Science.gov

Sample records for human-guided object-choice tasks

  1. Juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) use human-given cues in an object choice task.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; Ebersbach, Mirjam; von Borell, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Research on the comprehension of human-given cues by domesticated as well as non-domesticated species has received considerable attention over the last decade. While several species seem to be capable of utilizing these cues, former work with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) has shown inconclusive results. In this study, we investigated the use of human-given cues in an object choice task by young domestic pigs (N = 17; 7 weeks of age) who had very limited human contact prior to the experiments. Subjects had to choose between two bowls of which only one was baited with a reward. Over the course of five experiments, pigs were able to use proximal and, with some constraints, also distal pointing cues presented in both a dynamic-sustained and in a momentary manner. When the experimenter was pointing from the incorrect bowl towards the correct one, most of the subjects had problems solving the task-indicating that some form of stimulus/local enhancement affected pigs' decision making. Interestingly, pigs were able to utilize the body and head orientation of a human experimenter to locate the hidden reward but failed to co-orient when head or body orientation of the experimenter was directed into distant space with no bowls present. Control trials ruled out the possibility that other factors (e.g. odour cues) affected subjects' choice behaviour. Learning during experiments played a minor role and only occurred in three out of twelve test conditions. We conclude that domestic pigs, even at a very young age, are skilful in utilizing various human-given cues in an object choice task-raising the question whether pigs only used stimulus/local enhancement and associative learning processes or whether they were able to comprehend the communicative nature of at least some of these cues.

  2. An obedient orangutan (Pongo abelii) performs perfectly in peripheral object-choice tasks but fails the standard centrally presented versions.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Nicholas J; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Mulcahy and Call (2009) found that bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) but not orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) perform significantly better in a peripheral version of the object-choice task compared to the original central version. Orangutans may have failed because they avoided direct eye contact with the experimenter when the cue was given. We investigated this possibility by conducting peripheral and central object choice tasks with an obedient orangutan (Pongo abelii) whom the experimenter could elicit eye contact with in each trial. In contrast to Mulcahy and Call's findings, the subject only failed the object choice task when tested with the central and not the peripheral version. We investigated whether success was because of the greater distance the subject was required to move in order to make a choice in peripheral trials. Results show that this was an unlikely factor in the subject's success. We discuss our findings in relation to previous and future object-choice research.

  3. Nonenculturated orangutans' (Pongo pygmaeus) use of experimenter-given manual and facial cues in an object-choice task.

    PubMed

    Byrnit, Jill T

    2004-09-01

    Several experiments have been performed, to examine whether nonhuman primates are able to make use of experimenter-given manual and facial (visual) cues to direct their attention to a baited object. Contrary to the performance of prosimians and monkeys, great apes repeatedly have shown task efficiency in experiments such as these. However, many great ape subjects used have been "enculturated" individuals. In the present study, 3 nonenculturated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) were tested for their ability to use experimenter-given pointing, gazing, and glancing cues in an object-choice task. All subjects readily made use of the pointing gesture. However, when subjects were left with only gazing or glancing cues, their performance deteriorated markedly, and they were not able to complete the task.

  4. The performance of bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in two versions of an object-choice task.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Nicholas J; Call, Josep

    2009-08-01

    The object-choice task tests animals' ability to use human-given cues to find a hidden reward located in 1 of 2 (or more) containers. Great apes are generally unskillful in this task whereas other species including dogs (Canis familiaris) and goats (Capra hircus) can use human-given cues to locate the reward. However, great apes are typically positioned proximal to the containers when receiving the experimenter's cue whereas other species are invariably positioned distally. The authors investigated how the position of the subject, the human giving the cue and the containers (and the distance among them) affected the performance of 19 captive great apes. Compared to the proximal condition, the distal condition involved larger distances and, critically, it reduced the potential ambiguity of the cues as well as the strong influence that the sight of the containers may have had when subjects received the cue. Subjects were far more successful in the distal compared to the proximal condition. The authors suggest several possibilities to account for this difference and discuss our findings in relation to previous and future object-choice research.

  5. Performance in Object-Choice Aesop’s Fable Tasks Are Influenced by Object Biases in New Caledonian Crows but not in Human Children

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alex H.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Gray, Russell D.; Loissel, Elsa; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reason about causality underlies key aspects of human cognition, but the extent to which non-humans understand causality is still largely unknown. The Aesop’s Fable paradigm, where objects are inserted into water-filled tubes to obtain out-of-reach rewards, has been used to test casual reasoning in birds and children. However, success on these tasks may be influenced by other factors, specifically, object preferences present prior to testing or arising during pre-test stone-dropping training. Here, we assessed this ‘object-bias’ hypothesis by giving New Caledonian crows and 5–10 year old children two object-choice Aesop’s Fable experiments: sinking vs. floating objects, and solid vs. hollow objects. Before each test, we assessed subjects’ object preferences and/or trained them to prefer the alternative object. Both crows and children showed pre-test object preferences, suggesting that birds in previous Aesop’s Fable studies may also have had initial preferences for objects that proved to be functional on test. After training to prefer the non-functional object, crows, but not children, performed more poorly on these two object-choice Aesop’s Fable tasks than subjects in previous studies. Crows dropped the non-functional objects into the tube on their first trials, indicating that, unlike many children, they do not appear to have an a priori understanding of water displacement. Alternatively, issues with inhibition could explain their performance. The crows did, however, learn to solve the tasks over time. We tested crows further to determine whether their eventual success was based on learning about the functional properties of the objects, or associating dropping the functional object with reward. Crows inserted significantly more rewarded, non-functional objects than non-rewarded, functional objects. These findings suggest that the ability of New Caledonian crows to produce performances rivaling those of young children on object-choice

  6. Piglets Learn to Use Combined Human-Given Visual and Auditory Signals to Find a Hidden Reward in an Object Choice Task

    PubMed Central

    Bensoussan, Sandy; Cornil, Maude; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Tallet, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Although animals rarely use only one sense to communicate, few studies have investigated the use of combinations of different signals between animals and humans. This study assessed for the first time the spontaneous reactions of piglets to human pointing gestures and voice in an object-choice task with a reward. Piglets (Sus scrofa domestica) mainly use auditory signals–individually or in combination with other signals—to communicate with their conspecifics. Their wide hearing range (42 Hz to 40.5 kHz) fits the range of human vocalisations (40 Hz to 1.5 kHz), which may induce sensitivity to the human voice. However, only their ability to use visual signals from humans, especially pointing gestures, has been assessed to date. The current study investigated the effects of signal type (visual, auditory and combined visual and auditory) and piglet experience on the piglets’ ability to locate a hidden food reward over successive tests. Piglets did not find the hidden reward at first presentation, regardless of the signal type given. However, they subsequently learned to use a combination of auditory and visual signals (human voice and static or dynamic pointing gestures) to successfully locate the reward in later tests. This learning process may result either from repeated presentations of the combination of static gestures and auditory signals over successive tests, or from transitioning from static to dynamic pointing gestures, again over successive tests. Furthermore, piglets increased their chance of locating the reward either if they did not go straight to a bowl after entering the test area or if they stared at the experimenter before visiting it. Piglets were not able to use the voice direction alone, indicating that a combination of signals (pointing and voice direction) is necessary. Improving our communication with animals requires adapting to their individual sensitivity to human-given signals. PMID:27792731

  7. Domestic pigs' (Sus scrofa domestica) use of direct and indirect visual and auditory cues in an object choice task.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard

    2015-05-01

    Recently, foraging strategies have been linked to the ability to use indirect visual information. More selective feeders should express a higher aversion against losses compared to non-selective feeders and should therefore be more prone to avoid empty food locations. To extend these findings, in this study, we present a series of studies investigating the use of direct and indirect visual and auditory information by an omnivorous but selective feeder-the domestic pig. Subjects had to choose between two buckets, with only one containing a reward. Before making a choice, the subjects in Experiment 1 (N = 8) received full information regarding both the baited and non-baited location, either in a visual or auditory domain. In this experiment, the subjects were able to use visual but not auditory cues to infer the location of the reward spontaneously. Additionally, four individuals learned to use auditory cues after a period of training. In Experiment 2 (N = 8), the pigs were given different amounts of visual information about the content of the buckets-lifting either both of the buckets (full information), the baited bucket (direct information), the empty bucket (indirect information) or no bucket at all (no information). The subjects as a group were able to use direct and indirect visual cues. However, over the course of the experiment, the performance dropped to chance level when indirect information was provided. A final experiment (N = 3) provided preliminary results for pigs' use of indirect auditory information to infer the location of a reward. We conclude that pigs at a very young age are able to make decisions based on indirect information in the visual domain, whereas their performance in the use of indirect auditory information warrants further investigation.

  8. Task breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlich, Jane

    1990-01-01

    The topics concerning the Center for Space Construction (CSC) space construction breakdown structure are presented in viewgraph form. It is concluded that four components describe a task -- effecting, information gathering, analysis, and regulation; uncertainties effect the relative amount of information gathering and analysis that occurs; and that task timing requirements drive the 'location in time' of cognition.

  9. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration. PMID:28360878

  10. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration.

  11. "Task" as Research Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…

  12. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  13. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.C.; Arzeno, Natalia; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ryder, Jeffrey; Garcia, Yamil; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  14. Task Time Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, G.

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  15. Behavioral Task Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    depicting hierarchical behavioral task relationships as well. An extensive list of such tools is given in Wikipedia articles at http...Hierarchical task analysis . In D. Diaper & N. A. Stanton (Eds .), The handbook of task analysis for human-computer interaction (pp. 67-82). Mahwah, NJ

  16. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  17. Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…

  18. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport.

  19. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  20. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  1. Data analysis tasks: BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1993-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the operation of, and analysis of data from, the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  2. Data Systems Task Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    A08873 MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON DC F/B 5/9 DATA SYSTEMS TASK ANALYSIS. (U) "CLASSIFIEO. -%mm . LEVELIs DATA SYSTEMS O0 TASK ANALYSIS DCI) OO JF AUG 28...TECI-NICIAN jl. CCMPUTER SYSTEMS EVALLATOR ,13. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MANAGER 314. LCMPUTER SYSTEMS MCNITOR A5o LCMPUTER TERMINAL OPERATOR j16. LCNFIGURATION...OPERATOR )27. DATA PROCESSING NCO )28. DATA PROCESSINIG TECHNICIAN 329e DATA SYSTEMS LIBRARIAN )35* DATA SYSTEMS OPERATICNS Cl-IEF 331. DATA SYSTEMS

  3. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  4. Robot task space analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.; Osborn, J.

    1997-12-01

    Many nuclear projects such as environmental restoration and waste management challenges involve radiation or other hazards that will necessitate the use of remote operations that protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote work is far more costly to execute than what workers could accomplish directly with conventional tools and practices because task operations are slow and tedious due to difficulties of remote manipulation and viewing. Decades of experience within the nuclear remote operations community show that remote tasks may take hundreds of times longer than hands-on work; even with state-of-the-art force- reflecting manipulators and television viewing, remote task performance execution is five to ten times slower than equivalent direct contact work. Thus the requirement to work remotely is a major cost driver in many projects. Modest improvements in the work efficiency of remote systems can have high payoffs by reducing the completion time of projects. Additional benefits will accrue from improved work quality and enhanced safety.

  5. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  6. Thinking about "Rich" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Lorna; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an e-mail conversation between two teachers discussing how to have a "rich task" lesson in which they get to the heart of mathematical modeling and in which students are motivated into working on mathematics. One teacher emphasizes that the power of maths is in developing mathematical descriptions of situations by…

  7. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  8. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  9. Chizu Task Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Chizu is a tool for Mapping MPI processes or tasks to physical processors or nodes for optimizing communication performance. It takes the communication graph of a High Performance Computing (HPC) application and the interconnection topology of a supercomputer as input. It outputs a new MPI rand to processor mapping, which can be used when launching the HPC application.

  10. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  11. Mining Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    In fall 1988, the Board of Directors of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) created a task force to study the training needs of the mining industry in the province and evaluate SIAST's responsiveness to those needs. After assessing the technological changes taking place in the industry, surveying manpower needs,…

  12. Realistic Sensor Tasking Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, C.; Fiedler, H.; Herzog, J.

    2016-09-01

    Efficient sensor tasking is a crucial step in building up and maintaining a catalog of space objects at the highest possible orbit quality. Sensor resources are limited; sensor location and setup (hardware and processing software) influence the quality of observations for initial orbit determination or orbit improvement that can be obtained. Furthermore, improved sensing capabilities are expected to lead to an increase of objects that are sought to be maintained in a catalog, easily reaching over 100'000 objects. Sensor tasking methods hence need to be computationally efficient in order to be successfully applied to operational systems, and need to take realistic constraints, such as limited visibility of objects, time-varying probability of detection and the specific capabilities in software and hardware for the specific sensors into account. This paper shows a method to formulate sensor tasking as an optimization problem and introduces a new method to provide fast and computationally efficient real time, near optimal sensor tasking solutions. Simulations are preformed using the USSTRATCOM TLE catalog of all geosynchronous objects. The results are compared to state of the art observation strategies.

  13. BIA Reorganization Task Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on three hearings held this spring by the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization Task Force, this article presents highlights from the testimony of Forrest Gerard, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs and discusses the matrix system of organization currently under consideration by the BIA. (JC)

  14. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  15. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  16. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in Elementary Cognitive Tasks Reflect Task Difficulty and Task Threshold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caryl, P. G.; Harper, Alison

    1996-01-01

    Effects on the event-related potential (ERP) waveform of differences in stimuli (task difficulty) and threshold were studied with 35 undergraduates performing a visual inspection time task and 30 performing a pitch discrimination task. In both tasks, ERP differences related to threshold were temporally localized differences in waveform shape. (SLD)

  17. Management Agenda Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Report FY04-4 • Recommendations related to business management priorities for the Secretary of Defense February...Business Board (DBB) formed this Task Group to assess and make recommendations to the Department of Defense on management priorities for the next four...This list should be drawn from the four primary areas of DBB focus over the past three years: human resources, financial management, acquisition

  18. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  19. The task force process

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.S.

    1995-01-31

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several {open_quotes}big picture{close_quotes} issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald.

  20. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  1. Silicon material task review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Silicon Material Task are to evaluate technologies, new and old; to develop the most promising technologies; to establish practicality of the processes to meet production, energy use, and economic criteria; and to develop an information base on impurities in polysilicon and to determine their effects on solar cell performance. The approach involves determining process feasibility, setting milestones for the forced selection of the processes, and establishing the technical readiness of the integrated process.

  2. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  3. Principles of Communicative Task Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…

  4. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  5. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  6. Reverse-Engineering Communication Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamber, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to planning sequences of communication tasks that require learners to become personally involved in their learning. By drawing on their own ideas and experiences, as a product of earlier tasks in a given sequence, learners generate the content and resource material on which subsequent tasks operate. The article…

  7. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  8. The Effect of Hierarchical Task Representations on Task Selection in Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Starla M.; Arrington, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the potential for hierarchical representations to influence action selection during voluntary task switching. Participants switched between 4 individual task elements. In Experiment 1, participants were encouraged to represent the task elements as grouped within a hierarchy based on experimental manipulations of varying…

  9. Task directed sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firby, R. James

    1990-01-01

    High-level robot control research must confront the limitations imposed by real sensors if robots are to be controlled effectively in the real world. In particular, sensor limitations make it impossible to maintain a complete, detailed world model of the situation surrounding the robot. To address the problems involved in planning with the resulting incomplete and uncertain world models, traditional robot control architectures must be altered significantly. Task-directed sensing and control is suggested as a way of coping with world model limitations by focusing sensing and analysis resources on only those parts of the world relevant to the robot's active goals. The RAP adaptive execution system is used as an example of a control architecture designed to deploy sensing resources in this way to accomplish both action and knowledge goals.

  10. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  11. Task Prioritization in Dual-Tasking: Instructions versus Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Reinier J.; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib

    2016-01-01

    The role of task prioritization in performance tradeoffs during multi-tasking has received widespread attention. However, little is known on whether people have preferences regarding tasks, and if so, whether these preferences conflict with priority instructions. Three experiments were conducted with a high-speed driving game and an auditory memory task. In Experiment 1, participants did not receive priority instructions. Participants performed different sequences of single-task and dual-task conditions. Task performance was evaluated according to participants’ retrospective accounts on preferences. These preferences were reformulated as priority instructions in Experiments 2 and 3. The results showed that people differ in their preferences regarding task prioritization in an experimental setting, which can be overruled by priority instructions, but only after increased dual-task exposure. Additional measures of mental effort showed that performance tradeoffs had an impact on mental effort. The interpretation of these findings was used to explore an extension of Threaded Cognition Theory with Hockey’s Compensatory Control Model. PMID:27391779

  12. Familiarity with the experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Lara; Wascher, Claudia A F; Weiss, Brigitte M; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2014-03-01

    When humans and animals interact with one another over an extended time span they familiarise and may develop a relationship, which can exert an influence on both partners. For example, the behaviour of an animal in experiments may be affected by its relationship to the human experimenter. However, few studies have systematically examined the impact of human-animal relationships on experimental results. In the present study we investigated if familiarity with a human experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in interactive tasks. Birds were tested in two interactive cognitive tasks (exchange, object choice) by several experimenters representing different levels of familiarity (long and short-term). Our findings show that the birds participated more often in both tasks and were more successful in the exchange task when working with long-term experimenters than when working with short-term experimenters. Behavioural observations indicate that anxiety did not inhibit experimental performance but that the birds' motivation to work differed between the two kinds of experimenters, familiar and less familiar. We conclude that human-animal relationships (i.e. familiarity) may affect the experimental performance of corvids in interactive cognitive tasks.

  13. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  14. Scheduling Tasks In Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Camille C.; Salama, Moktar A.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms sought to minimize time and cost of computation. Report describes research on scheduling of computations tasks in system of multiple identical data processors operating in parallel. Computational intractability requires use of suboptimal heuristic algorithms. First algorithm called "list heuristic", variation of classical list scheduling. Second algorithm called "cluster heuristic" applied to tightly coupled tasks and consists of four phases. Third algorithm called "exchange heuristic", iterative-improvement algorithm beginning with initial feasible assignment of tasks to processors and periods of time. Fourth algorithm is iterative one for optimal assignment of tasks and based on concept called "simulated annealing" because of mathematical resemblance to aspects of physical annealing processes.

  15. Escape Behavior in Task Situations: Task versus Social Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jill C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four students (ages 4-6) with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to high intensity and low intensity social interaction in a play situation and a task situation. Interaction intensity made no difference in students' behavior. Two students exhibited task avoidance and two exhibited…

  16. Escape behavior in task situations: task versus social antecedents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Ekdahl, M M; Romanczyk, R G; Miller, M L

    1994-06-01

    We designed an investigation to differentiate two types of challenging behaviors occurring in teaching situations: those evoked by task stimuli (i.e., task avoidance), and those evoked by social stimuli present in teaching situations (i.e., social avoidance). Four students with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to social interaction in a play situation and task demands in a teaching situation. Results indicated that the students exhibited two distinct behavior patterns. Two of the students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with task avoidance and the other two students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with social avoidance. Implications concerning task versus social avoidance and the need for more fine-grained analyses of the stimuli associated with escape behavior are discussed.

  17. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  18. TASK: Anarchy in the Artroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Cynthia; Van Patten, Kelda

    2012-01-01

    Most teenagers do not really like to be told what to do. For that matter, most adults don't either. This article discusses contemporary artist Oliver Herring's TASK, which is an opportunity for participants to bend or define the rules on their own terms. It is about choice, and, for many, it is a dream come true. TASK is controlled chaos that can…

  19. Service Excellence Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Univ. Libraries.

    A task force was appointed to measure user satisfaction with library services, establish a university libraries' service excellence philosophy and policy, bring the service excellence concept to the attention of every library employee, and recommend approaches for recognizing outstanding staff service. The members of the task force--two library…

  20. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  1. Analysing and Training Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, J.; Gregov, A.; Halliday, P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes two exploratory studies of undergraduate and postgraduate students concerning the difficulties of learning to perform HTA (hierarchical task analysis) and how those difficulties might be overcome through proper training. Errors occurred with respect to all HTA criteria, suggesting that carrying out HTR itself is a complex cognitive task.…

  2. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  3. Science 102: This Month's Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  4. Creativity, Overinclusion, and Everyday Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Elliott, Colette Seter; Giovannetti, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between creative thinking and performance on routine, everyday tasks. Results were considered in light of past research on the putative relation between creativity and schizophrenia/psychotic thinking. Thirty healthy undergraduates completed the Alternative Uses Task, a measure of divergent thinking, and the 2 × 3…

  5. Microcomputer Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the microcomputer series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  6. Printing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 10 occupations in the printing series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  7. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  8. Task Group for Orthodontics Report.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, K W; Brown, D V; Edler, R J; Kirschen, R H; Macadam, T S; Stephens, C D

    1998-08-01

    The UK Specialist Review Group of the General Dental Council's Education Committee has been charged with taking forward the recommendations in the Chief Dental Officer's report 'UK Specialist Dental Training'. The Specialist Review Group has, in turn, established a number of specialty task groups. This report is from the Task Group for Orthodontics. It was submitted in May 1996.

  9. Measuring Multi-tasking Ability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    performance in MT environments. Prioritization is a metacognitive task that can only be undertaken if the basic job performance tasks are not using up all of...such as scorable portfolios and essays where the criteria for scoring may not be obvious to the user. 3.15When using a standardized testing format to

  10. Decision paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  11. Putting Mathematical Tasks into Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney R.; Styers, Jodie L.

    2015-01-01

    Although many factors affect students' mathematical activity during a lesson, the teacher's selection and implementation of tasks is arguably the most influential in determining the level of student engagement. Mathematical tasks are intended to focus students' attention on a particular mathematical concept and it is the careful developing and…

  12. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  13. Task Attention Facilitates Learning of Task-Irrelevant Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Watanabe, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Attention plays a fundamental role in visual learning and memory. One highly established principle of visual attention is that the harder a central task is, the more attentional resources are used to perform the task and the smaller amount of attention is allocated to peripheral processing because of limited attention capacity. Here we show that this principle holds true in a dual-task setting but not in a paradigm of task-irrelevant perceptual learning. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to identify either bright or dim number targets at the screen center and to remember concurrently presented scene backgrounds. Their recognition performances for scenes paired with dim/hard targets were worse than those for scenes paired with bright/easy targets. In Experiment 2, eight participants were asked to identify either bright or dim letter targets at the screen center while a task-irrelevant coherent motion was concurrently presented in the background. After five days of training on letter identification, participants improved their motion sensitivity to the direction paired with hard/dim targets improved but not to the direction paired with easy/bright targets. Taken together, these results suggest that task-irrelevant stimuli are not subject to the attentional control mechanisms that task-relevant stimuli abide. PMID:22563424

  14. Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E.

    1981-01-01

    Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

  15. Task Dependent Differences and Individual Differences in Dual Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    conversation with the flight instructor, with the skilled pilot who can easily excercise flight control, and converse in par- allel. A difference...The subjects tested were 35 twelve-year olds , who performed tasks singly first then two dual task pairs and then each singly again. McQueen’s results...conducted by Sverko (1977) on adults in an effort to find evidence for a general factor of time-sharing skill. This study was conducted in order to

  16. Graph Theory of Tower Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Andreas M.

    2012-01-01

    The appropriate mathematical model for the problem space of tower transformation tasks is the state graph representing positions of discs or balls and their moves. Graph theoretical quantities like distance, eccentricities or degrees of vertices and symmetries of graphs support the choice of problems, the selection of tasks and the analysis of performance of subjects whose solution paths can be projected onto the graph. The mathematical model is also at the base of a computerized test tool to administer various types of tower tasks. PMID:22207419

  17. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  18. Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

  19. Resolving Task Rule Incongruence during Task Switching by Competitor Rule Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an…

  20. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    PubMed Central

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  1. Quantum tasks in Minkowski space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    The fundamental properties of quantum information and its applications to computing and cryptography have been greatly illuminated by considering information-theoretic tasks that are provably possible or impossible within non-relativistic quantum mechanics. I describe here a general framework for defining tasks within (special) relativistic quantum theory and illustrate it with examples from relativistic quantum cryptography and relativistic distributed quantum computation. The framework gives a unified description of all tasks previously considered and also defines a large class of new questions about the properties of quantum information in relation to Minkowski causality. It offers a way of exploring interesting new fundamental tasks and applications, and also highlights the scope for a more systematic understanding of the fundamental information-theoretic properties of relativistic quantum theory.

  2. Annual Progress report - General Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  3. Effects of a no-go Task 2 on Task 1 performance in dual - tasking: From benefits to costs.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Markus; Huestegge, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    When two tasks are combined in a dual-task experiment, characteristics of Task 2 can influence Task 1 performance, a phenomenon termed the backward crosstalk effect (BCE). Besides instances depending on the (spatial) compatibility of both responses, a particularly interesting example was introduced by Miller (2006): If Task 2 was a no-go task (i.e., one not requiring any action at all), responses were slowed in Task 1. Subsequent work, however, also reported the opposite result-that is, faster Task 1 responses in cases of no-go Task 2 trials. We report three experiments aiming to more precisely identify the conditions under which a no-go Task 2 facilitates or impedes Task 1 performance. The results suggest that an adverse no-go BCE is only observed when the Task 2 response(s) are sufficiently prepared in advance, yielding strong inhibitory control demands for Task 2 that eventually hamper Task 1 processing as well (i.e., inhibitory costs). If this is not the case, encountering a no-go Task 2 trial facilitates Task 1 performance, suggesting that the underlying task representation is reduced to a single - task. These results are discussed in the context of other recent work on BCEs and of recently suggested accounts of the no-go BCE.

  4. Graphical programming of telerobotic tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies. Graphical Programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia most advanced Graphical Programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia`s recent advances in supervisory control. Sancho, developed to rapidly apply Graphical Programming on a diverse set of robot systems, uses a general set of tools to implement task and operational behavior. Sancho can be rapidly reconfigured for new tasks and operations without modifying the supervisory code. Other innovations include task-based interfaces, event-based sequencing, and sophisticated GUI design. These innovations have resulted in robot control programs and approaches that are easier and safer to use than teleoperation, off-line programming, or full automation.

  5. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  6. Task Organizing for Urban Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    varying urbanisation s-a exatmined in this chapter. Nine ex&aples of Soviet and German task organization employed in urban combat ranging frca emaml...in swaler vill •ges. ’rhus if a tank battalion supported an infantry battalion in small village actions, it covid have to support up to eight infantry

  7. Physiological assessment of task underload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Pope, Alan T.

    1988-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research efforts directed at underload, boredom, or complacency in high-technology work environments is to detect conditions or states of the operator that can be demonstrated to lead to performance degradation, and then to intervene in the environment to restore acceptable system performance. Physiological measures may provide indices of changes in condition or state of the operator that may be of value in high-technology work environments. The focus of the present study was on the use of physiological measures in the assessment of operator condition or state in a task underload scenario. A fault acknowledgement task characterized by simple repetitive responses with minimal novelty, complexity, and uncertainty was employed to place subjects in a task underload situation. Physiological measures (electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and pupil diameter) were monitored during task performance over a one-hour test session for 12 subjects. Each of the physiological measures exhibited changes over the test session indicative of decrements in subject arousal level. While high correlations between physiological measures were found across subjects, individual differences between subjects support the use of profiling techniques to establish baselines unique to each subject.

  8. Task-Based Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of task-based writing instruction, a communicative language-teaching method, on second language acquisition and differentiation of instruction for English language learners during the independent work time instructional component of the Open Court Reading program. Through student-teacher…

  9. Inhibition in Prolonged Work Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ven, A. H. G. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A new model is presented that explains reaction time fluctuations in prolonged work tasks. The model extends the so-called Poisson-Erlang model and accounts for long-term trend effects in the reaction time curve. The model is consistent with Spearman's hypothesis that inhibition increases during work and decreases during rest. (TJH)

  10. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  11. Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

  12. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  13. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  14. American Indian Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, John E., Ed.

    Assuming that the client is central to any service program, the American Indian Task Force examined a national sample of "grass roots" social service organizations and/or individuals and schools of social work to determine the capability of providing relevant social work education to American Indians. Accordingly, the highest priorities…

  15. Incidental Learning and Task Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedberg, Michael; Wagschal, Tana T.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    For skill learning processes to be effective, they must encode associations that are inherent to the current task and avoid those that are spurious or particular to training conditions so that learning can transfer to novel situations. Some everyday contexts even require grouped responding to simultaneously presented stimuli. Here we test whether…

  16. Conducting the Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for project directors, coordinators, and other professional staff involved in developing and delivering workplace education programs, explains the process of conducting a job task analysis to create customized curricula to meet the workplace education students' needs. After a brief discussion of the rationale for…

  17. An architecture for intelligent task interruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

    1990-01-01

    In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

  18. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  19. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  20. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  1. Tasks for Easily Modifiable Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swier, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of learner interaction in virtual worlds have tended to select basic tasks involving open-ended communication. There is evidence that such tasks are supportive of language acquisition, however it may also be beneficial to consider more complex tasks. Research in task-based learning has identified features such as non-linguistic…

  2. Task Analyses for Difficult-to-Assess Collective Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    pronunciation and use of common phrases of the local dialect likely to be of utility during the KLE. Rehearse mission with KLE team. Coordinate...concurrently teaching individual crew, leader, and collective skills. Demonstrate to HN personnel the execution of each task using a step-by-step process...to include work schedules, mail, and other required support for mission. Coordinate for the translation of all necessary documents from English to

  3. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  4. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  5. Serpentine Robots for Inspection Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Choset, Howie

    2003-09-11

    Serpentine robots are snake like devices that can use their internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes accessing locations that people or conventional machinery cannot. These devices are ideally suited for minimally invasive inspection tasks where the surrounding areas do not have to be disturbed. Applications for these devices are therefore inspection of underground tanks and other storage facilities for classification purposes. This work deals with the design, construction, and control of a serpentine robot. The challenges lie in developing a device that can lift itself in three dimensions, which is necessary for the inspection tasks. The other challenge in control deals with coordinating all of the internal degrees of freedom to exact purposeful motion.

