determination in different blood fractions, while liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provided information on the individual mercury species in plasma surrogate samples. Analogous behaviour of methylmercury and ethylmercury species in human blood was shown and an ethylmercury-glutathione adduct was identified.

  8. Silicon determination in human ventricular whole blood: a possible marker of drowning.

    PubMed

    Maraschi, Federica; Sturini, Michela; Speltini, Andrea; Orio, Francesco; Profumo, Antonella; Pierucci, Giovanni

    2012-07-15

    This article presents the first results demonstrating that total silicon trace concentration in human ventricular whole blood may be used as a further marker in the diagnosis of drowning. The difference in silicon content between the left and right ventricles was significantly higher for drowning cases than that from individuals who had not drowned. These findings were in full agreement with autoptic responses, supporting silicon as a marker of freshwater drowning. The procedure entails an alkaline microwave-assisted digestion using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in the presence of H(2)O(2) followed by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) detection, whose accuracy was obtained for Seronorm whole blood reference material. Satisfactory recoveries (91-98%) were gained on whole ventricular blood, with a silicon content lower than the method detection limit (MDL), spiked at 5 to 7μgg(-1) with materials consistent with drowning media constituents, that is, freshwater plankton (CRM [certified reference material] 414), silicon dioxide, diatomaceous earth powder, and a silicon standard solution. Good within-lab reproducibility (4-10%) and sensitivity (MDL=0.46μgg(-1)) were achieved as well. The procedure was applied to blood samples from 18 different real cases of death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability of some atypical antipsychotics in human plasma, haemolysed whole blood, oral fluid, human serum and calf serum.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Danielle S; Partridge, Suzanne J; Handley, Simon A; Flanagan, Robert J

    2013-06-10

    Long-term stability data of atypical antipsychotics in different matrices are not widely available. The aim of this work was to assess the stability of amisulpride, aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole, clozapine and norclozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and sulpiride in human EDTA plasma, heparinised haemolysed human whole blood, oral fluid, human serum, and newborn calf serum stored in tightly capped plastic containers under a range of conditions. Measurements were performed by LC-MS/MS. Analyte instability was defined as a deviation of 15% or greater from the expected concentration. All analytes were stable following 3 freeze-thaw cycles in human plasma, and were stable in this matrix for at least 5 days at ambient temperature (olanzapine, 3 days); 4 weeks at 2-8°C (olanzapine, 2 weeks), and 2 years at -20°C (except for dehydroaripiprazole, olanzapine, and quetiapine, 1 year). In human serum, aripiprazole, dehydroaripiprazole, norclozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and sulpiride were unstable after 5 days at ambient temperature, 3 weeks at 2-8°C, and 9 months at -20°C. Olanzapine was unstable in whole blood and oral fluid under most conditions studied, although prior addition of ascorbic acid had a moderate stabilising effect. All other analytes were stable in whole blood and oral fluid for at least 2 days at ambient temperature, 1 week at 2-8°C, and 2 months at -20°C (clozapine and norclozapine, 1 month whole blood). These results confirm that plasma (EDTA anticoagulant) is the sample of choice for TDM of atypical antipsychotics. Delayed (more than 1 week) analysis of patient samples should be undertaken with caution, especially with serum and with haemolysed whole blood. With olanzapine, only plasma collected and stored appropriately is likely to give reliable quantitative results.

  10. Detoxification of mercury species--an in vitro study with antidotes in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Trümpler, Stefan; Nowak, Sascha; Meermann, Björn; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Buscher, Wolfgang; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the effects of mercury species intoxication and to test the efficiency of different commonly applied antidotes, human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples were spiked with inorganic mercury (Hg2+) and methylmercury (MeHg+, CH3Hg+) prior to treatment with the antidotes 2,3-dimercaptopropan-1-ol (British Anti Lewisite), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For mercury speciation analysis in these samples, liquid chromatography was coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Adduct formation between mercury species and physiological thiols (cysteine and glutathione) was observed as well as the release of glutathione under treatment with the antidotes DMSA and NAC.

  11. Effects of a novel perfluorocarbon emulsion on neutrophil chemiluminescence in human whole blood in vitro.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C M; Lowe, K C; Röhlke, W; Geister, U; Reuter, P; Meinert, H

    1997-05-01

    The effects have been studied of a novel perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsion (18.5% perfluorodecalin, 1.5% perfluorodimorpholine propane, 2.5% lecithin) on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 100 micrograms ml-1)-induced neutrophil chemiluminescence in citrated human whole blood in vitro. A transient, dose-dependent, decrease in chemiluminescence, to a maximum of 54% after 12 min (P < 0.05), occurred when blood was pre-incubated with 10-40 microliters of the PFC emulsion, compared to saline controls. The mean (+/- s.e.m., n = 6) chemiluminescence of neutrophils incubated with 30 microliters emulsion at 12 min following PMA stimulation (9.5 +/- 1.3 mV) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than control (24.2 +/- 2.2 mV). Incubation of blood with lecithin up to 16 mg ml-1 and Pluronic F-68 or Pluronic PE 6800 up to 65 mg ml-1 did not affect chemiluminescence.

  12. A rapid electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for cadmium and lead in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K S; Meranger, J C

    1981-11-01

    A rapid graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedure is described for determining cadmium and lead in heparinized human whole blood. A known aliquot of the blood sample is diluted fivefold with an aqueous solution composed of 5 g each of diammonium hydrogen phosphate and Triton X-100 per liter, the solution is vigorously agitated, and a 10-microL aliquot is injected into a pyrocoated graphite tube under optimized instrumental conditions. Values for Cd and Pb in the sample are obtained by direct comparison to linear working curves prepared from aqueous standards of the metals in the diammonium hydrogen phosphate-Triton medium; there is no need to use the method of standard addition or matrix-matched calibration curves. Also, the method is free of matrix effects. At least 30 samples can be analyzed per hour. The rapidity, simplicity, and sensitivity of the method make it attractive as a screening technique for routine environmental surveillance involving large throughput of samples.

  13. The relationship between the iron isotopic composition of human whole blood and iron status parameters.

    PubMed

    Van Heghe, Lana; Delanghe, Joris; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2013-11-01

    As the iron status of an individual cannot be adequately assessed on the basis of the (total) Fe concentration in whole blood or serum, in medicine a number of parameters, such as the serum concentrations of ferritin, transferrin and soluble transferrin receptor and the transferrin saturation, are routinely determined instead. As previous research has shown that also the isotopic composition of Fe in blood and tissues is dependent on the metabolism, the present study assessed whether Fe isotopic composition in whole blood provides information as to an individual's iron status. Fe isotopic analysis of whole blood samples from a reference population (healthy volunteers) was carried out using multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (after chromatographic target element isolation) and the results obtained were investigated by statistical means as to their potential relation with the iron status parameters conventionally used in medicine. A low δ(56)Fe value was demonstrated to coincide with high iron status and a high δ(56)Fe value with low iron status, thus reflecting the response of the body to this iron status in terms of iron uptake, distribution between blood and stores and mobilization of storage iron. In a second phase, the iron isotopic composition in blood from patients treated for hemochromatosis type I and from patients with anemia of chronic disease (ACD) was determined. The results for hemochromatosis patients plotted with the values of low iron status, while those for ACD patients plotted with the values of high iron status. By taking a closer look at the aberrant iron metabolism that comes with these diseases, it can be seen that the patient samples confirm the conclusions drawn for the reference population. Patients with hemochromatosis type I have a strongly upregulated iron uptake, like healthy individuals with low iron status. The metabolism of patients suffering from ACD tries to remove iron from the circulation by downregulating the iron uptake

  14. A Human In Vitro Whole Blood Assay to Predict the Systemic Cytokine Response to Therapeutic Oligonucleotides Including siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Schwickart, Anna; Putschli, Bastian; Renn, Marcel; Höller, Tobias; Barchet, Winfried

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides including siRNA and immunostimulatory ligands of Toll-like receptors (TLR) or RIG-I like helicases (RLH) are a promising novel class of drugs. They are in clinical development for a broad spectrum of applications, e.g. as adjuvants in vaccines and for the immunotherapy of cancer. Species-specific immune activation leading to cytokine release is characteristic for therapeutic oligonucleotides either as an unwanted side effect or intended pharmacology. Reliable in vitro tests designed for therapeutic oligonucleotides are therefore urgently needed in order to predict clinical efficacy and to prevent unexpected harmful effects in clinical development. To serve this purpose, we here established a human whole blood assay (WBA) that is fast and easy to perform. Its response to synthetic TLR ligands (R848: TLR7/8, LPS: TLR4) was on a comparable threshold to the more time consuming peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) based assay. By contrast, the type I IFN profile provoked by intravenous CpG-DNA (TLR9 ligand) in humans in vivo was more precisely replicated in the WBA than in stimulated PBMC. Since Heparin and EDTA, but not Hirudin, displaced oligonucleotides from their delivery agent, only Hirudin qualified as the anticoagulant to be used in the WBA. The Hirudin WBA exhibited a similar capacity as the PBMC assay to distinguish between TLR7-activating and modified non-stimulatory siRNA sequences. RNA-based immunoactivating TLR7/8- and RIG-I-ligands induced substantial amounts of IFN-α in the Hirudin-WBA dependent on delivery agent used. In conclusion, we present a human Hirudin WBA to determine therapeutic oligonucleotide-induced cytokine release during preclinical development that can readily be performed and offers a close reflection of human cytokine response in vivo. PMID:23940691

  15. The peripheral whole-blood transcriptome of acute pyelonephritis in human pregnancya.

    PubMed

    Madan, Ichchha; Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Miranda, Jezid; Tarca, Adi L; Bhatti, Gaurav; Draghici, Sorin; Yeo, Lami; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia S; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2014-01-01

    Human pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immune response and suppression of adaptive immunity. The former is thought to provide protection against infection for the mother, and the latter, tolerance against paternal antigens expressed in fetal cells. Acute pyelonephritis is associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis in pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women. The objective of this study was to describe the gene expression profile (transcriptome) of maternal whole blood in acute pyelonephritis. A case-control study was conducted to include pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis (n=15) and women with a normal pregnancy (n=34). Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) were used for gene expression profiling. A linear model was used to test the association between the presence of pyelonephritis and gene expression levels while controlling for white blood cell count and gestational age. A fold change of 1.5 was considered significant at a false discovery rate of 0.1. A subset of differentially expressed genes (n=56) was tested with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (cases, n=19; controls, n=59). Gene ontology and pathway analyses were applied. A total of 983 genes were differentially expressed in acute pyelonephritis: 457 were upregulated and 526 were downregulated. Significant enrichment of 300 biological processes and 63 molecular functions was found in pyelonephritis. Significantly impacted pathways in pyelonephritis included (a) cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, (b) T-cell receptor signaling, (c) Jak-STAT signaling, and (d) complement and coagulation cascades. Of 56 genes tested by qRT-PCR, 48 (85.7%) had confirmation of differential expression. This is the first study of the transcriptomic signature of whole blood in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis. Acute infection during pregnancy is associated with the increased

  16. Quantitative assessment of human whole blood RNA as a potential biomarker for infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire L; Dickinson, Paul; Forster, Thorsten; Khondoker, Mizanur; Craigon, Marie; Ross, Alan; Storm, Petter; Burgess, Stewart; Lacaze, Paul; Stenson, Benjamin J; Ghazal, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially in newborn infants. Analytical methods for diagnosing infection are severely limited in terms of sensitivity and specificity and require relatively large samples. It is proposed that stringent regulation of the human transcriptome affords a new molecular diagnostic approach based on measuring a highly specific systemic inflammatory response to infection, detectable at the RNA level. This proposition raises a number of as yet poorly characterised technical and biological variation issues that urgently need to be addressed. Here we report a quantitative assessment of methodological approaches for processing and extraction of RNA from small samples of infant whole blood and applying analysis of variation from biochip measurements. On the basis of testing and selection from a battery of assays we show that sufficient high quality RNA for analysis using multiplex array technology can be obtained from small neonatal samples. These findings formed the basis of implementing a set of robust clinical and experimental standard operating procedures for whole blood RNA samples from 58 infants. Modelling and analysis of variation between samples revealed significant sources of variation from the point of sample collection to processing and signal generation. These experiments further permitted power calculations to be run indicating the tractability and requirements of using changes in RNA expression profiles to detect different states between patient groups. Overall the results of our investigation provide an essential first step toward facilitating an alternative way for diagnosing infection from very small neonatal blood samples, providing methods and requirements for future chip-based studies.

  17. Screening vaccine formulations for biological activity using fresh human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Roger H; Hakimi, Jalil; Ha, Yukyung; Aboutorabian, Sepideh; Ausar, Salvador F; Hasija, Manvi; Smith, Steven G; Todryk, Stephen M; Dockrell, Hazel M; Rahman, Nausheen

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relevant biological activity of any pharmaceutical formulation destined for human use is crucial. For vaccine-based formulations, activity must reflect the expected immune response, while for non-vaccine therapeutic agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, a lack of immune response to the formulation is desired. During early formulation development, various biochemical and biophysical characteristics can be monitored in a high-throughput screening (HTS) format. However, it remains impractical and arguably unethical to screen samples in this way for immunological functionality in animal models. Furthermore, data for immunological functionality lag formulation design by months, making it cumbersome to relate back to formulations in real-time. It is also likely that animal testing may not accurately reflect the response in humans. For a more effective formulation screen, a human whole blood (hWB) approach can be used to assess immunological functionality. The functional activity relates directly to the human immune response to a complete formulation (adjuvant/antigen) and includes adjuvant response, antigen response, adjuvant-modulated antigen response, stability, and potentially safety. The following commentary discusses the hWB approach as a valuable new tool to de-risk manufacture, formulation design, and clinical progression.

  18. A new method to measure air-borne pyrogens based on human whole blood cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Kindinger, Ilona; Daneshian, Mardas; Baur, Hans; Gabrio, Thomas; Hofmann, Andreas; Fennrich, Stefan; von Aulock, Sonja; Hartung, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Air-borne microorganisms, as well as their fragments and components, are increasingly recognized to be associated with pulmonary diseases, e.g. organic dust toxic syndrome, humidifier lung, building-related illness, "Monday sickness." We have previously described and validated a new method for the detection of pyrogenic (fever-inducing) microbial contaminations in injectable drugs, based on the inflammatory reaction of human blood to pyrogens. We have now adapted this test to evaluate the total inflammatory capacity of air samples. Air was drawn onto PTFE membrane filters, which were incubated with human whole blood from healthy volunteers inside the collection device. Cytokine release was measured by ELISA. The test detects endotoxins and non-endotoxins, such as fungal spores, Gram-positive bacteria and their lipoteichoic acid moiety and pyrogenic dust particles with high sensitivity, thus reflecting the total inflammatory capacity of a sample. When air from different surroundings such as working environments and animal housing was assayed, the method yielded reproducible data which correlated with other parameters of microbial burden tested. We further developed a standard material for quantification and showed that this assay can be performed with cryopreserved as well as fresh blood. The method offers a test to measure the integral inflammatory capacity of air-borne microbial contaminations relevant to humans. It could thus be employed to assess air quality in different living and work environments.

  19. Rapid and sensitive detection of troponin I in human whole blood samples by using silver nanoparticle films and microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kadir; Grell, Tsehai A J

    2011-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality in developed countries. It is widely recognized that troponin I (TnI) can be used for the assessment of a myocardial infarction. We investigated the use of the microwave-accelerated and metal-enhanced fluorescence (MA-MEF), a technique based on the combined use of low-power microwave heating, silver nanoparticle films (SNFs), and fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of TnI from human whole blood samples. SNFs were deposited onto amine-modified glass microscope slides by use of Tollen's reaction scheme and characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The detection of TnI from buffer solutions and human whole blood samples on SNFs was carried out by using fluorescence-based immunoassays at room temperature (control immunoassay, 2 h total assay time) or microwave heating (MA-MEF-based immunoassay, 1 min total assay time). We found that the lower limits of detection for TnI from buffer solutions in the control immunoassay and MA-MEF-based immunoassay were 0.1 μg/L and 0.005 μg/L, respectively. However, we were unable to detect TnI in whole blood samples in the control immunoassays owing to the coagulation of whole blood within 5 min of the incubation step. The use of the MA-MEF technique allowed detection of TnI from whole blood samples in 1 min with a lower detection limit of 0.05 μg/L. The MA-MEF-based immunoassay is one of the fastest reported quantitative detection methodos for detection of TnI in human whole blood and has low detection limits similar to those obtained with commercially available immunoassays.

  20. Mirasol pathogen reduction technology treatment of human whole blood does not induce acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Mallavia, Beñat; Kwaan, Nicholas; Marschner, Susanne; Yonemura, Susan; Looney, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    In resource-limited settings and in the military theater, fresh human whole blood is commonly transfused, but infectious risks are a concern. Sophisticated molecular testing for potential infectious agents in the whole blood is often unavailable. To address this unmet need, pathogen reduction technology (PRT) has been developed, and it is an effective approach to inactivate a broad range of pathogens found in human blood. However, studies are needed to determine if it is harmful to blood cells and whether these cells could damage the transfused recipient, including the development of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, we used a commercial PRT system to treat human whole blood that was then transfused into immunodeficient mice, and the development of acute lung injury was determined. In a model of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), BALB/c SCID mice developed more robust lung injury when challenged with a MHC Class I monoclonal antibody compared to BALB/c wild-type and NOD/SCID mice. Transfusion of control versus Mirasol PRT-treated whole blood (25% blood volume exchange) into BALB/c SCID mice did not produce lung injury at storage day 1. However, mild lung injury at storage days 14 and 21 was observed without significant differences in lung injury measurements between Mirasol PRT-treated and control groups. The mild storage-dependent acute lung injury correlated with trends for increased levels of cell-free hemoglobin that accumulated in both the control and Mirasol PRT-treated groups. Neutrophil extracellular traps were elevated in the plasma of BALB/c SCID mice in the monoclonal antibody TRALI model, but were not different in mice that received exchange transfusions. In conclusion, exchange transfusion of human whole blood into immunodeficient mice produces mild lung injury that is storage-dependent and not related to pathogen reduction treatment.

  1. Mirasol pathogen reduction technology treatment of human whole blood does not induce acute lung injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mallavia, Beñat; Kwaan, Nicholas; Marschner, Susanne; Yonemura, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In resource-limited settings and in the military theater, fresh human whole blood is commonly transfused, but infectious risks are a concern. Sophisticated molecular testing for potential infectious agents in the whole blood is often unavailable. To address this unmet need, pathogen reduction technology (PRT) has been developed, and it is an effective approach to inactivate a broad range of pathogens found in human blood. However, studies are needed to determine if it is harmful to blood cells and whether these cells could damage the transfused recipient, including the development of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, we used a commercial PRT system to treat human whole blood that was then transfused into immunodeficient mice, and the development of acute lung injury was determined. In a model of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), BALB/c SCID mice developed more robust lung injury when challenged with a MHC Class I monoclonal antibody compared to BALB/c wild-type and NOD/SCID mice. Transfusion of control versus Mirasol PRT-treated whole blood (25% blood volume exchange) into BALB/c SCID mice did not produce lung injury at storage day 1. However, mild lung injury at storage days 14 and 21 was observed without significant differences in lung injury measurements between Mirasol PRT-treated and control groups. The mild storage-dependent acute lung injury correlated with trends for increased levels of cell-free hemoglobin that accumulated in both the control and Mirasol PRT-treated groups. Neutrophil extracellular traps were elevated in the plasma of BALB/c SCID mice in the monoclonal antibody TRALI model, but were not different in mice that received exchange transfusions. In conclusion, exchange transfusion of human whole blood into immunodeficient mice produces mild lung injury that is storage-dependent and not related to pathogen reduction treatment. PMID:28570672

  2. Whole Blood Human Neutrophil Trafficking in a Microfluidic Model of Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Bashar; Irimia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate inflammatory responses to wounds and infections require adequate numbers of neutrophils arriving at injury sites. Both insufficient and excessive neutrophil recruitment can be detrimental, favouring systemic spread of microbes or triggering severe tissue damage. Despite its importance in health and disease, the trafficking of neutrophils through tissues remains difficult to control and the mechanisms regulating it are insufficiently understood. These mechanisms are also complex and difficult to isolate using traditional in vivo models. Here we designed a microfluidic model of tissue infection/inflammation, in which human neutrophils emerge from a droplet-size samples of whole blood and display bi-directional traffic between this and micro-chambers containing chemoattractant and microbe-like particles. Two geometrical barriers restrict the entrance of red blood cells from the blood to the micro-chambers and simulate the mechanical function of the endothelial barrier separating the cells in blood from cells in tissues. We found that in the presence of chemoattractant, the number of neutrophils departing the chambers by retrotaxis is in dynamic equilibrium with the neutrophils recruited by chemotaxis. We also found that in the presence of microbe-like particles, the number of neutrophils trapped in the chambers is proportional to the number of particles. Together, the dynamic equilibrium between migration, reversed-migration and trapping processes determine the optimal number of neutrophils at a site. These neutrophils are continuously refreshed and responsive to the number of microbes. Further studies using this infection-inflammation-on-a-chip-model could help study the processes of inflammation resolution. The new in vitro experimental tools may also eventually help testing new therapeutic strategies to limit neutrophil accumulation in tissues during chronic inflammation, without increasing the risk for infections. PMID:25987163

  3. Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ehresman, David J.; Froehlich, John W.; Olsen, Geary W. . E-mail: gwolsen@mmm.com; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L.

    2007-02-15

    Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells.

  4. Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals.

    PubMed

    Ehresman, David J; Froehlich, John W; Olsen, Geary W; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L

    2007-02-01

    Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells.

  5. Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Michele; Lucotti, Andrea; Tommasini, Matteo; Bedoni, Marzia; Forvi, Elena; Gramatica, Furio; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The present work reports on Raman and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) vibrational fingerprints of β-carotene and haemoglobin in fresh whole blood (i.e. right after blood test) with different laser excitations, i.e. visible (514 nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 785 nm). The use of colloidal silver nanoparticles significantly increases the Raman signal, thus providing a clear SERS spectrum of blood. The collected spectra have been examined and marker bands of β-carotene and of the haem prosthetic group of haemoglobin have been found. In particular, the fundamental features of β-carotene (514 nm excitation), blood proteins and haem molecules (785 nm excitation) were recognized and assigned. Moreover haemoglobin SERS signals can be identified and related with its oxygenation state (oxy-haemoglobin). The data reported show the prospects of Raman and SERS techniques to detect important bio-molecules in a whole blood sample with no pre-treatment.

  6. Continuous separation of serum from human whole blood within a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, John; Inglis, David; Sturm, James; Austin, Robert

    2006-03-01

    We were able to demonstrate separation of red and white blood cells from their native blood plasma, using a technique known as deterministic lateral displacement. The device takes advantage of asymmetric bifurcation of laminar flow around obstacles. This asymmetry creates a size dependent deterministic path through the device. All components of a given size follow equivalent migration paths, leading to high resolution. A subsequent version of the device will focus on the removal of platelets from whole blood. Samples will be extracted from the microfluidic device and analyzed by conventional flow cytometry.

  7. Microwave Energy Increases Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Yield in Human Whole Blood Due to Increased Sphingomyelin Transesterification.

    PubMed

    Metherel, Adam H; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Ciobanu, Flaviu; Taha, Ameer Y; Stark, Ken D

    2015-09-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) by fingertip prick collection for fatty acid profiling are becoming increasingly popular due to ease of collection, minimal invasiveness and its amenability to high-throughput analyses. Herein, we assess a microwave-assisted direct transesterification method for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from DBS. Technical replicates of human whole blood were collected and 25-μL aliquots were applied to chromatography strips prior to analysis by a standard 3-h transesterification method or microwave-assisted direct transesterification method under various power (variable vs constant), time (1-5 min) and reagent (1-10% H2SO4 in methanol) conditions. In addition, a standard method was compared to a 5-min, 30-W power microwave in 1% H2SO4 method for FAME yield from whole blood sphingomyelin, and sphingomyelin standards alone and spiked in whole blood. Microwave-assisted direct transesterification yielded no significant differences in both quantitative (nmol/100 µL) and qualitative (mol%) fatty acid assessments after as little as 1.5- and 1-min reaction times, respectively, using the variable power method and 5% H2SO4 in methanol. However, 30-W power for 5 min increased total FAME yield of the technical replicates by 14%. This increase appears largely due to higher sphingomyelin-derived FAME yield of up to 109 and 399% compared to the standard method when determined from whole blood or pure standards, respectively. In conclusion, microwave-assisted direct transesterification of DBS achieved in as little as 1-min, and 5-min reaction times increase total fatty acids primarily by significantly improving sphingomyelin-derived fatty acid yield.

  8. Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Casella, Michele; Lucotti, Andrea; Tommasini, Matteo; Bedoni, Marzia; Forvi, Elena; Gramatica, Furio; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The present work reports on Raman and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) vibrational fingerprints of β-carotene and haemoglobin in fresh whole blood (i.e. right after blood test) with different laser excitations, i.e. visible (514 nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 785 nm). The use of colloidal silver nanoparticles significantly increases the Raman signal, thus providing a clear SERS spectrum of blood. The collected spectra have been examined and marker bands of β-carotene and of the haem prosthetic group of haemoglobin have been found. In particular, the fundamental features of β-carotene (514 nm excitation), blood proteins and haem molecules (785 nm excitation) were recognized and assigned. Moreover haemoglobin SERS signals can be identified and related with its oxygenation state (oxy-haemoglobin). The data reported show the prospects of Raman and SERS techniques to detect important bio-molecules in a whole blood sample with no pre-treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential epigenetic biomarkers of obesity-related insulin resistance in human whole-blood.

    PubMed

    Day, Samantha E; Coletta, Richard L; Kim, Joon Young; Garcia, Luis A; Campbell, Latoya E; Benjamin, Tonya R; Roust, Lori R; De Filippis, Elena A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Coletta, Dawn K

    2017-04-03

    Obesity can increase the risk of complex metabolic diseases, including insulin resistance. Moreover, obesity can be caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are not well defined. Therefore, the identification of novel epigenetic biomarkers of obesity allows for a more complete understanding of the disease and its underlying insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to identify DNA methylation changes in whole-blood that were strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whole-blood was obtained from lean (n = 10; BMI = 23.6 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) and obese (n = 10; BMI = 34.4 ± 1.3 kg/m(2)) participants in combination with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps to assess insulin sensitivity. We performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing on genomic DNA isolated from the blood. We identified 49 differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs; q < 0.05) that were altered in obese compared with lean participants. We identified 2 sites (Chr.21:46,957,981 and Chr.21:46,957,915) in the 5' untranslated region of solute carrier family 19 member 1 (SLC19A1) with decreased methylation in obese participants (lean 0.73 ± 0.11 vs. obese 0.09 ± 0.05; lean 0.68 ± 0.10 vs. obese 0.09 ± 0.05, respectively). These 2 DMCs identified by obesity were also significantly predicted by insulin sensitivity (r = 0.68, P = 0.003; r = 0.66; P = 0.004). In addition, we performed a differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis and demonstrated a decrease in methylation of Chr.21:46,957,915-46,958,001 in SLC19A1 of -34.9% (70.4% lean vs. 35.5% obese). The decrease in whole-blood SLC19A1 methylation in our obese participants was similar to the change observed in skeletal muscle (Chr.21:46,957,981, lean 0.70 ± 0.09 vs. obese 0.31 ± 0.11 and Chr.21:46,957,915, lean 0.72 ± 0.11 vs. obese 0.31 ± 0.13). Pyrosequencing analysis further demonstrated a decrease in methylation at Chr.21:46,957,915 in both whole-blood (lean 0.71 ± 0

  10. Comparison of Non-Human Primate and Human Whole Blood Tissue Gene Expression Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    studies have used rhesus, chimpanzee, gorilla, or orangutan RNA, but to date no gene expression profiling studies are available that use AGM or cynomologus...previous work has been published using human genechips to study NHPs, particularly rhesus, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan (Uddin et al., 2004; Kayo

  11. Leucocytes isolated from simply frozen whole blood can be used in human biomonitoring for DNA damage measurement with the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Akor-Dewu, Maryam B; El Yamani, Naouale; Bilyk, Olena; Holtung, Linda; Tjelle, Torunn E; Blomhoff, Rune; Collins, Andrew R

    2014-04-01

    Preservation of human blood cells for DNA damage analysis with the comet assay conventionally involves the isolation of mononuclear cells by centrifugation, suspension in freezing medium and slow freezing to -80 °C-a laborious process. A recent publication (Al-Salmani et al. Free Rad Biol Med 2011; 51: 719-725) describes a simple method in which small volumes of whole blood are frozen to -20 or -80 °C; on subsequent thawing, the comet assay is performed, with no indication of elevated DNA strand breakage resulting from the rapid freezing. However, leucocytes in whole blood (whether fresh or frozen) are abnormally resistant to damage by H2 O2 , and so a common test of antioxidant status (resistance to strand breakage by H2 O2 ) cannot be used. We have refined this method by separating the leucocytes from the thawed blood; we find that, after three washes, the cells respond normally to H2 O2 . In addition, we have measured specific endogenous base damage (oxidized purines) in the isolated leucocytes, using the enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. In a study of blood samples from 10 subjects, H2 O2 sensitivity and endogenous damage-both reflecting the antioxidant status of the cells-correlated significantly. This modified approach to sample collection and storage is particularly applicable when the available volume of blood is limited and has great potential in biomonitoring and ecogenotoxicology studies where samples are obtained in the field or at sites remote from the testing laboratory.

  12. LC-MS/MS of some atypical antipsychotics in human plasma, serum, oral fluid and haemolysed whole blood.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Danielle S; Partridge, Suzanne J; Handley, Simon A; Couchman, Lewis; Morgan, Phillip E; Flanagan, Robert J

    2013-06-10

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of atypical antipsychotics is common, but published methods often specify relatively complex sample preparation and analysis procedures. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of amisulpride, aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole, clozapine and norclozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and sulpiride in small (200 μL) volumes of plasma or serum for TDM purposes. The applicability of the method as developed to haemolysed whole blood and to oral fluid was also investigated. Analytes and internal standards were extracted into butyl acetate:butanol (9+1, v/v) and a portion of the extract analysed by LC-MS/MS (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d. Waters Spherisorb S5SCX; eluent: 50 mmol/L methanolic ammonium acetate, pH* 6.0; flow-rate 0.5 mL/min; positive ion APCI-SRM, two transitions per analyte). Assay calibration (human plasma, oral fluid, and haemolysed whole blood calibration solutions) was performed by plotting the ratio of the peak area of the analyte to that of the appropriate internal standard. Assay validation was as per FDA guidelines. Assay calibration was linear across the concentration ranges studied. Inter- and intra-assay precision and accuracy were within 10% for all analytes in human plasma. Similar results were obtained for oral fluid and haemolysed whole blood, except that aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole were within 15% accuracy at low concentration (15 μg/L) in oral fluid, and olanzapine inter-assay precision could not be assessed in these matrices due to day-by-day degradation of this analyte. Recoveries varied between 16% (sulpiride) and 107% (clozapine), and were reproducible as well as comparable between human plasma, human serum, calf serum and haemolysed whole blood. For oral fluid, recoveries were reproducible, but differed slightly from those in plasma suggesting the need for

  13. Hemocompatible control of sulfobetaine-grafted polypropylene fibrous membranes in human whole blood via plasma-induced surface zwitterionization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Han; Chang, Yung; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Wei, Ta-Chin; Higuchi, Akon; Ho, Feng-Ming; Tsou, Chia-Chun; Ho, Hsin-Tsung; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2012-12-21

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of zwitterionic polypropylene (PP) fibrous membranes with varying grafting coverage of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) via plasma-induced surface polymerization was studied. Charge neutrality of PSBMA-grafted layers on PP membrane surfaces was controlled by the low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment in this study. The effects of grafting composition, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Protein adsorption onto the different PSBMA-grafted PP membranes from human fibrinogen solutions was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Blood platelet adhesion and plasma clotting time measurements from a recalcified platelet-rich plasma solution were used to determine if platelet activation depends on the charge bias of the grafted PSBMA layer. The charge bias of PSBMA layer deviated from the electrical balance of positively and negatively charged moieties can be well-controlled via atmospheric plasma-induced interfacial zwitterionization and was further tested with human whole blood. The optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and keeps its original blood-inert property of antifouling, anticoagulant, and antithrmbogenic activities when it comes into contact with human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PSBMA polymers by controlling grafting quality via atmospheric plasma treatment gives a great potential in the surface zwitterionization of hydrophobic membranes for use in human whole blood.

  14. Enhanced differentiation of human osteoblasts on Ti surfaces pre-treated with human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Brigitte S; Schipanski, Angela; Rottmar, Markus; Berner, Simon; Maniura-Weber, Katharina

    2015-06-01

    Early and effective integration of a metal implant into bone tissue is of crucial importance for its long-term stability. While different material properties including surface roughness and wettability but also initial blood-implant surface interaction are known to influence this osseointegration, implications of the latter process are still poorly understood. In this study, early interaction between blood and the implant surface and how this affects the mechanism of osseointegration were investigated. For this, blood coagulation on a micro-roughened hydrophobic titanium (Ti) surface (SLA-H(phob)) and on a hydrophilic micro-roughened Ti surface with nanostructures (SLActive-H(phil)NS), as well as the effects of whole human blood pre-incubation of these two surfaces on the differentiation potential of primary human bone cells (HBC) was assessed. Interestingly, pre-incubation with blood resulted in a dense fibrin network over the entire surface on SLActive-H(phil)NS but only in single patches of fibrin and small isolated fibre complexes on SLA-H(phob). On SLActive-H(phil)NS, the number of HBCs attaching to the fibrin network was greatly increased and the cells displayed enhanced cell contact to the fibrin network. Notably, HBCs displayed increased expression of the osteogenic marker proteins alkaline phosphatase and collagen-I when cultivated on both surfaces upon blood pre-incubation. Additionally, blood pre-treatment promoted an earlier and enhanced mineralization of HBCs cultivated on SLActive-H(phil)NS compared to SLA-H(phob). The results presented in this study therefore suggest that blood pre-incubation of implant surfaces mimics a more physiological situation, eventually providing a more predictive in vitro model for the evaluation of novel bone implant surfaces.

  15. Multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen and glucose detection in human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-An

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucose detection in human whole blood. A novel enzyme-doped thread coated with a thin polyvinylchloride (PVC) membrane is produced for on-site electrochemical detection of urea and glucose in whole blood. Multiple enzymes can be directly applied to the thread without delicate pretreatment or a surface modification process prior to sealing the thread with PVC membrane. Results indicate that the developed device exhibits a good linear dynamic range for detecting urea and glucose in concentrations from 0.1 mM–10.0 mM (R2 = 0.9850) and 0.1 mM–13.0 mM (R2 = 0.9668), which is suitable for adoption in detecting the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, 1.78–7.12 mM) and glucose (3.89–6.11 mM) in serum. The detection result also shows that the developed thread-based microfluidic system can successfully separate and detect the ions, BUN, and glucose in blood. The calculated concentrations of BUN and glucose ante cibum (glucose before meal) in the whole blood sample are 3.98 mM and 4.94 mM, respectively. The developed thread-based microfluidic system provides a simple yet high performance for clinical diagnostics. PMID:25825613

  16. Development of a Modular Assay for Detailed Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Human Whole Blood Samples by Multicolor Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Rühle, Paul F.; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Frey, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of immune cells gained great significance in prognosis and prediction of therapy responses. For analyzing blood samples, the multicolor flow cytometry has become the method of choice as it combines high specificity on single cell level with multiple parameters and high throughput. Here, we present a modular assay for the detailed immunophenotyping of blood (DIoB) that was optimized for an easy and direct application in whole blood samples. The DIoB assay characterizes 34 immune cell subsets that circulate the peripheral blood including all major immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, it evaluates their functional state and a few non-leukocytes that also have been associated with the outcome of cancer therapy. This DIoB assay allows a longitudinal and close-meshed monitoring of a detailed immune status in patients requiring only 2.0 mL of peripheral blood and it is not restricted to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is currently applied for the immune monitoring of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (IMMO-GLIO-01 trial, NCT02022384), pancreatic cancer (CONKO-007 trial, NCT01827553), and head and neck cancer (DIREKHT trial, NCT02528955) and might pave the way for immune biomarker identification for prediction and prognosis of therapy outcome. PMID:27529227

  17. Refractive index of human whole blood with different types in the visible and near-infrared ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Lin, Lei; Xie, Shusen

    2000-06-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of human whole blood has always been of great interest for medical applications. The aim of this study was to provide the dispersive relations of refractive index of human whole blood with different types in the visible and near-infrared ranges and other conditions. In order to overcome the scattering effect, we applied an unusual method based on total internal reflection. A focused light, a semicylindrical lens in contact with tissues and a linear CCD camera are used in the experimental apparatus. The critical angle and therefore the refractive index can be obtained from the spacial distribution of internal reflective light. A monochromator is chosen as the light source, the chromatic dispersion curve of materials can be determined directly and quickly. A set of values has been presented that relates the refractive index to wavelength and types of whole, undiluted blood. Our results suggest that the refractive dispersions be almost the same in the visible and near-infrared ranges no matter which blood type it belongs to. In addition, the relationship can be described by Cauchy's formula.

  18. Sodium-23 NMR analysis of human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma. Chemical shift, spin relaxation, and intracellular sodium concentration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettegrew, Jay W.; Woessner, Donald E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Glonek, Thomas

    Sodium-23 NMR analysis was performed on freshly obtained human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma. The intracellular and extracellular sodium signals were separated by adding dysprosium: tripolyphosphate to the plasma bathing the erythrocytes. Quantitation of the intracellular sodium content was easily accomplished by sodium NMR and was shown to agree well with the values obtained by flame photometry. T1 and T2 relaxation studies demonstrated that the sodium in human plasma and within human erythrocytes is substantially different in its physical characteristics than sodium in aqueous solution, and that some fraction of the plasma and erythrocyte sodium is relatively immobilized. Sodium NMR would appear therefore to be a useful method for studying sodium biology in inherited and acquired human diseases.

  19. Cellular Defense System Gene Expression Profiling of Human Whole Blood: Opportunities to Predict Health Benefits in Response to Diet12

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Janice E.

    2012-01-01

    Diet is a critical factor in the maintenance of human cellular defense systems, immunity, inflammation, redox regulation, metabolism, and DNA repair that ensure optimal health and reduce disease risk. Assessment of dietary modulation of cellular defense systems in humans has been limited due to difficulties in accessing target tissues. Notably, peripheral blood gene expression profiles associated with nonhematologic disease are detectable. Coupled with recent innovations in gene expression technologies, gene expression profiling of human blood to determine predictive markers associated with health status and dietary modulation is now a feasible prospect for nutrition scientists. This review focuses on cellular defense system gene expression profiling of human whole blood and the opportunities this presents, using recent technological advances, to predict health status and benefits conferred by diet. PMID:22797985

  20. A whole blood in vitro cytokine release assay with aqueous monoclonal antibody presentation for the prediction of therapeutic protein induced cytokine release syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Babette; Morgan, Hannah; Krieg, Jennifer; Gani, Zaahira; Milicov, Adriana; Warncke, Max; Brennan, Frank; Jones, Stewart; Sims, Jennifer; Kiessling, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    The administration of several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to humans has been associated with acute adverse events characterized by clinically significant release of cytokines in the blood. The limited predictive value of toxicology species in this field has triggered intensive research to establish human in vitro assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells or blood to predict cytokine release in humans. A thorough characterization of these assays is required to understand their predictive value for hazard identification and risk assessment in an optimal manner, and to highlight potential limitations of individual assay formats. We have characterized a whole human blood cytokine release assay with only minimal dilution by the test antibodies (95% v/v blood) in aqueous presentation format, an assay which has so far received less attention in the scientific world with respect to the evaluation of its suitability to predict cytokine release in humans. This format was compared with a human PBMC assay with immobilized mAbs presentation already well-characterized by others. Cytokine secretion into plasma or cell culture supernatants after 24h incubation with the test mAbs (anti-CD28 superagonist TGN1412-like material (TGN1412L), another anti-CD28 superagonistic mAb (ANC28.1), a T-cell depleting mAb (Orthoclone™), and a TGN1412 isotype-matched control (Tysabri™) not associated with clinically-relevant cytokine release) was detected by a multiplex assay based on electrochemiluminescent excitation. We provide proof that this whole blood assay is a suitable new method for hazard identification of safety-relevant cytokine release in the clinic based on its ability to detect the typical cytokine signatures found in humans for the tested mAbs and on a markedly lower assay background and cytokine release with the isotype-matched control mAb Tysabri™ - a clear advantage over the PBMC assay. Importantly, quantitative and qualitative differences in the relative cytokine

  1. Platelet function in baboons and humans - A comparative study of whole blood using impedance platelet aggregometry (Multiplate®).

    PubMed

    Ponschab, Martin; van Griensven, Martijn; Heitmeier, Stefan; Laux, Volker; Schlimp, Christoph J; Calatzis, Andreas; Bahrami, Soheyl; Redl, Heinz; Schöchl, Herbert

    2016-11-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation and wound healing. Suitable animal models that have the potential to mimic human platelet function are limited. The objective of the current study was to compare platelet aggregation response in the whole blood of baboons and humans using impedance aggregometry. Blood was drawn from 24 anesthetised male baboons and 25 healthy volunteers. The platelet aggregation response was determined by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate®). Platelets in the hirudinised whole blood samples were stimulated with four different activators: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen (COL), thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TR1AP), and activation of PAR-4 thrombin receptor subtype (TR4AP) at standard concentrations. Higher than standard concentrations were tested in a subgroup of the animals. The cell counts showed no differences between baboons and humans. The platelet aggregation response was significantly lower in baboons compared to humans when stimulated with the platelet agonists ADP (p<0.0001), COL (p=0.021) and TR4AP (p<0.0001). TR1AP did not stimulate platelet aggregation in the baboon blood. Doubling the concentration of ADP and of TR4AP significantly increased the AUC compared to the standard concentration. In contrast, increased COL levels did not further increase the AUC. The current study revealed that testing the platelet function in baboon blood by impedance aggregometry is feasible with ADP, COL and TR4AP, but not with TR1AP. Compared to humans, the aggregation response is lower in baboons. Considering the limitations in accordance to these results, baboons might represent a potential species for further platelet research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Evaluating genomic DNA extraction methods from human whole blood using endpoint and real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Linda; Anju, A L; Harikrishnan, S; Kutty, V R; Jissa, V T; Kurikesu, Irin; Jayachandran, Parvathy; Jayakumaran Nair, A; Gangaprasad, A; Nair, G M; Sudhakaran, P R

    2017-02-01

    The extraction of genomic DNA is the crucial first step in large-scale epidemiological studies. Though there are many popular DNA isolation methods from human whole blood, only a few reports have compared their efficiencies using both end-point and real-time PCR assays. Genomic DNA was extracted from coronary artery disease patients using solution-based conventional protocols such as the phenol-chloroform/proteinase-K method and a non-phenolic non-enzymatic Rapid-Method, which were evaluated and compared vis-a-vis a commercially available silica column-based Blood DNA isolation kit. The appropriate method for efficiently extracting relatively pure DNA was assessed based on the total DNA yield, concentration, purity ratios (A260/A280 and A260/A230), spectral profile and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis. The quality of the isolated DNA was further analysed for PCR inhibition using a murine specific ATP1A3 qPCR assay and mtDNA/Y-chromosome ratio determination assay. The suitability of the extracted DNA for downstream applications such as end-point SNP genotyping, was tested using PCR-RFLP analysis of the AGTR1-1166A>C variant, a mirSNP having pharmacogenetic relevance in cardiovascular diseases. Compared to the traditional phenol-chloroform/proteinase-K method, our results indicated the Rapid-Method to be a more suitable protocol for genomic DNA extraction from human whole blood in terms of DNA quantity, quality, safety, processing time and cost. The Rapid-Method, which is based on a simple salting-out procedure, is not only safe and cost-effective, but also has the added advantage of being scaled up to process variable sample volumes, thus enabling it to be applied in large-scale epidemiological studies.

  3. Human genomic DNA isolation from whole blood using a simple microfluidic system with silica- and polymer-based stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Günal, Gülçin; Kip, Çiğdem; Öğüt, Sevim Eda; Usta, Duygu Deniz; Şenlik, Erhan; Kibar, Güneş; Tuncel, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Monodisperse-porous silica microspheres 5.1μm in size with a bimodal pore-size distribution (including both mesoporous and macroporous compartments) were obtained using a newly developed staged-shape templated hydrolysis and condensation protocol. Synthesized silica microspheres and monodisperse-porous polymer-based microspheres with different functionalities, synthesized by staged-shape template polymerization, were comparatively tested as sorbents for human genomic DNA (hgDNA) isolation in a microfluidic system. Microcolumns with a permeability range of 1.8-8.5×10(-13)m(2) were fabricated by the slurry-packing of silica- or polymer-based microspheres. The monodisperse-porous silica microspheres showed the best performance in hgDNA isolation in an aqueous buffer medium; >2500ng of hgDNA was recovered with an isolation yield of about 50%, using an hgDNA feed concentration of 100ng/μL. Monodisperse-porous silica microspheres were also evaluated as a sorbent for genomic DNA isolation from human whole blood in the microfluidic system; 14ng of hgDNA was obtained from 10μL of whole blood lysate with an isolation yield of 64%. Based on these results, we conclude that monodisperse-porous silica microspheres with a bimodal pore size distribution are a promising sorbent for the isolation of hgDNA in larger amounts and with higher yields compared to the sorbents previously tried in similar microfluidic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFECTS OF STORAGE, RNA EXTRACTION, GENECHIP TYPE, AND DONOR SEX ON GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF HUMAN WHOLE BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Gene expression profiling of whole blood may be useful for monitoring toxicological exposure and for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. Several methods are available that can be used to transport, store, and extract RNA from whole blood, but it is not clear...

  5. EFFECTS OF STORAGE, RNA EXTRACTION, GENECHIP TYPE, AND DONOR SEX ON GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF HUMAN WHOLE BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Gene expression profiling of whole blood may be useful for monitoring toxicological exposure and for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. Several methods are available that can be used to transport, store, and extract RNA from whole blood, but it is not clear...

  6. Comparison of extraction and quantification methods of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma, serum, and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Reagen, William K; Ellefson, Mark E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P

    2008-11-03

    Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous in the environment and have been reported to occur in human blood. Accurate risk assessments require accurate measurements of exposures, but identification and quantification of PFCs in biological matrices can be affected by both ion suppression and enhancement in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques (LC/MS-MS). A study was conducted to quantify potential biases in LC/MS-MS quantification methods. Using isotopically labeled perfluorooctanoic acid ([(13)C(2)]-PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid ([(13)C(2)]-PFNA), and ammonium perfluorooctanesulfonate ([(18)O(2)]-PFOS) spiked tissues, ion-pairing extraction, solid-phase extraction, and protein precipitation sample preparation techniques were compared. Analytical accuracy was assessed using both solvent calibration and matrix-matched calibration for quantification. Data accuracy and precision of 100+/-15% was demonstrated in both human sera and plasma for all three sample preparation techniques when matrix-matched calibration was used in quantification. In contrast, quantification of ion-pairing extraction data using solvent calibration in combination with a surrogate internal standard resulted in significant analytical biases for all target analytes. The accuracy of results, based on solvent calibration was highly variable and dependent on the serum and plasma matrices, the specific target analyte [(13)C(2)]-PFOA, [(13)C(2)]-PFNA, or [(18)O(2)]-PFOS, the target analyte concentration, the LC/MS-MS instrumentation used in data generation, and the specific surrogate internal standard used in quantification. These results suggest that concentrations of PFCs reported for human blood using surrogate internal standards in combination with external solvent calibration can be inaccurate unless biases are accounted for in data quantification.

  7. Solulin increases clot stability in whole blood from humans and dogs with hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Karl-Uwe; Rea, Catherine J.; Harpell, Lori; Powell, Sandra; Lillicrap, David; Nesheim, Michael E.; Sørensen, Benny

    2012-01-01

    Solulin is a soluble form of thrombomodulin that is resistant to proteolysis and oxidation. It has been shown to increase the clot lysis time in factor VIII (fVIII)–deficient plasma by an activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa)–dependent mechanism. In the present study, blood was drawn from humans and dogs with hemophilia, and thromboelastography was used to measure tissue factor–initiated fibrin formation and tissue-plasminogen activator–induced fibrinolysis. The kinetics of TAFI and protein C activation by the thrombin-Solulin complex were determined to describe the relative extent of anticoagulation and antifibrinolysis. In severe hemophilia A, clot stability increased by > 4-fold in the presence of Solulin while minimally affecting clot lysis time. Patients receiving fVIII/fIX prophylaxis showed a similar trend of increased clot stability in the presence of Solulin. The catalytic efficiencies of TAFI and protein C activation by the thrombin-Solulin complex were determined to be 1.53 and 0.02/μM/s, respectively, explaining its preference for antifibrinolysis over anticoagulation at low concentrations. Finally, hemophilic dogs given Solulin had improved clot strength in thromboelastography assays. In conclusion, the antifibrinolytic properties of Solulin are exhibited in hemophilic human (in vitro) and dog (in vivo/ex vivo) blood at low concentrations. Our findings suggest the therapeutic utility of Solulin at a range of very low doses. PMID:22234684

  8. Whole blood coagulation analyzers.

    PubMed

    1997-08-01

    Whole blood Coagulation analyzers (WBCAs) are widely used point-of-care (POC) testing devices found primarily in cardiothoracic surgical suites and cardia catheterization laboratories. Most of these devices can perform a number of coagulation tests that provide information about a patient's blood clotting status. Clinicians use the results of the WBCA tests, which are available minutes after applying a blood sample, primarily to monitor the effectiveness of heparin therapy--an anticoagulation therapy used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery, angioplasty, hemodialysis, and other clinical procedures. In this study we evaluated five WBCAs from four suppliers. Our testing focused on the applications for which WBCAs are primarily used: Monitoring moderate to high heparin levels, as would be required, for example, during CPB are angioplasty. For this function, WCBAs are typically used to perform an activated clotting time (ACT) test or, as one supplier refers to its test, a heparin management test (HMT). All models included in this study offered an ACT test or an HMT. Monitoring low heparin levels, as would be required, for example,during hemodialysis. For this function, WBCAs would normally be used to perform either a low-range ACT (LACT) test or a whole blood activated partial thromboplastin time (WBAPTT) test. Most of the evaluated units could perform at least one of these tests; one unit did not offer either test and was therefore not rated for this application. We rated and ranked each evaluated model separately for each of these two applications. In addition, we provided a combined rating and ranking that considers the units' appropriateness for performing both application. We based our conclusions on a unit's performance and humans factor design, as determined by our testing, and on its five-year life-cycle cost, as determined by our net present value (NPV) analysis. While we rated all evaluated units acceptable for each appropriate category, we did

  9. Monitoring of glucose, salt and pure water in human whole blood: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Akhtar, Munir; Sial, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmed, Ejaz; Durr-E-Sabeeh; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hussain, Fayyaz

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementation of non-invasive methods for glucose monitoring in blood is main focus of biomedical scientists to provide a relief from skin puncturing of diabete patient. The objective of this research work is to investigate the shape deformations and the aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the human blood after addition of three different analytes i) (0mM-400mM: Range) of glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), ii) (0mM-400mM: range) of pure salt (NaCl) and iii) (0mM- 350mM: range) of pure water (H(2)O). We have observed that the changes in the shape of individual cells from biconcave discs to spherical shapes and eventually the lysis of the cells at optimum concentration of glucose, salts and pure water. This demonstration also provides a base line to facilitate diabetes during partial diagnosis and monitoring of the glucose levels qualitatively both in research laboratories and clinical environment.

  10. Antidepressants, but not antipsychotics, modulate GR function in human whole blood: An insight into molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, L.A.; Garner, B.A.; Dew, T.; Fazakerley, H.; Pariante, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated an impairment of glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated negative feedback on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with major depression (GR resistance), and its resolution by antidepressant treatment. Recently, we showed that this impairment is indeed due to a dysfunction of GR in depressed patients (Carvalho et al., 2009), and that the ability of the antidepressant clomipramine to decrease GR function in peripheral blood cells is impaired in patients with major depression who are clinically resistant to treatment (Carvalho et al. 2008). To further investigate the effect of antidepressants on GR function in humans, we have compared the effect of the antidepressants clomipramine, amytriptiline, sertraline, paroxetine and venlafaxine, and of the antipsychotics, haloperidol and risperidone, on GR function in peripheral blood cells from healthy volunteers (n=33). GR function was measured by glucocorticoid inhibition of lypopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Compared to vehicle-treated cells, all antidepressants inhibited dexamethasone (DEX, 10–100 nM) inhibition of LPS-stimulated IL-6 levels (p values ranging from 0.007 to 0.1). This effect was specific to antidepressants, as antipsychotics had no effect on DEX-inhibition of LPS-stimulated IL-6 levels. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor, rolipram, potentiated the effect of antidepressants on GR function, while the GR antagonist, RU-486, inhibited the effect of antidepressants on GR function. These findings indicate that the effect of antidepressants on GR function are specific for this class of psychotropic drugs, and involve second messenger pathways relevant to GR function and inflammation. Furthermore, it also points towards a possible mechanism by which one maybe able to overcome treatment-resistant depression. Research in this field will lead to new insights into the pathophysiology and treatment of affective disorders

  11. Human whole-blood O2 affinity: effect of CO2.

    PubMed

    Kwant, G; Oeseburg, B; Zwart, A; Zijlstra, W G

    1988-06-01

    The proton Bohr factor (phi H = alpha log PO2/alpha pH), the carbamate Bohr factor (phi C = alpha log PO2/alpha log PCO2), the total Bohr factor (phi HC = d log PO2/dpH[base excess) and the CO2 buffer factor (d log PCO2/dpH) were determined in the blood of 12 healthy donors over the whole O2 saturation (SO2) range. All three Bohr factors proved to be dependent on SO2, although to a lesser extent than reported in some of the recent literature. At SO2 = 50% and 37 degrees C, we found phi H = -0.428 +/- 0.010 (SE), phi C = 0.054 +/- 0.006, and phi HC = -0.488 +/- 0.007. The values obtained for phi H, phi C, and d log PCO2/dpH were used to calculate phi HC. Calculated and measured values of phi HC proved to be in good agreement. In an additional series of 12 specimens of human blood we determined the influence of PCO2 on phi H and the influence of pH on phi C. At SO2 = 50%, phi H varied from -0.49 +/- 0.009 at PCO2 = 15 Torr to -0.31 +/- 0.010 at PCO2 = 105 Torr and phi C from 0.157 +/- 0.015 at pH = 7.80 to 0.006 +/- 0.009 at pH = 7.00. When on the basis of these data a second-order term is taken into account, a still slightly better agreement between measured and calculated values of phi HC can be attained.

  12. A coordination polymer based magnetic adsorbent material for hemoglobin isolation from human whole blood, highly selective and recoverable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Tan, Jipeng; Xu, Xinxin; Shi, Fanian; Li, Guanglu; Yang, Yiqiao

    2017-09-01

    A composite material has been obtained successfully through the loading of nanoscale coordination polymer on magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell particle. In this composite material, coordination polymer nanoparticles distribute uniformly on Fe3O4@SiO2 and these two components are ;tied; together firmly with chemical bonds. Adsorption experiments suggest this composite material exhibits very excellent selectivity to hemoglobin. But under the same condition, its adsorption to bovine serum albumin can almost be ignored. This selectivity can be attributed to the existence of hydrophobic interactions between coordination polymer nanoparticle and hemoglobin. For composite material, the hemoglobin adsorption process follows Langmuir model perfectly with high speed. The adsorbed hemoglobin can be eluted easily by sodium dodecyl sulfate stripping reagent with structure and biological activity of hemoglobin keeps well. The composite material was also employed to separate hemoglobin from human whole blood, which receives a very satisfactory result. Furthermore, magnetic measurement reveals ferromagnetic character of this composite material with magnetization saturation 3.56 emu g-1 and this guarantees its excellent magnetic separation performance from the treated solution.

  13. MnO2-induced synthesis of fluorescent polydopamine nanoparticles for reduced glutathione sensing in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Juan; Wu, Shuang; Chen, Ting-Ting; Yu, Ru-Qin; Chu, Xia

    2016-08-25

    Polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles, as a kind of popular polymer material, have attracted a great deal of attention from various areas including materials science, biomedicine, energy, environmental science and so on owing to their striking physicochemical properties. Herein, we reported for the first time the synthesis of intrinsic fluorescent PDA nanoparticles using MnO2 as an oxidant. In the presence of MnO2, dopamine was quickly oxidized into its quinone derivative, and autopolymerized into fluorescent PDA nanoparticles. Using fluorescent PDA nanoparticles as a fluorescence signal indicator, we further established a cost-effective sensor for rapid, sensitive and selective sensing of reduced glutathione (GSH) based on the redox reaction between MnO2 and GSH, and the key role of MnO2 in the formation of fluorescent PDA nanoparticles. GSH has the capability of reducing MnO2 into Mn(2+), which inhibited the formation of the fluorescent PDA nanoparticles. Thus, the concentration of GSH was directly related to the decreased fluorescence signal intensity of the PDA nanoparticles. The sensor showed good sensing performance for GSH detection with high sensitivity and desirable selectivity over other potential interfering species. Additionally, the sensor exhibited excellent practical applications for GSH detection in human whole blood samples, which presents potential applications in biological detection and clinical diagnosis.

  14. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay to quantify plitidepsin in human plasma, whole blood and urine.

    PubMed

    van Andel, L; Rosing, H; Fudio, S; Avilés, P; Tibben, M M; Gebretensae, A; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2017-10-25

    Plitidepsin is an anti-cancer drug currently evaluated in phase I/II/III clinical trials. This article describes the development and validation of a bioanalytical assay to quantify plitidepsin in human plasma, urine and whole blood using HPLC-MS/MS. The analyte was extracted from the matrix by liquid-liquid extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether. Final extracts were injected onto a C18 column, gradient elution was applied for chromatographic separation and detection was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive ion mode. The assay was linear over the range 0.1-100ng/mL, with acceptable accuracy and precision values. This is the first reported bioanalytical assay quantifying plitidepsin using a stable isotopically labelled standard, achieving a lower limit of quantification of 0.1ng/mL in all three matrices, allowing the quantification of trace levels of plitidepsin, and accomplishing this in an analysis time of two minutes only. The presented method was successfully applied in a mass balance study with plitidepsin in patients with advanced cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow cytofluorometric assay of human whole blood leukocyte DNA degradation in response to Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.

