Science.gov

Sample records for human-guided object-choice tasks

  1. Juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) use human-given cues in an object choice task.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; Ebersbach, Mirjam; von Borell, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Research on the comprehension of human-given cues by domesticated as well as non-domesticated species has received considerable attention over the last decade. While several species seem to be capable of utilizing these cues, former work with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) has shown inconclusive results. In this study, we investigated the use of human-given cues in an object choice task by young domestic pigs (N = 17; 7 weeks of age) who had very limited human contact prior to the experiments. Subjects had to choose between two bowls of which only one was baited with a reward. Over the course of five experiments, pigs were able to use proximal and, with some constraints, also distal pointing cues presented in both a dynamic-sustained and in a momentary manner. When the experimenter was pointing from the incorrect bowl towards the correct one, most of the subjects had problems solving the task-indicating that some form of stimulus/local enhancement affected pigs' decision making. Interestingly, pigs were able to utilize the body and head orientation of a human experimenter to locate the hidden reward but failed to co-orient when head or body orientation of the experimenter was directed into distant space with no bowls present. Control trials ruled out the possibility that other factors (e.g. odour cues) affected subjects' choice behaviour. Learning during experiments played a minor role and only occurred in three out of twelve test conditions. We conclude that domestic pigs, even at a very young age, are skilful in utilizing various human-given cues in an object choice task-raising the question whether pigs only used stimulus/local enhancement and associative learning processes or whether they were able to comprehend the communicative nature of at least some of these cues.

  2. An obedient orangutan (Pongo abelii) performs perfectly in peripheral object-choice tasks but fails the standard centrally presented versions.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Nicholas J; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Mulcahy and Call (2009) found that bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) but not orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) perform significantly better in a peripheral version of the object-choice task compared to the original central version. Orangutans may have failed because they avoided direct eye contact with the experimenter when the cue was given. We investigated this possibility by conducting peripheral and central object choice tasks with an obedient orangutan (Pongo abelii) whom the experimenter could elicit eye contact with in each trial. In contrast to Mulcahy and Call's findings, the subject only failed the object choice task when tested with the central and not the peripheral version. We investigated whether success was because of the greater distance the subject was required to move in order to make a choice in peripheral trials. Results show that this was an unlikely factor in the subject's success. We discuss our findings in relation to previous and future object-choice research.

  3. Nonenculturated orangutans' (Pongo pygmaeus) use of experimenter-given manual and facial cues in an object-choice task.

    PubMed

    Byrnit, Jill T

    2004-09-01

    Several experiments have been performed, to examine whether nonhuman primates are able to make use of experimenter-given manual and facial (visual) cues to direct their attention to a baited object. Contrary to the performance of prosimians and monkeys, great apes repeatedly have shown task efficiency in experiments such as these. However, many great ape subjects used have been "enculturated" individuals. In the present study, 3 nonenculturated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) were tested for their ability to use experimenter-given pointing, gazing, and glancing cues in an object-choice task. All subjects readily made use of the pointing gesture. However, when subjects were left with only gazing or glancing cues, their performance deteriorated markedly, and they were not able to complete the task.

  4. Are Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) able to discriminate knowledge states of human experimenters during an object-choice task?

    PubMed

    Clary, Dawson; Kelly, Debbie M

    2013-07-18

    Corvids and primates have been shown to possess similar cognitive adaptations, yet these animals are seldom tested using similar procedures. Object-choice tasks, which have commonly been used to test whether an animal is able to infer the mental state of a human experimenter based on a gestural cue, provide one potential means of testing these animals using a similar paradigm. The current study used an object-choice task to examine whether the corvid, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), is able to use a cognitive strategy to discriminate between the knowledge states of two human experimenters. One experimenter was informed, and the other uninformed, as to the location of a food reward hidden inside one of two opaque containers. During the Uninformed Gesture condition, the nutcrackers were given probe tests during which only the person performing as the uninformed experimenter provided a gesture. Thus, the nutcrackers could not use the experimenter's gesture to reliably find the food. During the Gesture Conflict condition, the nutcrackers were presented with a cue conflict. During probe tests, both the informed and the uninformed experimenter gestured to separate containers. Thus, to find the food the nutcrackers had to use the gesture from the informed experimenter and refrain from using the gesture of the uninformed experimenter. Our results showed that when the uninformed experimenter's gesture was presented alone, the birds continued to follow the gesture even though it was not consistently predictive of the food's location. However, when provided with two conflicting gestures, as a group the nutcrackers responded to the gesture of the informed experimenter at above chance levels. These results suggest that the birds had learned that the gesture was informative, perhaps by associative learning, yet when this mechanism was not reliable the nutcrackers were able to use either the human experimenters' presence/absence during the baiting process, or possibly

  5. Chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) use of gaze cues in object-choice tasks: different methods yield different results.