  6. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  7. 78 FR 63208 - UPDATE-Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of... Force (Task Force). The in-person Task Force meeting is being replaced by an abbreviated conference call... necessary scientific and logistical support for the meeting. The Task Force is an independent,...

  8. The Shielding Function of Task Sets and Its Relaxation during Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the presented experiments was to investigate the dynamic interplay of task shielding and its relaxation during task switching. Task shielding refers to the finding that single task sets in terms of 2-choice categorization rules help shielding against distraction from irrelevant stimulus attributes. During task switching, this shielding…

  9. Learner-Learner Interaction during Collaborative Pragmatic Tasks: The Role of Cognitive and Pragmatic Task Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YouJin; Taguchi, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Previous task complexity studies have suggested that learners produce more negotiation of meaning opportunities during complex tasks than simple tasks (Robinson, 2011). The present study builds on the existing task complexity literature by examining the impact of task complexity and pragmatic situational demands on the number of learning…

  10. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two…

  11. Updating Sensory "versus" Task Representations during Task-Switching: Insights from Cognitive Brain Potentials in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perianez, Jose A.; Barcelo, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Task-cueing studies suggest that the updating of sensory and task representations both contribute to behavioral task-switch costs [Forstmann, B. U., Brass, M., & Koch, I. (2007). "Methodological and empirical issues when dissociating cue-related from task-related processes in the explicit task-cuing procedure." "Psychological Research, 71"(4),…

  12. Graphical programming of telerobotic tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies through the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development (DOE OTD) Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP). Graphical programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. Graphical programming uses simulation such as TELEGRIP `on-line` to program and control robots. Characterized by its model-based control architecture, integrated simulation, `point-and-click` graphical user interfaces, task and path planning software, and network communications, Sandia`s Graphical Programming systems allow operators to focus on high-level robotic tasks rather than the low-level details. Use of scripted tasks, rather than customized programs minimizes the necessity of recompiling supervisory control systems and enhances flexibility. Rapid world-modelling technologies allow Graphical Programming to be used in dynamic and unpredictable environments including digging and pipe-cutting. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia`s most advanced graphical programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia`s recent advances in supervisory control. Graphical programming uses 3-D graphics models as intuitive operator interfaces to program and control complex robotic systems. The goal of the paper is to help the reader understand how Sandia implements graphical programming systems and which key features in Sancho have proven to be most effective.

  13. Attention in a multi-task environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Heers, Susan T.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments used a low fidelity multi-task simulation to investigate the effects of cue specificity on task preparation and performance. Subjects performed a continuous compensatory tracking task and were periodically prompted to perform one of several concurrent secondary tasks. The results provide strong evidence that subjects enacted a strategy to actively divert resources towards secondary task preparation only when they had specific information about an upcoming task to be performed. However, this strategy was not as much affected by the type of task cued (Experiment 1) or its difficulty level (Experiment 2). Overall, subjects seemed aware of both the costs (degraded primary task tracking) and benefits (improved secondary task performance) of cue information. Implications of the present results for computational human performance/workload models are discussed.

  14. The effects of stimulus modality and task integrality: Predicting dual-task performance and workload from single-task levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S. G.; Shively, R. J.; Vidulich, M. A.; Miller, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of stimulus modality and task difficulty on workload and performance was investigated. The goal was to quantify the cost (in terms of response time and experienced workload) incurred when essentially serial task components shared common elements (e.g., the response to one initiated the other) which could be accomplished in parallel. The experimental tasks were based on the Fittsberg paradigm; the solution to a SternBERG-type memory task determines which of two identical FITTS targets are acquired. Previous research suggested that such functionally integrated dual tasks are performed with substantially less workload and faster response times than would be predicted by suming single-task components when both are presented in the same stimulus modality (visual). The physical integration of task elements was varied (although their functional relationship remained the same) to determine whether dual-task facilitation would persist if task components were presented in different sensory modalities. Again, it was found that the cost of performing the two-stage task was considerably less than the sum of component single-task levels when both were presented visually. Less facilitation was found when task elements were presented in different sensory modalities. These results suggest the importance of distinguishing between concurrent tasks that complete for limited resources from those that beneficially share common resources when selecting the stimulus modalities for information displays.

  15. Task analysis of Air Force pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, A; Sawyer, W T; Coats, L

    1995-01-15

    The frequency with which United States Air Force pharmacists perform specific professional tasks and the pharmacists' views as to the importance of those tasks were studied. A questionnaire was prepared that asked recipients to rate each of 36 tasks selected as representing the spectrum of practice activities. There were four categories of tasks: managerial tasks, dispensing tasks, drug information tasks, and patient care tasks. Recipients rated the tasks with respect to frequency of performance and importance on separate 6-point scales. The questionnaire was mailed in May 1991 to the 225 pharmacists then serving in the Air Force worldwide. Of the 225 questionnaires, 150 usable questionnaires were returned (response rate, 67%). All the tasks in the survey were performed by at least one Air Force pharmacy officer, although the frequency of task performance varied. In particular, the frequency of many patient care tasks was low. All the tasks were perceived to have some importance, but drug information tasks were rated as being significantly more important than tasks in the other categories; patient care tasks were rated lowest in importance. The results varied with the respondents' demographic characteristics. Pharmacy officers with more years of service, more senior positions, higher rank, or an advanced degree in a field other than pharmacy tended to give responses that diverged from those of the population. A 1991 survey showed an awareness among Air Force pharmacists of the need to orient practice around patient care; however, they were not spending substantial time on patient care and tended to view it as less important than more traditional pharmacy tasks.

  16. The BOLD Response during Stroop Task-Like Inhibition Paradigms: Effects of Task Difficulty and Task-Relevant Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…

  17. Emotional task management: neural correlates of switching between affective and non-affective task-sets.

    PubMed

    Reeck, Crystal; Egner, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Although task-switching has been investigated extensively, its interaction with emotionally salient task content remains unclear. Prioritized processing of affective stimulus content may enhance accessibility of affective task-sets and generate increased interference when switching between affective and non-affective task-sets. Previous research has demonstrated that more dominant task-sets experience greater switch costs, as they necessitate active inhibition during performance of less entrenched tasks. Extending this logic to the affective domain, the present experiment examined (a) whether affective task-sets are more dominant than non-affective ones, and (b) what neural mechanisms regulate affective task-sets, so that weaker, non-affective task-sets can be executed. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants categorized face stimuli according to either their gender (non-affective task) or their emotional expression (affective task). Behavioral results were consistent with the affective task dominance hypothesis: participants were slower to switch to the affective task, and cross-task interference was strongest when participants tried to switch from the affective to the non-affective task. These behavioral costs of controlling the affective task-set were mirrored in the activation of a right-lateralized frontostriatal network previously implicated in task-set updating and response inhibition. Connectivity between amygdala and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was especially pronounced during cross-task interference from affective features.

  18. General Aviation Task Force report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    General aviation is officially defined as all aviation except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general aviation aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General aviation manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.

  19. Fault-tolerant dynamic task graph scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt, Mehmet C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Agrawal, Gagan

    2014-11-16

    In this paper, we present an approach to fault tolerant execution of dynamic task graphs scheduled using work stealing. In particular, we focus on selective and localized recovery of tasks in the presence of soft faults. We elicit from the user the basic task graph structure in terms of successor and predecessor relationships. The work stealing-based algorithm to schedule such a task graph is augmented to enable recovery when the data and meta-data associated with a task get corrupted. We use this redundancy, and the knowledge of the task graph structure, to selectively recover from faults with low space and time overheads. We show that the fault tolerant design retains the essential properties of the underlying work stealing-based task scheduling algorithm, and that the fault tolerant execution is asymptotically optimal when task re-execution is taken into account. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the low cost of recovery under various fault scenarios.

  20. Managing Multiple Tasks in Complex, Dynamic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Sketchy planners are designed to achieve goals in realistically complex, time-pressured, and uncertain task environments. However, the ability to manage multiple, potentially interacting tasks in such environments requires extensions to the functionality these systems typically provide. This paper identifies a number of factors affecting how interacting tasks should be prioritized, interrupted, and resumed, and then describes a sketchy planner called APEX that takes account of these factors when managing multiple tasks.

  1. Workshift and Antihistamine Effects on Task Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    chlorpheniramine maleate), and time on task accompanying three successive drug doses spaced every four hours. Five performance tasks, two work sample tasks, and...four subjective scales were included in the study. In summary, chlorpheniramine maleate alone had a strong negative influence on a wide range of task...Day Shift tended to get better and during the Mid shift tended to get worse. No evidence was found that chlorpheniramine maleate and work shift combine to produce a multiplicative effect.

  2. An overview of task order 10

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L

    2011-01-12

    Task Order 10 formalizes a collaboration in high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) experiments between LANL and VNIIEF. The focus is the VNIIEF disk explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) technology. The task order outlines a sequence of tasks and deliverables culminating in an experiment which takes place in the US utilizing US explosives and a Russian DEMG. This talk summarizes task order 10. It gives a brief history and present status in terms of the proposed high pressure EOS experiment (ALT-3).

  3. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  4. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58... Headquarters Organization § 701.58 Task forces. The Director with Council concurrence or the Council may establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  5. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58... Headquarters Organization § 701.58 Task forces. The Director with Council concurrence or the Council may establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  6. Emergency Medical Technician Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 12 duties in the occupation of emergency medical technician. Each duty is divided into a number of tasks. A separate page for each duty lists the task with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for comments. The 12 duties…

  7. Task Analysis: A Top-Down Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Paul

    1983-01-01

    This approach to task analysis includes descriptions of (1) inputs, outputs, and jobs; (2) flow of materials and decisions between jobs; (3) inputs, major tasks, and outputs of each job; (4) sequence of steps for major tasks; (5) heuristics/algorithms for each sequence step; and (6) information needed to use heuristics algorithms. (EAO)

  8. Task Difficulty in Oral Speech Act Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…

  9. Human Performance on the Temporal Bisection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopec, Charles D.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2010-01-01

    The perception and processing of temporal information are tasks the brain must continuously perform. These include measuring the duration of stimuli, storing duration information in memory, recalling such memories, and comparing two durations. How the brain accomplishes these tasks, however, is still open for debate. The temporal bisection task,…

  10. Task Proficiency and L1 Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Minako

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing volume of research on task-based language use; however, the nature of "task proficiency" has not yet been clearly defined. In order to gain new insights, this study examines the relationship between the process of communication in an L2 and a task outcome by analysing lexical density, as obtained from the pattern of a…

  11. What Makes a Mathematical Task Interesting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Rimma

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the question of what makes a mathematical task interesting to the 9th year students. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 students of purposive selection of the 9th year. The students were asked to recall a task they found interesting and engaging during the past three years. An analysis of the tasks was made…

  12. A Task Is a Task Is a Task Is a Task... Or Is It? Researching Telecollaborative Teacher Competence Development--The Need for More Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller-Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The concept of task has become central not only to an understanding of language learning per se, but also to the design and research of Online Intercultural Exchanges (OIEs). While research on the design of tasks in OIEs has been very productive, we still lack insights into how teachers develop competences in task design on the micro-level.…

  13. Task Switching Effects in Anticipation Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Brueckner, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    To understand how task switching affects human performance, there is a need to investigate how it influences the performance of tasks other than those involving bivalent stimulus categorization. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of task switching on anticipation timing performance, which typically requires…

  14. Economics of simulation task force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Steven C.

    2001-09-01

    It is both logical and appropriate for decision-makers to ask for ways to judge the value of simulation. Often, the request is even more pointed than just wanting a report on the value of simulation, and specifics on the economics of simulation are requested. Clearly, undertaking to answer questions about the economics of simulation will be critical to building an understanding of how to spend future marginal National Defense dollars. As an example, one can evaluate the economics of simulation where it supports our ability to develop, build, and test new weapon systems. Here, historically derived returns on investment, cost avoidance, cycle time reductions, and lifecycle cost savings have been documented and warrant further investigation. However, there is a larger area of use for simulation where judging its value must go beyond economics. Simulation, in most uses, has a value (or benefit or impact) beyond cost savings, and most efforts to understand the economics of simulation really intend to include the more general topic of the value of simulation. The broader question of the value of simulation will be tackled because simulation must prove its worth. If it is adequately funded and intelligently used, simulation will save valuable national resources and improve readiness. A task force of volunteers is now looking at the economics (benefits, value, impact) of simulation, and this paper seeks to provide an overview of the state of understanding of this topic and solicit volunteers to join this task force effort.

  15. Resolving task rule incongruence during task switching by competitor rule suppression.

    PubMed

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-07-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an experiment involving 2 object classification tasks and 2 location classification tasks, the authors show that irrelevant task rules that generate response conflicts are inhibited. This competitor rule suppression (CRS) is seen in response slowing in subsequent trials, when the competing rules become relevant. CRS is shown to operate on specific rules without affecting similar rules. CRS and backward inhibition, which is another inhibitory phenomenon, produced additive effects on reaction time, suggesting their mutual independence. Implications for current formal theories of task switching as well as for conflict monitoring theories are discussed.

  16. TASK-1 and TASK-3 may form heterodimers in human atrial cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rinné, Susanne; Kiper, Aytug K; Schlichthörl, Günter; Dittmann, Sven; Netter, Michael F; Limberg, Sven H; Silbernagel, Nicole; Zuzarte, Marylou; Moosdorf, Rainer; Wulf, Hinnerk; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Rolfes, Caroline; Decher, Niels

    2015-04-01

    TASK-1 channels have emerged as promising drug targets against atrial fibrillation, the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. While TASK-3, the closest relative of TASK-1, was previously not described in cardiac tissue, we found a very prominent expression of TASK-3 in right human auricles. Immunocytochemistry experiments of human right auricular cardiomyocytes showed that TASK-3 is primarily localized at the plasma membrane. Single-channel recordings of right human auricles in the cell-attached mode, using divalent-cation-free solutions, revealed a TASK-1-like channel with a single-channel conductance of about 30pS. While homomeric TASK-3 channels were not found, we observed an intermediate single-channel conductance of about 55pS, possibly reflecting the heteromeric channel formed by TASK-1 and TASK-3. Subsequent experiments with TASK-1/TASK-3 tandem channels or with co-expressed TASK-1 and TASK-3 channels in HEK293 cells or Xenopus oocytes, supported that the 55pS channels observed in right auricles have electrophysiological characteristics of TASK-1/TASK-3 heteromers. In addition, co-expression experiments and single-channel recordings suggest that heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channels have a predominant surface expression and a reduced affinity for TASK-1 blockers. In summary, the evidence for heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channel complexes together with an altered pharmacologic response to TASK-1 blockers in vitro is likely to have further impact for studies isolating ITASK-1 from cardiomyocytes and for the development of drugs specifically targeting TASK-1 in atrial fibrillation treatment.

  17. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  18. Task parallelism and high-performance languages

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1996-03-01

    The definition of High Performance Fortran (HPF) is a significant event in the maturation of parallel computing: it represents the first parallel language that has gained widespread support from vendors and users. The subject of this paper is to incorporate support for task parallelism. The term task parallelism refers to the explicit creation of multiple threads of control, or tasks, which synchronize and communicate under programmer control. Task and data parallelism are complementary rather than competing programming models. While task parallelism is more general and can be used to implement algorithms that are not amenable to data-parallel solutions, many problems can benefit from a mixed approach, with for example a task-parallel coordination layer integrating multiple data-parallel computations. Other problems admit to both data- and task-parallel solutions, with the better solution depending on machine characteristics, compiler performance, or personal taste. For these reasons, we believe that a general-purpose high-performance language should integrate both task- and data-parallel constructs. The challenge is to do so in a way that provides the expressivity needed for applications, while preserving the flexibility and portability of a high-level language. In this paper, we examine and illustrate the considerations that motivate the use of task parallelism. We also describe one particular approach to task parallelism in Fortran, namely the Fortran M extensions. Finally, we contrast Fortran M with other proposed approaches and discuss the implications of this work for task parallelism and high-performance languages.

  19. CNTRICS Final Task Selection: Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barch, Deanna M.; Berman, Marc G.; Engle, Randy; Jones, Jessica Hurdelbrink; Jonides, John; MacDonald, Angus; Nee, Derek Evan; Redick, Thomas S.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The third meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) was focused on selecting promising measures for each of the cognitive constructs selected in the first CNTRICS meeting. In the domain of working memory, the 2 constructs of interest were goal maintenance and interference control. CNTRICS received 3 task nominations for each of these constructs, and the breakout group for working memory evaluated the degree to which each of these tasks met prespecified criteria. For goal maintenance, the breakout group for working memory recommended the AX-Continuous Performance Task/Dot Pattern Expectancy task for translation for use in clinical trial contexts in schizophrenia research. For interference control, the breakout group recommended the recent probes and operation/symmetry span tasks for translation for use in clinical trials. This article describes the ways in which each of these tasks met the criteria used by the breakout group to recommend tasks for further development. PMID:18990711

  20. Cue-Independent Task-Specific Representations in Task Switching: Evidence from Backward Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Erik M.

    2007-01-01

    The compound-cue model of cognitive control in task switching explains switch cost in terms of a switch of task cues rather than of a switch of tasks. The present study asked whether the model generalizes to Lag 2 repetition cost (also known as backward inhibition), a related effect in which the switch from B to A in ABA task sequences is costlier…

  1. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  2. The Effect of a Workload-Preview on Task-Prioritization and Task-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minotra, Dev

    2012-01-01

    With increased volume and sophistication of cyber attacks in recent years, maintaining situation awareness and effective task-prioritization strategy is critical to the task of cybersecurity analysts. However, high levels of mental-workload associated with the task of cybersecurity analyst's limits their ability to prioritize tasks.…

  3. National Task Bank. Tasks in Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Services, Administration, Money Payments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upjohn (W.E.) Inst. for Employment Research, Washington, DC.

    The National Task Bank of 547 tasks in the public welfare field was developed from tasks written by eight states and by the Social and Rehabilitation Service. This document describes the background and development of the bank and outlines the procedures used. The task bank illustrates 13 functional cagegories of data, people, and things for…

  4. Is Performance in Task-Cuing Experiments Mediated by Task Set Selection or Associative Compound Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Charlotte L. D.; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P. L.

    2014-01-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed,…

  5. How to Correct a Task Error: Task-Switch Effects Following Different Types of Error Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Marco

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that switch costs in task switching reflect the strengthening of task-related associations and that strengthening is triggered by response execution. The present study tested the hypothesis that only task-related responses are able to trigger strengthening. Effects of task strengthening caused by error corrections were…

  6. Robust Multi-Task Feature Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Pinghua; Ye, Jieping; Zhang, Changshui

    2013-01-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve the performance of multiple related tasks by exploiting the intrinsic relationships among them. Recently, multi-task feature learning algorithms have received increasing attention and they have been successfully applied to many applications involving high-dimensional data. However, they assume that all tasks share a common set of features, which is too restrictive and may not hold in real-world applications, since outlier tasks often exist. In this paper, we propose a Robust MultiTask Feature Learning algorithm (rMTFL) which simultaneously captures a common set of features among relevant tasks and identifies outlier tasks. Specifically, we decompose the weight (model) matrix for all tasks into two components. We impose the well-known group Lasso penalty on row groups of the first component for capturing the shared features among relevant tasks. To simultaneously identify the outlier tasks, we impose the same group Lasso penalty but on column groups of the second component. We propose to employ the accelerated gradient descent to efficiently solve the optimization problem in rMTFL, and show that the proposed algorithm is scalable to large-size problems. In addition, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the proposed rMTFL formulation. Specifically, we present a theoretical bound to measure how well our proposed rMTFL approximates the true evaluation, and provide bounds to measure the error between the estimated weights of rMTFL and the underlying true weights. Moreover, by assuming that the underlying true weights are above the noise level, we present a sound theoretical result to show how to obtain the underlying true shared features and outlier tasks (sparsity patterns). Empirical studies on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that our proposed rMTFL is capable of simultaneously capturing shared features among tasks and identifying outlier tasks. PMID:24078896

  7. Assessing the Cost of Task Switching with a Three-Task Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    To study task switching when subjects need not inhibit inappropriate responses, we examine tasks with non-overlapping stimulus sets (e.g. color patches and uncolored letters). A new three-task paradigm permits the dissociation of several otherwise confounded variables. We find that performance declines monotonically with increasing time since last performance of a task. Adjusting for the effects of this factor permits a fresh assessment of the relationship between task expectancy and recency (Ruthruff, Remington & Johnston, 1996).

  8. Effects of Single-Task Interference on Dual-Task Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James C.; Ruthruff, Eric; VanSelst, Mark; Remington, Roger W.

    1998-01-01

    Van Sergi, Ruthruff and Johnston found that dual-task practice can markedly reduce interference in the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm. Their results are consistent with a bottleneck model in which practice serves primarily to reduce stage durations. This model predicts that single-task practice on Task 1 alone should produce marked reductions in interference, whereas single-task practice on Task 2 should not. New experiments test these predictions. Alternative theoretical accounts are also considered.

  9. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  10. Tool and Task Analysis Guide for Vocational Welding (150 Tasks). Performance Based Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John H. Hinds Area Vocational School, Elwood, IN.

    This book contains a task inventory, a task analysis of 150 tasks from that inventory, and a tool list for performance-based welding courses in the state of Indiana. The task inventory and tool list reflect 28 job titles found in Indiana. In the first part of the guide, tasks are listed by these domains: carbon-arc, electron beam, G.M.A.W., gas…

  11. Cognate effects in bilingual language comprehension tasks.

    PubMed

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa

    2010-05-12

    We examined cognate effects when late fluent Spanish/English bilingual speakers undergoing event-related potential recordings performed two tasks on word pairs. In an association decision task, participants decided whether or not pairs of Spanish words were related in meaning. In a translation decision task, they reported whether English target words were correct translations of Spanish primes. In both the tasks, word primes were either cognates or noncognates. In the translation decision task, faster and more accurate responses were associated with reduced N400 amplitudes in word pairs featuring a cognate. However, cognates did not modulate performance or event-related potentials in the association decision task. The results suggest that language coactivation in bilingual speakers is modulated by cognitive context.

  12. Task-level control for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid

    1994-01-01

    Task-level control refers to the integration and coordination of planning, perception, and real-time control to achieve given high-level goals. Autonomous mobile robots need task-level control to effectively achieve complex tasks in uncertain, dynamic environments. This paper describes the Task Control Architecture (TCA), an implemented system that provides commonly needed constructs for task-level control. Facilities provided by TCA include distributed communication, task decomposition and sequencing, resource management, monitoring and exception handling. TCA supports a design methodology in which robot systems are developed incrementally, starting first with deliberative plans that work in nominal situations, and then layering them with reactive behaviors that monitor plan execution and handle exceptions. To further support this approach, design and analysis tools are under development to provide ways of graphically viewing the system and validating its behavior.

  13. Task 7: ADPAC User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.; Topp, D. A.; Delaney, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop a 3-D numerical analysis for compressor casing treatment flowfields. The current version of the computer code resulting from this study is referred to as ADPAC (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Version 7). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC code developed under Tasks 6 and 7 of the NASA Contract. The ADPAC program is based on a flexible multiple- block grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. An iterative implicit algorithm is available for rapid time-dependent flow calculations, and an advanced two equation turbulence model is incorporated to predict complex turbulent flows. The consolidated code generated during this study is capable of executing in either a serial or parallel computing mode from a single source code. Numerous examples are given in the form of test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modem turbomachinery configurations.

  14. Predictive performance models and multiple task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Larish, Inge; Contorer, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Five models that predict how performance of multiple tasks will interact in complex task scenarios are discussed. The models are shown in terms of the assumptions they make about human operator divided attention. The different assumptions about attention are then empirically validated in a multitask helicopter flight simulation. It is concluded from this simulation that the most important assumption relates to the coding of demand level of different component tasks.

  15. A task control architecture for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Mitchell, Tom

    1990-01-01

    An architecture is presented for controlling robots that have multiple tasks, operate in dynamic domains, and require a fair degree of autonomy. The architecture is built on several layers of functionality, including a distributed communication layer, a behavior layer for querying sensors, expanding goals, and executing commands, and a task level for managing the temporal aspects of planning and achieving goals, coordinating tasks, allocating resources, monitoring, and recovering from errors. Application to a legged planetary rover and an indoor mobile manipulator is described.

  16. The functional neuroanatomy of multitasking: combining dual tasking with a short term memory task.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm.

  17. Ada task scheduling: A focused Ada investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1988-01-01

    The types of control that are important for real time task scheduling are discussed. Some closely related real time issues are mentioned and major committee and research activities in this area are delineated. Although there are some problems with Ada and its real time task scheduling, Ada presents fewer than any known alternative. Ada was designed for the domain of real time embedded systems, but Ada compilers may not contain a level of task scheduling support that is adequate for all real time applications. The question addressed is which implementations of Ada's task scheduling are adequate for effective real time systems for NASA applications.

  18. Guessing versus Choosing an Upcoming Task

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of guessing vs. choosing an upcoming task. In a task-switching paradigm with four tasks, two groups of participants were asked to either guess or choose which task will be presented next under otherwise identical conditions. The upcoming task corresponded to participants’ guesses or choices in 75 % of the trials. However, only participants in the Choosing condition were correctly informed about this, whereas participants in the Guessing condition were told that tasks were determined at random. In the Guessing condition, we replicated previous findings of a pronounced reduction of switch costs in case of incorrect guesses. This switch cost reduction was considerably less pronounced with denied choices in the Choosing condition. We suggest that in the Choosing condition, the signaling of prediction errors associated with denied choices is attenuated because a certain proportion of denied choices is consistent with the overall representation of the situation as conveyed by task instructions. In the Guessing condition, in contrast, the mismatch of guessed and actual task is resolved solely on the level of individual trials by strengthening the representation of the actual task. PMID:27047423

  19. Dual-Task Processing When Task 1 Is Hard and Task 2 Is Easy: Reversed Central Processing Order?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonhard, Tanja; Fernandez, Susana Ruiz; Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Five psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted with an especially time-consuming first task (Experiments 1, 3, and 5: mental rotation; Experiments 2 and 4: memory scanning) and with equal emphasis on the first task and on the second (left-right tone judgment). The standard design with varying stimulus onset asynchronies…

  20. Anxiety Interaction with Task Difficulty Levels, Memory Support, and Estimated Task Competency in a Concept Identification Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutwell, Richard C.

    The intent of this study was to determine the relationship of the independent variables of task difficulty and memory support for high and low anxious subjects on certain dependent variables: correct task performances, measured anxiety level, and self-estimated competency rating. A further purpose was to investigate the relationship of obtained…

  1. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  2. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  3. The shielding function of task rules in the context of task switching.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Renate; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that task rules help shield the response against distractor interference. Here, the authors investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying this assumed shielding function of task rules and how it is adjusted to changing task demands. In two experiments, participants switched between a noun categorization and an adjective categorization task. Target words were superimposed on distractor pictures. These pictures were always irrelevant and depicted either objects also used as target words in the noun task (noun distractors) or objects that were not part of the noun target-set but could be categorized according to the noun task (noun-related distractors). Results show that (a) on task repetitions shielding prevents interference from any distractors associated with a competing task; this is indicated by the lack of interference on adjective task repetitions; and (b) shielding is reduced on task switches. In the noun task, this reduction resulted in attenuated interference by noun-related distractors. In the adjective task, spatial distractors did not interfere despite the reduction. This result suggests that shielding is supported by a processing advantage for task-related information and not by distractor suppression.

  4. Different neuroplasticity for task targets and distractors.

    PubMed

    Spingath, Elsie Y; Kang, Hyun Sug; Plummer, Thane; Blake, David T

    2011-01-31

    Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from nonselective

  5. SOCIAL MEDIA MINING SHARED TASK WORKSHOP.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Abeed; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Social media has evolved into a crucial resource for obtaining large volumes of real-time information. The promise of social media has been realized by the public health domain, and recent research has addressed some important challenges in that domain by utilizing social media data. Tasks such as monitoring flu trends, viral disease outbreaks, medication abuse, and adverse drug reactions are some examples of studies where data from social media have been exploited. The focus of this workshop is to explore solutions to three important natural language processing challenges for domain-specific social media text: (i) text classification, (ii) information extraction, and (iii) concept normalization. To explore different approaches to solving these problems on social media data, we designed a shared task which was open to participants globally. We designed three tasks using our in-house annotated Twitter data on adverse drug reactions. Task 1 involved automatic classification of adverse drug reaction assertive user posts; Task 2 focused on extracting specific adverse drug reaction mentions from user posts; and Task 3, which was slightly ill-defined due to the complex nature of the problem, involved normalizing user mentions of adverse drug reactions to standardized concept IDs. A total of 11 teams participated, and a total of 24 (18 for Task 1, and 6 for Task 2) system runs were submitted. Following the evaluation of the systems, and an assessment of their innovation/novelty, we accepted 7 descriptive manuscripts for publication--5 for Task 1 and 2 for Task 2. We provide descriptions of the tasks, data, and participating systems in this paper.