    2001-05-01

    Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.

  16. Inducing Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy In Vitro: The Effects of Activated Protein C on Healthy Human Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Howard, Benjamin M; Kornblith, Lucy Z; Cheung, Christopher K; Kutcher, Matthew E; Miyazawa, Byron Y; Vilardi, Ryan F; Cohen, Mitchell J

    2016-01-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy has been associated with shock and tissue injury, and may be mediated via activation of the protein C pathway. Patients with acute traumatic coagulopathy have prolonged PT and PTT, and decreased activity of factors V and VIII; they are also hypocoagulable by thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and other viscoelastic assays. To test the etiology of this phenomenon, we hypothesized that such coagulopathy could be induced in vitro in healthy human blood with the addition of activated protein C (aPC). Whole blood was collected from 20 healthy human subjects, and was "spiked" with increasing concentrations of purified human aPC (control, 75, 300, 2000 ng/mL). PT/PTT, factor activity assays, and ROTEM were performed on each sample. Mixed effect regression modeling was performed to assess the association of aPC concentration with PT/PTT, factor activity, and ROTEM parameters. In all subjects, increasing concentrations of aPC produced ROTEM tracings consistent with traumatic coagulopathy. ROTEM EXTEM parameters differed significantly by aPC concentration, with stepwise prolongation of clotting time (CT) and clot formation time (CFT), decreased alpha angle (α), impaired early clot formation (a10 and a20), and reduced maximum clot firmness (MCF). PT and PTT were significantly prolonged at higher aPC concentrations, with corresponding significant decreases in factor V and VIII activity. A phenotype of acute traumatic coagulopathy can be induced in healthy blood by the in vitro addition of aPC alone, as evidenced by viscoelastic measures and confirmed by conventional coagulation assays and factor activity. This may lend further mechanistic insight to the etiology of coagulation abnormalities in trauma, supporting the central role of the protein C pathway. Our findings also represent a model for future investigations in the diagnosis and treatment of acute traumatic coagulopathy.

  17. Inducing Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy In Vitro: The Effects of Activated Protein C on Healthy Human Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Benjamin M.; Kornblith, Lucy Z.; Cheung, Christopher K.; Kutcher, Matthew E.; Miyazawa, Byron Y.; Vilardi, Ryan F.; Cohen, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute traumatic coagulopathy has been associated with shock and tissue injury, and may be mediated via activation of the protein C pathway. Patients with acute traumatic coagulopathy have prolonged PT and PTT, and decreased activity of factors V and VIII; they are also hypocoagulable by thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and other viscoelastic assays. To test the etiology of this phenomenon, we hypothesized that such coagulopathy could be induced in vitro in healthy human blood with the addition of activated protein C (aPC). Methods Whole blood was collected from 20 healthy human subjects, and was “spiked” with increasing concentrations of purified human aPC (control, 75, 300, 2000 ng/mL). PT/PTT, factor activity assays, and ROTEM were performed on each sample. Mixed effect regression modeling was performed to assess the association of aPC concentration with PT/PTT, factor activity, and ROTEM parameters. Results In all subjects, increasing concentrations of aPC produced ROTEM tracings consistent with traumatic coagulopathy. ROTEM EXTEM parameters differed significantly by aPC concentration, with stepwise prolongation of clotting time (CT) and clot formation time (CFT), decreased alpha angle (α), impaired early clot formation (a10 and a20), and reduced maximum clot firmness (MCF). PT and PTT were significantly prolonged at higher aPC concentrations, with corresponding significant decreases in factor V and VIII activity. Conclusion A phenotype of acute traumatic coagulopathy can be induced in healthy blood by the in vitro addition of aPC alone, as evidenced by viscoelastic measures and confirmed by conventional coagulation assays and factor activity. This may lend further mechanistic insight to the etiology of coagulation abnormalities in trauma, supporting the central role of the protein C pathway. Our findings also represent a model for future investigations in the diagnosis and treatment of acute traumatic coagulopathy. PMID:27008408

  18. Oral administration of pyridostigmine bromide and huperzine A protects human whole blood cholinesterases from ex vivo exposure to soman.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Richard K; Haigh, Julian R; Garcia, Gregory E; Feaster, Shawn R; Riel, Michael A; Lenz, David E; Aisen, Paul S; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2005-12-15

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) are classified as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) according to their substrate specificity and sensitivity to selected inhibitors. The activities of AChE in red blood cells (RBC-AChE) and BChE in serum can be used as potential biomarkers of suppressed and/or heightened activity in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) chemical warfare agents (CWAs), pesticides, anesthetics, and a variety of drugs such as cocaine, as well as some neurodegenerative and liver disease states, selectively reduces AChE or BChE activity. In humans, the toxicity of pesticides is well documented. Therefore, blood cholinesterase activity can be exploited as a tool for confirming exposure to these agents and possible treatments. Current assays for measurement of RBC-AChE and serum BChE require several labor-intensive processing steps, suffer from wide statistical variation, and there is no inter-laboratory conversion between methods. These methods, which determine only the serum BChE or RBC-AChE but not both, include the Ellman, radiometric, and deltapH (modified Michel) methods. In contrast, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Whole Blood (WRAIR WB, US Patent #6,746,850) cholinesterase assay rapidly determines the activity of both AChE and BChE in unprocessed (uncentrifuged) whole blood, uses a minimally invasive blood sampling technique (e.g., blood from a finger prick), and is semi-automated for high-throughput using the Biomek 2000 robotic system. To date, the WRAIR whole blood assay was used to measure AChE and BChE activities in human blood from volunteers in FDA clinical trials. In the first FDA study, 24 human subjects were given either 30 mg PB orally (n = 19) or placebo (n = 5). Blood samples were obtained pre-dosing and 2.5, 5, 8, and 24 h post-dosing. The samples were analyzed for AChE and BChE activity using the WRAIR WB robotic system, and for PB concentration by HPLC. We found that

  19. Comparison of DNA extraction kits for detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in spiked human whole blood using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Podnecky, Nicole L; Elrod, Mindy G; Newton, Bruce R; Dauphin, Leslie A; Shi, Jianrong; Chawalchitiporn, Sutthinan; Baggett, Henry C; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Gee, Jay E

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1) assay. Crossing threshold (C T ) values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×10(4) colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen.

  20. Comparison of the potency of a variety of β-glucans to induce cytokine production in human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Noss, Ilka; Doekes, Gert; Thorne, Peter S; Heederik, Dick J.J.; Wouters, Inge M.

    2014-01-01

    Beta-glucans are components of fungal cell walls and potent stimulants of innate immunity. The majority of research on biological activities of glucans has focused on β-(1,3)-glucans, which have been implicated in relation with fungal exposure-associated respiratory symptoms, and as important stimulatory agents in anti-fungal immune responses. Fungi - and bacteria and plants - produce a wide variety of glucans with vast differences in proportion and arrangement of their 1,3-, 1,4-, and 1,6-β-glycosidic linkages. Thus far the proinflammatory potential of different β-glucans has not been studied within the same experimental model. Therefore, we compared the potency of 13 different glucan preparations to induce in vitro production of IL1β, IL6, IL8 and TNF-α in human whole blood cultures. The strongest inducers of all cytokines were pustulan (β-(1,6)-glucan), lichenan (β-(1,3)-(1,4)-glucan), xyloglucan (β-(1,4)-glucan), and pullulan (α-(1,4)-(1,6)-glucan). Moderate to strong cytokine production was observed for curdlan (β-(1,3)-glucan), baker’s yeast glucan (β-(1,3)-(1,6)-glucan), and barley glucan (β-(1,3)-(1,4)-glucan), while all other glucan preparations induced only low or no detectable levels of cytokines. We therefore conclude that innate immunity reactions are not exclusively induced by β-(1,3)-glucans, but also by β-(1,6)- and β-(1,4)-structures. Thus, not only β-(1,3)-glucan, but also other β-glucans and particularly β-(1,6)-glucans should be considered in future research. PMID:22653750

  1. Quantitation of the enantiomers of tramadol and its three main metabolites in human whole blood using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Haage, Pernilla; Kronstrand, Robert; Carlsson, Björn; Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Josefsson, Martin

    2016-02-05

    The analgesic drug tramadol and its metabolites are chiral compounds, with the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers showing different pharmacological and toxicological effects. This novel enantioselective method, based on LC-MS/MS in reversed phase mode, enabled measurement of the parent compound and its three main metabolites O-desmethyltramadol, N-desmethyltramadol and N,O-didesmethyltramadol simultaneously. Whole blood samples of 0.5g were fortified with internal standards (tramadol-(13)C-D3 and O-desmethyl-cis-tramadol-D6) and extracted under basic conditions (pH 11) by liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatography was performed on a chiral alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column preceded by an AGP guard column. The mobile phase consisted of 0.8% acetonitrile and 99.2% ammonium acetate (20mM, pH 7.2). A post-column infusion with 0.05% formic acid in acetonitrile was used to enhance sensitivity. Quantitation as well as enantiomeric ratio measurements were covered by quality controls. Validation parameters for all eight enantiomers included selectivity (high), matrix effects (no ion suppression/enhancement), calibration model (linear, weight 1/X(2), in the range of 0.25-250ng/g), limit of quantitation (0.125-0.50ng/g), repeatability (2-6%) and intermediate precision (2-7%), accuracy (83-114%), dilution integrity (98-115%), carry over (not exceeding 0.07%) and stability (stable in blood and extract). The method was applied to blood samples from a healthy volunteer administrated a single 100mg dose and to a case sample concerning an impaired driver, which confirmed its applicability in human pharmacokinetic studies as well as in toxicological and forensic investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of DNA Extraction Kits for Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Spiked Human Whole Blood Using Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Podnecky, Nicole L.; Elrod, Mindy G.; Newton, Bruce R.; Dauphin, Leslie A.; Shi, Jianrong; Chawalchitiporn, Sutthinan; Baggett, Henry C.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Gee, Jay E.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1) assay. Crossing threshold (CT) values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×104 colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen. PMID:23460920

  3. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; López-Guarnido, O; Rodrigo, L; Gil, F

    2010-02-05

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical and spectroscopic properties of human whole blood and plasma with and without Y₂O₃ and Nd³⁺:Y₂O₃ nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Frederick J; Yust, Brian; Mimun, Lawrence C; Nash, Kelly L; Tsin, Andrew T; Sardar, Dhiraj K

    2013-11-01

    The optical properties of human whole blood and blood plasma with and without Y₂O₃ and Nd³⁺:Y₂O₃ nanoparticles are characterized in the near infrared region at 808 nm using a double integrating sphere technique. Using experimentally measured quantities of diffuse reflectance and diffuse transmittance, a computational analysis was conducted utilizing the Kubelka-Munk, the Inverse Adding Doubling, and Magic Light Kubelka-Munk and Monte Carlo Methods to determine optical properties of the absorption and scattering coefficients. Room temperature absorption and emission spectra were also acquired of Nd³⁺:Y₂O₃ nanoparticles elucidating their utility as biological markers. The emission spectra of Nd³⁺:Y₂O₃ were taken by exciting the nanoparticles before and after entering the whole blood sample. The emission from the ⁴F(3/2) → ⁴I(11/2) manifold transition of Nd³⁺:Y₂O₃ nanoparticles readily propagates through the blood sample at excitation of 808 nm and exhibits a shift in relative intensities of the peaks due to differences in scattering. At 808 nm, in both whole blood and plasma samples, a direct relationship was found with absorption coefficient and Y₂O₃ nanoparticle concentration. Results for the whole blood indicate a small inverse relationship with Y₂O₃ nanoparticle concentration and scattering coefficient and in contrast a direct relation for the plasma.

  5. Optical and spectroscopic properties of human whole blood and plasma with and without Y2O3 and Nd3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Frederick J.; Yust, Brian; Mimun, Lawrence C.; Nash, Kelly L.; Tsin, Andrew T.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2013-01-01

    The optical properties of human whole blood and blood plasma with and without Y2O3 and Nd3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles are characterized in the near infrared region at 808 nm using a double integrating sphere technique. Using experimentally measured quantities of diffuse reflectance and diffuse transmittance, a computational analysis was conducted utilizing the Kubelka-Munk, the Inverse Adding Doubling, and Magic Light Kubelka-Munk and Monte Carlo Methods to determine optical properties of the absorption and scattering coefficients. Room temperature absorption and emission spectra were also acquired of Nd3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles elucidating their utility as biological markers. The emission spectra of Nd3+:Y2O3 were taken by exciting the nanoparticles before and after entering the whole blood sample. The emission from the 4F3/2→4I11/2 manifold transition of Nd3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles readily propagates through the blood sample at excitation of 808 nm and exhibits a shift in relative intensities of the peaks due to differences in scattering. At 808 nm, in both whole blood and plasma samples, a direct relationship was found with absorption coefficient and Y2O3 nanoparticle concentration. Results for the whole blood indicate a small inverse relationship with Y2O3 nanoparticle concentration and scattering coefficient and in contrast a direct relation for the plasma. PMID:23380906

  6. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the selective determination of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine designer drugs in human whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Chika; Hara, Kenji; Uchigasaki, Seisaku; Lee, Xiao-Pen; Seno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Sato, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    A novel method is described for the extraction of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine designer drugs, such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine, and 3,4-(methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine, from human whole blood using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction as highly selective sample clean-up technique. Whole blood samples were diluted with 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 8.6) and applied to a SupelMIP-Amphetamine molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction cartridge. The cartridge was then washed to eliminate interferences, and the amphetamines of interest were eluted with formic acid/methanol (1:100, v/v). After derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the analytes were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Recoveries of the seven amphetamines spiked into whole blood were 89.1-102%. The limits of quantification for each compound in 200 μL of whole blood were between 0.25 and 1.0 ng. The maximum intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were 9.96 and 13.8%, respectively. The results show that methamphetamine, amphetamine, and methylenedioxyphenylalkyl-amine designer drugs can be efficiently extracted from crude biological samples such as whole blood by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction with good reproducibility. This extraction method will be useful for the pretreatment of human samples before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in Human Whole Blood and Mutagenesis Studies Identify Virulence Factors Involved in Blood Survival

    PubMed Central

    Del Tordello, Elena; Seib, Kate L.; Francois, Patrice; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Serruto, Davide

    2011-01-01

    During infection Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) encounters multiple environments within the host, which makes rapid adaptation a crucial factor for meningococcal survival. Despite the importance of invasion into the bloodstream in the meningococcal disease process, little is known about how Nm adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. To address this, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using an ex vivo model of human whole blood infection. We observed that Nm alters the expression of ≈30% of ORFs of the genome and major dynamic changes were observed in the expression of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake systems, were significantly up-regulated. Analysis of regulated genes encoding for surface-exposed proteins involved in Nm pathogenesis allowed us to better understand mechanisms used to circumvent host defenses. During blood infection, Nm activates genes encoding for the factor H binding proteins, fHbp and NspA, genes encoding for detoxifying enzymes such as SodC, Kat and AniA, as well as several less characterized surface-exposed proteins that might have a role in blood survival. Through mutagenesis studies of a subset of up-regulated genes we were able to identify new proteins important for survival in human blood and also to identify additional roles of previously known virulence factors in aiding survival in blood. Nm mutant strains lacking the genes encoding the hypothetical protein NMB1483 and the surface-exposed proteins NalP, Mip and NspA, the Fur regulator, the transferrin binding protein TbpB, and the L-lactate permease LctP were sensitive to killing by human blood. This increased knowledge of how Nm responds to adaptation in blood could also be helpful to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control the devastating disease cause by

  8. An HPLC Assay for the Lipophilic Camptothecin Analog AR-67 Carboxylate and Lactone in Human Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Tsakalozou, Eleftheria; Horn, Jamie; Leggas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    AR-67 (7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin, DB-67) is a camptothecin analog currently in early stage clinical trials. The lactone moiety of camptothecins hydrolyzes readily in blood to yield the pharmacologically inactive carboxylate form. However the lactone form of third generation lipophilic congeners, such as AR-67, is more stable possibly due to partitioning into red cell membranes. This prompted us to develop a reverse phase HPLC method with fluorescence detection (excitation 380 nm / emission 560 nm), which could quantitate the concentration of AR-67 lactone and carboxylate in whole blood. Samples were prepared by red cell lysis, protein precipitation with methanol and centrifugation to remove denatured materials. Recovery was estimated to be >85%. Analytes were eluted isocratically with 0.15 M ammonium acetate buffer containing 10 mM TBAP (pH 6.5) and acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) on a Nova-Pak C18 column (4 μm; 3.9 mm × 150 mm). The assay was linear in the range of 0.5-300 ng/mL and 2.5-300 ng/mL for carboxylate and lactone, respectively. Accuracy and precision were acceptable. AR-67 forms were stable in whole blood and in methanolic supernatants. This assay has been successfully applied to measure AR-67 concentrations in whole blood of patients enrolled in a phase I study. PMID:20853460

  9. An HPLC assay for the lipophilic camptothecin analog AR-67 carboxylate and lactone in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Tsakalozou, Eleftheria; Horn, Jamie; Leggas, Mark

    2010-10-01

    AR-67 (7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin, DB-67) is a camptothecin analog currently in early stage clinical trials. The lactone moiety of camptothecins hydrolyzes readily in blood to yield the pharmacologically inactive carboxylate form. However the lactone form of third-generation lipophilic congeners, such as AR-67, is more stable, possibly due to partitioning into red cell membranes. This prompted us to develop a reverse-phase HPLC method with fluorescence detection (excitation 380 nm/emission 560 nm), which could quantitate the concentration of AR-67 lactone and carboxylate in whole blood. Samples were prepared by red cell lysis, protein precipitation with methanol and centrifugation to remove denatured materials. Recovery was estimated to be >85%. Analytes were eluted isocratically with 0.15 m ammonium acetate buffer containing 10 mm TBAP (pH 6.5) and acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) on a Nova-Pak C(18) column (4 µm; 3.9 × 150 mm). The assay was linear in the ranges 0.5-300 and 2.5-300 ng/mL for carboxylate and lactone, respectively. Accuracy and precision were acceptable. AR-67 forms were stable in whole blood and in methanolic supernatants. This assay has been successfully applied to measure AR-67 concentrations in whole blood of patients enrolled in a phase I study. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Label-free cancer cell separation from human whole blood using inertial microfluidics at low shear stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Gwon; Shin, Joong Ho; Bae, Chae Yun; Choi, Sungyoung; Park, Je-Kyun

    2013-07-02

    We report a contraction-expansion array (CEA) microchannel device that performs label-free high-throughput separation of cancer cells from whole blood at low Reynolds number (Re). The CEA microfluidic device utilizes hydrodynamic field effect for cancer cell separation, two kinds of inertial effects: (1) inertial lift force and (2) Dean flow, which results in label-free size-based separation with high throughput. To avoid cell damages potentially caused by high shear stress in conventional inertial separation techniques, the CEA microfluidic device isolates the cells with low operational Re, maintaining high-throughput separation, using nondiluted whole blood samples (hematocrit ~45%). We characterized inertial particle migration and investigated the migration of blood cells and various cancer cells (MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and HCC70) in the CEA microchannel. The separation of cancer cells from whole blood was demonstrated with a cancer cell recovery rate of 99.1%, a blood cell rejection ratio of 88.9%, and a throughput of 1.1 × 10(8) cells/min. In addition, the blood cell rejection ratio was further improved to 97.3% by a two-step filtration process with two devices connected in series.

  11. Antithrombin III, but not C1 esterase inhibitor reduces inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes in an ex-vivo whole blood setting.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Patrick; Nestler, Frank; Leimert, Anja; Bucher, Michael; Czeslick, Elke; Sablotzki, Armin; Raspè, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    In order to examine the immunomodulatory effects of antithrombin III (AT-III) and C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) in human monocytes, we investigated the intracellular expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in an ex-vivo laboratory study in a whole blood setting. Heparinized whole blood samples from 23 healthy male and female volunteers (mean age: 27±7years) were pre-incubated with clinically relevant concentrations of AT-III (n=11) and C1-INH (n=12), then stimulated with 0.2 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 3h. After phenotyping CD14⁺ monocytes, intracellular expression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed using flow cytometry. In addition, 12 whole blood samples (AT-III and C1-INH, n=6 each) were examined using hirudin for anticoagulation; all samples were processed in the same way. To exclude cytotoxicity effects, 7-amino-actinomycin D and Nonidet P40 staining were used to investigate probes. This study is the first to demonstrate the influence of C1-INH and AT-III on the monocytic inflammatory response in a whole blood setting, which mimics the optimal physiological setting. Cells treated with AT-III exhibited significant downregulation of the proportion of gated CD14⁺ monocytes for IL-6 and IL-8, in a dose-dependent manner; downregulation for TNF-α did not reach statistical significance. There were no significant effects on mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). In contrast, C1-INH did not significantly reduce the proportion of gated CD14⁺ monocytes or the MFI regarding IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8. When using hirudin for anticoagulation, no difference in the anti-inflammatory properties of AT-III and C1-INH in monocytes occurs. Taken together, in contrast to TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly downregulated in monocytes in an ex-vivo setting of human whole blood when treated with AT-III. This finding implicates monocytes as an important point of action regarding the anti-inflammatory properties of AT-III in sepsis. C1

  12. Screening of Toxic Chemicals in a Single Drop of Human Whole Blood Using Ordered Mesoporous Carbon as a Mass Spectrometry Probe.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiu; Liu, Qian; Fu, Jianjie; Nie, Zhou; Gao, Ke; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-04-05

    Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) is a versatile and high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS) technique that uses a probe for extraction, enrichment, desorption, and ionization of target analytes. Here we report ordered mesoporous carbon as a new SELDI probe for rapid screening and identification of trace amount of toxic chemicals in a single drop of human whole blood without complicated sample preparation procedures. We demonstrate that ordered mesoporous carbon not only can selectively enrich a wide variety of low-mass toxic compounds from whole blood samples but also can be used as an excellent matrix to assist the laser desorption/ionization process of small molecules with low background noise, high repeatability, and good salt tolerance. High sensitivity (detection limits at ppt levels) and good reproducibility for typical toxic compounds were obtained. With CMK-8 as a SELDI probe, we successfully identified and screened six perfluorinated compounds in a single drop of whole blood collected from workers in a perfluorochemical plant. The method was also validated with complex samples such as human urine and environmental water samples. With distinct advantages such as simplicity, rapidness, minimal sample requirement, and high reliability, this method keeps great promise for various aspects of application.

  13. Glutamine and alanine-induced differential expression of intracellular IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated monocytes in human whole-blood.

    PubMed

    Raspé, C; Czeslick, E; Weimann, A; Schinke, C; Leimert, A; Kellner, P; Simm, A; Bucher, M; Sablotzki, A

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of the commonly-used immunomodulators l-glutamine, l-alanine, and the combination of both l-alanyl-l-glutamine (Dipeptamin(®)) on intracellular expression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α during endotoxemia, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes in a whole blood system were investigated by flow cytometry. Whole blood of twenty-seven healthy volunteers was stimulated with LPS and incubated with three different amino acid solutions (1. l-glutamine, 2. l-alanine, 3. l-alanyl-l-glutamine, each concentration 2 mM, 5 mM, incubation time 3 h). CD14(+) monocytes were phenotyped in whole-blood and intracellular expression of cytokines was assessed by flow cytometry. Our investigations showed for the first time in whole blood probes, imitating best physiologically present cellular interactions, that l-glutamine caused a dose-independent inhibitory effect on IL-6 and TNF-α production in human monocytes stimulated with LPS. However, l-alanine had contrary effects on IL-6 expression, significantly upregulating expression of IL-6 in LPS-treated monocytes. The impact of l-alanine on the expression of TNF-α was comparable with glutamine. Neither amino acid was able to affect IL-8 production in LPS-stimulated monocytes. The combination of both did not influence significantly IL-6 and IL-8 expression in monocytes during endotoxemia, however strongly reduced TNF-α production. For the regulation of TNF-α, l-glutamine, l-alanine and the combination of both show a congruent and exponentiated downregulating effect during endotoxemia, for the modulation of IL-6, l-glutamine and l-alanine featured opposite regulation leading to a canceling impact of each other when recombining both amino acids.

  14. Pipette tip solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Chika; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Lee, Xiao-Pen; Marumo, Akemi; Shinmen, Natsuko; Seno, Hiroshi; Sato, Keizo

    2007-09-01

    Methamphetamine and amphetamine were extracted from human whole blood samples using pipette tip solid-phase extraction (SPE) with MonoTip C(18) tips, on which C(18)-bonded monolithic silica gel was fixed. Human whole blood (0.1 mL) containing methamphetamine and amphetamine, with N-methylbenzylamine as an internal standard, was mixed with 0.4 mL of distilled water and 50 microL of 5 M sodium hydroxide solution. After centrifugation, the supernatant was extracted to the C(18) phase of the tip (pipette tip volume, 200 microL) by 25 repeated aspirating/dispensing cycles using a manual micropipettor. Analytes retained in the C(18) phase were eluted with methanol by five repeated aspirating/dispensing cycles. After derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride, analytes were measured by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring in the positive-ion electron impact mode. Recoveries of methamphetamine and amphetamine spiked into whole blood were more than 87.6 and 81.7%, respectively. Regression equations for methamphetamine and amphetamine showed excellent linearity in the range of 0.5-100 ng/0.1 mL. The limits of detection for methamphetamine and amphetamine were 0.15 and 0.11 ng/0.1 mL, respectively. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation for both stimulants were not greater than 9.6 and 13.8%, respectively. The determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in autopsy whole blood samples is presented, and was shown to validate the present methodology.

  15. 21 CFR 640.6 - Modifications of Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modifications of Whole Blood. 640.6 Section 640.6...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.6 Modifications of Whole Blood. Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, of a supplement...

  16. 21 CFR 640.6 - Modifications of Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modifications of Whole Blood. 640.6 Section 640.6...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.6 Modifications of Whole Blood. Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, of a supplement...

  17. Microwave-Accelerated Surface Plasmon-Coupled Directional Luminescence: application to fast and sensitive assays in buffer, human serum and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kadir; Malyn, Stuart N; Geddes, Chris D

    2007-05-31

    The applicability of a new technique, Microwave-Accelerated Surface Plasmon-Coupled Luminescence (MA-SPCL) for fast and sensitive bioassays in buffer, serum and whole blood using quantum dots as luminescence reporters is demonstrated. In this regard, a model bioassay based on the well-known interactions of biotin and streptavidin is used. Using MA-SPCL, the bioassay was kinetically completed within 1 min with the use of low power microwave heating as compared to the identical bioassay which took in excess of 30 min to reach >95% completion at room temperature, a 30-fold increase in assay kinetics. The luminescence emission from the quantum dots was coupled to surface plasmons of the gold film, enabling the detection of the luminescence emission in a highly directional fashion as compared to the normal isotropic emission, for enhanced sensitivity and detection. The combined effect of microwaves for faster assay kinetics, with surface plasmon-coupled luminescence for sensitive luminescence measurements, has also made possible the demonstration of the use of the MA-SPCL technique for assays run in complex media, such as human serum and whole blood, where the same assay could not be performed at room temperature due to the coagulation of blood. In the MA-SPCL assay run in serum and whole blood, the luminescence intensity from 33 nM quantum dots was 75% and 20% that of the luminescence intensity from the assay run in buffer, with a signal to noise ratio of 12.5 and 3, respectively.

  18. Liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry determination of ibogaine and noribogaine in human plasma and whole blood. Application to a poisoning involving Tabernanthe iboga root.

    PubMed

    Kontrimaviciūte, Violeta; Breton, Hélène; Mathieu, Olivier; Mathieu-Daudé, Jean-Claude; Bressolle, Françoise M M

    2006-11-07

    A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method was developed for the first time for the determination of ibogaine and noribogaine in human plasma and whole blood. The method involved solid phase extraction of the compounds and the internal standard (fluorescein) from the two matrices using OasisHLB columns. LC separation was performed on a Zorbax eclipse XD8 C8 column (5 microm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile containing 0.02% (v/v) trimethylamine and 2mM ammonium formate buffer. MS data were acquired in single ion monitoring mode at m/z 311.2, 297.2 and 332.5 for ibogaine, noribogaine and fluorescein, respectively. The drug/internal standard peak area ratios were linked via a quadratic relationship to plasma (0.89-179 microg/l for ibogaine; 1-200 microg/l for noribogaine) and to whole blood concentrations (1.78-358 microg/kg for ibogaine; 2-400 microg/kg for noribogaine). Precision ranged from 4.5 to 13% and accuracy was 89-102%. Dilution of the samples had no influence on the performance of the method. Extraction recoveries were > or =94% in plasma and > or =57% in whole blood. The lower limits of quantitation were 0.89 microg/l for ibogaine and 1 microg/l for noribogaine in plasma, and 1.78 microg/kg for ibogaine and 2 microg/kg for noribogaine in whole blood. In frozen plasma samples, the two drugs were stable for at least 1 year. In blood, ibogaine and noribogaine were stable for 4h at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C and 2 months at -20 degrees C. The method was successfully used for the analysis of a poisoning involving Tabernanthe iboga root.

  19. Whole Blood Optical Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Lisa M.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    The future of rapid point-of-care diagnostics depends on the development of cheap, noncomplex, and easily integrated systems to analyze biological samples directly from the patient (eg. blood, urine, saliva). A key concern in diagnostic biosensing is signal differentiation between non-specifically bound material and the specific capture of target molecules. This is a particular challenge for optical detection devices in analyzing complex biological samples. Here we demonstrate a porous silicon (PSi) label-free optical biosensor that has intrinsic size-exclusion filtering capabilities which enhances signal differentiation. We present the first demonstration of highly repeatable, specific detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and whole blood samples over a typical physiological range using the PSi material as both a biosensor substrate and filter. PMID:17720473

  20. Significance of thrombin-receptors of thrombocytes for the interaction of heparins and low-molecular-weight heparin in human whole blood clotting.

    PubMed

    Harenberg, J; Schuler, M; Zimmermann, R; Heptner, W

    1988-01-01

    We describe in the present paper the results of the influence of normal and low-molecular-weight heparin on the interaction of human fibrinogen and thrombocytes in human whole blood cotting ex vivo. During the coagulation process sequential measurements of fibrinopeptide A reflect fibrin formation and determination of platelet factor 4 indicate activation of thrombocytes. The data show that low-molecular-weight heparin inhibits plasma thrombin generation in vivo for longer than normal heparin and it affects the fibrinogen platelet binding less. There is good evidence that a lonely factor Xa inhibition mediates this anticoagulant mechanism. Therefore, these data favor the hypothesis that antifactor Xa activity prevents indeed blood clotting.

  1. Comparison of the interleukin-1β-inducing potency of allergenic spores from higher fungi (basidiomycetes) in a cryopreserved human whole blood system.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Vysyaraju, Kranthi; Negherbon, Jesse; Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliot; Hartung, Thomas; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-01-01

    Spores from basidiomycete fungi (basidiospores) are highly prevalent in the atmosphere of urban and rural settings. Studies have confirmed their potential to affect human health as allergens. Less is known about their potential to serve as stimuli of the innate immune system and induce proinflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluated the proinflammatory potential of spores from 11 allergenic basidiomycete species (gilled: Pleurotus ostreatus,Oudemansiella radicata,Armillaria tabescens,Coprinus micaceus,Pluteus cervinus, and Chlorophyllum molybdites, and nongilled: Pisolithus arhizus,Merulius tremellosus,Calvatia cyathiformis,Lycoperdon pyriforme, andBoletus bicolor) based on their potency to induce the release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β in a cryopreserved human whole blood system. In addition, the roles of morphological features of the spores (surface area, shape, and pigmentation) were examined for their role in the IL-1β-including potency of spores. Peripheral blood from healthy volunteers was collected, pooled, and cryopreserved. After stimulating the cryopreserved pooled blood with 10(6) to 10(3) basidiospores/ml, the concentration of IL-1β in culture supernatants was determined with ELISA. Basidiospores manifested concentration-dependent IL-1β-inducing potency, which was more marked among basidiospores from gilled basidiomycetes. At higher concentrations of basidiospores, the IL-1β-inducing potency could be differentiated in the cryopreserved human whole blood system. Morphological features did not correlate with the IL-1β-inducing potency of the basidiospores, suggesting that nonmorphological properties modulate the IL-1β-inducing potency. Our data provide evidence of the proinflammatory potential of basidiospores, and the utility of cryopreserved human whole blood as a human-based in vitro system to study the immune reactivity of allergenic basidiospores.

  2. Simple Real-Time PCR and Amplicon Sequencing Method for Identification of Plasmodium Species in Human Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Lefterova, Martina I; Budvytiene, Indre; Sandlund, Johanna; Färnert, Anna; Banaei, Niaz

    2015-07-01

    Malaria is the leading identifiable cause of fever in returning travelers. Accurate Plasmodium species identification has therapy implications for P. vivax and P. ovale, which have dormant liver stages requiring primaquine. Compared to microscopy, nucleic acid tests have improved specificity for species identification and higher sensitivity for mixed infections. Here, we describe a SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for Plasmodium species identification from whole blood, which uses a panel of reactions to detect species-specific non-18S rRNA gene targets. A pan-Plasmodium 18S rRNA target is also amplified to allow species identification or confirmation by sequencing if necessary. An evaluation of assay accuracy, performed on 76 clinical samples (56 positives using thin smear microscopy as the reference method and 20 negatives), demonstrated clinical sensitivities of 95.2% for P. falciparum (20/21 positives detected) and 100% for the Plasmodium genus (52/52), P. vivax (20/20), P. ovale (9/9), and P. malariae (6/6). The sensitivity of the P. knowlesi-specific PCR was evaluated using spiked whole blood samples (100% [10/10 detected]). The specificities of the real-time PCR primers were 94.2% for P. vivax (49/52) and 100% for P. falciparum (51/51), P. ovale (62/62), P. malariae (69/69), and P. knowlesi (52/52). Thirty-three specimens were used to test species identification by sequencing the pan-Plasmodium 18S rRNA PCR product, with correct identification in all cases. The real-time PCR assay also identified two samples with mixed P. falciparum and P. ovale infection, which was confirmed by sequencing. The assay described here can be integrated into a malaria testing algorithm in low-prevalence areas, allowing definitive Plasmodium species identification shortly after malaria diagnosis by microscopy.

  3. Simple Real-Time PCR and Amplicon Sequencing Method for Identification of Plasmodium Species in Human Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Budvytiene, Indre; Sandlund, Johanna; Färnert, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is the leading identifiable cause of fever in returning travelers. Accurate Plasmodium species identification has therapy implications for P. vivax and P. ovale, which have dormant liver stages requiring primaquine. Compared to microscopy, nucleic acid tests have improved specificity for species identification and higher sensitivity for mixed infections. Here, we describe a SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for Plasmodium species identification from whole blood, which uses a panel of reactions to detect species-specific non-18S rRNA gene targets. A pan-Plasmodium 18S rRNA target is also amplified to allow species identification or confirmation by sequencing if necessary. An evaluation of assay accuracy, performed on 76 clinical samples (56 positives using thin smear microscopy as the reference method and 20 negatives), demonstrated clinical sensitivities of 95.2% for P. falciparum (20/21 positives detected) and 100% for the Plasmodium genus (52/52), P. vivax (20/20), P. ovale (9/9), and P. malariae (6/6). The sensitivity of the P. knowlesi-specific PCR was evaluated using spiked whole blood samples (100% [10/10 detected]). The specificities of the real-time PCR primers were 94.2% for P. vivax (49/52) and 100% for P. falciparum (51/51), P. ovale (62/62), P. malariae (69/69), and P. knowlesi (52/52). Thirty-three specimens were used to test species identification by sequencing the pan-Plasmodium 18S rRNA PCR product, with correct identification in all cases. The real-time PCR assay also identified two samples with mixed P. falciparum and P. ovale infection, which was confirmed by sequencing. The assay described here can be integrated into a malaria testing algorithm in low-prevalence areas, allowing definitive Plasmodium species identification shortly after malaria diagnosis by microscopy. PMID:25972416

  4. Evaluation of Cytokine Synthesis in Human Whole Blood by Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (ELISA), Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), and Flow Cytometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-08

    following incubation with low doses of LPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS Whole Blood Treatment Human blood was obtained following informed consent and was collected...isolated RNA with 2.5 N lithium chloride (LiCI). 9 For subsequent RT-PCR studies, this method was used. The dose dependence of LPS stimulation of TNF...copy number was 10-fold lower than that used in the dose -response IL-8 PCR, and thus the target in the cDNA was estimated to be roughly ten times

  5. Detection of total and A1c-glycosylated hemoglobin in human whole blood using sandwich immunoassays on polydimethylsiloxane-based antibody microarrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang-Han; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Huang, Yi-Jing; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2012-10-16

    The percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (%GHbA1c) in human whole blood indicates the average plasma glucose concentration over a prolonged period of time and is used to diagnose diabetes. However, detecting GHbA1c in the whole blood using immunoassays has limited detection sensitivity due to its low percentage in total hemoglobin (tHb) and interference from various glycan moieties in the sample. We have developed a sandwich immunoassay using an antibody microarray on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate modified with fluorinated compounds to detect tHb and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (GHbA1c) in human whole blood without sample pretreatment. A polyclonal antibody against hemoglobin (Hb) immobilized on PDMS is used as a common capture probe to enrich all forms of Hb followed by detection via monoclonal anti-Hb and specific monoclonal anti-GHbA1c antibodies for tHb and GHbA1c detection, respectively. This method prevents the use of glycan binding molecules and dramatically reduces the background interference, yielding a detection limit of 3.58 ng/mL for tHb and 0.20 ng/mL for GHbA1c. The fluorinated modification on PDMS is superior to the glass substrate and eliminates the need for the blocking step which is required in commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Moreover, the detection sensitivity for GHbA1c is 4-5 orders of magnitude higher, but the required sample amount is 25 times less than the commercial method. On the basis of patient sample data, a good linear correlation between %GHbA1c values determined by our method and the certified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standard method is shown with R(2) > 0.98, indicating the great promise of the developed method for clinical applications.

  6. Micropallet arrays for the capture, isolation and culture of circulating tumor cells from whole blood of mice engrafted with primary human pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gach, Philip C; Attayek, Peter J; Whittlesey, Rebecca L; Yeh, Jen Jen; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2014-04-15

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are important biomarkers of cancer progression and metastatic potential. The rarity of CTCs in peripheral blood has driven the development of technologies to isolate these tumor cells with high specificity; however, there are limited techniques available for isolating target CTCs following enumeration. A strategy is described to capture and isolate viable tumor cells from whole blood using an array of releasable microstructures termed micropallets. Specific capture of nucleated cells or cells expressing epithelial cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM) was achieved by functionalizing micropallet surfaces with either fibronectin, Matrigel or anti-EpCAM antibody. Surface grafting of poly(acrylic acid) followed by covalent binding of protein A/G enabled efficient capture of EpCAM antibody on the micropallet surface. MCF-7 cells, a human breast adenocarcinoma, were retained on the array surface with 90±8% efficiency when using an anti-EpCAM-coated array. To demonstrate the efficiency of tumor cell retention on micropallet arrays in the presence of blood, MCF-7 cells were mixed into whole blood and added to small arrays (71 mm(2)) coated with fibronectin, Matrigel or anti-EpCAM. These approaches achieved MCF-7 cell capture from ≤10 µL of whole blood with efficiencies greater than 85%. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells intermixed with 1 mL blood and loaded onto large arrays (7171 mm(2)) were captured with high efficiencies (≥97%), could be isolated from the array by a laser-based approach and were demonstrated to yield a high rate of colony formation (≥85%) after removal from the array. Clinical utility of this technology was shown through the capture, isolation and successful culture of CTCs from the blood of mice engrafted with primary human pancreatic tumors. Direct capture and isolation of living tumor cells from blood followed by analysis or culture will be a valuable tool for cancer cell characterization.

  7. Gene expression profiling of Gram-negative bacteria-induced inflammation in human whole blood: The role of complement and CD14-mediated innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Lau, Corinna; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Holden, Marit; Nygård, Ståle; Fure, Hilde; Lappegård, Knut Tore; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Espevik, Terje; Hovig, Eivind; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-09-01

    Non-sterile pathogen-induced sepsis and sterile inflammation like in trauma or ischemia-reperfusion injury may both coincide with the life threatening systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organ failure. Consequently, there is an urgent need for specific biomarkers in order to distinguish sepsis from sterile conditions. The overall aim of this study was to uncover putative sepsis biomarkers and biomarker pathways, as well as to test the efficacy of combined inhibition of innate immunity key players complement and Toll-like receptor co-receptor CD14 as a possible therapeutic regimen for sepsis. We performed whole blood gene expression analyses using microarray in order to profile Gram-negative bacteria-induced inflammatory responses in an ex vivo human whole blood model. The experiments were performed in the presence or absence of inhibitors of complement proteins (C3 and CD88 (C5a receptor 1)) and CD14, alone or in combination. In addition, we used blood from a C5-deficient donor. Anti-coagulated whole blood was challenged with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli for 2 h, total RNA was isolated and microarray analyses were performed on the Affymetrix GeneChip Gene 1.0 ST Array platform. The initial experiments were performed in duplicates using blood from two healthy donors. C5-deficiency is very rare, and only one donor could be recruited. In order to increase statistical power, a technical replicate of the C5-deficient samples was run. Subsequently, log2-transformed intensities were processed by robust multichip analysis and filtered using a threshold of four. In total, 73 microarray chips were run and analyzed. The normalized and filtered raw data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and are accessible with GEO Series accession number GSE55537. Linear models for microarray data were applied to estimate fold changes between data sets and the respective multiple testing adjusted p-values (FDR q-values). The interpretation of the

  8. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of seven recreational drugs in human whole blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zebin; Li, Jiaolun; Zhang, Xinyu; Qiu, Meihong; Huang, Zhibin; Rao, Yulan

    2017-03-01

    Recreational drugs have large impact on public health and security, and to monitor them is of urgent demand. In the present study, ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with the detection of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of seven common recreational drugs, including amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, meperidine, methadone and ketamine in 200μL of human whole blood. A series of factors which would affect the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including the nature and the volume of extraction and dispersing solvents, ultrasonication time, salting-out effect and pH value. The method consumed small amount of sample. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for each analyte were 10 and 40ng/mL, respectively, and the linearity was in the range of 0.04-25μg/mL (R(2) higher than 0.99). Good specificity, precision (1.5-8.2% for the intra-day study and 2.6-12.8% for the inter-day study), satisfactory accuracy (85.0-117.1%) and extraction recovery (77.0-92.4%) were obtained, which makes it a high performance method for the determination of recreational drugs in human whole blood samples.

  9. Simultaneous online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS analysis of docetaxel, temsirolimus and sirolimus in whole blood and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Alicia; Martínez-Alcázar, M Paz; Durán, Ignacio; Calvo, Emiliano; Valenzuela, Belén; Barbas, Coral; García, Antonia

    2013-03-15

    Docetaxel and temsirolimus are some of the most used drugs in a wide range of solid tumors. In preclinical studies, mTOR inhibitors such as temsirolimus have demonstrated synergistic cytotoxic effects with taxanes providing the rationale for combination studies. These anticancer agents exhibit a narrow therapeutic concentration range and due to their high inter- and intra-individual pharmacokinetic variability, therapeutic dose monitoring by highly sensitive methods as LC-MS/MS are important for clinical research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive, fast and convenient method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of docetaxel, temsirolimus and its main metabolite, sirolimus, using paclitaxel, another anticancer drug, as the internal standard. These analytes were quantified by an integrated online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) system. Separation was performed on a Zorbax eclipse XDB-C8 (150mm×4.6mm, 5μm) column. The mass spectrometer tandem quadruple detector was equipped with jet stream electrospray ionization, monitored in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and operated in positive mode. A combination of protein precipitation with methanol/zinc sulphate (70:30) (v/v) and online SPE using a Zorbax eclipse plus C8 (12.5mm×4.6mm, 5μm) cartridge was used to extract the compounds. This method allows the use of the same reagents, sample treatment and analytical technique independently of whether the samples are whole blood or plasma. The method has been successfully validated and applied to real samples. It is a suitable method for dose adjustment and for evaluating potential drug interactions during combined treatments.

  10. GC/MS with post-column switching for large volume injection of headspace samples: sensitive determination of volatile organic compounds in human whole blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kanako; Fujita, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Koutaro; Gonmori, Kunio; Suzuki, Osamu

    2011-02-15

    When volatile or semivolatile compounds are measured by headspace (HS) gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS), the maximum gas volume to be injected is usually 0.5-1.0 mL; over the volume, the MS detector automatically shuts down due to impairment of the vacuum rate of the MS ionization chamber. To overcome the problem, we modified the gas flow routes of a new type of GC/MS instrument to create a postcolumn switching system, which can eliminate the large volume of gas before introduction of target compounds into the MS ionization chamber. Our HS-GC/MS system enabled injection of as large as 5 mL of HS gas without any disturbance. As the first example analysis, we tried to establish the analysis of naphthalene and p-dichlorobenzene in human whole blood and urine by this method with large volume injection. The limits of detection for both compounds in whole blood and urine were as low as about 10 and 5 pg/mL, respectively. The validation data and actual measurements were also demonstrated. The new GC/MS system has great potential to analyze any type of volatile or semivolatile organic compounds in biological matrixes with very high sensitivity and full automation.

  11. [A new application for the human whole blood test: development of an assay to assess the health risk of air-borne microbial contaminations].

    PubMed

    Fennrich, S; Zucker, B; Hartung, T

    2001-01-01

    The pathogenic properties of environmental microorganisms as well as pyrogens as fragments of those bacteria (especially endotoxins) for humans is increasingly recognised. Various clinical syndromes are described after contact with airborne microbial contaminants via the respiratory tract: Sick-building-syndrome, humidifier lung (a form of hypersensitive pneumonitis), "Monday sickness" etc. Air-conditioning and ventilation systems intensify this problem as well as storage of compost within the household which represents a considerable source of airborne pollutants. In 1995 a new method for the detection of pyrogenic (fever-inducing) hazardous substances was described by Hartung and Wendel. This whole blood assay utilises the natural reaction of the immune system in order to detect a broad spectrum of pyrogens very sensitively in the relevant species. Injectable drugs are the main area of application in which this innovative test has already proven effective and is currently validated for inclusion into European Pharmacopoeia. In co-operation with the FU Berlin we could demonstrate in ventilation systems in animal stables that the whole blood pyrogen test can also detect airborne environmental microorganisms very sensitively. The filtration technique for collection of these germs is an established method for air-conditioning and ventilation systems. In co-operation with the FU Berlin (Institut für Tier-und Umwelthygiene) and the filter producer Sartorius this method is currently developed for the detection of airborne contaminations.

  12. A capillary gas chromatographic assay with nitrogen phosphorus detection for the quantification of topiramate in human plasma, urine and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Riffitts, J M; Gisclon, L G; Stubbs, R J; Palmer, M E

    1999-03-01

    An accurate and robust method involving liquid liquid extraction and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) assay with nitrogen phosphorus detection (NPD) was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of topiramate [2,3:4,5-bis-O-(-1-methylethylidene)-beta-D-fructopyranose sulfamate], Topamax, an anticonvulsant drug, in human plasma, urine, and whole blood. The galactopyranose analog of topiramate was used as the internal standard. A DB-5, fused silica capillary column (J&W Scientific, Folsom, CA) was used, yielding typical retention times of 4.95 min for topiramate and 5.32 min for the internal standard in human plasma. The assay involved organic extraction with methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) from base, a back extraction into acid and a second extraction in MTBE. The organic solvent was evaporated, and the residue was redissolved and injected for analysis. The standard curve was validated from 0.5 to 50 microg/ml(-1) for human plasma and whole blood, and from 1.0 to 50 microg/ml(-1) for urine. Peak area ratios of drug to internal standard were determined and used to construct a standard curve. The resulting chromatograms showed no endogenous interfering peaks with the respective blank human fluids. Chromatograms corresponding to topiramate and the internal standard produced sharp peaks that were well resolved. This assay showed precision and accuracy of < or = 5%. Two minor human metabolites of topiramate did not interfere with the assay. This assay was successfully applied to determine the pharmacokinetics of topiramate during the development of this drug.

  13. C1-inhibitor efficiently delays clot development in normal human whole blood and inhibits Escherichia coli-induced coagulation measured by thromboelastometry.

    PubMed

    Landsem, A; Fure, H; Mollnes, T E; Nielsen, E W; Brekke, O L

    2016-07-01

    C1-inhibitor (C1-INH), a serine protease inhibitor in plasma plays a central role in the cross-talk among the complement, coagulation, fibrinolytic and kallikrein-kinin systems. However, previous reports indicate thrombotic risks in children following supraphysiological dosing with C1-INH. To investigate the role of supraphysiological C1-INH concentrations in clot development with and without addition of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in fresh human whole blood using thromboelastometry. Blood was collected in citrate tubes, and C1-INH (3.0 to 47.6μM) or human serum albumin (HSA) was added as a control. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was analysed in the plasma. The analyses non-activated thromboelastometry (NATEM), extrinsic (EXTEM) or intrinsic thromboelastometry (INTEM) were performed using rotational thromboelastometry. C1-INH increased aPTT 1.8-fold (p< 0.05), whereas HSA had no effect. C1-INH increased NATEM clotting time (CT) from 789s to 2025 s (p< 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. C1-INH reduced the NATEM alpha angle from 47 to 28° (p<0.05) and increased the NATEM clot formation time from 261s to 595s (p< 0.05). E. coli significantly reduced the NATEM CT after 120min of incubation. C1-INH prevented E. coli-induced activation (p< 0.05). C1-INH significantly increased the INTEM CT (p< 0.05), but had no effect on EXTEM CT. C1-INH (47.6μM) significantly reduced fibrinolysis measured as NATEM and EXTEM lysis indices LI60. Supraphysiological C1-INH concentrations have dose-dependent anticoagulant effects in human whole blood in vitro. At very high levels C1-INH also inhibits fibrinolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Market study: Whole blood analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market survey was conducted to develop findings relative to the commercialization potential and key market factors of the whole blood analyzer which is being developed in conjunction with NASA's Space Shuttle Medical System.

  15. Chronic exposure to aluminum, nickel, thallium and uranium and their relationship with essential elements in human whole blood and blood serum.

    PubMed

    Zeneli, Lulzim; Sekovanić, Ankica; Daci, Nexhat

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exposure to aluminum, nickel, thallium and uranium on the metabolism of essential elements in humans, as well as the relationship between uranium, thallium, nickel, and aluminum and essential elements (Ca, Mg, Zn, Se, Mn, Co, Cr, and Mo) in the whole blood and blood serum of healthy men who were occupationally exposed. This study included 97 healthy men, 31-64 years age, including 70 workers in a thermo power plant and 27 control subjects. The results showed that chronic, moderate exposure of trace elements (Al, Ni, Tl, and U) lead to decreased serum chromium (SCr) and blood molybdenum levels (BMo), whereas by the results achieved in terms of correlations between non-essential and essential elements, non-essential elements such as uranium, thallium, nickel, and aluminum, despite their concentration within the reference values, are strongly competitive with essential elements in biochemical processes.

  16. Comparison of liquid-liquid partition, HS-SPME and static HS GC/MS analysis for the quantification of (-)-linalool in human whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Susanne Mirjam; Oedendorfer, Katharina; Kitzer, Simone; Reznicek, Gottfried; Sladek, Guenther; Heuberger, Eva

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a fast and convenient method for the determination of (-)-linalool in human whole blood to facilitate pharmacokinetic studies. Analytical protocols were elaborated for three different GC/MS sampling techniques, i.e., static headspace (s-HS), headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME), and liquid-liquid partition. In principle, all tested methods were feasible, but s-HS had the greatest benefit because of the easy handling of the blood samples and its short analysis time. For s-HS two different incubation temperatures were tested (40 degrees C and 60 degrees C). The limit of detection was slightly lower when samples were incubated at 60 degrees C, but the same quantitative results were achieved using alpha-terpineol as internal standard. An accurate and sensitive method for the quantification of (-)-linalool in blood samples after either inhalation or percutaneous application, as well as pharmacokinetic data are presented.

  17. Correction of human hemophilia A whole blood abnormalities with a novel bypass agent: zymogen-like FXa(I16L).

    PubMed

    George, L A; Thalji, N K; Raffini, L J; Gimotty, P A; Camire, R M

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 30% of hemophilia A (HA) and 5% of hemophilia B patients develop inhibitors to protein replacement therapy, and this is the major cause of disease-related morbidity in the developed world. We previously developed zymogen-like factor Xa (FXa) molecules with impaired active site maturation, enabling a greater half-life than wild-type FXa while maintaining full procoagulant function in the prothrombinase complex. Here we evaluated the ability of zymogen-like FXa(I16L) to correct whole blood thromboelastometry abnormalities of severe HA subjects with and without inhibitors. Fourteen severe HA subjects without and five with inhibitors were enrolled at baseline ( C < 1%) > 5 half-lives from factor or bypass therapy. The subjects' whole blood was evaluated by thromboelastography (ROTEM(®) ) using INTEM analysis with two concentrations of FXa(I16L) or recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa). With 0.1 nm FXa(I16L) , clot time (CT, in minutes [min]) among HA subjects without and with inhibitors (mean = 2.87 min, 95% CI = 2.58-3.15 min, and mean = 2.9 min, 95% CI = 2.07-3.73 min, respectively) did not significantly differ from control CT (mean = 2.73 min, 95% CI = 2.62-2.85 min). Addition of 20 nm rFVIIa, simulating a 90-μg/kg dose, resulted in significantly prolonged CTs for HA subjects without and with inhibitors (mean = 5.43 min, 95% CI = 4.53-6.35 min, and mean = 4.25 min, 95% CI = 3.32-5.17 min, respectively) relative to controls. FXa(I16L) restored thromboelastometry CT to control values in severe HA subjects with and without inhibitors. The findings corroborate previous animal data and demonstrate the first evidence of zymogen-like FXa(I16L) correcting human HA subjects' whole-blood abnormalities and support the use of FXa(I16L) as a novel hemostatic agent. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. Whole Blood-Based Multiplex Immunoassays for the Evaluation of Human Biomarker Responses to Emerging Viruses in Resource-Limited Regions.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jessica R; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; McElroy, Anita K

    2017-09-22

    Many emerging viruses such as Ebola and Lassa occur in resource-limited areas of the world. The advent of multiplex immunoassays has facilitated the study of biomarkers of disease since only small amounts of clinical material are required; however, such assays are designed and validated for only plasma or serum. This is a significant impediment when studying infectious diseases in the context of an outbreak in a developing nation. Plasma or serum can be difficult to obtain in the field due to the need for additional processing of infectious materials. Evaluation of multiplex immunoassays using frozen and thawed human whole blood (WB) would permit additional analysis using a more readily available human clinical sample. In this study, frozen and thawed human WB was directly compared with frozen and thawed plasma from normal healthy donors in a series of multiplexed immunoassays for 59 different biomarkers. We demonstrate that most important biomarkers can be evaluated using thawed WB, which will facilitate the study of human cytokine and other biomarker responses to viruses emerging in resource-limited regions.

  19. Human transcriptome response to immunization with live-attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccine (TC-83): Analysis of whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Erwin-Cohen, Rebecca A.; Porter, Aimee I.; Pittman, Phillip R.; Rossi, Cynthia A.; DaSilva, Luis

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important human and animal alphavirus pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes. The virus is endemic in Central and South America, but has also caused equine outbreaks in southwestern areas of the United States. In an effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the development of immunity to this important pathogen, we performed transcriptional analysis from whole, unfractionated human blood of patients who had been immunized with the live-attenuated vaccine strain of VEEV, TC-83. We compared changes in the transcriptome between naïve individuals who were mock vaccinated with saline to responses of individuals who received TC-83. Significant transcriptional changes were noted at days 2, 7, and 14 following vaccination. The top canonical pathways revealed at early and intermediate time points (days 2 and 7) included the involvement of the classic interferon response, interferon-response factors, activation of pattern recognition receptors, and engagement of the inflammasome. By day 14, the top canonical pathways included oxidative phosphorylation, the protein ubiquitination pathway, natural killer cell signaling, and B-cell development. Biomarkers were identified that differentiate between vaccinees and control subjects, at early, intermediate, and late stages of the development of immunity as well as markers which were common to all 3 stages following vaccination but distinct from the sham-vaccinated control subjects. The study represents a novel examination of molecular processes that lead to the development of immunity against VEEV in humans and which may be of value as diagnostic targets, to enhance modern vaccine design, or molecular correlates of protection. PMID:27870591

  20. [Mutagen influence with different mechanisms of action on DNA global methylation in human whole-blood lymphocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Smirnikhina, S A; Voronina, E S; Strelnikov, V V; Tanas, A S; Lavrov, A V

    2013-07-01

    Data that support the evidence of mutagens known to cause epigenetic abnormalities that could potentially result in genomic instability and the development of cancer rather than to modifications in the human genome at the gene and chromosomal levels only. The level of global methylation in human lymphocytes in vitro caused by exposure to two mutagens with different mechanisms of action, i.e., dioxidine and methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), was demonstrated in the present study. Global methylation was assessed by methyl-sensitive comet assay. An increase in the level of global methylation to 45.64% was revealed during culturing with dioxidine in a concentration of 0.01 mg/mL (p < 0.001), while the addition of dioxidine in a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL resulted in a decreased level of methylation up to 42.31% (p < 0.001). The addition of M MS in concentrations of 0.0025 and 0.01 mg/mL resulted in minor but significant modifications (p < 0.05) of the global methylation level ranged within natural variations in global methylation. Accordingly, the addition ofdioxidine in the concentration of 0.1 mg/mL might cause genomic instability and might be considered a potential carcinogen.