    PubMed

    Barth, Jochen; Reaux, James E; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2005-04-01

    To assess the influence of different procedures on chimpanzees' performance in object-choice tasks, five adult chimpanzees were tested using three experimenter-given cues to food location: gazing, glancing, and pointing. These cues were delivered to the subjects in an identical fashion but were deployed within the context of two distinct meta-procedures that have been previously employed with this species with conflicting results. In one procedure, the subjects entered the test unit and approached the experimenter (who had already established the cue) on each trial. In the other procedure, the subjects stayed in the test unit throughout a session, witnessed the hiding procedure, and waited for a delay of 10 s during which the cue was provided. The subjects scored at high levels far exceeding chance in response to the gaze cue only when they approached the experimenter for each trial. They performed at chance levels when they stayed inside the test unit throughout the session. They scored at chance levels on all other cues irrespective of the procedure. These findings imply that (a) chimpanzees can immediately exploit social gaze cues, and (b) previous conflicting findings were likely due to the different meta-procedures that were used.

  6. Performance in Object-Choice Aesop's Fable Tasks Are Influenced by Object Biases in New Caledonian Crows but not in Human Children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachael; Jelbert, Sarah A; Taylor, Alex H; Cheke, Lucy G; Gray, Russell D; Loissel, Elsa; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reason about causality underlies key aspects of human cognition, but the extent to which non-humans understand causality is still largely unknown. The Aesop's Fable paradigm, where objects are inserted into water-filled tubes to obtain out-of-reach rewards, has been used to test casual reasoning in birds and children. However, success on these tasks may be influenced by other factors, specifically, object preferences present prior to testing or arising during pre-test stone-dropping training. Here, we assessed this 'object-bias' hypothesis by giving New Caledonian crows and 5-10 year old children two object-choice Aesop's Fable experiments: sinking vs. floating objects, and solid vs. hollow objects. Before each test, we assessed subjects' object preferences and/or trained them to prefer the alternative object. Both crows and children showed pre-test object preferences, suggesting that birds in previous Aesop's Fable studies may also have had initial preferences for objects that proved to be functional on test. After training to prefer the non-functional object, crows, but not children, performed more poorly on these two object-choice Aesop's Fable tasks than subjects in previous studies. Crows dropped the non-functional objects into the tube on their first trials, indicating that, unlike many children, they do not appear to have an a priori understanding of water displacement. Alternatively, issues with inhibition could explain their performance. The crows did, however, learn to solve the tasks over time. We tested crows further to determine whether their eventual success was based on learning about the functional properties of the objects, or associating dropping the functional object with reward. Crows inserted significantly more rewarded, non-functional objects than non-rewarded, functional objects. These findings suggest that the ability of New Caledonian crows to produce performances rivaling those of young children on object-choice Aesop

  7. The performance of bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in two versions of an object-choice task.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Nicholas J; Call, Josep

    2009-08-01

    The object-choice task tests animals' ability to use human-given cues to find a hidden reward located in 1 of 2 (or more) containers. Great apes are generally unskillful in this task whereas other species including dogs (Canis familiaris) and goats (Capra hircus) can use human-given cues to locate the reward. However, great apes are typically positioned proximal to the containers when receiving the experimenter's cue whereas other species are invariably positioned distally. The authors investigated how the position of the subject, the human giving the cue and the containers (and the distance among them) affected the performance of 19 captive great apes. Compared to the proximal condition, the distal condition involved larger distances and, critically, it reduced the potential ambiguity of the cues as well as the strong influence that the sight of the containers may have had when subjects received the cue. Subjects were far more successful in the distal compared to the proximal condition. The authors suggest several possibilities to account for this difference and discuss our findings in relation to previous and future object-choice research.

  8. Performance in Object-Choice Aesop’s Fable Tasks Are Influenced by Object Biases in New Caledonian Crows but not in Human Children

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alex H.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Gray, Russell D.; Loissel, Elsa; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reason about causality underlies key aspects of human cognition, but the extent to which non-humans understand causality is still largely unknown. The Aesop’s Fable paradigm, where objects are inserted into water-filled tubes to obtain out-of-reach rewards, has been used to test casual reasoning in birds and children. However, success on these tasks may be influenced by other factors, specifically, object preferences present prior to testing or arising during pre-test stone-dropping training. Here, we assessed this ‘object-bias’ hypothesis by giving New Caledonian crows and 5–10 year old children two object-choice Aesop’s Fable experiments: sinking vs. floating objects, and solid vs. hollow objects. Before each test, we assessed subjects’ object preferences and/or trained them to prefer the alternative object. Both crows and children showed pre-test object preferences, suggesting that birds in previous Aesop’s Fable studies may also have had initial preferences for objects that proved to be functional on test. After training to prefer the non-functional object, crows, but not children, performed more poorly on these two object-choice Aesop’s Fable tasks than subjects in previous studies. Crows dropped the non-functional objects into the tube on their first trials, indicating that, unlike many children, they do not appear to have an a priori understanding of water displacement. Alternatively, issues with inhibition could explain their performance. The crows did, however, learn to solve the tasks over time. We tested crows further to determine whether their eventual success was based on learning about the functional properties of the objects, or associating dropping the functional object with reward. Crows inserted significantly more rewarded, non-functional objects than non-rewarded, functional objects. These findings suggest that the ability of New Caledonian crows to produce performances rivaling those of young children on object-choice