  6. Control and Interference in Task Switching--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesel, Andrea; Steinhauser, Marco; Wendt, Mike; Falkenstein, Michael; Jost, Kerstin; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    The task-switching paradigm offers enormous possibilities to study cognitive control as well as task interference. The current review provides an overview of recent research on both topics. First, we review different experimental approaches to task switching, such as comparing mixed-task blocks with single-task blocks, predictable task-switching…

  7. Modeling of autonomous problem solving process by dynamic construction of task models in multiple tasks environment.

    PubMed

    Ohigashi, Yu; Omori, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    Traditional reinforcement learning (RL) supposes a complex but single task to be solved. When a RL agent faces a task similar to a learned one, the agent must re-learn the task from the beginning because it doesn't reuse the past learned results. This is the problem of quick action learning, which is the foundation of decision making in the real world. In this paper, we suppose agents that can solve a set of tasks similar to each other in a multiple tasks environment, where we encounter various problems one after another, and propose a technique of action learning that can quickly solve similar tasks by reusing previously learned knowledge. In our method, a model-based RL uses a task model constructed by combining primitive local predictors for predicting task and environmental dynamics. To evaluate the proposed method, we performed a computer simulation using a simple ping-pong game with variations.

  8. Instructional Objectives: Selecting and Devising Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mileff, Milo

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper and the discussion that follows, the author presents aspects of test construction and a careful description of instructional objectives. Constructing tests involves several stages such as describing language objectives, selecting appropriate test task, devising and assembling test tasks, and devising a scoring system for…

  9. Posing Cognitively Demanding Tasks to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Rachel; Stylianou, Despina A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitively demanding tasks (CDT) (Stein et al. 2000) are necessary for the development of students' mathematical reasoning skills. Research is unequivocal on the importance of giving students opportunities to engage in such tasks. Although current reform efforts call for mathematics learning for "all" students, learners who…

  10. Report of the Transfer Articulation Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    This report to the Arizona State Legislature describes a model transfer system developed by the Transfer Articulation Task Force, a cooperative effort among the state's universities and community colleges to improve articulation and transfer. Following an introduction to the Task Force, elements of the proposed transfer model are reviewed,…

  11. Mathematically Rich, Investigative Tasks for Teaching Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for teachers is to incorporate the Standards for Mathematical Practice (CCSSI 2010) throughout their teaching of mathematics so that the Common Core Standards do not revert back to a purely content-driven curriculum. One way to achieve this is through the use of mathematically rich, investigative tasks. These tasks encourage students…

  12. Researchers as Evaluators: Tasks, Tensions and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langfeldt, Liv; Kyvik, Svein

    2011-01-01

    Researchers undertake a number of different research evaluation tasks, taking up a substantial part of their research time--estimated to about one work month per year for a professor. This paper addresses the various evaluator roles and tasks researchers take on, and the tensions they involve. How the research evaluator role may conflict with the…

  13. The Instructor as Manager: Time and Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty; Nijhuis, Gerard Gervedink

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of information and communication technologies at the University of Twente (Netherlands) and considers the management tasks, defined as all tasks outside of content-specific aspects, related to online learning via the World Wide Web that instructors must address. Focuses on handling assignments and feedback. (LRW)

  14. The Ultimate Developmental Task in Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Richard F.

    The significance of adolescent literature has been judged on the basis of the developmental tasks encountered by the main character. One writer has identified eight developmental tasks that teenagers must undertake as they move toward adulthood: discovering one's sex role in our culture, developing relationships with peers, achieving an easy…

  15. Using ADA Tasks to Simulate Operating Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAcetis, Louis A.; Schmidt, Oron; Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    A method of simulating equipment using ADA tasks is discussed. Individual units of equipment are coded as concurrently running tasks that monitor and respond to input signals. This technique has been used in a simulation of the space-to-ground Communications and Tracking subsystem of Space Station Freedom.

  16. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  17. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    This book provides teachers with a practical introduction to the design and development of communicative language learning tasks. The ideas presented are relevant to teachers working in or preparing for a range of situations with a variety of learner types. First, some basic issues concerning communicative learning tasks are discussed, and the…

  18. Auto Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the auto mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  19. Paternal Effectiveness in a Selected Cognitive Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuff, Nancy Hamblen

    The immediate effectiveness of paternal instruction in a selected cognitive task was investigated. The sub-problems were (1) to compare paternal and maternal instruction, and (2) to analyze paternal instructional effectiveness with the son or the daughter. The cognitive task selected was the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test. Subjects were 42…

  20. Havighurst's Developmental Tasks, Young Adolescents, and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, M. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Notes that the middle school years can be difficult for young adolescents as they face new and challenging developmental tasks. Provides a brief overview of Robert Havighurst's developmental theory. Proposes developmental tasks specifically for ten- to fifteen-year-olds in increasingly diverse schools and society. (PM)

  1. Parallel processing considerations for image recognition tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simske, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Many image recognition tasks are well-suited to parallel processing. The most obvious example is that many imaging tasks require the analysis of multiple images. From this standpoint, then, parallel processing need be no more complicated than assigning individual images to individual processors. However, there are three less trivial categories of parallel processing that will be considered in this paper: parallel processing (1) by task; (2) by image region; and (3) by meta-algorithm. Parallel processing by task allows the assignment of multiple workflows-as diverse as optical character recognition [OCR], document classification and barcode reading-to parallel pipelines. This can substantially decrease time to completion for the document tasks. For this approach, each parallel pipeline is generally performing a different task. Parallel processing by image region allows a larger imaging task to be sub-divided into a set of parallel pipelines, each performing the same task but on a different data set. This type of image analysis is readily addressed by a map-reduce approach. Examples include document skew detection and multiple face detection and tracking. Finally, parallel processing by meta-algorithm allows different algorithms to be deployed on the same image simultaneously. This approach may result in improved accuracy.

  2. Concurrent Cognitive Task Modulates Coordination Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellecchia, Geraldine L.; Shockley, Kevin; Turvey, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Does a concurrent cognitive task affect the dynamics of bimanual rhythmic coordination? In-phase coordination was performed under manipulations of phase detuning and movement frequency and either singly or in combination with an arithmetic task. Predicted direction-specific shifts in stable relative phase from 0 degrees due to detuning and…

  3. Knowledge Mapping: A Multipurpose Task Analysis Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esque, Timm J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes knowledge mapping, a tool developed to increase the objectivity and accuracy of task difficulty ratings for job design. Application in a semiconductor manufacturing environment is discussed, including identifying prerequisite knowledge for a given task; establishing training development priorities; defining knowledge levels; identifying…

  4. Brief Family Therapy: A Metaphorical Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Shazer, Steve

    1980-01-01

    Presents a therapeutic procedure designed to prescribe the family's troublesome behavior pattern. A complement precedes delivering a task assignment. The metaphorical task redefines the serious complaint pattern into only one of the many options a family has for dealing with each other. A case study is presented. (Author/BEF)

  5. Using Ada tasks to simulate operating equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deacetis, Louis A.; Schmidt, Oron; Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    A method of simulating equipment using Ada tasks is discussed. Individual units of equipment are coded as concurrently running tasks that monitor and respond to input signals. This technique has been used in a simulation of the space-to-ground Communications and Tracking subsystem of Space Station Freedom.

  6. Tailoring Tasks to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Amy Roth; Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Just as ready-made clothes may not provide a perfect fit for all bodies, math lessons may not be a perfect fit for all students. Published instructional tasks, including problems in mathematics textbooks, often need to be tailored to be meaningful, relevant, or accessible to each student. Ways are possible to take high-level reasoning tasks and…

  7. Preschoolers Learn Cognitive Tasks in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoon, Owen W.

    The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of certain cognitive training tasks on children in group settings under natural preschool conditions. Thirty-five children, aged 47-63 months, were divided into six experimental groups and received various cognitive tasks. Results indicated that most children experienced at least moderate…

  8. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  9. Effective Task Design for the TBL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Bill; Franchini, Billie

    2014-01-01

    Group and team tasks are the culminating outputs of student learning in team and collaborative learning environments. How they are conceived and designed, therefore, can directly determine the success of the pedagogical strategy. A key design issue for creating effective tasks is how best to focus student knowledge, observation, and analysis…

  10. Residential Carpentry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for nine occupations in the residential carpentry series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  11. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  12. Using Perceptrons to Explore the Reorientation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Michael R. W.; Kelly, Debbie M.; Spetch, Marcia L.; Dupuis, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The reorientation task is a paradigm that has been used extensively to study the types of information used by humans and animals to navigate in their environment. In this task, subjects are reinforced for going to a particular location in an arena that is typically rectangular in shape. The subject then has to find that location again after being…

  13. Data Processing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for five occupations in the data processing series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  14. Occupational Food Service Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the occupational food service series. Each occupation is divided into three to eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and…

  15. Business & Office Secretarial Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the business and office secretarial series. Each occupation is divided into three to seven duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught…

  16. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  17. Students' Views of Example Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Sinead; O'Shea, Ann; Pfeiffer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here on students' views of example generation tasks assigned to them in two first year undergraduate Calculus courses. The design and use of such tasks was undertaken as part of a project which aimed to afford students opportunities to develop their thinking skills and their conceptual understanding. In interviews with 10 students, we…

  18. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  19. Ecology and Task Structures in Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmudy, Mark H.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; Steffen, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Many of the characteristics of effective physical education lessons have been discovered by sport pedagogy researchers by employing what has become known as the ecological or task structures perspective. The purpose of this study was to describe the task structures and ecology that existed in two consecutive 7-day summer adventure camps run by an…

  20. Improving Closing Task Completion in a Drugstore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fante, Rhiannon; Davis, Ora L.; Kempt, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    A within-subject ABAB reversal design was utilized to investigate the effects of graphic feedback and goal setting on employee closing task completion. Goal setting was contingent upon baseline performance and graphic feedback was posted weekly. It was found that goal setting and graphic feedback improved employee closing task completion.…

  1. Teachers as Designers of Effective Numeracy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Vince

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary research into an effective approach to numeracy task design is described and analysed using a conceptual framework based on two dimensions--one related to the nature of numeracy and the other concerned with the characteristics of effective mathematical tasks. A case that documents one teacher's attempt to create a…

  2. Pleasantness of Creative Tasks and Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of emotion on creative potential, experimental studies have typically focused on the impact of induced or spontaneous mood states on creative performance. In this report the relationship between the perceived pleasantness of tasks (using divergent thinking and story writing tasks) and creative performance was examined.…

  3. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Task forces. 701.58 Section 701.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION... establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  4. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58 Section 701.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION... establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  5. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58 Section 701.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION... establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  6. What Writing Tasks Do TESOL Professors Require?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies about writing assignments in higher education have explained that the library research paper, report on experiment, summary, and article/book review were the most common writing assignment tasks assigned across disciplines. No previous studies have explored writing tasks in the TESOL discipline at a national level. In this study…

  7. Fashion Merchandising Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for seven occupations in the fashion merchandising series. Each occupation is divided into 6 to 15 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  8. Word Processing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for two occupations in the word processing series. Each occupation is divided into 9 or 10 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  9. Task-Based Instruction Using the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumposky, Nancy Rennau

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) task-based module consistent with Skehan's information processing model of second language acquisition (1998) and with the framework for task design elaborated by Willis (1996), using the Internet as a primary source of language input. In settings where…

  10. Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…

  11. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  12. Human performance on the temporal bisection task.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Charles D; Brody, Carlos D

    2010-12-01

    The perception and processing of temporal information are tasks the brain must continuously perform. These include measuring the duration of stimuli, storing duration information in memory, recalling such memories, and comparing two durations. How the brain accomplishes these tasks, however, is still open for debate. The temporal bisection task, which requires subjects to compare temporal stimuli to durations held in memory, is perfectly suited to address these questions. Here we perform a meta-analysis of human performance on the temporal bisection task collected from 148 experiments spread across 18 independent studies. With this expanded data set we are able to show that human performance on this task contains a number of significant peculiarities, which in total no single model yet proposed has been able to explain. Here we present a simple 2-step decision model that is capable of explaining all the idiosyncrasies seen in the data.

  13. Robot Task Commander with Extensible Programming Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.

  14. Deriving directions through procedural task analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuen, H K; D'Amico, M

    1998-01-01

    Task analysis is one of the essential components of activity analysis. Procedural task analysis involves breaking down an activity into a sequence of steps. Directions are the sequence of steps resulting from the task analysis (i.e., the product of the task analysis). Directions become a guide for caregivers or trainers use in teaching clients a specific skill. However, occupational therapy students often have difficulty in writing directions that are clear enough for caregivers or trainers to carry out. Books on activity analysis only provide examples of directions without giving guidelines on how to perform the writing process. The purposes of this paper are to describe the process of procedural task analysis and to provide a guideline for writing steps of directions.

  15. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  16. The Keck Task Library (KTL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupton, W. F.; Conrad, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    KTL is a set of routines which eases the job of writing applications which must interact with a variety of underlying sub-systems (known as services). A typical application is an X Window user interface coordinating telescope and instruments. In order to connect to a service, application code specifies a service name--typically an instrument name--and a style, which defines the way in which the application will interact with the service. Two styles are currently supported: keyword, where the application reads and writes named keywords and the resulting inter-task message traffic is hidden; and message, where the application deals directly with messages. The keyword style is intended mainly for user interfaces, and the message style is intended mainly for lower-level applications. KTL applications are event driven: a typical application first connects to all its desired services, then expresses interest in specified events. The application then enters an event dispatch loop in which it waits for events and calls the appropriate service's event-handling routine. Each event is associated with a call-back routine which is invoked when the event occurs. Call-back routines may (and typically do) interact with other sub-systems and KTL provides the means of doing so without blocking the application (vital for X Window user interfaces). This approach is a marriage of ideas culled from the X window, ADAM, Keck instrument, and Keck telescope control systems. A novel feature of KTL is that it knows nothing about any services or styles. Instead it defines a generic set of routines which must be implemented by all services and styles (essentially open(), ioctl(), read(), write(), event(), and close()) and activates sharable libraries at run-time. Services have been implemented (in both keyword and message styles) for HIRES (the Keck high resolution echelle spectrograph built by Lick Observatory), LWS (the Keck long wavelength spectrometer built by UC San Diego), and the Keck

  17. TASK-3 as a Potential Antidepressant Target

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Santarelli, Vincent P.; Doran, Scott M.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Kraus, Richard L.; Rosahl, Thomas W.; Meziane, Hamid; Montial, Marina; Reiss, Duane R.; Wessner, Keith; McCampbell, Alexander; Stevens, Joanne; Brunner, Joseph; Fox, Steven V.; Uebele, Victor N.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Winrow, Christopher J.; Renger, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of TASK-3 (Kcnk9) potassium channels affect neurotransmitter release in thalamocortical centers and other sleep-related nuclei having the capacity to regulate arousal cycles and REM sleep changes associated with mood disorders and antidepressant action. Circumstantial evidence from this and previous studies suggest the potential for TASK-3 to be a novel antidepressant therapeutic target; TASK-3 knock-out mice display augmented circadian amplitude and exhibit sleep architecture characterized by suppressed REM activity. Detailed analysis of locomotor activity indicate that the amplitude of activity bout duration and bout number are augmented in TASK-3 mutants well beyond that seen wildtypes, findings substantiated by amplitude increases in body temperature and EEG recordings of sleep stage bouts. Polysomnographic analysis of TASK-3 mutants reveal increases in nocturnal active wake and suppressed REM sleep time while increased slow wave sleep typifies the inactive phase, findings that have implications for the cognitive impact of reduced TASK-3 activity. In direct measures of their resistance to despair behavior, TASK-3 knock-outs displayed significant decreases in immobility relative to wildtype controls in both tail suspension and forced swim tests. Treatment of wildtype animals with the antidepressant Fluoxetine markedly reduced REM sleep, while leaving active wake and slow wave sleep relatively intact. Remarkably, these effects were absent in TASK-3 mutants indicating that TASK-3 is either directly involved in the mechanism of this drug’s action, or participates in parallel pathways that achieve the same effect. Together, these results support the TASK-3 channel to act as a therapeutic target for antidepressant action. PMID:21885038

  18. Task Interspersal and Performance of Matching Tasks by Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Christian A.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of task interspersal on the performance of matching-to-sample tasks by three children with autism. A pre-baseline assessed each child's mastery level of a large body of matching stimuli. These matching tasks included matching identical and non-identical animals, numbers, letters, and shapes. Through this…

  19. Can the Task-Cuing Paradigm Measure an Endogenous Task-Set Reconfiguration Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsell, Stephen; Mizon, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    In 6 task-cuing experiments, with 2 cues per task, the authors varied cue-stimulus interval to investigate G. D. Logan and C. Bundesen's (2003) claim that when cue repetition is controlled for, task-switch cost and its reduction with preparation are largely eliminated and hence cannot index an endogenous control process. Experiment 1 replicates…

  20. The Effects of Task Fluency and Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules on Student Choice Allocation between Math Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Maliha

    2010-01-01

    Students may avoid working on difficult tasks because it takes them longer to complete those tasks, which results in a delay to reinforcement. Research studies show that reinforcer and response dimensions can be manipulated within a concurrent operants framework to bias choice allocation toward more difficult tasks. The current study extends…

  1. The Task Is Not Enough: Processing Approaches to Task-Based Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter; Xiaoyue, Bei; Qian, Li; Wang, Zhan

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on three research studies, all of which concern second language task performance. The first focuses on planning, and compares on-line and strategic planning as well as task repetition. The second study examines the role of familiarity on task performance, and compares this with conventional strategic planning. The third study…

  2. Promoting Task-Based Pragmatics Instruction in EFL Classroom Contexts: The Role of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youjin; Taguchi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Robinson's (2001) Cognition Hypothesis claims that more complex tasks promote interaction and language development. This study examined the effect of task complexity in the learning of request-making expressions. Task complexity was operationalized as [+/- reasoning] following Robinson's framework. The study employed a pretest-posttest research…

  3. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  4. Cognitive Complexity of Mathematics Instructional Tasks in a Taiwanese Classroom: An Examination of Task Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…

  5. The Unconscious Allocation of Cognitive Resources to Task-Relevant and Task-Irrelevant Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Bakar, Zainudin Abu

    2014-01-01

    Conscious allocation of cognitive resources to task-relevant thoughts is necessary for learning. However, task-irrelevant thoughts often associated with fear of failure can enter the mind and interfere with learning. Effects like this prompt the question of whether or not learners consciously shift their cognitive resources from task-relevant to…

  6. The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners' Oral Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Second Language learners' oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners' oral…

  7. Updating sensory versus task representations during task-switching: insights from cognitive brain potentials in humans.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, Jose A; Barceló, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    Task-cueing studies suggest that the updating of sensory and task representations both contribute to behavioral task-switch costs [Forstmann, B. U., Brass, M., & Koch, I. (2007). Methodological and empirical issues when dissociating cue-related from task-related processes in the explicit task-cuing procedure. Psychological Research, 71(4), 393-400]. Here we used transition cues to orthogonally manipulate Cue- and Task updating (switches vs. repetitions), in order to identify distinct behavioral indicators and event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with the exogenous and endogenous control of task preparation and execution. Both Cue- and Task updating, as well as their interaction, yielded significant behavioral costs, and evoked distinct cue- and target-locked ERPs. Task-switches enhanced cue-locked early P3 amplitudes (180-220 ms) over mid-central scalp regions, whereas cue switches reduced a fronto-central negativity (N2; 255-295 ms). In contrast, both cue- and task-switches enhanced cue-locked late P3 amplitudes (300-340 ms; novelty P3) over centro-parietal regions, supporting the hypothesis of a common neural substrate for processing stimulus and task novelty [Barceló, F., Escera, C., Corral, M. J., & Perianez, J. A. (2006). Task switching and novelty processing activate a common neural network for cognitive control. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(10), 1734-1748]. In the target period, both cue- and task-switches reduced target P3 activity (310-730 ms) with short cue-target intervals only, suggesting that behavioral switch costs reflect the accrual of various time-dependent control operations during task preparation and execution. We conclude that the cognitive control of task-switching seems to emerge from a dynamic interplay between exogenous and endogenous sources of information.

  8. Overview of the ID, EPI and REL tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present the preparation, resources, results and analysis of three tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011: the main tasks on Infectious Diseases (ID) and Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications (EPI), and the supporting task on Entity Relations (REL). The two main tasks represent extensions of the event extraction model introduced in the BioNLP Shared Task 2009 (ST'09) to two new areas of biomedical scientific literature, each motivated by the needs of specific biocuration tasks. The ID task concerns the molecular mechanisms of infection, virulence and resistance, focusing in particular on the functions of a class of signaling systems that are ubiquitous in bacteria. The EPI task is dedicated to the extraction of statements regarding chemical modifications of DNA and proteins, with particular emphasis on changes relating to the epigenetic control of gene expression. By contrast to these two application-oriented main tasks, the REL task seeks to support extraction in general by separating challenges relating to part-of relations into a subproblem that can be addressed by independent systems. Seven groups participated in each of the two main tasks and four groups in the supporting task. The participating systems indicated advances in the capability of event extraction methods and demonstrated generalization in many aspects: from abstracts to full texts, from previously considered subdomains to new ones, and from the ST'09 extraction targets to other entities and events. The highest performance achieved in the supporting task REL, 58% F-score, is broadly comparable with levels reported for other relation extraction tasks. For the ID task, the highest-performing system achieved 56% F-score, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance at the established ST'09 task. In the EPI task, the best result was 53% F-score for the full set of extraction targets and 69% F-score for a reduced set of core extraction targets, approaching a level of performance sufficient

  9. A Reverse Stroop Task with Mouse Tracking.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T

    2016-01-01

    In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed-for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants' responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants' performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse's approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks.

  10. The impact of secondary tasks on multi-tasking in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Law, Anna S; Logie, Robert H; Pearson, David G

    2006-05-01

    One experiment is described that examined the possible involvement of working memory in the Virtual Errands Test (McGeorge et al. (2001). Using virtual environments in the assessment of executive dysfunction. Presence, 10, 375-383), which requires participants to complete errands within a virtual environment, presented on a computer screen. Time was limited, therefore participants had to swap between tasks (multi-task) efficiently to complete the errands. Forty-two undergraduates participated, all attempting the test twice. On one of these occasions they were asked to perform a concurrent task throughout (order of single and dual-task conditions was counterbalanced). The type of secondary task was manipulated between groups. Twenty-one participants were asked to randomly generate months of the year aloud in the dual-task condition, while another 21 were asked to suppress articulation by repeating the word "December". An overall dual-task effect on the Virtual Errands Test was observed, although this was qualified by an interaction with the order of single and dual-task conditions. Analysis of the secondary task data showed a drop in performance (relative to baseline) under dual-task conditions, and that drop was greater for the random generation group than the articulatory suppression group. These data are interpreted as suggesting that the central executive and phonological loop components of working memory are implicated in this test of multi-tasking.

  11. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-08

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects.

  12. An approach to elemental task learning

    SciTech Connect

    Belmans, P

    1990-01-01

    In this article we deal with the automated learning of tasks by a robotic system through observation of a human operator. Particularly, we explain what is meant by a learning ability in autonomous robots and in teleoperation systems, where several operators and several machines may work in cooperation to perform tasks. We discuss different approaches to learning in these systems and outline the features of the models they are based upon. This leads us to choose an analytical model suited for tasks analysis. We then present the software architecture for our proposed approach and show the first results obtained on sample tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckannan, E. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A list of active research tasks as of the end of 1978 of the Materials Processing in Space Program of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA Centers and other organizations is reported. An overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university and government communities is provided. The program, its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved; and each research task are described. Tasks are categorized by ground based research according to four process areas. Cross references to the performing organizations and principal investigators are provided.

  14. Task specific computations in attentional maps

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Balan, Puiu F.; Oristaglio, Jeff; Schneider, David

    2008-01-01

    The lateral intraparietal area (LIP), a portion of monkey posterior parietal cortex, has been implicated in spatial attention. We review recent evidence from our laboratory showing that LIP encodes a priority map of the external environment that specifies the momentary locus of attention and is activated in a variety of behavioral tasks. The priority map in LIP is shaped by task-specific variables. We suggest that the multifaceted responses in LIP represent mechanisms for allocating attention, and that the attentional system may flexibly configure itself to meet the cognitive, motor and motivational demands of individual tasks. PMID:18502468

  15. Analysis of Human Communication during Assembly Tasks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    AD-A7l 43 ANALYSIS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION DURING ASSEMBLY TASKS in1(U) CRNEGIE-MELLO UNIY PITTSBURGH PA ROBOTICS INST UNCLSSIIEDK S BARBER ET AL...ao I Dur~~~~IngAbcbyTs; 7c .S:in i lSAo .0. Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Tasks K. Suzanne Barber and Gerald J. Agin CMU-RI-TR-86-1...TYPE or REPORT & PE-Rioo CevCZaz Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Inlterim Tasks I . PERFORMING 00RG. REPORT NUMBER 1. £UT~oOR~e) IL

  16. Final report for task order No. 26

    SciTech Connect

    Trela, W.J.

    1995-10-01

    This is a final report for task order No. 26 between the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sumner Associates issued 20 March, 1995. The task statement for order No. 26 is as follows: {open_quotes}Provide assistance on the design of experimental arrangements for acquisition of data describing the interaction of neutrons with selected materials arranged in geometry.{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Provide assistance in the delivery of drawings and specifications associated with the task.{close_quotes} Three experimental descriptions follow; Dynamic Temperature Measurements in Explosives and Inert Simulants Using Neutron Resonance Radiography, Measurements of the Phonon Frequency Spectrum of Pu from Neutron Resonance Broadening, and Resonant Neutron Absorption Spectroscopy of Hi-Temperature Superconductors, that fulfill the task statement.

  17. Communicative Tasks and the Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the conceptual, curricular, and empirical bases of task-based language teaching and suggests future trends, concluding that the conceptual and empirical bases need to be extended both substantively and methodologically. (38 references) (CB)

  18. Piagetian Tasks, Traditional Intelligence and Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, J.; Koops, W.

    1983-01-01

    A study conducted with kindergarten and elementary school children showed that Piagetian tasks which measured seriation, conservation, and multiple classification were equal or superior to traditional intelligence tests in predicting number language, number line comprehension, and verbal arithmetic. (GC)

  19. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: task force report summary.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R; Rodríguez-Pintó, I

    2014-10-01

    The Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (CAPS) aimed to assess the current knowledge on pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory features, diagnosis and classification, precipitating factors and treatment of CAPS. This article summarizes the main aspects of its final report.

  20. Orientation in Eye-Hand Coordination Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Helen M.; Eichorn, Dorothy H.

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinal data on six eye-hand coordination tasks for 25 children aged five and one-half through eight and one-half years were factor analyzed in terms of functional and structural cognitive orientation. (Author)

  1. Space station operations task force summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A companion to the Space Stations Operation Task Force Panels' Reports, this document summarizes all space station program goals, operations, and the characteristics of the expected user community. Strategies for operation and recommendations for implementation are included.