  1. The selective alpha7 agonist GTS-21 attenuates cytokine production in human whole blood and human monocytes activated by ligands for TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR9, and RAGE.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Goldstein, Richard S; Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Yang, Lihong; Valdés-Ferrer, Sergio Iván; Patel, Nirav B; Chavan, Sangeeta; Al-Abed, Yousef; Yang, Huan; Tracey, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    The cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway modulates inflammatory cytokine production through a mechanism dependent on the vagus nerve and the alpha7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. GTS-21 [3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) anabaseine], a selective alpha7 agonist, inhibits inflammatory cytokine production in murine and human macrophages and in several models of inflammatory disease in vivo, but to date its antiinflammatory efficacy in human monocytes has not been characterized. We report here our findings that GTS-21 attenuates tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1beta levels in human whole blood activated by exposure to endotoxin. GTS-21 inhibited TNF production in endotoxin-stimulated primary human monocytes in vitro at the transcriptional level. The suppressive effect of GTS-21 was more potent than nicotine in whole blood and monocytes. Furthermore, GTS-21 attenuated TNF production in monocytes stimulated with peptidoglycan, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, CpG, HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1 protein), and advanced glycation end product-modified albumin. GTS-21 decreased TNF levels in endotoxin-stimulated whole blood obtained from patients with severe sepsis. These findings establish the immunoregulatory effect of GTS-21 on human monocytes, and indicate the potential benefits of further exploration of GTS-21's therapeutic uses in human inflammatory disease.

  2. CD14 and Complement Crosstalk and Largely Mediate the Transcriptional Response to Escherichia coli in Human Whole Blood as Revealed by DNA Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Corinna; Nygård, Ståle; Fure, Hilde; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Holden, Marit; Lappegård, Knut Tore; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Espevik, Terje; Hovig, Eivind; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation like in sepsis is still lacking specific diagnostic markers and effective therapeutics. The first line of defense against intruding pathogens and endogenous damage signals is pattern recognition by e.g., complement and Toll-like receptors (TLR). Combined inhibition of a key complement component (C3 and C5) and TLR-co-receptor CD14 has been shown to attenuate certain systemic inflammatory responses. Using DNA microarray and gene annotation analyses, we aimed to decipher the effect of combined inhibition of C3 and CD14 on the transcriptional response to bacterial challenge in human whole blood. Importantly, combined inhibition reversed the transcriptional changes of 70% of the 2335 genes which significantly responded to heat-inactivated Escherichia coli by on average 80%. Single inhibition was less efficient (p<0.001) but revealed a suppressive effect of C3 on 21% of the responding genes which was partially counteracted by CD14. Furthermore, CD14 dependency of the Escherichia coli-induced response was increased in C5-deficient compared to C5-sufficient blood. The observed crucial distinct and synergistic roles for complement and CD14 on the transcriptional level correspond to their broad impact on the inflammatory response in human blood, and their combined inhibition may become inevitable in the early treatment of acute systemic inflammation. PMID:25706641

  3. A novel fully validated LC-MS/MS method for quantification of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentrations in samples of human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Ghassabian, Sussan; Griffiths, Lyn; Smith, Maree T

    2015-09-01

    Quantification of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) in biological samples is challenging due to the presence of endogenous PLP in matrices used for preparation of calibrators and quality control samples (QCs). Hence, we have developed an LC-MS/MS method for accurate and precise measurement of the concentrations of PLP in samples (20μL) of human whole blood that addresses this issue by using a surrogate matrix and minimizing the matrix effect. We used a surrogate matrix comprising 2% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) for making calibrators, QCs and the concentrations were adjusted to include the endogenous PLP concentrations in the surrogate matrix according to the method of standard addition. PLP was separated from the other components of the sample matrix using protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid 10% w/v. After centrifugation, supernatant were injected directly into the LC-MS/MS system. Calibration curves were linear and recovery was >92%. QCs were accurate, precise, stable for four freeze-thaw cycles, and following storage at room temperature for 17h or at -80°C for 3 months. There was no significant matrix effect using 9 different individual human blood samples. Our novel LC-MS/MS method has satisfied all of the criteria specified in the 2012 EMEA guideline on bioanalytical method validation.

  4. C1-inhibitor efficiently inhibits Escherichia coli-induced tissue factor mRNA up-regulation, monocyte tissue factor expression and coagulation activation in human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Landsem, A; Nielsen, E W; Fure, H; Christiansen, D; Ludviksen, J K; Lambris, J D; Østerud, B; Mollnes, T E; Brekke, O-L

    2013-01-01

    Both the complement system and tissue factor (TF), a key initiating component of coagulation, are activated in sepsis, and cross-talk occurs between the complement and coagulation systems. C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) can act as a regulator in both systems. Our aim in this study was to examine this cross-talk by investigating the effects of C1-INH on Escherichia coli-induced haemostasis and inflammation. Fresh human whole blood collected in lepirudin was incubated with E. coli or ultrapurified E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence or presence of C1-INH or protease-inactivated C1-INH. C3 activation was blocked by compstatin, a specific C3 convertase inhibitor. TF mRNA was measured using reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR), and TF surface expression was measured by flow cytometry. In plasma, the terminal complement complex, prothrombin F1·2 (PTF1·2) and long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytokines were analysed using a multiplex kit. C1-INH (1·25–5 mg/ml) reduced both LPS- and E. coli-induced coagulation, measured as a reduction of PTF1·2 in plasma, efficiently and dose-dependently (P < 0·05). Both LPS and E. coli induced marked up-regulation of TF mRNA levels and surface expression on whole blood monocytes. This up-regulation was reduced efficiently by treatment with C1-INH (P < 0·05). C1-INH reduced the release of PTX3 (P < 0·05) and virtually all cytokines measured (P < 0·05). Complement activation was inhibited more efficiently with compstatin than with C1-INH. C1-INH inhibited most of the other readouts more efficiently, consistent with additional non-complement-dependent effects. These results indicate that complement plays a role in activating coagulation during sepsis and that C1-INH is a broad-spectrum attenuator of the inflammatory and haemostatic responses. PMID:23607270

  5. Factor H-binding protein is important for meningococcal survival in human whole blood and serum and in the presence of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37.

    PubMed

    Seib, K L; Serruto, D; Oriente, F; Delany, I; Adu-Bobie, J; Veggi, D; Aricò, B; Rappuoli, R; Pizza, M

    2009-01-01

    Factor H-binding protein (fHBP; GNA1870) is one of the antigens of the recombinant vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis, which has been developed using reverse vaccinology and is the basis of a meningococcal B vaccine entering phase III clinical trials. Binding of factor H (fH), an inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway, to fHBP enables N. meningitidis to evade killing by the innate immune system. All fHBP null mutant strains analyzed were sensitive to killing in ex vivo human whole blood and serum models of meningococcal bacteremia with respect to the isogenic wild-type strains. The fHBP mutant strains of MC58 and BZ83 (high fHBP expressors) survived in human blood and serum for less than 60 min (decrease of >2 log(10) CFU), while NZ98/254 (intermediate fHBP expressor) and 67/00 (low fHBP expressor) showed decreases of >1 log(10) CFU after 60 to 120 min of incubation. In addition, fHBP is important for survival in the presence of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 (decrease of >3 log(10) CFU after 2 h of incubation), most likely due to electrostatic interactions between fHBP and the cationic LL-37 molecule. Hence, the expression of fHBP by N. meningitidis strains is important for survival in human blood and human serum and in the presence of LL-37, even at low levels. The functional significance of fHBP in mediating resistance to the human immune response, in addition to its widespread distribution and its ability to induce bactericidal antibodies, indicates that it is an important component of the serogroup B meningococcal vaccine.

  6. Simultaneous determination of ethanol's four types of non-oxidative metabolites in human whole blood by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zheng, Feng; Lin, Zebin; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Yu, Tianfang; Liu, Yuming; Huang, Zhibin; Li, Jiaolun; Yan, Jie; Rao, Yulan

    2017-04-22

    The importance of ethanol non-oxidative metabolites as the specific biomarkers of alcohol consumption in clinical and forensic settings is increasingly acknowledged. Simultaneous determination of these metabolites can provide a wealth of information like drinking habit and history, but it was difficult to achieve because of their wide range of polarity. This work describes development and validation of a simple liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for 4 types of ethanol non-oxidative metabolites (ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, fatty acid ethyl esters and phosphatidylethanols) in 50 μL of human whole blood. Pretreatment method, column and MS conditions were optimized. For the first time, the four types of ethanol non-oxidative metabolites with enormous discrepancies of property were simultaneously extracted and analyzed in one run within 40 min. The limits of detections (LODs) were among 0.1-10 ng/mL, and good linearity was obtained. Deviations in precision and accuracy were all lower than 15% at three QC levels. This method was then applied to two forensic samples, resulting in information on drinking habits and drinking time which were very useful for the interpretation of the blood alcohol results.

  7. Ex vivo induction of mRNA in human whole blood as a new platform of drug and dietary supplement development.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Masato; Ogura, Mieko; Endo, Katsuya; Obara, Kazuhiko; Izutsu, Hiroshi; Targan, Stephan R; Maemura, Motoko; Tachikawa, Daisuke; Shinagawa, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    We introduced a new concept of ex vivo gene expression analysis (Mitsuhashi, Clin Chem 53:148-149, 2007), where drug action was simulated under physiological conditions. This model system was applied to study various fields of drug development. Heparinized human whole blood was incubated with drugs for less than 4h. The changes of specific mRNA were then quantified using the method we developed (Mitsuhashi, Tomozawa, Endo, and Shinagawa, Clin Chem 52:634-642, 2006). The mRNA quantitation method was used as a model system to study the following areas: (1) identification of respondents and non-respondents, (2) ex vivo compound screening, (3) determination of individually optimized doses, (4) drug-to-drug comparison, (5) assessment of leukocyte toxicity, (6) discovery of molecular targets, (7) assessment of the action of dietary supplements, and (8) characterization of respondents and non-respondents for various dietary supplements. Since ex vivo assays are safe, a large number of healthy donors and disease patients can be recruited to identify individual-to-individual variations, which is not available from current preclinical study models. Although each system should be validated using a large number of samples, the ex vivo analysis will be a new tool for the development of drugs and dietary supplements in future.

  8. Ex Vivo Induction of mRNA in Human Whole Blood as a New Platform of Drug and Dietary Supplement Development

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Mieko; Endo, Katsuya; Obara, Kazuhiko; Izutsu, Hiroshi; Targan, Stephan R.; Maemura, Motoko; Tachikawa, Daisuke; Shinagawa, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We introduced a new concept of ex vivo gene expression analysis (Mitsuhashi, Clin Chem 53:148–149, 2007), where drug action was simulated under physiological conditions. This model system was applied to study various fields of drug development. Materials and Methods Heparinized human whole blood was incubated with drugs for less than 4h. The changes of specific mRNA were then quantified using the method we developed (Mitsuhashi, Tomozawa, Endo, and Shinagawa, Clin Chem 52:634–642, 2006). Results The mRNA quantitation method was used as a model system to study the following areas: (1) identification of respondents and non-respondents, (2) ex vivo compound screening, (3) determination of individually optimized doses, (4) drug-to-drug comparison, (5) assessment of leukocyte toxicity, (6) discovery of molecular targets, (7) assessment of the action of dietary supplements, and (8) characterization of respondents and non-respondents for various dietary supplements. Conclusion Since ex vivo assays are safe, a large number of healthy donors and disease patients can be recruited to identify individual-to-individual variations, which is not available from current preclinical study models. Although each system should be validated using a large number of samples, the ex vivo analysis will be a new tool for the development of drugs and dietary supplements in future. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11095-007-9510-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18183479

  9. Development and validation of a sensitive assay for the quantification of imatinib using LC/LC-MS/MS in human whole blood and cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Klawitter, Jelena; Zhang, Yan Ling; Klawitter, Jost; Anderson, Nora; Serkova, Natalie J.; Christians, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    We developed and validated a semi-automated LC/LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of imatinib in human whole blood and leukemia cells. After protein precipitation, samples were injected into the HPLC system and trapped onto the enrichment column (flow 5 mL/min); extracts were back-flushed onto the analytical column. Ion transitions [M + H]+ of imatinib (m/z = 494.3 → 394.3) and its internal standard trazodone (372.5 → 176.3) were monitored. The range of reliable response was 0.03–75 ng/mL. The inter-day precisions were: 8.4% (0.03 ng/mL), 7.2% (0.1 ng/mL), 6.5% (1 ng/mL), 8.2% (10 ng/mL) and 4.3% (75 ng/mL) with no interference from ion suppression. Autosampler stability was 24 hs and samples were stable over three freeze–thaw cycles. This semi-automated method is simple with only one manual step, uses a commercially available internal standard, and has proven to be robust in larger studies. PMID:19517424

  10. Solid-phase extraction of hemoglobin from human whole blood with coordination polymer derived composite material based on ZnO and mesoporous carbon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinxin; Jia, Yuan; Ou, Jinzhao; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2017-08-09

    A composite material (ZnO@MC) was synthesized successfully with one-dimensional Zn based coordination polymer as precursor through calcination. In ZnO@MC, ZnO particles with the size about 5 to 8 nm disperse evenly in mesoporous carbon matrix. Adsorption experiments illustrate, at pH 6.8, with 2 mg ZnO@MC as adsorbent, adsorption efficiency reaches 92.3 % in 5 mL hemoglobin (Hb) solution with concentration 100 mg*L-1. On the contrary, for bovine serum albumin (BSA) its adsorption can almost be ignored under the same condition. The selectivity originates from intensive Zn(II)-histidine interaction between ZnO@MC and hemoglobin. Adsorption behavior of hemoglobin on ZnO@MC fits Temkin model perfectly with capacity as high as 11646 mg*g-1. The hemoglobin adsorbed on composite material can be eluted easily by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stripping reagent with extraction efficiency 87.7 %. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra and protein activity studies suggest the structure and biological activity of hemoglobin keep in consistence before and after adsorption/desorption experiment. Finally, ZnO@MC composite material was employed to extract hemoglobin from human whole blood without any pretreatment, which receives a very satisfactory result. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Development, validation and clinical application of a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of hydroxychloroquine and its active metabolites in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Soichot, Marion; Mégarbane, Bruno; Houzé, Pascal; Chevillard, Lucie; Fonsart, Julien; Baud, Frédéric J; Laprévote, Olivier; Bourgogne, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous quantification of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its three major metabolites in human whole blood. The assay, using a sample volume of 100μL, was linear in a dynamic 25-2000ng/mL range (R(2)>0.99) for all four compounds and suitable for the determination of elevated HCQ concentrations up to 20,000ng/mL, after appropriate sample dilution. Inter- and intra-assay precisions were <18.2% and accuracies were between 84% and 113% for any analyte. No matrix effects were observed. The assay was successfully applied to a blood sample obtained from one poisoned patient following a massive HCQ self-ingestion resulting in an estimated concentration of 19,500ng/mL on hospital admission. In this patient, HCQ metabolites were identified and quantified at 1123, 465 and 91ng/mL for monodesethylhydroxychloroquine, desethylchloroquine and bisdesethylchloroquine, respectively. Further investigations are still required to assess the usefulness of the simultaneous measurement of blood concentrations of HCQ and its three active metabolites for monitoring HCQ treatment and managing HCQ poisoning.

  12. An integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip for bacteria detection in human whole blood and milk without a sample preparation step.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Jee Won; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-05-15

    We have developed an integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Direct LAMP) microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) to identify bacteria contaminated in real samples. The Direct LAMP is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique which does not require thermal cycling steps as well as any sample preparation steps such as cell lysis and DNA extraction for amplifying specific target genes. In addition, the resultant amplicons were colorimetrically detected on the ICS, thereby enabling the entire genetic analysis process to be simplified. The two functional units (Direct LAMP and ICS) were integrated on a single device without use of the tedious and complicated microvalve and tubing systems. The utilization of a slidable plate allows us to manipulate the fluidic control in the microchannels manually and the sequential operation of the Direct LAMP and ICS detection could be performed by switching the slidable plate to each functional unit. Thus, the combination of the direct isothermal amplification without any sample preparation and thermal cycling steps, the ICS based amplicon detection by naked eyes, and the slidable plate to eliminate the microvalves in the integrated microdevice would be an ideal platform for point-of-care DNA diaganotics. On the integrated Direct LAMP-ICS microdevice, we could analyze Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) contaminated in human whole blood or milk at a single-cell level within 1h.

  13. Activity of the De Novo Engineered Antimicrobial Peptide WLBU2 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Human Serum and Whole Blood: Implications for Systemic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deslouches, Berthony; Islam, Kazi; Craigo, Jodi K.; Paranjape, Shruti M.; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Mietzner, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    Cationic amphipathic peptides have been extensively investigated as a potential source of new antimicrobials that can complement current antibiotic regimens in the face of emerging drug-resistant bacteria. However, the suppression of antimicrobial activity under certain biologically relevant conditions (e.g., serum and physiological salt concentrations) has hampered efforts to develop safe and effective antimicrobial peptides for clinical use. We have analyzed the activity and selectivity of the human peptide LL37 and the de novo engineered antimicrobial peptide WLBU2 in several biologically relevant conditions. The host-derived synthetic peptide LL37 displayed high activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa but demonstrated staphylococcus-specific sensitivity to NaCl concentrations varying from 50 to 300 mM. Moreover, LL37 potency was variably suppressed in the presence of 1 to 6 mM Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. In contrast, WLBU2 maintained its activity in NaCl and physiologic serum concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+. WLBU2 is able to kill P. aeruginosa (106 CFU/ml) in human serum, with a minimum bactericidal concentration of <9 μM. Conversely, LL37 is inactive in the presence of human serum. Bacterial killing kinetic assays in serum revealed that WLBU2 achieved complete bacterial killing in 20 min. Consistent with these results was the ability of WLBU2 (15 to 20 μM) to eradicate bacteria from ex vivo samples of whole blood. The selectivity of WLBU2 was further demonstrated by its ability to specifically eliminate P. aeruginosa in coculture with human monocytes or skin fibroblasts without detectable adverse effects to the host cells. Finally, WLBU2 displayed potent efficacy against P. aeruginosa in an intraperitoneal infection model using female Swiss Webster mice. These results establish a potential application of WLBU2 in the treatment of bacterial sepsis. PMID:16048927

  14. Blood cell oxidative stress precedes hemolysis in whole blood-liver slice co-cultures of rat, dog, and human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, Alison E.M.; Sinclair, John R.; Fisher, Robyn L.; Morris, Stephen R.; Way, William

    2010-05-01

    A novel in vitro model to investigate time-dependent and concentration-dependent responses in blood cells and hemolytic events is studied for rat, dog, and human tissues. Whole blood is co-cultured with a precision-cut liver slice. Methimazole (MMI) was selected as a reference compound, since metabolism of its imidazole thione moiety is linked with hematologic disorders and hepatotoxicity. An oxidative stress response occurred in all three species, marked by a decline in blood GSH levels by 24 h that progressed, and preceded hemolysis, which occurred at high MMI concentrations in the presence of a liver slice with rat (>= 1000 muM at 48 h) and human tissues (>= 1000 muM at 48 h, >= 750 muM at 72 h) but not dog. Human blood-only cultures exhibited a decline of GSH levels but minimal to no hemolysis. The up-regulation of liver genes for heme degradation (Hmox1 and Prdx1), iron cellular transport (Slc40a1), and GSH synthesis and utilization (mGST1 and Gclc) were early markers of the oxidative stress response. The up-regulation of the Kupffer cell lectin Lgals3 gene expression indicated a response to damaged red blood cells, and Hp (haptoglobin) up-regulation is indicative of increased hemoglobin uptake. Up-regulation of liver IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression suggested an activation of an inflammatory response by liver endothelial cells. In summary, MMI exposure led to an oxidative stress response in blood cells, and an up-regulation of liver genes involved with oxidative stress and heme homeostasis, which was clearly separate and preceded frank hemolysis.

  15. Measurement of ionized magnesium in whole blood, plasma and serum with a new ion-selective electrode in healthy and diseased human subjects.

    PubMed

    Altura, B T; Altura, B M

    A novel ion selective electrode (ISE) for ionized magnesium (IMg2+) in whole blood (WB), plasma (PL), and serum (S) has been designed. We have undertaken a number of studies, experimental and clinical, to characterize and examine the linearity, precision, specificity, accuracy, and utility of this new ISE for IMg2+ in WB, S, and PL of normal human subjects, diseased subjects and animals. Using aqueous solutions, mean IMg2+ values are within 94.6-99.2% of their targets. The linearity of the ISE (0.1-3.0 mM) in aqueous solutions, and human PL and S ranges between 92.0 and 99.3%. The ISE is highly selective for IMg2+, yielding measurements in less than 2 min, and exhibiting no or negligible effects from pathophysiologic concentrations of Ca2+, Na+, K+, H+ or NH4+. Likewise such concentrations of heavy metals (e.g., Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+) in aqueous solution and serum do not interfere with ISE measurements for IMg2+. Ligand binding studies in aqueous solution indicate that pathophysiologic concentrations of different anions (e.g., heparin, bicarbonate, phosphate, acetate, sulfate and lactate) bind to Mg2+ with varying intensities, effectively reducing its concentration in solutions. IMg2+ measurements on WB, PL, and S for a given person's samples are virtually identical. Typically, IMg2+ is 71% of total Mg (TMg) but varies from subject to subject. The IMg2+ is held within a narrow range (0.53-0.67 mM) in normal, healthy controls. Studies on diseased human subjects (i.e., cardiac cases, cardiopulmonary bypass, abnormal pregnancy, renal transplant recipients, diabetics, asthmatics, etc.) indicate that IMg2+ levels often exhibit significant alterations from normality, despite no change in TMg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Methanethiol metabolism in whole blood

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, H.J.; Tangerman, A.

    1988-06-01

    The metabolism of methanethiol in whole blood has been described. Incubation of carbon 14-labeled or sulfur 35-labeled gaseous methanethiol resulted in complete trapping of methanethiol by whole blood within 30 minutes. After trapping, both labels were found to be equally distributed over plasma and erythrocytes. Eighty to ninety percent of both labels could be extracted from erythrocytes incubated in saline solution. The chemical properties of the /sup 14/C and /sup 35/S labels in saline solution differed completely. The /sup 14/C label was not precipitated by BaCl/sub 2/, was moderately volatile, and could be extracted by either (pH 1). In contrast, the 35S label was precipitated by BaCl/sub 2/, was not volatile, and was not extracted by ether. It is concluded that the central carbon-sulfur bond of methanethiol is split by incubation with whole blood. Plasma components are not involved in this process. Most likely, methanethiol becomes largely oxidized by erythrocytes to formic acid and sulfite or sulfate. Only 10% of methanethiol became firmly bound to erythrocytes. One to two percent was transformed to protein--S--S--CH/sub 3/ and 1% to dimethyl sulfide by the enzyme thiol methyltransferase.

  17. A dried blood spots technique based LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of posaconazole in human whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Todime M; Tama, Cristina I; Hayes, Roger N

    2011-11-15

    A rugged and robust liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method utilizing dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated for the analysis of posaconazole in human whole blood. Posaconazole fortified blood samples were spotted (15 μL) onto Ahlstrom Alh-226 DBS cards and dried for at least 2h. Punched spots were then extracted by using a mixture of acetonitrile and water containing stable labeled internal standard (IS). Posaconazole and its IS were separated from endogenous matrix components on a Kinetex™ C18 column under gradient conditions with a mobile phase A consisting of 0.1% formic acid and a mobile phase B consisting of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile/methanol (70/30, v/v). The analyte and IS were detected using a Sciex API 4000 triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS system equipped with a TurboIonSpray™ source operated in the positive ion mode. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 5-5000 ng/mL. The inter-run accuracy and precision of the assay were -1.8% to 0.8% and 4.0% to 10.4%, respectively. Additional assessments unique to DBS were investigated including sample spot homogeneity, spot volume, and hematocrit. Blood spot homogeneity was maintained and accurate and precise quantitation results were obtained when using a blood spot volume of between 15 and 35 μL. Human blood samples with hematocrit values ranging between 25% and 41% gave acceptable quantitation results. The validation results indicate that the method is accurate, precise, sensitive, selective and reproducible.

  18. Separation of uncompromised whole blood mixtures for single source STR profiling using fluorescently-labeled human leukocyte antigen (HLA) probes and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).

    PubMed

    Dean, Lee; Kwon, Ye Jin; Philpott, M Katherine; Stanciu, Cristina E; Seashols-Williams, Sarah J; Dawson Cruz, Tracey; Sturgill, Jamie; Ehrhardt, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of biological mixtures is a significant problem for forensic laboratories, particularly when the mixture contains only one cell type. Contributions from multiple individuals to biologic evidence can complicate DNA profile interpretation and often lead to a reduction in the probative value of DNA evidence or worse, its total loss. To address this, we have utilized an analytical technique that exploits the intrinsic immunological variation among individuals to physically separate cells from different sources in a mixture prior to DNA profiling. Specifically, we applied a fluorescently labeled antibody probe to selectively bind to one contributor in a mixture through allele-specific interactions with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins that are expressed on the surfaces of most nucleated cells. Once the contributor's cells were bound to the probe, they were isolated from the mixture using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)-a high throughput technique for separating cell populations based on their optical properties-and then subjected to STR analysis. We tested this approach on two-person and four-person whole blood mixtures where one contributor possessed an HLA allele (A*02) that was not shared by other contributors to the mixture. Results showed that hybridization of the mixture with a fluorescently-labeled antibody probe complimentary to the A*02 allele's protein product created a cell population with a distinct optical profile that could be easily differentiated from other cells in the mixture. After sorting the cells with FACS, genetic analysis showed that the STR profile of this cell population was consistent with that of the contributor who possessed the A*02 allele. Minor peaks from the A*02 negative contributor(s) were observed but could be easily distinguished from the profile generated from A*02 positive cells. Overall, this indicates that HLA antibody probes coupled to FACS may be an effective approach for generating STR profiles of

  19. TRA-418, a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist and prostacyclin receptor agonist, inhibits platelet-leukocyte interaction in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Ohno, Michihiro; Yamada, Naohiro; Ohtake, Atsushi; Matsushita, Teruo

    2010-10-01

    TRA-418, a compound with both thromboxane A2 receptor (TP receptor) antagonistic and prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonistic activities, was synthesised in our laboratory as a new antithrombotic agent. In this study, we examined the effects of TRA-418 on platelet-leukocyte interactions in human whole blood. Platelet-leukocyte interactions were induced by U-46619 in the presence of epinephrine (U-46619 + epinephrine) or with thrombin receptor agonist peptide 1-6 (TRAP). Platelet-leukocyte interactions were assessed by flow cytometry, with examination of both platelet-neutrophil and platelet-monocyte complexes. In a control experiment, the TP receptor antagonist SQ-29548 significantly inhibited the induction of platelet-leukocyte complexes by the combination of U-46619 and epinephrine, but not TRAP-induced formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes. Conversely, the IP receptor agonist beraprost sodium inhibited platelet-leukocyte complex formation induced by both methods, although the IC50 values of beraprost sodium for U-46619 + epinephrine were at least 10-fold greater than for TRAP. Under such conditions, TRA-418 inhibited both U-46619 + epinephrine-induced and TRAP-induced platelet-leukocyte complex formation in a concentration-dependent manner, in a similar range. These results suggest that TRA-418 exerts its inhibitory effects on platelet-leukocyte interactions by acting as a TP receptor antagonist as well as an IP receptor agonist in an additive or synergistic manner. These inhibitory effects of TRA-418 on formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes suggest the compound is beneficial effects as an antithrombotic agent.

  20. Application of a new nanocarbonaceous sorbent in electromembrane surrounded solid phase microextraction for analysis of amphetamine and methamphetamine in human urine and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2015-05-29

    Application of a new carbon-based sorbent was studied for the first time for extraction and quantification of amphetamine and methamphetamine as model analytes by means of electromembrane surrounded solid phase microextraction (EM-SPME). Since the basis of this microextraction method is adsorption of target analytes on the sorbent surface (after transferring across a supported liquid membrane) in an electrical field, the sorbent, which also performs the electrical potential, should have a conductive nature. On the other hand, using a synthesized fiber is a suitable solution to eliminate the interfering compounds existing in the fiber. To extract the model analytes from acidic sample solution through a thin layer of organic phase and into the aqueous acceptor phase and their final adsorption, 150V electrical potential was applied for 15min. Regardless of the high sample cleanup ability of the proposed method, which makes the analysis of complicated biological fluids possible, admissible extraction recoveries (9.0-18.8%) and suitable detection limits (less than 2.0ngmL(-1)) were obtained. Repeatability and reproducibility of the method were studied and intra- and inter-assay precisions were in the ranges of 2.0-7.3% and 7.5-12.5%, respectively. Coefficients of determination larger than 0.9964 were achieved by scrutinizing of the linearity up to 500ngmL(-1) and calibration curves were utilized for quantification of analytes of interest in human urine and whole blood samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid and sensitive screening and confirmation of thirty-four aminocarbonyl/carboxamide (NACA) and arylindole synthetic cannabinoid drugs in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Tynon, Marykathryn; Homan, Joseph; Kacinko, Sherri; Ervin, Annette; McMullin, Matthew; Logan, Barry K

    2017-06-01

    We describe the development and validation of a method for the screening and confirmation of a range of chemically diverse synthetic cannabinoid drugs in human whole blood. The method targets the better known arylindole compounds as well as the emerging aminocarbonyl/ carboxamide (NACA) compounds. The approach consists of two separate extraction procedures designed to optimize recovery of each of these two classes, followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The most significant novel compounds added were AB-FUBINACA, ADBICA, 5 F-ADBICA, ADB-PINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, 5 F-ADB-PINACA, 5 F-ADB-PINACA, AB-PINACA, AB-CHMINACA, and ADB-CHMINACA. A third procedure is described for the quantitative confirmation of those compounds for which deuterated internal standards permitted quantitative analysis, including JWH-018, JWH-122, JWH-081, JWH-210, AM-2201, XLR-11, and UR-144. The methods were successfully validated according to Scientific Working Group in Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) protocol for 34 compounds in common use in the United States in the period of 2014 and 2015, although other substances, unknown at the time may have been introduced to the market over the same time period. The method was determined to be free from carry-over between samples, and no interference was found from other common therapeutic abused or novel psychoactive drugs. The methods were applied to the analysis of 1142 blood samples from forensic investigations, including post-mortem examinations and driving impairment cases. The drugs most frequently detected were AB-CHMINACA (18.6%), ADB-CHMINACA (15%), XLR-11 (5.5%), AB-FUBINACA (4.5%), AB-PINACA (3.9%), and ADB-FUBINACA (2.3%). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Transfusion-transmitted human T-lymphotropic virus Type I infection in a United States military emergency whole blood transfusion recipient in Afghanistan, 2010.

    PubMed

    Hakre, Shilpa; Manak, Mark M; Murray, Clinton K; Davis, Kenneth W; Bose, Meera; Harding, Aaron J; Maas, Peter R; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Rentas, Francisco J; Peel, Sheila A; Scott, Paul T; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2013-10-01

    The United States introduced human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-I) screening of blood donors in 1988. The US military uses freshly collected blood products for life-threatening injuries when available stored blood components in theater have been exhausted or when these components are unsuccessful for resuscitation. These donors are screened after donation by the Department of Defense (DoD) retrospective testing program. All recipients of blood collected in combat are tested according to policy soon after and at 3, 6, and 12 months after transfusion. A 31-year-old US Army soldier tested positive for HTLV-I 44 days after receipt of emergency blood transfusions for severe improvised explosive device blast injuries. One donor's unit tested HTLV-I positive on the DoD-mandated retrospective testing. Both the donor and the recipient tested reactive with enzyme immunoassay and supplemental confirmation by HTLV-I Western blot. The donor and recipient reported no major risk factors for HTLV-I. Phylogenetic analysis of HTLV-I sequences indicated Cosmopolitan subtype, Subgroup B infections. Comparison of long terminal repeat and env sequences revealed molecular genetic linkage of the viruses from the donor and recipient. This case is the first report of transfusion transmission of HTLV-I in the US military during combat operations. The emergency fresh whole blood policy enabled both the donor and the recipient to be notified of their HTLV-I infection. While difficult in combat, predonation screening of potential emergency blood donors with Food and Drug Administration-mandated infectious disease testing as stated by the DoD Health Affairs policy should be the goal of every facility engaged with emergency blood collection in theater. © 2013 Henry M. Jackson Foundation. Transfusion © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Human Whole Blood 1H2O Longitudinal Relaxation with Normal and High-Relaxivity Contrast Reagents: Influence of Trans-Cell-Membrane Water Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Gregory J.; Woods, Mark; Springer, Charles S.; Bastawrous, Sarah; Bhargava, Puneet; Maki, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Accurate characterization of contrast reagent (CR) longitudinal relaxivity in whole blood is required to predict arterial signal intensity in contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA). This study measured the longitudinal relaxation rate constants (R1) over a range of non-protein-binding and protein-binding CR concentrations in ex vivo whole blood and plasma at 1.5 and 3.0T under physiologic arterial conditions. Methods Relaxivities of gadoteridol, gadobutrol, gadobenate, and gadofosveset were measured for [CR] from 0 to 18 mM [mmol(CR)/L(blood)]: the latter being the upper limit of what may be expected in CE-MRA. Results In plasma, the 1H2O R1 [CR]-dependence was non-linear for gadobenate and gadofosveset secondary to CR interactions with the serum macromolecule albumin, and was well described by an analytical expression for effective 1:1 binding stoichiometry. In whole blood, the 1H2O R1 [CR]-dependence was markedly non-linear for all CRs, and was well-predicted by an expression for equilibrium exchange of water molecules between plasma and intracellular spaces using a priori parameter values only. Conclusion In whole blood, 1H2O R1 exhibits a non-linear relationship with [CR] over 0 to 18 mM CR. The non-linearity is well described by exchange of water between erythrocyte and plasma compartments, and is particularly evident for high relaxivity CRs. PMID:24357240

  4. Carbon Isotopes Profiles of Human Whole Blood, Plasma, Red Blood Cells, Urine and Feces for Biological/Biomedical 14C-Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C.; Kelly, Peter B.; Clifford, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants preferentially incorporate atmospheric 14CO2, vs 13CO2, vs 12CO2, which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope 13C (δ13C) and 14C (Fm) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100μL) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean δ13C were ranked low to high as follows, feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. δ13C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted δ13C by only ± 1.0 ‰ ensuring our Fm measurements were accurate and precise. Mean Fm were ranked low to high as follows, plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. Fm in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, 14C levels (Fm) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric 14C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (non-vegetarian), the measured Fm of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean±SD), the Fm of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric Fm of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using 14C as a tracer. PMID:21452856

  5. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-11-01

    Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 5 of the 7 genes that were upregulated in the human trial were also upregulated in cell culture at 3 and 6 h: AHR, HIF1A, JUN, OSM, and REL. Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts in cell culture ranged from 1.7 (HIF1A) to 12.1 (JUN) (P < 0.01). OSM protein was measured by ELISA and was significantly higher than the control at 3, 6, and 24 h (24 h: 19.5 ± 1.4 and 74.8 ± 1.4 pg/mL for control and garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture

  6. Carbon isotopes profiles of human whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, urine and feces for biological/biomedical 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    Radiocarbon ((14)C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants peferentially incorporate atmospheric (14)CO(2) versus (13)CO(2) versus (12)CO(2), which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope (13)C (δ(13)C) and (14)C (F(m)) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100 μL) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean δ(13)C were ranked low to high as follows: feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. δ(13)C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted δ(13)C by only ±1.0 ‰ ensuring our F(m) measurements were accurate and precise. Mean F(m) were ranked low to high as follows: plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. F(m) in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, (14)C levels (F(m)) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric (14)C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (nonvegetarian), the measured F(m) of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean ± SD), and the F(m) of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric F(m) of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using (14)C as a tracer.

  7. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans1234

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. Results: The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 5 of the 7 genes that were upregulated in the human trial were also upregulated in cell culture at 3 and 6 h: AHR, HIF1A, JUN, OSM, and REL. Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts in cell culture ranged from 1.7 (HIF1A) to 12.1 (JUN) (P < 0.01). OSM protein was measured by ELISA and was significantly higher than the control at 3, 6, and 24 h (24 h: 19.5 ± 1.4 and 74.8 ± 1.4 pg/mL for control and garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that

  8. [A novel whole blood aggregometer].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Ruriko; Seo, Norimasa

    2003-01-01

    We examined ADP-induced platelet aggregability in 45 patients by novel whole blood aggregometer based on the screen filtration pressure method. Platelet aggregation could be easily and immediately checked without preparing platelet rich plasma. This aggregometer was useful for determination of anesthetic methods for a patient with an anti-platelet therapy. However, PATI (platelet aggregately threshold index) demonstrated the lowest value 5 minutes after blood collection and the valve was stabilized at higher level for 30 to 120 minutes. Time-dependent change should be considered for assessment of platelet aggregability in a clinical study.

  9. Direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from human whole blood and filter-paper-dried blood by using a PCR buffer with a higher pH.

    PubMed

    Bu, Ying; Huang, Huan; Zhou, Guohua

    2008-04-15

    We described a novel approach to directly amplify genomic DNA from whole blood and dried blood spotted on filter paper without any DNA isolation by using the PCR buffer with a higher pH, which was optimized as pH 9.1-9.6. Direct PCR on blood treated with various anticoagulants showed that the buffer worked well with the blood treated by citrate, EDTA, or heparinate. DNA fragments with different lengths could be efficiently amplified directly from various forms of blood samples. By coupling the buffer with tetra-PCR, a "true" single-tube genotyping was realized by using whole blood or paper-dried blood as starting material.

  10. Diagnostic Efficacy of Molecular Techniques for Detection and Identification of Leishmania Species in Human Whole Blood and Skin Samples from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Erika B; Santander, Stephanie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Cardenas, Paul A; Fornasini, Marco; Cifuentes, Sara C; Salvador, Daniela; Baldeón, Manuel E

    2016-10-05

    Microscopic examination is the standard method for diagnosis of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis despite its low sensitivity. This study compared the diagnosis efficacy of microscopic examination versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing using whole blood and skin lesion samples from patients with suspected leishmaniasis. The presence of Leishmania was determined by microscopy and amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA gene from blood and skin samples of 22 patients. Twenty individuals were positive for leishmaniasis. Microscopic analysis identified 85%, whereas PCR identified 100% of positive cases from skin and 90% from blood. Cytochrome b gene (cyt-b) amplification and sequencing identified Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania shawi, and Leishmania naiffi from skin and blood samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of whole blood and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and species identification of leishmaniasis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Diagnostic Efficacy of Molecular Techniques for Detection and Identification of Leishmania Species in Human Whole Blood and Skin Samples from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Erika B.; Santander, Stephanie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Cardenas, Paul A.; Fornasini, Marco; Cifuentes, Sara C.; Salvador, Daniela; Baldeón, Manuel E.

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic examination is the standard method for diagnosis of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis despite its low sensitivity. This study compared the diagnosis efficacy of microscopic examination versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based methods and DNA sequencing using whole blood and skin lesion samples from patients with suspected leishmaniasis. The presence of Leishmania was determined by microscopy and amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA gene from blood and skin samples of 22 patients. Twenty individuals were positive for leishmaniasis. Microscopic analysis identified 85%, whereas PCR identified 100% of positive cases from skin and 90% from blood. Cytochrome b gene (cyt-b) amplification and sequencing identified Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania shawi, and Leishmania naiffi from skin and blood samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of whole blood and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and species identification of leishmaniasis. PMID:27481055

  12. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of JWH-210, RCS-4, ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and their main metabolites in pig and human serum, whole blood, and urine for comparing pharmacokinetic data.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Nadine; Kettner, Mattias; Laschke, Matthias W; Schlote, Julia; Peters, Benjamin; Bregel, Dietmar; Menger, Michael D; Maurer, Hans H; Ewald, Andreas H; Schmidt, Peter H

    2015-05-01

    A series of new synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been consumed without any toxicological testing. For example, pharmacokinetic data have to be collected from forensic toxicological case work and/or animal studies. To develop a corresponding model for assessing such data, samples of controlled pig studies with two selected SC (JWH-210, RCS-4) and, as reference, ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) should be analyzed as well as those of human cases. Therefore, a method for determination of JWH-210, RCS-4, THC, and their main metabolites in pig and human serum, whole blood, and urine samples is presented. Specimens were analyzed by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multiple-reaction monitoring with three transitions per compound. Full validation was carried out for the pig specimens and cross-validation for the human specimens concerning precision and bias. For the pig studies, the limits of detection were between 0.05 and 0.50 ng/mL in serum and whole blood and between 0.05 and 1.0 ng/mL in urine, the lower limits of quantification between 0.25 and 1.0 ng/mL in serum and 0.50 and 2.0 ng/mL in whole blood and urine, and the intra- and interday precision values lower than 15% and bias values within ±15%. The applicability was tested with samples taken from a pharmacokinetic pilot study with pigs following intravenous administration of a mixture of 200 μg/kg body mass dose each of JWH-210, RCS-4, and THC. The cross-validation data for human serum, whole blood, and urine showed that this approach should also be suitable for human specimens, e.g., of clinical or forensic cases.

  13. Analysis of human serum and whole blood for mineral content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES: development of a mineralomics method.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James M; Young, Daniel J; Essader, Amal S; Sumner, Susan J; Levine, Keith E

    2014-07-01

    Minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential to the support of a variety of biological functions. Understanding the range and variability of the content of these minerals in biological samples can provide insight into the relationships between mineral content and the health of individuals. In particular, abnormal mineral content may serve as an indicator of illness. The development of robust, reliable analytical methods for the determination of the mineral content of biological samples is essential to developing biological models for understanding the relationship between minerals and illnesses. This paper describes a method for the analysis of the mineral content of small volumes of serum and whole blood samples from healthy individuals. Interday and intraday precision for the mineral content of the blood (250 μL) and serum (250 μL) samples was measured for eight essential minerals--sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se)--by plasma spectrometric methods and ranged from 0.635 to 10.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for serum and 0.348-5.98% for whole blood. A comparison of the determined ranges for ten serum samples and six whole blood samples provided good agreement with literature reference ranges. The results demonstrate that the digestion and analysis methods can be used to reliably measure the content of these minerals and potentially of other minerals.

  14. Analysis of Human Serum and Whole Blood for Mineral Content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES: Development of a Mineralomics Method

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, James M.; Young, Daniel J.; Essader, Amal S.; Sumner, Susan J.; Levine, Keith E.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential to the support of a variety of biological functions. Understanding the range and variability of the content of these minerals in biological samples can provide insight into the relationships between mineral content and the health of individuals. In particular, abnormal mineral content may serve as an indicator of illness. The development of robust, reliable analytical methods for the determination of the mineral content of biological samples is essential to developing biological models for understanding the relationship between minerals and illnesses. This manuscript describes a method for the analysis of the mineral content of small volumes of serum and whole blood samples from healthy individuals. Interday and intraday precision for the mineral content of the blood (250 μl) and serum (250 μl) samples was measured for eight essential minerals, sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) by plasma spectrometric methods and ranged from 0.635 – 10.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for serum and 0.348 – 5.98% for whole blood. A comparison of the determined ranges for ten serum samples and six whole blood samples provided good agreement with literature reference ranges. The results demonstrate that the digestion and analysis methods can be used to reliably measure the content of these minerals, and potentially to add other minerals. PMID:24917052

  15. Electrochemical sensing of doxorubicin in unprocessed whole blood, cell lysate, and human plasma samples using thin film of poly-arginine modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Jafar; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Eskandani, Morteza; Khoubnasabjafari, Maryam; Shadjou, Nasrin; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2017-08-01

    A thin film of poly-arginine fabricated on glassy carbon electrode by one step electrodeposition method is applied for detection of doxorubicin hydrochloride in whole blood, cell lysate, and untreated-plasma samples. Cyclic voltammetry results indicated that the doxorubicin is oxidized via two electrons and two protons at physiological pH (pH=7.4) using poly-arginine thin film modified glassy carbon. More importantly, electrostatic repulsion takes place between the prepared polymer film-modified electrode and selected drug resulting in the signal amplification on oxidation of doxorubicin and lowering its over potential and thereby selective detection of doxorubicin in real samples. The apparent electron transfer rate constant and transfer coefficient were determined by cyclic voltammetry and were approximately 10.1s(-1) and 0.82, respectively. Also, using differential-pulse voltammetric technique for sensitive detection of doxorubicin in whole blood and plasma samples, the lower limit of quantification was 69nM and 103nM, respectively. Also, application of this amino acid based biocompatible polymeric electrode was tested to the determination of doxorubicin in unprocessed whole blood and the results show that this sensor could be applied in online and real time monitoring of this anti-cancer drug in real samples which is important for clinical research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Melatonin synthesis in human colostrum mononuclear cells enhances dectin-1-mediated phagocytosis by mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Pires-Lapa, Marco A; Tamura, Eduardo K; Salustiano, Eugenia M A; Markus, Regina P

    2013-10-01

    Many cells in the organism besides pinealocytes, synthesize melatonin. Here, we evaluate both the mechanism of zymosan-induced melatonin synthesis and its autocrine effect in human colostral mononuclear cells. The synthesis of melatonin was induced by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), as either the blockade of the proteasome or the binding of NF-κB to DNA inhibits zymosan-induced melatonin synthesis. As observed in RAW 264.7 lineage cells, the dimer involved is RelA/c-Rel. Melatonin plays a direct role in mononuclear cell activity, increasing zymosan-induced phagocytosis by stimulating MT2 melatonin receptors and increasing the expression of dectin-1. This role was confirmed by the blockade of melatonin receptors using the competitive antagonist luzindole and the MT2 -selective partial agonist 4P-PDOT. In summary, we show that melatonin produced by immune-competent cells acts in an autocrine manner, enhancing the clearance of pathogens by increasing phagocyte efficiency. Given that these cells are present in human colostrum for 4 or 5 days after birth, this mechanism may be relevant for the protection of infant health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Detection and quantification of 12 anabolic steroids and analogs in human whole blood and 20 in hair using LC-HRMS/MS: application to real cases.

    PubMed

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Etting, Isabelle; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2017-07-01

    We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method used a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer operating with an APCI probe under positive ionization mode. Analysis was realized in full scan experiment with a nominal resolving power of 140,000. After addition of the internal standard (testosterone-D3) and incubation in phosphate buffer pH = 5 for hair, 200 μL of blood and 30 mg of hair samples were extracted with heptane. LOQ and LOD were determined at 5 and 1 ng mL(-1) in whole blood and 10 to 100 pg mg(-1) and 2 to 20 pg mg(-1) in hair according to the compounds, respectively. The method was linear in the 5-1000 ng mL(-1) range in whole blood and between 10 or 100 pg mg(-1) and 1000 pg mg(-1) in hair with correlation coefficients >0.99, and intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were <14.8% for all compounds except for some esters in hairs (<19.9%) probably due to an important matrix effect for these compounds. This sensitive and specific method to detect anabolic steroids has been successfully applied to two real cases, for which various anabolic steroids in whole blood, urine, and hair were identified and quantified.

  18. Isolation of human genomic DNA for genetic analysis from premature neonates: a comparison between newborn dried blood spots, whole blood and umbilical cord tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genotyping requires biological sample collection that must be reliable, convenient and acceptable for patients and clinicians. Finding the most optimal procedure of sample collection for premature neonates who have a very limited blood volume is a particular challenge. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the use of umbilical cord (UC) tissue and newborn dried blood spot (DBS)-extracted genomic DNA (gDNA) as an alternative to venous blood-derived gDNA from premature neonates for molecular genetic analysis. All samples were obtained from premature newborn infants between 24-32 weeks of gestation. Paired blood and UC samples were collected from 31 study participants. gDNA was extracted from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant-treated blood samples (~500 μl) and newborn DBSs (n = 723) using QIAamp DNA Micro kit (Qiagen Ltd., Crawley, UK); and from UC using Qiagen DNAeasy Blood and Tissue kit (Qiagen Ltd., Crawley, UK). gDNA was quantified and purity confirmed by measuring the A260:A280 ratio. PCR amplification and pyrosequencing was carried out to determine suitability of the gDNA for molecular genetic analysis. Minor allele frequency of two unrelated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was calculated using the entire cohort. Results Both whole blood samples and UC tissue provided good quality and yield of gDNA, which was considerably less from newborn DBS. The gDNA purity was also reduced after 3 years of storage of the newborn DBS. PCR amplification of three unrelated genes resulted in clear products in all whole blood and UC samples and 86%-100% of newborn DBS. Genotyping using pyrosequencing showed 100% concordance in the paired UC and whole blood samples. Minor allele frequencies of the two SNPs indicated that no maternal gDNA contamination occurred in the genotyping of the UC samples. Conclusions gDNAs from all three sources are suitable for standard PCR and pyrosequencing assays. Given that UC provide good quality

  19. Highly sensitive analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human whole blood using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Okajima, K; Namera, A; Yashiki, M; Tsukue, I; Kojima, T

    2001-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive method for analysis of derivatized methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in whole blood was developed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry electron impact ionization selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-EI-SIM). A whole blood sample, deuterated-MA (d(5)-MA), as an internal standard (IS), tri-n-propylamine and pentafluorobenzyl bromide were placed in a vial. The vial was heated and stirred at 90 degrees C for 30min. Then the extraction fiber of the SPME was exposed at 90 degrees C for 30min in the headspace of the vial while being stirred. The derivatives adsorbed on the fiber were desorbed by exposing the fiber in the injection port of a GC-MS. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.5-1000ng/g for both MA and AM. The time for analysis was about 80min per sample. In addition, this proposed method was applied to two autopsy cases where MA ingestion was suspected. In one case, MA and AM concentrations in the mixed left and right heart blood were 165 and 36.9ng/g, respectively. In the other case, MA and AM concentrations were 1.79 and 0.119 microg/g in the left heart blood, and 1.27 and 0.074 microg/g in the right heart blood, respectively.

  20. Method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium and zinc in whole blood by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and measurement in normotensive and hypertensive humans.

    PubMed

    Tulley, R T; Lehmann, H P

    1982-07-01

    A method is described for the analysis of whole blood cadmium and zinc by extraction and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, in which cadmium is analyzed using a graphite furnace, and zinc using an air-acetylene flame with a single slot burner, after dilution of the extract. Recoveries for cadmium and zinc were 100% and 106%, respectively. For cadmium the day-to-day and within-run coefficients of variation were all less than 13% at low concentrations (approximately 27 nmol/1) and 6% or less at high concentrations (approximately 89 nmol/1). For zinc the coefficients of variation for day-to-day and within-run analyses were less than 6% at low (approximately 76 mumol/1) and high concentrations (approximately 138 mumol/1). The sensitivity of the procedure is 0.5 nmol/1 for cadmium and 1.2 mu mol/1 for zinc. Whole blood from 72 normotensive volunteers, 56 treated hypertensives, and 15 untreated hypertensives were analyzed using this method. Cadmium levels were elevated in smokers but not significantly affected by age or sex. Zinc levels were higher in males than in females, but not significantly affected by smoking. Levels of cadmium and zinc were increased in treated hypertensives and greater still in untreated hypertensives. Significant elevations were found for cadmium in treated hypertensive females who smoked, treated and untreated hypertensive male non-smokers, and for the cadmium to zinc ratio in these later two groups.

  1. Stability tests of zopiclone in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Gunnel H; Kugelberg, Fredrik C; Kronstrand, Robert; Ahlner, Johan

    2010-07-15

    Zopiclone is a common drug in forensic cases and it is frequently analyzed in biological materials using different analytical methods. Zopiclone is unstable in certain solvents and depending on storage conditions unstable in biological fluids; however its stability in human whole blood has not yet been established in detail. Therefore, the following investigation was performed to study the stability of zopiclone in both spiked and authentic human blood. First, spiked blood samples were stored at -20 degrees C, 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C and the degradation of zopiclone was investigated. Second, authentic and spiked blood samples were stored at 5 degrees C and differences in zopiclone stability were studied. Third, processed sample stability and effect of freeze/thaw cycles were evaluated. Analyses were performed by GC-NPD and zopiclone concentrations were measured at selected time intervals. The study showed that zopiclone degrades in human blood depending on time and temperature and may not be detected after long-term storage. 2-amino-5-chloropyridine was identified as the primary degradation product from zopiclone. At refrigerator temperature zopiclone was stable less than 1 month in both spiked and authentic human blood samples. The best storage condition was at -20 degrees C even at short storage times, as freeze-thaw had no influence on the results. In butyl acetate extracts, zopiclone was stable at least 2 days when kept in the autosampler at ambient temperature. We conclude that preanalytical factors have great impact on analytical results and should be addressed when interpreting whole blood zopiclone concentrations. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and demethylcitalopram in human whole blood by chiral LC-MS/MS and application in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2017-02-08

    Citalopram is one of the most frequently used antidepressants in Denmark. Citalopram is marketed as a racemic mixture (50:50) of S- and R-enantiomers as well as of the S-enantiomer alone, which is the active enantiomer named escitalopram that processes the inhibitory effects. In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the measurement of citalopram and demethylcitalopram enantiomers in whole blood and is applied to forensic cases. Whole blood samples (0.10 g) were extracted with butyl acetate after adjusting the pH with 2 M NaOH. The analytes were separated on a 250 x 4.6 mm Chirobiotic V, 5 µm column by isocratic elution with methanol:ammonia:acetic acid (1000:1:1) using an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system. Quantification was performed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring in the positive mode. The total chromatographic run time was 20 min. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.001 and 0.005 mg/kg of all four enantiomers, respectively. Linear behaviour was obtained for all four enantiomers from LOQ to 0.50 mg/kg blood with absolute recoveries from 71 to 80%. The method showed an acceptable precision and accuracy as the obtained coefficient of variation, and bias values were ≤ 16% for all enantiomers. After the validation of the method, a correlation with the racemic method was assessed and found to be acceptable. Then, the method was successfully applied to authentic blood samples from forensic investigations demonstrating that escitalopram was less frequent than citalopram among all forensic cases.

  3. Whole blood pumping with a microthrottle pump

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M. J.; Johnston, I. D.; Tan, C. K. L.; Tracey, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that microthrottle pumps (MTPs) display the capacity to pump solid phase suspensions such as polystyrene beads which prove challenging to most microfluidic pumps. In this paper we report employing a linear microthrottle pump (LMTP) to pump whole, undiluted, anticoagulated, human venous blood at 200 μl min−1 with minimal erythrocyte lysis and no observed pump blockage. LMTPs are particularly well suited to particle suspension transport by virtue of their relatively unimpeded internal flow-path. Micropumping of whole blood represents a rigorous real-world test of cell suspension transport given blood’s high cell content by volume and erythrocytes’ relative fragility. A modification of the standard Drabkin method and its validation to spectrophotometrically quantify low levels of erythrocyte lysis by hemoglobin release is also reported. Erythrocyte lysis rates resulting from transport via LMTP are determined to be below one cell in 500 at a pumping rate of 102 μl min−1. PMID:21264059

  4. Altered antibacterial activity of Curcumin in the presence of serum albumin, plasma and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Teow, Sin Yeang; Ali, Syed A

    2017-03-01

    Antibacterial effect is one of the major therapeutic activities of plant-derived Curcumin. This work evaluated the effect of serum albumin, human plasma, and whole blood on the in vitro activity of Curcumin against eight clinical bacterial isolates by standard broth microdilution and plate-counting methods. Toxicological effects of Curcumin towards human red blood cells (RBCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also investigated. Curcumin exhibited weak activity against gram-negative bacteria, except Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri were susceptible and was most active against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The antibacterial activity was impaired in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), human plasma and whole blood. Curcumin was not toxic to PBMCs and RBCs at 200μg/mL. Furthermore, Curcumin showed synergistic activity in combination with antibiotics: Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Vancomycin and Amikacin against Staphylococcus aureus. This study demonstrated that the interaction of Curcumin with plasma proteins diminishes its in vitro antibacterial activity. Curcumin derivatives with reduced affinity for plasma protein may improve the bioavailability and antibacterial activities.

  5. Microfluidic immunomagnetic cell separation from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanendran Nair Gourikutty, Sajay; Chang, Chia-Pin; Puiu, Poenar Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Immunomagnetic-based separation has become a viable technique for the separation of cells and biomolecules. Here we report on the design and analysis of a simple and efficient microfluidic device for high throughput and high efficiency capture of cells tagged with magnetic particles. This is made possible by using a microfluidic chip integrated with customized arrays of permanent magnets capable of creating large magnetic field gradients, which determine the effective capturing of the tagged cells. This method is based on manipulating the cells which are under the influence of a combination of magnetic and fluid dynamic forces in a fluid under laminar flow through a microfluidic chip. A finite element analysis (FEA) model is developed to analyze the cell separation process and predict its behavior, which is validated subsequently by the experimental results. The magnetic field gradients created by various arrangements of magnetic arrays have been simulated using FEA and the influence of these field gradients on cell separation has been studied with the design of our microfluidic chip. The proof-of-concept for the proposed technique is demonstrated by capturing white blood cells (WBCs) from whole human blood. CD45-conjugated magnetic particles were added into whole blood samples to label WBCs and the mixture was flown through our microfluidic device to separate the labeled cells. After the separation process, the remaining WBCs in the elute were counted to determine the capture efficiency, and it was found that more than 99.9% WBCs have been successfully separated from whole blood. The proposed design can be used for positive selection as well as for negative enrichment of rare cells.

  6. Determination of tumor cell procoagulant activity by Sonoclot analysis in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Biggerstaff, J P; Warnes, G; Francis, D A; Francis, J L

    1996-12-01

    Coagulation activation in cancer may be due to expression of procoagulant activity (PCA) by tumor cells. Some PCA activate coagulation, while others influence platelet aggregation. Thus, clotting time assessments of PCA may not reflect the potential for hypercoagulability. We therefore studied the effect of various malignant and non-malignant cells on whole blood coagulation using the Sonoclot Analyzer. Five human (HT29 colon, J82 bladder, MCF-7 breast, BT-474 breast and A375 malignant melanoma) and three rodent (MC28, WEHI-164 and Neuro2a) cell lines were used. Rat thymocytes and peritoneal macrophages and human endotoxin-stimulated mononuclear cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used as non-malignant controls. All tumor cells markedly shortened the recalcification time of citrated blood and the most potent (HT29 and J82) also increased clot rate (P < 0.01). The breast cancer cells MCF-7 and BT-474 expressed only weak PCA and did not affect clotting rate. None of the non-malignant cells significantly affected clotting time or rate in whole blood. J82 and HT29 cells grown in serum-rich media shortened the recalcification time of both normal and FVII-deficient plasmas. However, cells grown in serum-free conditions had significantly less PCA in FVII-deficient plasma. We conclude that the Sonoclot Analyzer is useful for determining cellular PCA; significant PCA is a feature of malignant cells and cells grown in medium containing serum supplements cannot be reliably evaluated for PCA.