  9. Piglets Learn to Use Combined Human-Given Visual and Auditory Signals to Find a Hidden Reward in an Object Choice Task.

    PubMed

    Bensoussan, Sandy; Cornil, Maude; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Tallet, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Although animals rarely use only one sense to communicate, few studies have investigated the use of combinations of different signals between animals and humans. This study assessed for the first time the spontaneous reactions of piglets to human pointing gestures and voice in an object-choice task with a reward. Piglets (Sus scrofa domestica) mainly use auditory signals-individually or in combination with other signals-to communicate with their conspecifics. Their wide hearing range (42 Hz to 40.5 kHz) fits the range of human vocalisations (40 Hz to 1.5 kHz), which may induce sensitivity to the human voice. However, only their ability to use visual signals from humans, especially pointing gestures, has been assessed to date. The current study investigated the effects of signal type (visual, auditory and combined visual and auditory) and piglet experience on the piglets' ability to locate a hidden food reward over successive tests. Piglets did not find the hidden reward at first presentation, regardless of the signal type given. However, they subsequently learned to use a combination of auditory and visual signals (human voice and static or dynamic pointing gestures) to successfully locate the reward in later tests. This learning process may result either from repeated presentations of the combination of static gestures and auditory signals over successive tests, or from transitioning from static to dynamic pointing gestures, again over successive tests. Furthermore, piglets increased their chance of locating the reward either if they did not go straight to a bowl after entering the test area or if they stared at the experimenter before visiting it. Piglets were not able to use the voice direction alone, indicating that a combination of signals (pointing and voice direction) is necessary. Improving our communication with animals requires adapting to their individual sensitivity to human-given signals.

  10. Piglets Learn to Use Combined Human-Given Visual and Auditory Signals to Find a Hidden Reward in an Object Choice Task

    PubMed Central

    Bensoussan, Sandy; Cornil, Maude; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Tallet, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Although animals rarely use only one sense to communicate, few studies have investigated the use of combinations of different signals between animals and humans. This study assessed for the first time the spontaneous reactions of piglets to human pointing gestures and voice in an object-choice task with a reward. Piglets (Sus scrofa domestica) mainly use auditory signals–individually or in combination with other signals—to communicate with their conspecifics. Their wide hearing range (42 Hz to 40.5 kHz) fits the range of human vocalisations (40 Hz to 1.5 kHz), which may induce sensitivity to the human voice. However, only their ability to use visual signals from humans, especially pointing gestures, has been assessed to date. The current study investigated the effects of signal type (visual, auditory and combined visual and auditory) and piglet experience on the piglets’ ability to locate a hidden food reward over successive tests. Piglets did not find the hidden reward at first presentation, regardless of the signal type given. However, they subsequently learned to use a combination of auditory and visual signals (human voice and static or dynamic pointing gestures) to successfully locate the reward in later tests. This learning process may result either from repeated presentations of the combination of static gestures and auditory signals over successive tests, or from transitioning from static to dynamic pointing gestures, again over successive tests. Furthermore, piglets increased their chance of locating the reward either if they did not go straight to a bowl after entering the test area or if they stared at the experimenter before visiting it. Piglets were not able to use the voice direction alone, indicating that a combination of signals (pointing and voice direction) is necessary. Improving our communication with animals requires adapting to their individual sensitivity to human-given signals. PMID:27792731

  11. Object choice and actual bisexuality.

    PubMed

    Limentani, A

    1976-01-01

    Actual bisexuality is to be distinguished from homosexuality in a latent state and from conscious bisexual fantasies. Contemporary social changes have caused an increased demand for help for those men and women capable of engaging in protracted heterosexual and homosexual relations. Among such people narcissistic and borderline states are common. Clinical material is presented in some detail. The author suggests that the condition is associated with a tendency to be caught up between the anaclitic and narcissistic types of object choice. The concurrent involvement with a male and female love object against a background of pseudogenitality creates the illusory appearance of two objects being involved, covering up the fact that there is splitting of the original love object together with severe preoedipal disturbance.