  2. Brain oscillatory signatures of motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-06-01

    Noninvasive brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) coupled with prosthetic devices were recently introduced in the rehabilitation of chronic stroke and other disorders of the motor system. These BCI systems and motor rehabilitation in general involve several motor tasks for training. This study investigates the neurophysiological bases of an EEG-oscillation-driven BCI combined with a neuroprosthetic device to define the specific oscillatory signature of the BCI task. Controlling movements of a hand robotic orthosis with motor imagery of the same movement generates sensorimotor rhythm oscillation changes and involves three elements of tasks also used in stroke motor rehabilitation: passive and active movement, motor imagery, and motor intention. We recorded EEG while nine healthy participants performed five different motor tasks consisting of closing and opening of the hand as follows: 1) motor imagery without any external feedback and without overt hand movement, 2) motor imagery that moves the orthosis proportional to the produced brain oscillation change with online proprioceptive and visual feedback of the hand moving through a neuroprosthetic device (BCI condition), 3) passive and 4) active movement of the hand with feedback (seeing and feeling the hand moving), and 5) rest. During the BCI condition, participants received contingent online feedback of the decrease of power of the sensorimotor rhythm, which induced orthosis movement and therefore proprioceptive and visual information from the moving hand. We analyzed brain activity during the five conditions using time-frequency domain bootstrap-based statistical comparisons and Morlet transforms. Activity during rest was used as a reference. Significant contralateral and ipsilateral event-related desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm was present during all motor tasks, largest in contralateral-postcentral, medio-central, and ipsilateral-precentral areas identifying the ipsilateral precentral cortex as an integral

  3. Manipulator Performance Evaluation Using Fitts' Taping Task

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Jared, B.C.; Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    Metaphorically, a teleoperator with master controllers projects the user's arms and hands into a re- mote area, Therefore, human users interact with teleoperators at a more fundamental level than they do with most human-machine systems. Instead of inputting decisions about how the system should func- tion, teleoperator users input the movements they might make if they were truly in the remote area and the remote machine must recreate their trajectories and impedance. This intense human-machine inter- action requires displays and controls more carefully attuned to human motor capabilities than is neces- sary with most systems. It is important for teleoperated manipulators to be able to recreate human trajectories and impedance in real time. One method for assessing manipulator performance is to observe how well a system be- haves while a human user completes human dexterity tasks with it. Fitts' tapping task has been, used many times in the past for this purpose. This report describes such a performance assessment. The International Submarine Engineering (ISE) Autonomous/Teleoperated Operations Manipulator (ATOM) servomanipulator system was evalu- ated using a generic positioning accuracy task. The task is a simple one but has the merits of (1) pro- ducing a performance function estimate rather than a point estimate and (2) being widely used in the past for human and servomanipulator dexterity tests. Results of testing using this task may, therefore, allow comparison with other manipulators, and is generically representative of a broad class of tasks. Results of the testing indicate that the ATOM manipulator is capable of performing the task. Force reflection had a negative impact on task efficiency in these data. This was most likely caused by the high resistance to movement the master controller exhibited with the force reflection engaged. Measurements of exerted forces were not made, so it is not possible to say whether the force reflection helped partici- pants

  4. Eye/Brain/Task Testbed And Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.

  5. Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks Anthony Cowley, Hwa-Chow Hsu, Camillo J. Taylor GRASP Laboratory University of...network, distributed computing , software design 1. INTRODUCTION As efforts to field sensor networks, or teams of mobile robots, become more...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  6. Distractor onset but not preparation time affects the frequency of task confusions in task switching

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Marco; Gade, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    When participants rapidly switch between tasks that share the same stimuli and responses, task confusions (i.e., the accidental application of the wrong task) can occur. The present study investigated whether these task confusions result from failures of endogenous control (i.e., from ineffective task preparation) or from failures of exogenous control (i.e., from stimulus-induced task conflicts). The frequency of task confusions was estimated by considering the relative proportion of distractor errors, that is, errors that result when participants erroneously respond to the distractor associated with the alternative task. In Experiment 1, the efficiency of exogenous control was manipulated by varying the temporal order of target and distractor presentation. In Experiment 2, the efficiency of endogenous control was manipulated by varying the time available for preparing the task in advance. It turned out that only the efficiency of exogenous control but not the efficiency of endogenous control influenced the proportion of distractor errors. Accordingly, task confusions are more related to failures in exogenous control. PMID:26579050

  7. A change of task prolongs early processes: evidence from ERPs in lexical tasks.

    PubMed

    Elchlepp, Heike; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Switching tasks costs time. Allowing time to prepare reduces the cost, but usually leaves an irreducible "residual cost." Most accounts of this residual cost locate it within the response-selection stage of processing. To determine which processing stage is affected, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants performed a reading task or a perceptual judgment task, and examined the effect of a task switch on early markers of lexical processing. A task cue preceding a string of blue and red letters instructed the participant either to read the letter string (for a semantic classification in Experiment 1, and a lexical decision in Experiment 2) or to judge the symmetry of its color pattern. In Experiment 1, having to switch to the reading task delayed the evolution of the effect of word frequency on the reading task ERP by a substantial fraction of the effect on reaction time (RT). In Experiment 2, a task switch delayed the onset of the effect of lexical status on the ERP by about the same extent that it prolonged the RT. These effects indicate an early locus of (most of) the residual switch cost: We propose that this reflects a form of task-related attentional inertia. Other findings have implications for the automaticity of lexical access: Effects of frequency, lexicality, and orthographic familiarity on ERPs in the symmetry task indicated involuntary, but attenuated, orthographic and lexical processing even when attention was focused on a nonlexical property.

  8. Monkeys are more patient in a foraging task than in a standard intertemporal choice task.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Tommy C; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal impulsivity generally find steep subjective devaluation, or discounting, of delayed rewards - often on the order of a 50% reduction in value in a few seconds. Because such steep discounting is highly disfavored in evolutionary models of time preference, we hypothesize that discounting tasks provide a poor measure of animals' true time preferences. One prediction of this hypothesis is that estimates of time preferences based on these tasks will lack external validity, i.e. fail to predict time preferences in other contexts. We examined choices made by four rhesus monkeys in a computerized patch-leaving foraging task interleaved with a standard intertemporal choice task. Monkeys were significantly more patient in the foraging task than in the intertemporal choice task. Patch-leaving behavior was well fit by parameter-free optimal foraging equations but poorly fit by the hyperbolic discount parameter obtained from the intertemporal choice task. Day-to-day variation in time preferences across the two tasks was uncorrelated with each other. These data are consistent with the conjecture that seemingly impulsive behavior in animals is an artifact of their difficulty understanding the structure of intertemporal choice tasks, and support the idea that animals are more efficient rate maximizers in the multi-second range than intertemporal choice tasks would suggest.

  9. Strategic Adaptation to Task Characteristics, Incentives, and Individual Differences in Dual-Tasking.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Christian P; Brumby, Duncan P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how good people are at multitasking by comparing behavior to a prediction of the optimal strategy for dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. In our experiment, 24 participants had to interleave entering digits on a keyboard with controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. The difficulty of the tracking task was systematically varied as a within-subjects factor. Participants were also exposed to different explicit reward functions that varied the relative importance of the tracking task relative to the typing task (between-subjects). Results demonstrate that these changes in task characteristics and monetary incentives, together with individual differences in typing ability, influenced how participants choose to interleave tasks. This change in strategy then affected their performance on each task. A computational cognitive model was used to predict performance for a wide set of alternative strategies for how participants might have possibly interleaved tasks. This allowed for predictions of optimal performance to be derived, given the constraints placed on performance by the task and cognition. A comparison of human behavior with the predicted optimal strategy shows that participants behaved near optimally. Our findings have implications for the design and evaluation of technology for multitasking situations, as consideration should be given to the characteristics of the task, but also to how different users might use technology depending on their individual characteristics and their priorities.

  10. Towards models of tasks and task complexity in supervisory control applications.

    PubMed

    Sundström, G A

    1993-11-01

    Dynamic task environments in supervisory control situations differ from those traditionally investigated in problem-solving research in that (1) several task goals exist in parallel, (2) task goals change dynamically as the behaviour of the technical process changes, and (3) information required to accomplish task goals changes across time. In the present work, it is suggested that such dynamic task environments can be described using two types of task goal networks, namely a control task goal (CTG) network and an information processing goal (IPG) network. CTG networks are generated by analysis of the operational states required to produce the commodity for which a technical system has been designed. For example, such analyses can be performed using approaches such as Mitchell's operator function model or canonical means-end analyses. IPG networks are generated by using the recently proposed functional information and knowledge acquisition (FIKA) modelling technique. Two examples from different domains illustrate how these task goals networks can be used to describe dynamic task environments. Finally, two different ways of using the task modelling approach are briefly discussed.

  11. Card Perseveration Task performance and post-task feeling states: relationship to drug use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martin, C A; Rayens, M K; Kelly, T; Hartung, C; Leukefeld, C; Haigler, E

    2000-05-01

    This study examined whether performance on the Card Perseveration Task (Card Task) and self-report of feeling state after the task are related to self-report of drug use. The evaluation was of 64 adolescents from an adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic (40 males, aged 15.5 years, SD = 1.6; 24 females aged 16.9 years, SD = 1.5). Drug use histories were obtained using a substance dependence symptom checklist based on DSM-III-R. The Card Task was administered, and after completion, a Post-Task Self-Report (PTSR) was administered. A factor analysis with varimax rotation grouped the 28 items of the PTSR into Distress, Happy, Satisfied, and Wanting to Win subscales. Correlations of drug use with performance on the Card Task and the PTSR subscales were obtained. Cards Played on the Card Task were correlated with alcohol (cc = .31, p < or = .01); marijuana (cc = .35, p < or = .01) and polydrug (cc = .26, p < or = .05) dependence symptoms. Money Won on the Card Task was correlated negatively with nicotine (cc = -.26, p < or = .05) and marijuana (cc = -.27, p < or = .05) dependence symptoms. The PTSR Distress subscale correlated with nicotine (cc = .49, p < or = .001), alcohol (cc = .37, p < or = .01), marijuana (cc = .39, p < or = .01), and polydrug (cc = .49, p < or = .001) dependence symptoms. These findings provide evidence that both the Card Task and feeling states associated with task performance are related to self-reports of drug use.

  12. Is performance in task-cuing experiments mediated by task set selection or associative compound retrieval?

    PubMed

    Forrest, Charlotte L D; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P L

    2014-07-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed, after a short or long interval, by a digit to which 1 of 2 responses was required. In a tasks condition, participants were (as usual) directed to interpret the cue as an instruction to perform either an odd/even or a high/low classification task. In a cue + stimulus → response (CSR) condition, to induce learning of mappings between cue-stimulus compound and response, participants were, in Experiment 1, given standard task instructions and additionally encouraged to learn the CSR mappings; in Experiment 2, informed of all the CSR mappings and asked to learn them, without standard task instructions; in Experiment 3, required to learn the mappings by trial and error. The effects of a task switch, response congruence, preparation, and transfer to a new set of stimuli differed substantially between the conditions in ways indicative of classification according to task rules in the tasks condition, and retrieval of responses specific to stimulus-cue combinations in the CSR conditions. Qualitative features of the latter could be captured by an associative learning network. Hence associatively based compound retrieval can serve as the basis for performance with a small stimulus set. But when organization by tasks is apparent, control via task set selection is the natural and efficient strategy.

  13. Reverse control for humanoid robot task recognition.

    PubMed

    Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes.

  14. 49 CFR 236.1043 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Task analysis and basic requirements. 236.1043... Train Control Systems § 236.1043 Task analysis and basic requirements. (a) Training structure and... of work, etc.), task(s), and desired success rate; (2) Based on a formal task analysis, identify...

  15. 49 CFR 236.1043 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Task analysis and basic requirements. 236.1043... Train Control Systems § 236.1043 Task analysis and basic requirements. (a) Training structure and... of work, etc.), task(s), and desired success rate; (2) Based on a formal task analysis, identify...

  16. 76 FR 60863 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Species Task Force (ANS Task Force). The ANS Task Force's purpose is to develop and implement a program.... DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Wednesday, November 2, and from 8...

  17. Sticky Plans: Inhibition and Binding during Serial-Task Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests substantial response-time costs associated with lag-2 repetitions of tasks within explicitly controlled task sequences [Koch, I., Philipp, A. M., Gade, M. (2006). Chunking in task sequences modulates task inhibition. "Psychological Science," 17, 346-350; Schneider, D. W. (2007). Task-set inhibition in chunked task…

  18. Shared Learning Shapes Human Performance: Transfer Effects in Task Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanese, Nadia; Iani, Cristina; Rubichi, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether performing a task with a co-actor shapes the way a subsequent task is performed. In four experiments participants were administered a Simon task after practicing a spatial compatibility task with an incompatible S-R mapping. In Experiment 1 they performed both tasks alongside another person; in Experiment 2 they performed…

  19. A Chain-Retrieval Model for Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandierendonck, Andre; Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    To account for the findings obtained in voluntary task switching, this article describes and tests the chain-retrieval model. This model postulates that voluntary task selection involves retrieval of task information from long-term memory, which is then used to guide task selection and task execution. The model assumes that the retrieved…

  20. Focus on Form through Task Repetition in TBLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Guchte, Marrit; Braaksma, Martine; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bimmel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Because there has been little research on focus on form during the post-task phase in task-based language teaching, this experimental study investigates the effects of task repetition after having directed learners' attention to form during the main task. The study comprises two interventions, where each consisted of a task with a focus on a…

  1. Slowing after Observed Error Transfers across Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Pan, Weigang; Tan, Jinfeng; Liu, Congcong; Chen, Antao

    2016-01-01

    After committing an error, participants tend to perform more slowly. This phenomenon is called post-error slowing (PES). Although previous studies have explored the PES effect in the context of observed errors, the issue as to whether the slowing effect generalizes across tasksets remains unclear. Further, the generation mechanisms of PES following observed errors must be examined. To address the above issues, we employed an observation-execution task in three experiments. During each trial, participants were required to mentally observe the outcomes of their partners in the observation task and then to perform their own key-press according to the mapping rules in the execution task. In Experiment 1, the same tasksets were utilized in the observation task and the execution task, and three error rate conditions (20%, 50% and 80%) were established in the observation task. The results revealed that the PES effect after observed errors was obtained in all three error rate conditions, replicating and extending previous studies. In Experiment 2, distinct stimuli and response rules were utilized in the observation task and the execution task. The result pattern was the same as that in Experiment 1, suggesting that the PES effect after observed errors was a generic adjustment process. In Experiment 3, the response deadline was shortened in the execution task to rule out the ceiling effect, and two error rate conditions (50% and 80%) were established in the observation task. The PES effect after observed errors was still obtained in the 50% and 80% error rate conditions. However, the accuracy in the post-observed error trials was comparable to that in the post-observed correct trials, suggesting that the slowing effect and improved accuracy did not rely on the same underlying mechanism. Current findings indicate that the occurrence of PES after observed errors is not dependent on the probability of observed errors, consistent with the assumption of cognitive control account

  2. Effects of Selected Task Performance Criteria at Initiating Adaptive Task Real locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Demaris A.

    2001-01-01

    In the current report various performance assessment methods used to initiate mode transfers between manual control and automation for adaptive task reallocation were tested. Participants monitored two secondary tasks for critical events while actively controlling a process in a fictional system. One of the secondary monitoring tasks could be automated whenever operators' performance was below acceptable levels. Automation of the secondary task and transfer of the secondary task back to manual control were either human- or machine-initiated. Human-initiated transfers were based on the operator's assessment of the current task demands while machine-initiated transfers were based on the operators' performance. Different performance assessment methods were tested in two separate experiments.

  3. Dual-task interference with equal task emphasis: graded capacity sharing or central postponement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold E.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    Most studies using the psychological refractory period (PRP) design suggest that dual-task performance is limited by a central bottleneck. Because subjects are usually told to emphasize Task 1, however, the bottleneck might reflect a strategic choice rather than a structural limitation. To evaluate the possibility that central operations can proceed in parallel, albeit with capacity limitations, we conducted two dual-task experiments with equal task emphasis. In both experiments, subjects tended to either group responses together or respond to one task well before the other. In addition, stimulus-response compatibility effects were roughly constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). At the short SOA, compatibility effects also carried over onto response times for the other task. This pattern of results is difficult to reconcile with the possibility that subjects share capacity roughly equally between simultaneous central operations. However, this pattern is consistent with the existence of a structural central bottleneck.

  4. Heimdall System for MSSS Sensor Tasking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, A.; Jones, B.; Herz, E.; George, D.; Axelrad, P.; Gehly, S.

    In Norse Mythology, Heimdall uses his foreknowledge and keen eyesight to keep watch for disaster from his home near the Rainbow Bridge. Orbit Logic and the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado (CU) have developed the Heimdall System to schedule observations of known and uncharacterized objects and search for new objects from the Maui Space Surveillance Site. Heimdall addresses the current need for automated and optimized SSA sensor tasking driven by factors associated with improved space object catalog maintenance. Orbit Logic and CU developed an initial baseline prototype SSA sensor tasking capability for select sensors at the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) using STK and STK Scheduler, and then added a new Track Prioritization Component for FiSST-inspired computations for predicted Information Gain and Probability of Detection, and a new SSA-specific Figure-of-Merit (FOM) for optimized SSA sensor tasking. While the baseline prototype addresses automation and some of the multi-sensor tasking optimization, the SSA-improved prototype addresses all of the key elements required for improved tasking leading to enhanced object catalog maintenance. The Heimdall proof-of-concept was demonstrated for MSSS SSA sensor tasking for a 24 hour period to attempt observations of all operational satellites in the unclassified NORAD catalog, observe a small set of high priority GEO targets every 30 minutes, make a sky survey of the GEO belt region accessible to MSSS sensors, and observe particular GEO regions that have a high probability of finding new objects with any excess sensor time. This Heimdall prototype software paves the way for further R&D that will integrate this technology into the MSSS systems for operational scheduling, improve the software's scalability, and further tune and enhance schedule optimization. The Heimdall software for SSA sensor tasking provides greatly improved performance over manual tasking, improved

  5. Exploring the Cosmic Frontier, Task A - Direct Detection of Dark Matter, Task B - Experimental Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, John A.J.; Gold, Michael S.

    2016-08-11

    This report summarizes the work of Task A and B for the period 2013-2016. For Task A the work is for direct detection of dark matter with the single-phase liquid argon experiment Mini-CLEAN. For Task B the work is for the search for new physics in the analysis of fluorescence events with the Auger experiment and for the search for the indirect detection of dark matter with the HAWC experiment.

  6. Task Switching versus Cue Switching: Using Transition Cuing to Disentangle Sequential Effects in Task-Switching Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent methodological advances have allowed researchers to address confounds in the measurement of task-switch costs in task-switching performance by dissociating cue switching from task switching. For example, in the transition-cuing procedure, which involves presenting cues for task transitions rather than for tasks, cue transitions (cue…

  7. Exploring relations between task conflict and informational conflict in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Shahar, Nitzan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we tested the proposal that the Stroop task involves two conflicts--task conflict and informational conflict. Task conflict was defined as the latency difference between color words and non-letter neutrals, and manipulated by varying the proportion of color words versus non-letter neutrals. Informational conflict was defined as the latency difference between incongruent and congruent trials and manipulated by varying the congruent-to-incongruent trial ratio. We replicated previous findings showing that increasing the ratio of incongruent-to-congruent trials reduces the latency difference between the incongruent and congruent condition (i.e., informational conflict), as does increasing the proportion of color words (i.e., task conflict). A significant under-additive interaction between the two proportion manipulations (congruent vs. incongruent and color words vs. neutrals) indicated that the effects of task conflict and informational conflict were not additive. By assessing task conflict as the contrast between color words and neutrals, we found that task conflict existed in all of our experimental conditions. Under specific conditions, when task conflict dominated behavior by explaining most of the variability between congruency conditions, we also found negative facilitation, thus demonstrating that this effect is a special case of task conflict.

  8. The Genia Event and Protein Coreference tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Genia task, when it was introduced in 2009, was the first community-wide effort to address a fine-grained, structural information extraction from biomedical literature. Arranged for the second time as one of the main tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011, it aimed to measure the progress of the community since 2009, and to evaluate generalization of the technology to full text papers. The Protein Coreference task was arranged as one of the supporting tasks, motivated from one of the lessons of the 2009 task that the abundance of coreference structures in natural language text hinders further improvement with the Genia task. Results The Genia task received final submissions from 15 teams. The results show that the community has made a significant progress, marking 74% of the best F-score in extracting bio-molecular events of simple structure, e.g., gene expressions, and 45% ~ 48% in extracting those of complex structure, e.g., regulations. The Protein Coreference task received 6 final submissions. The results show that the coreference resolution performance in biomedical domain is lagging behind that in newswire domain, cf. 50% vs. 66% in MUC score. Particularly, in terms of protein coreference resolution the best system achieved 34% in F-score. Conclusions Detailed analysis performed on the results improves our insight into the problem and suggests the directions for further improvements. PMID:22759455

  9. The association between media multitasking, task-switching, and dual-task performance.

    PubMed

    Alzahabi, Reem; Becker, Mark W

    2013-10-01

    The recent rise in media use has prompted researchers to investigate its influence on users' basic cognitive processes, such as attention and cognitive control. However, most of these investigations have failed to consider that the rise in media use has been accompanied by an even more dramatic rise in media multitasking (engaging with multiple forms of media simultaneously). Here we investigate how one's ability to switch between 2 tasks and to perform 2 tasks simultaneously is associated with media multitasking experience. Participants saw displays comprised of a number-letter pair and classified the number as odd or even and/or the letter as a consonant or vowel. In task-switching blocks, a cue indicated which classification to perform on each trial. In dual-task blocks, participants performed both classifications. Heavy and light media multitaskers showed comparable performance in the dual-task. Across 2 experiments, heavy media multitaskers were better able to switch between tasks in the task-switching paradigm. Thus, while media multitasking was not associated with increased ability to process 2 tasks in parallel, it was associated with an increased ability to shift between discrete tasks.

  10. Motor hysteresis in a sequential grasping and pointing task is absent in task-critical joints.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Christoph; Weigelt, Matthias; Schack, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    In a prior study (Schütz et al. in Exp Brain Res 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00221-016-4608-6 ), we demonstrated that the cognitive cost of motor planning did not differ in a vertical pointing and grasping task. It was unclear whether the similar cost implied that both tasks required the same number of independent degrees of freedom (IDOFs) or that the number of IDOFs did not affect motor planning. To differentiate between both cases, a reanalysis of the prior data was conducted. The number of IDOFs in the pointing and grasping tasks was computed by factor analysis. In both tasks, two IDOFs were used, which was the minimum number required for position control. This indicates that hand alignment in the grasping task did not require an additional IDOF. No conclusions regarding the link between the cognitive cost of motor planning and the number of IDOFs could be drawn. A subset of task-critical joint angles was not affected by motor hysteresis. This indicates that a joint's susceptibility to motor hysteresis depends on its relevance to the task goal. In task-critical joints, planning cost minimization by motor plan reuse is suppressed in favor of the task goal.

  11. Selecting and Creating Mathematical Tasks: From Research To Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Margaret Schwan; Stein, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the selection and creation of mathematical tasks, drawing on QUASAR's research on mathematical tasks and experiences with teachers and teacher educators. Presents examples of task analysis and issues that teachers should reflect on. (ASK)

  12. The Role of Tasks in Developing Communities of Mathematical Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peressini, Dominic; Knuth, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Examines the nature of mathematically rich tasks and varied ways in which students respond to these tasks. Explores approaches for using such tasks to foster inquiry that engages children in mathematical practice. (Contains 16 references.) (ASK)

  13. Three Techniques for Task Analysis: Examples from the Nuclear Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Kenneth E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses three task analysis techniques utilized at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station to review training programs: analysis of (1) job positions, (2) procedures, and (3) instructional presentations. All of these include task breakdown, relationship determination, and task restructuring. (MBR)

  14. Dual task interference in psychogenic tremor.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Hatice; Begeman, Maaike; Tolosa, Eduardo; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2007-10-31

    Psychogenic tremor (PT) is visually indistinguishable from voluntarily mimicked tremor. Healthy volunteers have difficulties with carrying out simultaneously two tasks due to the phenomenon known as dual task interference. Therefore, performing voluntary rhythmic movements would be a burden for carrying out fast ballistic movements with the contralateral hand. We hypothesized that, similarly to healthy volunteers performing rhythmic movements, patients with PT should show the effects of dual task interference, and this may distinguish them from patients with other types of tremor. We studied 6 patients with PT, 9 with Parkinson's disease (PD) and predominantly unilateral tremor, 11 with essential tremor (ET), and 10 normal volunteers (NV) mimicking tremor. They were requested to perform a unilateral simple reaction time task (SRT) to a visual imperative signal in two different conditions: at rest (rSRT) and during contralateral hand tremor (tSRT). Reaction time was significantly longer in tSRT than in rSRT in PT and in NV groups (P < 0.01 for both groups). However, no significant differences were observed between rSRT and tSRT in PD and ET. The delay of unilateral tSRT with respect to rSRT suggests an effect of tremorlike oscillatory movements on reaction time that is consistent with the concept of dual-task interference in NV or PT patients but not in PD or ET. These observations may be useful in the evaluation of psychogenic movement disorders.

  15. Knowledge Modelling to Support Inquiry Learning Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Annika; Mulholland, Paul; Zdrahal, Zdenek; Blasko, Miroslav

    In this paper we describe the SILVER toolkit, which is designed for tasks in which a user learns by analysing and interpreting a set of resources. The user categorises each resource according to the set of properties that they identify as being applicable to it. Due to the large amount of data generated by this type of task, the user may find it hard to identify patterns in their classification and tagging, to recognise their own inconsistencies or make comparisons between themselves and others. In the first SILVER task described, the ID3 decision tree algorithm is applied to the user's data to identify patterns and generate different types of feedback. Principles of spatial hypertext are used to produce an interactive visualization of the summarized data. As the user interacts with the resources, they can see their progress and changing perspective on the task. In the second SILVER task described, a conceptual model is used to provide explanations of the model underlying the user's classification of resources.

  16. The minimum entropy principle and task performance.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten; Weinberger, Kelsey

    2013-07-01

    According to the minimum entropy principle, efficient cognitive performance is produced with a neurocognitive strategy that involves a minimum of degrees of freedom. Although high performance is often regarded as consistent performance as well, some variability in performance still remains which allows the person to adapt to changing goal conditions or fatigue. The present study investigated the connection between performance, entropy in performance, and four task-switching strategies. Fifty-one undergraduates performed 7 different computer-based cognitive tasks producing sets of 49 responses under instructional conditions requiring task quotas or no quotas. The temporal patterns of performance were analyzed using orbital decomposition to extract pattern types and lengths, which were then compared with regard to Shannon entropy, topological entropy, and overall performance. Task switching strategies from a previous study were available for the same participants as well. Results indicated that both topological entropy and Shannon entropy were negatively correlated with performance. Some task-switching strategies produced lower entropy in performance than others. Stepwise regression showed that the top three predictors of performance were Shannon entropy and arithmetic and spatial abilities. Additional implications for the prediction of work performance with cognitive ability measurements and the applicability of the minimum entropy principle to multidimensional performance criteria and team work are discussed.

  17. Task characteristics and the contextual interference effect.

    PubMed

    Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Van Gyn, Geraldine H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the influence of blocked and random practice on the acquisition and retention of a criterion multisegment motor task practiced alongside either two similar-distractors tasks or two different-distractors tasks. The random-practice similar-distractors group made more decision-making errors and performed the criterion task more slowly than the blocked-practice similar-distractors group during the acquisition phase. Following a brief filled retention interval, the blocked-practice similar-distractors group demonstrated a loss of acquired performance capabilities, whereas the random-practice similar-distractors group did not. The blocked- and random-practice different-distractors groups performed similarly throughout the experiment. Results are interpreted within Glenberg's component-levels theory, in which it was argued that random practice must stimulate the differential storage of multilevel contextual components associated with the multiple motor tasks being learned to produce a contextual interference effect. The theoretical and practical implications of differential storage versus nonrepetition as a function of random practice are discussed.

  18. Distraction during learning with hypermedia: difficult tasks help to keep task goals on track.

    PubMed

    Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Heise, Elke

    2014-01-01

    In educational hypermedia environments, students are often confronted with potential sources of distraction arising from additional information that, albeit interesting, is unrelated to their current task goal. The paper investigates the conditions under which distraction occurs and hampers performance. Based on theories of volitional action control it was hypothesized that interesting information, especially if related to a pending goal, would interfere with task performance only when working on easy, but not on difficult tasks. In Experiment 1, 66 students learned about probability theory using worked examples and solved corresponding test problems, whose task difficulty was manipulated. As a second factor, the presence of interesting information unrelated to the primary task was varied. Results showed that students solved more easy than difficult probability problems correctly. However, the presence of interesting, but task-irrelevant information did not interfere with performance. In Experiment 2, 68 students again engaged in example-based learning and problem solving in the presence of task-irrelevant information. Problem-solving difficulty was varied as a first factor. Additionally, the presence of a pending goal related to the task-irrelevant information was manipulated. As expected, problem-solving performance declined when a pending goal was present during working on easy problems, whereas no interference was observed for difficult problems. Moreover, the presence of a pending goal reduced the time on task-relevant information and increased the time on task-irrelevant information while working on easy tasks. However, as revealed by mediation analyses these changes in overt information processing behavior did not explain the decline in problem-solving performance. As an alternative explanation it is suggested that goal conflicts resulting from pending goals claim cognitive resources, which are then no longer available for learning and problem solving.

  19. AGENDA: A task organizer and scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fratter, Isabelle

    1993-01-01

    AGENDA will be the main tool used in running the SPOT 4 Earth Observation Satellite's Operational Control Center. It will reduce the operator's work load and make the task easier. AGENDA sets up the work plan for a day of operations, automatically puts the day's tasks into sequence and monitors their progress in real time. Monitoring is centralized, and the tasks are run on different computers in the Center. Once informed of any problems, the operator can intervene at any time while an activity is taking place. To carry out the various functions, the operator has an advanced, efficient, ergonomic graphic interface based on X11 and OSF/MOTIF. Since AGENDA is the heart of the Center, it has to satisfy several constraints that have been taken into account during the various development phases. AGENDA is currently in its final development stages.