  7. Analysis of MT-45, a Novel Synthetic Opioid, in Human Whole Blood by LC-MS-MS and its Identification in a Drug-Related Death.

    PubMed

    Papsun, Donna; Krywanczyk, Alison; Vose, James C; Bundock, Elizabeth A; Logan, Barry K

    2016-05-01

    MT-45 (1-cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine) is just one of the many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) to have reached the recreational drug market in the twenty-first century; it is however, one of the first designer opioids to achieve some degree of popularity, in a market currently dominated by synthetic cannabinoids and designer stimulants. A single fatality involving MT-45 and etizolam is described. A method for the quantitation of MT-45 in whole blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The linear range was determined to be 1.0-100 ng/mL with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/mL, and the method met the requirements for acceptable linearity, precision and accuracy. After analyzing the sample on dilution and by standard addition, the concentration of MT-45 in the decedent's blood was determined to be 520 ng/mL, consistent with other concentrations of MT-45 reported in drug-related fatalities. Etizolam was present at a concentration of 35 ng/mL. This case illustrates the importance of considering non-traditional drugs in unexplained apparent drug-related deaths.

  8. Determination of clozapine, and five antidepressants in human plasma, serum and whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: A simple tool for clinical and postmortem toxicological analysis.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Rallis, George; Petrikis, Petros; Vougiouklakis, Theodore; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we describe a simple and rapid method for the determination of the antipsychotic drug clozapine and five commonly co-administered antidepressants - bupropion, mirtazapine, sertraline, clomipramine and citalopram - in serum, plasma and whole blood. Sample preparation includes solid phase extraction of analytes and determination of drug concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without any derivatization steps. The method was fully validated according to international criteria and can be successfully applied for routine analyses. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves for the tested drugs in the three specimens were in the range 0.9977-0.9999. Intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 0.81-7.85% and 3.60-12.91% respectively for the studied analytes and matrices. Recoveries were satisfactory for different concentrations of each drug in each specimen allowing accurate determinations in the range from sub-therapeutic to toxic levels. The presented method shows acceptable sensitivity, linearity in wide concentration ranges (sub-therapeutic, therapeutic, supra-therapeutic/toxic levels), it is simple and rapid and it is applicable for qualitative and quantitative routine toxicological analyses of clinical and postmortem cases.

  9. High level of IFN-γ released from whole blood of human tuberculosis infections following stimulation with Rv2073c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kun; Zhang, Jingyan; Teng, Xindong; Liang, Jinping; Wang, Xiaochun; Yuan, Xuefeng; Tian, Maopeng; Fan, Xionglin

    2015-07-01

    More efficacious and specific biomarkers are urgently needed for better control of tuberculosis (TB), the second leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide. The region of difference 9 (RD9) presents the genome of the causative pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis rather than other species of the genus Mycobacterium, which might be promising targets for specific diagnosis, vaccine development and pathogenesis. In this study, two proteins Rv2073c and Rv2074, encoded by the RD9 were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli system. Following stimulation with both proteins, the levels of IFN-γ secreted by T cells from a total of 49 whole blood samples obtained from clinically diagnosed active TB patients, patients with latent TB infections (LTBIs), and healthy donors, were compared with those of the incubation with recombinant fusion protein of CFP21 and MPT64 (rCM). Our results demonstrated that only Rv2073c could induce a higher level of IFN-γ in TB infections than healthy controls and there was a positive correlation between Rv2073c- and rCM-specific IFN-γ levels in TB infections and healthy donors, respectively. These findings indicate that Rv2073c might be a promising antigen for specific diagnostic reagents and vaccine candidates of TB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of whole blood coagulation process by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Lin, Jia

    2010-11-01

    This study was to investigate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate whole blood coagulation process. Attenuation coefficients and 1/e light penetration depth (D1/e) against time of human whole blood during in vitro clot formation under static were measured from the OCT profiles of reflectance vs depth. The results obtained clearly showed that the optical parameters are able to identify three stages during the in vitro blood clotting process. It is concluded that D1/e measured by OCT is a potential parameter to quantify and follow the liquid-gel transition of blood during clotting.

  11. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Mononuclear Phagocytes in Nondiseased Human Lung and Lung-Draining Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Desch, A. Nicole; Gibbings, Sophie L.; Goyal, Rajni; Kolde, Raivo; Bednarek, Joe; Bruno, Tullia; Slansky, Jill E.; Jacobelli, Jordan; Mason, Robert; Ito, Yoko; Messier, Elise; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Prabagar, Miglena; Atif, Shaikh M.; Segura, Elodie; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Bratton, Donna L.; Janssen, William J.; Henson, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: The pulmonary mononuclear phagocyte system is a critical host defense mechanism composed of macrophages, monocytes, monocyte-derived cells, and dendritic cells. However, our current characterization of these cells is limited because it is derived largely from animal studies and analysis of human mononuclear phagocytes from blood and small tissue resections around tumors. Objectives: Phenotypic and morphologic characterization of mononuclear phagocytes that potentially access inhaled antigens in human lungs. Methods: We acquired and analyzed pulmonary mononuclear phagocytes from fully intact nondiseased human lungs (including the major blood vessels and draining lymph nodes) obtained en bloc from 72 individual donors. Differential labeling of hematopoietic cells via intrabronchial and intravenous administration of antibodies within the same lobe was used to identify extravascular tissue-resident mononuclear phagocytes and exclude cells within the vascular lumen. Multiparameter flow cytometry was used to identify mononuclear phagocyte populations among cells labeled by each route of antibody delivery. Measurements and Main Results: We performed a phenotypic analysis of pulmonary mononuclear phagocytes isolated from whole nondiseased human lungs and lung-draining lymph nodes. Five pulmonary mononuclear phagocytes were observed, including macrophages, monocyte-derived cells, and dendritic cells that were phenotypically distinct from cell populations found in blood. Conclusions: Different mononuclear phagocytes, particularly dendritic cells, were labeled by intravascular and intrabronchial antibody delivery, countering the notion that tissue and blood mononuclear phagocytes are equivalent systems. Phenotypic descriptions of the mononuclear phagocytes in nondiseased lungs provide a precedent for comparative studies in diseased lungs and potential targets for therapeutics. PMID:26551758

  12. Modulation of fibronectin gene expression in human mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, K; Martinet, Y; Crystal, R G

    1987-01-01

    Under some conditions, mononuclear phagocytes spontaneously synthesize and release fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein with versatile effects on cell-matrix interactions. To gain insight into the processes that modulate the level of fibronectin secretion by these cells, we used monocytes, in vitro matured monocytes and alveolar macrophages as models to compare fibronectin mRNA levels and fibronectin secretion in a variety of circumstances. Using Northern analysis and dot-blot analysis with a 32P-labeled human fibronectin cDNA probe, we evaluated steady-state mRNA levels and a human fibronectin-specific ELISA was used to evaluate fibronectin secretion. In all cases the amounts of fibronectin secreted paralleled fibronectin mRNA levels. Specifically (a) when fibronectin mRNA was undetectable, as in the case of normal blood monocytes, no fibronectin was secreted, but whenever fibronectin mRNA was present, as in normal alveolar macrophages, fibronectin was secreted by the cells; (b) as monocytes matured into macrophages in vitro, the cells began to express fibronectin mRNA and the cells secreted fibronectin; (c) when alveolar macrophages were activated with surface stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or immune complexes, fibronectin mRNA levels decreased and in parallel, the cells secreted less fibronectin; (d) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), alveolar macrophages contained severalfold more fibronectin mRNA transcripts that normal and the cells spontaneously secreted severalfold more fibronectin than normal; and (e) when IPF alveolar macrophages were placed in culture the fibronectin mRNA levels in the cells decreased with time, and concurrently the amounts of fibronectin produced per unit time continually decreased. The observation of a strict concordance of fibronectin mRNA levels and fibronectin release by mononuclear phagocytes suggests that, at least in many circumstances, fibronectin secretion by mononuclear phagocytes is controlled by

  13. Screening of drugs of abuse and toxic compounds in human whole blood using online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xiaomei; Liang, Chen; Wang, Rong; Sun, Tao; Rao, Yulan; Ni, Chunfang; Zeng, Libo; Xiong, Lingjuan; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for the screening of 151 drugs of abuse and toxic compounds in human whole blood has been developed and validated by online solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Analytes were extracted and separated by using a fully automated online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography system with total chromatographic run time of 26 min. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry screening of 151 drugs of abuse and toxic compounds was performed in a full-scan (m/z 50-800) mode using an MS(E) acquisition of molecular ions and fragment ions data at two collision energies (one was 6 eV and another one was in the range of 5-45 eV). The compounds were identified based on retention times and exact mass of molecular ions and fragment ions. The limit of detection ranged from 1 to 100 ng/mL and the recovery of the method ranged from 6.3 to 163.5%. This method is proved to be a valuable screening method allowing fast and specific identification of drugs in human whole blood.

  14. In vitro effect of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of the whole blood.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, A S; Jawad, A M; Al-Hashimi, A H

    2001-04-01

    To define the well-known variability in the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and to search for predictors of such variability using an in vitro model. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity was measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of the whole blood using barium sulphate as a stimulator. Blood was taken from 40 apparently healthy volunteers (22 males and 18 females; their age ranged from 20-50 years). Drugs (indomethacin 10 ug/ml, aspirin 300 ug/ml, ibuprofen 25 ug/ml or diclofenac 8 ug/ml) were added into the blood of each individual in vitro. The chemiluminescence was measured in a photon counting system. There was a marked inter and intra individual variation in the chemiluminescence response to the 4 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, added in vitro. The variation exhibited a continuous pattern. No statistically significant correlation was found between the in vitro effect of one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and the other 3 drugs, nor between the effect of each drug and factors like age, sex, weight, height, packed cell volume, hemoglobin percentage and white blood cell count. Subjects with hemoglobin-AS type (number = 9) responded mainly by enhancement to indomethacin and diclofenac. When the number of subjects rather than the average net effect was compared according to blood groups, those with blood group A showed chemiluminescence responses towards enhancement with indomethacin and diclofenac and blood group O with aspirin. A consistent pattern of enhancement and inhibition was evident; enhancements and inhibitions by any 2 drugs involve a seemingly constant proportion of subjects. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence responses of polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity could be a good in vitro model to study the variability in response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Characteristics of each individual are not able to predict the pattern of variability. Abnormal hemoglobin and the type of blood group seem to be an

  15. Whole Blood Reveals More Metabolic Detail of the Human Metabolome than Serum as Measured by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy: Implications for Sepsis Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Kathleen A.; Younger, John G.; McHugh, Cora; Yeomans, Larisa; Finkel, Michael A.; Puskarich, Michael A.; Jones, Alan E.; Trexel, Julie; Karnovsky, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Serum is a common sample of convenience for metabolomics studies. Its processing time can be lengthy and may result in the loss of metabolites including those of red blood cells (RBC). Unlike serum, whole blood (WB) is quickly processed, minimizing the influence of variable hemolysis while including RBC metabolites. To determine differences between serum and WB metabolomes, both sample types, collected from healthy volunteers, were assayed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A total of 34 and 50 aqueous metabolites were quantified from serum and WB, respectively. Free hemoglobin (Hgb) levels in serum were measured and the correlation between Hgb and metabolite concentrations was determined. All metabolites detected in serum were at higher concentrations in WB with the exception of acetoacetate and propylene glycol. The 18 unique metabolites of WB included adenosine, AMP, ADP and ATP, which are associated with RBC metabolism. The use of serum results in the underrepresentation of a number of metabolic pathways including branched chain amino acid degradation and glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The range of free Hgb in serum was 0.03-0.01 g/dL and 8 metabolites were associated (p ≤ 0.05) with free Hgb. The range of free Hgb in serum samples from 18 sepsis patients was 0.02-0.46 g/dL. WB and serum have unique aqueous metabolite profiles but the use of serum may introduce potential pathway bias. Use of WB for metabolomics may be particularly important for studies in diseases like sepsis in which RBC metabolism is altered and mechanical and sepsis-induced hemolysis contributes to variance in the metabolome. PMID:26009817

  16. Comparison of in vitro responses to fresh whole blood and reconstituted whole blood after collagen stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Ina; Reikvam, Håkon; Strandenes, Geir; Hess, John R; Apelseth, Torunn O; Hervig, Tor A

    2014-01-01

    In patients who have large bleeds, there is a tendency to transfuse more plasma and platelets than recommended in earlier guidelines, and accordingly many hospitals now provide "transfusion packages" with an intended red cell:platelet:plasma ratio of 1:1:1. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro functions of transfusion packs compared with fresh whole blood. "Reconstituted whole blood" was prepared with the same ratio of red cells, platelets and plasma as used in local transfusion packages. The aggregation and thrombin-antithrombin complex formation responses to collagen stimulation of this reconstituted whole blood were compared with those of fresh whole blood. The storage time of red cells and platelets was varied in a systematic manner, giving nine different compositions of reconstituted whole blood that simulated transfusion packs. The responses varied significantly between whole blood and reconstituted whole blood -and between the reconstituted whole blood of different compositions. A significant decrease (p<0.005) in collagen-induced platelet count reduction was seen with increasing platelet and red blood cell age. Thrombin-antithrombin complex formation peaked in studies with platelets stored for 5 days. The red cells stored for the longest time induced the greatest thrombin-antithrombin complex formation. Fresh whole blood gives more consistent responses, and the aggregation response to collagen is stronger than in reconstituted whole blood. Our results indicate that in vitro responses of reconstituted whole blood vary substantially according to how long the red cells and platelets are stored for. As the responses obtained by testing whole blood are more consistent and usually stronger, the alternative use fresh whole blood in special conditions should not be excluded without further consideration.

  17. Comparison of in vitro responses to fresh whole blood and reconstituted whole blood after collagen stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Nepstad, Ina; Reikvam, Håkon; Strandenes, Geir; Hess, John R.; Apelseth, Torunn O.; Hervig, Tor A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients who have large bleeds, there is a tendency to transfuse more plasma and platelets than recommended in earlier guidelines, and accordingly many hospitals now provide “transfusion packages” with an intended red cell:platelet:plasma ratio of 1:1:1. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro functions of transfusion packs compared with fresh whole blood. Material and methods “Reconstituted whole blood” was prepared with the same ratio of red cells, platelets and plasma as used in local transfusion packages. The aggregation and thrombin-antithrombin complex formation responses to collagen stimulation of this reconstituted whole blood were compared with those of fresh whole blood. The storage time of red cells and platelets was varied in a systematic manner, giving nine different compositions of reconstituted whole blood that simulated transfusion packs. Results The responses varied significantly between whole blood and reconstituted whole blood -and between the reconstituted whole blood of different compositions. A significant decrease (p<0.005) in collagen-induced platelet count reduction was seen with increasing platelet and red blood cell age. Thrombin-antithrombin complex formation peaked in studies with platelets stored for 5 days. The red cells stored for the longest time induced the greatest thrombin-antithrombin complex formation. Fresh whole blood gives more consistent responses, and the aggregation response to collagen is stronger than in reconstituted whole blood. Discussion Our results indicate that in vitro responses of reconstituted whole blood vary substantially according to how long the red cells and platelets are stored for. As the responses obtained by testing whole blood are more consistent and usually stronger, the alternative use fresh whole blood in special conditions should not be excluded without further consideration. PMID:24333065

  18. High throughput online solid phase extraction-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonates, and other perfluoroalkyl substances in human serum, plasma, and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Poothong, Somrutai; Lundanes, Elsa; Thomsen, Cathrine; Haug, Line Småstuen

    2017-03-08

    A rapid, sensitive and reliable method was developed for the determination of a broad range of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in various blood matrices (serum, plasma, and whole blood), and uses only 50 μL of sample material. The method consists of a rapid protein precipitation by methanol followed by high throughput online solid phase extraction (SPE), ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), and negative electrospray ionization detection. The method was developed for simultaneous determination of twenty-five PFASs, including polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs; 6:2, 8:2, 6:2/6:2, and 8:2/8:2), perfluoroalkyl phosphonates (PFPAs; C6, C8, and C10), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C7, C8, and C10), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs; C5C14), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSAs; C8, N-methyl, and N-ethyl). High linearity of matrix-matched calibration standards (correlation coefficients, R = 0.99-0.999) were obtained in the range of 0.006-45 ng mL(-1) blood. Excellent sensitivity was achieved with method detection limits (MDLs) between 0.0018 and 0.09 ng mL(-1), depending on the compound and matrix. The method was validated for serum, plasma, and whole blood (n = 5 + 5) at six levels in the range 0.0180-30 ng mL(-1). The accuracy (n = 5) was on average 102± 12%. The intermediate precision (n = 10) ranged from 2 to 40% with an average between-batch of analyses difference of 10± 10%. Two human serum samples from a former interlaboratory comparison were analyzed and the differences between the applied method and the consensus values were below ≤22% (n = 5). The method was also successfully applied to samples of human plasma and whole blood with coefficients of variation in the range 0.8-15.2% (n = 5). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental hypercalcaemia and whole blood clotting

    PubMed Central

    Hilgard, P.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental hypercalcaemia was induced in rats by (1) transplantation of the solid Walker 256 tumour, and (2) intraperitoneal injections of calcium gluconate. Whole blood clotting was studied by means of thromboelastography and whole blood clotting times in polystyrene and glass test tubes. At serum calcium levels between 10·3 and 11·5 m-equiv/l a slight delay in clot formation was found which was reversible by the addition of EDTA to whole blood. Acute, calcium-gluconate-induced hypercalcaemia, however, leads to a significant shortening of the clotting time in the polystyrene tube and to a lesser degree in the glass tube. Maximal factor XII activation in vitro with ellagic acid levels the difference of clotting times again. From these experiments it is concluded that acute hypercalcaemia induces a hypercoagulable state, possibly by partial contact activation, and thus may favour thrombus formation in vivo. PMID:4200324

  20. Ex-vivo in-vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion in human whole blood by extractum urticae dioicae foliorum.

    PubMed

    Obertreis, B; Ruttkowski, T; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-04-01

    An extract of Urtica dioica folium (IDS 23, Rheuma-Hek), monographed positively for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases and with known effects in partial inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in vitro, was investigated with respect to effects of the extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood of healthy volunteers. In the assay system used, LPS stimulated human whole blood showed a straight increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion reaching maximum concentrations within 24 h following a plateau and slight decrease up to 65 h, respectively. The concentrations of these cytokines was strongly positively correlated with the number of monocytes/macrophages of each volunteer. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta concentration after LPS stimulation was significantly reduced by simultaneously given IDS 23 in a strictly dose dependent manner. At time 24 h these cytokine concentrations were reduced by 50.8% and 99.7%, respectively, using the highest test IDS 23 assay concentration of 5 mg/ml (p < 0.001). After 65 h the corresponding inhibition was 38.9% and 99.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand IDS 23 showed no inhibition but stimulated IL-6 secretion in absence of LPS alone. Simultaneously given LPS and IDS 23 resulted in no further increase. In contrast to described effects on arachidonic acid cascade in vitro, tested Urtica dioica phenol carbon acid derivates and flavonoides such as caffeic malic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin did not influence LPS stimulated TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion in tested concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) mol/l. These further findings on the pharmacological mechanism of action of Urticae dioica folia may explain the positive effects of this extract in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

  1. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  2. Whole blood stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7/8 and TLR-9 agonists induces interleukin-12p40 expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in rhesus macaques but not in humans.

    PubMed

    Koopman, G; Beenhakker, N; Burm, S; Bouwhuis, O; Bajramovic, J; Sommandas, V; Mudde, G; Mooij, P; 't Hart, B A; Bogers, W M J M

    2013-10-01

    Macaques provide important animal models in biomedical research into infectious and chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore, a proper understanding of the similarities and differences in immune function between macaques and humans is needed for adequate interpretation of the data and translation to the human situation. Dendritic cells are important as key regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Using a new whole blood assay we investigated functional characteristics of blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and monocytes in rhesus macaques by studying induction of activation markers and cytokine expression upon Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. In a head-to-head comparison we observed that rhesus macaque venous blood contained relatively lower numbers of pDC than human venous blood, while mDC and monocytes were present at similar percentages. In contrast to humans, pDC in rhesus macaques expressed the interleukin (IL)-12p40 subunit in response to TLR-7/8 as well as TLR-9 stimulation. Expression of IL-12p40 was confirmed by using different monoclonal antibodies and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both in humans and rhesus macaques, TLR-4 stimulation induced IL-12p40 expression in mDC and monocytes, but not in pDC. The data show that, in contrast to humans, pDC in macaques are able to express IL-12p40, which could have consequences for evaluation of human vaccine candidates and viral infection.

  3. Ingestion of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by human mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D R; Pearson, R D

    1987-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes may be important effector cells against Giardia lamblia. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in 13% heat-inactivated autologous serum. At a G. lamblia/macrophage ratio of 1:1, the number of trophozoites ingested per 100 macrophages ranged from 1 to 12 at 0.5 h and increased for all donors (n = 6) to 10 to 92 at 8 h. Ingestion was confirmed by electron microscopy. Increasing the parasite/phagocyte ratio to 5:1 increased the percentage of macrophages with adherent but not ingested trophozoites. Incubating Giardia cells and macrophages with 20% immune serum increased ingestion of parasites eightfold, indicating that anti-G. lamblia antibody can enhance ingestion. Both phase-contrast microscopy and electron microscopy documented trophozoite destruction within macrophages. Ingestion of parasites elicited an oxidative burst as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. In vitro, Giardia trophozoites were killed by greater than or equal to 5 X 10(-5) M H2O2. Fusion of lysosomes with parasite-containing phagosomes was suggested by acridine orange-stained preparations. Human macrophages have the capacity to ingest Giardia trophozoites and to kill intracellular parasites, possibly by oxidative microbicidal mechanisms. Images PMID:3679547

  4. Interleukin-4 receptors on human blood mononuclear cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zuber, C.E.; Galizzi, J.P.; Harada, N.; Durand, I.; Banchereau, J. )

    1990-09-01

    We have studied regulation of the expression of the interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) on human blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using both 125I-IL-4 binding assay and flow cytometric analysis of biotinylated IL-4 (B-IL-4) binding. PBMC express approximately 300 high-affinity IL-4R per cell (Kd = 25-100 pM). Activation of PBMC for 60-80 hr by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin A (Con A) results in a 2- to 4.5-fold increase of IL-4R number without alteration of IL-4R affinity for IL-4. Binding of B-IL-4 showed that IL-4R expression is upregulated on virtually all PHA-stimulated PBMC, whereas it mostly concerns larger cells among Con A-activated PBMC. Reculture of PHA-blasts with 1 nM IL-4 further upregulates IL-4R expression to a level approximately 10-fold higher than observed on freshly isolated PBMC. Interestingly, IL-4 is able to reinduce high IL-4R levels on cells that have been deprived of IL-4 for 20 hr and IL-2 is almost as efficient. Finally, SDS-PAGE analysis of IL-4-binding molecules on unstimulated, PHA- and PHA/IL-4-activated PBMC revealed the same three peptides of MW 140-130, 80-75, and 70-65 kDa, as shown on human cell lines.

  5. A single meal containing raw, crushed garlic influences expression of immunity- and cancer-related genes in whole blood of humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preclinical and epidemiological studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. To probe mechanisms of garlic action in humans, we conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing...

  6. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  7. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H Lie; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-08-25

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection.

  8. Kinetics of (-) SVIodocyanopindolol binding to intact human mononuclear cells

    SciTech Connect

    Graafsma, S.J.; van Tits, L.J.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J.F.; Thien, T.

    1988-01-01

    In association experiments of (-) SVIodocyanopindolol ( SVICYP) with human mononuclear cells (MNC) at 70 pM and a temperature of 37 degrees C equilibrium was reached within 30 min. However, when the same experiments were performed at a concentration of 4 pM SVICYP, equilibrium was only reached after 3 hours. The consequences of incomplete equilibrium for the interpretation of binding experiments under the incorrect assumption that equilibrium has been reached, was investigated at equilibration times of one, two and three hours. The dissociation constant, Kd, decreased from 7.4 +/- 0.2 pM after one hour to 2.5 +/- 0.4 pM after three hours of incubation while the receptor density, RO, decreased from 970 +/- 170 to 713 +/- 58 sites/cell. Analysis of computer simulated binding curves confirmed the decrease in Kd and RO at prolonged incubations. We conclude that in SVICYP binding in intact MNC one hour of incubation is not sufficient to obtain equilibrium at the lower concentrations. This leads to an overestimation of Kd- and to a lesser extent of RO-values. Extending the incubation time to three hours on the other hand may lead to a loss of cells and therefore to an underestimation of RO.

  9. The role of PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic plaque on platelet EP(3) and EP(4) receptor activation and platelet function in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Schober, Lisa J; Khandoga, Anna L; Dwivedi, Suman; Penz, Sandra M; Maruyama, Takayuki; Brandl, Richard; Siess, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    Atherosclerosis has an important inflammatory component. Macrophages accumulating in atherosclerotic arteries produce prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a main inflammatory mediator. Platelets express inhibitory receptors (EP(2), EP(4)) and a stimulatory receptor (EP(3)) for this prostanoid. Recently, it has been reported in ApoE(-/-) mice that PGE(2) accumulating in inflammatory atherosclerotic lesions might contribute to atherothrombosis after plaque rupture by activating platelet EP(3), and EP(3) blockade has been proposed to be a promising new approach in anti-thrombotic therapy. The aim of our investigation was to study the role of PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic plaques on human platelet function and thrombus formation. Plaque PGE(2) might either activate or inhibit platelets depending on stimulation of either EP(3) or EP(4), respectively. We found that the two EP(3)-antagonists AE5-599 (300 nM) and AE3-240 (300 nM) specifically and completely inhibited the synergistic effect of the EP(3)-agonist sulprostone on U46619-induced platelet aggregation in blood. However, these two EP(3)-antagonists neither inhibited atherosclerotic plaque-induced platelet aggregation, GPIIb/IIIa exposure, dense and alpha granule secretion in blood nor reduced plaque-induced platelet thrombus formation under arterial flow. The EP(4)-antagonist AE3-208 (1-3 μM) potentiated in combination with PGE(2) (1 μM) ADP-induced aggregation, demonstrating that PGE(2) enhances platelet aggregation when the inhibitory EP(4)-receptor is inactivated. However, plaque-induced platelet aggregation was not augmented after platelet pre-treatment with AE3-208, indicating that plaque PGE(2) does not stimulate the EP(4)-receptor. We found that PGE(2) was present in plaques only at very low levels (15 pg PGE(2)/mg plaque). We conclude that PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic lesions does not modulate (i.e. stimulate or inhibit) atherothrombosis in blood after plaque rupture.

  10. Seroprevalence of Human Leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) Assessed by Microscopic Agglutination Test on Paper Disc-Absorbed Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Desvars, Amélie; Gigan, Jimmy; Hoarau, Géraldine; Gérardin, Patrick; Favier, François; Michault, Alain

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a globally important infectious disease. Humans most commonly become infected through occupational, recreational, or domestic contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or through contaminated water or soil. The disease occurs in urban areas of industrialized and developing countries as well as rural regions worldwide. We present a retrospective study conducted in 2006 on 2,269 randomly selected Reunion Island inhabitants. Blood sampling was performed on individual blotting papers, and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was conducted on paper disc-absorbed (PDA) blood. We showed that seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 0.66% ± 0.34 in the global population of Reunion Island, which is 1.78 lower than the seroprevalence estimated 20 years before. The serological method is described, and the results discussion focuses on methodology and socio-economic factors. PMID:22144451

  11. Short report: Seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) assessed by microscopic agglutination test on paper disc-absorbed whole blood.

    PubMed

    Desvars, Amélie; Gigan, Jimmy; Hoarau, Géraldine; Gérardin, Patrick; Favier, François; Michault, Alain

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a globally important infectious disease. Humans most commonly become infected through occupational, recreational, or domestic contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or through contaminated water or soil. The disease occurs in urban areas of industrialized and developing countries as well as rural regions worldwide. We present a retrospective study conducted in 2006 on 2,269 randomly selected Reunion Island inhabitants. Blood sampling was performed on individual blotting papers, and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was conducted on paper disc-absorbed (PDA) blood. We showed that seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 0.66% ± 0.34 in the global population of Reunion Island, which is 1.78 lower than the seroprevalence estimated 20 years before. The serological method is described, and the results discussion focuses on methodology and socio-economic factors.

  12. Detection of progesterone in whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Scheller, Frieder W; Bier, Frank F

    2003-04-01

    The progesterone concentration in blood samples can be utilised as a marker for the diagnosis of early pregnancy, endocrinopathy and virilism. Here, we describe a method for progesterone detection and measurement in whole blood samples by a surface sensitive biosensor used in conjunction with an integrated optical grating coupler. This device determines refractive index changes near the biosensor's surface. Hence, biological species bound to a surface layer can be measured in real-time without any label. For the measurements, we have modified the indirect competitive immunoassay principle. The concentration of the progesterone antibody was kept at 1 microg/ml. Progesterone concentration was determined in buffer solution and whole blood in a range between 0.005 and 10 ng/ml. The detection limit was determined to be 3 pM. The relative standard deviation was calculated to be 3.5%.

  13. Direct analysis of formate in human plasma, serum and whole blood by in-line coupling of microdialysis to capillary electrophoresis for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2013-03-20

    A simple method using direct injection of human blood samples and quantitative analysis of formate was developed for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning. A sample pretreatment device including a 500Da molecular weight cut-off dialysis membrane was in-line coupled to capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4)D). 50μL of 1:9 diluted blood samples and 50μL of DI water were filled into the donor and the acceptor chamber, respectively, and small ionic species in blood samples were electrokinetically injected across the dialysis membrane directly into the separation capillary. Matrix components, such as red blood cells, proteins, lipids and other high molecular weight compounds, were retained by the dialysis membrane and did not interfere with subsequent CE separation. Formate was separated from other small anions in an optimized background electrolyte solution consisting of 20mM l-histidine and 25mM l-glutamic acid at pH 4.8. The method showed excellent analytical parameters in terms of repeatability and linearity; RSD values for migration times and peak areas at a formate concentration typical for methanol poisoning were below 0.3% and 7.4%, respectively, and linear calibration curves with correlation coefficients better than 0.999 were obtained. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 15 and 50μM formate in original (undiluted) blood samples, respectively. The method was applied to determination of formate in serum samples of a patient diagnosed with acute methanol poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Activity of microemulsion-based nanoparticles at the human bio-nano interface: concentration-dependent effects on thrombosis and hemolysis in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, Timothy E.; Varshney, Manoj; Flint, Jason A.; Seubert, Christoph N.; Smith, W. Brit; Bjoraker, David G.; Shah, Dinesh O.; Dennis, Donn M.

    2004-06-01

    Background: Although microemulsion-based nanoparticles (MEs) may be useful for drug delivery or scavenging, these benefits must be balanced against potential nanotoxicological effects in biological tissue (bio-nano interface). We investigated the actions of assembled MEs and their individual components at the bio-nano interface of thrombosis and hemolysis in human blood. Methods: Oil-in-water MEs were synthesized using ethylbutyrate, sodium caprylate, and pluronic F-68 (ME4) or F-127 (ME6) in 0.9% NaClw/v. The effects of MEs or components on thrombosis were determined using thrombo-elastography, platelet contractile force, clot elastic modulus, and platelet counting. For hemolysis, ME or components were incubated with erythrocytes, centrifuged, and washed for measurement of free hemoglobin by spectroscopy. Results and conclusions: The mean particle diameters (polydispersity index) for ME6 and ME4 were 23.6 ± 2.5 nm (0.362) and 14.0 ± 1.0 nm (0.008), respectively. MEs (0, 0.03, 0.3, 3 mM) markedly reduced the thromboelastograph maximal amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner (49.0 ± 4.2, 39.0 ± 5.6, 15.0 ± 8.7, 3.8 ± 1.3 mm, respectively), an effect highly correlated ( r2 = 0.94) with similar changes caused by pluronic surfactants (48.7 ± 10.9, 30.7 ± 15.8, 20.0 ± 11.3, 2.0 ± 0.5) alone. Neither oil nor sodium caprylate alone affected the thromboelastograph. The clot contractile force was reduced by ME (27.3 ± 11.1-6.7 ± 3.4 kdynes/cm2, P = 0.02, n = 5) whereas the platelet population not affected (175 ± 28-182 ± 23 106/ml, P = 0.12, n = 6). This data suggests that MEs reduced platelet activity due to associated pluronic surfactants, but caused minimal changes in protein function necessary for coagulation. Although pharmacological concentrations of sodium caprylate caused hemolysis (EC50 = 213 mM), MEs and pluronic surfactants did not disrupt erythrocytes. Knowledge of nanoparticle activity and potential associated nanotoxicity at this bio

  15. Zebrafish thrombocyte aggregation by whole blood aggregometry and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthi, Hemalatha; Panapakam, Rekha; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish has become an excellent model system to study mammalian hemostasis. Despite our extensive efforts to develop technologies to measure zebrafish hemostasis and even with previously established thrombocyte qualitative and quantitative functional assays, quantifying thrombocyte function for high throughput applications has been a challenge. In this paper, we have developed two quantitative methods to estimate thrombocyte aggregation: one by whole blood aggregometry and the other by flow cytometry. We found that it is possible to conduct whole blood aggregometry using only 2 µl of blood and the currently available aggregometer. Each of three agonists, arachidonic acid, ADP, and collagen yielded impedance curves similar to those obtained with human blood. We were also able to use flow cytometry to indirectly quantify the extent of thrombocyte aggregation by labeling whole blood with mepacrine, aggregating in the presence of each of the above agonists, separating the aggregates from the white blood cells by centrifugation, and then sorting the resulting white cell fraction for thrombocyte numbers. These methods have high throughput capabilities and have the potential to be used in large scale screens to detect and characterize mutants with thrombocyte functional defects or to identify genes involved in thrombocyte function by large scale knockdowns.

  16. Improved Whole-Blood-Staining Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian; Paul, Bonnie; Melton, Shannon; Guess, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic improvements have been made in NASA s Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD) since it was last described in "Whole-Blood-Staining Device," NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 64. The new system has a longer shelf life, a simpler and more effective operational procedure, improved interface with instrumentation, and shorter processing time. More specifically, the improvements have targeted bag and locking clip materials, sampling ports, and air pocket prevention. The WBSD stains whole blood collected during spaceflight for subsequent flow cytometric analysis. In short, the main device stains white blood cells by use of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to various fluorochromes, followed by lysing and fixing of the cells by use of a commercial reagent that has been diluted according to NASA safety standards. This system is compact, robust, and does not require electric power, precise mixing, or precise incubation times. Figure 1 depicts the present improved version for staining applications, which is a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) bag with a Luer-lock port and plastic locking clips. An InterLink (or equivalent) intravenous- injection port screws into the Luer-lock port. The inflatable/collapsible nature of the bag facilitates loading and helps to minimize the amount of air trapped in the fully loaded bag. Some additional uses have been identified for the device beyond whole blood staining. The WBSD has been configured for functional assays that require culture of live cells by housing sterile culture media, mitogens, and fixatives prior to use [Figure 2(a)]. Simple injection of whole blood allows cell-stimulation culture to be performed in reduced gravity conditions, and product stabilization prior to storage, while protecting astronauts from liquid biohazardous materials. Also, the improved WBSD has reconstituted powdered injectable antibiotics by mixing them with diluent liquids [Figure 2(b)]. Although such mixing can readily be performed on

  17. Determination of ecgonine and seven other cocaine metabolites in human urine and whole blood by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lingjuan; Wang, Rong; Liang, Chen; Cao, Fangqi; Rao, Yulan; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Libo; Ni, Chunfang; Ye, Haiying; Zhang, Yurong

    2013-12-01

    Ecgonine is suggested to be a promising marker of cocaine (COC) ingestion. A combined mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS (MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously determine ecgonine and seven other metabolites of cocaine in human urine and whole blood with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The compounds were extracted from as little as 100 μL of sample by solid-phase extraction with a 96-well μElution solid-phase extraction plate. The protonated molecules or fragment ions at accurate mass acquired in MS mode were used to quantify specific analytes, following by dedicated MS/MS identification. The assay was linear in the range from 5 to 50-100 ng/mL for urine samples, except for ecgonine methyl ester (10-200 ng/mL) and ecgonine (40-400 ng/mL), and was linear from 1-2 to 50 ng/mL for whole blood samples, except for ecgonine methyl ester (20-1,000 ng/mL) and ecgonine (40-2,000 ng/mL). The correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.99. The limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 16 ng/mL, and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 1 to 40 ng/mL. The repeatability and intermediate precision were 18.1% or less. The accuracy was in the range from 80.0 to 122.9%, process efficiencies were in the range from 8.6 to 177.4%, matrix effects were in the range from 28.7 to 171.0%, and extraction recoveries were in the range from 41.0 to 114.3%, except for ecgonine (12.8% and 9.3% at low and high concentrations, respectively). This method was highly sensitive in comparison with previously published methods. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of real samples derived from forensic cases, and the results verified that, on the basis of data from four positive samples, ecgonine is a promising marker of cocaine ingestion.

  18. Induction of necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in mice in vivo and in murine peritoneal macrophages and human whole blood cells in vitro by Micrococcus luteus teichuronic acids.

    PubMed

    Monodane, T; Kawabata, Y; Yang, S; Hase, S; Takada, H

    2001-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that Micrococcus luteus cells and cell walls induced anaphylactoid reactions leading to death, in some instances within 1 h, in C3H/HeN mice primed with muramyl dipeptide (MDP). They also induced serum cytokines in the surviving mice. The present study investigated the structural components responsible for these activities. Teichuronic acids, a component of M. luteus cell walls, induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in MDP-primed C3H/HeN mice. Peptidoglycans had little effect on the cytokine-inducing activities. Reducing teichuronic acids, i.e., teichuronic acids whose carboxyl groups had been reduced, lost their cytokine-inducing activities. Neither peptidoglycans nor teichuronic acids induced anaphylactoid reactions in the MDP-primed mice. Purified teichuronic acids also induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in C3H/HeN murine peritoneal macrophages and human whole-blood cells in the culture, but reduced teichuronic acids did not. The purified teichuronic acids induced no TNF-alpha and only low levels of IL-6 in MDP-primed C3H/HeJ mice, and neither cytokine in peritoneal macrophage cultures from C3H/HeJ mice with a single point of mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene. These findings suggest that induction of cytokines by teichuronic acids is mainly TLR4-dependent.

  19. Human and Mouse Mononuclear Phagocyte Networks: A Tale of Two Species?

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Gary; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages are a heterogeneous population of mononuclear phagocytes that are involved in antigen processing and presentation to initiate and regulate immune responses to pathogens, vaccines, tumor, and tolerance to self. In addition to their afferent sentinel function, DCs and macrophages are also critical as effectors and coordinators of inflammation and homeostasis in peripheral tissues. Harnessing DCs and macrophages for therapeutic purposes has major implications for infectious disease, vaccination, transplantation, tolerance induction, inflammation, and cancer immunotherapy. There has been a paradigm shift in our understanding of the developmental origin and function of the cellular constituents of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Significant progress has been made in tandem in both human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology. This progress has been accelerated by comparative biology analysis between mouse and human, which has proved to be an exceptionally fruitful strategy to harmonize findings across species. Such analyses have provided unexpected insights and facilitated productive reciprocal and iterative processes to inform our understanding of human and mouse mononuclear phagocytes. In this review, we discuss the strategies, power, and utility of comparative biology approaches to integrate recent advances in human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology and its potential to drive forward clinical translation of this knowledge. We also present a functional framework on the parallel organization of human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte networks. PMID:26124761

  20. The Lost Art of Whole Blood Transfusion in Austere Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    saving interventions must be performed quickly before hemorrhagic shock be- comes irreversible. Fresh whole blood transfusions in the field may be a...components are unavailable, fresh whole blood is a viable option (16). When red cells are lost, there is evidence that whole blood resuscitation is...benefit of fresh whole blood transfusion in settings where no other alternative exists. This represents flawed risk/benefit analysis. Prehospital mortality

  1. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section... blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device consisting or... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not include...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section... blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device consisting or... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not include...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section... blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device consisting or... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not include...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section... blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device consisting or... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not include...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section... blood hemoglobin assays. (a) Identification. A whole blood hemoglobin assay is a device consisting or... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not include...

  6. IGF1 potentiates the pro-inflammatory response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells via MAPK.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Thalijn Liliana Catharina; Netea, Mihai Gheorghe; Hermus, Adrianus Rudolfus Marinus Maria; Smit, Johannes Willem Adriaan; Netea-Maier, Romana Teodora

    2017-08-01

    Acromegaly is characterized by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) excess and is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk. As innate immune responses are crucial in CVD development, and IGF1 is linked to subclinical inflammation, we hypothesized that GH/IGF1 excess contributes to CVD development by potentiating systemic inflammation. We aimed to assess the effects of GH/IGF1 on inflammatory cytokine production. Whole blood from acromegaly patients and healthy volunteers and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers were stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, with or without adding GH or IGF1 (in PBMC). Cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA. The underlying signalling pathways were investigated by the inhibition of downstream targets of the IGF1 receptor. The following results were obtained. GH or IGF1 alone did not influence cytokine production in PBMCs. GH did not affect TLR-induced cytokine production, but co-stimulation with IGF1 dose dependently increased the TLR ligand-induced production of IL6 (P < 0.01), TNF alpha (P = 0.02) and IFNg (P < 0.01), as well as the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 (P = 0.01). IGF1 had no effect on IL1B, IL17 and IL22 production. Inhibition of the MAPK pathway, but not mTOR, completely abrogated the synergistic effect of IGF1 on the LPS-induced IL6 and TNF alpha production. In whole blood of acromegaly patients, ex vivo IL6 production was increased (P < 0.01). In conclusion, IGF1, but not GH, has pro-inflammatory effects, probably via the MAPK signalling pathway and might be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in acromegaly. The increased IL10 production possibly counteracts the pro-inflammatory effects. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Combined Inhibition of Complement and CD14 Attenuates Bacteria-Induced Inflammation in Human Whole Blood More Efficiently Than Antagonizing the Toll-like Receptor 4–MD2 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsen, Alice; Nymo, Stig; Landsem, Anne; Christiansen, Dorte; Ryan, Liv; Husebye, Harald; Lau, Corinna; Pischke, Søren E.; Lambris, John D.; Espevik, Terje; Mollnes, Tom E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Single inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)–MD2 complex failed in treatment of sepsis. CD14 is a coreceptor for several TLRs, including TLR4 and TLR2. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single TLR4-MD2 inhibition by using eritoran, compared with the effect of CD14 inhibition alone and combined with the C3 complement inhibitor compstatin (Cp40), on the bacteria-induced inflammatory response in human whole blood. Methods. Cytokines were measured by multiplex technology, and leukocyte activation markers CD11b and CD35 were measured by flow cytometry. Results. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced inflammatory markers were efficiently abolished by both anti-CD14 and eritoran. Anti-CD14 was significantly more effective than eritoran in inhibiting LPS-binding to HEK-293E cells transfected with CD14 and Escherichia coli–induced upregulation of monocyte activation markers (P < .01). Combining Cp40 with anti-CD14 was significantly more effective than combining Cp40 with eritoran in reducing E. coli–induced interleukin 6 (P < .05) and monocyte activation markers induced by both E. coli (P < .001) and Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01). Combining CP40 with anti-CD14 was more efficient than eritoran alone for 18 of 20 bacteria-induced inflammatory responses (mean P < .0001). Conclusions. Whole bacteria–induced inflammation was inhibited more efficiently by anti-CD14 than by eritoran, particularly when combined with complement inhibition. Combined CD14 and complement inhibition may prove a promising treatment strategy for bacterial sepsis. PMID:26977050

  8. Detection and quantification of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in human whole blood, plasma, and serum samples as part of a comprehensive multi-analyte LC-MS/MS approach.

    PubMed

    Montenarh, Deborah; Hopf, Markus; Maurer, Hans H; Schmidt, Peter; Ewald, Andreas H

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) multi-analyte approach based on a simple liquid-liquid extraction was developed and validated for fast target screening and quantification of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in case of driving ability and crime responsibility in the three most important biosamples whole blood, plasma, and serum. Whole blood, plasma, and serum (500 μL each) were extracted twice at pH 7.4 and at pH 10 with ether/ethyl acetate (1:1). Separation, detection, and quantification were performed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive mode. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, ion suppression/enhancement of co-eluting analytes, matrix effects, recovery, process efficiency, accuracy and precision, stabilities, and limits of detection and quantification. For accuracy and precision, full calibration was performed with ranges from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations. The presented LC-MS/MS approach as part of a universal multi-analyte concept for over 100 drugs was applicable for selective detection as well as accurate and precise quantification in whole blood, plasma, and serum. The approach was selective, sensitive, accurate, and precise for 16 of the 19 tested drugs in whole blood, 18 in plasma, and 17 in serum. Only semiquantitative results could be obtained for zopiclone because of its instability in all tested biosamples.

  9. Ultrastructural characterization of macrophage-like mononuclear leukocytes in human astrocytic tumors.

    PubMed

    Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Castellano-Ramírez, Alan; Medina, Zulamita

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructural features of macrophage-like mononuclear leukocytes associated with human astrocytic tumors. Tumoral biopsies of 10 patients with a pathological diagnosis of astrocytic tumor by means of transmission electron microscopy were examined. The macrophage-like mononuclear leukocyte shows ultrastructural characteristics related with the physiologic phenotype of the alternatively activated macrophage (M2), localized principally around of tumoral vasculature and tumor milieu; classically activated macrophages (M1) in surrounding necrosis areas were observed. The presence of these two ultrastructural kinds of macrophage-like mononuclear leukocytes into different areas of the tumor denotes that cellular response of TAMs is dependent of microenvironment stimuli in different parts of a tumor. The process of transvascular emigration of monocyte/macrophage-like mononuclear leukocytes into tumor is presented. The preponderance of alternatively activated macrophage-like mononuclear leukocytes suggests disequilibrium between pro-tumoral leukocytes and anti-tumoral leukocytes. Therefore, macrophage polarization toward anti-tumoral macrophage-like mononuclear leukocytes would be a potential target for therapeutic manipulation in human astrocytic tumors.

  10. The use of fresh whole blood in massive transfusion.

    PubMed

    Repine, Thomas B; Perkins, Jeremy G; Kauvar, David S; Blackborne, Lorne

    2006-06-01

    Most indications for whole blood transfusion are now well managed exclusively with blood component therapy, yet the use of fresh whole blood for resuscitating combat casualties has persisted in the U.S. military. Published descriptions of whole blood use in military and civilian settings were compared with use of whole blood at the 31st Combat Support Hospital (31st CSH) stationed in Baghdad in 2004-2005. Concerns about logistics, safety, and relative efficacy of whole blood versus component therapy have argued against the use of whole blood in most settings. However, military physicians have observed some distinct advantages in fresh warm whole blood over component therapy during the massive resuscitation of acidotic, hypothermic, and coagulopathic trauma patients. In this critical role, fresh whole blood was eventually incorporated as an adjunct into a novel whole-blood-based massive transfusion protocol. Under extreme and austere circumstances, the risk:benefit ratio of whole blood transfusion favors its use. Fresh whole blood may, at times, be advantageous even when conventional component therapy is available.

  11. Whole Blood RNA as a Source of Transcript-Based Nutrition- and Metabolic Health-Related Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Petar D.; Bonet, M. Luisa; Reynés, Bárbara; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu; Ribot, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Blood cells are receiving an increasing attention as an easily accessible source of transcript-based biomarkers. We studied the feasibility of using mouse whole blood RNA in this context. Several paradigms were studied: (i) metabolism-related transcripts known to be affected in rat tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by fasting and upon the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced overweight were assessed in whole blood RNA of fasted rats and mice and of HFD-fed mice; (ii) retinoic acid (RA)-responsive genes in tissues were assessed in whole blood RNA of control and RA-treated mice; (iii) lipid metabolism-related transcripts previously identified in PBMC as potential biomarkers of metabolic health in a rat model were assessed in whole blood in an independent model, namely retinoblastoma haploinsufficient (Rb+/-) mice. Blood was collected and stored in RNAlater® at -80°C until analysis of selected transcripts by real-time RT-PCR. Comparable changes with fasting were detected in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes when RNA from either PBMC or whole blood of rats or mice was used. HFD-induced excess body weight and fat mass associated with expected changes in the expression of metabolism-related genes in whole blood of mice. Changes in gene expression in whole blood of RA-treated mice reproduced known transcriptional actions of RA in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Reduced expression of Fasn, Lrp1, Rxrb and Sorl1 could be validated as early biomarkers of metabolic health in young Rb+/- mice using whole blood RNA. Altogether, these results support the use of whole blood RNA in studies aimed at identifying blood transcript-based biomarkers of nutritional/metabolic status or metabolic health. Results also support reduced expression of Fasn, Lrp1, Rxrb and Sorl1 in blood cells at young age as potential biomarkers of metabolic robustness. PMID:27163124

  12. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood... blood establishments with recommendations for pre-storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood and...

  13. Simple and inexpensive quantification of ammonia in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Ayyub, Omar B; Behrens, Adam M; Heligman, Brian T; Natoli, Mary E; Ayoub, Joseph J; Cunningham, Gary; Summar, Marshall; Kofinas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of ammonia in whole blood has applications in the diagnosis and management of many hepatic diseases, including cirrhosis and rare urea cycle disorders, amounting to more than 5 million patients in the United States. Current techniques for ammonia measurement suffer from limited range, poor resolution, false positives or large, complex sensor set-ups. Here we demonstrate a technique utilizing inexpensive reagents and simple methods for quantifying ammonia in 100 μL of whole blood. The sensor comprises a modified form of the indophenol reaction, which resists sources of destructive interference in blood, in conjunction with a cation-exchange membrane. The presented sensing scheme is selective against other amine containing molecules such as amino acids and has a shelf life of at least 50 days. Additionally, the resulting system has high sensitivity and allows for the accurate reliable quantification of ammonia in whole human blood samples at a minimum range of 25 to 500 μM, which is clinically for rare hyperammonemic disorders and liver disease. Furthermore, concentrations of 50 and 100 μM ammonia could be reliably discerned with p = 0.0001.

  14. Simple and Inexpensive Quantification of Ammonia in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ayyub, Omar B.; Behrens, Adam M.; Heligman, Brian T.; Natoli, Mary E.; Ayoub, Joseph J.; Cunningham, Gary; Summar, Marshall; Kofinas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of ammonia in whole blood has applications in the diagnosis and management of many hepatic diseases, including cirrhosis and rare urea cycle disorders, amounting to more than 5 million patients in the United States. Current techniques for ammonia measurement suffer from limited range, poor resolution, false positives or large, complex sensor set-ups. Here we demonstrate a technique utilizing inexpensive reagents and simple methods for quantifying ammonia in 100 μl of whole blood. The sensor comprises a modified form of the indophenol reaction, which resists sources of destructive interference in blood, in conjunction with a cation-exchange membrane. The presented sensing scheme is selective against other amine containing molecules such as amino acids and has a shelf life of at least 50 days. Additionally, the resulting system has high sensitivity and allows for the accurate reliable quantification of ammonia in whole human blood samples at a minimum range of 25 to 500 μM, which is clinically for rare hyperammonemic disorders and liver disease. Furthermore, concentrations of 50 and 100 μM ammonia could be reliably discerned with p=0.0001. PMID:25936660

  15. Evaluation of a standardised real-time PCR based DNA-detection method (Realstar®) in whole blood for the diagnosis of primary human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Berth, M; Benoy, I; Christensen, N

    2016-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA detection in blood could, as a supplementary test to serology, improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis of an acute CMV infection. In this study we evaluated the performance of a commercially available and standardised CMV PCR assay in whole blood for the diagnosis of a primary infection in immunocompetent adults. Moreover, the kinetics of viral DNA was evaluated in order to provide a time frame in which viral DNA could be detected during an acute primary infection. Whole blood samples were collected from 66 patients with an acute CMV infection, 65 patients with an acute Epstein-Barr virus infection, 27 patients with various other acute infections (parvovirus B19, HIV, Toxoplasma gondii), 20 patients with past CMV infections (>1 year) and 20 apparently healthy persons. For CMV DNA detection and quantification a commercially available real-time PCR was applied (RealStar®, altona Diagnostics). The clinical sensitivity of CMV PCR in whole blood for the diagnosis of a recent primary CMV infection was 93.9 % and the diagnostic specificity 99.2 %. In the majority of the patients CMV DNA was not detectable anymore approximately within 4 weeks after the first blood sample was taken. From these data we concluded that, together with a suggestive serological profile, a positive CMV PCR result in whole blood can be regarded as a diagnostic confirmation of a recent CMV infection on a single blood sample in an immunocompetent patient. However, a negative CMV PCR result does not exclude a recent CMV infection.

  16. Effect of hemodialysis on whole blood viscosity.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, S; Kensey, K; Cho, Y I

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hemodialysis procedures on the hemoconcentration status of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We measured whole blood viscosity (WBV) of 30 ESRD patients using a scanning-capillary-tube viscometer before and after hemodialysis. The blood sample size required for WBV measurements was approximately 3 mL. Pre-dialysis specimens for viscosity measurements were obtained via the fistula needle or Perma catheter prior to initiating hemodialysis, and post-dialysis specimens were drawn from the arterial sample port of the hemodialysis line 3.5 hours after initiation of dialysis treatment. Changes in WBV were measured at high and low shear rates: 80% of patients showed an increased high shear viscosity, whereas 73% of patients demonstrated an increased low shear viscosity. The actual percentage increase in WBV observed after hemodialysis at high and low shear rate ranges varied broadly in the 30 patients. The observed increase in the WBV of ESRD patients over hemodialysis procedures indicates that a segment of patients experience increased flow resistance, particularly at the microcirculatory level. In addition, for the segment of patients experiencing marked increases in WBV during hemodialysis, the vessel wall at the dialysis fistula is exposed to blood with a higher viscosity than at the beginning of the process. The higher blood viscosity at the dialysis fistula is directly related to increased kinetic force and shear stress on the vessel wall, which may be playing a role in increasing the risk of stenosis.

  17. Whole blood: the future of traumatic hemorrhagic shock resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Alan D; Berséus, Olle; Hervig, Tor; Strandenes, Geir; Lunde, Turid Helen

    2014-05-01

    Toward the end of World War I and during World War II, whole-blood transfusions were the primary agent in the treatment of military traumatic hemorrhage. However, after World War II, the fractionation of whole blood into its components became widely accepted and replaced whole-blood transfusion to better accommodate specific blood deficiencies, logistics, and financial reasons. This transition occurred with very few clinical trials to determine which patient populations or scenarios would or would not benefit from the change. A smaller population of patients with trauma hemorrhage will require massive transfusion (>10 U packed red blood cells in 24 h) occurring in 3% to 5% of civilian and 10% of military traumas. Advocates for hemostatic resuscitation have turned toward a ratio-balanced component therapy using packed red blood cells-fresh frozen plasma-platelet concentration in a 1:1:1 ratio due to whole-blood limited availability. However, this "reconstituted" whole blood is associated with a significantly anemic, thrombocytopenic, and coagulopathic product compared with whole blood. In addition, several recent military studies suggest a survival advantage of early use of whole blood, but the safety concerns have limited is widespread civilian use. Based on extensive military experience as well as recent published literature, low-titer leukocyte reduced cold-store type O whole blood carries low adverse risks and maintains its hemostatic properties for up to 21 days. A prospective randomized trial comparing whole blood versus ratio balanced component therapy is proposed with rationale provided.

  18. Imaging flow cytometry assays for quantifying pigment grade titanium dioxide particle internalization and interactions with immune cells in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Rachel E; Vis, Bradley; Pele, Laetitia C; Faria, Nuno; Powell, Jonathan J

    2017-09-20

    Pigment grade titanium dioxide is composed of sub-micron sized particles, including a nanofraction, and is widely utilized in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries. Oral exposure to pigment grade titanium dioxide results in at least some material entering the circulation in humans, although subsequent interactions with blood immune cells are unknown. Pigment grade titanium dioxide is employed for its strong light scattering properties, and this work exploited that attribute to determine whether single cell-particle associations could be determined in immune cells of human whole blood at "real life" concentrations. In vitro assays, initially using isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, identified titanium dioxide associated with the surface of, and within, immune cells by darkfield reflectance in imaging flow cytometry. This was confirmed at the population level by side scatter measurements using conventional flow cytometry. Next, it was demonstrated that imaging flow cytometry could quantify titanium dioxide particle-bearing cells, within the immune cell populations of fresh whole blood, down to titanium dioxide levels of 10 parts per billion, which is in the range anticipated for human blood following titanium dioxide ingestion. Moreover, surface association and internal localization of titanium dioxide particles could be discriminated in the assays. Overall, results showed that in addition to the anticipated activity of blood monocytes internalizing titanium dioxide particles, neutrophil internalization and cell membrane adhesion also occurred, the latter for both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cell types. What happens in vivo and whether this contributes to activation of one or more of these different cells types in blood merits further attention. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. Induction of tumor necrosis factor in human peripheral-blood mononuclear cells by proteolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Desser, L; Rehberger, A

    1990-01-01

    We could demonstrate that polyenzyme preparations as well as bromelain and papain stimulate the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human peripheral-blood mononuclear cell cultures in a time-dependent manner. We give evidence that immunomodulation and especially the release of cytokines may contribute to the therapeutic effect of these preparations.