  20. Practice Increases Procedural Errors After Task Interruption.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Erik M; Hambrick, David Z

    2017-03-16

    Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions of task interruption. As steps of a procedure are performed more quickly, memory for past performance should become less accurate, increasing the rate of skipped or repeated steps after an interruption. We found this effect, with practice generally improving speed and accuracy, but impairing accuracy after interruptions. The results show that positive effects of practice can interact with architectural constraints on episodic memory to have negative effects on performance. In practical terms, the results suggest that practice can be a risk factor for procedural errors in task environments with a high incidence of task interruption. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Park, Alfred J

    2014-01-01

    In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

  2. Psychological Issues in Online Adaptive Task Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.; Ward, S. L.; Frey, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Adaptive aiding is an idea that offers potential for improvement over many current approaches to aiding in human-computer systems. The expected return of tailoring the system to fit the user could be in the form of improved system performance and/or increased user satisfaction. Issues such as the manner in which information is shared between human and computer, the appropriate division of labor between them, and the level of autonomy of the aid are explored. A simulated visual search task was developed. Subjects are required to identify targets in a moving display while performing a compensatory sub-critical tracking task. By manipulating characteristics of the situation such as imposed task-related workload and effort required to communicate with the computer, it is possible to create conditions in which interaction with the computer would be more or less desirable. The results of preliminary research using this experimental scenario are presented, and future directions for this research effort are discussed.

  3. Task set determines the amount of crowding.

    PubMed

    Huckauf, Anke

    2007-11-01

    The present study deals with the question of how crowding effects, which are interactions among adjacent features or characters, emerges automatically or by so-called higher level controlled processing. Two experiments are presented comparing performances during detecting, localizing, and identifying a flanked target in same strings when the target was defined on the basis of either its form or its category. Detection and localization performances were better for form- relative to category-defined targets whereas the reverse was observed for identification performance. This shows that the interacting information is indeed high level in that it is affected by task settings like the defining target feature and the observers' task set. The results suggest that crowding effects do not emerge due to processes depending on the parameters of stimulus presentation, but due to processes activated by certain task sets.

  4. Pointing Device Performance in Steering Tasks.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Ransalu; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S

    2016-06-01

    Use of touch-screen-based interactions is growing rapidly. Hence, knowing the maneuvering efficacy of touch screens relative to other pointing devices is of great importance in the context of graphical user interfaces. Movement time, accuracy, and user preferences of four pointing device settings were evaluated on a computer with 14 participants aged 20.1 ± 3.13 years. It was found that, depending on the difficulty of the task, the optimal settings differ for ballistic and visual control tasks. With a touch screen, resting the arm increased movement time for steering tasks. When both performance and comfort are considered, whether to use a mouse or a touch screen for person-computer interaction depends on the steering difficulty. Hence, a input device should be chosen based on the application, and should be optimized to match the graphical user interface.

  5. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Kijewski-Correa, Tracy; Thain, Douglas; Kareem, Ahsan; Madey, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations. Harnessing Crowdworkers for Engineering Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data. Virtual Wind Tunnel We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task. Conclusions With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and

  6. Korean EFL Learners' Perspectives on Speaking Tasks: Discussion, Summary, and Information-Exchange Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihye, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates Korean university English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' task preference among three different speaking tasks. Quantitative data were collected through questionnaires and qualitative data were collected from interviews. Quantitative data were obtained from 88 survey respondents and qualitative data from 50 interview…

  7. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Nursing. Occupation: Home Health Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    This document contains a task analysis for health occupations (home health aid) in the nursing cluster. For each task listed, occupation, duty area, performance standard, steps, knowledge, attitudes, safety, equipment/supplies, source of analysis, and Illinois state goals for learning are listed. For the duty area of "providing therapeutic…

  8. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Dental Assisting. Occupation: Dental Assistant. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    This document contains a task analysis for health occupations (dental assistant) in the dental assisting cluster. For each task listed, occupation, duty area, performance standard, steps, knowledge, attitudes, safety, equipment/supplies, source of analysis, and Illinois state goals for learning are listed. For the duty area of "providing…

  9. 78 FR 59939 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... prevention and control, motor vehicle-related injury prevention, and promoting physical activity. Meeting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of...

  10. Using Goal Setting and Task Analysis to Enhance Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching has received sustained attention from teachers and researchers for over thirty years. It is a well-established pedagogy that includes the following characteristics: major focus on authentic and real-world tasks, choice of linguistic resources by learners, and a clearly defined non-linguistic outcome. This…

  11. Appraisal, Coping, Task Performance, and Cardiovascular Responses during the Evaluated Speaking Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, H. Lane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Appraisal, coping, task performance, and cardiovascular responses were examined among men high and low in speech anxiety who prepared and performed a speech under evaluative conditions. Speech-anxious men saw the task as more threatening. They were more stressed, anxious, distracted, and aware of their emotions, focused on the passage of time, and…

  12. Task Selection, Task Switching and Multitasking during Computer-Based Independent Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Detailed logs of students' computer use, during independent study sessions, were captured in an open-access computer laboratory. Each log consisted of a chronological sequence of tasks representing either the application or the Internet domain displayed in the workstation's active window. Each task was classified using a three-tier schema…

  13. Deep Thinking Increases Task-Set Shielding and Reduces Shifting Flexibility in Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Rico; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Performing two tasks concurrently is difficult, which has been taken to imply the existence of a structural processing bottleneck. Here we sought to assess whether and to what degree one's multitasking abilities depend on the cognitive-control style one engages in. Participants were primed with creativity tasks that either called for divergent…

  14. Between-task transfer of learning from spatial compatibility to a color stroop task.

    PubMed

    Marini, Maddalena; Iani, Cristina; Nicoletti, Roberto; Rubichi, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Responses to a relevant stimulus dimension are faster and more accurate when the stimulus and response spatially correspond compared to when they do not, even though stimulus position is irrelevant (Simon effect). It has been demonstrated that practicing with an incompatible spatial stimulus-response (S-R) mapping before performing a Simon task can eliminate this effect. In the present study we assessed whether a learned spatially incompatible S-R mapping can be transferred to a nonspatial conflict task, hence supporting the view that transfer effects are due to acquisition of a general "respond to the opposite stimulus value" rule. To this aim, we ran two experiments in which participants performed a spatial compatibility task with either a compatible or an incompatible mapping and then transferred, after a 5 min delay, to a color Stroop task. In Experiment 1, responses were executed by pressing one of two keys on the keyboard in both practice and transfer tasks. In Experiment 2, responses were manual in the practice task and vocal in the transfer task. The spatially incompatible practice significantly reduced the color Stroop effect only when responses were manual in both tasks. These results suggest that during practice participants develop a response-selection strategy of emitting the alternative spatial response.

  15. A Blended Learning Study on Implementing Video Recorded Speaking Tasks in Task-Based Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates designing and implementing a speaking course in which face-to-face instruction informed by the principles of Task-Based Learning is blended with the use of technology, the video, for the first-year student teachers of English in Turkish higher education. The study consisted of three hours of task-based classroom…

  16. Cognitive Complexity and Task Sequencing: Studies in a Componential Framework for Second Language Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for researching the Cognition Hypothesis which claims that pedagogic tasks be sequenced for learners on the basis of increases in their cognitive complexity. It distinguishes dimensions of complexity which increase the conceptual and linguistic demands tasks make on communication, so creating the conditions for L2…

  17. Challenging Tasks: What Happens When Challenging Tasks Are Used in Mixed Ability Middle School Mathematics Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The topics of decimals and polygons were taught to two classes by using challenging tasks, rather than the more conventional textbook approach. Students were given a pre-test and a post-test. A comparison between the two classes on the pre- and post-test was made. Prior to teaching through challenging tasks, students were surveyed about their…

  18. Three DIBELS Tasks vs. Three Informal Reading/Spelling Tasks: A Comparison of Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell; Trathen, Woodrow; Perney, Jan; Gill, Tom; Schlagal, Robert; Ward, Devery; Frye, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Within a developmental framework, this study compared the predictive validity of three DIBELS tasks (phoneme segmentation fluency [PSF], nonsense word fluency [NWF], and oral reading fluency [ORF]) with that of three alternative tasks drawn from the field of reading (phonemic spelling [phSPEL], word recognition-timed [WR-t], and graded passage…

  19. The Effect of Writing Task and Task Conditions on Colombian EFL Learners' Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Fuentes, César García

    2015-01-01

    This classroom study examines whether English L2 writers' language use differs depending on the writing task (operationalized as paragraph type), and task conditions (operationalized as individual or collaborative writing). The texts written by English L2 university students in Colombia (N = 26) in response to problem/solution and cause/effect…

  20. Putting Tasks to the Test: Human Capital, Job Tasks and Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15116

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autor, David H.; Handel, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Employing original, representative survey data, we document that cognitive, interpersonal and physical job task demands can be measured with high validity using standard interview techniques. Job tasks vary substantially within and between occupations, are significantly related to workers' characteristics, and are robustly predictive of wage…

  1. Effect of Redundant Haptic Information on Task Performance during Visuo-Tactile Task Interruption and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee-Seung; Baek, Jongsoo; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that interruption induces disruptive influences on the performance of cognitive tasks. While much research has focused on the use of multimodal channels to reduce the cost of interruption, few studies have utilized haptic information as more than an associative cue. In the present study, we utilized a multimodal task interruption scenario involving the simultaneous presentation of visual information and haptic stimuli in order to investigate how the combined stimuli affect performance on the primary task (cost of interruption). Participants were asked to perform a two-back visuo-tactile task, in which visual and haptic stimuli were presented simultaneously, which was interrupted by a secondary task that also utilized visual and haptic stimuli. Four experimental conditions were evaluated: (1) paired information (visual stimulus + paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; (2) paired information without interruption; (3) non-paired information (visual stimulus + non-paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; and (4) non-paired information without interruption. Our findings indicate that, within a visuo-tactile task environment, redundant haptic information may not only increase accuracy on the primary task but also reduce the cost of interruption in terms of accuracy. These results suggest a new way of understanding the task recovery process within a multimodal environment. PMID:28008321

  2. Effect of Redundant Haptic Information on Task Performance during Visuo-Tactile Task Interruption and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee-Seung; Baek, Jongsoo; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that interruption induces disruptive influences on the performance of cognitive tasks. While much research has focused on the use of multimodal channels to reduce the cost of interruption, few studies have utilized haptic information as more than an associative cue. In the present study, we utilized a multimodal task interruption scenario involving the simultaneous presentation of visual information and haptic stimuli in order to investigate how the combined stimuli affect performance on the primary task (cost of interruption). Participants were asked to perform a two-back visuo-tactile task, in which visual and haptic stimuli were presented simultaneously, which was interrupted by a secondary task that also utilized visual and haptic stimuli. Four experimental conditions were evaluated: (1) paired information (visual stimulus + paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; (2) paired information without interruption; (3) non-paired information (visual stimulus + non-paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; and (4) non-paired information without interruption. Our findings indicate that, within a visuo-tactile task environment, redundant haptic information may not only increase accuracy on the primary task but also reduce the cost of interruption in terms of accuracy. These results suggest a new way of understanding the task recovery process within a multimodal environment.

  3. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Medical Assisting. Occupation: Medical Assistant. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    Task analyses are provided for two duty areas for the occupation of medical assistant in the medical assisting cluster. Five tasks for the duty area "providing therapeutic measures" are as follows: assist with dressing change, apply clean dressing, apply elastic bandage, assist physician in therapeutic procedure, and apply topical…

  4. Impact of task design on task performance and injury risk: case study of a simulated drilling task.

    PubMed

    Alabdulkarim, Saad; Nussbaum, Maury A; Rashedi, Ehsan; Kim, Sunwook; Agnew, Michael; Gardner, Richard

    2016-08-31

    Existing evidence is limited regarding the influence of task design on performance and ergonomic risk, or the association between these two outcomes. In a controlled experiment, we constructed a mock fuselage to simulate a drilling task common in aircraft manufacturing, and examined the effect of three levels of workstation adjustability on performance as measured by productivity (e.g. fuselage completion time) and quality (e.g. fuselage defective holes), and ergonomic risk as quantified using two common methods (rapid upper limb assessment and the strain index). The primary finding was that both productivity and quality significantly improved with increased adjustability, yet this occurred only when that adjustability succeeded in reducing ergonomic risk. Supporting the inverse association between ergonomic risk and performance, the condition with highest adjustability created the lowest ergonomic risk and the best performance while there was not a substantial difference in ergonomic risk between the other two conditions, in which performance was also comparable. Practitioner Summary: Findings of this study supported a causal relationship between task design and both ergonomic risk and performance, and that ergonomic risk and performance are inversely associated. While future work is needed under more realistic conditions and a broader population, these results may be useful for task (re)design and to help cost-justify some ergonomic interventions.

  5. Electroencephalographic monitoring of complex mental tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guisado, Raul; Montgomery, Richard; Montgomery, Leslie; Hickey, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Outlined here is the development of neurophysiological procedures to monitor operators during the performance of cognitive tasks. Our approach included the use of electroencepalographic (EEG) and rheoencephalographic (REG) techniques to determine changes in cortical function associated with cognition in the operator's state. A two channel tetrapolar REG, a single channel forearm impedance plethysmograph, a Lead I electrocardiogram (ECG) and a 21 channel EEG were used to measure subject responses to various visual-motor cognitive tasks. Testing, analytical, and display procedures for EEG and REG monitoring were developed that extend the state of the art and provide a valuable tool for the study of cerebral circulatory and neural activity during cognition.

  6. [The notion of task in focus groups].

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria; de Magalhães, Ana Maria Müller; Mano, Gustavo Caetano de Mattos; Olschowsky, Agnes; da Silva, Flávia Pacheco

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the concept of task in light of Pichon-Riviére's referential and to discuss its application in research with focus groups. Focus groups are understood as a research technique which proposes to investigate a topic in depth, allowing the construction of new ideas and answers on the subject in focus. The presuppositions of operative groups were used to support the research practice with focus groups. In these, the notion of task has a key strategic position from which it seeks to intervene in society through dialogue and collective construction, unlike simple data collecting

  7. Radiation protection technician job task analysis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This manual was developed to assist all DOE contractors in the design and conduct of job task analysis (JTA) for the radiation protection technician. Experience throughout the nuclear industry and the DOE system has indicated that the quality and efficiency in conducting a JTA at most sites is greatly enhanced by using a generic task list for the position, and clearly written guidelines on the JTA process. This manual is designed to provide this information for personnel to use in developing and conducting site-specific JTAs. (VC)

  8. Integrated Task and Data Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    This research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers 1995 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  9. Sequential Modulation of Cue Use in the Task Switching Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Reisenauer, Renate; Jacobsen, Thomas; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2012-01-01

    In task switching studies, pre-cuing of the upcoming task improves performance, indicating preparatory activation of the upcoming task-set, and/or inhibition of the previous task-set. To further investigate cue-based task preparation, the authors presented both valid and invalid task cues in a task switching experiment involving three tasks. Consistent with previous findings, a validity effect in terms of higher reaction times on invalidly compared to validly cued tasks was obtained. However, this validity effect was reduced following invalidly cued trials, suggesting dynamic adjustment in terms of decreased cue-based preparation after being misled. Performance was particularly impaired when the current task was the one that was invalidly cued on the preceding trial. This finding may reflect either particular reluctance to prepare or persisting inhibition of the erroneously prepared task-set from the pre-trial. PMID:22908004

  10. Task coordination between and within sensory modalities: effects on distraction.

    PubMed

    Brand-D'Abrescia, Muriele; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-04-01

    Load theory predictions for the effects of task coordination between and within sensory modalities (vision and hearing or vision only) on the level of distraction were tested. Response competition effects in a visual flanker task when it was coordinated with an auditory discrimination task (between-modality conditions) or a visual discrimination task (within-modality conditions) were compared with single-task conditions. In the between-modality conditions, response competition effects were greater in the two- (vs. single-) task conditions irrespective of the level of discrimination task difficulty. In the within-modality conditions, response competition effects were greater in the two-task (vs. single-task) conditions only when these involved a more difficult visual discrimination task. The results provided support for the load theory prediction that executive control load leads to greater distractor interference while highlighting the effects of task modality.

  11. Thinking About a Task Is Associated with Increased Connectivity in Regions Activated by Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Michael D; Robertson, Edwin M; Manoach, Dara S; Stickgold, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We investigated whether functional neuroimaging of quiet "rest" can reveal the neural correlates of conscious thought. Using resting-state functional MRI, we measured functional connectivity during a resting scan that immediately followed performance of a finger tapping motor sequence task. Self-reports of the amount of time spent thinking about the task during the resting scan correlated with connectivity between regions of the motor network activated during task performance. Thus, thinking about a task is associated with coordinated activity in brain regions responsible for that task's performance. More generally, this study demonstrates the feasibility of using the combination of functional connectivity MRI and self-reports to examine the neural correlates of thought.

  12. Investigating the Cost to Ongoing Tasks Not Associated with Prospective Memory Task Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Loft, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between prospective memory (PM) and consciousness by examining cost to ongoing activities, with cost assumed to reflect a direction of conscious resources away from the ongoing task in service of the PM task. Ongoing task blocks in which the PM task was relevant or irrelevant were alternated to achieve three aims: determine if cost would persist in irrelevant blocks when relevant and irrelevant blocks were clearly demarcated and irrelevant stimuli were incompatible with the PM task; investigate if costs would be greatest at the start of irrelevant blocks; and determine whether costs would occur when the irrelevant block preceded any relevant blocks. Costs were found in irrelevant blocks and greater cost at the start of the irrelevant blocks suggest the cost may be due in part to participants making decisions about the engagement of conscious resources at transition points. PMID:24780347

  13. Does “Task Difficulty” Explain “Task-Induced Deactivation?”

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Bird, Geoffrey; Frith, Chris D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    The “default mode network” is commonly described as a set of brain regions in which activity is suppressed during relatively demanding, or difficult, tasks. But what sort of tasks are these? We review some of the contrasting ways in which a task might be assessed as being difficult, such as error rate, response time, propensity to interfere with performance of other tasks, and requirement for transformation of internal representations versus accumulation of perceptual information. We then describe a fMRI study in which 18 participants performed two “stimulus-oriented” tasks, where responses were directly cued by visual stimuli, alongside a “stimulus-independent” task, with a greater reliance on internally generated information. When indexed by response time and error rate, the stimulus-independent task was intermediate in difficulty between the two stimulus-oriented tasks. Nevertheless, BOLD signal in medial rostral prefrontal cortex (MPFC) – a prominent part of the default mode network – was reduced in the stimulus-independent condition in comparison with both the more difficult and the less difficult stimulus-oriented conditions. By contrast, other regions of the default mode network showed greatest deactivation in the difficult stimulus-oriented condition. There was therefore significant functional heterogeneity between different default mode regions. We conclude that task difficulty – as measured by response time and error rate – does not provide an adequate account of signal change in MPFC. At least in some circumstances, a better predictor of MPFC activity is the requirement of a task for transformation and manipulation of internally represented information, with greatest MPFC activity in situations predominantly requiring attention to perceptual information. PMID:22539930

  14. Sleep Deprivation and Time-on-Task Performance Decrement in the Rat Psychomotor Vigilance Task

    PubMed Central

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J.; Krueger, James M.; Wisor, Jonathan P.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. Design: The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Participants: Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Interventions: Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Measurements and Results: Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. Conclusions: The rat psychomotor vigilance task manifests similarities to the human psychomotor vigilance task in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. Citation: Oonk M, Davis CJ, Krueger JM, Wisor JP, Van Dongen HPA. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task. SLEEP 2015;38(3):445–451. PMID:25515099

  15. Test-Task Authenticity: The Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    Leung and Lewkowicz remind us that the debate over the past two decades that is most relevant to ELT (English languge teaching) pedagogy and curriculum concerns test-task authenticity. This paper first reviews how the authenticity debate in the literature of second language acquisition, pedagogy and testing has evolved. Drawing on a body of…

  16. Task Force Able Supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    standoff—was particularly useful. Figure 4, page 16, shows the Buffalo and the Meerkat mine detection systems. UXO and Captured Enemy Ammunition Iraq is...Protection Measures Used by Task Force Able 16 Engineer July-September 2004 Figure 4. Buffalo (left) and Meerkat (right) Mine Detection Systems

  17. The Selective Task Trainer: The Expert Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines simulator classification and design in light of new technology, current research, and a changing focus for using flight simulators in the military, and proposes a selective task trainer that addresses the expert's performance needs. Highlights include motor skill physiology; retention; automaticity skills; the novice to expert…

  18. Articulatory Preparation in the Delayed Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamoto, Alan H.; Liu, Qiang; Mura, Keith; Sanchez, Adrianna

    2008-01-01

    The assumptions that acoustic onset must follow articulatory onset by a fixed delay and that response execution level processes are always effectively isolated in the delayed naming task were investigated with respect to the issue of articulatory preparation in three experiments. The results of these experiments showed that for the delayed naming…

  19. The Predictive Evaluation of Language Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiljevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are often faced with difficulty in choosing appropriate teaching activities for use in their classroom. In selecting suitable materials for their learners, teachers need to be able to analyze any tasks (i.e., their objectives, procedures and intended outcomes) before they are applied in the classroom. This paper will attempt to outline a…

  20. Governor's Task Force on Immigration: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1984

    Texas Governor Mark White established a 28-member Governor's Task Force on Immigration on March 24, 1983 to: (1) examine the impact on Texas and its citizens of the legislative issues in the proposed federal Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1983; (2) hold public hearings to gain input from citizens, business, industry, labor, ranching and…

  1. Ordering design tasks based on coupling strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Bloebaum, Christina L.

    1994-01-01

    The design process associated with large engineering systems requires an initial decomposition of the complex system into modules of design tasks which are coupled through the transference of output data. In analyzing or optimizing such a coupled system, it is essential to be able to determine which interactions figure prominently enough to significantly affect the accuracy of the system solution. Many decomposition approaches assume the capability is available to determine what design tasks and interactions exist and what order of execution will be imposed during the analysis process. Unfortunately, this is often a complex problem and beyond the capabilities of a human design manager. A new feature for DeMAID (Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) will allow the design manager to use coupling strength information to find a proper sequence for ordering the design tasks. In addition, these coupling strengths aid in deciding if certain tasks or couplings could be removed (or temporarily suspended) from consideration to achieve computational savings without a significant loss of system accuracy. New rules are presented and two small test cases are used to show the effects of using coupling strengths in this manner.

  2. Ordering Design Tasks Based on Coupling Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.; Bloebaum, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    The design process associated with large engineering systems requires an initial decomposition of the complex system into modules of design tasks which are coupled through the transference of output data. In analyzing or optimizing such a coupled system, it is essential to be able to determine which interactions figure prominently enough to significantly affect the accuracy of the system solution. Many decomposition approaches assume the capability is available to determine what design tasks and interactions exist and what order of execution will be imposed during the analysis process. Unfortunately, this is often a complex problem and beyond the capabilities of a human design manager. A new feature for DeMAID (Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) will allow the design manager to use coupling strength information to find a proper sequence for ordering the design tasks. In addition, these coupling strengths aid in deciding if certain tasks or couplings could be removed (or temporarily suspended) from consideration to achieve computational savings without a significant loss of system accuracy. New rules are presented and two small test cases are used to show the effects of using coupling strengths in this manner.

  3. Adapting Content Subject Tasks for Bilingual Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbach, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Teaching content through a foreign language presents students with the double challenge of having to understand new concepts and of doing so through a foreign language. To be successful in meeting this challenge teachers have to adapt their teaching style and the tasks they work on with their students. Often, however, they do not know how to do…

  4. Coaction Effects on a Muscular Endurance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; Landers, Daniel M.

    1969-01-01

    A common procedure in administering muscular endurance tests is to have several individuals perform the same task at the same time. A very old psychological concept known as social facilitation suggests that an individual's performance may be affected by the presence of others. (CK)

  5. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  6. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Classroom Communication Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which two groups of four adult learners of English as a second language (ESL) responded to unfamiliar words they encountered in four communication tasks and the effect that different levels of engagement with these words (including negotiation of form and meaning) had on subsequent recall of word meaning. Of the…

  7. Measuring Category Intuitiveness in Unconstrained Categorization Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Perlman, Amotz; Bailey, Todd M.; Kurtz, Ken; Edwards, Darren J.; Hines, Peter; McDonnell, John V.

    2011-01-01

    What makes a category seem natural or intuitive? In this paper, an unsupervised categorization task was employed to examine observer agreement concerning the categorization of nine different stimulus sets. The stimulus sets were designed to capture different intuitions about classification structure. The main empirical index of category…

  8. User Education Task Force Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. Univ. Libraries.

    As part of a strategic planning process, Northwestern University Library appointed a User Education Task Force to address the challenges and opportunities facing its library user education program. The overriding goal was to create an action plan for positioning the library to be an active partner in the educational and research processes of the…

  9. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

  10. Task Speed and Accuracy Decrease When Multitasking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Cockerham, Deborah; Chang, Zhengsi; Natividad, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    As new technologies increase the opportunities for multitasking, the need to understand human capacities for multitasking continues to grow stronger. Is multitasking helping us to be more efficient? This study investigated the multitasking abilities of 168 participants, ages 6-72, by measuring their task accuracy and completion time when they…

  11. Strategic Retrieval in a Reality Monitoring Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosburg, Timm; Mecklinger, Axel; Johansson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Strategic recollection refers to control processes that allow the retrieval of information that is relevant for a specific situation. These processes can be studied in memory exclusion tasks, which require the retrieval of particular kinds of episodic information. In the current study, we investigated strategic recollection in reality monitoring…

  12. Interstate Migrant Education Task Force: Migrant Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Because ill-clothed, sick, or hungry migrant children learn poorly, the Task Force has emphasized the migrant health situation in 1979. Migrant workers have a 33% shorter life expectancy, a 25% higher infant mortality rate, and a 25% higher death rate from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases than the national average. Common among…

  13. The Process of Designing Task Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Malcolm Bauer, from Education Testing Services, provides his comments on the Focus article in this issue of "Measurement" entitled : "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games" (Russell G. Almond, Yoon Jeon Kim, Gertrudes Velasquez, Valerie J. Shute). Bauer begins his remarks by noting…

  14. Task Force '74: Recommendations for Better Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John W.

    1975-01-01

    Four areas of concern need to be developed as quickly as possible if significant changes are to be achieved at the secondary school level, believe members of Task Force '74. They are: citizen involvement, educating for student responsibility, alternative programs, and teacher negotiations. (Editor)

  15. ICTNET at Web Track 2009 Diversity task

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    performance. On the World Wide Web, there exist many documents which represents several implicit subtopics. We used commerce search engines to gather those...documents. In this task, our work can be divided into five steps. First, we collect documents returned by commerce search engines , and considered

  16. Scanning Behavior in a Classification Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, William J.

    This study investigates the developmental changes that occur in the attending behavior of children engaged in a relatively simple classification task, and attempts to reaffirm the existence of developmental changes in stimulus preferences and in the ability to employ double classification systems. Subjects were 24 preschool and 24 first grade…

  17. Clinical tasks of the dynamic interview.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J Christopher; Perry, J Christopher

    2005-01-01

    We examined psychodynamic interview tasks and techniques to identify clinical actions that improve or impede exploration of subjects' emotional responses, conflicts, defenses, and central relationship themes. This article extends previous quantitative studies (Perry, Fowler, & Greif, unpublished; Perry, Fowler, & Semeniuk, 2005) by examining interview vignettes in 50-minute psychodynamic research interviews. We conducted qualitative analyses on 72 dynamic research interviews given by 26 subjects to delineate categories of tasks and interventions. Results indicated five broad tasks of the dynamic interview: 1) Frame Setting; 2) Offering Support; 3) Exploring Affect; 4) Offering Trial Interpretations; and 5) Providing a Formulation and Feedback of relationship themes and conflicts. We further selected two interviews each from 10 subjects, in which there was a difference of one standard deviation or greater on the Overall Dynamic Interview Adequacy scale (Perry, 1999), and interviewer errors from the Therapeutic Alliance Analogue scale (Perry, Brysk, & Cooper, 1989). We utilized excerpts from these interviews to highlight the importance of these tasks and techniques in deepening discussion of dynamically meaningful material.

  18. Recurrent Spiking Networks Solve Planning Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueckert, Elmar; Kappel, David; Tanneberg, Daniel; Pecevski, Dejan; Peters, Jan

    2016-02-01

    A recurrent spiking neural network is proposed that implements planning as probabilistic inference for finite and infinite horizon tasks. The architecture splits this problem into two parts: The stochastic transient firing of the network embodies the dynamics of the planning task. With appropriate injected input this dynamics is shaped to generate high-reward state trajectories. A general class of reward-modulated plasticity rules for these afferent synapses is presented. The updates optimize the likelihood of getting a reward through a variant of an Expectation Maximization algorithm and learning is guaranteed to convergence to a local maximum. We find that the network dynamics are qualitatively similar to transient firing patterns during planning and foraging in the hippocampus of awake behaving rats. The model extends classical attractor models and provides a testable prediction on identifying modulating contextual information. In a real robot arm reaching and obstacle avoidance task the ability to represent multiple task solutions is investigated. The neural planning method with its local update rules provides the basis for future neuromorphic hardware implementations with promising potentials like large data processing abilities and early initiation of strategies to avoid dangerous situations in robot co-worker scenarios.

  19. U.S. Transport Task Force 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, P.H.

    2011-09-21

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) Meeting is a venue for vigorous scientific discourse and discussion on topics in transport and turbulence in fusion plasmas. Its participation is international. The 2010 meeting was highly effective, with 139 registered participants and 131 presentations. This is remarkable for an even year (IAEA year) meeting. The meeting clearly fostered progress in understanding and control of turbulent transport.