  20. Studies of biological properties of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on human blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Bors, Milena; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Pilarski, Radosław; Sicińska, Paulina; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Bukowska, Bożena

    2012-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC is a lignified climbing plant from South and Central America, which (under the name of "vilcacora" or "cat's claw") has become highly popular in many countries due to its proven immunostimmulatory and anti-inflammatory activities and also with respect to its anticancer and antioxidative effects. There are insufficient data on the mechanism of U. tomentosa action on normal blood mononuclear cells. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of ethanol and aqueous extracts from bark and leaves of Uncaria tomentosa on the structure and function of human mononuclear cells and to find out whether the kind of extractant used modulates biological activity of the extracts studied. Plant material consisted of four different extracts: (1) ethanol extract from leaves, (2) aqueous extract from leaves, (3) ethanol extract from bark and (4) aqueous extract from bark. The effect of these extracts on protein damage as well as on free-radical formation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed. Moreover, changes in viability, size, and granularity as well as apoptotic alterations in human blood mononuclear cells exposed to U. tomentosa extracts were investigated. The oxidative changes were observed in mononuclear blood cells exposed to both ethanol and aqueous extracts obtained from bark and leaves. Moreover, in the cells studied the extracts from U. tomentosa induced apoptosis and a decrease in viability of mononuclear blood cells, with the exception of aqueous extract from leaves. Additionally, no statistically significant changes in the cell size were observed both for aqueous extracts from leaves and bark. Changes in the blood mononuclear cell granularity were observed at 250 μg/mL for all extracts examined. The strongest changes were observed for the ethanol extract of the bark, which increased cell granularity at 50 μg/mL and changed cell size at 100 μg/mL. The conducted research showed differences in biological activity

  1. Temperature dependence of near-infrared spectra of whole blood.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Paul; Charlier, Jean-Luc; Willcox, Tim; Warman, Guy; McGlone, Andrew; Künnemeyer, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence (30 to 40 degrees C) of near-infrared spectra (500 to 1100 nm) of whole human blood, including red blood cells with intact physiological function, is investigated. Previous studies have focused on hemoglobin solutions, but the operation of red blood cells is critically dependent on intact cell membranes to perform normal oxygen transport and other physiological functions. Thus measurements of whole blood are more directly related to changes that occur in vivo. In addition to the response of hemoglobin to temperature in the spectra, a temperature response from water in the plasma is also detected. The temperature response of the water absorption at 960 nm is approximately ten times smaller than the temperature response of the oxyhemoglobin component in the blood at 610 nm. However, it is the most significant temperature effect between 800 and 1000 nm. This work will aid the precision and understanding of full spectrum near-infrared measurements on blood.

  2. Paper‐Origami‐Based Multiplexed Malaria Diagnostics from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaolian; Nolder, Debbie; Reboud, Julien; Oguike, Mary C.; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A.; Sutherland, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We demonstrate, for the first time, the multiplexed determination of microbial species from whole blood using the paper‐folding technique of origami to enable the sequential steps of DNA extraction, loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and array‐based fluorescence detection. A low‐cost handheld flashlight reveals the presence of the final DNA amplicon to the naked eye, providing a “sample‐to‐answer” diagnosis from a finger‐prick volume of human blood, within 45 min, with minimal user intervention. To demonstrate the method, we showed the identification of three species of Plasmodium, analyzing 80 patient samples benchmarked against the gold‐standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in an operator‐blinded study. We also show that the test retains its diagnostic accuracy when using stored or fixed reference samples. PMID:27554333

  3. Paper-Origami-Based Multiplexed Malaria Diagnostics from Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaolian; Nolder, Debbie; Reboud, Julien; Oguike, Mary C; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Sutherland, Colin J; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2016-12-05

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the multiplexed determination of microbial species from whole blood using the paper-folding technique of origami to enable the sequential steps of DNA extraction, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and array-based fluorescence detection. A low-cost handheld flashlight reveals the presence of the final DNA amplicon to the naked eye, providing a "sample-to-answer" diagnosis from a finger-prick volume of human blood, within 45 min, with minimal user intervention. To demonstrate the method, we showed the identification of three species of Plasmodium, analyzing 80 patient samples benchmarked against the gold-standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in an operator-blinded study. We also show that the test retains its diagnostic accuracy when using stored or fixed reference samples.

  4. Separation of granulocytes from whole blood by leukoadhesion, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Capillary glass tubes are investigated for the separation and retrieval of large quantities of viable granulocytes and monocytes from whole blood on a continuous basis from a single donor. This effort represented the feasibility demonstration of a three phase program for development of a capillary tube cell separation device. The activity included the analysis and parametric laboratory testing with subscale models required to design a prototype device. Capillary tubes 40 cm long with a nominal 0.030 cm internal diameter yielded the highest total process efficiency. Recovery efficiencies as high as 89% of the adhering cell population were obtained. Granulocyte phagocytosis of latex particles indicated approximately 90% viability. Monocytes recovered from the separation column retained their capability to stimulate human bone marrow colony growth, as demonstrated in an in vitro cell culture assay.

  5. The synthesis of Rantes, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13 in human whole-blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots.

    PubMed

    Schmolz, M W; Sacher, F; Aicher, B

    2001-05-01

    An ethanol extract derived from the roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus was found to influence markedly the cytokine synthesis of activated whole blood cultures of ten healthy volunteers. Whereas the synthesis of Rantes was increased over a wide range of concentrations, the release of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-12 was significantly inhibited. An inhibition at higher concentrations, switching to a stimulation at lower doses of the extract was seen with G-CSF, IL-6 and IL-13. From these particular immuno-pharmacological effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus we suggest this herbal preparation possesses immuno-modulatory potency, rather than just being immuno-suppressive or -stimulating.

  6. Warm fresh whole blood and thoracic traumain iraq and afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Keneally, Ryan J; Parsons, Andrew M; Willett, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic trauma occurred in 10% of the patients seen at US military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and 52% of those patients were transfused. Among those transfused, 281 patients received warm fresh whole blood. A previous report documented improved survival with warm fresh whole blood in patients injured in combat without stratification by injury pattern. A later report described an increase in acute lung injuries after its administration. Survivorship and warm fresh whole blood have never been analyzed in a subpopulation at highest risk for lung injuries, such as patients with thoracic trauma. There may be a heterogeneous relationship between whole blood and survival based on likelihood of a concomitant pulmonary injury. In this report, the relationship between warm fresh whole blood and survivorship was analyzed among patients at highest risk for concomitant pulmonary injuries. Patients with thoracic trauma who received a transfusion were identified in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Gross mortality rates were compared between whole blood recipients and patients transfused with component therapy only. The association between each blood component and mortality was determined in a regression model. The overall mortality risk was compared between warm fresh whole blood recipients and non-recipients. Patients transfused with warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy had a higher mortality rate than patients transfused only separated blood components (21.3% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001). When controlling for covariates, transfusion of warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy was not associated with increased mortality risk compared with the transfusion of component therapy only (OR 1.247 [95% CI 0.760-2.048], P = 0.382). Patients with combat related thoracic trauma transfused with warm fresh whole blood were not at increased risk for mortality compared to those who received component therapy alone when controlling for covariates.

  7. Flow cytometric lymphocyte subset analysis using material from frozen whole blood.

    PubMed

    Alam, Iftikhar; Goldeck, David; Larbi, Anis; Pawelec, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Multicenter immune monitoring programs commonly rely on storing and shipping cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), isolated from whole blood before freezing. However, under many conditions in the field, facilities to separate PBMC are absent. Here, we investigate the feasibility of using whole blood (WB) frozen at -80°C as a source of viable lymphocytes for use in immunological studies. We compare the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes and their subsets from frozen WB with results from cryopreserved PBMC in five random healthy blood donors (three female, two male). We report that CD4 and CD8 values in lymphocytes from WB frozen up to 120 days were very similar to those of PBMC frozen up to 10 days. These data suggest that within the limits of parameters investigated in this study, contrary to our original assumptions, whole blood frozen at -80°C may in fact be an appropriate source of viable lymphocytes for T cell enumeration assays in immunological and epidemiological studies.

  8. Impairment of IFN-gamma response to synthetic peptides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a 7-day whole blood assay.

    PubMed

    Gideon, Hannah Priyadarshini; Hamilton, Melissa Shea; Wood, Kathryn; Pepper, Dominique; Oni, Tolu; Seldon, Ronnett; Banwell, Claire; Langford, Paul R; Wilkinson, Robert J; Wilkinson, Katalin A

    2013-01-01

    Studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens are of interest in order to improve vaccine efficacy and to define biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The methodologies used for these investigations differ greatly between laboratories and discordant results are common. The IFN-gamma response to two well characterized MTB antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10, in the form of recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides, was evaluated in HIV-1 uninfected persons in both long-term (7 day) and 24 hour, commercially available QuantiFERON TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT), whole blood assays. Our findings showed differences in the IFN-gamma response between 24 hour and 7 day cultures, with recombinant proteins inducing a significantly higher response than the peptide pools in 7 day whole blood assays. The activity of peptides and recombinant proteins did not differ in 24 hour whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) based assays, nor in the ELISpot assay. Further analysis by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed that the peptides are degraded over the course of 7 days of incubation in whole blood whilst the recombinant proteins remain intact. This study therefore demonstrates that screening antigenic candidates as synthetic peptides in long-term whole blood assays may underestimate immunogenicity.

  9. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Ledesma, Marta; Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn.

  10. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn. PMID:27736919

  11. Whole blood tissue factor procoagulant activity is elevated in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Key, N S; Slungaard, A; Dandelet, L; Nelson, S C; Moertel, C; Styles, L A; Kuypers, F A; Bach, R R

    1998-06-01

    We developed a simple assay for the measurement of tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF PCA) in whole blood samples that avoids the need for mononuclear cell isolation. This method combines convenience of sample collection and processing with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for TF. Using this method, we have determined that TF PCA is detectable in whole blood samples from normal individuals, which is itself a novel observation. Essentially all PCA could be shown to be localized in the mononuclear cell fraction of blood. Compared with controls, whole blood TF levels were significantly (P < .000001) elevated in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), regardless of the subtype of hemoglobinopathy (SS or SC disease). No significant difference in TF PCA was observed between patients in pain crisis compared with those in steady-state disease. Because TF functions as cofactor in the proteolytic conversion of FVII to FVIIa in vitro, it was expected that an increase in circulating TF PCA would lead to an increased in vivo generation of FVIIa. On the contrary, FVIIa levels were actually decreased in the plasma of patients with SCD. Plasma TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) antigen levels were normal in SCD patients, suggesting that accelerated clearance of FVIIa by the TFPI pathway was not responsible for the reduced FVIIa levels. We propose that elevated levels of circulating TF PCA may play an important role in triggering the activation of coagulation known to occur in patients with SCD. Because TF is the principal cellular ligand for FVIIa, it is possible that increased binding to TF accounts for the diminished plasma FVIIa levels.

  12. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864.7140 Section 864.7140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  13. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels.

    PubMed

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects.

  14. Different responses of human mononuclear phagocyte populations to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Duque, Camilo; Arroyo, Leonar; Ortega, Héctor; Montúfar, Franco; Ortíz, Blanca; Rojas, Mauricio; Barrera, Luis F

    2014-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects different populations of macrophages. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are initially infected, and their response may contribute to controlling Mtb infection and dissemination. However, Mtb infection may disseminate to other tissues, infecting a wide variety of macrophages. Given the difficulty in obtaining AMs, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are used to model macrophage-mycobacteria interactions in humans. However, the response of other tissue macrophages to Mtb infection has been poorly explored. We have compared MDMs, AMs and splenic human macrophages (SMs) for their in vitro capacity to control Mtb growth, cytokine production, and induction of cell death in response to Mtb H37Rv, and the Colombian isolate UT205, and to the virulence factor ESAT-6. Significant differences in the magnitude of cell death and cytokine production depending mainly on the Mtb strain were observed; however, no major differences in the mycobacteriostatic/mycobacteriocidal activity were detected among the macrophage populations. Infection with the clinical isolate UT205 was associated with an increased cell death with membrane damage, particularly in IFNγ-treated SMs and H37Rv induced a higher production of cytokines compared to UT205. These results are concordant with the interpretation of a differential response to Mtb infection mainly depending upon the strain of Mtb.

  15. Whole Blood PCR Amplification with Pfu DNA Polymerase and Its Application in Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Er-Ping; Wang, Yan; He, Xiao-Hui; Guan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Jin; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Sun, Wan-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Point-of-care genetic analysis may require polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be carried out on whole blood. However, human blood contains natural inhibitors of PCR such as hemoglobin, immunoglobulin G, lactoferrin, and proteases, as well as anticoagulant agents, including EDTA and heparin that can reduce whole blood PCR efficiency. Our purpose was to develop a highly specific, direct whole blood single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis method based on allele-specific (AS) PCR that is mediated by Pfu DNA polymerase and phosphorothioate-modified AS primers. At high Mg(2+) concentrations, Pfu DNA polymerase efficiently amplified genomic DNA in a reaction solution containing up to 14% whole blood. Among the three anticoagulants tested, Pfu DNA polymerase showed the highest activity with sodium citrate. Meanwhile, Triton X-100 and betaine inhibited Pfu DNA polymerase activity in whole blood PCR, whereas trehalose had virtually no effect. These findings provided for the development of a low-cost, simple, and fast direct whole blood genotyping method that uses Pfu DNA polymerase combined with phosphorothioate AS primers for CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1(-1639) loci. With its high DNA amplification efficiency and tolerance of various blood conditions, Pfu DNA polymerase can be used in clinical laboratories to analyze SNPs in whole blood samples.

  16. Whole blood cyanide levels in patients with tobacco amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Jestico, J V; O'Brien, M D; Teoh, R; Toseland, P A; Wong, H C

    1984-06-01

    Three patients presented with painless bilateral visual failure due to tobacco amblyopia. The whole blood cyanide levels were raised above those predicted from their high tobacco consumption, approaching lethal levels reported from acute inhalation of cyanide. Each patient had an excessive alcohol intake with biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction, the elevated whole blood cyanide levels being attributed to the associated impairment of cyanide detoxification. In each case the improvement in visual acuities following abstinence and hydroxycobalamin therapy was accompanied by a reduction in the whole blood cyanide level to within the normal range. Serial measurements of whole blood cyanide, serum alcohol, and the detection of urinary nicotine provided valuable indices of the patient's subsequent compliance and clinical progress.

  17. Relationships of Whole Blood Serotonin and Plasma Norepinephrine within Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Bennett L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study of 47 families of autistic probands found that whole blood serotonin was positively correlated between autistic children and their mothers, fathers, and siblings, but plasma norepinephrine levels were not. (Author/JDD)

  18. A novel method for whole blood PCR without pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ritu; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Singh, Prabhjeet

    2012-06-10

    PCR is usually performed on purified DNA. However, the extraction of DNA from whole blood is time consuming and involves the risk of contamination at every step. Hence, it is desirable to amplify DNA directly from whole blood. Earlier, investigators tried to achieve this target by either pretreatment of whole blood samples with different agents or by altering the conventional thermal cyclic conditions. This would make the technique cumbersome and time consuming. Here, we describe a simple protocol to amplify DNA directly from whole blood without the need of pretreatment. PCR buffer system was optimized in the laboratory and Apolipoprotein B gene was used as a model for this experiment. 480 bp was the target site for amplification. Fresh whole blood samples were used both from healthy and diseased individuals (coronary artery disease patients). Successful amplification was achieved with 1 μl volume of whole blood and it was comparable to that of genomic DNA. No pretreatment of whole blood samples was required with the optimized buffer system. 3mM concentration of MgCl(2) was observed to be optimal and hence used in the reaction mixture. Amplification was relatively better with this buffer system as compared to that of commercially available PCR buffer. With the present technique, amplicon detection did not require the centrifugation/dilution of the PCR products which further saves time. Successful amplification was achieved in both the healthy and diseased blood samples, indicating the robustness of the technique as changed blood composition and presence of increased inhibitory molecules in the diseased state did not seem to affect the efficacy of the present technique. In conclusion, as compared to the existing protocols for whole blood PCR, the present technique is relatively novel, simple, requires minimal steps and eliminates the need for additional standardizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutrophil aggregation measured in whole blood by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, S.I.; Sklar, L.A. Los Alamos National Lab., NM )

    1991-03-15

    Flow cytometry has enabled measurement of the kinetics of formyl peptide stimulated neutrophil aggregation and its dependence on the CD11b/CD18 adhesion molecule. The authors are currently measuring aggregation of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry. Fresh whole blood samples were kept at 4C and stained with LDS-751 a vital nucleic stain. Cytometric detection of neutrophil aggregation in whole blood at 37C was achieved by thresholding on LDS-751 fluorescence and then gating on forward and right angle light scatter. Aggregation was up to 10 times more efficient in whole blood than in purified cells, despite the fact that the number of CD11b/CD18 sites was upregulated 5-10 fold in elutriated neutrophil preparations. The time course of whole blood aggregation was often irreversible as compared to elutriated cells. Aggregation was only partially blocked by preincubation with concentrations of antibody to the CD18 integrin effective in blocking aggregation in elutriated cells. Further study is needed to distinguish between the contributions of other cell types, as well as the activity and number of CD11b/CD18 adhesive sites on the kinetics and efficiency of neutrophil collisions in whole blood.

  20. Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion: Military and Civilian Implications.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Carl W; Tranberg, John W; Boyer, Phillip; Silvestri, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage and exsanguination are the leading cause of preventable death, and resuscitative therapy is a critical component for survival. In various combinations, fresh whole blood, blood components, colloids, and crystalloids have all been staples of trauma care. The use of fresh whole blood is a well-established military practice that has saved the lives of thousands of American and coalition military personnel. Civilian use of fresh whole blood is far less established owing to the wide availability of individual blood components. However, this highly tailored blood supply is vulnerable to both natural and man-made disasters. In the event of such disruption, such as a major hurricane, it may be necessary for civilian hospitals to rapidly enact a fresh whole blood program. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current use of blood therapy for trauma resuscitation, the US military's approach to fresh whole blood, and how maintaining a civilian capacity for fresh whole blood collection in the event of future man-made and natural disasters is key to promoting survival from trauma. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. Enhanced production of prostaglandins and plasminogen activator during activation of human articular chondrocytes by products of mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Meats, J E; McGuire, M K; Ebsworth, N M; Englis, D J; Russell, R G

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the way in which products of cultured human blood mononuclear cells activate human articular chondrocytes. Conditioned medium from mononuclear cells enhanced the production of prostaglandin E by cultured human chondrocytes and also stimulated fibrinolytic activity in these cultures. These two effects may be interrelated, since the increased fibrinolysis in response to products of mononuclear cells was partially inhibited by indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis. The increased fibrinolysis is probably attributable to plasminogen activator, since it was strongly dependent on the presence of plasminogen. Increased amounts of PGE and chondroitin sulphate were also released from intact fragments of cartilage exposed to medium from cultured mononuclear cells. The time course and dose dependence of these effects were studied. The addition of exogenous arachidonic acid markedly enhanced production of PGE2. Ultrogel AcA54 was used to fractionate medium from cultured mononuclear cells and the chondrocyte-stimulating activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight between 12 000 and 25 000 daltons. Adherent and non-adherent mononuclear blood cells were also partially separated and conditioned medium from each was assayed for chondrocyte-stimulating factors. Both populations released factor(s) which increased the production of prostaglandin E by chondrocytes, but more activity came from the adherent mononuclear cells. The possible interrelationship between the chondrocyte activating factor studied here and others described in the literature is discussed.

  2. High-Throughput Separation of White Blood Cells From Whole Blood Using Inertial Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Dan; Sluyter, Ronald; Yan, Sheng; Zhao, Qianbin; Xia, Huanming; Tan, Say Hwa; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Li, Weihua

    2017-08-29

    White blood cells (WBCs) constitute only about 0.1% of human blood cells, yet contain rich information about the immune status of the body; thus, separation of WBCs from the whole blood is an indispensable and critical sample preparation step in many scientific, clinical, and diagnostic applications. In this paper, we developed a continuous and high-throughput microfluidic WBC separation platform utilizing the differential inertial focusing of particles in serpentine microchannels. First, separation performance of the proposed method is characterized and evaluated using polystyrene beads in the serpentine channel. The purity of 10-μm polystyrene beads is increased from 0.1% to 80.3% after two cascaded processes, with an average enrichment ratio of 28 times. Next, we investigated focusing and separation properties of Jurkat cells spiked in the blood to mimic the presence of WBCs in whole blood. Finally, separation of WBCs from human whole blood was conducted and separation purity of WBCs was measured by the flow cytometry. The results show that the purity of WBCs can be increased to 48% after two consecutive processes, with an average enrichment ratio of ten times. Meanwhile, a parallelized inertial microfluidic device was designed to provide a high processing flow rate of 288 ml/h for the diluted (×1/20) whole blood. The proposed microfluidic device can potentially work as an upstream component for blood sample preparation and analysis in the integrated microfluidic systems.

  3. Whole blood immunoassay based on centrifugal bead sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Schaff, Ulrich Y; Sommer, Greg J

    2011-05-01

    Centrifugal "lab on a disk" microfluidics is a promising avenue for developing portable, low-cost, automated immunoassays. However, the necessity of incorporating multiple wash steps results in complicated designs that increase the time and sample/reagent volumes needed to run assays and raises the probability of errors. We present proof of principle for a disk-based microfluidic immunoassay technique that processes blood samples without conventional wash steps. Microfluidic disks were fabricated from layers of patterned, double-sided tape and polymer sheets. Sample was mixed on-disk with assay capture beads and labeling antibodies. Following incubation, the assay beads were physically separated from the blood cells, plasma, and unbound label by centrifugation through a density medium. A signal-laden pellet formed at the periphery of the disk was analyzed to quantify concentration of the target analyte. To demonstrate this technique, the inflammation biomarkers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured from spiked mouse plasma and human whole blood samples. On-disk processing (mixing, labeling, and separation) facilitated direct assays on 1-μL samples with a 15-min sample-to-answer time, <100 pmol/L limit of detection, and 10% CV. We also used a unique single-channel multiplexing technique based on the sedimentation rate of different size or density bead populations. This portable microfluidic system is a promising method for rapid, inexpensive, and automated detection of multiple analytes directly from a drop of blood in a point-of-care setting.

  4. Metals in air pollution particles decrease whole-blood coagulation time.

    PubMed

    Sangani, Rahul G; Soukup, Joleen M; Ghio, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    The mechanism underlying procoagulative effects of air pollution particle exposure is not known. The authors tested the postulate that (1) the water-soluble components of an air pollution particle could affect whole-blood coagulation time and (2) metals included in this fraction were responsible for this effect. Exposure to the water-soluble fraction of particulate matter (PM), at doses as low as 50 ng/ml original particle, significantly diminished the whole-blood coagulation time. Inclusion of deferoxamine prolonged coagulation time following the exposures to the water-soluble fraction, whereas equivalent doses of ferroxamine had no effect. Except for nickel, all metal sulfates shortened the whole-blood coagulation time. Iron and zinc were two metals with the greatest capacity to reduce the coagulation time, with an effect observed at 10 ng/ml. Finally, in contrast to the anticoagulants citrate and EDTA, their iron complexes were found to be procoagulative. The authors conclude that metals in the water-soluble fraction of air pollution particles decrease whole-blood coagulation time. These metals can potentially contribute to procoagulative effects observed following human exposures to air pollution particles.

  5. Adverse reactions to whole blood donation and plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Grindon, A J

    1982-01-01

    Whole blood donation is recognized to be extremely safe, yet there have been reports of serious problems stemming from whole blood donation, and so-called "donor reactions" are regularly seen. While the physiologic causes of the common donor reactions are not completely understood, some effects of whole blood donation (such as transient iron deficiency) are understood but probably not significant. In order to avoid accepting any volunteer donor who might be at risk of a serious reaction, we may have been overly cautious in exclusion of potential donors. The pheresis donor is subjected to potential depletion of the protein or cellular elements being removed, problems caused by the device used for automated pheresis, or problems related to the infusion of potentially toxic substances. Documented benefit to the patient must balance these additional risks.

  6. A multicenter comparison of whole blood vitamin B6 assays.

    PubMed

    van Zelst, Bertrand D; de Beer, Roseri J A C Roelofsen; Neele, Marjolein; Kos, Snježana; Kema, Ido P; Tegelaers, Frans P W; Cobbaert, Christa M; Weykamp, Cas W; de Jonge, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different analytical methods that are currently in use in the Netherlands for the measurement of whole blood vitamin B6. This method comparison study consisted of two separate parts. (1) Four laboratories participated in a pilot study in which the commercial Chromsystems and INstruchemie method, and a laboratory developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and HPLC method were compared. Sixty-nine frozen whole blood samples and six lyophilized whole blood samples were used for comparison. (2) In the nationwide part of the study, 49 laboratories participated in the analysis of three identical sets of two whole blood samples of which one set was freshly analyzed, one set was analyzed after storage at -20 °C and one set was analyzed after lyophilization. In both parts of the study, the HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods showed equivalent results for all sample types tested. The Chromsystems method showed a positive bias of 45% (pilot study) and 30% (nationwide study) towards the LC-MS/MS method when fresh or frozen samples were used. The measurement of lyophilized samples showed no differences between the methods. The results of the INstruchemie method were inconclusive due to the low number of participants. The different analytical methods for measuring vitamin B6 produce different results when whole blood patient samples are measured. The recognition of a reference method or the development of suitable reference materials and quality control materials might serve as a first step towards improved standardization or harmonization of the whole blood vitamin B6 assay.

  7. Platelet-rich fibrin prepared from stored whole-blood samples.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Kazushige; Suzuki, Masashi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Kitamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Taiji; Kawabata, Hideo; Nakamura, Masayuki; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Okudera, Hajime; Uematsu, Kohya; Nakata, Koh; Tanaka, Takaaki; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2017-12-01

    In regenerative therapy, self-clotted platelet concentrates, such as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), are generally prepared on-site and are immediately used for treatment. If blood samples or prepared clots can be preserved for several days, their clinical applicability will expand. Here, we prepared PRF from stored whole-blood samples and examined their characteristics. Blood samples were collected from non-smoking, healthy male donors (aged 27-67 years, N = 6), and PRF clots were prepared immediately or after storage for 1-2 days. Fibrin fiber was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Bioactivity was evaluated by means of a bioassay system involving human periosteal cells, whereas PDGF-BB concentrations were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Addition of optimal amounts of a 10% CaCl2 solution restored the coagulative ability of whole-blood samples that contained an anticoagulant (acid citrate dextrose) and were stored for up to 2 days at ambient temperature. In PRF clots prepared from the stored whole-blood samples, the thickness and cross-links of fibrin fibers were almost identical to those of freshly prepared PRF clots. PDGF-BB concentrations in the PRF extract were significantly lower in stored whole-blood samples than in fresh samples; however, both extracts had similar stimulatory effects on periosteal-cell proliferation. Quality of PRF clots prepared from stored whole-blood samples is not reduced significantly and can be ensured for use in regenerative therapy. Therefore, the proposed method enables a more flexible treatment schedule and choice of a more suitable platelet concentrate immediately before treatment, not after blood collection.

  8. Sensitive determination of xylenes in whole blood by capillary gas chromatography with cryogenic trapping.

    PubMed

    Hattori, H; Iwai, M; Kurono, S; Yamada, T; Watanabe-Suzuki, K; Ishii, A; Seno, H; Suzuki, O

    1998-11-06

    A new and sensitive method for measurement of o-, m- and p-xylenes in human whole blood by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with cryogenic trapping is presented. After heating 0.5 ml of whole blood and 0.5 ml of distilled water containing the xylenes and aniline (internal standard, I.S.) in a 4.0-ml vial at 100 degrees C for 30 min, 2 ml of the headspace vapor was drawn into a glass syringe. All vapor was introduced through the GC port into an AT-Wax middle-bore capillary column in the splitless mode at an oven temperature of 5 degrees C to trap the entire analytes, and the oven temperature was then programmed up to 180 degrees C. The present conditions gave sharp peaks for xylenes and aniline (I.S.), and low background noises for whole blood samples; the peaks of p- and m-xylenes showed about 90% separation with the AT-Wax column. As much as 41.0-46.3% of xylenes, which had been spiked to whole blood could be recovered. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.1-0.5 microg/0.5 ml of whole blood. The detection limit was estimated to be about 10 ng/0.5 ml. The coefficients of intra-day and inter-day variations for xylenes were not greater than 9.38%. The data for actual detection of xylenes in post-mortem blood of self-ignition suicide cases by the present method were also presented.

  9. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart A; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R (2) > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  10. Skin extracts from 2 Italian table grapes (Italia and Palieri) inhibit tissue factor expression by human blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Milella, Rosa Anna; Antonacci, Donato; Crupi, Pasquale; Incampo, Francesca; Carrieri, Cosimo; Semeraro, Nicola; Colucci, Mario

    2012-08-01

    Grape and its products such as red wine and grape juice have well-known antithrombotic properties, which have been attributed to their high content in polyphenolic compounds. Most studies on the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects, among which the suppression of tissue factor (TF) synthesis in blood mononuclear cells (MNC) and vascular endothelium is a prominent one, have been performed with purified polyphenols, while little is known about the effect of fresh grapes which contain a multitude of phytochemicals whose interaction may lead to different cell responses. In this study, we investigated the effect of grape skin extracts (GSEs) on TF expression in isolated blood MNC and in whole blood. Alcoholic extracts from skins of 2 grape varieties (Palieri and Italia) inhibited TF expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated MNC in a concentration-dependent manner with ≥90% inhibition of TF activity and antigen at 6 μg/mL of gallic acid equivalents. Noteworthy, GSEs were also able to inhibit the appearance of TF in whole blood challenged with LPS. The 2 grape varieties displayed a fairly similar TF-inhibiting capacity despite marked differences in phenolic profile. When selected purified polyphenols were tested, their ability to inhibit TF expression was markedly lower as compared to grape extracts, whereas a mixture of some representative polyphenols was much more efficient, supporting the occurrence of a synergistic effect. Given the key role of cell TF in thrombotic diseases, the inhibition of MNC-mediated clotting activation, if confirmed by in vivo studies, might represent an important antithrombotic mechanism. Our data indicate that the combination of different polyphenols, as in grape extracts, is much more efficient than the single constituents, a finding that might be useful as starting point for the development of new antithrombotic nutraceutics. In addition, our study validated a simple, inexpensive, and physiologically relevant in vitro

  11. A high-throughput assay of NK cell activity in whole blood and its clinical application

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Saet-byul; Cha, Junhoe; Kim, Im-kyung; Yoon, Joo Chun; Lee, Hyo Joon; Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Sunjung; Youn, Dong-Ye; Lee, Heyja; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Jae Myun; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Jongsun

    2014-03-14

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We demonstrated a simple assay of NK cell activity from whole blood. • The measurement of secreted IFN-γ from NK cell enables high-throughput screening. • The NKA assay was validated by clinical results of colorectal cancer patients. - Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and have the ability to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Malignant tumors and viruses have developed, however, strategies to suppress NK cells to escape from their responses. Thus, the evaluation of NK cell activity (NKA) could be invaluable to estimate the status and the outcome of cancers, viral infections, and immune-mediated diseases. Established methods that measure NKA, such as {sup 51}Cr release assay and CD107a degranulation assay, may be used to determine NK cell function, but they are complicated and time-consuming because they require isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or NK cells. In some cases these assays require hazardous material such as radioactive isotopes. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a simple assay that uses whole blood instead of PBMC or isolated NK cells. This novel assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and the monitoring of diseases, because it employs serum of ex vivo stimulated whole blood to detect interferon (IFN)-γ secreted from NK cells as an indicator of NKA. After the stimulation of NK cells, the determination of IFNγ concentration in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provided a swift, uncomplicated, and high-throughput assay of NKA ex vivo. The NKA results microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer patients was showed significantly lower NKA, 263.6 ± 54.5 pg/mL compared with healthy subjects, 867.5 ± 50.2 pg/mL (p value <0.0001). Therefore, the NKA could be utilized as a supportive diagnostic marker for microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer.

  12. Measurement of peripheral B cell subpopulations in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) using a whole blood method.

    PubMed

    Ferry, B L; Jones, J; Bateman, E A; Woodham, N; Warnatz, K; Schlesier, M; Misbah, S A; Peter, H H; Chapel, H M

    2005-06-01

    Recent reports have described reduced populations of CD27+ memory B cells and increased percentages of undifferentiated B cells in peripheral blood of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). This work has prompted two attempts to classify CVID based on rapid flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood memory B cells and immature B cells. Evidence to support the hypothesis that such in vitro B cell classification systems correlate with clinical subtypes of CVID is being sought. For the classification to be useful in routine diagnosis, it is important that the flow cytometric method can be used without prior separation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We have examined 23 CVID patients and 24 controls, using both PBMC and whole blood, and find an excellent correlation between these methods. The reproducibility of the method was excellent. We classified the CVID patients by all three of the existing classifications, including secretion of immunoglobulin by B cells in vitro as described by Bryant, as well as the more recent flow cytometric classification methods. Only one patient changed classification as a result of using whole blood.

  13. Measurement of peripheral B cell subpopulations in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) using a whole blood method

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, B L; Jones, J; Bateman, E A; Woodham, N; Warnatz, K; Schlesier, M; Misbah, S A; Peter, H H; Chapel, H M

    2005-01-01

    Recent reports have described reduced populations of CD27+ memory B cells and increased percentages of undifferentiated B cells in peripheral blood of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). This work has prompted two attempts to classify CVID based on rapid flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood memory B cells and immature B cells. Evidence to support the hypothesis that such in vitro B cell classification systems correlate with clinical subtypes of CVID is being sought. For the classification to be useful in routine diagnosis, it is important that the flow cytometric method can be used without prior separation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We have examined 23 CVID patients and 24 controls, using both PBMC and whole blood, and find an excellent correlation between these methods. The reproducibility of the method was excellent. We classified the CVID patients by all three of the existing classifications, including secretion of immunoglobulin by B cells in vitro as described by Bryant, as well as the more recent flow cytometric classification methods. Only one patient changed classification as a result of using whole blood. PMID:15932516

  14. Metabolic effects of microwave radiation and convection heating on human mononuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kiel, J.L.; Wong, L.S.; Erwin, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of microwave radiation (2450 MHz, continuous wave, mean specific absorption rate of 103.5 +/- 4.2 W/kg) and convection heating on the nonphosphorylating oxidative metabolism of human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes (96% lymphocytes, 4% monocytes) at 37 degrees C were investigated. Metabolic activity, determined by chemiluminescence (CL) of cells challenged with luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione) linked to bovine serum albumin, was detected with a brightness photometer. A significant stimulation after microwave exposure (p less than 0.005) over total CL of matched 37 degrees C incubator controls was observed. A similar degree of stimulation compared to incubator controls was also detected after sham treatment. There was no significant difference between changes in total CL or stimulation indices of the microwave and sham exposed groups. It appears that exposure to microwave radiation, under normothermic (37 +/- 0.03 degrees C) conditions, has no effect on the oxidative metabolic activity of human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes. However, the significant differences between microwave or sham exposed cells and their respective incubator controls occurred because the temperature of the incubator controls did not exceed 35.9 degrees C and this temperature required 39 minutes to reach from 22 degrees C. Slow heating of incubator controls must be accounted for in thermal and radiofrequency radiation studies in vitro.

  15. High insulin and leptin increase resistin and inflammatory cytokine production from human mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Tsiotra, Panayoula C; Boutati, Eleni; Dimitriadis, George; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2013-01-01

    Resistin and the proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β , produced by adipocytes, and macrophages, are considered to be important modulators of chronic inflammation contributing to the development of obesity and atherosclerosis. Human monocyte-enriched mononuclear cells, from ten healthy individuals, were exposed to high concentrations of insulin, leptin, and glucose (alone or in combination) for 24 hours in vitro. Resistin, TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β production was examined and compared to that in untreated cells. High insulin and leptin concentrations significantly upregulated resistin and the cytokines. The subsequent addition of high glucose significantly upregulated resistin and TNF- α mRNA and protein secretion, while it did not have any effect on IL-6 or IL-1 β production. By comparison, exposure to dexamethasone reduced TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β production, while at this time point it increased resistin protein secretion. These data suggest that the expression of resistin, TNF- α , IL-6, and IL-1 β from human mononuclear cells, might be enhanced by the hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and possibly by the hyperglycemia in metabolic diseases as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Therefore, the above increased production may contribute to detrimental effects of their increased adipocyte-derived circulating levels on systemic inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function of these patients.

  16. Homogeneous assay for whole blood folate using photon upconversion.

    PubMed

    Arppe, Riikka; Mattsson, Leena; Korpi, Krista; Blom, Sami; Wang, Qi; Riuttamäki, Terhi; Soukka, Tero

    2015-02-03

    Red blood cell folate is measured for folate deficiency diagnosis, because it reflects the long-term folate level in tissues, whereas serum folate only represents the dietary intake. Direct homogeneous assay from whole blood would be ideal but conventional fluorescence techniques in blood suffer from high background and strong absorption of light at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. In this study, a new photon upconversion-based homogeneous assay for whole blood folate is introduced based on resonance energy transfer from upconverting nanophosphor donor coated with folate binding protein to a near-infrared fluorescent acceptor dye conjugated to folate analogue. The sensitized acceptor emission is measured at 740 nm upon 980 nm excitation. Thus, optically transparent wavelengths are utilized for both donor excitation and sensitized acceptor emission to minimize the sample absorption, and anti-Stokes detection completely eliminates the Stokes-shifted autofluorescence. The IC50 value of the assay was 6.0 nM and the limit of detection (LOD) was 1 nM. The measurable concentration range was 2 orders of magnitude between 1.0-100 nM, corresponding to 40-4000 nM folate in the whole blood sample. Recoveries of added folic acid were 112%-114%. A good correlation was found when compared to a competitive heterogeneous assay based on the DELFIA-technology. The introduced assay provides a simple and fast method for whole blood folate measurement.

  17. Metals in airpollution particles decrease whole blood coagulation time

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism underlying the pro-coagulative effect of air pollution particle exposure is not known. We tested the postulate that 1) the soluble fraction ofan air pollution particle can affect whole blood coagulation time and 2) metals included in the soluble fraction are respons...

  18. Diffusion model of the optical absorbance of whole blood.

    PubMed

    Steinke, J M; Shepherd, A P

    1988-06-01

    Photon-diffusion theory has had limited success in modeling the optical transmittance of whole blood. Therefore we have developed a new photon-diffusion model of the optical absorbance of blood. The model has benefited from experiments designed to test its fundamental assumptions, and it has been compared extensively with transmittance data from whole blood. The model is consistent with both experimental and theoretical notions. Furthermore, when all parameters associated with a given optical geometry are known, the model needs no variational parameters to predict the absolute transmittance of whole blood. However, even if the exact value of the incident light intensity is unknown (which is the case in many situations), only a single additive constant is required to scale experiment to theory. Finally, the model is shown to be useful for simulating scattering effects and for delineating the relative contributions of the diffuse transmittance and the collimated transmittance to the total optical density of whole blood. Applications of the model include oximetry and measurements of the arteriovenous oxygen difference in whole, undiluted blood.

  19. Metals in airpollution particles decrease whole blood coagulation time

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism underlying the pro-coagulative effect of air pollution particle exposure is not known. We tested the postulate that 1) the soluble fraction ofan air pollution particle can affect whole blood coagulation time and 2) metals included in the soluble fraction are respons...

  20. Does whole blood coagulation analysis reflect developmental haemostasis?

    PubMed

    Ravn, Hanne Berg; Andreasen, Jo Bnding; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-07-27

    Developmental haemostasis has been well documented over the last 3 decades and age-dependent reference ranges have been reported for a number of plasmatic coagulation parameters. With the increasing use of whole blood point-of-care tests like rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and platelet function tests, an evaluation of age-dependent changes is warranted for these tests as well. We obtained blood samples from 149 children, aged 1 day to 5.9 years, and analysed conventional plasmatic coagulation tests, including activated partial prothrombin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen (functional). Whole blood samples were analysed using ROTEM to assess overall coagulation capacity and Multiplate analyzer to evaluate platelet aggregation. Age-dependent changes were analysed for all variables. We found age-dependent differences in all conventional coagulation tests (all P values < 0.05), but there was no sign of developmental changes in whole blood coagulation assessment when applying ROTEM, apart from clotting time in the EXTEM assay (P < 0.03). Despite marked differences in mean platelet aggregation between age groups, data did not reach statistical significance. Citrate-anticoagulated blood showed significantly reduced platelet aggregation compared with blood anticoagulated with heparin or hirudin (all P values < 0.003). We confirmed previous developmental changes in conventional plasmatic coagulation test. However, these age-dependent changes were not displayed in whole blood monitoring using ROTEM or Multiplate analyzer. Type of anticoagulant had a significant influence on platelet aggregation across all age groups.

  1. Antibody conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for cancer cell separation in fresh whole blood.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Yang, Lily; Kuang, Min; Duan, Hongwei; Xiong, Yonghua; Wei, Hua; Wang, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    A highly efficient process using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IO)-based immunomagnetic separation of tumor cells from fresh whole blood has been developed. The process involved polymer coated 30 nm IO that was modified with antibodies (Ab) against human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2 or anti-HER2/neu) forming IO-Ab. HER2 is a cell membrane protein that is overexpressed in several types of human cancer cells. Using a HER2/neu overexpressing human breast cancer cell line, SK-BR3, as a model cell, the IO-Ab was used to separate 73.6% (with a maximum capture of 84%) of SK-BR3 cells that were spiked in 1 mL of fresh human whole blood. The IO-Ab preferentially bound to SK-BR3 cells over normal cells found in blood due to the high level of HER2/neu receptor on the cancer cells unlike the normal cell surfaces. The results showed that the nanosized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited an enrichment factor (cancer cells over normal cells) of 1:10,000,000 in a magnetic field (with gradient of 100 T/m) through the binding of IO-Ab on the cell surface that resulted in the preferential capture of the cancer cells. This research holds promise for efficient separation of circulating cancer cells in fresh whole blood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibody Conjugated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Cancer Cell Separation in Fresh Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P.; Yang, Lily; Kuang, Min; Duan, Hongwei; Xiong, Yonghua; Wei, Hua; Wang, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient process using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IO)-based immunomagnetic separation of tumor cells from fresh whole blood has been developed. The process involved polymer coated 30 nm IO that was modified with antibodies (Ab) against human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2 or anti-HER2/neu) forming IO-Ab. HER2 is a cell membrane protein that is over expressed in several types of human cancer cells. Using a HER2/neu over expressing human breast cancer cell line, SK-BR3, as a model cell, the IO-Ab was used to separate 73.6 % (with a maximum capture of 84%) of SK-BR3 cells that were spiked in 1 mL of fresh human whole blood. The IO-Ab preferentially bound to SK-BR3 cells over normal cells found in blood due to the high level of HER2/neu receptor on the cancer cells unlike the normal cell surfaces. The results showed that the nanosized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited an enrichment factor (cancer cells over normal cells) of 1:10,000,000 in a magnetic field (with gradient of 100 T/m) through the binding of IO-Ab on the cell surface that resulted in the preferential capture of the cancer cells. This research holds promise for efficient separation of circulating cancer cells in fresh whole blood. PMID:21920599

  3. Electromembrane extraction of stimulating drugs from undiluted whole blood.

    PubMed

    Jamt, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem; Gjelstad, Astrid; Eibak, Lars Erik Eng; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Christophersen, Asbjørg Solberg; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2012-04-06

    For the first time, electromembrane extraction (EME) of six basic drugs of abuse from undiluted whole blood and post mortem blood in a totally stagnant system is reported. Cathinone, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphet-amine (MDMA), ketamine and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) were extracted from the whole blood sample, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) consisting of 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene (ENB) immobilized in the pores of a hollow fiber, and into an aqueous acceptor solution inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The SLM acts as a barrier with efficient exclusion of all macromolecules and acidic substances in the sample. Due to the application of the electrical field, only the cationic compounds of interest are extracted efficiently across the membrane, thus providing extremely clean extracts for analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, LC-MS. Recoveries in the range 10-30% were obtained from 80 μl whole blood within 5 min extraction time and an applied voltage of 15V across the SLM. The optimized technique was tested on real forensic whole blood samples taken from three forensic autopsy cases and on five forensic whole blood samples from living persons. The results were in agreement with the analysis using standard sample preparation methods (liquid-liquid extraction) performed on the same samples by Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH), Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research. Evaluation data were acceptable, with limit of detections (LODs) in the range 40-2610 pg/mL, well below concentrations associated with drug abuse; linearites in the range between 10 and 250 ng/mL with r(2) values above 0.9939, and with repeatability (RSD) of 7-32%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864....7140 Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (a) Identification. An activated whole blood clotting... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. Receptor expression and responsiveness of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a human cytomegalovirus encoded CC chemokine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qi; Xu, Jun; Gao, Huihui; Tao, Ran; Li, Wei; Shang, Shiqiang; Gu, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects the majority of the world's population. After long period of time co-evolving with human being, this pathogen has developed several strategies to evade host immune surveillance. One of the major trick is encoding homologous to those of the host organism or stealing host cellular genes that have significant functions in immune system. To date, we have found several viral immune analogous which include G protein coupled receptor, class I major histocompatibility complex and chemokine. Chemokine is a small group of molecules which is defined by the presence of four cysteines in highly conserved region. The four kinds of chemokines (C, CC, CXC, and CX3C) are classified based on the arrangement of 1 or 2 N-terminal cysteine residues. UL128 protein is one of the analogous that encoded by human cytomegalovirus that has similar amino acid sequences to the human CC chemokine. It has been proved to be one of the essential particles that involved in human cytomegalovirus entry into epithelial/endothelial cells as well as macrophages. It is also the target of potent neutralizing antibodies in human cytomegalovirus-seropositive individuals. We had demonstrated the chemotactic trait of UL128 protein in our previous study. Recombinant UL128 in vitro has the ability to attract monocytes to the infection region and enhances peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation by activating the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. However, the way that this viral encoded chemokine interacting with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the detailed mechanism that involving the virus entry into host cells keeps unknown. Here we performed in vitro investigation into the effects of UL128 protein on peripheral blood mononuclear cell's activation and receptor binding, which may help us further understand the immunomodulatory function of UL128 protein as well as human cytomegalovirus diffusion mechanism.

  9. Regulation and expression of type V (tartrate-resistant) acid phosphatase in human mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, M A; Lord, D K; Cross, N C; Whitaker, K B; Moss, D W; Cox, T M

    1991-02-01

    Human type V (tartrate-resistant) acid phosphatase belongs to a unique group of iron-binding proteins that includes uteroferrin and other purple phosphatases. The enzyme is normally restricted to osteoclasts and certain phagocytic cells but its rôle is unknown. We show that phosphatase mRNA is abundant in cells of monohistiocytic phenotype and that enzyme expression in cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages is depressed by gamma-interferon and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, agents that promote functional differentiation in these cells. In contrast, phorbol ester, which stimulates intracellular calcium-mediated events, greatly enhances type V phosphatase expression and mRNA abundance. Lymphokine and phorbol ester-modulated expression of type V acid phosphatase expression thus represents a model system for investigating proliferative responses that are specific to cells of the mononuclear macrophage system.

  10. Particulate matter induces prothrombotic microparticle shedding by human mononuclear and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neri, Tommaso; Pergoli, Laura; Petrini, Silvia; Gravendonk, Lotte; Balia, Cristina; Scalise, Valentina; Amoruso, Angela; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Bollati, Valentina; Celi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Particulate airborne pollution is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity. Microparticles are extracellular vesicles shed by cells upon activation or apoptosis involved in physiological processes such as coagulation and inflammation, including airway inflammation. We investigated the hypothesis that particulate matter causes the shedding of microparticles by human mononuclear and endothelial cells. Cells, isolated from the blood and the umbilical cords of normal donors, were cultured in the presence of particulate from a standard reference. Microparticles were assessed in the supernatant as phosphatidylserine concentration. Microparticle-associated tissue factor was assessed by an one-stage clotting assay. Nanosight technology was used to evaluate microparticle size distribution. Particulate matter induces a dose- and time- dependent, rapid (1h) increase in microparticle generation in both cells. These microparticles express functional tissue factor. Particulate matter increases intracellular calcium concentration and phospholipase C inhibition reduces microparticle generation. Nanosight analysis confirmed that upon exposure to particulate matter both cells express particles with a size range consistent with the definition of microparticles (50-1000 nm). Exposure of mononuclear and endothelial cells to particulate matter upregulates the generation of microparticles at least partially mediated by calcium mobilization. This observation might provide a further link between airborne pollution and cardiopulmonary morbidity.

  11. Cytokine response of human mononuclear cells induced by intestinal Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Elina; Keto, Joni; Nikkilä, Janne; Mättö, Jaana; Lähteenmäki, Kaarina

    2013-02-01

    Altered composition of intestinal microbiota has been associated with various immunological disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Although Clostridium species are major inhabitants of the intestinal tract, their interaction with the host immunological system is yet poorly characterized. In this study, cytokine responses of human monocytic cell line THP-1 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to six type strains representing common intestinal clostridial species were determined. The strains induced diverse cytokine responses in both THP-1 cells and PBMC. Clostridium perfringens was the most potent inducer of both tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), as compared to Clostridium histolyticum, Clostridium clostridioforme, Clostridium leptum, Clostridium sporosphaeroides and Blautia coccoides. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in PBMC was most efficiently stimulated by C. sporosphaeroides. The same PBMC preparations that responded strongly to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also responded strongly to bacterial stimulation. This indicates that the level of responsiveness is an individual feature of mononuclear cell preparations, and that the overall cytokine response is composed by a combination of host factors and microbial structures affecting them. This work supports the idea that the composition of the intestinal clostridial population influences immune responses and is likely to play an important role in intestinal homeostasis.

  12. [Activation of ganglioside GM3 biosynthesis in human blood mononuclear cells in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Gracheva, E V; Samovilova, N N; Piksina, G F; Shishkina, V S; Prokazova, N V

    2013-01-01

    Using blood monocytes and lymphocytes from atherosclerotic patients and healthy subjects we have investigated activity of GM3 synthase, cellular levels of ganglioside GM3 and its role in monocyte adhesion to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The results showed that activity of GM3 synthase and cellular levels of ganglioside GM3 in blood mononuclear cells from atherosclerotic patients were several-fold higher than those from healthy subjects. In monocytes the activity of GM3 synthase was one an order of magnitude higher than in lymphocytes from both groups studied; this suggests the major contribution of monocytes to enhanced biosynthesis and levels of GM3 in mononuclear cells in atherosclerosis. Enrichment of monocytes from healthy subjects with ganglioside GM3 by incubation in medium containing this ganglioside increased adherence of these monocytes to HUVEC up to the values typical for monocytes from atherosclerotic patients. In addition, an increase in CD1 1b integrin expression was observed that was comparable to that seen in lipopolysaccharide-activated monocytes. It is suggested that in atherosclerosis the enhanced cellular levels of GM3 in monocytes and lymphocytes may be an important element of cell activation that facilitates their adhesion to endothelial cells and penetration into intima.

  13. Retinoid modulation of collagenase production by adherent human mononuclear cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, A; Louie, J S; Uitto, J

    1987-01-01

    Previous observations have suggested that retinoids might be useful for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In this study we examined the effects of various retinoids on collagenase production by adherent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture. We have previously shown that these cells, consisting predominantly of monocyte-macrophages, actively synthesize and secrete collagenase upon stimulation with concanavalin A. The cells were incubated in serum free medium with all-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinal, or Ro 10-9359 (trimethylmethoxyphenyl retinoic acid ethyl ester) for up to 72 hours, and the collagenase activity was determined with [3H]proline labelled type I collagen as substrate. The incubation of mononuclear cells with all-trans-retinoic acid in the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-5) mol/l resulted in a dose dependent inhibition of the collagenase production. All-trans-retinal was also a potent inhibitor, whereas 13-cis-retinoic acid and Ro 10-9359 in a concentration of 10(-5) mol/l had a lesser effect. Control experiments indicated that the inhibition of collagenase production by all-trans-retinoic acid did not result from inhibition of total protein synthesis nor could it be explained by induction of an inhibitory molecule. These results indicate that retinoids with distinct structural features can inhibit collagenase production by monocyte-macrophages, and suggest a role for retinoids in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:3036026

  14. Release of gelatinase and superoxide from human mononuclear phagocytes in response to particulate Tamm Horsfall protein.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D. B.; Davies, M.; Williams, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    This study describes the in vitro activation of human mononuclear phagocytes by particulate Tamm Horsfall protein (THP). Peripheral blood monocytes phagocytosed THP particles with the accompanying release of superoxide radicals, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, and neutral metalloproteinase. Immunoprecipitation and substrate gel analysis identified the neutral proteinase as a 95-kd gelatinase. A comparison with other particulate ligands highlighted the specificity of the response to THP and showed that the magnitude of the response was comparable with that obtained with lipopolysaccharide (100 micrograms/ml). Parallel studies using peritoneal macrophages resulted in a similar pattern of enzyme release and reactive oxygen species synthesis. THP has been implicated in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with reflux nephropathy. The present study indicates that an inflammatory response initiated by a neutrophil-THP interaction may be extended into a chronic phase via the activation of mononuclear phagocytes. The subsequent release of reactive oxygen metabolites and proteinases may contribute to the tissue damage and fibrosis associated with chronic immune-mediated tubulointerstitial nephritis. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8380953

  15. Isothermal single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and direct PCR from whole blood using a novel whole-blood lysis buffer.

    PubMed

    Victor, Sylvia T; Lezhava, Alexander; Ishidao, Takefumi; Endo, Ryuta; Mitani, Yasumasa; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2009-12-01

    Cell lysis and subsequent release of genomic DNA is an ongoing dilemma for molecular biological techniques. In most cases, technologies such as PCR and other amplification techniques require DNA extraction and purification steps. The Smart Amplification Process Version 2 (SmartAmp2) is an isothermal and integrated amplification technology that eliminates the need for time-consuming sample preparation for the rapid detection of nucleic acids, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), mutations, and other targets. In addition, DNA amplification directly from whole blood is beneficial and lessens the risk of cross-contamination. Traditional SmartAmp2 assays entail two steps and require an alkali pretreatment step at 98 degrees C prior to the 60 degrees C run. To make SmartAmp2 truly isothermal and to simplify DNA amplification, we hereby introduce the SmartAmp Isothermal Lysis Buffer (SIL-B), a newly developed chaotropic lysis buffer that enables the simultaneous recovery and denaturation of genomic material directly from whole blood at a uniform 60 degrees C. The improved method for isolating nucleic acids from whole blood is a critical milestone in making SmartAmp2 truly isothermal from start to finish at one temperature, increasing its potential to be routinely used in field point-of-care testing. Furthermore, pretreatment with SIL-B enables the PCR amplification of genomic material directly from whole blood.

  16. Globin mRNA reduction for whole-blood transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Krjutškov, Kaarel; Koel, Mariann; Roost, Anne Mari; Katayama, Shintaro; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Söderhäll, Cilla; Jaakma, Ülle; Plaas, Mario; Vesterlund, Liselotte; Lohi, Hannes; Salumets, Andres; Kere, Juha

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptome analysis of whole-blood RNA by sequencing holds promise for the identification and tracking of biomarkers; however, the high globin mRNA (gmRNA) content of erythrocytes hampers whole-blood and buffy coat analyses. We introduce a novel gmRNA locking assay (GlobinLock, GL) as a robust and simple gmRNA reduction tool to preserve RNA quality, save time and cost. GL consists of a pair of gmRNA-specific oligonucleotides in RNA initial denaturation buffer that is effective immediately after RNA denaturation and adds only ten minutes of incubation to the whole cDNA synthesis procedure when compared to non-blood RNA analysis. We show that GL is fully effective not only for human samples but also for mouse and rat, and so far incompletely studied cow, dog and zebrafish. PMID:27515369

  17. DJ-1 isoforms in whole blood as potential biomarkers of Parkinson disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiangmin; Cook, Travis J.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Leverenz, James B.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Hu, Shu-Ching; Cain, Kevin C.; Pan, Catherine; Edgar, John Scott; Goodlett, David R.; Racette, Brad A.; Checkoway, Harvey; Montine, Thomas J.; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing

    2012-12-01

    DJ-1 is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in oxidative stress, cell death, and synucleinopathies, including Parkinson disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that total DJ-1 levels decrease in the cerebrospinal fluid, but do not change significantly in human plasma from patients with Parkinson disease when compared with controls. In this study, we measured total DJ-1 and its isoforms in whole blood of patients with Parkinson disease at various stages, Alzheimer disease, and healthy controls to identify potential peripheral biomarkers of PD. In an initial discovery study of 119 subjects, 7 DJ-1 isoforms were reliably detected, and blood levels of those with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modifications were discovered to be altered in late-stage Parkinson disease. This result was further confirmed in a validation study of another 114 participants, suggesting that, unlike total DJ-1 levels, post-translationally modified isoforms of DJ-1 from whole blood are candidate biomarkers of late-stage Parkinson disease.