  20. The Hierarchical Structure of Formal Operational Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, William M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    1979-01-01

    The hierarchical structure of the formal operational period of Piaget's theory of cognitive development was explored through the application of ordering theoretical methods to a set of data that systematically utilized the various formal operational schemes. Results suggested a common structure underlying task performance. (Author/BH)

  1. Using Tasks to Assess Spanish Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera Mosquera, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The methodology of Task-based teaching (TBT) has been positively regarded by many researchers and language teachers around the world. Yet, this language teaching methodology has been mainly implemented in English as a second language (ESL) classrooms and in English for specific purpose (ESP) courses; and more specifically with advanced-level…

  2. Standing Joint Task Forces: Resourcing Relics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    4th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade tunes up for fall mission,” Guidon , (June 25, 2009). http://myguidon.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id...3 December 2009). 46 Waack, Luke. “4th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade tunes up for fall mission.” Guidon , (June 25, 2009).http://myguidon.com

  3. Standing Joint Task Forces: Resourcing Relics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    4th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade tunes up for fall mission,” Guidon , (June 25, 2009). http://myguidon.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id...3 December 2009). 46 Waack, Luke. “4th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade tunes up for fall mission.” Guidon , (June 25, 2009).http://myguidon.com

  4. Reformulation and Reconstruction: Tasks That Promote "Noticing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornbury, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Rehabilitates teaching techniques that exploit both the meaning-driven and form-focused potential of reformulation and reconstruction tasks in English-as-a-Second-Language classes. Argues that the potential for focusing learners' attention on form has received little attention in instruction models. (30 references) (Author/CK)

  5. A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

  6. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history, strategy, and overall goal of NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications program for materials processing in space are described as well as the organizational structures and personnel involved. An overview of each research task is presented and recent publications are listed.

  7. Learner Activities in a Collaborative CALL Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses different research approaches in CALL and makes a case for applying grounded theory (GT) to data gathered from an electronic role-play conducted in L2. The article shows that this method can help gain a better understanding of what learners do when engaged in the task. Through the process of open coding, four…

  8. Tasks and premises in quantum state determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of quantum tomography is to determine an unknown quantum state from measurement outcome statistics. There are two obvious ways to generalize this setting. First, our task need not be the determination of any possible input state but only some input states, for instance pure states. Second, we may have some prior information, or premise, which guarantees that the input state belongs to some subset of states, for instance the set of states with rank less than half of the dimension of the Hilbert space. We investigate state determination under these two supplemental features, concentrating on the cases where the task and the premise are statements about the rank of the unknown state. We characterize the structure of quantum observables (positive operator valued measures) that are capable of fulfilling these type of determination tasks. After the general treatment we focus on the class of covariant phase space observables, thus providing physically relevant examples of observables both capable and incapable of performing these tasks. In this context, the effect of noise is discussed.

  9. REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume III. Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James Lee; And Others

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the electromechanical cluster, this third volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide presents the task analysis which was used in the development of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air Conditioning, Heating) curriculum. The major blocks of…

  10. The Social Psychology of the Conservation Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbers, Ed

    Piaget's conservation experiments have been criticized and reinterpreted in the light of various theoretical orientations. Some research studies suggest social as well as cognitive factors to explain children's answers. Other research indicates the importance of interaction variables in the conservation task. Actually, interaction in the…

  11. Styles, Strategies & Tasks: Are They Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnrod, Urarat; Darasawang, Pornapit; Singhasiri, Wareesiri

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at investigating the relationship among cognitive styles, learning strategies and task. In order to determine the dominant cognitive styles of the subjects, questionnaires designed by Kolb (2005) were distributed to 778 engineering students. From the data analysis, it was found that two cognitive…

  12. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  13. Examining Response Confidence in Multiple Text Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, Alexandra; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Students' confidence in their responses to a multiple text-processing task and their justifications for those confidence ratings were investigated. Specifically, 215 undergraduates responded to two academic questions, differing by type (i.e., discrete and open-ended) and by domain (i.e., developmental psychology and astrophysics), using a digital…

  14. Real-time design with peer tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Andre; Howes, Norman R.; Wood, Jonathan D.; Barnes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a real-time design methodology for large scale, distributed, parallel architecture, real-time systems (LDPARTS), as an alternative to those methods using rate or dead-line monotonic analysis. In our method the fundamental units of prioritization, work items, are domain specific objects with timing requirements (deadlines) found in user's specification. A work item consists of a collection of tasks of equal priority. Current scheduling theories are applied with artifact deadlines introduced by the designer whereas our method schedules work items to meet user's specification deadlines (sometimes called end-to-end deadlines). Our method supports these scheduling properties. Work item scheduling is based on domain specific importance instead of task level urgency and still meets as many user specification deadlines as can be met by scheduling tasks with respect to urgency. Second, the minimum (closest) on-line deadline that can be guaranteed for a work item of highest importance, scheduled at run time, is approximately the inverse of the throughput, measured in work items per second. Third, throughput is not degraded during overload and instead of resorting to task shedding during overload, the designer can specify which work items to shed. We prove these properties in a mathematical model.

  15. Recurrent Spiking Networks Solve Planning Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rueckert, Elmar; Kappel, David; Tanneberg, Daniel; Pecevski, Dejan; Peters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A recurrent spiking neural network is proposed that implements planning as probabilistic inference for finite and infinite horizon tasks. The architecture splits this problem into two parts: The stochastic transient firing of the network embodies the dynamics of the planning task. With appropriate injected input this dynamics is shaped to generate high-reward state trajectories. A general class of reward-modulated plasticity rules for these afferent synapses is presented. The updates optimize the likelihood of getting a reward through a variant of an Expectation Maximization algorithm and learning is guaranteed to convergence to a local maximum. We find that the network dynamics are qualitatively similar to transient firing patterns during planning and foraging in the hippocampus of awake behaving rats. The model extends classical attractor models and provides a testable prediction on identifying modulating contextual information. In a real robot arm reaching and obstacle avoidance task the ability to represent multiple task solutions is investigated. The neural planning method with its local update rules provides the basis for future neuromorphic hardware implementations with promising potentials like large data processing abilities and early initiation of strategies to avoid dangerous situations in robot co-worker scenarios. PMID:26888174

  16. Virginia Tech State Task Force Reports Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, James T.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of eleven state task force reports prompted by the tragic nature of the Virginia Tech shooting in 2007 revealed that all shared a primary theme: no "single best way" to protect American college and university campuses yet exists. These documents, individually and collectively, make it clear that contemporary complex learning…

  17. Environmental Educational Youth Action Task Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Omar, Fatehah Mohd; Kalia, Noorliza; Hasmi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    An educational environmental youth camp was held comprising of fifty one 16-year old secondary students and facilitated by volunteers from the university and Friends of the Earth, a non profit organization in Penang. A weekend camp on youth action task program was held at an isolated beach packed with activities that were structured towards…

  18. A Dilemmas Task for Eliciting Risk Propensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Juan; Narvaez, Maria; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Rubio, Victor J.; Santacreu, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Risk propensity (RP) is a trait characterized by an increased probability of engaging in behaviors that have some potential danger or harm but also provide an opportunity for some benefit. In the present study, a new RP task with several dilemmas was explored. Each dilemma includes the initial set plus successive approximations for estimating the…

  19. Optimizing SAS tasks for Grid Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, A.; Tapiador, D.; Félix, F.; Gabriel, C.; Arviset, C.; Hoar, J.; Ansari, S.

    2006-07-01

    We present the first prototype of a XMM-Newton pipeline processing task parallelized at a CCD level, which can be run in a GRID system. By using the GridWay application, the processing of the XMM-Newton data is distributed across the Virtual Organization constituted by three different research centres (ESAC, ESTEC, Complutense Madrid University).

  20. Herc SAR Task 106: AIMS Feature Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    of the recommendations should be implemented, and discuss with Greenley & Associates any other features or capabilities needed. Herc-SAR Task 106...2001-029; Greenley & Associates, Ottawa, Ontario. 2. Schoenborn, O. (2006). AIMSsim User Manual. DRDC Toronto CR 2001-030; Greenley & Associates

  1. Sentence Repetition: What Does the Task Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polišenská, Kamila; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition is gaining increasing attention as a source of information about children's sentence-level abilities in clinical assessment, and as a clinical marker of specific language impairment. However, it is widely debated what the task is testing and therefore how informative it is. Aims: (1) To evaluate the effects of…

  2. Modeling User Behavior in Computer Learning Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantei, Marilyn M.

    Model building techniques from Artifical Intelligence and Information-Processing Psychology are applied to human-computer interface tasks to evaluate existing interfaces and suggest new and better ones. The model is in the form of an augmented transition network (ATN) grammar which is built by applying grammar induction heuristics on a sequential…

  3. AIPRC Jurisdiction Task Force Holds Hearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The Jurisdiction Task Force of the American Indian Policy Review Commission (AIPRC) held a series of hearings on jurisdictional issues/problems confronting Native American governments today, and the following four topics emerged as primary areas of concern: Child Placement; Public Law 280; Water Rights; and Hunting/Fishing Rights. (JC)

  4. Take Russia to 'task' on bioweapons transparency.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2012-06-06

    In the run-up to his reelection, Russian president Vladimir Putin outlined 28 tasks to be undertaken by his administration, including one that commanded the development of weapons based on “genetic principles.” Political pressure must be applied by governments and professional societies to ensure that there is not a modern reincarnation of the Soviet biological warfare program.

  5. Task Based Language Teaching: Development of CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Khoirul; Arifani, Yudhi

    2016-01-01

    The dominant complexities of English teaching in Indonesia are about limited development of teaching methods and materials which still cannot optimally reflect students' needs (in particular of how to acquire knowledge and select the most effective learning models). This research is to develop materials with complete task-based activities by using…

  6. A Task-Centered Instructional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David

    2007-01-01

    Based on a review of instructional design models, previous papers identified first principles of instruction. These principles prescribe a cycle of instruction consisting of activation, demonstration, application, and integration. These instructional phases are best implemented in the context of real-world tasks. A Pebble-in-the-Pond approach to…

  7. How to Develop an Engineering Design Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dankenbring, Chelsey; Capobianco, Brenda M.; Eichinger, David

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of engineering and the engineering design process, and describe the steps they took to develop a fifth grade-level, standards-based engineering design task titled "Getting the Dirt on Decomposition." Their main goal was to focus more on modeling the discrete steps they took to create and…

  8. Eye Movements Reveal Dynamics of Task Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kuhns, David; Rieter, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    With the goal to determine the cognitive architecture that underlies flexible changes of control settings, we assessed within-trial and across-trial dynamics of attentional selection by tracking of eye movements in the context of a cued task-switching paradigm. Within-trial dynamics revealed a switch-induced, discrete delay in onset of…

  9. Task E container corrosion studies: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bunnell, L.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Topping, J.B.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting the Solid Waste Technology Support Program (SWTSP) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Task E is the Container Corrosion Study Portion of the SWTSP that will perform testing to provide defensible data on the corrosion of low-carbon steel, as used in drums to contain chemical and radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site. A second objective of Task E is to provide and test practical alternative materials that have higher corrosion resistance than low-carbon steel. The scope of work for fiscal year (FY) 1993 included initial testing of mild steel specimens buried in Hanford soils or exposed to atmospheric corrosion in metal storage sheds. During FY 1993, progress was made in three areas of Task E. First, exposure of test materials began at the Soil Corrosion Test Site where low-carbon steel specimens were placed in the soil in five test shafts at depths of 9 m (30 ft). Second, the corrosion measurement of low-carbon steel in the soil of two solid waste trenches continued. The total exposure time is {approx} 500 days. Third, an atmospheric corrosion test of low-carbon steel was put initiated in a metal shed (Building 2401-W) in the 200 West Area. This annual report describes the Task E efforts and provides a current status.

  10. Promoting Reasoning through the Magic V Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.; Widjaja, Wanty; Loong, Esther Yook-Kin; Vale, Colleen; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning in mathematics plays a critical role in developing mathematical understandings. In this article, Bragg, Loong, Widjaja, Vale & Herbert explore an adaptation of the Magic V Task and how it was used in several classrooms to promote and develop reasoning skills.

  11. Blocking and Unblocking in a Navigation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, T.; Arall, M.; Chamizo, V. D.

    2005-01-01

    Rodrigo, Chamizo, McLaren, & Mackintosh (1997) demonstrated the blocking effect in a navigational task using a swimming pool: rats initially trained to use three landmarks (ABC) to find an invisible platform learned less about a fourth landmark (X) added later than did rats trained from the outset with these four landmarks (ABCX). The aim of the…

  12. Devising Principles of Design for Numeracy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Vince; Forgasz, Helen; Goos, Merrilyn; Bennison, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Numeracy is a fundamental component of the Australian National Curriculum as a General Capability identified in each F-10 subject. In this paper, we consider the principles of design necessary for the development of numeracy tasks specific to subjects other than mathematics--in this case, the subject of English. We explore the nature of potential…

  13. Conceiving Education: The Creative Task before Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2014-01-01

    Philosophers of education regularly undertake the challenging task of defining their field and what it is they do. John White and Harvey Siegel are no exception: Siegel categorizes philosophy of education as a branch of philosophy, and White responds that philosophers of education would do better to adopt a Deweyan perspective. White claims that…

  14. Using Performance Task Data to Improve Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Amy L.; Wren, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Two well-accepted ideas among educators are (a) performance assessment is an effective means of assessing higher-order thinking skills and (b) data-driven instruction planning is a valuable tool for optimizing student learning. This article describes a locally developed performance task (LDPT) designed to measure critical thinking, problem…

  15. Operation Compatibility: A Neglected Contribution to Dual-Task Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannebakker, Merel M.; Band, Guido P. H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in parallel. In 2 psychological refractory period…

  16. Distinguishing Schemes and Tasks in Children's Development of Multiplicative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzur, Ron; Johnson, Heather L.; McClintock, Evan; Kenney, Rachael H.; Xin, Yan P.; Si, Luo; Woordward, Jerry; Hord, Casey; Jin, Xianyan

    2013-01-01

    We present a synthesis of findings from constructivist teaching experiments regarding six schemes children construct for reasoning multiplicatively and tasks to promote them. We provide a task-generating platform game, depictions of each scheme, and supporting tasks. Tasks must be distinguished from children's thinking, and learning situations…

  17. 78 FR 60306 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... meeting of the Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force. The ANS Task Force's purpose is to develop and... Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Wednesday, November 6, through Thursday, November...

  18. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any...

  19. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any...

  20. Disentangling Dimensions in the Dimensional Change Card-Sorting Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2005-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS task) is frequently used to assess young children's executive abilities. However, the source of children's difficulty with this task is still under debate. In the standard DCCS task, children have to sort, for example, test cards with a red cherry or a blue banana into two boxes marked with target…

  1. Task Switching: Interplay of Reconfiguration and Interference Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandierendonck, Andre; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    The task-switching paradigm is being increasingly used as a tool for studying cognitive control and task coordination. Different procedural variations have been developed. They have in common that a comparison is made between transitions in which the previous task is repeated and transitions that involve a change toward another task. In general, a…

  2. Task Analysis for Legal Assistant Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, Marvin A.; Knight, John

    The Legal Assistant Task Analysis Project was undertaken to provide data related to the importance of tasks and the frequency of tasks that are, or could be, assigned to an assistant. In order to accomplish this, a task survey form was constructed and distributed to a sample of attorneys in (1) private practice, (2) companies or corporations, and…

  3. Physiological monitoring of team and task stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Tada, Yuri; Kraft, Norbert; Fischer, Ute

    2005-05-01

    Sending astronauts into space, especially on long-durations missions (e.g. three-year missions to Mars), entails enormous risk. Threats include both physical dangers of radiation, bone loss and other consequences of weightlessness, and also those arising from interpersonal problems associated with extended life in a high-risk isolated and confined environment. Before undertaking long-duration missions, NASA seeks to develop technologies to monitor indicators of potentially debilitating stress at both the individual and team level so that countermeasures can be introduced to prevent further deterioration. Doing so requires a better understanding of indicators of team health and performance. To that end, a study of team problem solving in a simulation environment was undertaken to explore effects of team and task stress. Groups of four males (25-45 yrs) engaged in six dynamic computer-based Antarctic search and rescue missions over four days. Both task and team stressors were manipulated. Physiological responses (ECG, respiration rate and amplitude, SCL, EMG, and PPG); communication (voice and email); individual personality and subjective team dynamics responses were collected and related to task performance. Initial analyses found that physiological measures can be used to identify transient stress, predict performance, and reflect subjective workload. Muscle tension and respiration were the most robust predictors. Not only the level of arousal but its variability during engagement in the task is important to consider. In general, less variability was found to be associated with higher levels of performance. Individuals scoring high on specific personality characteristics responded differently to task stress.

  4. Pupil Sizes Scale with Attentional Load and Task Experience in a Multiple Object Tracking Task

    PubMed Central

    Wahn, Basil; Ferris, Daniel P.; Hairston, W. David; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have related changes in attentional load to pupil size modulations. However, studies relating changes in attentional load and task experience on a finer scale to pupil size modulations are scarce. Here, we investigated how these changes affect pupil sizes. To manipulate attentional load, participants covertly tracked between zero and five objects among several randomly moving objects on a computer screen. To investigate effects of task experience, the experiment was conducted on three consecutive days. We found that pupil sizes increased with each increment in attentional load. Across days, we found systematic pupil size reductions. We compared the model fit for predicting pupil size modulations using attentional load, task experience, and task performance as predictors. We found that a model which included attentional load and task experience as predictors had the best model fit while adding performance as a predictor to this model reduced the overall model fit. Overall, results suggest that pupillometry provides a viable metric for precisely assessing attentional load and task experience in visuospatial tasks. PMID:27977762

  5. Task-dependent activations of human auditory cortex during spatial discrimination and spatial memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Teemu; Koistinen, Sonja; Talja, Suvi; Wikman, Patrik; Salonen, Oili

    2012-02-15

    In the present study, we applied high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human auditory cortex (AC) and adjacent areas to compare activations during spatial discrimination and spatial n-back memory tasks that were varied parametrically in difficulty. We found that activations in the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) were stronger during spatial discrimination than during spatial memory, while spatial memory was associated with stronger activations in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). We also found that wide AC areas were strongly deactivated during the spatial memory tasks. The present AC activation patterns associated with spatial discrimination and spatial memory tasks were highly similar to those obtained in our previous study comparing AC activations during pitch discrimination and pitch memory (Rinne et al., 2009). Together our previous and present results indicate that discrimination and memory tasks activate anterior and posterior AC areas differently and that this anterior-posterior division is present both when these tasks are performed on spatially invariant (pitch discrimination vs. memory) or spatially varying (spatial discrimination vs. memory) sounds. These results also further strengthen the view that activations of human AC cannot be explained only by stimulus-level parameters (e.g., spatial vs. nonspatial stimuli) but that the activations observed with fMRI are strongly dependent on the characteristics of the behavioral task. Thus, our results suggest that in order to understand the functional structure of AC a more systematic investigation of task-related factors affecting AC activations is needed.

  6. Locus of backward crosstalk effects on task 1 in a psychological refractory period task.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yao-Ting; Miller, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Our performance on a task decreases when the task is in a dual-task situation than when it is in isolation. An important experimental setting for dual-task situation is the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, and the dual-task performance decrements in the PRP paradigm are referred to as PRP interference. The standard response-selection bottleneck (RSB) models state that the response-selection stage of the second task (T2) cannot start until the response-selection stage of the first task (T1) finishes, resulting in the PRP interference. Contrary to the prediction of RSB models, several researchers have found T2's modulations on T1's performance, and have suggested that T1's selection-related processes are affected by T2's selection-related processes, referred to as backward crosstalk effects. The locus of backward crosstalk effects is not clear, however, because RTs were measured in most previous studies. By using semantically unrelated stimuli and responses and by measuring T1's lateralized readiness potential, we examined the locus of backward crosstalk effects. We found that the interval between T1's stimulus onset and the stimulus-locked LRP onset was affected, suggesting T2's response selection starts before T1's selection is complete. The present result provided electrophysiological evidence focusing on T1's changes in favor of the hypothesis of parallel response selection in the PRP paradigm.

  7. Developing a driving simulator based functional object detection task.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Richard R; Brooks, Johnell O; Crisler, Matthew C; Rosopa, Patrick J

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a driving simulator-based tool for assessing functional visual scanning while driving (Goodenough, 2010) by replicating a previous study and assessing whether the results of the task are moderated by strategic decisions regarding task prioritization. Participants completed a functional object detection task that includes a peripheral target detection task and a central braking response task. Results indicated that the simulator task can identify differences in older and younger participants' abilities to functionally scan the driving environment and these differences appear unaffected by prioritizing either the scanning or braking task. Implications are discussed.

  8. PRN 94-9: Announcing the Formation of Two Industry-Wide Task Forces: Agricultural Reentry Task Force and Outdoor Residential Exposure Task Force

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notice announces two industry-wide Task Forces being formed in response to generic exposure data requirements. It contains EPA's policy on a registrant's options for, and responsibilities when joining Task Force as a way to satisfy data requirements.

  9. Inhibitory Control in Number-Conservation and Class-Inclusion Tasks: A Neo-Piagetian Inter-Task Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Gregoire; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Cassotti, Mathieu; Houde, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether success in number-conservation and class-inclusion tasks relies on a general ability to inhibit misleading strategies. Two groups of 10-year-olds performed inter-task priming between computerized versions of class-inclusion and number-conservation tasks (Experiment 1). In one group, the class-inclusion task served as a…

  10. Is the Go/No-Go Lexical Decision Task Preferable to the Yes/No Task with Developing Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Perea, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The lexical decision task is probably the most common laboratory visual word identification task together with the naming task. In the usual setup, participants need to press the "yes" button when the stimulus is a word and the "no" button when the stimulus is not a word. A number of studies have employed this task with developing readers;…

  11. The Role of Analogical Thinking in Designing Tasks for Mathematics Teacher Education: An Example of a Pedagogical Ad Hoc Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Irit

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the design of tasks for teacher education. It focuses on tasks that are used in a university course for pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers. Special attention is given to tasks that use analogical thinking in their construction or implementation. These tasks are categorized by type of teacher education goal and…

  12. A Guide to Task Analysis for Competency Based Education. Health Occupations. Task Linkage Project Publication No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. School of Education.

    Developed through synthesis and review of existing task analysis literature, this guide lists tasks expected to be performed by workers in ten health occupations and presents information for incorporating these tasks into articulated secondary and postsecondary competency based educational programs. Task listings are presented for the following…

  13. Biocybernetic Control of Vigilance Task Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Frederick G.

    2000-01-01

    The major focus of the present proposal was to examine psychophysiological variables that are related to hazardous states of awareness induced by monitoring automated systems. With the increased use of automation in today's work environment, people's roles in the work place are being redefined from that of active participant to one of passive monitor. Although the introduction of automated systems has a number of benefits, there are also a number of disadvantages regarding the worker performance. Byrne and Parasuraman (1996) have argued for the use of psychophysiological measures in both the development and the implementation of adaptive automation. While both performance based and model based adaptive automation have been studied, the use of psychophysiological measures, especially EEG, offers the advantage of real time evaluation of the state of the subject. Previous investigations of the closed-loop adaptive automation system in our laboratory, supported by NASA, have employed a compensatory tracking task which involved the use of a joystick to maintain the position of a cursor in the middle of a video screen. This research demonstrated that, in an adaptive automation, closed-loop environment, subjects perform a tracking task better under a negative, compared to a positive, feedback condition. While tracking is comparable to some aspects of flying an airplane, it does not simulate the environment found in the cockpit of modern commercial airplanes. Since a large part of the flying responsibilities in commercial airplanes is automated, the primary responsibility of pilots is to monitor the automation and to respond when the automation fails. Because failures are relatively rare, pilots often suffer from hazardous states of awareness induced by long term vigilance of the automated system. Consequently, the aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of the closed-loop, adaptive automation system in a vigilance paradigm. It is also important to note

  14. Neural efficiency as a function of task demands☆

    PubMed Central

    Dunst, Beate; Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Bergner, Sabine; Koschutnig, Karl; Sommer, Markus; Ischebeck, Anja; Spinath, Birgit; Arendasy, Martin; Bühner, Markus; Freudenthaler, Heribert; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2014-01-01

    The neural efficiency hypothesis describes the phenomenon that brighter individuals show lower brain activation than less bright individuals when working on the same cognitive tasks. The present study investigated whether the brain activation–intelligence relationship still applies when more versus less intelligent individuals perform tasks with a comparable person-specific task difficulty. In an fMRI-study, 58 persons with lower (n = 28) or respectively higher (n = 30) intelligence worked on simple and difficult inductive reasoning tasks having the same person-specific task difficulty. Consequently, less bright individuals received sample-based easy and medium tasks, whereas bright subjects received sample-based medium and difficult tasks. This design also allowed a comparison of lower versus higher intelligent individuals when working on the same tasks (i.e. sample-based medium task difficulty). In line with expectations, differences in task performance and in brain activation were only found for the subset of tasks with the same sample-based task difficulty, but not when comparing tasks with the same person-specific task difficulty. These results suggest that neural efficiency reflects an (ability-dependent) adaption of brain activation to the respective task demands. PMID:24489416

  15. Quantitative analysis of task selection for brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llera, Alberto; Gómez, Vicenç; Kappen, Hilbert J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. To assess quantitatively the impact of task selection in the performance of brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Approach. We consider the task-pairs derived from multi-class BCI imagery movement tasks in three different datasets. We analyze for the first time the benefits of task selection on a large-scale basis (109 users) and evaluate the possibility of transferring task-pair information across days for a given subject. Main results. Selecting the subject-dependent optimal task-pair among three different imagery movement tasks results in approximately 20% potential increase in the number of users that can be expected to control a binary BCI. The improvement is observed with respect to the best task-pair fixed across subjects. The best task-pair selected for each subject individually during a first day of recordings is generally a good task-pair in subsequent days. In general, task learning from the user side has a positive influence in the generalization of the optimal task-pair, but special attention should be given to inexperienced subjects. Significance. These results add significant evidence to existing literature that advocates task selection as a necessary step towards usable BCIs. This contribution motivates further research focused on deriving adaptive methods for task selection on larger sets of mental tasks in practical online scenarios.

  16. Neural efficiency as a function of task demands.

    PubMed

    Dunst, Beate; Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Bergner, Sabine; Koschutnig, Karl; Sommer, Markus; Ischebeck, Anja; Spinath, Birgit; Arendasy, Martin; Bühner, Markus; Freudenthaler, Heribert; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2014-01-01

    The neural efficiency hypothesis describes the phenomenon that brighter individuals show lower brain activation than less bright individuals when working on the same cognitive tasks. The present study investigated whether the brain activation-intelligence relationship still applies when more versus less intelligent individuals perform tasks with a comparable person-specific task difficulty. In an fMRI-study, 58 persons with lower (n = 28) or respectively higher (n = 30) intelligence worked on simple and difficult inductive reasoning tasks having the same person-specific task difficulty. Consequently, less bright individuals received sample-based easy and medium tasks, whereas bright subjects received sample-based medium and difficult tasks. This design also allowed a comparison of lower versus higher intelligent individuals when working on the same tasks (i.e. sample-based medium task difficulty). In line with expectations, differences in task performance and in brain activation were only found for the subset of tasks with the same sample-based task difficulty, but not when comparing tasks with the same person-specific task difficulty. These results suggest that neural efficiency reflects an (ability-dependent) adaption of brain activation to the respective task demands.

  17. Binding Task-Based Language Teaching and Task-Based Language Testing: A Survey into EFL Teachers and Learners' Views of Task-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panahi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In most settings, task-based language teaching and testing have been dissociated from each other. That is why this study came to rethink of the learners' views towards awareness and implementation of task-based language teaching through IELTS listening tasks. To these objectives, after sketching instrumentation, the learners were divided into…

  18. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  19. Word Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task, lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or under-additive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  20. Word Frequency Effects in Dual-Task Studies Using Lexical Decision and Naming as Task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; McCann, Robert S.; VanSelst, Mark; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Word frequency effects in dual-task lexical decision are variously reported to be additive or underadditive across SOA. We replicate and extend earlier lexical decision studies and find word frequency to be additive across SOA. To more directly capture lexical processing, we examine dual-task naming. Once again, we find word frequency to be additive across SOA. Lexical processing appears to be constrained by central processing limitations.

  1. Comparison of inhibition in two timed reaction tasks: the color and emotion Stroop tasks.

    PubMed

    Cothran, D Lisa; Larsen, Randy

    2008-07-01

    The authors examined the cross-task consistency of the ability to inhibit the processing of irrelevant information. They compared interference scores on 2 widely used inhibition tasks and found that color word Stroop interference scores correlated with emotion word Stroop interference scores. An examination of physiological reactivity showed that, in general, the color Stroop was more arousing than was the emotion Stroop, most likely due to increased response conflict.

  2. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Active research areas as of the end of the fiscal year 1982 of the Materials Processing in Space Program, NASA-Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations are highlighted to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program is described as well as its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved are identified and each research task is described together with a list of recent publications. The tasks are grouped into four categories: crystal growth; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, transports, and chemical processes; and ultrahigh vacuum and containerless processing technologies.

  3. Extended Task Space Control for Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G. (Inventor); Long, Mark K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a method of operating a robot in successive sampling intervals to perform a task, the robot having joints and joint actuators with actuator control loops, by decomposing the task into behavior forces, accelerations, velocities and positions of plural behaviors to be exhibited by the robot simultaneously, computing actuator accelerations of the joint actuators for the current sampling interval from both behavior forces, accelerations velocities and positions of the current sampling interval and actuator velocities and positions of the previous sampling interval, computing actuator velocities and positions of the joint actuators for the current sampling interval from the actuator velocities and positions of the previous sampling interval, and, finally, controlling the actuators in accordance with the actuator accelerations, velocities and positions of the current sampling interval. The actuator accelerations, velocities and positions of the current sampling interval are stored for use during the next sampling interval.

  4. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  5. SPECFOCUS: An IRAF task for focusing spectrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdes, F.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF task for measuring the point-spread function (PSF) along the dispersion and wavelength shifts across the dispersion in two dimensional arc spectra is described. In typical use, a set of spectra are obtained with various spectrograph focusing and alignment adjustments and the PSF information and shift information is derived and presented in tabular and graphical forms. Within each image the spectra may be divided into a number of samples along the dispersion and across the dispersion to investigate variations at different points in the detector at fixed focus settings. With many spectra and many samples interpreting the measurements is challenging. The task provides an interactive graphical interface to display the measurements in a number of interesting ways. The underlying algorithm for measuring the PSF and shifts in the auto/cross-correlation of spectral are samples.

  6. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  7. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  8. How important tasks are performed: peer review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartonen, T.; Alava, M. J.

    2013-04-01

    The advancement of various fields of science depends on the actions of individual scientists via the peer review process. The referees' work patterns and stochastic nature of decision making both relate to the particular features of refereeing and to the universal aspects of human behavior. Here, we show that the time a referee takes to write a report on a scientific manuscript depends on the final verdict. The data is compared to a model, where the review takes place in an ongoing competition of completing an important composite task with a large number of concurrent ones - a Deadline -effect. In peer review human decision making and task completion combine both long-range predictability and stochastic variation due to a large degree of ever-changing external ``friction''.

  9. A review of the silicon material task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Silicon Material Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project was assigned the objective of developing the technology for low-cost processes for producing polysilicon suitable for terrestrial solar-cell applications. The Task program comprised sections for process developments for semiconductor-grade and solar-cell-grade products. To provide information for deciding upon process designs, extensive investigations of the effects of impurities on material properties and the performance of cells were conducted. The silane process of the Union Carbide Corporation was carried through several stages of technical and engineering development; a pilot plant was the culmination of this effort. The work to establish silane fluidized-bed technology for a low-cost process is continuing. The advantages of the use of dichlorosilane is a siemens-type were shown by Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation. The development of other processes is described.

  10. Illinois task force on global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, B.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document progress in the areas of national policy development, emissions reduction, research and education, and adaptation, and to identify specific actions that will be undertaken to implement the Illinois state action plan. The task force has been tracking national and international climate change policy, and helping shape national policy agenda. Identification and implementation of cost-effective mitigation measures has been performed for emissions reduction. In the area of research and education, the task force is developing the capacity to measure climate change indicators, maintaining and enhancing Illinois relevant research, and strengthening climate change education. Activities relevant to adaptation to new policy include strengthening water laws and planning for adaptation. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Handmade Task Tracking Applied to Cognitive Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Cogollor, José M.; Hughes, Charmayne; Ferre, Manuel; Rojo, Javier; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan; Campo, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This article presents research focused on tracking manual tasks that are applied in cognitive rehabilitation so as to analyze the movements of patients who suffer from Apraxia and Action Disorganization Syndrome (AADS). This kind of patients find executing Activities of Daily Living (ADL) too difficult due to the loss of memory and capacity to carry out sequential tasks or the impossibility of associating different objects with their functions. This contribution is developed from the work of Universidad Politécnica de Madrid and Technical University of Munich in collaboration with The University of Birmingham. The Kinect™ for Windows© device is used for this purpose. The data collected is compared to an ultrasonic motion capture system. The results indicate a moderate to strong correlation between signals. They also verify that Kinect™ is very suitable and inexpensive. Moreover, it turns out to be a motion-capture system quite easy to implement for kinematics analysis in ADL. PMID:23202045

  12. Latency Minimizing Tasking for Information Processing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horey, James L; Lagesse, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Real-time cyber-physical systems and information processing clusters require system designers to consider the total latency involved in collecting and aggregating data. For example, applications such as wild-fire monitoring require data to be presented to users in a timely manner. However, most models and algorithms for sensor networks have focused on alternative metrics such as energy efficiency. In this paper, we present a new model of sensor network aggregation that focuses on total latency. Our model is flexible and enables users to configure varying transmission and computation time on a node-by-node basis, and thus enables the simulation of complex computational phenomena. In addition, we present results from three tasking algorithms that trade-off local communication for overall latency performance. These algorithms are evaluated in simulated networks of up to 200 nodes. We've presented an aggregation-focused model of sensor networks that can be used to study the trade-offs between computational coverage and total latency. Our model explicitly takes into account transmission and computation times, and enables users to define different values for the basestation. In addition, we've presented three different tasking algorithms that operate over model to produce aggregation schedules of varying quality. In the future, we expect to continue exploring distributed tasking algorithms for information processing systems. We've shown that the gap between highly optimized schedules that use global information is quite large relative to our distributed algorithms. This gives us encouragement that future distributed tasking algorithms can still make large gains.

  13. Backwards Fading to Speed Task Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Schaefer: 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words): In Backwards Fading (BF), a learner is provided with an initial, complete demonstration of a multi ...promise for effective/efficient training, but the utility of BF in Army settings and with Army tasks needs to be empirically evaluated. To that end...accelerated BF resulted in poorer performance than gradual BF (Experiment 2). Recommendations for utilizing BF in Army settings are provided. 15

  14. Inflight Medical/Nursing Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    was to evaluate and compare the ability of aeromedical evacuation crew members (AECMs) to perform certain specific inflight medical and nursing care tasks...medical and nursing care procedures in conventional war scenarios has been well demonstrated in the past during actual aeromedical evacuation...same medical and nursing care procedures under chemical threat conditions during aeromedical evacuation operations is not as well documented. Low

  15. Antiphospholipid Syndrome Clinical Research Task Force report.

    PubMed

    Erkan, D; Derksen, R; Levy, R; Machin, S; Ortel, T; Pierangeli, S; Roubey, R; Lockshin, M

    2011-02-01

    The Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) Clinical Research Task Force (CRTF) was one of six Task Forces developed by the 13(th) International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL) organization committee with the purpose of: a) evaluating the limitations of APS clinical research and developing guidelines for researchers to help improve the quality of APS research; and b) prioritizing the ideas for a well-designed multicenter clinical trial and discussing the pragmatics of getting such a trial done. Following a systematic working algorithm, the Task Force identified five major issues that impede APS clinical research and the ability to develop evidence-based recommendations for the management of aPL-positive patients: (1) aPL detection has been based on partially or non-standardized tests, and clinical (and basic) APS research studies have included patients with heterogeneous aPL profiles with different clinical event risks; (2) clinical (and basic) APS research studies have included a heterogeneous group of patients with different aPL-related manifestations (some controversial); (3) thrombosis and/or pregnancy risk stratification and quantification are rarely incorporated in APS clinical research; (4) most APS clinical studies include patients with single positive aPL results and/or low-titer aPL ELISA results; furthermore, study designs are mostly retrospective and not population based, with limited number of prospective and/or controlled population studies; and (5) lack of the understanding the particular mechanisms of aPL-mediated clinical events limits the optimal clinical study design. The Task Force recommended that there is an urgent need for a truly international collaborative approach to design and conduct well-designed prospective large-scale multi-center clinical trials of patients with persistent and clinically significant aPL profiles. An international collaborative meeting to formulate a good research question using 'FINER' (Feasible; Interesting

  16. Rats' acquisition of the ephemeral reward task.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Berry, Jonathon R

    2016-12-17

    The ephemeral reward task provides a subject with a choice between two alternatives A and B. If it chooses alternative A, reinforcement follows and the trial is over. If it chooses alternative B, reinforcement follows but the subject can also respond to alternative A which is followed by a second reinforcement. Thus, it would be optimal to choose alternative B. Surprisingly, Salwiczek et al. (PLoS One 7:e49068, 2012. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.00490682012 ) reported that adult fish (cleaner wrasse) mastered this task within 100 trials, whereas monkeys and apes had great difficulty with it. The authors attributed the species differences to ecological differences in the species foraging experiences. However, Pepperberg and Hartsfield (J Comp Psychol 128:298-306, 2014) found that parrots too learned this task easily. We have found that with a similar task pigeons are not able to learn to choose optimally within 400 trials (Zentall et al. in J Comp Psychol 130:138-144, 2016). In Experiment 1 of the present study, we found that rats did not learn to choose optimally in 840 trials; however, in Experiment 2 we added a prior commitment to the initial choice by increasing delay to reinforcement for the choice response from a single lever press to the first lever press after 20 s (FI20 s). In a comparable amount of training to Experiment 1, the rats learned to choose optimally. Although the use of a prior commitment increases the delay to reinforcement, it appears to reduce impulsive responding which in turn leads to optimal choice.

  17. NESHAPs compliance tasks for the PUREX plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.

    1994-03-01

    The Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant is in transition to shutdown, with decontamination and decommissioning to be completed in 1998. During this transition, implementation of some new regulations is continuing. Regulated stacks are required to be in compliance with the Clean Air Act National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). Recent tasks included certification of the PUREX main stack flow measurement system, stack radionuclide particulate sampler line loss studies, and radionuclide source term calculations.

  18. ICTNET at Web Track 2012 Diversity Task

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 Abstract... complex or ambiguous information needs, keywords submitted to a web search engine are often ambiguous. Such a query may cover many different aspects...early topic model was described by Papadimitriou , Raghavan, Tamaki and Vempala in 1998 [4] . In our diversity task, we use the most common topic model

  19. Cluster Scheduling for Explicitly-Speculative Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Colette Wilkins and the Dalcroze Eurhyth- mics faculty taught me and encouraged my musical aspirations. Closest to me are my late mom , my dad , sister...cost-based metrics for users. These aspects can lead to higher billed server utilization, encouraging batchactive adoption by resource providers...users eventually desire matter — leading me to introduce the ‘visible response time’ metric which accrues for each task in a batch of potentially

  20. [Guidelines for redesigning jobs with repetitive tasks].

    PubMed

    Colombini, D; Occhipinti, E; Meroni, M; Menoni, O; Bergamasco, R; Girola, C; Grea, V; Vendola, D

    1996-01-01

    Preventive measures aimed at minimising the occurrence of work-related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs (WMSDs) associated with repetitive tasks can be divided into 3 categories: structural, organisational and educational. Whenever specific risk and injury assessments have shown the need for preventive action, this is most often implemented within the framework of a range of assorted measures. In particular, structural measures pertain to optimising the layout of the work area and furnishings, and the "ergonomic" properties of work tools and equipment. Such measures serve to alleviate the problems caused by the use of excessive force and improper postures. The authors refer to the principles guiding such structural measures, in the light of the extensive literature that has been published on the subject. Organisational (or re-organisational) measures essentially relate to job design (i.e. distribution of tasks, speeds and pauses). They serve to alleviate problems connected with highly repetitive and frequent actions, excessively lengthy tasks and inadequate recovery periods. Very few relevant findings are available: the authors therefore illustrate in some detail a practical trial conducted in a major engineering firm. The objective was to lower to acceptable limits the frequency of certain repetitive tasks performed by workers using their upper limbs. The trial made it possible to identify a suitable plan and schedule of measures taking into due consideration the impact of the plan on production levels (and costs). The fundamental principles guiding the adoption of specific educational and training programmes for the workers and their supervisors are presented and discussed.

  1. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes information for FY 1994 programs. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page

  2. Transmitter Signal Measurements, Task 5C Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Eppic, Brian; Huffman, Mitch; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Signal Measurements were obtained on four (4) different airport systems. Systems measured were Localizer (LOC), Very High Frequency Communication, (VHF), Glideslope, (G/S), and Global Positioning System (GPS). The task calls for path loss measurements to be taken at Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (ATL) and one smaller airport which was Greenville/ Spartanburg Airport (GSP) to determine relative signal strengths on the airport properties.

  3. Human Problem Solving in Fault Diagnosis Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    W - FPFag-kx~~ff~P~xNA F MMIP Research Note 86-33 cc HUMAN PROBLEM SOLVING IN FAULT DIAGNOSIS TASKS J U William B. Rouse and Ruston M. Hunt Center...V -m ... 1 Ira wli W - -. W .: m.4.. . W - r - j ; - R 7T._ W77 m- UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Date Entered) REPORT...ii SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE( W "en Data Entered) ,.-... 2

  4. Advanced Crew Personal Support Computer (CPSC) task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include: background; objectives of task; benefits to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program; technical approach; baseline integration; and growth and evolution options. The objective is to: (1) introduce new computer technology into the SSF Program; (2) augment core computer capabilities to meet additional mission requirements; (3) minimize risk in upgrading technology; and (4) provide a low cost way to enhance crew and ground operations support.

  5. Joint Task Force on Undergraduate Physics Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This session will focus on the guidelines and recommendations being developed by the APS/AAPT Joint Task Force on Undergraduate Physics Programs. J-TUPP is studying how undergraduate physics programs might better prepare physics majors for diverse careers. The guidelines and recommendations will focus on curricular content, flexible tracks, pedagogical methods, research experiences and internships, the development of professional skills, and enhanced advising and mentoring for all physics majors.

  6. Task uncertainty can account for mixing and switch costs in task-switching.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Patrick S; Garrett, Paul M; Rennie, Jaime L; Karayanidis, Frini

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is required in situations that involve uncertainty or change, such as when resolving conflict, selecting responses and switching tasks. Recently, it has been suggested that cognitive control can be conceptualised as a mechanism which prioritises goal-relevant information to deal with uncertainty. This hypothesis has been supported using a paradigm that requires conflict resolution. In this study, we examine whether cognitive control during task switching is also consistent with this notion. We used information theory to quantify the level of uncertainty in different trial types during a cued task-switching paradigm. We test the hypothesis that differences in uncertainty between task repeat and task switch trials can account for typical behavioural effects in task-switching. Increasing uncertainty was associated with less efficient performance (i.e., slower and less accurate), particularly on switch trials and trials that afford little opportunity for advance preparation. Interestingly, both mixing and switch costs were associated with a common episodic control process. These results support the notion that cognitive control may be conceptualised as an information processor that serves to resolve uncertainty in the environment.

  7. Evaluation of pliers' grip spans in the maximum gripping task and sub-maximum cutting task.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Min; Kong, Yong-Ku

    2016-12-01

    A total of 25 males participated to investigate the effects of the grip spans of pliers on the total grip force, individual finger forces and muscle activities in the maximum gripping task and wire-cutting tasks. In the maximum gripping task, results showed that the 50-mm grip span had significantly higher total grip strength than the other grip spans. In the cutting task, the 50-mm grip span also showed significantly higher grip strength than the 65-mm and 80-mm grip spans, whereas the muscle activities showed a higher value at 80-mm grip span. The ratios of cutting force to maximum grip strength were also investigated. Ratios of 30.3%, 31.3% and 41.3% were obtained by grip spans of 50-mm, 65-mm, and 80-mm, respectively. Thus, the 50-mm grip span for pliers might be recommended to provide maximum exertion in gripping tasks, as well as lower maximum-cutting force ratios in the cutting tasks.

  8. A more complete task-set reconfiguration in random than in predictable task switch.

    PubMed

    Tornay, F J; Milán, E G

    2001-08-01

    Three experiments are presented that compare the cost found when switching from one task to another in two different conditions. In one of them, the tasks switch in predictable sequences. In the other condition, the tasks alternate at random. A smaller time cost is found in the random-switch condition when enough preparation time is allowed. Such an effect is due to the random-switch cost continuing to decrease with preparation time after the predictable-switch cost has reached an asymptote. Although the relationship between number of repetitions of one task and time cost is different in the random- and the predictable-switch conditions, only the latter shows the presence of an "exogenous" component of cost. The implications of this finding are discussed in relationship with the usual distinction between an endogenous component of switch cost that is affected by preparation time and another exogenous, residual component (e.g., Rogers & Monsell, 1995). It is proposed that a different kind of task-set preparation is at work when tasks alternate at random.

  9. Animal personality aligns task specialization and task proficiency in a spider society.

    PubMed

    Wright, Colin M; Holbrook, C Tate; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2014-07-01

    Classic theory on division of labor implicitly assumes that task specialists are more proficient at their jobs than generalists and specialists in other tasks; however, recent data suggest that this might not hold for societies that lack discrete worker polymorphisms, which constitute the vast majority of animal societies. The facultatively social spider Anelosimus studiosus lacks castes, but females exhibit either a "docile" or "aggressive" phenotype. Here we observed the propensity of individual females of either phenotype to perform various tasks (i.e., prey capture, web building, parental care, and colony defense) in mixed-phenotype colonies. We then measured the performance outcomes of singleton individuals of either phenotype at each task to determine their proficiencies. Aggressive females participated more in prey capture, web building, and colony defense, whereas docile females engaged more in parental care. In staged trials, aggressive individuals were more effective at capturing prey, constructing webs, and defending the colony, whereas docile females were more effective at rearing large quantities of brood. Thus, individuals' propensity to perform tasks and their task proficiencies appear to be adaptively aligned in this system. Moreover, because the docile/aggressive phenotypes are heritable, these data suggest that within-colony variation is maintained because of advantages gleaned by division of labor.

  10. Maximally Expressive Modeling of Operations Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea; Davis, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiments for the International Space Station. In these experiments, the equipment used is among the most complex hardware ever developed, the information sought is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling International Space Station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema.

  11. Information transfer during a transitive reasoning task.

    PubMed

    Brzezicka, Aneta; Kamiński, Maciej; Kamiński, Jan; Blinowska, Katarzyna

    2011-03-01

    For about two decades now, the localization of the brain regions involved in reasoning processes is being investigated through fMRI studies, and it is known that for a transitive form of reasoning the frontal and parietal regions are most active. In contrast, less is known about the information exchange during the performance of such complex tasks. In this study, the propagation of brain activity during a transitive reasoning task was investigated and compared to the propagation during a simple memory task. We studied EEG transmission patterns obtained for physiological indicators of brain activity and determined whether there are frequency bands specifically related to this type of cognitive operations. The analysis was performed by means of the directed transfer function. The transmission patterns were determined in the theta, alpha and gamma bands. The results show stronger transmissions in theta and alpha bands from frontal to parietal as well as within frontal regions in reasoning trials comparing to memory trials. The increase in theta and alpha transmissions was accompanied by flows in gamma band from right posterior to left posterior and anterior sites. These results are consistent with previous neuroimaging (fMRI) data concerning fronto-parietal regions involvement in reasoning and working memory processes and also provide new evidence for the executive role of frontal theta waves in organizing the cognition.

  12. MSFC's Advanced Space Propulsion Formulation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Robinson, Joel W.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    In NASA s Fiscal Year 2012, a small project was undertaken to provide additional substance, depth, and activity knowledge to the technology areas identified in the In-Space Propulsion Systems Roadmap, Technology Area 02 (TA-02), as created under the auspices of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This roadmap was divided into four basic groups: (1) Chemical Propulsion, (2) Non-chemical Propulsion, (3) Advanced (TRL<3) Propulsion Technologies, and (4) Supporting Technologies. The first two were grouped according to the governing physics. The third group captured technologies and physic concepts that are at a lower TRL level. The fourth group identified pertinent technical areas that are strongly coupled with these related areas which could allow significant improvements in performance. There were a total of 45 technologies identified in TA-02, and 25 of these were studied in this formulation task. The goal of this task was to provide OCT with a knowledge-base for decisionmaking on advanced space propulsion technologies and not waste money by unintentionally repeating past projects or funding the technologies with minor impacts. This formulation task developed the next level of detail for technologies described and provides context to OCT where investments should be made. The presentation will begin with the list of technologies from TA-02, how they were prioritized for this study, and details on what additional data was captured for the technologies studied. Following this, some samples of the documentation will be provided, followed by plans on how the data will be made accessible.

  13. Task automation in a successful industrial telerobot

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Jones, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss cooperative work by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Remotec{trademark}, Inc., to automate components of the operator`s workload using Remotec`s Andros telerobot, thereby providing an enhanced user interface which can be retroll to existing fielded units as well as being incorporated into now production units. Remotec`s Andros robots are presently used by numerous electric utilities to perform tasks in reactors where substantial exposure to radiation exists, as well as by the armed forces and numerous law enforcement agencies. The automation of task components, as well as the video graphics display of the robot`s position in the environment, will enhance all tasks performed by these users, as well as enabling performance in terrain where the robots cannot presently perform due to lack of knowledge about, for instance, the degree of tilt of the robot. Enhanced performance of a successful industrial mobile robot leads to increased safety and efficiency of performances in hazardous environments. The addition of these capabilities will greatly enhance the utility of the robot, as well as its marketability.

  14. Task automation in a successful industrial telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spelt, Philip F.; Jones, Sammy L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss cooperative work by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Remotec, Inc., to automate components of the operator's workload using Remotec's Andros telerobot, thereby providing an enhanced user interface which can be retrofit to existing fielded units as well as being incorporated into new production units. Remotec's Andros robots are presently used by numerous electric utilities to perform tasks in reactors where substantial exposure to radiation exists, as well as by the armed forces and numerous law enforcement agencies. The automation of task components, as well as the video graphics display of the robot's position in the environment, will enhance all tasks performed by these users, as well as enabling performance in terrain where the robots cannot presently perform due to lack of knowledge about, for instance, the degree of tilt of the robot. Enhanced performance of a successful industrial mobile robot leads to increased safety and efficiency of performance in hazardous environments. The addition of these capabilities will greatly enhance the utility of the robot, as well as its marketability.

  15. Rest break interventions in stoop labor tasks.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Julia; Meyers, James; Miles, John; Janowitz, Ira; Fathallah, Fadi

    2007-03-01

    Hand cultivation and harvest of agricultural products constitute strenuous physical tasks. Working with labor-management ergonomics committees in agricultural settings, the UC Agricultural Ergonomics Research Center (AERC) tested an experimental rest and recovery protocol for its impact on symptoms and productivity during two types of work tasks. The experimental condition consisted of adding a 5 min rest break to every working hour in which there was no other scheduled break (e.g., lunchtime). This resulted in an additional 20 min of rest per workday. We tested the intervention in two trials: Trial one compared workers (n=66) randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group during the harvest of commercial strawberries. Trial two utilized a cross-over design (n=16 pairs of workers) to compare experimental and control conditions while workers inserted bud grafts into young 18'' high citrus trees. For both trials, workers under the experimental condition reported significantly less severe symptoms than workers under control conditions. The order in which the intervention was given, however, appeared to result in variations in productivity. We conclude that the introduction of frequent, brief rest breaks may improve symptoms for workers engaged in strenuous work tasks.

  16. Final report on the Pathway Analysis Task

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.

    1993-04-01

    The Pathway Analysis Task constituted one of several multi-laboratory efforts to estimate radiation doses to people, considering all important pathways of exposure, from the testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The primary goal of the Pathway Analysis Task was to predict radionuclide ingestion by residents of Utah, Nevada, and portions of seven other adjoining western states following radioactive fallout deposition from individual events at the NTS. This report provides comprehensive documentation of the activities and accomplishments of Colorado State University`s Pathway Analysis Task during the entire period of support (1979--91). The history of the project will be summarized, indicating the principal dates and milestones, personnel involved, subcontractors, and budget information. Accomplishments, both primary and auxiliary, will be summarized with general results rather than technical details being emphasized. This will also serve as a guide to the reports and open literature publications produced, where the methodological details and specific results are documented. Selected examples of results on internal dose estimates are provided in this report because the data have not been published elsewhere.

  17. Breath control during a tiptoe task.

    PubMed

    Lamberg, Eric M; Hagins, Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Examination of naturally occurring respiration during postural challenges may increase our understanding of the factors linking respiration to lumbar segmental control. This study determined if the timing and magnitude of inhaled volume changes were related to mechanical events that challenge spinal stability during a tiptoe task. Thirty healthy individuals (15 male) had airflow recorded while they completed a tiptoe task which involved: moving onto tiptoe while reaching toward a hanging target (ascent); grasping and holding the target while maintaining the tiptoe position for 3 s (hold); and then returning to the start position (descent). The rate of airflow and amount of inhaled volume (normalized to vital capacity (%VC)) were identified at 13 different intervals spanning the ascent, hold and descent phase. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, significant main effects were identified for both rate of airflow (p < 0.001) and %VC (p < 0.001). Exploration of these main effects revealed that individuals tended to inspire and increase %VC during the ascent phase, hold their breath and maintain %VC during the hold phase when whole body balance is challenged, and exhale during the descent phase. These findings are congruent with theories suggesting that breath control is linked in predictable ways to potentially improve lumbar spine stiffness when presented with mechanical challenges during functional tasks.

  18. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  19. Characterizing Task-Based OpenMP Programs

    PubMed Central

    Muddukrishna, Ananya; Jonsson, Peter A.; Brorsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Programmers struggle to understand performance of task-based OpenMP programs since profiling tools only report thread-based performance. Performance tuning also requires task-based performance in order to balance per-task memory hierarchy utilization against exposed task parallelism. We provide a cost-effective method to extract detailed task-based performance information from OpenMP programs. We demonstrate the utility of our method by quickly diagnosing performance problems and characterizing exposed task parallelism and per-task instruction profiles of benchmarks in the widely-used Barcelona OpenMP Tasks Suite. Programmers can tune performance faster and understand performance tradeoffs more effectively than existing tools by using our method to characterize task-based performance. PMID:25860023

  20. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches.

  1. Shared learning shapes human performance: Transfer effects in task sharing.

    PubMed

    Milanese, Nadia; Iani, Cristina; Rubichi, Sandro

    2010-07-01

    We investigated whether performing a task with a co-actor shapes the way a subsequent task is performed. In four experiments participants were administered a Simon task after practicing a spatial compatibility task with an incompatible S-R mapping. In Experiment 1 they performed both tasks alongside another person; in Experiment 2 they performed the spatial compatibility task alone, responding to only one stimulus position, and the Simon task with another person; in Experiment 3, they performed the spatial compatibility task with another person and the Simon task alone; finally, in Experiment 4, they performed the spatial compatibility task alone and the Simon task with another person. The incompatible practice eliminated the Simon effect in Experiments 1 and 4. These results indicate that when a task is distributed between two participants with each one performing a different part of it, they tend to represent the whole task rather than their own part of it. This experience can influence the way a subsequent task is performed, as long as this latter occurs in a social context.

  2. Final Technical Report Transport Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    P.W. Terry

    2006-08-22

    The Transport Task Force has functioned as the primary scientific organization in the area of magnetic-fusion confinement and transport since its inception in 1988. It has defined and set research directions, coordinated broad research efforts, advocated new funding initiatives, and created a highly successful and widely admired interactive culture between experiment, theory and modeling. The Transport Task Force carries out its activities under the direction of its chair and the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee is comprised of the leaders and deputy leaders of the scientific working groups. The working groups are structured and organized according to research needs and priorities and have been organized around the areas of Core Transport, H Mode and Pedestal, Fast Particle Transport, Transient Transport Phenomena, and Modeling and Simulation. A steering committee provides advise on TTF activities. Further information on the working groups and the structure and management of the TTF can be found at http://psfcwww2.psfc.mit.edu/ttf/index.html. The TTF holds an annual workshop. A summary of the workshops held during the period of this report is given in Appendix I. During the period of this report the Transport Task Force was involved in several significant activities. Foremost of these was a sweeping review of the status of transport science, the key research tasks for progress during the next 5-10 years, and a proposal for a funding initiative to ensure application of adequate resources to these problems. The conclusions of this study were incorporated into a white paper, which is copied below in Appendix II. Other significant activities have included the introduction of an extended, ongoing discussion on verification and validation as a requisite for defining and codifying the path toward predictive capability, the orchestration of a gradual shift of focus from ion thermal confinement to electron thermal confinement, and a joining of efforts on edge

  3. Continuous motion using task-directed stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Erann; Loch, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of autonomous mobile robots performing complex navigation tasks can be dramatically improved by directing expensive sensing and planning in service of the task. The task-direction algorithms can be quite simple. In this paper we describe a simple task-directed vision system which has been implemented on a real outdoor robot which navigates using stereo vision. While the performance of this particular robot was improved by task-directed vision, the performance of task-directed vision in general is influenced in complex ways by many factors. We briefly discuss some of these, and present some initial simulated results.