  18. Integration of Genome-Wide SNP Data and Gene-Expression Profiles Reveals Six Novel Loci and Regulatory Mechanisms for Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Frank; Holdt, Lesca M.; Gross, Arnd; Teren, Andrej; Tönjes, Anke; Becker, Susen; Krohn, Knut; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Teupser, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Scholz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Profiling amino acids and acylcarnitines in whole blood spots is a powerful tool in the laboratory diagnosis of several inborn errors of metabolism. Emerging data suggests that altered blood levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines are also associated with common metabolic diseases in adults. Thus, the identification of common genetic determinants for blood metabolites might shed light on pathways contributing to human physiology and common diseases. We applied a targeted mass-spectrometry-based method to analyze whole blood concentrations of 96 amino acids, acylcarnitines and pathway associated metabolite ratios in a Central European cohort of 2,107 adults and performed genome-wide association (GWA) to identify genetic modifiers of metabolite concentrations. We discovered and replicated six novel loci associated with blood levels of total acylcarnitine, arginine (both on chromosome 6; rs12210538, rs17657775), propionylcarnitine (chromosome 10; rs12779637), 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (chromosome 21; rs1571700), stearoylcarnitine (chromosome 1; rs3811444), and aspartic acid traits (chromosome 8; rs750472). Based on an integrative analysis of expression quantitative trait loci in blood mononuclear cells and correlations between gene expressions and metabolite levels, we provide evidence for putative causative genes: SLC22A16 for total acylcarnitines, ARG1 for arginine, HLCS for 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine, JAM3 for stearoylcarnitine via a trans-effect at chromosome 1, and PPP1R16A for aspartic acid traits. Further, we report replication and provide additional functional evidence for ten loci that have previously been published for metabolites measured in plasma, serum or urine. In conclusion, our integrative analysis of SNP, gene-expression and metabolite data points to novel genetic factors that may be involved in the regulation of human metabolism. At several loci, we provide evidence for metabolite regulation via gene-expression and observed overlaps with GWAS

  19. Stimulation of production of prostaglandin E in gingival cells exposed to products of human blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, S M; Englis, D J; Clark, A; Russell, R G

    1981-01-01

    1. Supernatant media from cultures of unstimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells contained one or more factors that increased by several hundred-fold the production of prostaglandin E by fibroblast-like cells derived from both inflamed and normal human gingival tissue. 2. This stimulation occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was completely inhibited by 14 microM-indomethacin. 3. Responsiveness to the factor declined as the age of the cell culture increased. 4. An increase in prostaglandin E production was first observed after a 2h exposure to the mononuclear cell factor(s) and could be prevented by cycloheximide. 5. Brief exposure (0.5 and 1.0 h) to mononuclear cell factor did not increase prostaglandin E production by the cells in a subsequent 72 h incubation in the absence of mononuclear cell factor. 6. Addition of arachidonate (10 microM and 15 microM) further enhanced stimulation of prostaglandin E production in response to mononuclear cell factor. 7. The stimulatory activity was resistant to digestion by trypsin, but was heat-labile, so that only 17% remained after treatment at 56 degrees C for 30 min. PMID:6798975

  20. Stimulation of production of prostaglandin E in gingival cells exposed to products of human blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, S M; Englis, D J; Clark, A; Russell, R G

    1981-08-15

    1. Supernatant media from cultures of unstimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells contained one or more factors that increased by several hundred-fold the production of prostaglandin E by fibroblast-like cells derived from both inflamed and normal human gingival tissue. 2. This stimulation occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was completely inhibited by 14 microM-indomethacin. 3. Responsiveness to the factor declined as the age of the cell culture increased. 4. An increase in prostaglandin E production was first observed after a 2h exposure to the mononuclear cell factor(s) and could be prevented by cycloheximide. 5. Brief exposure (0.5 and 1.0 h) to mononuclear cell factor did not increase prostaglandin E production by the cells in a subsequent 72 h incubation in the absence of mononuclear cell factor. 6. Addition of arachidonate (10 microM and 15 microM) further enhanced stimulation of prostaglandin E production in response to mononuclear cell factor. 7. The stimulatory activity was resistant to digestion by trypsin, but was heat-labile, so that only 17% remained after treatment at 56 degrees C for 30 min.

  1. Rapid measurement of fibrinogen concentration in whole blood using a steel ball coagulometer

    PubMed Central

    Schlimp, Christoph J.; Khadem, Anna; Klotz, Anton; Solomon, Cristina; Hochleitner, Gerald; Ponschab, Martin; Redl, Heinz; Schöchl, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fibrinogen plays a key role in hemostasis and is the first coagulation factor to reach critical levels in bleeding patients. Current European guidelines on the management of traumatic or perioperative bleeding recommend fibrinogen supplementation at specific threshold levels. Whole blood viscoelastic tests provide fast evaluation of fibrin deficits. Fast measurement of plasma fibrinogen concentration is not yet available. We investigated a method to rapidly determine whole blood fibrinogen concentration using standard Clauss assays and a steel ball coagulometer and provide an estimate of the “plasma-equivalent” fibrinogen concentration within minutes by adjustment of the measured whole blood fibrinogen concentration with a quickly measureable hemoglobin-derived hematocrit. METHODS The feasibility of this approach was tested with a Clauss assay using multiple porcine fresh blood samples obtained during in vivo bleeding, hemodilution, and after treatment with hemostatic therapy. Two different Clauss assays were then tested using multiple human volunteers’ blood samples diluted in vitro and supplemented with fibrinogen concentrate. Comparative measurements with fibrin-based thromboelastometry tests were performed. RESULTS Regression and Bland-Altman analyses of derived “plasma-equivalent” fibrinogen and measured plasma fibrinogen concentration was excellent in porcine and human blood samples, especially in the ranges relevant to traumatic or perioperative bleeding. CONCLUSION Fast whole blood fibrinogen measurements could be considered as an alternative to plasma fibrinogen measurement for acute bleeding management in trauma and perioperative care settings. Further studies are needed to prove this concept and determine the turnaround times for its clinical application in emergency departments and operating theaters. PMID:25742256

  2. In vitro expansion of Lin+ and Lin- mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norhaiza, H. Siti; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Zarina, Z. A. Intan; Hisham, Z. A. Shahrul

    2013-11-01

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are used in the therapy of blood disorders due to the ability of these cells to reconstitute haematopoietic lineage cells when transplanted into myeloablative recipients. However, substantial number of cells is required in order for the reconstitution to take place. Since HSCs present in low frequency, larger number of donor is required to accommodate the demand of transplantable HSCs. Therefore, in vitro expansion of HSCs will have profound impact on clinical purposes. The aim of this study was to expand lineage negative (Lin-) stem cells from human peripheral blood. Total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were fractionated from human blood by density gradient centrifugation. Subsequently, PBMNCs were subjected to magnetic assisted cell sorter (MACS) which depletes lineage positive (Lin+) mononuclear cells expressing lineage positive markers such as CD2, CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD19, CD56, CD123, and CD235a to obtained Lin- cell population. The ability of Lin+ and Lin- to survive in vitro was explored by culturing both cell populations in complete medium consisting of Alpha-Minimal Essential Medium (AMEM) +10% (v/v) Newborn Calf Serum (NBCS)+ 2% (v/v) pen/strep. In another experiment, Lin+ and Lin- were cultured with complete medium supplemented with 10ng/mL of the following growth factors: stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), 2IU/mL of Erythropoietin (Epo) and 20ng/mL of IL-6. Three samples were monitored in static culture for 22 days. The expansion potential was assessed by the number of total viable cells, counted by trypan blue exclusion assay. It was found that Lin+ mononuclear cells were not able to survive either in normal proliferation medium or proliferation medium supplemented with cytokines. Similarly, Lin- stem cells were not able to survive in proliferation medium however, addition of cytokines into the proliferation medium support Lin

  3. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis?

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F

    2013-04-01

    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  4. Velocity measurements in whole blood using acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry promises to overcome the spatial resolution and depth penetration limitations of current blood flow measuring methods. Despite successful implementation using blood-mimicking fluids, measurements in blood have proved challenging, thus preventing in vivo application. A common explanation for this difficulty is that whole blood is insufficiently heterogeneous relative to detector frequencies of tens of MHz compatible with deep tissue photoacoustic measurements. Through rigorous experimental measurements we provide new insight that refutes this assertion. We show for the first time that, by careful choice of the detector frequency and field-of-view, and by employing novel signal processing methods, it is possible to make velocity measurements in whole blood using transducers with frequencies in the tens of MHz range. These findings have important implications for the prospects of making deep tissue measurements of blood flow relevant to the study of microcirculatory abnormalities associated with cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and other conditions. PMID:27446707

  5. Velocity measurements in whole blood using acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler.

    PubMed

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry promises to overcome the spatial resolution and depth penetration limitations of current blood flow measuring methods. Despite successful implementation using blood-mimicking fluids, measurements in blood have proved challenging, thus preventing in vivo application. A common explanation for this difficulty is that whole blood is insufficiently heterogeneous relative to detector frequencies of tens of MHz compatible with deep tissue photoacoustic measurements. Through rigorous experimental measurements we provide new insight that refutes this assertion. We show for the first time that, by careful choice of the detector frequency and field-of-view, and by employing novel signal processing methods, it is possible to make velocity measurements in whole blood using transducers with frequencies in the tens of MHz range. These findings have important implications for the prospects of making deep tissue measurements of blood flow relevant to the study of microcirculatory abnormalities associated with cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and other conditions.

  6. Human colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes regulate the cytokines produced by lamina propria mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Dehennin, J. P.; Li, Li; Sibille, C.; Geubel, A.; Vaerman, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Using an in vitro autologous human system, the immunomodulatory function of colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) on cytokine production by lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNC) has been investigated. In contrast to LPMNC, colonic IEL produced only low amounts of IL-10, interferon-γ and interleukin-2. However, co-culture experiments (IEL + LPMNC) have shown that IEL can enhance the PHA-induced synthesis of IL-2 and interferon-γ, but not IL-10 by LPMNC. Using a transwell filter culture system apparatus, this effect was shown not to require a cell-to-cell interaction. Thus, IEL in vitro may modulate the cytokine synthesis of LPMNC, through the production of soluble factors. This may prove highly relevant in the in vivo immune activation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. PMID:18472843

  7. Human mononuclear cell function after 4 C storage during 1-G and microgravity conditions of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, Richard; Taylor, Gerald; Lionetti, Fabian; Neale, Laurie; Curren, Tim

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of restoring immune competence of crewmembers during a prolonged spaceflight by infusions of autologous blood components, the effect of storage at 4 C aboard Space Shuttle Columbia (Mission 61-c) on the activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), stored as leukocyte concentrates in autologous plasa, was investigated. The results of preflight storage at 4 C demonstrated a progressive daily loss in mitogen-stimulated protein synthesis, and thymidine uptake, as well as a progressive reduction in the percentage of PBMNCs expressing cell-surface phenotype markers. The ability of PBMNCs stored at 4 C for 8 d in Columbia's middeck, to become activated and proliferate in vitro was similar to that of cells that remained for 7 d on ground.

  8. Grass immunotherapy induces inhibition of allergen-specific human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Baskar, S; Hamilton, R G; Norman, P S; Ansari, A A

    1997-02-01

    The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from humans allergic to grass pollens (GR+ subjects) show strong in vitro proliferative responses to purified allergens from Lolium perenne pollen Lol p 1, and to a lesser extent to Lol p 2 and Lol p 3. By contrast, PBMC from grass allergic patients undergoing immunotherapy (GR + IT subjects) exhibit a very poor Lol p-specific proliferative response, similar to that observed in nongrass allergic subjects (GR-subjects). Unlike GR-subjects, both GR+ and GR + IT subjects have high levels of antigen-specific serum IgG and IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, Lol p 2 and Lol p 3. While GR+ subjects exhibit a significant correlation between antigen-specific serum antibody and PBMC responses, GR + IT subjects do not show a correlation between the two responses. The possible mechanisms by which immunotherapy may modulate allergen-specific T cell proliferative response are discussed.

  9. [Evaluating adaptogenic properties of Rhodiola rosea extract in human mononuclear cell culture and rat tissues].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, L I; Boĭkova, A A; Nikiforova, D V

    2013-01-01

    The administration of various doses of Rhodiola rosea roots and rhizome spissum with known concentrations of salidroside, n-tyrosol, and rosavine leads to an increase in stress proteins 70 content in human mononuclear cell culture and in tissues of Wistar rats. A one-week peroral administration of Rh. Rosea preparation increases the content of constitutive Hsc70 in liver and the amount of hepatocytes with low succinate dehydrogenase activity. A two-week administration of Rh. Rosea extract leads to an increase in the levels of inducible Hsp70 and constitutive Hsc70 proteins in liver, hippocampus and left heart ventricle. These results are indicative of an increase in nonspecific resistance and the activation of adaptogenic processes.

  10. Analysis of cyanide in whole blood of dosed cathartids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krynitsky, A.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method was modified to quantify both unmetabolized ('free') and metabolized ('bound', i.e., thiocyanates) cyanides. The methods for both are efficient and sensitive to 0.05 ppm. Repeated freezing and thawing of whole blood from treated cathartids caused an initial increase in free cyanide concentrations, followed by a gradual decline to a plateau. Bound cyanide concentrations declined after repeated freezing and thawing.

  11. More on the measurement of ionized magnesium in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Ghahramani, M; Marsoner, H J

    1996-01-01

    Current technology has made it possible to measure ionized magnesium with user-friendly ion selective electrode technology. Although this technology has not reached a perfect status literature shows that it can be used in clinical routine especially in serum. This paper deals with issues concerning the measurement of ionized magnesium in whole blood. To measure in whole blood apart from an instrument with good general performance data an adequate sample treatment is especially critical. We tested a number of different sample containers and found that they interfere in different degrees with the magnesium determination. In some cases this is due to silicone giving falsely high ionized magnesium values which may be twice the real value and even higher. Another problem is the heparinization of the sample. We found that different heparins may alter the result in a different way. The well known complexing capability of heparin may lead to a reduction of the ionized magnesium within the sample and thus to false low results. But some heparins cause elevated results. The reason for this may be zinc. Test procedures to check the quality of anticoagulants are given. Due to these procedures sample containers could be found which do not interfere with the determination of ionized magnesium in whole blood - thus making the measurement possible. All these factors indicate that the measurement of ionized magnesium really needs a very well defined sample handling - otherwise false results may arise. This is not only true for the measurement of whole blood but also for plasma or even for "so called serum" as there might be a sample container within the chain from patient to the instrument which is unsuitable- and thus will alter the result.

  12. Whole blood analysis rotor assembly having removable cellular sedimentation bowl

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.

    1975-08-26

    A rotor assembly for performing photometric analyses using whole blood samples is described. Following static loading of a gross blood sample within a centrally located, removable, cell sedimentation bowl, the red blood cells in the gross sample are centrifugally separated from the plasma, the plasm displaced from the sedimentation bowl, and measured subvolumes of plasma distributed to respective sample analysis cuvettes positioned in an annular array about the rotor periphery. Means for adding reagents to the respective cuvettes are also described. (auth)

  13. The effect of catechol on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Catechol also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene is formed endogenously in the organism from neurotransmitters including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. It is also a metabolite of many drugs like DOPA, isoproterenol or aspirin and it is also formed in the environment during transformation of various xenobiotics. We evaluated in vitro the effect of catechol on the structure and function of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cells were incubated with xenobiotic at concentration range from 2 to 500μg/mL for 1h. Human blood mononuclear cells were obtained from leucocyte-platelet buffy coat taken from healthy donors in the Blood Bank of Łódź, Poland. Using flow cytometry we have evaluated necrotic, apoptotic and morphological changes in PBMCs incubated with catechol. Moreover, we have estimated changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation in the cells studied. The compound studied provoked necrotic (from 250μg/mL), apoptotic (from 100μg/mL), and morphological changes (from 250μg/mL) in the incubated cells. We have also noted that catechol decreased H2DCF oxidation at 2 and 10μg/mL but at higher concentrations of 250 and 500μg/mL it caused statistically significant increase in the oxidation of this probe. We also observed an increase in lipid peroxidation (from 250μg/mL) and protein carbonylation (from 50μg/mL) of PBMCs. It was observed that catechol only at high concentrations was capable of inducing changes in PBMCs. The obtained results clearly showed that catechol may induce change in PBMCs only in the caste of poisoning with this compound.

  14. Molecular recognition of HER-1 in whole-blood samples.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Iuliana; Stanciu Gavan, Camelia; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana

    2014-11-01

    Multimode sensing was proposed for molecular screening and recognition of HER-1 in whole blood. The tools used for molecular recognition were platforms based on nanostructured materials such as the complex of Mn(III) with meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin, and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalence between 4 and 7), immobilized in diamond paste, graphite paste or C60 fullerene paste. The identification of HER-1 in whole-blood samples, at molecular level, is performed using stochastic mode and is followed by the quantification of it using stochastic and differential pulse voltammetry modes. HER-1 can be identified in the concentration range between 280 fg/ml and 4.86 ng/ml using stochastic mode, this making possible the early detection of cancers such as gastrointestinal, pancreatic and lung cancers. The recovery tests performed using whole-blood samples proved that the platforms can be used for identification and quantification of HER-1 with high sensitivity and reliability in such samples, these making them good molecular screening tools. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. MHC-unrestricted lysis of MUC1-expressing cells by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen E; Rewers-Felkins, Kathleen A; Quinlin, Imelda S; Fogler, William E; Phillips, Catherine A; Townsend, Mary; Robinson, William; Philip, Ramila

    2008-01-01

    Many human adenocarcinomas can be killed in vitro by targeted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL); however, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restrictions are typically required. The MUC1 antigen is common in many human adenocarcinomas, and is associated with a variable number of tandem repeats. It has been proposed that antigens with such repeated epitopes may be vulnerable to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing without MHC-restriction. Therefore, it is possible that MUC1-expressing malignant cells may be killed by targeted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte in the absence of MHC-restriction. In this study, a human MUC1-expressing murine mammary carcinoma cell line was used to determine if cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of MUC1-expressing adenocarcinoma cells requires MHC-restriction. Specifically, MUC1-stimulated human mononuclear cells (M1SMC) were observed to kill human MUC1-transfected, MUC1-expressing murine mammary carcinoma cells, but not the mock-transfected, non-MUC1-expressing murine mammary carcinoma cells. Furthermore, the killing was blocked by antibody to MUC1, indicating MUC1-specific killing. In conclusion, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of MUC1-expressing adenocarcinoma cells can be MHC-unrestricted.

  16. Low titer group O whole blood in emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Strandenes, Geir; Berséus, Olle; Cap, Andrew P; Hervig, Tor; Reade, Michael; Prat, Nicolas; Sailliol, Anne; Gonzales, Richard; Simon, Clayton D; Ness, Paul; Doughty, Heidi A; Spinella, Philip C; Kristoffersen, Einar K

    2014-05-01

    In past and ongoing military conflicts, the use of whole blood (WB) as a resuscitative product to treat trauma-induced shock and coagulopathy has been widely accepted as an alternative when availability of a balanced component-based transfusion strategy is restricted or lacking. In previous military conflicts, ABO group O blood from donors with low titers of anti-A/B blood group antibodies was favored. Now, several policies demand the exclusive use of ABO group-specific WB. In this short review, we argue that the overall risks, dangers, and consequences of "the ABO group-specific approach," in emergencies, make the use of universal group O WB from donors with low titers of anti-A/B safer. Generally, risks with ABO group-specific transfusions are associated with in vivo destruction of the red blood cells transfused. The risk with group O WB is from the plasma transfused to ABO-incompatible patients. In the civilian setting, the risk of clinical hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) due to ABO group-specific red blood cell transfusions is relatively low (approximately 1:80,000), but the consequences are frequently severe. Civilian risk of HTRs due to plasma incompatible transfusions, using titered donors, is approximately 1:120,000 but usually of mild to moderate severity. Emergency settings are often chaotic and resource limited, factors well known to increase the potential for human errors. Using ABO group-specific WB in emergencies may delay treatment because of needed ABO typing, increase the risk of clinical HTRs, and increase the severity of these reactions as well as increase the danger of underresuscitation due to lack of some ABO groups. When the clinical decision has been made to transfuse WB in patients with life-threatening hemorrhagic shock, we recommend the use of group O WB from donors with low anti-A/B titers when logistical constraints preclude the rapid availability of ABO group-specific WB and reliable group matching between donor and recipient is

  17. I am the 9%: Making the case for whole-blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Seheult, J N; Triulzi, D J; Yazer, M H

    2016-06-01

    Over the last 15 years, there has been a trend in the United States towards the increasing use of apheresis platelet (AP) concentrates over whole-blood-derived platelets (WBP). Although 1-h- and 24-h-corrected count increments tend to be higher with AP, this does not translate into improved haemostatic efficiency when used to prevent bleeding in haematology/oncology patients. WBP expose the recipient to more donors than apheresis products. However, recent studies have shown no significant differences in the rates of bacterial contamination, human leukocyte antigen alloimmunisation, RhD alloimmunisation, transfusion-related acute lung injury or febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions between these two products. Given the overall low rates of virally contaminated units in the era of nucleic acid testing and rigorous donor screening, the difference in donor exposures of 4-6 vs 1 has minimal clinical relevance. Although studies point to a marginally increased risk of donor adverse events associated with WBP, the absolute risk is too miniscule to act as a deterrent to making whole-blood donations. Both types of platelet concentrates should therefore be considered clinically equivalent; in this light, the most responsible use of the community donor resource pool, which both optimises the utility of a whole-blood donation and meets the clinical needs of thrombocytopenic recipients, is to have a mix of both types of platelet products so as to mitigate the risk of shortages.

  18. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  19. Enhanced Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus using Molecular Assays on Whole Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Grolla, Allen; Mehedi, Masfique; Lindsay, Robbin; Bosio, Catharine; Duse, Adriano; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging arthropod-borne zoonoses of global agricultural and public health importance. In December 2006, an RVF outbreak was recognized in Kenya which led to the deployment of international response laboratory teams to the area. Objectives A field laboratory was operated in Malindi, Kenya to provide safe sample handling and molecular testing for RVF virus (RVFV) as well as selected other pathogens for differential diagnosis. Study Design Safe sample handling was carried out using a negative pressure flexible film isolator (glovebox) and commercial reagents to inactivate clinical specimens and purify nucleic acid. Whole blood was routinely used for diagnostic testing although paired plasma samples were also tested in select cases. Subsequently, human macrophages were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to RVFV. Results The field laboratory received samples from 33 individuals and a definite laboratory diagnosis was provided in 16 of these cases. Using molecular diagnostic techniques, RVFV was more consistently detected in whole blood than in plasma samples most likely due to association of RVFV with blood cells. Subsequent in vitro studies identified macrophages as a target cell for RVFV replication. Conclusions RVFV appears to replicate in blood cells such as macrophages. Thus, the sensitivity of molecular diagnostic testing is improved if whole blood is used as the clinical specimen rather than plasma or serum. PMID:22632901

  20. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565

  1. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  2. Whole blood assay for trypsin activity using polyanionic focusing gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Roy B; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W; Heller, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    The measurement of trypsin activity directly in blood is important for the development of novel diagnostics and for biomedical research. Presently, most degradative enzyme assays require sample preparation, making them time consuming, costly, and less accurate. We recently demonstrated a simple and rapid electrophoretic assay for the measurement of trypsin activity directly in whole blood. This assay utilizes a charge-changing fluorescent peptide substrate that produces a positively charged fluorescent product fragment upon cleavage by the target enzyme. This fragment is then rapidly separated from whole blood by electrophoresis and quantified with a fluorescent detector. In this study, we demonstrate that polyanionic poly-L-glutamic acid-doped polyacrylamide gels can focus the fluorescent cleavage product and markedly improve the LODs of the assay. A LOD of 2 pg in 6 microL (0.3 ng/mL) in whole human blood was achieved after a 1-h reaction of enzyme and substrate followed by 10 min of electrophoresis. This is 50- to 200-fold better than the estimated reference levels for trypsin (15-60 ng/mL) in blood. This straightforward technique now allows for the rapid measurement of clinically relevant levels of trypsin activity in microliter volumes of whole blood, providing a useful tool for the development of novel point-of-care diagnostics.

  3. Influence of calorie reduction on DNA repair capacity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Matt, Katja; Burger, Katharina; Gebhard, Daniel; Bergemann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restrictive feeding prolongs the lifespan of a variety of model organisms like rodents and invertebrates. It has been shown that caloric restriction reduces age-related as well as overall-mortality, reduces oxidative stress and influences DNA repair ability positively. There are numerous studies underlining this, but fewer studies involving humans exist. To contribute to a better understanding of the correlation of calorie reduction and DNA repair in humans, we adapted the host cell reactivation assay to an application with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, we used this reliable and reproducible assay to research the influence of a special kind of calorie reduction, namely F. X. Mayr therapy, on DNA repair capacity. We found a positive effect in all persons with low pre-existing DNA repair capacity. In individuals with normal pre-existing DNA repair capacity, no effect on DNA repair capacity was detectable. Decline of DNA repair, accumulation of oxidative DNA damages, mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening as well as caloric intake are widely thought to contribute to aging. With regard to that, our results can be considered as a strong indication that calorie reduction may support DNA repair processes and thus contribute to a healthier aging.

  4. Whole blood tissue factor procoagulant activity remains detectable during severe aplasia following bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Morton, C T; Solovey, A; Dandelet, L; Bach, R R; Hebbel, R P; Slungaard, A; Key, N S

    2001-02-01

    Using a novel whole blood assay, we recently demonstrated that tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF PCA) is present in normal individuals. Preliminary experiments suggested that this activity is localized in the mononuclear cell fraction. Postulating that whole blood TF PCA would therefore be undetectable when monocytes and neutrophils are absent from peripheral blood, we assayed TF PCA during the peri-transplant period in 15 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic (n = 12) or autologous (n = 3) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Baseline (pre-transplant) mean TF PCA was higher in patients compared to normal controls (P <0.005). Unexpectedly, although TF PCA during the period of profound aplasia was significantly reduced compared to baseline (p <0.05), fully 55% of the initial activity remained detectable. During the engraftment phase, TF PCA returned to pre-transplant levels, with a linear correlation between monocyte counts and TF PCA (r = 0.63). In contrast to normal whole blood, incubation of aplastic samples with E. Coli lipopolysaccharide ex vivo failed to induce TF PCA. Throughout the period of study--but especially during the aplastic phase--the absolute number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) that were TF antigen-positive was increased compared to normals (P <0.001). However, removal of these cells from whole blood samples failed to significantly diminish total TF PCA indicating that CECs alone could not account for the detectable TF PCA during aplasia. We conclude that neither circulating mature myelo-monocytic cells nor endothelial cells can account for all the functionally intact TF in peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to identify the other source(s) of TF PCA.

  5. Comparison of haemolytic activity of tentacle-only extract from jellyfish Cyanea capillata in diluted whole blood and erythrocyte suspension: diluted whole blood is a valid test system for haemolysis study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Xiao, Liang; He, Qian; Liu, Sihua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhi; Nie, Fei; Guo, Yufeng; Zhang, Liming

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we utilized two different test systems to compare the haemolysis of tentacle-only extract (TOE) devoid of nematocysts from jellyfish Cyanea capillata, the 1% whole blood and 0.45% erythrocyte suspension approximately with the same erythrocyte concentration from the blood samples of sheep, rabbit, mouse, rat and human, respectively. Without exception, the haemolytic activity of TOE was dose-dependent in both test systems from all the five kinds of blood samples, while it was generally stronger in erythrocyte suspension than that in diluted whole blood at the relatively high concentration of TOE. When various aliquots of plasma were added into the erythrocyte suspension test system, the haemolytic activity of TOE was declined with the plasma quantity increasing, and dropped to about 20% at the presence of two aliquots of plasma. If serum albumin of 0.5 mg/ml, approximately the same albumin content in 1% whole blood, was added into the erythrocyte suspension test system instead, the haemolysis of TOE was similarly inhibited. The effects of GSH, ascorbic acid and protease inhibitor on the haemolytic activity of TOE were detected in the erythrocyte suspension and diluted whole blood simultaneously, and the test results were coincident between the two systems. These results suggested that the inconsistency of TOE haemolysis between the erythrocyte suspension and diluted whole blood is a universal occurrence in the mammals, and blood plasma plays a dose-dependent protective role against haemolysis which may be due to serum albumin. Diluted whole blood is a valid and convenient test system for haemolysis study in vitro. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathogen reduction of whole blood: utility and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Allain, J-P; Goodrich, R

    2017-09-05

    To collect information on pathogen reduction applied to whole blood. Pathogen reduction (PR) of blood components has been developed over the past two decades, and pathogen-reduced fresh-frozen plasma and platelet concentrates are currently in clinical use. High cost and incomplete coverage of components make PR out of reach for low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, should PR become applicable to whole blood (WB), the main product transfused in sub-Saharan Africa, and be compatible with the preparation of clinically suitable components, cost would be minimised, and a range of safety measures in place at high cost in developed areas would become redundant. All articles called with "pathogen reduction", "pathogen inactivation" and "whole blood" were retrieved from Medline. References in articles were utilised. One such PR technology (PRT) applied to WB has been developed and has shown efficacious against viruses, bacteria and parasites in vitro; and has been able to inactivate nucleated blood cells whilst retaining the ability to prepare components with acceptable characteristics. The efficacy of this WB PRT has been demonstrated in vivo using the inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum as a model and showing a high degree of correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Obtaining further evidence of efficacy on other suitable targets is warranted. Shortening of the process, which is currently around 50 min, or increasing the number of units simultaneously processed would be necessary to make PRT WB conducive to LMIC blood services' needs. Even if not 100% effective against agents that are present in high pathogen load titres, WB PRT could massively impact blood safety in LMIC by providing safer products at an affordable cost. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. Platelet dynamics in three-dimensional simulation of whole blood.

    PubMed

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Diamond, Scott L; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2014-06-03

    A high-fidelity computational model using a 3D immersed boundary method is used to study platelet dynamics in whole blood. We focus on the 3D effects of the platelet-red blood cell (RBC) interaction on platelet margination and near-wall dynamics in a shear flow. We find that the RBC distribution in whole blood becomes naturally anisotropic and creates local clusters and cavities. A platelet can enter a cavity and use it as an express lane for a fast margination toward the wall. Once near the wall, the 3D nature of the platelet-RBC interaction results in a significant platelet movement in the transverse (vorticity) direction and leads to anisotropic platelet diffusion within the RBC-depleted zone or cell-free layer (CFL). We find that the anisotropy in platelet motion further leads to the formation of platelet clusters, even in the absence of any platelet-platelet adhesion. The transverse motion, and the size and number of the platelet clusters are observed to increase with decreasing CFL thickness. The 3D nature of the platelet-RBC collision also induces fluctuations in off-shear plane orientation and, hence, a rotational diffusion of the platelets. Although most marginated platelets are observed to tumble just outside the RBC-rich zone, platelets further inside the CFL are observed to flow with an intermittent dynamics that alters between sliding and tumbling, as a result of the off-shear plane rotational diffusion, bringing them even closer to the wall. To our knowledge, these new findings are based on the fundamentally 3D nature of the platelet-RBC interaction, and they underscore the importance of using cellular-scale 3D models of whole blood to understand platelet margination and near-wall platelet dynamics.

  8. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction... availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole... provides blood establishments with recommendations for pre- storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood...

  9. Fresh Whole Blood transfusions in the austere environment.

    PubMed

    Bowling, F; Kerr, Win

    2011-01-01

    The use of Fresh Whole Blood (FWB) transfusions can be a powerful tool for the Special Operations Forces (SOF) medic to treat uncontrolled hemorrhage. In fact, it may be the only tool currently available for hemostatic resuscitation, which along with hypotensive resuscitation, forms the basis for Damage Control Resuscitation (DCR). Until now, no comprehensive protocol has existed for conducting FWB transfusions in austere environments. The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) sponsored Curriculum Evaluation Board (CEB), which is responsible for authoring the Tactical Emergency Medical Protocols (TMEPs) has produced a protocol. This article serves as its introduction. 2011.

  10. In vitro transdifferentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to photoreceptor-like cells.

    PubMed

    Komuta, Yukari; Ishii, Toshiyuki; Kaneda, Makoto; Ueda, Yasuji; Miyamoto, Kiyoko; Toyoda, Masashi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Seko, Yuko

    2016-06-15

    Direct reprogramming is a promising, simple and low-cost approach to generate target cells from somatic cells without using induced pluripotent stem cells. Recently, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have attracted considerable attention as a somatic cell source for reprogramming. As a cell source, PBMCs have an advantage over dermal fibroblasts with respect to the ease of collecting tissues. Based on our studies involving generation of photosensitive photoreceptor cells from human iris cells and human dermal fibroblasts by transduction of photoreceptor-related transcription factors via retrovirus vectors, we transduced these transcription factors into PBMCs via Sendai virus vectors. We found that retinal disease-related genes were efficiently detected in CRX-transduced cells, most of which are crucial to photoreceptor functions. In functional studies, a light-induced inward current was detected in some CRX-transduced cells. Moreover, by modification of the culture conditions including additional transduction of RAX1 and NEUROD1, we found a greater variety of retinal disease-related genes than that observed in CRX-transduced PBMCs. These data suggest that CRX acts as a master control gene for reprogramming PBMCs into photoreceptor-like cells and that our induced photoreceptor-like cells might contribute to individualized drug screening and disease modeling of inherited retinal degeneration.

  11. Uric acid increases cellular and humoral alloimmunity in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Sounidaki, Maria; Antoniadi, Georgia; Antoniadis, Nikolaos; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2017-05-05

    Hyperuricemia is common among kidney transplant recipients and has been associated with worse graft outcome. Since episodes of acute cellular rejection and chronic humoral rejection contribute to decreased graft survival, in this study the effect of uric acid on cellular and humoral alloimmunity was evaluated. Cellular alloimmunity was assessed by cell proliferation in two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). For assessing humoral alloimmunity we developed a method in which humoral alloimmunity was induced in one-way MLR. Then the de novo production of alloantibodies was measured with an antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay, in which supernatants from the above MRLs were used against resting PBMC similar to the stimulator cells of the above MLRs. Uric acid at a concentration above its crystallization threshold increased cellular proliferation in two-way MLRs. Supernatants from one-way MLRs performed in the presence of uric acid were more cytotoxic against PBMC from individuals that had conferred the stimulator cells for the above MLRs. Uric acid increases both cellular and humoral alloimmunity in human PBMC. These results offer a possible pathogenetic mechanism for the observed relation between hyperuricemia and worse kidney allograft survival. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic changes in the proteome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with low dose ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Nishad, S; Ghosh, Anu

    2016-02-01

    Humans are continually exposed to ionizing radiation from natural as well as anthropogenic sources. Though biological effects of high dose radiation exposures have been well accepted, studies on low-to-moderate dose exposures (in the range of 50-500 mGy) have been strongly debated even as researchers continue to search for elusive 'radiation signatures' in humans. Proteins are considered as dynamic functional players that drive cellular responses. However, there is little proteomic information available in context of human exposure to ionizing radiation. In this study, we determined differential expressed proteins in G0 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals 1h and 4h after 'ex vivo' exposure with two radiation doses (300 mGy and 1 Gy). Twenty-three proteins were found to be significantly altered in irradiated cells when compared to sham irradiated cells with fold change ± 1.5-fold (p ≤ 0.05), with only three proteins showing ≥ 2.5-fold change, either with dose or with time. Mass spectrometry analyses identified redox sensor protein, chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC-1), the antioxidant protein, peroxiredoxin-6 and the pro-survival molecular chaperone 78 KDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78) among the 23 modulated proteins. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for the twenty-three radiation responsive protein spots was found to be 33.7% for 300 mGy and 48.3% for 1 Gy. We thus, conclude that the radiation proteomic response of G0 human PBMCs, which are in the resting stage of the cell cycle, involves moderate upregulation of protective mechanisms, with low inter-individual variability. This study will help further our understanding of cellular effects of low dose acute radiation in humans and contribute toward differential biomarker discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of Recent Cannabis Use: Whole-Blood and Plasma Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics following Controlled Smoked Cannabis Administration

    PubMed Central

    Schwope, David M.; Karschner, Erin L.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most frequently observed illicit drug in investigations of accidents and driving under the influence of drugs. THC-glucuronide has been suggested as a marker of recent cannabis use, but there are no blood data following controlled THC administration to test this hypothesis. Furthermore, there are no studies directly examining whole-blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics, although this matrix is often the only available specimen. METHODS Participants (9 men, 1 woman) resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. We quantified THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide directly in whole blood and plasma by liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry within 24 h of collection to obviate stability issues. RESULTS Median whole blood (plasma) observed maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 50 (76), 6.4 (10), 41 (67), 1.3 (2.0), 2.4 (3.6), 89 (190), and 0.7 (1.4) μg/L 0.25 h after starting smoking for THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, CBD, CBN, and THCCOOH-glucuronide, respectively, and 0.5 h for THC-glucuronide. At observed Cmax, whole-blood (plasma) detection rates were 60% (80%), 80% (90%), and 50% (80%) for CBD, CBN, and THC-glucuronide, respectively. CBD and CBN were not detectable after 1 h in either matrix (LOQ 1.0 μg/L). CONCLUSIONS Human whole-blood cannabinoid data following cannabis smoking will assist whole blood and plasma cannabinoid interpretation, while furthering identification of recent cannabis intake. PMID:21836075

  14. Validated Method for the Screening and Quantification of Baclofen, Gabapentin and Pregabalin in Human Post-Mortem Whole Blood Using Protein Precipitation and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Limon; Smith, Amy; Patel, Rajan; Andrews, Rebecca; Paterson, Sue

    2017-06-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the number of prescriptions for baclofen (BLF), gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGL) in the UK since their introduction to therapy. Recent studies across the European Union and USA have shown the illicit abuse potential of these drugs and deaths have been observed. A simple, reliable and fully validated method was developed for the screening and quantification of BLF, GBP and PGL in human post-mortem (PM) blood. The analytes and their deuterated analogs as internal standard were extracted from blood using a single addition acetonitrile protein precipitation reaction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous confirmation and quantification. The assay was linear from 0.05 to 1.00 µg/mL for BLF and 0.5 to 50.0 µg/mL for GBP and PGL, respectively with r2 > 0.999 (n = 9) for all analytes. Intra-day and inter-day imprecisions (n = 80) were calculated using one-way ANOVA; no significant difference (P > 0.99) was observed for all analytes over 8 non-consecutive days. The average recovery for all analytes was >98.9%. The limits of detection and quantification were both 0.05 µg/mL for BLF, and 0.5 µg/mL for GBP and PGL. The method was highly selective with no interference from endogenous compounds or from 54 drugs commonly encountered in PM toxicology. To prove method applicability, 17 PM blood samples submitted for analysis were successfully analyzed. The concentration range observed in PM blood for BLF was 0.08-102.00 µg/mL (median = 0.25 µg/mL), for GBP 1.0-134.0 µg/mL (median = 49.0 µg/mL) and 2.0-540.0 µg/mL (median = 42.0 µg/mL) for PGL. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Differences in vanadocene dichloride and cisplatin effect on MOLT-4 leukemia and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Havelek, Radim; Siman, Pavel; Cmielova, Jana; Stoklasova, Alena; Vavrova, Jirina; Vinklarek, Jaromir; Knizek, Jiri; Rezacova, Martina

    2012-07-01

    Modern chemotherapy is interested in developing new agents with high efficiency of treatment in low-dose medication strategies, lower side toxicity and stronger specificity to the tumor cells. Vanadocene dichloride (VDC) belongs to the group of the most promising metallocene antitumor agents; however, its mechanism of action and cytotoxicity profile are not fully understood. In this paper we assess cytotoxic effects of VDC in comparison to cisplatin using opposite prototype of cells; human peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMCs) cells and human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (MOLT-4). Our findings showed cytotoxic effect of VDC on leukemia cells, but unfortunately on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well. VDC induces apoptosis in leukemia cells; the induction is, however, lower than that of cisplatin, and in contrary to cisplatin, VDC does not induce p53 up-regulation. Cytotoxic effect of VDC on leukemia cells is less pronounced than that of cisplatin and more pronounced in PBMCs than in MOLT-4 cells.

  16. Spaceflight modulates gene expression in the whole blood of astronauts.

    PubMed

    Barrila, Jennifer; Ott, C Mark; LeBlanc, Carly; Mehta, Satish K; Crabbé, Aurélie; Stafford, Phillip; Pierson, Duane L; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique combination of stressors during spaceflight, which leads to alterations in their physiology and potentially increases their susceptibility to disease, including infectious diseases. To evaluate the potential impact of the spaceflight environment on the regulation of molecular pathways mediating cellular stress responses, we performed a first-of-its-kind pilot study to assess spaceflight-related gene-expression changes in the whole blood of astronauts. Using an array comprised of 234 well-characterized stress-response genes, we profiled transcriptomic changes in six astronauts (four men and two women) from blood preserved before and immediately following the spaceflight. Differentially regulated transcripts included those important for DNA repair, oxidative stress, and protein folding/degradation, including HSP90AB1, HSP27, GPX1, XRCC1, BAG-1, HHR23A, FAP48, and C-FOS. No gender-specific differences or relationship to number of missions flown was observed. This study provides a first assessment of transcriptomic changes occurring in the whole blood of astronauts in response to spaceflight.

  17. Spaceflight modulates gene expression in the whole blood of astronauts

    PubMed Central

    Barrila, Jennifer; Ott, C Mark; LeBlanc, Carly; Mehta, Satish K; Crabbé, Aurélie; Stafford, Phillip; Pierson, Duane L; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique combination of stressors during spaceflight, which leads to alterations in their physiology and potentially increases their susceptibility to disease, including infectious diseases. To evaluate the potential impact of the spaceflight environment on the regulation of molecular pathways mediating cellular stress responses, we performed a first-of-its-kind pilot study to assess spaceflight-related gene-expression changes in the whole blood of astronauts. Using an array comprised of 234 well-characterized stress-response genes, we profiled transcriptomic changes in six astronauts (four men and two women) from blood preserved before and immediately following the spaceflight. Differentially regulated transcripts included those important for DNA repair, oxidative stress, and protein folding/degradation, including HSP90AB1, HSP27, GPX1, XRCC1, BAG-1, HHR23A, FAP48, and C-FOS. No gender-specific differences or relationship to number of missions flown was observed. This study provides a first assessment of transcriptomic changes occurring in the whole blood of astronauts in response to spaceflight. PMID:28725744

  18. Obesity, whole blood serotonin and sex differences in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Stephanie; Bunting, Brendan P; Carr, Edwin; Strain, J J; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem throughout Europe, where the rate has more than doubled over the past 20 years. Reduced circulating serotonin may contribute to the development of obesity. This study aimed to explore associations between whole blood (WB) serotonin concentrations and anthropometric measures. Healthy adult volunteers (N = 68) gave whole blood samples for measurement of WB serotonin, and underwent BMI waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) assessment as well as DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans for anthropometric parameters. Student's t-tests determined differences in WB serotonin and anthropometric measures between sexes. Partial Pearson's correlations were carried out on anthropometric measures and WB serotonin. For the whole sample, WB serotonin was significantly negatively correlated with BMI, WC, WHR as well as android, gynoid and total % body fat. Analysis by sex showed significant negative correlations between WB serotonin and android, gynoid as well as total fat in males, but not in females. This dichotomy between the sexes implies that there may be sex differences in the way that serotonin interplays with the development of obesity and body fat distribution.

  19. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  20. Ultra-pure platelet isolation from canine whole blood.

    PubMed

    Trichler, Shauna A; Bulla, Sandra C; Thomason, John; Lunsford, Kari V; Bulla, Camilo

    2013-07-17

    Several research applications involving platelets, such as proteomic and transcriptomic analysis, require samples with very low numbers of contaminating leukocytes, which have considerably higher RNA and protein content than platelets. We sought to develop a platelet purification protocol that would minimize contamination, involve minimal centrifugation steps, and yield highly pure platelet samples derived from low volume whole blood samples from healthy dogs. Using an optimized OptiPrep density gradient technique, platelet recovery was 51.56% with 99.99% platelet purity and leukocyte contamination of 100 leukocytes per 108 platelets, on average. Platelet samples were subjected to additional purification with CD45-labeled Dynabeads after density barrier centrifugation resulting in a 95-fold depletion of residual leukocytes. Platelets purified using these methods remained inactivated as assessed by Annexin V and P-selectin labeling with flow cytometry. The use of OptiPrep density gradient is a quick method for obtaining highly purified platelet samples from low volumes of canine whole blood with minimal contamination. Additional depletion of residual leukocytes can be achieved using CD45-labeled beads. These platelet samples can then be used for many downstream applications that require ultra-pure platelet samples such as RNA and protein analysis.

  1. Ultra-pure platelet isolation from canine whole blood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several research applications involving platelets, such as proteomic and transcriptomic analysis, require samples with very low numbers of contaminating leukocytes, which have considerably higher RNA and protein content than platelets. We sought to develop a platelet purification protocol that would minimize contamination, involve minimal centrifugation steps, and yield highly pure platelet samples derived from low volume whole blood samples from healthy dogs. Results Using an optimized OptiPrep density gradient technique, platelet recovery was 51.56% with 99.99% platelet purity and leukocyte contamination of 100 leukocytes per 108 platelets, on average. Platelet samples were subjected to additional purification with CD45-labeled Dynabeads after density barrier centrifugation resulting in a 95-fold depletion of residual leukocytes. Platelets purified using these methods remained inactivated as assessed by Annexin V and P-selectin labeling with flow cytometry. Conclusions The use of OptiPrep density gradient is a quick method for obtaining highly purified platelet samples from low volumes of canine whole blood with minimal contamination. Additional depletion of residual leukocytes can be achieved using CD45-labeled beads. These platelet samples can then be used for many downstream applications that require ultra-pure platelet samples such as RNA and protein analysis. PMID:23866028

  2. [Distribution of chemical elements in whole blood and plasma].

    PubMed

    Barashkov, G K; Zaĭtseva, L I; Kondakhchan, M A; Konstantinova, E A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution factor (Fd) of 35 elements of plasma and whole blood in 26 healthy men and women was detected by ICP-OES. Usilig this parameter the elements were subdivided in 3 pools. 9 of them have Fd higher than 1.5 ("elements of plasma"-Ag, Ca, Cu, In, Li, Na, Se, Si, Sr); 6 have lower than 0.5 ("elements of blood cells"-Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, Zn), other 20-about 1 ("blood elements"). Fd of all elements depends on ionic radius. Elements of 2nd sub-groups of all groups of Mendeleev's periodic table ("heavy metals") depend on the similar law: "with growing of ionic radius the concentration of elements in plasma enhances". In alkaline metals Fd depends on the opposite law:" with growing of ionic radius of alkaline metal the quantity of elements in blood cells enhance". Dependence of Fd on the value of atomic mass in periods or in exterior electronic cloud (s-, p-, d-, f-) was not established. The table of distribution of all detected elements in whole blood in relation to 8 macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Fe, Zn,) is presented, as a basic diagnostic criteria in metal-ligand homeostasis disturbance.

  3. An efficient genomic DNA extraction from whole blood using Nextractor.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Dong; Cho, Young-Uk; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2014-08-05

    We evaluated the performance of the Nextractor NX-48 nucleic acid extractor system for the extraction of genomic DNA from whole blood samples. We compared the performance of the Nextractor to that of the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit and the Maxwell system, using five whole blood samples. Extraction efficiencies were compared based on the total amount of extracted DNA adjusted by input blood volume, and the purity was compared. Polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed using ACTB as a target. The real-time PCR assay was carried out for housekeeping gene GAPDH. Total elapsed time for DNA extraction was compared. Extraction efficiencies for the QIAamp, Maxwell, and Nextractor were 25.4±3.8ng/μL, 9.2±0.6ng/μL, and 31.0±5.6ng/μL, respectively. No significant differences in purity were observed among three methods. DNA extracted using the ACTB was successfully amplified in all three methods. There were no obvious differences in Ct values for GAPDH real-time PCR. Total elapsed time for DNA extraction was about 50min for the QIAamp, 40min for the Maxwell, and 20min for the Nextractor. As the Nextractor is faster and requires less hands-on time than manual procedures, it may be useful for molecular diagnostic testing in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells into mature mast cells induced by cytokines].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huifang; He, Ying; Zhang, Lanzhen; Liu, Zhaoyu; Zou, Zehong; Tao, Ailin

    2015-09-01

    To isolate and induce human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells to differentiate into mature mast cells of high purity. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells were differentiated into mature mast cells by the treatment of recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF) and recombinant human interleukin 6 (rhIL-6). The cultured cells at different time points were stained with toluidine blue for the detection of anti-FcepsilonRI and the maturity of mast cells was detected by flow cytometry. After the mature mast cells were stimulated with allergen, the levels of histamine and tryptase in the supernatant were determined. The cells started to express FcepsilonRI receptor after 2-week treatment of rhSCF and rhIL-6. After 3 weeks, the amount of FcepsilonRI receptor reached its peak accompanied by increased intracellular basophilic granules. The mature mast cells released tryptase and histamine effectively after allergen challenge. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells can be differentiated into mature mast cells by the treatment of rhSCF and rhIL-6. The mature mast cells may be used for the study of allergenicity in vitro.

  5. Effect of arsenic, cadmium and lead on the induction of apoptosis of normal human mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    DE LA FUENTE, H; PORTALES-PÉREZ, D; BARANDA, L; DÍAZ-BARRIGA, F; SAAVEDRA-ALANÍS, V; LAYSECA, E; GONZÁLEZ-AMARO, R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the apoptosis of human immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were incubated with increasing concentrations of these metals and then cellular apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and by DNA electrophoresis. We found that arsenic induced a significant level of apoptosis at 15 μm after 48h of incubation. Cadmium had a similar effect, but at higher concentrations (65 μm). In addition, cadmium exerted a cytotoxic effect on MNC that seemed to be independent of the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, concentrations of lead as high as 500 μm were nontoxic and did not induce a significant degree of apoptosis. Additional experiments showed that arsenic at concentrations as low as 1·0 μm had a significant pro-apoptotic effect when cells were cultured in the presence of this pollutant for more than 72. Non-T cells were more susceptible than T lymphocytes to the effect of arsenic and cadmium. Interestingly, MNC from children chronically exposed to arsenic showed a high basal rate of apoptosis and a diminished in vitro sensibility to this metalloid. Our results indicate that both arsenic and cadmium are able to induce apoptosis of lymphoid cells, and suggest that this phenomenon may contribute to their immunotoxic effect in vivo. PMID:12100024

  6. Human cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for the treatment of premature ovarian failure in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jianhong; Jin, Zhijun; Liu, Xiaojun; Hu, Dian; Wang, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the potential of human cord blood mononuclear cell (HCMNC) transplantation as a treatment for premature ovarian failure (POF) in a nude mouse model. Methods: Female nude mice were randomly divided into three groups; a normal control group (n = 35), a POF group (POF plus vehicle, n = 35) and a POF plus cell transplantation group (HCMNCs were implanted into the ovaries, n = 35). HCMNCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and labeled with BrdU. Four weeks after transplantation, the nude mice were sacrificed to determine serum levels of E2, FSH and LH as indicators of ovarian function, and the ovaries were examined both histologically and immunochemically. Results: The transplanted HCMNCs survived in the transplantation group and were detected by BrdU. In the transplantation group, serum levels of E2 significantly increased while serum levels of FSH and LH significantly decreased compared to the POF control group. Additionally, the transplantation group had a recovery in follicle number. Conclusion: HCMNCs can be successfully transplanted into the ovaries of nude mice and can improve ovarian function in POF. PMID:26064319

  7. Methamidophos induces cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Vargas, Marco Antonio; Huerta-Beristain, Gerardo; Guzman-Guzman, Iris Paola; Alarcon-Romero, Luz Del Carmen; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Rojas-Garcia, Aurora Elizabeth; Moreno-Godinez, Ma Elena

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure is associated with oxidative stress. Methamidophos (MET) is an OP widely used in agriculture, which is regarded as a highly toxic pesticide and it is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether MET can induce oxidative stress at low concentrations in primary cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs from healthy individuals were exposed to MET (0-80 mg/L) for 0-72 h. We performed the MTT and neutral-red assays to assess the cytotoxicity. As indicators of oxidative stress, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed using flow cytometry, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were determined. MET decreased the viability of PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. At concentrations of 3, 10, or 20 mg/L for 24 h, MET increased the ROS production significantly compared with the vehicle control. Similarly, MET increased the levels of MDA at the same concentrations that increased ROS (10 and 20 mg/L); however, no changes in GSH levels were observed. These results suggest that MET increased the generation of oxidative stress in PBMCs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 147-155, 2017.

  8. Bone resorptive activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after fusion with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Edwin; Castillo, Luz M; Lazala, Oswaldo; Guerrero, Carlos A; Acosta, Orlando

    2017-03-01

    The bone remodeling process occurs through bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, a process involving the contribution of endocrine and nervous systems. The mechanisms associated to differentiation and proliferation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts are considered a potential therapeutic target for treating some erosive bone diseases. The aim of the present study is to explore the feasibility of generating active osteoclast-like cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced fusion. PEG-fused PBMCs showed TRAP(+)-multinucleated cells and bone resorption activity, and were also positive for osteoclast markers such as carbonic anhydrase II, calcitonin receptor, vacuolar ATPase, and cathepsin K, when examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunochemistry and Western blotting. TRAP expression and bone resorptive activity were higher in whole PEG-fused PBMCs than in separated T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes or monocytes. Both TRAP expression and bone resorptive activity were also higher in osteogenesis imperfecta patients compared to PEG-fused PBMCs from healthy individuals. PEG-induced fusion was more efficient in inducing TRAP and bone resorptive activities than macrophage colony-stimulating factor or dexamethasone treatment. Bone resorptive activity of PEG-fused PMBCs was inhibited by bisphosphonates. Evidence is provided that the use of PEG-based cell fusion is a straightforward and amenable method for studying human osteoclast differentiation and testing new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of silver nanoclusters on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells 'in vitro'.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ochoa-Martínez, Angeles Catalina; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Velázquez-Salazar, J Jesús; Yacamán, Miguel José; Navarro-Contreras, Hugo Ricardo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2015-10-01

    The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have made these particles one of the most used nanomaterials in consumer products. Therefore, an understanding of the interactions (unwanted toxicity) between nanoparticles and human cells is of significant interest. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity effects of silver nanoclusters (AgNC, < 2 nm diameter) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Using flow cytometry and comet assay methods, we demonstrate that exposure of PBMC to AgNC induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage and apoptosis at 3, 6 and 12 h, with a dose-dependent response (0.1, 1, 3, 5 and 30 µg ml(-1)). Advanced electron microscopy imaging of complete and ultrathin-sections of PBMC confirmed the cytotoxic effects and cell damage caused by AgNC. The present study showed that AgNC produced without coating agents induced significant cytotoxic effects on PBMC owing to their high aspect ratio and active surface area, even at much lower concentrations (<1 µg ml(-1)) than those applied in previous studies, resembling what would occur under real exposure conditions to nanosilver-functionalized consumer products.

  10. Antioxidant enzyme activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to trace elements.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, U R; Dharmani, M; Kanthimathi, M S; Indran, M

    2005-07-01

    The trace elements copper, zinc, and selenium are important immune modulators and essential cofactors of the antioxidant enzymes. In the present study, the proliferative effect of human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that have been exposed to copper, zinc, and selenium and the corresponding activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase, were determined. Zinc and copper stimulated the PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner within the dose range 25-200 micromol/L. SOD and GPx activities in PBMCs exposed to zinc were inhibited, whereas catalase activity was unaffected. All the three antioxidant enzymes in the cells exposed to copper were inhibited. Selenium exerted more potent inhibition of the cell proliferation while causing stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes at the lowest dose (25 micromol/L) than at the highest dose (200 micromol/L) tested. A significant negative correlation was observed between proliferation and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GPx) activities in trace-element-exposed PBMC. The present findings substantiate the importance of trace elements as immune modulators and the involvement of enzymatic antioxidant system in the immune cell regulation.

  11. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 stimulates chemokine production and induces chemotaxis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Aihiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Mizushima, Katsura; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Seno, Takahiro; Oda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kohno, Masataka; Kawahito, Yutaka

    2014-06-06

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is expressed by macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in immune-inflammatory disorders such as systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and several vasculopathies. However, its molecular function is not fully understood. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles and induction of chemokines in monocytes treated with recombinant human AIF (rhAIF-1). Using the high-density oligonucleotide microarray technique, we compared mRNA expression profiles of rhAIF-1-stimulated CD14(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CD14(+) PBMCs) derived from healthy volunteers. We demonstrated upregulation of genes for several CC chemokines such as CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL7, and CCL20. Next, using ELISAs, we confirmed that rhAIF-1 promoted the secretion of CCL3/MIP-1α and IL-6 by CD14(+) PBMCs, whereas only small amounts of CCL1, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL7/MCP-3 and CCL20/MIP-3α were secreted. Conditioned media from rhAIF-1stimulated CD14(+) PBMCs resulted in migration of PBMCs. These findings suggest that AIF-1, which induced chemokines and enhanced chemotaxis of monocytes, may represent a molecular target for the therapy of immune-inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasonic monitoring of droplets' evaporation: Application to human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Laux, D; Ferrandis, J Y; Brutin, D

    2016-09-01

    During a colloidal droplet evaporation, a sol-gel transition can be observed and is described by the desiccation time τD and the gelation time τG. These characteristic times, which can be linked to viscoelastic properties of the droplet and to its composition, are classically rated by analysis of mass droplet evolution during evaporation. Even if monitoring mass evolution versus time seems straightforward, this approach is very sensitive to environmental conditions (vibrations, air flow…) as mass has to be evaluated very accurately using ultra-sensitive weighing scales. In this study we investigated the potentialities of ultrasonic shear reflectometry to assess τD and τG in a simple and reliable manner. In order to validate this approach, our study has focused on blood droplets evaporation on which a great deal of work has recently been published. Desiccation and gelation times measured with shear ultrasonic reflectometry have been perfectly correlated to values obtained from mass versus time analysis. This ultrasonic method which is not very sensitive to environmental perturbations is therefore very interesting to monitor the drying of blood droplets in a simple manner and is more generally suitable for complex fluid droplets evaporation investigation.

  13. Human whole-blood oxygen affinity: effect of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Zwart, A; Kwant, G; Oeseburg, B; Zijlstra, W G

    1984-07-01

    Oxygen dissociation curves (ODC) were recorded in the presence of carboxyhemoglobin fractions (FHbCO) up to 60%. The gradual shift to the left of the ODC at increasing amounts of HbCO was reflected in a gradual fall in the half-saturation pressure of the remaining Hb and was accompanied by a gradual change in the shape of the ODC to a hyperbolic one. The H+ factor (delta log PO2/delta pH) was determined over the entire oxygen saturation (SO2) range at three different FHbCO levels (14, 30, and 52%). At FHbCO = 14 and 30% and for the SO2 range 20-90%, the H+ factor vs. SO2 curve was not significantly different from that in the absence of HbCO. At FHbCO = 52%, however, the value found for the H+ factor (-0.55) was appreciably more negative than in the case of blood containing less than 1% HbCO (-0.44), and there was no dependence on SO2. Comparison of measured and calculated ODCs at varying HbCO fractions showed, for FHbCO less than or equal to 50%, that measured and calculated ODCs coincide over the greater part of the SO2 range. For FHbCO greater than 50%, the measured ODC was situated to the left of the calculated one over the entire SO2 range. We conclude that the heme-heme interaction for CO is appreciably larger than for O2 only for FHbCO greater than 50%, whereas for FHbCO less than 50% there is virtually no difference.

  14. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nan; Yan, Wenjie; Yin, Tailang; Wang, Yaqin; Guo, Yue; Zhou, Danni; Xu, Mei; Ding, Jinli; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo-secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion.

  15. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaqin; Guo, Yue; Zhou, Danni; Xu, Mei; Ding, Jinli; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo–secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion. PMID:26087261

  16. Persistent alterations of gene expression profiling of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from smokers.

    PubMed

    Weng, Daniel Y; Chen, Jinguo; Taslim, Cenny; Hsu, Ping-Ching; Marian, Catalin; David, Sean P; Loffredo, Christopher A; Shields, Peter G

    2016-10-01

    The number of validated biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure is limited, and none exist for tobacco-related cancer. Additional biomarkers for smoke, effects on cellular systems in vivo are needed to improve early detection of lung cancer, and to assist the Food and Drug Administration in regulating exposures to tobacco products. We assessed the effects of smoking on the gene expression using human cell cultures and blood from a cross-sectional study. We profiled global transcriptional changes in cultured smokers' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in vitro (n = 7) and from well-characterized smokers' blood (n = 36). ANOVA with adjustment for covariates and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis in this study. CSC in vitro altered the expression of 1 178 genes (177 genes with > 1.5-fold-change) at P < 0.05. In vivo, PBMCs of heavy and light smokers differed for 614 genes (29 with > 1.5-fold-change) at P < 0.05 (309 remaining significant after adjustment for age, race, and gender). Forty-one genes were persistently altered both in vitro and in vivo, 22 having the same expression pattern reported for non-small cell lung cancer. Our data provides evidence that persistent alterations of gene expression in vitro and in vivo may relate to carcinogenic effects of cigarette smoke, and the identified genes may serve as potential biomarkers for cancer. The use of an in vitro model to corroborate results from human studies provides a novel way to understand human exposure and effect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Persistent Alterations of Gene Expression Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Daniel Y.; Chen, Jinguo; Taslim, Cenny; Hsu, Ping-Ching; Marian, Catalin; David, Sean P.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Shields, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    The number of validated biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure is limited, and none exist for tobacco-related cancer. Additional biomarkers for smoke, effects on cellular systems in vivo are needed to improve early detection of lung cancer, and to assist the Food and Drug Administration in regulating exposures to tobacco products. We assessed the effects of smoking on the gene expression using human cell cultures and blood from a cross-sectional study. We profiled global transcriptional changes in cultured smokers’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in vitro (n = 7) and from well-characterized smokers’ blood (n = 36). ANOVA with adjustment for covariates and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis in this study. CSC in vitro altered the expression of 1 178 genes (177 genes with > 1.5-fold-change) at P < 0.05. In vivo, PBMCs of heavy and light smokers differed for 614 genes (29 with > 1.5-fold-change) at P < 0.05 (309 remaining significant after adjustment for age, race, and gender). Forty-one genes were persistently altered both in vitro and in vivo, 22 having the same expression pattern reported for non-small cell lung cancer. Our data provides evidence that persistent alterations of gene expression in vitro and in vivo may relate to carcinogenic effects of cigarette smoke, and the identified genes may serve as potential biomarkers for cancer. The use of an in vitro model to corroborate results from human studies provides a novel way to understand human exposure and effect. PMID:26294040

  18. Autologous red blood cells potentiate antibody synthesis by unfractionated human mononuclear cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rugeles, M T; La Via, M; Goust, J M; Kilpatrick, J M; Hyman, B; Virella, G

    1987-08-01

    We have tried to determine the most favourable conditions for the in vitro induction of specific antibody (Ab) responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were obtained from normal volunteers and stimulated with PWM, TT, KLH, and mixtures of PWM and antigens in the presence or absence of autologous red blood cells (RBC) (1:50 ratio of PBMNC/RBC). The cultures were harvested on day 11; immunoglobulins were determined immunonephelometrically and Ab levels by ELISA with human antibodies used for calibration. While anti-TT responses were easy to induce with PBMNC from recently boosted individuals, the production of anti-TT from PBMNC obtained from non-recently boosted individuals was only possible when PBMNC were stimulated with TT and PWM in the presence of autologous RBC. Similarly, anti-KLH responses were easier to induce with PBMNC from an immune donor; maximal response was observed after stimulation with PWM + KLH in the presence of autologous RBC. Stimulation of primary anti-KLH responses with PBMNC from non-immune donors was only successful when the cells were stimulated with KLH + PWM in the presence of autologous RBC. The potentiation of human B-cell responses with autologous RBC can be abrogated by pretreatment of PBMNC with anti-CD2 antibodies and is associated with increased expression of IL-2 receptors and increased production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). However, addition of IFN-gamma in different doses and at different times to PWM-stimulated PBMNC cultures was not as effective as addition of RBC in enhancing the production of immunoglobulin and antibody.

  19. Erythropoietin priming improves the vasculogenic potential of G-CSF mobilized human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeehoon; Yun, Ji-Yeon; Hur, Jin; Kang, Jin-A; Choi, Jae-Il; Ko, Seung Bum; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Ju-Young; Hwang, In-Chang; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-10-01

    From our previous clinical trials, intracoronary infusion of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells ((mob)PBMCs) proved to be effective in improving myocardial contractility and reducing infarct volume in acute myocardial infarction. We tested the effect of priming (mob)PBMCs with erythropoietin (EPO) to augment its therapeutic efficacy. (mob)PBMCs were obtained from healthy volunteers after a 3-day subcutaneous injection of G-CSF (10 μg/kg). About 40% of (mob)PBMCs were EPO receptor (EPOR) (+) and responded to 6 h EPO-priming (10 IU/mL) by increasing the expression of vasculogenic factors (i.e. IL8, IL10, bFGF, PDGF, MMP9) and adhesion molecules (i.e. integrin αV, β1, β2, β8) through the JAK2 and Akt pathway. These responses were also observed in PBMCs from elderly patients with coronary disease. The conditioned media from EPO-primed (mob)PBMCs contained various cytokines such as IL8, IL10, TNFα, and PDGF, which enhanced the migration and tube formation capability of endothelial cells. EPO-primed (mob)PBMCs also showed increased adhesion on endothelial cells or fibronectin. Augmented vasculogenic potential of EPO-primed (mob)PBMCs was confirmed in a Matrigel plug assay, ischaemic hindlimb, and myocardial infarction models of athymic nude mice. There were two action mechanisms: (i) cellular effects confirmed by direct incorporation of human (mob)PBSCs into mouse vasculature and (ii) indirect humoral effects confirmed by the therapeutic effect of the supernatant of EPO-primed (mob)PBMCs. Brief ex vivo EPO-priming is a novel method to augment the vasculogenic potential of human (mob)PBMCs, which would help to achieve better results after intracoronary infusion in myocardial infarction patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Combustible and non-combustible tobacco product preparations differentially regulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cell functions.

    PubMed

    Arimilli, Subhashini; Damratoski, Brad E; Prasad, G L

    2013-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells and T cells play essential roles in innate and adaptive immune responses in protecting against microbial infections and in tumor surveillance. Although evidence suggests that smoking causes immunosuppression, there is limited information whether the use of smokeless tobacco (ST) products affects immune responses. In this study, we assessed the effects of two preparations of cigarette smoke, ST extract and nicotine on T cell and NK cell responses using Toll-like receptor-ligand stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The tobacco product preparations (TPPs) tested included whole smoke conditioned media (WS-CM), total particulate matter (TPM) and a ST product preparation in complete artificial saliva (ST/CAS). The PBMCs were stimulated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A marked reduction of the expression of intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α was evident in NK cells and T cells treated with WS-CM and TPM. Consistently, attenuation of ligand-induced secretion of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α) from PBMCs treated with WS-CM and TPM were observed. While the treatment with TPPs did not alter the expression of the maturation marker CD69, WS-CM and TPM inhibited the cytolytic activity of human PBMCs. Suppression of perforin by WS-CM was also detected. Although interference from the vehicle confounded the interpretation of effects of ST/CAS, some effects were evident only at high concentrations. Nicotine treatment minimally impacted expression of cytokines and cytolytic activity. Data presented herein suggests that the function of NK cells and T cells is influenced by exposure to TPPs (based on equi-nicotine units) in the following order: WS-CM>TPM>ST/CAS. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis put forward by others that chronic smoking leads to immunosuppression, an effect that may contribute to increased microbial infections and cancer incidence among smokers.

  1. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes modulating the cytokine response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Modulation of the immune system is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. Presently, the specific probiotic cell products responsible for immunomodulation are largely unknown. In this study, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains of the Lactobacillus plantarum species were investigated to identify genes of L. plantarum with the potential to influence the amounts of cytokines interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-12 and the ratio of IL-10/IL-12 produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results A total of 42 Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from diverse environmental and human sources were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate cytokine production in PBMCs. The L. plantarum strains induced the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 over an average 14-fold range and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 over an average 16-fold range. Comparisons of the strain-specific cytokine responses of PBMCs to comparative genome hybridization profiles obtained with L. plantarum WCFS1 DNA microarrays (also termed gene-trait matching) resulted in the identification of 6 candidate genetic loci with immunomodulatory capacities. These loci included genes encoding an N-acetyl-glucosamine/galactosamine phosphotransferase system, the LamBDCA quorum sensing system, and components of the plantaricin (bacteriocin) biosynthesis and transport pathway. Deletion of these genes in L. plantarum WCFS1 resulted in growth phase-dependent changes in the PBMC IL-10 and IL-12 cytokine profiles compared with wild-type cells. Conclusions The altered PBMC cytokine profiles obtained with the L. plantarum WCFS1 mutants were in good agreement with the predictions made by gene-trait matching for the 42 L. plantarum strains. This study therefore resulted in the identification of genes present in certain strains of L. plantarum which might be responsible for the stimulation of anti

  2. Fluorometric determination of whole blood with various excitation wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Gao, Shumei; Peng, Changde; Liu, Ying; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2003-12-01

    Autofluorescence spectra from whole blood of laboratory rat are measured in this paper. The excitation lights are light emitting diode (LED), Ar+ laser, and He-Ne laser with the wavelength located at 457nm, 457.9nm, and 632.8nm respectively. The three spectral profiles are found to be substantially different, each displaying its own characteristic fluorescence bands. Ar+ laser-induced spectrum has very rich and sharp peaks. The LED-induced one has the strongest and widest fluorescence bands. And the intensity of the spectrum induced by He-Ne laser is much lower than the former two. Comparisons of those three fluorescence spectra indicate that Ar+ laser induced spectrum can show partly fine structure of blood cells. Based on the theoretical analysis, it is presented that the absorption of the fluorophores in blood cells to the wavelength of exciting light has definite selectivity, which depend on energy level structure and state of the fluorophores.

  3. Fresh whole blood transfusion capability for Special Operations Forces

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Maj Andrew; Callum, Jeannie; da Luz, Luis Teodoro; Schmid, Joanne; Funk, Christopher; Glassberg, Col Elon; Tien, Col Homer

    2015-01-01

    Summary Fresh whole blood (FWB) transfusion is an option for providing volume and oxygen carrying capacity to bleeding Special Operations soldiers who are injured in an austere environment and who are far from a regular blood bank. Retrospective data from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan show an association between the use of FWB and survival. We reviewed the literature to document the issues surrounding FWB transfusion to Special Operations soldiers in the austere environment and surveyed the literature regarding best practice guidelines for and patient outcomes after FWB transfusions. Most literature regarding FWB transfusion is retrospective or historical. There is limited prospective evidence currently to change transfusion practice in tertiary care facilities, but FWB remains an option in the austere setting. PMID:26100776

  4. Fresh whole blood transfusion capability for Special Operations Forces.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Andrew; Callum, Jeannie; da Luz, Luis Teodoro; Schmid, Joanne; Funk, Christopher; Glassberg, Elon; Tien, Homer

    2015-06-01

    Fresh whole blood (FWB) transfusion is an option for providing volume and oxygen carrying capacity to bleeding Special Operations soldiers who are injured in an austere environment and who are far from a regular blood bank. Retrospective data from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan show an association between the use of FWB and survival. We reviewed the literature to document the issues surrounding FWB transfusion to Special Operations soldiers in the austere environment and surveyed the literature regarding best practice guidelines for and patient outcomes after FWB transfusions. Most literature regarding FWB transfusion is retrospective or historical. There is limited prospective evidence currently to change transfusion practice in tertiary care facilities, but FWB remains an option in the austere setting.

  5. The lost art of whole blood transfusion in austere environments.

    PubMed

    Strandenes, Geir; Hervig, Tor A; Bjerkvig, Christopher K; Williams, Steve; Eliassen, Håkon S; Fosse, Theodor K; Torvanger, Hans; Cap, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    The optimal resuscitation fluid for uncontrolled bleeding and hemorrhagic shock in both pre- and in-hospital settings has been an ongoing controversy for decades. Hemorrhage continues to be a major cause of death in both the civilian and military trauma population, and survival depends on adequacy of hemorrhage control and resuscitation between onset of bleeding and arrival at a medical treatment facility. The terms far-forward and austere are defined, respectively, as the environment where professional health care providers normally do not operate and a setting in which basic equipment and capabilities necessary for resuscitation are often not available. The relative austerity of a treatment setting may be a function of timing rather than just location, as life-saving interventions must be performed quickly before hemorrhagic shock becomes irreversible. Fresh whole blood transfusions in the field may be a feasible life-saving procedure when facing significant hemorrhage.

  6. DNA Methylation in Whole Blood: Uses and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Houseman, E Andres; Kim, Stephanie; Kelsey, Karl T; Wiencke, John K

    2015-06-01

    Due to its convenience, the blood is commonly used in epigenomic studies, but its heterogeneous nature leads to interpretation difficulties, given the now widely recognized potential for confounding by cell composition effects. Many recent publications have reported significant associations between DNA methylation and a variety of health conditions or exposures. In this review, we summarize many of these recent publications, highlighting the findings in the context of potential cell composition effects, particularly findings that are indicative of immune response or inflammation. While there is substantial evidence for confounding by cell composition, there is nevertheless also evidence for differential DNA methylation suggestive of processes that are not cell mediated. We conclude that important biological insights still may be gained from studying DNA methylation in whole blood, either by investigating the cell composition effects themselves or processes that demonstrate associations even after adjusting for cell composition effects.

  7. Fresh whole blood transfusion: a controversial military practice.

    PubMed

    Kauvar, David S; Holcomb, John B; Norris, Gary C; Hess, John R

    2006-07-01

    The transfusion of fresh whole blood (FWB) for trauma-induced coagulopathy is unusual in civilian practice. However, US military physicians have used FWB in every combat operation since the practice was introduced in World War I and continue to do so during current military operations. We discuss our review of all blood products administered to US military casualties in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) between March and December 2003. FWB transfusions were most frequent when demands for massive transfusions wiped out existing blood supplies. FWB patients had the highest blood product requirements; however, mortality did not differ significantly between FWB and non-FWB patients overall or for massively transfused patients. We review the current military practice of FWB transfusion in combat theaters and conclude that FWB transfusion is convenient, safe, and effective in certain military situations.

  8. A femoral arteriovenous shunt facilitates arterial whole blood sampling in animals.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bruno; Burger, Cyrill; Biro, Peter; Buck, Alfred

    2002-03-01

    In this study we evaluated on-line continuous blood sampling in a femoral arteriovenous (a-v) shunt for use in quantitative tracer studies using gamma-emitting radionuclides in animals. The shunt consisted of 40 cm polyethylene tubing (PE-50) guided through a coincidence probe. Two three-way valves allowed blood pressure measurements and tracer injection. Blood flow in the shunt and the impulse response function (IRF) were assessed using heparinized human blood mixed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). In vivo experiments were performed in eight male rats (300-350 g) anaesthetized with halothane. In three rats, manual blood sampling was performed in parallel with on-line sampling. In another five animals, the arterial whole blood activity was recorded on-line for 40 min. For the experiments 150-180 MBq FDG was injected over 35 s. Blood flow in the shunt was 23.6, 29.2 and 42.8 ml/h at 100, 120 and 160 mmHg, respectively. The IRF was characterized by minimal dispersion (1-2 s FWHM). Deconvolution of the measured arterial input curves with the IRF changed the measured curve only minimally. Whole blood radioactivity concentration derived from manual and on-line sampling were in excellent agreement. The curves derived from on-line sampling were of high statistical quality. In conclusion, a femoral a-v shunt allows multiple manipulations such as measurement of the arterial whole blood activity, continuous blood pressure monitoring, injection of the tracer and collection of blood samples if necessary. It is not associated with blood loss if the collection of blood samples is not required. It is more convenient to use than manual sampling, the peak of the input curve is never missed and the input curves are of high statistical quality.

  9. Pharmacokinetic properties of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in whole blood, serum, and urine.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, Alan D; Cowan, David A; Kicman, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and γ-butyrolactone have become increasingly popular "club drugs", but they have also gained attention as potential agents of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Several studies have attempted to characterize GHB's pharmacokinetic properties in humans, and the aim of this paper is to build on this research with an emphasis on DFSA cases. A 25 mg/kg dose of GHB was given to 12 GHB-naïve volunteers (6 men and 6 women). Urine and blood samples (serum and whole blood) were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. The urinary T(max) was 1 h in 11 volunteers with a mean C(max) of 67.6 mg/L (32.6-161.3 mg/L). Urinary concentrations rapidly decreased to < 10 mg/L (interpretive limit) for 11 volunteers after just 4 h. Data derived from whole blood (mean C(max) = 48.0 mg/L, T(max) = 24.6 min) closely matched that from serum (mean C(max) = 59.4 mg/L, T(max) = 23.3 min), suggesting GHB is distributed into erythrocytes. All 12 volunteers had GHB concentrations of less than 5 mg/L in both whole blood and serum after 3 h. Results verify the rapid elimination of GHB and the limited retrospective power of a concentration-based approach to prove GHB administration in blood and urine and confirm that, in DFSA cases, samples should be collected as soon as possible.

  10. Filter Characteristics Influencing Circulating Tumor Cell Enrichment from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45−DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9–19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11–13 µm should be used to challenge the system. PMID:23626725

  11. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Frank A W; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  12. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Sonoclot evaluation of whole blood coagulation in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Babski, Danielle M; Brainard, Benjamin M; Krimer, Paula M; Ralph, Alan G; Pittman, Jennifer R; Koenig, Amie

    2012-12-01

    To establish a standard protocol for analysis of canine whole blood and generate reference intervals for healthy dogs using the Sonoclot analyzer, and to compare Sonoclot values to standard and viscoelastic coagulation tests. Prospective study. Veterinary University research facility and teaching hospital. Twelve healthy random source dogs and 52 healthy dogs from the general veterinary school population. Blood sampling for viscoelastic coagulation testing. Blood was collected from 12 healthy adult dogs by jugular venipuncture. After a rest period at room temperature of 30, 60, or 120 minutes, 340 μL of citrated blood was added to 20 μL of 0.2 M CaCl(2) in 1 of 2 cuvette types warmed to 37° C. Cuvettes contained a magnetic stir-bar with glass beads (gbACT+) or only a magnetic stir-bar (nonACT). Reference interval samples were collected from 52 healthy adult dogs and analyzed in duplicate. The ACT, CR, and PF were not affected by duration of rest period for either cuvette type. ACT variability was decreased when using gbACT+ cuvettes (P < 0.05). In normal dogs reference intervals (mean ± 2 SD) using gbACT+ cuvettes were: ACT 56.0-154.0 seconds, CR 14.85-46.0, and PF 2.1-4.05. ACT correlated to TEG R-time, K-time, and angle, while CR correlated with all TEG parameters. Fibrinogen correlated with ACT, CR, and PF. Sonoclot did not correlate with other common coagulation tests. Sonoclot provides viscoelastic evaluation of canine whole blood coagulation and correlated to several TEG parameters and fibrinogen. A standard protocol and reference intervals were established. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  14. Effects of thymidine and uridine on the phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine) in human mononuclear cells

    SciTech Connect

    Szebeni, J.; Patel, S.S.; Hung, K.; Wahl, L.M.; Weinstein, J.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The effects of thymidine and uridine on the phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) were studied in various human mononuclear cell preparations. Thymidine suppressed ({sup 3}H)AZT phosphorylation in the same concentration range (20 to 100 microM) in which it antagonizes the anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of AZT. Uridine, in turn, had no influence on AZT phosphorylation, just as it has no effect on the anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of AZT. These findings are consistent with a close relationship between the inhibition of AZT phosphorylation and the influence of physiological nucleosides on the antiviral activity of AZT.

  15. Evidence that leishmania donovani utilizes a mannose receptor on human mononuclear phagocytes to establish intracellular parasitism

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.E.; Pearson, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The pathogenic protozoan Leishmania donovani must gain entrance into mononuclear phagocytes to successfully parasitize man. The parasite's extracellular promastigote stage is ingested by human peripheral blood monocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages in the absence of serum, in a manner characteristic of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Remarkable similarities have been found between the macrophage receptor(s) for promastigotes and a previously characterized eucaryotic receptor system, the mannose/fucose receptor (MFR), that mediates the binding of zymosan particles and mannose- or fucose-terminal glycoconjugates to macrophages. Ingestion of promastigotes by monocyte-derived macrophages was inhibited by several MFR ligands; that is mannan, mannose-BSA and fucose-BSA. In contrast, promastigote ingestion by monocytes was unaffected by MFR ligands. Furthermore, attachment of promastigotes to macrophages, assessed by using cytochalasin D to prevent phagocytosis, was reduced 49.8% by mannan. Reorientation of the MFR to the ventral surface of the cell was achieved by plating macrophages onto mannan-coated coverslips, reducing MFR activity on the exposed cell surface by 94% as assessed by binding of /sup 125/I-mannose-BSA. Under these conditions, ingestion of promastigotes was inhibited by 71.4%. Internalization of the MFR by exposure of macrophages to zymosan before infection with promastigotes resulted in a 62.3% decrease in parasite ingestion. Additionally, NH/sub 4/Cl decreased macrophage ingestion of promastigotes by 38.2%. Subinhibitory concentration of NH/sub 4/Cl (10 mM) and of mannan (0.25 mg/ml) together inhibited parsite ingestion by 76.4%.

  16. Proteolytic enzymes and amylase induce cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Desser, L; Rehberger, A; Paukovits, W

    1994-01-01

    In vitro treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) with proteolytic enzymes (bromelain, papain) and amylase leads to the production of large amounts of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a time and dose dependent manner. Increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 production was already found after 4-6 hours of incubation, and plateau levels were reached after 12-16 hours. Plateau levels up to 1500 pg TNF-alpha/ml/10(6) PBMNC, 13000 pg IL-1 beta/ml/10(6) PBMNC, and 23000 pg IL-6/ml/10(6) PBMNC were observed. Control cultures contained below 35 pg/ml/10(6) PBMNC of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta or IL-6. In contrast to TNF-alpha which was undetectable after more than 24 hours, peak levels of IL-1 beta and IL-6 were still present at 24 hours. After incubation of the enzyme solution for some hours at 56 degrees C the cytokine inducing capacity disappeared. Neutralization experiments with inactivating antibodies, radioimmunoassay, and western blotting after electrophoretic separation showed that the TNF-like activity found in the lytic assay was due to TNF-alpha. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which had no effect alone, synergistically increased TNF-alpha production when applied together with the enzymes. A commercial mixture of these enzymes (Wobenzym), which was also investigated, showed a similar concentration and time dependence, as well as synergism with the interferons. A synergistic effect on TNF-alpha production was also found with the enzymes and phorbol ester (PMA).

  17. Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Butyric Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Fukushima, Kazuo; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite from periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat T cells. In this study, we examined the ability of butyric acid to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on this apoptosis. Butyric acid significantly inhibited the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody- and concanavalin A-induced proliferative responses in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition of PBMC growth by butyric acid depended on apoptosis in vitro. It was characterized by internucleosomal DNA digestion and revealed by gel electrophoresis followed by a colorimetric DNA fragmentation assay to occur in a concentration-dependent fashion. Butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis was accompanied by caspase-3 protease activity but not by caspase-1 protease activity. LPS potentiated butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that LPS increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells and the number of late-stage apoptotic cells induced by butyric acid. Annexin V binding experiments with fractionated subpopulations of PBMC in flow cytometory revealed that LPS accelerated the butyric acid-induced CD3+-T-cell apoptosis followed by similar levels of both CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell apoptosis. The addition of LPS to PBMC cultures did not cause DNA fragmentation, suggesting that LPS was unable to induce PBMC apoptosis directly. These data suggest that LPS, in combination with butyric acid, potentiates CD3+ PBMC T-cell apoptosis and plays a role in the apoptotic depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. PMID:9864191

  18. Inheritance of mineralocorticoid effector abnormalities of human mononuclear leucocytes in families with pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Wehling, M; Kuhnle, U; Daumer, C; Armanini, D

    1989-11-01

    In-vitro effects of aldosterone on intracellular sodium and potassium concentrations have been described for normal human mononuclear leucocytes (HML). After incubation for 1 h at 37 degrees C, intracellular sodium and potassium in HML are significantly higher in the presence of 1.4 nM aldosterone than after incubation without aldosterone. As published earlier, these effects were absent in patients with pseudohypoaldosteronism. In the present paper, the families of seven patients with pseudohypoaldosteronism (index cases) were studied. In the first family, two siblings were affected by the disease and had a reduced number of mineralocorticoid (MC) receptors on HML. Intracellular sodium and potassium in HML from these patients did not show a response to 1.4 nM aldosterone. The parents, who were first cousins, had no history of disease and normal receptor data, but in the mother, the response of HML electrolytes to aldosterone was abnormal. In the second family, the mother of a child with pseudohypoaldosteronism, the mother's sister, and her son, had low numbers of MC receptors. Only the aunt of the index case had an uncertain history of the disease. The MC effector mechanism was abnormal in both children and both mothers studied. In a third family, the effector defect was present only in HML of the father. In three further families the abnormality of the effector mechanism was detected in HML of the patient's mother. These data suggest an autosomal dominant inheritance of pseudohypoaldosteronism with variable expression of the gene.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Use of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells to prevent perinatal brain injury: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Dalous, Jérémie; Pansiot, Julien; Pham, Hoa; Chatel, Paul; Nadaradja, Céline; D'Agostino, Irene; Vottier, Gaëlle; Schwendimann, Leslie; Vanneaux, Valérie; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Titomanlio, Luigi; Gressens, Pierre; Larghero, Jérôme; Baud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most frequent neurological disorder associated with perinatal injury of the developing brain. Major brain lesions associated with CP are white matter damage (WMD) in preterm infants and cortico-subcortical lesions in term newborns. Cell therapy is considered promising for the repair of brain damage. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs) are a rich source of various stem cells that could be of interest in repairing perinatal brain damage. Our goal was to investigate the potential of hUCB-MNCs to prevent or repair brain lesions in an animal model of excitotoxic brain injury. We induced neonatal brain lesions using intracranial injections of ibotenate, a glutamate agonist, in 5-day-old rat pups. hUCB-MNCs were injected either intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intravenously (i.v.) soon or 24 h after ibotenate injection, and their neurological effects were assessed using histology and immunohistochemistry. hUCB-MNCs injected i.p. did not reach the systemic circulation but high amounts induced a significant systemic inflammatory response and increased the WMD induced by the excitotoxic insult. This effect was associated with a significant 40% increase in microglial activation around the white matter lesion. hUCB-MNCs injected i.v. soon or 24 h after the excitotoxic insult did not affect lesion size, microglial activation, astroglial cell density, or cell proliferation within the developing white matter or cortical plate at any concentration used. We demonstrated that hUCB-MNCs could not integrate into the developing brain or promote subsequent repair in most conditions tested. We found that the intraperitoneal injection of high amounts of hUCB-MNCs aggravated WMD and was associated with systemic inflammation.

  20. Cytokine-mediated inhibition of fibrillar amyloid-β peptide degradation by human mononuclear phagocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masaru; Kiyota, Tomomi; Walsh, Shannon M.; Liu, Jianuo; Kipnis, Jonathan; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2008-01-01

    Vaccination therapy of AD animal models and patients strongly suggests an active role of brain mononuclear phagocytes in immune-mediated clearance of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in brain. Although Aβ uptake by macrophages can be regulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, their effects on macrophage-mediated Aβ degradation are poorly understood. To better understand this mechanism of degradation, we examined whether pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines affect the degradation of Aβ using primary cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and microglia using pulse-chase analysis of fibrillar and oligomer 125I-Aβ40 and Aβ42. Initial uptake of fibrillar Aβ40 and Aβ42 was 40% and its degradation was saturated by 120 hrs in both MDM and microglia, compared to an initial uptake of oligomeric Aβ less than 0.5% and saturation of degradation within 24 hrs. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increased the intracellular retention of fibrillar Aβ40 and Aβ42 by inhibiting degradation, whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), but not IL-13 and IL-27, enhanced degradation. Fibrillar Aβ degradation in MDM is sensitive to lysosomal and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) inhibitors but insensitive to proteasomal and neprilysin inhibitors. IFN-γ and TNF-α directly reduced the expression of IDE and chaperone molecules (Hsp70 and Hsc70), which are involved in refolding of aggregated proteins. Co-culture of MDM with activated, but not naïve T cells, suppressed Aβ degradation in MDM, which was partially blocked by a combination of neutralizing antibodies against pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines suppress Aβ degradation in MDM, whereas select anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines antagonize these effects. PMID:18768842

  1. [Effect of nicotine on the secretion of TNF of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Lei, Guang-hua; Li, Kang-hua; Zhou, Jiang-nan

    2002-06-28

    To observe the effect of nicotine on the secretion of TNF of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, and explore the possible mechanism of the high level of TNF caused by smoking. Twenty-one non-smokers and 19 smokers were studied. The PBMCs isolated from each volunteer's blood sample were distributed to three groups, and cultured for 72 hours in supplemented RMPI 1640 alone or in supplemented RPMI 1640 containing 50 ng.ml-1 nicotine or 500 ng.ml-1 nicotine respectively. The level of TNF in supernate was quantified with the immuno-radioassay, and PBMC proliferation was observed. The level of TNF spontaneously secreted by PBMCs in smokers was significantly higher than that in non-smokers (P < 0.05). When the concentrations of nicotine were 50 ng.ml-1 and 500 ng.ml-1, the level of TNF increased significantly in non-smokers (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In smokers, the level of TNF significantly increased when the concentration of nicotine was 50 ng.ml-1; however, the level of TNF significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the proliferation of PBMCs was inhibited when the concentration of nicotine was 500 ng.ml-1 (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). The level of TNF was positively correlated to the multiple of PBMC proliferation (r = 0.93, P < 0.05). The linear regression equation was Y = 2.913X - 2.955. Nicotine can induce PBMCs to secrete more TNF, and the magnitude of the effect is strongly related to the dosage of nicotine, but a great dose of nicotine will inhibit the production of TNF.

  2. Transient Canonical Wnt Stimulation Enriches Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Isolates for Osteoprogenitors

    PubMed Central

    Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Tare, Rahul S.; Scarpa, Edoardo; Moreno‐Jimenez, Ines; Rowland, Caroline A.; Jenner, Dominic; Newman, Tracey A.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an attractive anabolic therapeutic strategy for bone. Emerging data suggest that activation of the Wnt signaling pathway promotes bone mineral accrual in osteoporotic patients. The effect of Wnt stimulation in fracture healing is less clear as Wnt signaling has both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on osteogenesis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that transient Wnt stimulation promotes the expansion and osteogenesis of a Wnt‐responsive stem cell population present in human bone marrow. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) were isolated from patients undergoing hip arthroplasty and exposed to Wnt3A protein. The effect of Wnt pathway stimulation was determined by measuring the frequency of stem cells within the BMMNC populations by fluorescence‐activated cell sorting and colony forming unit fibroblast (CFU‐F) assays, before determining their osteogenic capacity in in vitro differentiation experiments. We found that putative skeletal stem cells in BMMNC isolates exhibited elevated Wnt pathway activity compared with the population as whole. Wnt stimulation resulted in an increase in the frequency of skeletal stem cells marked by the STRO‐1bright/Glycophorin A− phenotype. Osteogenesis was elevated in stromal cell populations arising from BMMNCs transiently stimulated by Wnt3A protein, but sustained stimulation inhibited osteogenesis in a concentration‐dependent manner. These results demonstrate that Wnt stimulation could be used as a therapeutic approach by transient targeting of stem cell populations during early fracture healing, but that inappropriate stimulation may prevent osteogenesis. Stem Cells 2016;34:418–430 PMID:26573091

  3. Olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect glucose uptake and energy metabolism in human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Britta; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Scherr, Michaela; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Kahl, Kai G

    2017-05-01

    The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake. Further measurements comprised mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, GLUT1 protein expression, DNA methylation of GLUT1 promoter region, and proteins involved in downstream glucometabolic processes. We observed a 2-fold increase in glucose uptake after stimulation with aripiprazole. In contrast, olanzapine stimulation decreased glucose uptake by 40%, accompanied by downregulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT1 protein expression increased, GLUT1 mRNA expression decreased, and GLUT1 promoter was hypermethylated with both antipsychotics. Pyruvat-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity decreased with olanzapine only. Our findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect energy metabolism in PBMC. The observed decrease in glucose uptake in olanzapine stimulated PBMC, accompanied by decreased PDH point to a worsening in cellular energy metabolism not compensated by AMKP upregulation. In contrast, aripiprazole stimulation lead to increased glucose uptake, while not affecting PDH complex expression. The observed differences may be involved in the different metabolic profiles observed in aripiprazole and olanzapine treated patients.

  4. Selected scorpion toxin exposures induce cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Gerardo; Espino-Solis, Gerardo Pavel

    2017-03-01

    A cytokine screening on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with selected scorpion toxins (ScTx's) was performed in order to evaluate their effect on human immune cells. The ScTx's chosen for this report were three typical buthid scorpion venom peptides, one with lethal effects on mammals Centruroides suffussus suffusus toxin II (CssII), another, with lethal effects on insects and crustaceans Centruroides noxius toxin 5 (Cn5), and one more without lethal effects Tityus discrepans toxin (Discrepin). A Luminex multiplex analysis was performed in order to determine the amounts chemokines and cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12-p40, IL-13, interferon alpha (IFN-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-α, and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) secreted from human PBMCs exposed to these toxins. Although, the ScTx Cn5 is not lethal for mammals, it was able to induce the secretion of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, IL-10 and IP-10 in comparison to the lethal CssII, which was able to induce only IP-10 secretion. Discrepin also was able to induce only IP-10. Interestingly, only low amounts of interferons α and β were induced in the presence of the ScTx's assayed. In a synergic experiment, the combination of Discrepin and Cn5 displayed considerable reverse effects on induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, but they had a slight synergic effect on IP-10 cytokine production in comparison with the single effect obtained with the Cn5 alone. Thus, the results obtained suggest that the profile of secreted cytokines promoted by ScTx Cn5 is highly related with a cytokine storm event, and also it suggests that the mammalian lethal neurotoxins are not solely responsible of the scorpion envenomation symptomatology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of Whole Blood With Riboflavin and UV Light: Impact on Malaria Parasite Viability and Whole Blood Storage

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Kusi, Joseph; Owusu-Ofori, Alex; Freimanis, Graham; Olver, Christine; Martinez, Caitlyn R.; Wilkinson, Shilo; Mundt, Janna M.; Keil, Shawn D.; Goodrich, Raymond P.; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Sub-Saharan African countries utilize whole blood (WB) to treat severe anemia secondary to severe blood loss or malaria on an emergency basis. In many areas with high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible agents, blood safety measures are insufficient. Pathogen reduction technology applied to WB might considerably improve blood safety. Methods: Whole blood from 40 different donors were treated with riboflavin and UV light (pathogen reduction technology) in order to inactivate malaria parasite replication. The extent of parasite inactivation was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods and was correlated to studies evaluating the replication of malaria parasites in culture. Products were also stored for 21 days at +4°C and monitored for cell quality throughout storage. Results: Plasmodium amplicon was present in 21 samples (>100 copies/mL), doubtful in four (10–100 genome equivalents [gEq]/mL), and negative in 15 U. The majority of asymptomatic parasitemic donors carried low parasite levels, with only six donors above 5,000 copies/mL (15%). After treatment with riboflavin and UV light, these six samples demonstrated a 0.5 to 1.2 log reduction in quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification. This correlated to equal to or greater than 6.4 log reductions in infectivity. In treated WB units, cell quality parameters remained stable; however, plasma hemoglobin increased to 0.15 g/dL. All markers behaved similarly to published data for stored, untreated WB. Conclusions: Pathogen reduction technology treatment can inactivate malaria parasites in WB while maintaining adequate blood quality during posttreatment cold storage for 21 days. PMID:25423125

  6. Treatment of Whole Blood With Riboflavin and UV Light: Impact on Malaria Parasite Viability and Whole Blood Storage.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Kusi, Joseph; Owusu-Ofori, Alex; Freimanis, Graham; Olver, Christine; Martinez, Caitlyn R; Wilkinson, Shilo; Mundt, Janna M; Keil, Shawn D; Goodrich, Raymond P; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries utilize whole blood (WB) to treat severe anemia secondary to severe blood loss or malaria on an emergency basis. In many areas with high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible agents, blood safety measures are insufficient. Pathogen reduction technology applied to WB might considerably improve blood safety. Whole blood from 40 different donors were treated with riboflavin and UV light (pathogen reduction technology) in order to inactivate malaria parasite replication. The extent of parasite inactivation was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods and was correlated to studies evaluating the replication of malaria parasites in culture. Products were also stored for 21 days at +4°C and monitored for cell quality throughout storage. Plasmodium amplicon was present in 21 samples (>100 copies/mL), doubtful in four (10-100 genome equivalents [gEq]/mL), and negative in 15 U. The majority of asymptomatic parasitemic donors carried low parasite levels, with only six donors above 5,000 copies/mL (15%). After treatment with riboflavin and UV light, these six samples demonstrated a 0.5 to 1.2 log reduction in quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification. This correlated to equal to or greater than 6.4 log reductions in infectivity. In treated WB units, cell quality parameters remained stable; however, plasma hemoglobin increased to 0.15 g/dL. All markers behaved similarly to published data for stored, untreated WB. Pathogen reduction technology treatment can inactivate malaria parasites in WB while maintaining adequate blood quality during posttreatment cold storage for 21 days.

  7. Fibrinogen measurements in plasma and whole blood: a performance evaluation study of the dry-hematology system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Nakayama, Yoshinobu; Takeshita, Jun; Arai, Masatoshi; Mizobe, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and rapid determination of fibrinogen level is important during hemorrhage to establish a timely hemostatic intervention. The accuracy of fibrinogen measurements may be affected by the specific methodology for its determination, fluid therapies, and anticoagulant agents. The dry-hematology method (DRIHEMATO®) is a novel approach to determine fibrinogen levels in plasma and whole blood based on thrombin-activated coagulation time. We hypothesized that plasma or whole blood fibrinogen level using the dry-hematology method would be similar to those measured with conventional plasma fibrinogen assays. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia was modeled by serial dilutions of blood samples obtained from 12 healthy volunteers. Citrated whole blood samples were diluted with either normal saline, 5% human albumin, or 6% hydroxyethyl starch to achieve 25%, 50%, and 75% volume replacement. The dry-hematology method, the Clauss method, the prothrombin time (PT)-derived method, determination of antigen levels, and thromboelastometric fibrin formation were compared in plasma or whole blood samples. The effect of heparin on each assay was examined (0 to 6 IU/mL). Comparisons of dry-hematology and other methods were also conducted using ex vivo samples obtained from cardiac surgical patients (n = 60). In plasma samples, there were no significant differences between dry-hematology and the Clauss method, while dry-hematology showed lower fibrinogen levels compared with PT-derived and antigen level methods. The dry-hematology method yielded acceptable concordance correlation coefficients (Pc) with the Clauss method, the PT-derived method, and fibrinogen antigen levels (Pc = 0.91-0.99). The type of diluents and heparin affected the results of the PT-derived method and thromboelastometric assay, but not the dry-hematology method. In cardiac surgical patients, the overall correlation in fibrinogen levels between dry-hematology and the other methods was comparable to the results from

  8. Limited Resuscitation With Fresh or Stored Whole Blood Corrects Cardiovascular and Metabolic Function in a Rat Model of Polytrauma and Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jacob; Wu, Xiaowu; Keesee, Jeffrey; Liu, Bin; Darlington, Daniel N; Cap, Andrew P

    2017-02-01

    We have recently shown that human whole blood stored at 4°C maintains hemostatic and platelet function. In this study, we compared restoration of hemodynamic, metabolic and hemostatic function after limited resuscitation with rat fresh whole blood, rat stored whole blood, or Lactated Ringers in traumatized rats. Rat whole blood was stored for 10 days at 4°C for evaluation of hemostatic function. Polytrauma was performed on isoflurane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (350-450 g) by damage to the intestines, liver, right leg skeletal muscle, and right femur fracture, followed by 40% hemorrhage. At 1 h, rats were resuscitated (20%) with either fresh whole blood (FWB), stored whole blood, 4°C for 7 days (SWB), Lactated Ringers (LR), or nothing. Blood samples were taken before and 2 h after trauma and hemorrhage to evaluate metabolic and hemostatic function. Whole blood stored for 10 days showed a significant prolongation in prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fall in fibrinogen concentration, but no change in Maximum Clot Firmness or speed of clot formation. Platelet function was maintained until day 7 in storage, than fell significantly. Polytrauma and hemorrhage in rats led to a fall in arterial pressure, plasma bicarbonate, fibrinogen, and platelet function, and a rise in plasma lactate, PT, aPTT, and creatinine. Resuscitation with either FWB or 7 day SWB, but not LR, returned arterial pressure, plasma lactate and plasma bicarbonate to levels similar to control, but had no effect on the fall in fibrinogen or platelet function, or the rise in PT, aPTT, or creatinine. Hemostatic and platelet function of rat whole blood stored at 4°C is preserved for at least 7 days in vitro. Low volume resuscitation with SWB or FWB, but not LR, restores hemodynamic and metabolic function, but not the coagulopathy after severe trauma and hemorrhage.

  9. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (...

  10. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-14

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood--without reagents, electricity, or instruments--is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 10(2)/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  11. Detection of heart failure-related biomarker in whole blood with graphene field effect transistor biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yong-Min; Xiao, Meng-Meng; Li, Yu-Tao; Xu, Li; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2017-05-15

    Since brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has become internationally recognized biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure (HF), it is highly desirable to search for a novel sensing tool for detecting the patient's BNP level at the early stage. Here we report a platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) field effect transistor (FET) biosensor coupled with a microfilter system for label-free and highly sensitive detection of BNP in whole blood. The PtNPs-decorated rGO FET sensor was obtained by drop-casting rGO onto the pre-fabricated FET chip and subsequently assembling PtNPs on the graphene surface. After anti-BNP was bound to the PtNPs surface, BNP was successfully detected by the anti-BNP immobilized FET biosensor. It was found that the developed FET biosensor was able to achieve a low detection limitation of 100fM. Moreover, BNP was successfully detected in human whole blood sample treated by a custom-made microfilter, suggesting the sensor's capability of working in a complex sample matrix. The developed FET biosensor provides a new sensing platform for protein detection, showing its potential applications in clinic sample.

  12. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G; Martínez-Duncker, Iván; Lópes-Bezerra, Leila M; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2017-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and germlings, but S. schenckii

  13. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A.; Pérez-García, Luis A.; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G.; Martínez-Duncker, Iván; Lópes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and germlings, but S. schenckii

  14. Intra-arterial transplantation of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic rats.

    PubMed

    Greggio, Samuel; de Paula, Simone; Azevedo, Pâmella Nunes; Venturin, Gianina Teribele; Dacosta, Jaderson Costa

    2014-02-06

    Based on preclinical findings, cellular therapy has become a promising therapeutic approach for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). However, before translation into the clinical setting, new and effective routes of cell delivery must be determined. Intra-arterial (IA) delivery is an attractive route of cellular administration but has never been used in neonatal HI rats. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of IA transplantation of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) mononuclear cells for the treatment of long-term behavior dysfunction and brain lesion after neonatal HI. Seven-day-old rats were subjected to a HI model and the animals received HUCB mononuclear cells into the left common carotid artery 24 h after HI insult. At 9 weeks post-HI, intra-arterially transplanted HUCB mononuclear cells significantly improved learning and long-term spatial memory impairments when evaluated by the Morris water maze paradigm. There was no effect of neonatal HI insult or IA procedure on body weight and on motor coordination and balance when evaluated by the accelerating rotarod test. Cellular transplantation by the IA route did not restore neonatal HI-induced brain damage according to stereological volume assessment. Furthermore, HUCB mononuclear cells were tracked in the injured brain and peripheral organs of HI transplanted-rats by nested polymerase chain reaction analysis at different time points. Our findings contribute to the translational knowledge of cell based-therapy in neonatal HI and demonstrate for the first time that IA transplantation into rat pups is a feasible route for cellular delivery and prevents long-term cognitive deficits induced by experimental neonatal HI. © 2013.

  15. Effect of paricalcitol and GcMAF on angiogenesis and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Amato, Marcello; Aterini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, vitamin D is involved in immune defence, cardiovascular function, inflammation and angiogenesis, and these pleiotropic effects are of interested in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Here we investigated the effects of paricalcitol, a nonhypercalcemic vitamin D analogue, on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling, and on angiogenesis. These effects were compared with those of a known inhibitor of angiogenesis pertaining to the vitamin D axis, the vitamin D-binding protein-derived Gc-macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). Since the effects of vitamin D receptor agonists are associated with polymorphisms of the gene coding for the receptor, we measured the effects of both compounds on mononuclear cells harvested from subjects harboring different BsmI polymorphisms. Paricalcitol inhibited mononuclear cell viability with the bb genotype showing the highest effect. GcMAF, on the contrary, stimulated cell proliferation, with the bb genotype showing the highest stimulatory effect. Both compounds stimulated 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation in mononuclear cells with the highest effect on the bb genotype. Paricalcitol and GcMAF inhibited the angiogenesis induced by proinflammatory prostaglandin E1. Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene, known to be associated with the highest responses to vitamin D receptor agonists, are also associated with the highest responses to GcMAF. These results highlight the role of the vitamin D axis in chronic kidney disease, an axis which includes vitamin D, its receptor and vitamin D-binding protein-derived GcMAF.

  16. Phospholipase A2 Inhibitor from Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake: Effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human neutrophils cells.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Caroline V; da S Setúbal, Sulamita; Lacouth-Silva, Fabianne; Pontes, Adriana S; Nery, Neriane M; de Castro, Onassis Boeri; Fernandes, Carla F C; Soares, Andreimar M; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2017-07-23

    Crotalus Neutralizing Factor (CNF) is an inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), present in the blood plasma of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake. This inhibitor neutralizes the lethal and enzymatic activity of crotoxin, the main neurotoxin from this venom. In this study, we investigated the effects of CNF on the functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human neutrophils. The following parameters were evaluated: viability and proliferation, chemotaxis, cytokines and LTB4 production, cytosolic PLA2s activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide anion (O2(-)) production. CNF showed no toxicity on PBMCs or neutrophils, and acts by stimulating the release of TNF-α and LTB4, but neither stimulates IL-10 and IL-2 nor affects PBMCs proliferation and O2(-) release. In neutrophils, CNF induces chemotaxis but does not induce the release of both MPO and O2(-). However, it induces LTB4 and IL-8 production. These data show the influence of CNF on PBMCs' function by inducing TNF-α and LTB4 production, and on neutrophils, by stimulating chemotaxis and LTB4 production, via cytosolic PLA2 activity, and IL-8 release. The inflammatory profile produced by CNF is shown for the first time. Our present results suggest that CNF has a role in activation of leukocytes and exert proinflammatory effects on these cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Filtration parameters influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Frank A W; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2013-01-01

    Filtration can achieve circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood. Key parameters such as flow-rate, applied pressure, and fixation, vary largely between assays and their influence is not well understood. Here, we used a filtration system, to monitor these parameters and determine their relationships. Whole blood, or its components, with and without spiked tumor cells were filtered through track-etched filters. We characterize cells passing through filter pores by their apparent viscosity; the viscosity of a fluid that would pass with the same flow. We measured a ratio of 5·10(4)∶10(2)∶1 for the apparent viscosities of 15 µm diameter MDA-231 cells, 10 µm white cells and 90 fl red cells passing through a 5 µm pore. Fixation increases the pressure needed to pass cells through 8 µm pores 25-fold and halves the recovery of spiked tumor cells. Filtration should be performed on unfixed samples at a pressure of ∼10 mbar for a 1 cm(2) track-etched filter with 5 µm pores. At this pressure MDA-231 cells move through the filter in 1 hour. If fixation is needed for sample preservation, a gentle fixative should be selected. The difference in apparent viscosity between CTC and blood cells is key in optimizing recovery of CTC.

  18. Filtration Parameters Influencing Circulating Tumor Cell Enrichment from Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Filtration can achieve circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood. Key parameters such as flow-rate, applied pressure, and fixation, vary largely between assays and their influence is not well understood. Here, we used a filtration system, to monitor these parameters and determine their relationships. Whole blood, or its components, with and without spiked tumor cells were filtered through track-etched filters. We characterize cells passing through filter pores by their apparent viscosity; the viscosity of a fluid that would pass with the same flow. We measured a ratio of 5·104∶102∶1 for the apparent viscosities of 15 µm diameter MDA-231 cells, 10 µm white cells and 90 fl red cells passing through a 5 µm pore. Fixation increases the pressure needed to pass cells through 8 µm pores 25-fold and halves the recovery of spiked tumor cells. Filtration should be performed on unfixed samples at a pressure of ∼10 mbar for a 1 cm2 track-etched filter with 5 µm pores. At this pressure MDA-231 cells move through the filter in 1 hour. If fixation is needed for sample preservation, a gentle fixative should be selected. The difference in apparent viscosity between CTC and blood cells is key in optimizing recovery of CTC. PMID:23658615

  19. Switching iron-deficient whole blood donors to plateletpheresis.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Alix; Infanti, Laura; Sigle, Jörg; Stern, Martin; Buser, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Iron deficiency is a frequent side effect of whole blood (WB) donation. In contrast, less red blood cell loss and therefore less iron loss results from plateletpheresis. WB donors presenting a decrease in either hemoglobin (Hb) or ferritin levels were offered to switch to plateletpheresis with or without iron supplementation. We analyzed the effect of this intervention on deferral rates for an insufficient Hb level in 168 donors. Further, we assessed how this intervention affected Hb and ferritin levels, anemia occurrence, and platelet (PLT) concentrate yields in the donors who presented at least four successive times for thrombapheresis. Switching WB donors to repetitive plateletpheresis procedures resulted in an increase of median Hb (+12 g/L, p < 0.001) and ferritin (+15.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002) values. Anemia and deferral rates were reduced by 23% (p = 0.004) and 13% (p < 0.001). Between high- and low-frequency apheresis donors, no significant differences in Hb and ferritin levels were found. Similarly, discrepancies in Hb and ferritin values between donors that adopted iron supplementation and those who did not were insignificant. The median PLT concentrate yield was 5.43 × 10(11) PLTs. Switching iron-deficient WB donors to plateletpheresis was an effective intervention that permitted us to correct low Hb and ferritin levels while retaining donors in our pool. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. How to motivate whole blood donors to become plasma donors.

    PubMed

    Godin, Gaston; Germain, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  1. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation. PMID:25530909

  2. Whole blood propionylcarnitine in newborns with orofacial cleft.

    PubMed

    Hozyasz, Kamil K; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Lugowska, Iwona; Szymanski, Marta; Surowiec, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are thought to be determined by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Experiments on animals demonstrated that vitamin B12 supplemented diets antagonize selected teratogens during palatogenesis. Increased propionylcarnitine in neonates is regarded as a marker of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency. The retrospective study was undertaken to determine whether increased propionylcarnitine in newborns is associated with orofacial clefts. Fifty-two newborns with isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) and 107 control newborns without congenital anomalies were investigated. Whole blood propionylcarnitine concentrations were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of propionylcarnitine in newborns with clefts and controls were 2.82±1.06µmolL(-1) and 2.68±0.94µmolL(-1), respectively. T-test for equality of means did not confirm any significant differences between both groups (P=0.381). Deficiency of vitamin B12 with metabolic disturbances seems not to be a risk factor for CLP in the investigated group of patients. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Semi-automatic determination of lead in whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Delves, H. T.; Vinter, P.

    1966-01-01

    The procedure developed by Browett and Moss (1964) for the semi-automatic determination of the lead content of urine has been adapted for the determination of lead in blood. Determinations are normally carried out in duplicate on 2.0 ml. samples of whole blood and the minimum sample size is 0.5 ml. The organic substances present in blood are destroyed by a manual wet-oxidation procedure and the lead is determined colorimetrically as lead dithizonate using a Technicon AutoAnalyzer. The lower limit of detection, expressed as three times the standard deviation of the blank value, is 5 μg. Pb/100 ml. blood. The standard deviation of the method in the upper range of normal blood lead level of 30 μg. Pb/100 ml. blood (Moncrieff, Koumides, Clayton, Patrick, Renwick, and Roberts, 1964), is ± 3 μg. Pb/100 ml. blood. Ten samples per hour may be estimated in duplicate. Images PMID:5919367

  4. Disease-specific classification using deconvoluted whole blood gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Oh, William K.; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Blood-based biomarker assays have an advantage in being minimally invasive. Diagnostic and prognostic models built on peripheral blood gene expression have been reported for various types of disease. However, most of these studies focused on only one disease type, and failed to address whether the identified gene expression signature is disease-specific or more widely applicable across diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of 46 whole blood gene expression datasets covering a wide range of diseases and physiological conditions. Our analysis uncovered a striking overlap of signature genes shared by multiple diseases, driven by an underlying common pattern of cell component change, specifically an increase in myeloid cells and decrease in lymphocytes. These observations reveal the necessity of building disease-specific classifiers that can distinguish different disease types as well as normal controls, and highlight the importance of cell component change in deriving blood gene expression based models. We developed a new strategy to develop blood-based disease-specific models by leveraging both cell component changes and cell molecular state changes, and demonstrate its superiority using independent datasets. PMID:27596246

  5. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-11-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110–586 mg∕dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis.

  6. Portable microfluidic cytometer for whole blood cell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, Meggie M.; Zordan, Michael D.; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Rajdev, Pooja; Reece, Lisa M.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Wereley, Steven T.; Byrnes, Ron; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

    2010-02-01

    Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems allow complex laboratory assays to be carried out on a single chip using less time, reagents, and manpower than traditional methods. There are many chips addressing PCR and other DNA assays, but few that address blood cell analysis. Blood analysis, particularly of the cellular component, is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally blood samples require a vial of blood, then several processing steps to separate and stain the various components, followed by the preparations for each specific assay to be performed. A LOC system for blood cell analysis and sorting would be ideal. The microfluidic-based system we have developed requires a mere drop of blood to be introduced onto the chip. Once on chip, the blood is mixed with both fluorescent and magnetic labels. The lab-on-a-chip device then uses a syringe drive to push the cells through the chip, while a permanent magnet is positioned to pull the magnetically labeled white blood cells to a separate channel. The white blood cells, labeled with different color fluorescent quantum dots (Qdots) conjugated to antibodies against WBC subpopulations, are analyzed and counted, while a sampling of red blood cells is also counted in a separate channel. This device will be capable of processing whole blood samples on location in a matter of minutes and displaying the cell count and should eventually find use in neonatology, AIDS and remote site applications.

  7. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-11-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110-586 mg/dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis.