  4. QTA (Questionnaire-Task-Analysis): An electronic tool for job/task analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, F.K.; Fries, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    When a computer-based training (CBT) package is part of a performance-based training system, a job/task analysis (JTA) to identify and document training requirements is the first step. To identify and document training requirements, performance-based training mandates that a job/task analysis be completed. To simplify the task of performing the job/task analysis for the control room operators at the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we wrote the MODULA-2 program QUESTIONNAIRE-TASK-ANALYSIS (QTA). Because we were performing the job/task analysis to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.18, the programming was based on the documentation presented in the DOE documents Training Accreditation Program Manuals (TAP 1, TAP 2, and TAP 3). The model for the questionnaire portion of the program was Attachment I-8, page I-33, of TAP 2-88. The analysis that recommends no-train, train or overtrain uses the decision tree on page I-10 of TAP 2-88. However, the program is useful beyond just compliance with the Order. The program performs two functions: it collects numerical data from a questionnaire with a rating scale, and it analyzes the data. After the data are collected, the analysis portion uses a decision tree to make training recommendations. The data may be collected using a long form or a short form of the questionnaire. The analysis procedure creates three analysis files based on job classifications of the respondents. Because of the dual capabilities of the program, QTA may be used by a respondent to complete the questionnaire or the analyst to analyze the results of the survey. Before discussing the QTA program in detail, we will briefly review the process of performing a job task analysis. 5 refs.

  5. Adaptive Task-Space Cooperative Tracking Control of Networked Robotic Manipulators Without Task-Space Velocity Measurements.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinwu; Wang, Hesheng; Liu, Yun-Hui; Chen, Weidong; Hu, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the task-space cooperative tracking control problem of networked robotic manipulators without task-space velocity measurements is addressed. To overcome the problem without task-space velocity measurements, a novel task-space position observer is designed to update the estimated task-space position and to simultaneously provide the estimated task-space velocity, based on which an adaptive cooperative tracking controller without task-space velocity measurements is presented by introducing new estimated task-space reference velocity and acceleration. Furthermore, adaptive laws are provided to cope with uncertain kinematics and dynamics and rigorous stability analysis is given to show asymptotical convergence of the task-space tracking and synchronization errors in the presence of communication delays under strongly connected directed graphs. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  6. Dual-task performance with ideomotor-compatible tasks: is the central processing bottleneck intact, bypassed, or shifted in locus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; McCann, Robert S.; Ruthruff, Eric; Proctor, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether the central bottleneck, assumed to be primarily responsible for the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect, is intact, bypassed, or shifted in locus with ideomotor (IM)-compatible tasks. In 4 experiments, factorial combinations of IM- and non-IM-compatible tasks were used for Task 1 and Task 2. All experiments showed substantial PRP effects, with a strong dependency between Task 1 and Task 2 response times. These findings, along with model-based simulations, indicate that the processing bottleneck was not bypassed, even with two IM-compatible tasks. Nevertheless, systematic changes in the PRP and correspondence effects across experiments suggest that IM compatibility shifted the locus of the bottleneck. The findings favor an engage-bottleneck-later hypothesis, whereby parallelism between tasks occurs deeper into the processing stream for IM- than for non-IM-compatible tasks, without the bottleneck being actually eliminated.

  7. The Effect of Cognitive-Task Type and Walking Speed on Dual-Task Gait in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Wrightson, James G; Ross, Emma Z; Smeeton, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    In a number of studies in which a dual-task gait paradigm was used, researchers reported a relationship between cognitive function and gait. However, it is not clear to what extent these effects are dependent on the type of cognitive and walking tasks used in the dual-task paradigm. This study examined whether stride-time variability (STV) and trunk range of motion (RoM) are affected by the type of cognitive task and walking speed used during dual-task gait. Participants walked at both their preferred walking speed and at 25% of their preferred walking speed and performed a serial subtraction and a working memory task at both speeds. Although both tasks significantly reduced STV at both walking speeds, there was no difference between the two tasks. Trunk RoM was affected by the walking speed and type of cognitive task used during dual-task gait: Mediolateral trunk RoM was increased at the slow walking speed, and anterior-posterior trunk RoM was higher only when performing the serial subtraction task at the slow walking speed. The reduction of STV, regardless of cognitive-task type, suggests that healthy adults may redirect cognitive processes away from gait toward cognitive-task performance during dual-task gait.

  8. Effects of instructed focus and task difficulty on concurrent walking and cognitive task performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Valerie E; Janke, Alexis A; Shumway-Cook, Anne

    2010-11-01

    Dual task paradigms can be used to examine the interactions between cognition and the control of posture and gait. Measuring and interpreting changes in dual task performance is challenging, however, because many factors can influence performance. This study examined the effects of instructed focus and walking task difficulty, and the interaction between these factors, on dual task performance in healthy young adults. Fifteen participants performed a cognitive task while walking with either a usual base or a narrow base of support. Participants were instructed to focus on either the cognitive task or walking. Trade-offs both within and between tasks were assessed using the modified attention allocation index and the performance operating characteristic. Instructed focus influenced both the cognitive task and walking. Performance on the cognitive task was faster with instructions to focus on the cognitive task, and walking was faster (and more accurate in the narrow-base condition) with instructions to focus on walking. Walking task difficulty did not affect cognitive performance but did affect walking, with faster walking in the usual-base versus narrow-base condition. There was evidence of an interaction, with greater effects of instructed focus on the cognitive task during usual versus narrow-base walking. These results support the idea that the ability to flexibly shift attention allocation and task performance in response to instructions depends on the difficulty of the postural control task. The modified attention allocation index and the performance operating characteristic were instrumental in fully characterizing trade-offs between and within tasks in order to understand dual task performance changes. A clearer understanding of the factors that affect dual task walking and the interactions between these factors has important implications for the assessment of dual task performance in both clinical and research settings.

  9. Modulation of K2P3.1 (TASK-1), K2P9.1 (TASK-3), and TASK-1/3 heteromer by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Papreck, Justin R; Martin, Elizabeth A; Lazzarini, Ping; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Donghee

    2012-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria or NADPH oxidase have been implicated in the inhibition of K(+) current by hypoxia in chemoreceptor cells. As TASKs are highly active background K(+) channels in these cells, we studied the role of ROS in hypoxia-induced inhibition of TASKs. In HeLa cells expressing TASKs, H(2)O(2) applied to inside-out patches activated TASK-1, TASK-3, and TASK-1/3 heteromer starting at ~16 mM. When applied to cell-attached or outside-out patches, 326 mM H(2)O(2) did not affect TASK activity. Other K(2P) channels (TREK-1, TREK-2, TASK-2, TALK-1, TRESK) were not affected by H(2)O(2) (tested up to 326 mM). A reducing agent (dithiothreitol) and a cysteine-modifying agent (2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate hydrobromide) had no effect on basal TASK activity and did not block the H(2)O(2)-induced increase in channel activity. A TASK mutant in which the C-terminus of TASK-3 was replaced with that of TREK-2 showed a normal sensitivity to H(2)O(2). Xanthine/xanthine oxidase mixture used to generate superoxide radical showed no effect on TASK-1, TASK-3, and TASK-1/3 heteromer from either side of the membrane, but it strongly activated TASK-2 from the extracellular side. Acute H(2)O(2) (32-326 mM) exposure did not affect hSlo1/b1(BK) expressed in HeLa cells and BK in carotid body glomus cells. In carotid body glomus cells, adrenal cortical cells, and cerebellar granule neurons that show abundant hypoxia-sensitive TASK activity, H(2)O(2) (>16 mM) activated the channels only when applied intracellularly, similar to that observed with cloned TASKs. These findings show that ROS do not support or inhibit TASK and BK activity and therefore are unlikely to be the hypoxic signal that causes cell excitation via inhibition of these K(+) channels.

  10. Modulation of K2P3.1 (TASK-1), K2P9.1 (TASK-3) and TASK-1/3 heteromer by reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Papreck, Justin R.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Lazzarini, Ping; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Donghee

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria or NADPH oxidase have been implicated in the inhibition of K+ current by hypoxia in chemoreceptor cells. As TASKs are highly active background K+ channels in these cells, we studied the role of ROS in hypoxia-induced inhibition of TASKs. In HeLa cells expressing TASKs, H2O2 applied to inside-out patches activated TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-1/3 heteromer starting at ~16 mM. When applied to cell-attached or outside-out patches, 326 mM H2O2 did not affect TASK activity. Other K2P channels (TREK-1, TREK-2, TASK-2, TALK-1, TRESK) were not affected by H2O2 (tested up to 326 mM). A reducing agent (dithiothreitol) and a cysteine-modifying agent (MTSEA) had no effect on basal TASK activity and did not block the H2O2-induced increase in channel activity. A TASK mutant in which the C-terminus of TASK-3 was replaced with that of TREK-2 showed a normal sensitivity to H2O2. Xanthine/xanthine oxidase mixture used to generate superoxide radical showed no effect on TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-1/3 heteromer from either side of the membrane, but strongly activated TASK-2 from the extracellular side. Acute H2O2 (32–326 mM) exposure did not affect hSlo1/b1(BK) expressed in HeLa cells and BK in carotid body glomus cells. In carotid body glomus cells, adrenal cortical cells and cerebellar granule neurons that show abundant hypoxia-sensitive TASK activity, H2O2 (>16 mM) activated the channels only when applied intracellularly, similar to that observed with cloned TASKs. These findings show that ROS do not support or inhibit TASK and BK activity, and therefore are unlikely to be the hypoxic signal that causes cell excitation via inhibition of these K+ channels. PMID:23007462

  11. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    PubMed Central

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. We describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetiton Task (SRT) that eliminates this confound and report findings from three validity studies. Method Ninety-five preschool children with Speech Delay and 63 with Typical Speech, completed an assessment battery that included the Nonword Repetition Task (NRT: Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) and the SRT. SRT stimuli include only four of the earliest occurring consonants and one early occurring vowel. Results Study 1 findings indicated that the SRT eliminated the speech confound in nonword testing with speakers who misarticulate. Study 2 findings indicated that the accuracy of the SRT to identify expressive language impairment was comparable to findings for the NRT. Study 3 findings illustrated the SRT’s potential to interrogate speech processing constraints underlying poor nonword repetition accuracy. Results supported both memorial and auditory-perceptual encoding constraints underlying nonword repetition errors in children with speech-language impairment. Conclusion The SRT appears to be a psychometrically stable and substantively informative nonword repetition task for emerging genetic and other research with speakers who misarticulate. PMID:19635944

  12. Learning effects in the lane change task (LCT)--realistic secondary tasks and transfer of learning.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, Tibor; Brüggemann, Stephanie; Krems, Josef F

    2014-05-01

    Driver distraction is a factor that is heavily involved in traffic crashes. With in-vehicle devices like navigation systems or mobile phones on the rise, the assessment of their potential to distract the driver has become a pressing issue. Several easy-to-use methods have been developed in recent years to allow for such an assessment in the early stages of product development. One of these methods is the lane change task (LCT), a simple driving simulation in which the driver has to change lanes as indicated by different signs along the road. Although the LCT is an ISO sanctioned procedure, there are still open questions. One issue are learning effects which have been found in previous studies and which have the potential to compromise the comparability of test results. In this paper, we present results on two experiments that further explored the effect of previous experience on LCT and secondary task performance. The results confirm that learning effects occur when combining the LCT with a realistic secondary task. Also, we found evidence for the transfer of learning from one secondary task to another to some degree, provided that the two tasks are sufficiently similar.

  13. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains

    PubMed

    Wang

    1996-11-01

    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  14. International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Vincent K L; Lee, Seng-Teik T; Lambrecht, Thomas J; Barnett, John; Gorney, Mark; Hardjowasito, Widanto; Lemperle, Gottfried; McComb, Harold; Natsume, Nagato; Stranc, Mirek; Wilson, Libby

    2002-01-01

    The International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions was set up to provide a report to be presented at the Eighth International Congress of Cleft Palate and Associated Craniofacial Anomalies on September 12, 1997, in Singapore. The aim of the report was to provide data from a wide range of different international teams performing volunteer cleft missions and, thereafter, based on the collected data, to identify common goals and aims of such missions. Thirteen different groups actively participating in volunteer cleft missions worldwide were selected from the International Confederation of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery's list of teams actively participating in volunteer cleft missions. Because of the time frame within which the committee had to work, three groups that did not respond by the stipulated deadline were omitted from the committee. The represented members and their respective institutions have undertaken more than 50 volunteer cleft missions to underdeveloped nations worldwide within the last 3 years. They have visited over 20 different countries, treating more than 3,500 patients worldwide. Based on the data collected and by consensus, the committee outlined recommendations for future volunteer cleft missions based on 1) mission objectives, 2) organization, 3) personal health and liability, 4) funding, 5) trainees in volunteer cleft missions, and 6) public relations. The task force believed that all volunteer cleft missions should have well-defined objectives, preferably with long-term plans. The task force also decided that it was impossible to achieve a successful mission without good organization and close coordination. All efforts should be made, and care taken, to ensure that there is minimal morbidity and no mortality. Finally, as ambassadors of goodwill and humanitarian aid, the participants must make every effort to understand and respect local customs and protocol. The main aims are to provide top-quality surgical service, train local

  15. Improving load balance with flexibly assignable tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-09-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution ofthe data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. Butthere are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of severalprocessors without altering the total volume of communication. In thispaper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignmentof tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms ofnetwork flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Ourparametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on acandidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve theassignment problem with \\logW_T and vbar P vbar probe calls, w here W_Tand vbar P vbar, respectively, denote the total workload and number ofproce ssors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem,and show that anyalgorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to findan optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consideracontinuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearlyconstrained optimization problem, i.e., \\min\\|Ax\\|_\\infty,\\; {\\rms.t.}\\;Bx=d. To avoid solving an intractable \\infty-norm optimization problem,we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimizethe \\infty-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studiedlinearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of theproblem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.Our experiments with molecular dynamics and overlapped domaindecomposition applications proved the effectiveness of our methods withsignificant improvements in load balance. We also discuss how ourtechniques can be enhanced for heterogeneous systems.

  16. Task 4 Improvised Nuclear Device Response Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Alai, Maureen; Neuscamman, Stephanie

    2016-05-31

    LLNL performed fallout and nuclear blast modeling for the 60 cities using the NARAC modeling system and predominant weather patterns determined in a previous Task 4 effort. LLNL performed model simulations and analyses to identify and provide response curves (expressed as two-dimensional contours) for radioactive fallout deposition, transport, population, and blast overpressure as a function of yield, weather, location and time. These contours can then be further combined and correlated with infrastructure and population databases to estimate city specific effects on KPFs such as impacted infrastructure and casualty rates.

  17. Assessing Situational Awareness in Task Force XXI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    information dominance over the enemy and that units equipped with greater situational awareness will fight more successfully than units without the added capability. In an effort to test this hypothesis the Army conducted an Advanced Warfighter Experiment (AWE) which began at Ft. Hood, TX and culminated in a focused rotation at the National Training Center, Ft. Irwin, CA. Although many initiatives in the area of information dominance were tested in the AWE, the centerpiece of the program was a test case unit designated as Task Force Twenty-One (TF

  18. Robust natural language dialogues for instruction tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheutz, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Being able to understand and carry out spoken natural instructions even in limited domains is extremely challenging for current robots. The difficulties are multifarious, ranging from problems with speech recognizers to difficulties with parsing disfluent speech or resolving references based on perceptual or task-based knowledge. In this paper, we present our efforts at starting to address these problems with an integrated natural language understanding system implemented in our DIARC architecture on a robot that can handle fairly unconstrained spoken ungrammatical and incomplete instructions reliably in a limited domain.

  19. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  20. A domotic application for educational tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayón, S.; González, C.; Vargas, Y.; Hernández, L.

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a domotic application. Due to the impossibility of carrying out a domotic installation on a real house, we have built a scale model of the house, and adapted all the sensors, the actuators and the control system to this scale model. This simulation of a domotic installation has been developed for educational tasks. The final objective of this work is to allow the students of the Engineering Technical School of the University of La Laguna to learn the control of the domotic installation.

  1. The neurodynamics underlying attentional control in set shifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Stemme, Anja; Deco, Gustavo; Busch, Astrid

    2007-09-01

    In this work we address key phenomena observed with classical set shifting tasks as the "Wisconsin Card Sorting Test" or the "Stroop" task: Different types of errors and increased response times reflecting decreased attention. A component of major importance in these tasks is referred to as the "attentional control" thought to be implemented by the prefrontal cortex which acts primarily by an amplification of task relevant information. This mode of operation is illustrated by a neurodynamical model developed for a new kind of set shifting experiment: The Wisconsin-Delayed-Match-to-Sample task combines uninstructed shifts as investigated in Wisconsin-like tasks with a Delayed-Match-to-Sample paradigm. These newly developed WDMS experiments in conjunction with the neurodynamical simulations are able to explain the reason for decreased attention in set shifting experiments as well the different consequences of decreased attention in tasks requiring bivalent yes/no responses compared to tasks requiring multivalent responses.

  2. Multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, P. O.; Granichin, O. N.; Budaev, D. S.; Laryukhin, V. B.; Mayorov, I. V.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper a multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks is considered. This system is designed for distribution simulation and tasks implementation on computational resources including network dynamic characteristics and topology.

  3. Orienting Tasks as Sources of Contextual Information in List Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritzen, James D.

    1977-01-01

    A list discrimination paradigm was used to examine the effects of orienting tasks upon the later temporal discrimination of words. The orienting task involved judgments about the relatedness of the words in a list to some concept. (Editor)

  4. Task difficulty in mental arithmetic affects microsaccadic rates and magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Eva; Costela, Francisco M; McCamy, Michael B; Di Stasi, Leandro L; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Sonderegger, Andreas; Groner, Rudolf; Macknik, Stephen; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Microsaccades are involuntary, small-magnitude saccadic eye movements that occur during attempted visual fixation. Recent research has found that attention can modulate microsaccade dynamics, but few studies have addressed the effects of task difficulty on microsaccade parameters, and those have obtained contradictory results. Further, no study to date has investigated the influence of task difficulty on microsaccade production during the performance of non-visual tasks. Thus, the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades, isolated from sensory modality, remain unclear. Here we investigated the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades during the performance of a non-visual, mental arithmetic task with two levels of complexity. We found that microsaccade rates decreased and microsaccade magnitudes increased with increased task difficulty. We propose that changes in microsaccade rates and magnitudes with task difficulty are mediated by the effects of varying attentional inputs on the rostral superior colliculus activity map.

  5. An Information-Processing Analysis of a Piagetian Imagery Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Anne L.; Harvey, Wade O.

    1979-01-01

    Children at three age levels (4-6, 7-9, and 10-14 years) performed a reaction-time version of Piaget and Inhelder's rotating squares imagery task and a pivot and shape conservation recognition task. (JMB)

  6. Distributed Task Offloading in Heterogeneous Vehicular Crowd Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yazhi; Wang, Wendong; Ma, Yuekun; Yang, Zhigang; Yu, Fuxing

    2016-01-01

    The ability of road vehicles to efficiently execute different sensing tasks varies because of the heterogeneity in their sensing ability and trajectories. Therefore, the data collection sensing task, which requires tempo-spatial sensing data, becomes a serious problem in vehicular sensing systems, particularly those with limited sensing capabilities. A utility-based sensing task decomposition and offloading algorithm is proposed in this paper. The utility function for a task executed by a certain vehicle is built according to the mobility traces and sensing interfaces of the vehicle, as well as the sensing data type and tempo-spatial coverage requirements of the sensing task. Then, the sensing tasks are decomposed and offloaded to neighboring vehicles according to the utilities of the neighboring vehicles to the decomposed sensing tasks. Real trace-driven simulation shows that the proposed task offloading is able to collect much more comprehensive and uniformly distributed sensing data than other algorithms. PMID:27428967

  7. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  8. Dynamic task-allocation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Tim

    This dissertation addresses improvements to a consensus based task allocation algorithms for improving the Quality of Service in multi-task and multi-agent environments. Research in the past has led to many centralized task allocation algorithms where a central computation unit is calculating the global optimum task allocation solution. The centralized algorithms are plagued by creating a single point of failure and the bandwidth needed for creating consistent and accurate situational awareness off all agents. This work will extend upon a widely researched decentralized task assignment algorithm based on the consensus principle. Although many extensions have led to improvements of the original algorithm, there is still much opportunity for improvement in providing sufficient and reliable task assignments in real-world dynamic conditions and changing environments. This research addresses practical changes made to the consensus based task allocation algorithms for improving the Quality of Service in multi-task and multi-agent environments.

  9. Children's construction task performance and spatial ability: controlling task complexity and predicting mathematics performance.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Miles; Hunt, Thomas E; Richardson, Cassandra

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology to control construction task complexity and examined the relationships between construction performance and spatial and mathematical abilities in children. The study included three groups of children (N = 96); ages 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14 years. Each group constructed seven pre-specified objects. The study replicated and extended previous findings that indicated that the extent of component symmetry and variety, and the number of components for each object and available for selection, significantly predicted construction task difficulty. Results showed that this methodology is a valid and reliable technique for assessing and predicting construction play task difficulty. Furthermore, construction play performance predicted mathematical attainment independently of spatial ability.

  10. The effects of instructions on dual-task walking and cognitive task performance in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Valerie E; Eusterbrock, Alexis J; Shumway-Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gait impairments are prevalent among people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Instructions to focus on walking can improve walking in PD, but the use of such a cognitive strategy may be limited under dual-task walking conditions, when walking is performed simultaneously with concurrent cognitive or motor tasks. This study examined how dual-task performance of walking and a concurrent cognitive task was affected by instructions in people with PD compared to healthy young and older individuals. Dual-task walking and cognitive task performance was characterized under two sets of instructions as follows: (1) focus on walking and (2) focus on the cognitive task. People with PD and healthy adults walked faster when instructed to focus on walking. However, when focused on walking, people with PD and young adults demonstrated declines in the cognitive task. This suggests that dual-task performance is flexible and can be modified by instructions in people with PD, but walking improvements may come at a cost to cognitive task performance. The ability to modify dual-task performance in response to instructions or other task and environmental factors is critical to mobility in daily life. Future research should continue to examine factors that influence dual-task performance among people with PD.

  11. (abstract) An Ada Language Modular Telerobot Task Execution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Long, Mark; Steele, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A telerobotic task execution system is described which has been developed for space flight applications. The Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES) provides the remote site task execution capability in a local-remote telerobotic system. The system provides supervised autonomous control, shared control, and teleoperation for a redundant manipulator. The system is capable of nominal task execution as well as monitoring and reflex motion.

  12. Dual-Task Interference When A Response is Not Required

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSelst, Mark; Johnston, James C.; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    When subjects are required to respond to two stimuli presented in rapid succession, responses to the second stimulus are delayed. Such dual-task interference has been attributed to a fundamental processing bottleneck preventing simultaneous processing on both tasks. Two experiments show dual-task interference even when the first task does not require a response. The observed interference is caused by a bottleneck in central cognitive processing, rather than in response initiation or execution.

  13. 49 CFR 236.923 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Task analysis and basic requirements. 236.923... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.923 Task analysis and basic requirements...) Based on a formal task analysis, identify the installation, maintenance, repair,...

  14. 49 CFR 236.923 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Task analysis and basic requirements. 236.923... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.923 Task analysis and basic requirements...) Based on a formal task analysis, identify the installation, maintenance, repair,...

  15. Students' Reasoning in Mathematics Textbook Task-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidenvall, Johan; Lithner, Johan; Jäder, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an analysis of students' textbook task-solving in Swedish upper secondary school. The relation between types of mathematical reasoning required, used, and the rate of correct task solutions were studied. Rote learning and superficial reasoning were common, and 80% of all attempted tasks were correctly solved using such…

  16. Attentional Focus Effects as a Function of Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele; Tollner, Thomas; Shea, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the advantages of adopting an external focus would be seen primarily for relatively challenging (postural stability) tasks but not less demanding tasks. To examine this, the authors used balance tasks that imposed increased challenges to maintaining stability. The present results support the…

  17. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  18. 75 FR 61175 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Species (ANS) Task Force. The meeting is open to the public. The meeting topics are identified in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on...

  19. 7 CFR 1900.6 - Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force. 1900.6 Section... AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL Delegations of Authority § 1900.6 Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force. The Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force is delegated the following authorities, to be exercised...

  20. 7 CFR 1900.6 - Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force. 1900.6 Section... AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL Delegations of Authority § 1900.6 Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force. The Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force is delegated the following authorities, to be exercised...

  1. 75 FR 32186 - Task Force on Community Preventive Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Task Force on Community Preventive Services Name: Task Force on Community Preventive Services meeting. Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5:30 p.m. EST, June...: The mission of the Task Force is to develop and publish the Guide to Community Preventive...

  2. 76 FR 15334 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Species (ANS) Task Force. The meeting is open to the public. The meeting topics are identified in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Wednesday, May...

  3. 78 FR 9891 - South Dakota Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers South Dakota Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The duties of the Task Force... erosion. DATES: The Task Force will hold a meeting on February 26, 2013 from 9:30 a.m. to 12:30...

  4. 77 FR 61019 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...: 134] Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Force. The ANS Task Force's purpose is to develop and implement a program for U.S. waters to prevent... disseminate related information. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from...

  5. 76 FR 11307 - Small Business Information Security Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Information Security Task Force AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Small Business Information Security Task Force Meeting. DATES: 1 p.m., Wednesday, January 12, 2011... meeting minutes for the third meeting of the Small Business Information Security Task Force. Chairman,...

  6. Task Force II: Energy and Its Socioeconomic Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Summarizing the Task Force Issues Paper presented at the Appalachian Conference on Balanced Growth and Economic Development (1977), this article presents selected comments by Task Force participants, and Task Force recommendations re: a national severence tax on extraction of nonrenewable energy resources; socioeconomic costs of nuclear energy; a…

  7. Effects of Task and Category Membership on Representation Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Audrey; Urdapilleta, Isabel; Houix, Olivier; Manetta, Celine

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products). We hypothesized that (1) the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the…

  8. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  9. Switching between Tasks and Responses: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Eveline A.; Bunge, Silvia A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2006-01-01

    Task switching requires the ability to flexibly switch between task rules and responses, and is sensitive to developmental change. We tested the hypothesis that developmental changes in task switch performance are associated with changes in the facilitating or interfering effect of the previously retrieved stimulus-response (S-R) association.…

  10. The Role of Response Repetition in Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stephen; Mari-Beffa, Paloma

    2008-01-01

    When switching between tasks, participants are sometimes required to use different response sets for each task. Thus, task switch and response set switch are confounded. In 5 experiments, the authors examined transitions of response within a linear 4-finger arrangement. A random baseline condition was compared with the cuing of specific response…

  11. Variations in Articulatory Movement with Changes in Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasko, Stephen M.; McClean, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of normal and disordered articulatory movement often rely on the use of short, simple speech tasks. However, the severity of speech disorders can be observed to vary markedly with task. Understanding task-related variations in articulatory kinematic behavior may allow for an improved understanding of normal and disordered speech motor…

  12. Repeating Input-Based Tasks with Young Beginner Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintani, Natsuko

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated task-repetition with young Japanese children. Fifteen children with no prior knowledge of English completed a communicative listening task that was designed to introduce new vocabulary. The same task was repeated nine times over five weeks. In line with Allwright's (1984) claim that "interaction…

  13. 75 FR 77934 - Small Business Information Security Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Information Security Task Force AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Small Business Information Security Task Force Meeting. DATES: 1 p.m., Wednesday, November 10, 2010... meeting minutes for the second meeting of the Small Business Information Security Task Force....

  14. Task Complexity, Focus on Form, and Second Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revesz, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Tasks have received increased attention in SLA research for the past decade, as has the role of focus on form. However, few empirical studies have investigated the relationship among tasks, focus-on-form techniques, and second language (L2) learning outcomes. To help address this gap, the present study examined how the task variable +/- contextual…

  15. The Impact of Assessment Tasks on Subsequent Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gaal, Frank; De Ridder, Annemieke

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the impact of assessment tasks on examination result (measured by examination grades) is investigated. Although many describe the advantages of electronic assessment tasks, few studies have been undertaken which compare a traditional approach using a classical examination with a new approach using assessment tasks. The main…

  16. Exchanging Missing Information in Tasks: Old and New Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Christopher Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Information gap tasks have played a key role in applied linguistics (Pica, 2005). For example, extensive research has been conducted using information gap tasks to elicit second language data. Yet, despite their prominent role in research and pedagogy, there is still much to be investigated with regard to what information gap tasks offer research…

  17. Is Adaptation to Task Complexity Really Beneficial for Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieschl, Stephanie; Stahl, Elmar; Murray, Tom; Bromme, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Theories of self-regulated learning assume that learners flexibly adapt their learning process to external task demands and that this is positively related to performance. In this study, university students (n = 119) solved three tasks that greatly differed in complexity. Their learning processes were captured in detail by task-specific…

  18. 75 FR 76744 - National Disaster Housing Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Disaster Housing Task Force AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Disaster Housing Task Force (NDHTF... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mitchell Wyllins, National Disaster Housing Task Force, 500 C Street, SW., (Room...

  19. Toward a Model of Work Task Learning in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Harold L.; Manzi, Peter A.

    1982-01-01

    Using a four-level sequential model of work task mastery, proposes a process task approach to task learning involving watching and listening, assisting, participating, and performing. Identifies the social, cognitive, and self-concept components contributing to the development of traits, attitudes, and values that undergird work behavior. (RC)

  20. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information.