  8. Ex-vivo whole blood secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ and IFN-γ-inducible protein-10 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are as sensitive as IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot for the detection of gluten-reactive T cells in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2·5(+) -associated coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Ontiveros, N; Tye-Din, J A; Hardy, M Y; Anderson, R P

    2014-02-01

    T cell cytokine release assays are used to diagnose infectious diseases, but not autoimmune or allergic disease. Coeliac disease (CD) is a common T cell-mediated disease diagnosed by the presence of gluten-dependent intestinal inflammation and serology. Many patients cannot be diagnosed with CD because they reduce dietary gluten before medical workup. Oral gluten challenge in CD patients treated with gluten-free diet (GFD) mobilizes gluten-reactive T cells measurable by interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramers. Immunodominant peptides are quite consistent in the 90% of patients who possess HLA-DQ2·5. We aimed to develop whole blood assays to detect gluten-specific T cells. Blood was collected before and after gluten challenge from GFD donors confirmed to have CD (n = 27, all HLA-DQ2·5(+) ), GFD donors confirmed not to have CD (n = 6 HLA-DQ2·5(+) , 11 HLA-DQ2·5(-) ) and donors with CD not following GFD (n = 4, all HLA-DQ2·5(+) ). Plasma IFN-γ and IFN-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after whole blood incubation with peptides or gliadin, and correlated with IFN-γ ELISPOT. No T cell assay could distinguish between CD patients and controls prior to gluten challenge, but after gluten challenge the whole blood IFN-γ ELISA and the ELISPOT were both 85% sensitive and 100% specific for HLA-DQ2·5(+) CD patients; the whole blood IP-10 ELISA was 94% sensitive and 100% specific. We conclude that whole blood cytokine release assays are sensitive and specific for detection of gluten-reactive T cells in CD; further clinical studies addressing the utility of these tests in patients with an uncertain diagnosis of CD is warranted. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, L.P.; Iglesias, D.; Nicola, F.C.; Steffens, D.; Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G.; Achaval, M.; Pranke, P.; Netto, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation. PMID:22183246

  10. Standardization of whole blood assay for determination of pyrogenic activity in organic dust samples.

    PubMed

    Liebers, Verena; Stubel, Heike; Düser, Maria; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika

    2009-09-01

    To characterize bioaerosol exposure at workplaces standardized methods are necessary. Activity of endotoxin, one component of organic dust, can be quantified with the Limulus-Amoebocyte Lysat test (LAL test). Further information with respect to pyrogenic activity of the organic dust can be achieved by measuring cytokine release of human blood after stimulation with the dust or its extract (whole blood assay). The aim of our study was the standardization of the whole blood assay (WBA) while using cryo-preserved human blood (Qualis Laboratorium) and to compare the outcome of the different cytokines determined by incubation of the blood cells with extracts from dust samples collected at various workplaces. Cytokine release (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, MCP-1) was measured by ELISA after stimulation of fresh blood from ten donors as well as cryo-preserved human blood. In both cases blood was stimulated with E. coli endotoxin as well as with 30 dust filter extracts from various workplaces. All dust filter extracts were investigated in the WBA using cryo-preserved blood as well as with LAL test. E. coli endotoxin stimulated the release of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner in fresh as well as cryo-preserved human whole blood. 200 pg/ml E. coli endotoxin induced maximal cytokine release in cryo-preserved blood (mean value for IL-1 beta 2509+/-418 pg/ml; n=13 experiments) whereas fresh blood of single donors reached a maximum release when stimulated with 50 ng/ml endotoxin (mean value of ten donors 1125+/-553 pg/ml IL-1beta). Using cryo-preserved blood the coefficient of variation (CV) regarding the interassay variability was below 21% for all cytokines measured. Regarding 26 dust sample extracts correlation coefficient r2 for LAL test and WBA was between 0.90 and 0.93 (Pearson) for IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha whereas correlation for MCP-1 was lower (r(2)=0.59). Two dust sample extracts which showed similar reactivity

  11. A National Coordinating Center for Prehospital Trauma Research Funding Transfusion Using Stored Fresh Whole Blood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Using Stored Fresh Whole Blood PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Donald Jenkins, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: NATIONAL TRAUMA INSTITUTE San Antonio...Std. Z39.18 A National Coordinating Center for Prehospital Trauma Research Funding Transfusion Using Stored Fresh Whole Blood Table of Contents...Warfighter Medical Research Program Funding to extend the work previously completed looking at the use of fresh whole blood FWB) and its ability to

  12. Prevention of indocyanine green toxicity on retinal pigment epithelium with whole blood in stain-assisted macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi-Chun; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chuang, Lan-Hsin; Yeung, Ling; Chen, Tun-Lu; Lin, Ken-Kuo

    2005-08-01

    To examine whether whole blood prevents indocyanine green (ICG) toxicity on in vitro retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and prevents RPE staining in ICG-assisted macular hole (MH) surgery. In vitro study and prospective case series. In vitro study and 20 patients who underwent ICG-assisted MH surgery (20 eyes). In the in vitro study, cultured human RPE cells were covered with balanced saline solution (BSS), heparinized whole blood, plasma, or packed red blood cells, then exposed to various concentrations of ICG. One cohort was incubated in the dark; the other cohort was exposed to light. Indocyanine green toxicity was evaluated by mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay. In the clinical study, a prospective noncomparative review of 20 consecutive patients (20 eyes) with stage 3 to stage 4 MH who underwent surgery with ICG to stain the internal limiting membrane (ILM) was performed. Indocyanine green solution (0.5 mg/ml) was used to stain the ILM after autologous whole blood covered the macular hole area. Postoperative staining of ICG on RPE was detected by an infrared-sensitive camera. Cultured human RPE cell viability, macular hole closure rate, median visual acuity preoperatively and postoperatively, postoperative ICG staining, and retinal changes. Cultured human RPE cells covered by whole blood or plasma showed no decrease of mitochondrial dehydrogenase even in 5.0 mg/ml concentration of ICG for 20 minutes with or without light exposure. Conversely, those exposed to ICG and covered with BSS demonstrated a significant decrease of mitochondrial dehydrogenase after incubation in 5, 2.5, and 1.0 mg/ml for 20 minutes in the dark and in 5 to 0.05 mg/ml with light. Clinically, no postoperative staining on RPE was detected. No atrophic RPE changes or other retinal changes were observed in the previous MH area that was covered by autologous whole blood in all 20 eyes on average follow-up of 10.6 months. The hole closed in 19 eyes (95%) on first surgery. Visual acuity improved in

  13. Determination of intracellular fludarabine triphosphate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liusheng; Lizak, Patricia; Aweeka, Francesca; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2013-01-01

    Fludarabine is a nucleoside analog routinely used in conditioning regimens of pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation to promote stem cell engraftment. In children, it remains a challenge to accurately and precisely quantify the active intracellular triphosphate species of fludarabine in vivo, primarily due to limitations on blood volume and inadequate assay sensitivity. Here we report a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of fludarabine triphosphate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC (~5 million cells) were collected and lysed in 1 mL 70% methanol containing 1.2 mM tris buffer (pH7.4). The lysate (80 uL) was mixed with internal standard (2-chloro-adenosine triphosphate, 150ng/mL, 20 µL) and injected onto an API5000 LC-MS/MS system. Separation was achieved on a hypercarb column (100 × 2.1 mm, 3 µm) eluted with 100mM ammonium acetate (pH9.8) and acetonitrile in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and electrospray ionization in negative mode (ESI−) were used for detection. The ion pairs 524.0/158.6 for the drug and 540.0/158.8 for the IS were selected for quantification and 524.0/425.7 used for confirmation. Retention time was 3.0 and 3.4 min for fludarabine triphosphate and the IS, respectively. The concentration range for the calibration curve was 1.52 to 76 nM. Our method is simple, fast, and has been successfully applied in a clinical dose-concentration study in children to quantify intracellular fludarabine in low volume clinical samples. The median concentration was 1.03 and 3.19 pmole/million PBMC at trough and peak time points, respectively. Fludarabine triphosphate is degraded in water within hours but relatively stable in 70% methanol-tris (1.2mM, pH7.4). One limitation is that the hypercarb column takes a longer time to equilibrate than conventional reverse phase columns, and peaks become broad and distorted if the column is not

  14. Determination of intracellular fludarabine triphosphate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liusheng; Lizak, Patricia; Aweeka, Francesca; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2013-12-01

    Fludarabine is a nucleoside analog routinely used in conditioning regimens of pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation to promote stem cell engraftment. In children, it remains a challenge to accurately and precisely quantify the active intracellular triphosphate species of fludarabine in vivo, primarily due to limitations on blood volume and inadequate assay sensitivity. Here we report a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of fludarabine triphosphate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC (∼5 million cells) were collected and lysed in 1mL 70% methanol containing 1.2mM tris buffer (pH 7.4). The lysate (80μL) was mixed with internal standard (2-chloro-adenosine triphosphate, 150ng/mL, 20μL) and injected onto an API5000 LC-MS/MS system. Separation was achieved on a hypercarb column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm) eluted with 100mM ammonium acetate (pH 9.8) and acetonitrile in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and electrospray ionization in negative mode (ESI(-)) were used for detection. The ion pairs 524.0/158.6 for the drug and 540.0/158.8 for the IS were selected for quantification and 524.0/425.7 used for confirmation. Retention time was 3.0 and 3.4min for fludarabine triphosphate and the IS, respectively. The concentration range for the calibration curve was 1.52-76nM. Our method is simple, fast, and has been successfully applied in a clinical dose-concentration study in children to quantify intracellular fludarabine in low volume clinical samples. The median concentration was 1.03 and 3.19pmole/million PBMC at trough and peak time points, respectively. Fludarabine triphosphate is degraded in water within hours but relatively stable in 70% methanol-tris (1.2mM, pH 7.4). One limitation is that the hypercarb column takes a longer time to equilibrate than conventional reverse phase columns, and peaks become broad and distorted if the column is not washed

  15. Cytokines derived from activated human mononuclear cells markedly stimulate transferrin secretion by cultured Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Hoeben, E; Van Damme, J; Put, W; Swinnen, J V; Verhoeven, G

    1996-02-01

    There is considerable evidence that Sertoli cell function is controlled not only by hormones, but also by locally produced growth factors and cytokines. To gain more insight into the nature and effects of cytokines potentially involved in the control of Sertoli cell function, we incubated rat Sertoli cells with media conditioned by activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Such media (PBMC-CM) are known to be an extremely rich source of a variety of cytokines. It was demonstrated that PMBC-CM and protein fractions derived from them stimulate Sertoli cell transferrin secretion and messenger RNA production more potently then peritubular cell-conditioned medium or FIRT (a combination of FSH, insulin, retinol, and testosterone). Transferrin secretion expressed per mg cell DNA was stimulated approximately 5-fold by peritubular cell-conditioned medium or FIRT and nearly 20-fold by PBMC-CM. The effects of PBMC-CM were accompanied by a limited increase in cAMP and a noticeable rise in cGMP. Affinity chromatography on a column coated with an antiserum directed against interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) showed that part of the activity in the PBMC-CM was related to IL-1 beta. The remainder of the activity was largely retained by an affinity column coated with an antiserum that recognizes IL-6 and a number of other known and unknown cytokines. Purified IL-1 beta provoked a 2- to 3-fold stimulation of Sertoli cell transferrin secretion. More limited stimulatory effects were observed with IL-6. Neither of these cytokines or their combination approached the degree of stimulation observed with crude PBMC-CM, suggesting that other cytokines are involved. It is concluded that the mixture of cytokines present in PBMC-CM is a more powerful stimulator of Sertoli cell transferrin secretion than any other agonist known at the present time. IL-1 and IL-6 may be responsible for part of the observed effects, but one or more other cytokines are probably involved.

  16. A versatile assay to determine bacterial and host factors contributing to opsonophagocytotic killing in hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood

    PubMed Central

    van der Maten, Erika; de Jonge, Marien I.; de Groot, Ronald; van der Flier, Michiel; Langereis, Jeroen D.

    2017-01-01

    Most bacteria entering the bloodstream will be eliminated through complement activation on the bacterial surface and opsonophagocytosis. However, when these protective innate immune systems do not work optimally, or when bacteria are equipped with immune evasion mechanisms that prevent killing, this can lead to serious infections such as bacteremia and meningitis, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In order to study the complement evasion mechanisms of bacteria and the capacity of human blood to opsonize and kill bacteria, we developed a versatile whole blood killing assay wherein both phagocyte function and complement activity can easily be monitored and modulated. In this assay we use a selective thrombin inhibitor hirudin to fully preserve complement activity of whole blood. This assay allows controlled analysis of the requirements for active complement by replacing or heat-inactivating plasma, phagocyte function and bacterial immune evasion mechanisms that contribute to survival in human blood. PMID:28176849

  17. Immunocapture and microplate-based activity and quantity measurement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowen; Pervez, Hira; Andersen, Lars W; Uber, Amy; Montissol, Sophia; Patel, Parth; Donnino, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Background Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity is altered in many human disorders. Current methods require tissue samples and yield inconsistent results. We describe a modified method for measuring PDH activity from isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results/Methodology We found that PDH activity and quantity can be successfully measured in human PBMCs. Freeze-thaw cycles cannot efficiently disrupt the mitochondrial membrane. Processing time of up to 20 h does not affect PDH activity with proteinase inhibitor addition and a detergent concentration of 3.3% showed maximum yield. Sample protein concentration is correlated to PDH activity and quantity in human PBMCs from healthy subjects. Conclusion Measuring PDH activity from PBMCs is a novel, easy and less invasive way to further understand the role of PDH in human disease. PMID:25826140

  18. Immunocapture and microplate-based activity and quantity measurement of pyruvate dehydrogenase in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowen; Pervez, Hira; Andersen, Lars W; Uber, Amy; Montissol, Sophia; Patel, Parth; Donnino, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity is altered in many human disorders. Current methods require tissue samples and yield inconsistent results. We describe a modified method for measuring PDH activity from isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). RESULTS/METHODOLOGY: We found that PDH activity and quantity can be successfully measured in human PBMCs. Freeze-thaw cycles cannot efficiently disrupt the mitochondrial membrane. Processing time of up to 20 h does not affect PDH activity with proteinase inhibitor addition and a detergent concentration of 3.3% showed maximum yield. Sample protein concentration is correlated to PDH activity and quantity in human PBMCs from healthy subjects. Measuring PDH activity from PBMCs is a novel, easy and less invasive way to further understand the role of PDH in human disease.

  19. Differentiation of human mononuclear phagocytes increases their innate response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Diana; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocytes, partially explained by cell differentiation, influences the activation of innate responses. It has been reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits monocyte differentiation into either dendritic cells or macrophages. To evaluate whether the activation of effector mechanisms against M. tuberculosis differ between less and more differentiated mononuclear phagocytes, we compared monocytes differentiated in vitro for 24 h (MON24) and 120 h (MDM120) infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv, H37Ra and the clinical isolate UT127 at different multiplicity of infection. MDM120 phagocytosed more M. tuberculosis, inhibited mycobacterial growth and did not die in response to the infection, compared with MON24. In contrast, MON24 become Annexin V and Propidium iodide positive after 36 h of M. tuberculosis infection. Although, there were striking differences between MON24 and MDM120, there were also some differences in the response to the mycobacterial strains used. Finally, in MDM120 infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv, a lower percentage of mycobacterial phagosomes accumulated transferrin and a higher percentage co-localized with cathelicidin than in MON24. These results demonstrate that innate responses induced by M. tuberculosis depends upon the stage of differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes and support that terminally differentiated cells are more efficient anti-mycobacterial effectors than the less differentiated ones.

  20. Cysteamine suppresses human peripheral blood mononuclear cells – human corneal endothelial cell reaction via reactive oxygen species reduction

    PubMed Central

    Hyon, Joon Young; Kim, Seonhowa; Koh, Jae Woong; Kwon, Soon Il; Wee, Won Ryang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of cysteamine (CYS) on mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) - human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) reaction (MLER). Methods PBMC stimulation assay was performed using cultured HCEC. MLERs were treated with various concentrations of CYS (0–20 mM). The proliferation rate and secretion profiles of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) of PBMCs stimulated by cultured HCEC were determined using bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Results CYS suppressed PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.001). The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels decreased with an increase in CYS concentration (p<0.001). The levels of TGF-β1 and IL-6 decreased in a dose-dependent manner as well (p=0.011 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusions This study showed that CYS decreased PBMC proliferation, IL-6 and TGF-β1 levels via ROS formation. Our results suggest that CYS could suppress inflammation associated with PBMCs to corneal endothelial cells. PMID:22219632

  1. Evaluation of Whole Blood Viscosity in Patients with Aortic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Duyuler, Pınar Türker; Duyuler, Serkan; İleri, Mehmet; Demir, Mevlüt; Dolu, Abdullah Kadir; Başyiğit, Funda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blood viscosity and aortic sclerosis (AS) are strong predictors of cardiovascular events. The effects of blood viscosity on AS have not been studied adequately. We aimed to investigate the potential connection between whole blood viscosity (WBV) and AS. Methods: AS was detected by transthoracic echocardiography. The estimation of WBV was carried out at both high shear rate (HSR) (208/s) and low shear rate (LSR) (0.5/s) by previously validated formulae using hematocrit (HcT) and total protein (TP) in g/L. WBV at HSR (208/s) is: (0.12 × HcT) + 0.17 (TP - 2.07) and WBV at LSR (0.5/s) is: (1.89 × HcT) + 3.76 (TP - 78.42). Comparisons of WBV at both HSR and LSR were made between patients with and without AS. Results: We included 94 patients with AS (male = 30.9%, mean age = 67.5 y) and 97 control subjects without AS (male =26.6%, mean age = 69.1 y). Almost all of the clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical characteristics were similar, but TP values were significantly higher in the AS group than in the control group (72.9 ± 5 g/L vs. 75.8 ± 6.1 g/L; p value < 0.001). Hemoglobin and HcT levels were similar (p value = 0.604 and p value = 0.431, respectively). In the AS group, WBV at LSR and HSR was higher than that in the control group (p value = 0.001 for both LSR and HSR). In multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis, WBV was an independent predictor of AS (p value < 0.001). Conclusion : We found higher WBV in patients with AS than in patients without AS at both LSR (0.5/s) and HSR (208/s). WBV at both LSR and HSR was independently associated with AS. PMID:28469685

  2. Effect of hydration on whole blood viscosity in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Holsworth, Ralph E; Cho, Young I; Weidman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of on-duty death among firefighters, totaling 45% of on-duty fatalities. Heat stress and fluid losses can result in decreases in cardiac output of firefighters, despite sustained tachycardia and maximally elevated heart rate during emergencies. Measurements of whole blood viscosity (WBV) may serve as an independent biomarker of the hydration and dehydration states of on-duty firefighters. The current pilot study investigates the effects of a strenuous firefighting simulation and subsequent rehydration on WBV and other biological metrics in nine healthy, nonsmoking firefighters to (1) determine whether dehydration and rehydration result in detectable changes in WBV and (2) compare WBV with the results from a range of conventional medical tests. The research team designed a single-center, unblinded pilot study. Fire Training Division, 1900 Lind Ave SW, Renton, WA, 98057. Participants were 9 healthy, nonsmoking firefighters who were volunteers. Vital signs, traditional medical blood tests, and WBV were measured for each firefighter (1) at baseline, (2) after exercise but before rehydration with alkaline water, and (3) postexercise and after rehydration. Hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin (Hb), and WBV increased after exercise and before rehydration. Dehydration during the mock fire drill resulted in elevated WBV at both low- and high-shear rates. HCT and Hb increased due to dehydration and hemoconcentration. Hb and HCT returned to baseline values after exercise and rehydration, and while WBV improved, baseline values were not restored. After exercise but before rehydration, WBV changes were significantly larger than HCT and Hb changes, suggesting the profound influence of hydration states on WBV. WBV measurements were better determinants of hydration states than HCT or Hb and should be performed to monitor the cardiovascular health of at-risk firefighters.

  3. Peculiarities of spectroscopic information of whole blood in atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairullina, Alphiya Y.; Oleinik, Tatiana V.; Yusupova, Lira B.; Prigoun, Natalia

    1995-01-01

    The coefficient of diffuse reflection and light transmission measurements in an optically thick layer of blood at atherosclerosis conditions under multiple scattering of light in the visual and nearest IR-spectra region (590 -900 nm) were measured for calculation of the absorption coefficients of the material of particles and surrounding medium K((lambda) ) and parameter Q (the latter parameter was defined by the sizes of erythrocytes and aggregates and by refraction coefficient of red cells relative to plasma at atherosclerosis). For the main quantitative spectroscopy of particles the K1((lambda) ) for known value of K((lambda) ) and the parameter Q determinations it is necessary to have the knowledge of relative volume part H occupied by particles. In the case of a high concentration of particles H >= 0.2 as it takes place in the blood the parameters Q and K((lambda) ) are in dependence of H (H - is hematocrit ration for the case of whole blood). It should be noted that spectroscopy of multiple scattering light can give some information out of main absorption bands with the higher accuracy and higher light scattering. The latter value provides the opportunity of determination of faint absorption bands which couldn't be achieved by other methods. The method proposed is characterized by absence of probe preparations, approach to in viva conditions, expressivity, and high informativity of each experiment. A many-fold investigation of the blood of healthy men in the spectral region 650 - 810 nm shows the electron spectrum of absorption of molecular hemoglobin hem is the most optically active blood spectra component K((lambda) ). The broadening of spectral investigations, as in short wave or long wave areas of the spectrum, by the use of multiple scattering methods for calculations of K((lambda) ) and Q((lambda) ) enlarges the number of chromophores studied.

  4. Adaptive force sonorheometry for assessment of whole blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, F William; Viola, Francesco; Hamer, Theresa C; Ahmed, Eman M; Crawford, Shawna B; Haverstick, Doris M; Lawrence, Michael B; Walker, William F

    2010-05-02

    Viscoelastic diagnostics that monitor the hemostatic function of whole blood (WB), such as thromboelastography, have been developed with demonstrated clinical utility. By measuring the cumulative effects of all components of hemostasis, viscoelastic diagnostics have circumvented many of the challenges associated with more common tests of blood coagulation. We describe a new technology, called sonorheometry, that adaptively applies acoustic radiation force to assess coagulation function in WB. The repeatability (precision) of coagulation parameters was assessed using citrated WB samples. A reference range of coagulation parameters, along with corresponding measurements from prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT), were obtained from WB samples of 20 healthy volunteers. In another study, sonorheometry monitored anticoagulation with heparin (0-5 IU/ml) and reversal from varied dosages of protamine (0-10 IU/ml) in heparinized WB (2 IU/ml). Sonorheometry exhibited low CVs for parameters: clot initiation time (TC1), <7%; clot stabilization time (TC2), <6.5%; and clotting angle (theta), <3.5%. Good correlation was observed between clotting times, TC1 and TC2, and PTT (r=0.65 and 0.74 respectively; n=18). Linearity to heparin dosage was observed with average linearity r>0.98 for all coagulation parameters. We observed maximum reversal of heparin anticoagulation at protamine to heparin ratios of 1.4:1 from TC1 (P=0.6) and 1.2:1 from theta (P=0.55). Sonorheometry is a non-contact method for precise assessment of WB coagulation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptive Force Sonorheometry for Assessment of Whole Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Mauldin, F. William; Viola, Francesco; Hamer, Theresa C.; Ahmed, Eman M.; Crawford, Shawna B.; Haverstick, Doris M.; Lawrence, Michael B.; Walker, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Viscoelastic diagnostics that monitor the hemostatic function of whole blood (WB), such as thromboelastography, have been developed with demonstrated clinical utility. By measuring the cumulative effects of all components of hemostasis, viscoelastic diagnostics have circumvented many of the challenges associated with more common tests of blood coagulation. Methods: We describe a new technology, called sonorheometry, that adaptively applies acoustic radiation force to assess coagulation function in WB. The repeatability (precision) of coagulation parameters was assessed using citrated WB samples. A reference range of coagulation parameters, along with corresponding measurements from prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT), were obtained from WB samples of 20 healthy volunteers. In another study, sonorheometry monitored anticoagulation with heparin (0 – 5 IU/ml) and reversal from varied dosages of protamine (0 – 10 IU/ml) in heparinized WB (2 IU/ml). Results: Sonorheometry exhibited low CVs for parameters: clot initiation time (TC1), < 7%; clot stabilization time (TC2), < 6.5%; and clotting angle (θ), < 3.5%. Good correlation was observed between clotting times, TC1 and TC2, and PTT (r = 0.65 and 0.74 respectively; n=18). Linearity to heparin dosage was observed with average linearity r > 0.98 for all coagulation parameters. We observed maximum reversal of heparin anticoagulation at protamine to heparin ratios of 1.4:1 from TC1 (P=0.6) and 1.2:1 from θ (P=0.55). Conclusions: Sonorheometry is a non-contact method for precise assessment of WB coagulation. PMID:20096680

  6. Investigation of a whole blood fluidized bed Taylor-Couette flow device for enzymatic heparin neutralization.

    PubMed

    Ameer, G A; Harmon, W; Sasisekharan, R; Langer, R

    1999-03-05

    The use of clinical bioreactors will increase as more therapeutic proteins are being cloned, expressed, and produced at a reduced cost. The proposed use of an immobilized heparinase I reactor to make heparin anticoagulation a safer therapy is an example of how the specificity and high activity of an enzyme could be incorporated into a system to ultimately benefit a patient. However, the development of a safe and efficient bioreactor is important for the use of immobilized heparinase I and other therapeutic proteins designed for use in medical extracorporeal procedures. This study examined the possibility of using Taylor-Couette flow and "flow-induced" recirculation of the agarose beads as a way to fluidize agarose-bound heparinase in whole blood. Heparinase I was immobilized onto agarose beads via cyanogen bromide activation. A reactor based on Taylor-Couette flow was designed and modified with a tangential recirculation line. The reactor was tested for efficacy and safety in vitro in human blood. Visualization studies in water and 42% glycerol were used to determine the minimum rotation rate for efficient fluidization. The strategic placement of the recirculation line allowed recirculation of the agarose without the use of an external pump. The device removed 90% of the heparin activity within 2 min from 450 cc of human blood at a blood flow rate of 100 mL/min. Furthermore, the device maintained inlet and outlet clotting times of 269 +/- 10 and 235 +/- 6 s, respectively, demonstrating the potential for regional heparinization. Blood damage was a function of gel volume fraction and rotation rate of the inner cylinder. Hemolysis of the red cells is an important issue when Taylor vortices are combined with macroscopic solid particles such as agarose beads. A modified Taylor-Couette flow device was developed to treat whole blood and operational criteria were established to minimize hemolysis.

  7. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID

  8. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Legname, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions.

  9. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  10. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  11. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  12. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  13. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The procedure...

  14. Zika Virus Infection and Prolonged Viremia in Whole-Blood Specimens.

    PubMed

    Mansuy, Jean Michel; Mengelle, Catherine; Pasquier, Christophe; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Delobel, Pierre; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Izopet, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    We tested whole-blood and plasma samples from immunocompetent patients who had had benign Zika virus infections and found that Zika virus RNA persisted in whole blood substantially longer than in plasma. This finding may have implications for diagnosis of acute symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and for testing of blood donations.

  15. Reactive oxygen species formation and apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell induced by 900 MHz mobile phone radiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao-Sheng; Huang, Bao-Tian; Huang, Yao-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in the process of apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) which is induced by the radiation of 900 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RFEMF) at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of ~0.4 W/kg when the exposure lasts longer than two hours. The apoptosis is induced through the mitochondrial pathway and mediated by activating ROS and caspase-3, and decreasing the mitochondrial potential. The activation of ROS is triggered by the conformation disturbance of lipids, protein, and DNA induced by the exposure of GSM RFEMF. Although human PBMC was found to have a self-protection mechanism of releasing carotenoid in response to oxidative stress to lessen the further increase of ROS, the imbalance between the antioxidant defenses and ROS formation still results in an increase of cell death with the exposure time and can cause about 37% human PBMC death in eight hours.

  16. Toward a definition of "fresh" whole blood: an in vitro characterization of coagulation properties in refrigerated whole blood for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Jobes, David; Wolfe, Yanika; O'Neill, Daniel; Calder, Jennifer; Jones, Lisa; Sesok-Pizzini, Deborah; Zheng, X Long

    2011-01-01

    The hemostatic property of "fresh" whole blood (WB) has been observed in military application and cardiac surgery and is associated with reduced blood loss, transfusion requirements, and donor exposures. The time from donation to transfusion defining "fresh" has not been systematically studied. We undertook an in vitro study of coagulation properties of refrigerated WB stored for 31 days. Twenty-one WB units were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored under standard AABB refrigerated conditions. Samples were obtained on the day after donation and again on Days 2, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 21, 24, and 31. Tests included complete blood count, pH, pO2, pCO2, glucose, lactate, thromboelastography (TEG), and platelet function by light transmission aggregometry (LTA). There was progressive decline in pH, pO2, glucose, and sodium, but progressive increase in potassium, pCO2, and lactate. TEG variables in all units were normal through Day 11; abnormal values in some variables in some units began on Day 14. Final aggregation levels exhibited no change from Day 1 to Day 21 with adenosine diphosphate and epinephrine, but a decline with collagen (Day 7) and ristocetin (Day 17). This in vitro study of coagulation properties demonstrates preservation of normal integrated coagulation function to a minimum of 11 days under standard conditions of refrigerated storage of WB for transfusion. These observations strongly suggest that the hemostatic quality of WB may extend beyond current transfusion practices. If confirmed clinically, this would increase availability and extend benefits of reduced donor exposure and transfusion requirements. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Metabolic effects of microwave radiation and convection heating on human mononuclear leukocytes. Final report, January 1985-May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kiel, J.L.; Wong, L.S.; Erwin, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated here were the effects of microwave (MW) radiation (2450-MHz, continuous-wave, mean specific absorption rate of 103.5 + or - 4.2 W/kg) and convention heating on the nonphosphorylating oxidative metabolism of human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes (96% lymphocytes, 4% monocytes) at 37 C. Metabolic activity, determined by chemiluminescence (CL) of cells challenged with luminol (5-aminO-2, 3-dihydro-1, 4-phthalazinedione) linked to bovine serum albumin, was detected with a brightness photomer. A significant stimulation after after MW exposure (p < 0.005) over total CL of matched 37 C-incubator controls was observed. A similar degree of stimulation, compared to incubator controls, was also detected after sham treatment. No significant difference existed between changes in total CL or stimulation indices of the MW and sham-exposed groups. Exposure to MW radiation, under normothermic (37 + or - 0.03 C) conditions, appears to have no effect on the oxidative metabolic activity of human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes. However, the significant differences between MW or sham-exposed cells and their respective incubator controls occurred because the temperature of the incubator did not exceed 35.9 C, and 39 minutes were required for the temperature to rise from 22 to 35.9 C. Slow heating of incubator controls must be accounted for in thermal and redio-frequency radiation studies in vitro.

  18. Antibody-dependent and -independent cytotoxicity of human mononuclear phagocytes: defective stimulation of tumoricidal activity in milk macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, A; Peri, G; Colombo, N; Bolis, G; Mantovani, A

    1982-01-01

    Human peripheral blood monocytes, milk macrophages and peritoneal exudate macrophages were purified by adherence. antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) was measured using the murine TLX9 lymphoma pre-labelled with 3H-thymidine. Direct, antibody-independent tumoricidal activity was measured against the murine TU5 line pre-labelled with 3H-thymidine. All mononuclear phagocyte populations tested were similarly effective in mediating ADCC against TLX9 cells. In the absence of deliberate stimulation blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages had appreciable spontaneous cytotoxicity against the susceptible TU5 line. In contrast, four out of 10 milk macrophage preparations lacked detectable spontaneous killing activity on this target. In vitro exposure to partially purified fibroblast interferon (IFN) or to lymphokine supernatants from PHA stimulated lymphocytes augmented the direct tumoricidal activity of blood monocytes and peritoneal exudate macrophages. Milk macrophages were completely unresponsive to IFN and lymphokines. therefore the capacity to mediate antibody-dependent and -independent cytotoxicity against tumour cells can be dissociated to some extent in human mononuclear phagocyte populations from diverse anatomical sites. PMID:7172502

  19. Immunostimulatory acivity of Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae and Matayba elaeagnoides demonstrated by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Philippi, Marina Elisa; Duarte, Bruna Momm; Da Silva, Carolina Vieira; De Souza, Michel Thomaz; Niero, Rivaldo; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Bueno, Edneia Casagranda

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of methanol extracts of three Brazilian medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human mononuclear cells. Lymphoproliferation assay was carried out by incubating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors (1 x 10(6) cells/mL) with extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense (roots), Ipomoea pes-caprae (whole plant) and Matayba elaeagnoides (bark), both at 10, 50, 100 and 200 microg/mL, alone or with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 5 microg/mL), in 96-well microplates at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2, for 72 h. The quantification of cell proliferation assay was performed by blue tetrazolium (MTT) reduction with reading at 540 nm. Cells incubated with only the culture medium were used as negative control for cell proliferation, while the positive control consisted of cells and PHA. The results suggest that the extracts of all three studied plants induce T lymphocyte proliferation. I. pes-caprae showed immunostimulatory activity three times higher than the C. brasiliense extract, while that of the M. elaeagnoides extract was 1.5 times higher. The results demonstrate immunostimulatory effects of these three plants, therefore the continuity of these studies is recommended, in order to determine the active principles.

  20. Effect of solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma on fibrinolysis in reconstituted whole blood.

    PubMed

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van der Meer, Pieter F; Brinkman, Herm Jan M; de Korte, Dirk; Bontekoe, Ido J; Korsten, Herbert H; Middelburg, Rutger A; van der Bom, Johanna G; Schipperus, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Hyperfibrinolysis has been observed in patients heavily transfused with solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma (S/D plasma). We compared coagulation and fibrinolytic variables in blood containing S/D plasma with blood containing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), with and without α2-antiplasmin or tranexamic acid (TXA) supplementation. Whole blood samples were reconstituted from red blood cells, platelet (PLT) concentrates, and varying mixtures of FFP and S/D plasma. Hematocrit and PLT count of reconstituted whole blood samples were varied. For a subset of runs, α2-antiplasmin or TXA was added to S/D plasma whole blood samples. Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was performed to assess 50% clot lysis time (CLT50% ), maximum amplitude (MA), and initial clotting time (R-time). The change in CLT50% of whole blood as the plasma compartment transitions from FFP to S/D plasma was -52% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60% to -45%; p < 0.001). PLT count strengthened the effect, leading to an additional change in CLT50% of -8% (95% CI, -14% to -2%; p = 0.012) as PLT count increased from 10 × 10(9) to 150 × 10(9) /L. MA and R-time were not associated with fraction of S/D plasma in whole blood. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restored clot lysis time in S/D plasma whole blood. Whole blood with S/D plasma has shorter clot lysis times in vitro compared to whole blood with FFP. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restore clot lysis time of S/D plasma whole blood to that of FFP whole blood. Clinicians should be aware of the decreased clot lysis time associated with S/D plasma transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Beryllium Alters Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Intracellular Phosphorylation and Cytokine Release in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Shannon; Ganguly, Kumkum; Fresquez, Theresa M.; Gupta, Goutam; McCleskey, T. Mark; Chaudhary, Anu

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide - mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and dendritic cells from healthy individuals. We find that in vitro treatment of beryllium sulfate inhibits the secretion of lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin 10, while the release of interleukin 1β is enhanced. Additionally, not all lipopolysaccharide - mediated responses are altered, as interleukin 6 release in unaffected upon beryllium treatment. Beryllium sulfate treated cells show altered phosphotyrosine levels upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Significantly, beryllium inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transducer 3, induced by lipopolysaccharide. Finally, inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase mimic the effects of beryllium in inhibition of interleukin 10 release, while they have no effect on interleukin 1β secretion. This study strongly suggests that prior exposures to beryllium could alter host immune responses to bacterial infections in healthy individuals, by altering intracellular signaling. PMID:19894180

  2. [Concentrations of persistent organochlorine pesticides in whole blood of pregnant women in Hokkaido study on environment and children's health].

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ayako; Miyasita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Washino, Noriaki; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Sasaki, Seiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Mizutani, Futoshi; Chisaki, Youichi; Kishi, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the levels of exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women in Hokkaido. Whole-blood samples were obtained from 70 pregnant women aged 17 to 39 years in Hokkaido and analyzed to quantify 29 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Among 29 target compounds, 20 were detected in the whole-blood samples. Mirex, Parlar-26, and Parlar-50, which have never been used in Japan, were identified in all samples, as well as 11 compounds that have been used in Japan. Log-transformed concentrations of compounds with detection rates above 60% linearly correlated with each other (p<0.01). p,p'-DDE exhibited the highest concentration, with a geometric mean of 730 pg/g wet weight. From the results of the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test, body weight or age was positively associated with the concentrations of several compounds. We detected 22 organochlorine pesticides including pesticides with no history of use in Japan in the whole-blood samples from pregnant women in Hokkaido. Through long-distance transport mechanisms, these pollutants may distribute widely, and further surveillance of human blood, in addition to foods and the environment, should be conducted.

  3. Fluorescence and absorbance analyte sensing in whole blood and plasma based on diffusion separation in silicon-microfabricated flow structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Hixson, Greg T.; Kenny, Margaret; Zebert, Diane; Dwinnell, Silver; Buj, Todd; Yager, Paul

    1997-05-01

    Based on the recently introduced T-Sensor method, we demonstrate the fluorescence-determination of various analytes directly in whole blood and in serum. The method relies on microfluidic flow in silicon structures, diffusion-based separation, and analyte determination using fluorescent and absorption indicator dyes. Due to extremely small inertial forces in such structures, practically all flow in microstructures is laminar. This allows the movement of different layers of fluid and particles next to each other in a channel without mixing other than by diffusion. A sample solution (e.g., blood), and a receptor solution containing the indicator dye are introduced in a common channel, and flow laminarly next to each other until they exit the structure. Small ions such as H+, and Na+ diffuse rapidly across the channel, whereas larger molecules diffuse more slowly. Larger particles such as blood cells and polymer beads show no significant diffusion within the time the two flow streams are in contact. The fluorescence emission of indicator dyes is a function of the concentration of the analyte molecules and the dye concentration in the interaction zone between the two streams. This device allows continuous monitoring of the concentration of analytes in whole blood without the use of membranes or prior removal of blood cells. This principle is illustrated by the determination of human albumin, total calcium, and pH in whole blood and serum.

  4. A systematic review of four injection therapies for lateral epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma

    PubMed Central

    Best, Thomas M.; Zgierska, Aleksandra E.; Zeisig, Eva; Ryan, Michael; Crane, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To appraise existing evidence for prolotherapy, polidocanol, autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma injection therapies for lateral epicondylosis (LE) Design Systematic Review Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Allied and Complementary Medicine. Search strategy: names and descriptors of the therapies and LE. Study Selection All human studies assessing the four therapies for LE. Main results Results of five prospective case series and four controlled trials (3 prolotherapy, 2 polidocanol, 3 autologous whole blood and 1 platelet-rich plasma) suggest each of the four therapies is effective for LE. In follow-up periods ranging from 9 to 108 weeks, studies reported sustained, statistically significant(p<0.05) improvement on visual analog scale primary outcome pain score measures and disease specific questionnaires; relative effect sizes ranged from 51% to 94%; Cohen’s d ranged from 0.68 to 6.68. Secondary outcomes also improved, including biomechanical elbow function assessment (polidocanol and prolotherapy), presence of abnormalities and increased vascularity on ultrasound (autologous whole blood and polidocanol). Subjects reported satisfaction with therapies on single-item assessments. All studies were limited by small sample size. Conclusions There is strong pilot-level evidence supporting the use of prolotherapy, polidocanol, autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of LE. Rigorous studies of sufficient sample size, assessing these injection therapies using validated clinical, radiological and biomechanical measures, and tissue injury/healing-responsive biomarkers, are needed to determine long-term effectiveness and safety, and whether these techniques can play a definitive role in the management of LE and other tendinopathies. PMID:19028733

  5. A systematic review of four injection therapies for lateral epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Rabago, D; Best, T M; Zgierska, A E; Zeisig, E; Ryan, M; Crane, D

    2009-07-01

    To appraise existing evidence for prolotherapy, polidocanol, autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma injection therapies for lateral epicondylosis (LE). Systematic review. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Allied and Complementary Medicine. names and descriptors of the therapies and LE. All human studies assessing the four therapies for LE. Results of five prospective case series and four controlled trials (three prolotherapy, two polidocanol, three autologous whole blood and one platelet-rich plasma) suggest each of the four therapies is effective for LE. In follow-up periods ranging from 9 to 108 weeks, studies reported sustained, statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement in visual analogue scale primary outcome pain score measures and disease-specific questionnaires; relative effect sizes ranged from 51% to 94%; Cohen's d ranged from 0.68 to 6.68. Secondary outcomes also improved, including biomechanical elbow function assessment (polidocanol and prolotherapy), presence of abnormalities and increased vascularity on ultrasound (autologous whole blood and polidocanol). Subjects reported satisfaction with therapies on single-item assessments. All studies were limited by small sample size. There is strong pilot-level evidence supporting the use of prolotherapy, polidocanol, autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of LE. Rigorous studies of sufficient sample size, assessing these injection therapies using validated clinical, radiological and biomechanical measures, and tissue injury/healing-responsive biomarkers, are needed to determine long-term effectiveness and safety, and whether these techniques can play a definitive role in the management of LE and other tendinopathies.

  6. Validation of a portable hand-held whole-blood ketone meter for use in cats.

    PubMed

    Weingart, Christiane; Lotz, Fabian; Kohn, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    Urinary dipsticks are the most frequent method used for screening of ketones in animals, but this method has many drawbacks. In human medicine, portable meters that measure ketones in whole blood have largely replaced urinary dipsticks. The aim of this prospective study was to validate a portable whole-blood ketone meter for use in cats. Sixty-two cats (11 clinically healthy, 51 with diabetes mellitus) were included in the study. The concentration of β-hydroxybuyrate (β-HB) was measured in venous and capillary blood with a hand-held ketone meter (Precision Xceed; assay range 0-8 mmol/L) and compared with a spectrophotometric method. Precision, accuracy, and the effects of hematocrit and anticoagulants were evaluated. Between-run precision using low- and high-concentration control solutions was 8.1% and 2.6%, respectively; within-run coefficient of variation determined using 12 feline blood samples was 2.8%. In the 62 cats, β-HB concentrations measured with the portable ketone meter ranged from 0-7.4 mmol/L (median 0.9 mmol/L). When β-HB concentrations measured by the portable meter were < 4.0 mmol/L there was good agreement with the reference method, but concentrations > 4.0 mmol/L were lower than those obtained by the reference method in 20 of 24 cats (83%). There was good correlation between capillary and venous measurements. Results were not affected by hematocrits from 0.17 to 0.50 L/L, but EDTA was not a suitable anticoagulant. Measurement of β-HB concentration in peripheral or capillary blood by an easy-to-use portable ketone meter was suitable for detecting ketonemia in cats. Underestimation of β-HB concentration was observed at higher values, but results were sufficiently high to aid in diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in whole blood and glioma risk: A case control study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Song, Renduo; Lu, Zhimin; Zhao, Hua

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number are observed in human gliomas. However, whether variations in mtDNA copy number in whole blood play any role in glioma carcinogenesis is still largely unknown. In current study with 395 glioma patients and 425 healthy controls, we intended to investigate the association between mtDNA copy number in whole blood and glioma risk. Overall, we found that levels of mtDNA copy number were significantly higher in glioma cases than healthy controls (mean: 1.48 vs. 1.32, P < 0.01). In both cases and controls, levels of mtDNA copy number were inversely correlated with age (P < 0.01, respectively). And in cases, newly diagnosed, glioblastoma (GBM), and high grade glioma patients had significantly lower mtDNA copy number than their counterparts (P = 0.02, P < 0.01, and P = 0.04, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, elevated mtDNA copy number levels were associated with a 1.63-fold increased risk of glioma (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-2.14). In further quartile analysis, study subjects who had highest levels of mtNDA copy number had 1.75-fold increased risk of gliomas (adjOR = 1.75, 95%CI = 1.18-2.61). In brief, our findings support the role of mtDNA copy number in the glioma carcinogenesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Selective effects of tea extract and its phenolic compounds on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine secretions.

    PubMed

    Neyestani, Tirang R; Gharavi, A'azam; Kalayi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The effects of black tea extract (BTE) and some of its pure phenolics on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine secretion were examined in vitro. The main steps of the study included chromatographic analysis of BTE and commercial green tea extract, Polyphenon 60, determination of the total antioxidant capacity of both the extracts and their phenolics, and finally evaluation of their effects on PBMCs. Four major peaks in the chromatogram of BTE belonged to caffeine, gallic acid, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate, and the latter showed the highest antioxidant capacity. While pure phenolics at the concentration of 20 mM did not significantly affect PBMC cytokine secretion, BTE and Polyphenon 60 suppressed interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Interestingly, the secretion of interferon-gamma after 24 h was slightly, but significantly, boosted by the extracts. BTE has selective pro-inflammatory cytokine-suppressing effects on human PBMCs.

  9. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, E.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Ali-Ghanbari, A.; Sharifzadeh, S.; Ranjbaran, R.; Mostafavi-pour, Z.; Zal, F.; Haghani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old). Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results Our results showed significant increase in  ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated. PMID:26396966

  10. The expression and function of human CD300 receptors on blood circulating mononuclear cells are distinct in neonates and adults

    PubMed Central

    Zenarruzabeitia, Olatz; Vitallé, Joana; García-Obregón, Susana; Astigarraga, Itziar; Eguizabal, Cristina; Santos, Silvia; Simhadri, Venkateswara R.; Borrego, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Neonates are more susceptible to infections than adults. This susceptibility is thought to reflect neonates’ qualitative and quantitative defects in the adaptive and innate immune responses. Differential expression of cell surface receptors may result in altered thresholds of neonatal immune cell activation. We determined whether the expression and function of the lipid-binding CD300 family of receptors are different on neonatal immune cells compared to adult immune cells. A multiparametric flow cytometry analysis was performed to determine the expression of CD300 receptors on adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neonatal cord blood mononuclear cells. The expression of the CD300a inhibitory receptor was significantly reduced on cells from the newborn adaptive immune system, and neonatal antigen presenting cells exhibited a different CD300 receptors expression pattern. We also found differential LPS-mediated regulation of CD300 receptors expression on adult monocytes compared to cord blood monocytes, and that CD300c and CD300e-mediated activation was quantitatively different in neonatal monocytes. This is the first complete study examining the expression of CD300 receptors on human neonatal immune cells compared with adult immune cells. Significant differences in the expression and function of CD300 receptors may help to explain the peculiarities and distinctness of the neonatal immune responses. PMID:27595670

  11. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, E; Mortazavi, S M J; Ali-Ghanbari, A; Sharifzadeh, S; Ranjbaran, R; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Zal, F; Haghani, M

    2015-09-01

    Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old). Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Our results showed significant increase in  ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated.

  12. Influence of captopril on glucose and fatty acid oxidation in human thrombocytes and mononuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, R; Colic, D

    1991-01-01

    Captopril (CAS 62571-86-2) may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes because of its activating effect on peripheral glucose consumption besides its well known blood pressure degradation. The glucose oxidation has been found to be activated by captopril in thrombocytes and mononuclear leucocytes, cell types which are usually considered to be independent from insulin. Because the oxidation of pyruvate labelled in position C-1 but not of 2-14C-pyruvate and of 1-14C-acetate was enhanced, captopril most probably stimulated the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction. The metabolism of glucose labelled in positions 1 and 6 was equally activated by captopril indicating another step which may be affected by captopril.

  13. PSP activates monocytes in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: immunomodulatory implications for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhagwant Kaur; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Chan, Wing Keung; Fan, Kei; Li, George Qian; Moore, Douglas Edwin; Roubin, Rebecca Heidi

    2013-06-15

    Polysaccharopeptide (PSP), from Coriolus versicolor, has been used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy, and has demonstrated anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects. However its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate how PSP affects immune populations, we compared PSP treatments both with and without prior incubation in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) - a process commonly used in immune population experimentation. We first standardised a capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting technique for PSP identification and characterisation. We then established the proliferative capability of PSP on various immune populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using flow cytometry, without prior PHA treatment. It was found that PSP significantly increased the number of monocytes (CD14(+)/CD16(-)) compared to controls without PHA. This increase in monocytes was confirmed using another antibody panel of CD14 and MHCII. In contrast, proliferations of T-cells, NK, and B-cells were not significantly changed by PSP. Thus, stimulating monocyte/macrophage function with PSP could be an effective therapeutic intervention in targeting tumors.

  14. Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen levels using the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi; Ono, Yuichi; Mizugaki, Asumi; Katabami, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Wada, Takeshi; Yanagida, Yuichiro; Sawamura, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen (Fbg) levels is essential for maintaining homeostasis in patients with massive bleeding during severe trauma and major surgery. This study evaluated the accuracy of fibrinogen levels measured by the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer (A&T Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan) using heparinized blood drawn for blood gas analysis (whole blood-Fbg). A total of 100 matched pairs of heparinized blood samples and citrated blood samples were simultaneously collected from patients in the intensive care unit. Whole blood-Fbg results were compared with those of citrated plasma (standard-Fbg). The whole blood coagulation analyzer measured fibrinogen levels within 2 minutes. Strong correlations between standard-Fbg and whole blood-Fbg were observed (ρ = 0.91, p < 0.001). Error grid analysis showed that 88% of the values were clinically acceptable, and 12% were in a range with possible effects on clinical decision-making; none were in a clinically dangerous range without appropriate treatment. Using a fibrinogen cutoff value of 1.5 g/L for standard-Fbg, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of whole blood-Fbg was 0.980 (95% confidence interval 0.951-1.000, p < 0.001). The whole blood coagulation analyzer can rapidly measure fibrinogen levels in heparinized blood and could be useful in critical care settings where excessive bleeding is a concern.

  15. Influence of Amalaki Rasayana on telomerase activity and telomere length in human blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Kanive P; Dash, Sweta; Shivakumar, Marigowda B; Shetty, Pavithra R; Raghu, Kothanahalli S; Shamprasad, Bhanuvalli R; Udupi, Vishwanatha; Acharya, Raviraj V; Vidya, Prasanna B; Nayak, Jayakrishna; Mana, Anandan E; Moni, Rajesh; Sankaran, Muraleedharan T; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    Indian traditional medicine practices use defined rasayana preparations to improve the quality of life in aged individuals. Amalaki Rasayana is one such rasayana prepared from the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica and is popularly used to prevent or treat various age related health conditions. Telomerase activity in the cells maintains telomere length and is implicated in ageing and various diseases wherein the shortening of telomere during ageing is controlled chiefly by the telomerase activity. In the present study, we investigated telomerase activity and telomere length in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of aged individuals administered with Amalaki Rasayana. Amalaki Rasayana was administered to healthy, aged (45-60 years) volunteers for 45 days after koshta shuddhi procedure. The telomerase activity and telomere length were analyzed on 0, 45th and 90th days of Amalaki Rasayana administration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these individuals and compared with age-matched placebo group and young volunteers (22-30 years). The data were compared between the groups. The results indicated an increase in telomerase activity with no discernible change in telomere length in the Amalaki administered participants. The comparison between young and aged participants revealed higher telomerase activity in young participants with no significant differences in telomere length. The data indicate that the maintenance of telomere length is facilitated by an increase in telomerase activity upon rasayana administration in aged individuals and Amalaki Rasayana may prevent the erosion of telomeres over a period of time in aged individuals to promote healthy ageing. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of clinically relevant alumina ceramic wear particles on TNF-alpha production by human peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Hatton, A; Nevelos, J E; Matthews, J B; Fisher, J; Ingham, E

    2003-03-01

    The recent introduction of microseparation of the components of ceramic-on-ceramic hip prostheses during hip simulations has produced clinically relevant wear rates, wear patterns and wear particles. This provided an opportunity to determine the response of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to clinically relevant alumina ceramic wear particles in vitro. Alumina ceramic wear particles were generated in a hip joint simulator under microseparation conditions. The particles showed a bi-modal size distribution with nanometer sized (5-20nm) and larger particles (0.2->10 micrometer). The particles were cultured with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from six different donors at particle volume to cell number ratios of 1, 10, 100 and 500 micrometer(3). After 24h incubation the viability of the cells and the levels of TNF-alpha were determined. The response to the microseparation wear particles was compared to that of commercially available alumina powder with a uniform morphology and mean size of 0.5 micrometer. All six Donors PBMNC produced significantly elevated levels of TNF-alpha when stimulated with 100 micrometer(3) of the alumina powder per cell. Volumetric concentrations of 10 and 1.0 micrometer(3) per cell failed to stimulate a significant response by the cells from any of the six donors. Three of the six Donors PBMNC secreted significantly elevated levels of TNF-alpha when stimulated with 100 micrometer(3) of the microseparation wear particles, whereas the other three failed to respond to the wear debris at this concentration. All of the Donors PBMNC produced significantly elevated levels of TNF-alpha when stimulated with 500 micrometer(3) of the microseparation wear particles per cell. Thus, a greater volume of the microseparation wear particles was required to activate the PBMNC than the alumina powder. This was probably due to the microseparation wear particles having fewer particles in the critical size range (0.1-1 micrometer

  17. Emergency whole-blood use in the field: a simplified protocol for collection and transfusion.

    PubMed

    Strandenes, Geir; De Pasquale, Marc; Cap, Andrew P; Hervig, Tor A; Kristoffersen, Einar K; Hickey, Matthew; Cordova, Christopher; Berseus, Olle; Eliassen, Håkon S; Fisher, Logan; Williams, Steve; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    Military experience and recent in vitro laboratory data provide a biological rationale for whole-blood use in the treatment of exsanguinating hemorrhage and have renewed interest in the reintroduction of fresh whole blood and cold-stored whole blood to patient care in austere environments. There is scant evidence to support, in a field environment, that a whole blood-based resuscitation strategy is superior to a crystalloid/colloid approach even when augmented by a limited number of red blood cell (RBC) and plasma units. Recent retrospective evidence suggests that, in this setting, resuscitation with a full compliment of RBCs, plasma, and platelets may offer an advantage, especially under conditions where evacuation is delayed. No current evacuation system, military or civilian, is capable of providing RBC, plasma, and platelet units in a prehospital environment, especially in austere settings. As a result, for the vast minority of casualties, in austere settings, with life-threatening hemorrhage, it is appropriate to consider a whole blood-based resuscitation approach to provide a balanced response to altered hemostasis and oxygen debt, with the goal of reducing the risk of death from hemorrhagic shock. To optimize the successful use of fresh whole blood/cold-stored whole blood in combat field environments, proper planning and frequent training to maximize efficiency and safety will be required. Combat medics will need proper protocol-based guidance and education if whole-blood collection and transfusion are to be successfully and safely performed in austere environments. In this article, we present the Norwegian Naval Special Operation Commando unit-specific remote damage control resuscitation protocol, which includes field collection and transfusion of whole blood. This protocol can serve as a template for others to use and adjust for their own military or civilian unit-specific needs and capabilities for care in austere environments.

  18. Comparison of whole blood and plasma colloid osmotic pressure in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mary L; Kerl, Marie E; Tynan, Beth; Mann, F A

    2014-01-01

    To establish reference intervals for whole blood and plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) in healthy cats between the ages of 1 and 10 years using a cage-side colloid osmometer. Prospective, observational study. University veterinary teaching hospital. Sixty-three healthy cats. Phlebotomy. Whole blood COP mean was 24.4 (±2.78) mmHg and plasma COP mean was 24.3 (±2.59) mmHg. Reference interval for our study population of feline whole blood COP was 18.9 to 30.4 mmHg, and for our study population of feline plasma COP was 18.3 to 30.8 mmHg. Difference of paired whole blood COP and plasma COP was +0.23 ± 1.68 mmHg (P = 0.32). There was no significant difference when comparing COP from neutered male and neutered female cats. Total protein and albumin were significantly correlated with whole blood COP (total protein to whole blood COP P < 0.0001, r = 0.53; albumin to whole blood COP P <0.0001, r = 0.68) and plasma COP (total protein to plasma COP P = 0.0025, r = 0.41; albumin to plasma COP P < 0.0001, r = 0.66). No significant difference was found between mean whole blood and plasma COP in this study population of cats. Even though not statistically significant, evaluation of paired whole blood COP and plasma COP did reveal a slight difference; therefore, it seems prudent to maintain sample consistency for serial evaluations in cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  19. Increased mortality in adult patients with trauma transfused with blood components compared with whole blood.

    PubMed

    Jones, Allison R; Frazier, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a preventable cause of death among patients with trauma, and management often includes transfusion, either whole blood or a combination of blood components (packed red blood cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma). We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank data set to evaluate the relationship between transfusion type and mortality in adult patients with major trauma (n = 1745). Logistic regression analysis identified 3 independent predictors of mortality: Injury Severity Score, emergency medical system transfer time, and type of blood transfusion, whole blood or components. Transfusion of whole blood was associated with reduced mortality; thus, it may provide superior survival outcomes in this population.

  20. [Determination of methamphetamine in whole blood by capillary zone electrophoresis after solid phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Gong, Fei-Jun; Zhang, Run-Sheng

    2006-10-15

    To develop a specific CZE method for the determination of methamphetamine in whole blood after solid phase extraction. With the doxapram as internal standard, Oasis column was used to extract drugs from whole blood and the sample was analysized by CZE. The method showed excellent linearity and the linear correlation coefficient was 0.994. The relative standard deviation for between-day and within-day were 5.31% and 2.22%, respectively. The method is effective, simple, reliable and has been used in the determination of methamphetamine in whole blood.

  1. Development of a Population Pharmacokinetic Model To Describe Azithromycin Whole-Blood and Plasma Concentrations over Time in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Anic-Milic, T.; Oreskovic, K.; Padovan, J.; Brouwer, K. L. R.; Zuo, P.; Schmith, V. D.

    2013-01-01

    Azithromycin (AZI), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, accumulates in polymorphonuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The distribution of AZI in proinflammatory cells may be important to the anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies have described plasma AZI pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of AZI in whole blood (concentration in whole blood [Cb]) and plasma (concentration in plasma [Cp]) of healthy subjects. In this study, 12 subjects received AZI (500 mg once a day for 3 days). AZI Cb and Cp were quantified in serial samples collected up to 3 weeks after the last dose and analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. After the last dose, Cb was greater than Cp. Importantly, Cb, but not Cp, was quantifiable in all but one subject at 3 weeks. The blood area under the curve during a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) was ∼2-fold greater than the plasma AUC24, but simulations suggested that Cb was not at steady state by day 3. Upon exploration of numerous models, an empirical 3-compartment model adequately described Cp and Cb, but Cp was somewhat underestimated. Intercompartmental clearance (CL; likely representing cells) was lower than apparent oral CL (18 versus 118 liters/h). Plasma, peripheral, and cell compartmental volumes were 439 liters, 2,980 liters, and 3,084 liters, respectively. Interindividual variability in CL was low (26.2%), while the volume of distribution variability was high (107%). This is the first report to describe AZI Cb in healthy subjects, the distribution parameters between Cp and Cb, and AZI retention in blood for up to 3 weeks following 3 daily doses. The model can be used to predict Cb from Cp for AZI under various dosing regimens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01026064.) PMID:23629714

  2. Development of a population pharmacokinetic model to describe azithromycin whole-blood and plasma concentrations over time in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Pene Dumitrescu, T; Anic-Milic, T; Oreskovic, K; Padovan, J; Brouwer, K L R; Zuo, P; Schmith, V D

    2013-07-01

    Azithromycin (AZI), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, accumulates in polymorphonuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The distribution of AZI in proinflammatory cells may be important to the anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies have described plasma AZI pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of AZI in whole blood (concentration in whole blood [Cb]) and plasma (concentration in plasma [Cp]) of healthy subjects. In this study, 12 subjects received AZI (500 mg once a day for 3 days). AZI Cb and Cp were quantified in serial samples collected up to 3 weeks after the last dose and analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. After the last dose, Cb was greater than Cp. Importantly, Cb, but not Cp, was quantifiable in all but one subject at 3 weeks. The blood area under the curve during a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) was ∼2-fold greater than the plasma AUC24, but simulations suggested that Cb was not at steady state by day 3. Upon exploration of numerous models, an empirical 3-compartment model adequately described Cp and Cb, but Cp was somewhat underestimated. Intercompartmental clearance (CL; likely representing cells) was lower than apparent oral CL (18 versus 118 liters/h). Plasma, peripheral, and cell compartmental volumes were 439 liters, 2,980 liters, and 3,084 liters, respectively. Interindividual variability in CL was low (26.2%), while the volume of distribution variability was high (107%). This is the first report to describe AZI Cb in healthy subjects, the distribution parameters between Cp and Cb, and AZI retention in blood for up to 3 weeks following 3 daily doses. The model can be used to predict Cb from Cp for AZI under various dosing regimens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01026064.).

  3. In vitro expansion of Lin{sup +} and Lin{sup −} mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect

    Norhaiza, H. Siti; Zarina, Z. A. Intan; Hisham, Z. A. Shahrul; Rohaya, M. A. W.

    2013-11-27

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are used in the therapy of blood disorders due to the ability of these cells to reconstitute haematopoietic lineage cells when transplanted into myeloablative recipients. However, substantial number of cells is required in order for the reco