  12. Domestic pigs' (Sus scrofa domestica) use of direct and indirect visual and auditory cues in an object choice task.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard

    2015-05-01

    Recently, foraging strategies have been linked to the ability to use indirect visual information. More selective feeders should express a higher aversion against losses compared to non-selective feeders and should therefore be more prone to avoid empty food locations. To extend these findings, in this study, we present a series of studies investigating the use of direct and indirect visual and auditory information by an omnivorous but selective feeder-the domestic pig. Subjects had to choose between two buckets, with only one containing a reward. Before making a choice, the subjects in Experiment 1 (N = 8) received full information regarding both the baited and non-baited location, either in a visual or auditory domain. In this experiment, the subjects were able to use visual but not auditory cues to infer the location of the reward spontaneously. Additionally, four individuals learned to use auditory cues after a period of training. In Experiment 2 (N = 8), the pigs were given different amounts of visual information about the content of the buckets-lifting either both of the buckets (full information), the baited bucket (direct information), the empty bucket (indirect information) or no bucket at all (no information). The subjects as a group were able to use direct and indirect visual cues. However, over the course of the experiment, the performance dropped to chance level when indirect information was provided. A final experiment (N = 3) provided preliminary results for pigs' use of indirect auditory information to infer the location of a reward. We conclude that pigs at a very young age are able to make decisions based on indirect information in the visual domain, whereas their performance in the use of indirect auditory information warrants further investigation.

  13. Objective choice of phylogeographic models.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Bryan C; Morales, Ariadna E; Jackson, Nathan D; O'Meara, Brian C

    2017-09-05

    Phylogeography seeks to discover the evolutionary processes that have given rise to organismal and genetic diversity. This requires explicit hypotheses (i.e., models) to be evaluated with genetic data in order to identify those hypotheses that best explain the data. In recent years, advancements in the model-based tools used to estimate phylogeographic parameters of interest such as gene flow, divergence time, and relationships among groups have been made. However, given the complexity of these models, available methods can typically only compare a handful of possible hypotheses, requiring researchers to specify in advance the small set of models to consider. Without formal quantitative approaches to model selection, researchers must rely on their intuition to formulate the model space to be explored. We explore the adequacy of intuitive choices made by researchers during the process of data analysis by reanalyzing 20 empirical phylogeographic datasets using PHRAPL, an objective tool for phylogeographic model selection. We show that the best models for most datasets include both gene flow and population divergence parameters, and that species tree methods (which do not consider gene flow) tend to be overly simplistic for many phylogeographic systems. Objective approaches to phylogeographic model selection offer an important complement to researcher intuition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Task breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlich, Jane

    1990-01-01

    The topics concerning the Center for Space Construction (CSC) space construction breakdown structure are presented in viewgraph form. It is concluded that four components describe a task -- effecting, information gathering, analysis, and regulation; uncertainties effect the relative amount of information gathering and analysis that occurs; and that task timing requirements drive the 'location in time' of cognition.

  15. Task selection cost asymmetry without task switching.

    PubMed

    Bryck, Richard L; Mayr, Ulrch

    2008-02-01

    The switch cost asymmetry (i.e., larger costs when switching from a nondominant into a dominant task than vice versa) has been explained in terms of the trial-to-trial carryover of activation levels required for the dominant versus the nondominant task. However, there is an open question about whether an actual switch in task is in fact necessary to obtain a "selection" cost asymmetry. In Experiments 1 and 2, we modified an alternating-runs paradigm to include either long or short response-to-stimulus intervals (RSIs) after each pair of trials (i.e., AA-AA-BB-BB), thereby inducing selection costs not only at the point of a task switch (i.e., AA-BB), but also between same-task pairs (i.e., AA-AA). Using spatially compatible versus incompatible response rules (Experiment 1) and Stroop word versus color naming (Experiment 2), we found asymmetric effects not only at task-change transitions, but also at task-repeat transitions when the RSI was long (presumably inducing frequent losses of set). In Experiments 3A and 3B, a cost asymmetry for long RSIs was obtained even when competing tasks were separated into alternating single task blocks, but not when the tasks were compared in a between-subjects design. This general pattern cannot be explained by activation carryover models, but is consistent with the idea that the asymmetry arises as a result of interference from long-term memory traces.

  16. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration.

  17. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration. PMID:28360878

  18. "Task" as Research Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…

  19. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  20. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  1. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  2. Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…

  3. Task Time Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, G.

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  4. Behavioral Task Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    depicting hierarchical behavioral task relationships as well. An extensive list of such tools is given in Wikipedia articles at http...Hierarchical task analysis . In D. Diaper & N. A. Stanton (Eds .), The handbook of task analysis for human-computer interaction (pp. 67-82). Mahwah, NJ

  5. Data Systems Task Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    PAPER TAPES 63. NOTIFY CUSTOMER ENGINEERS (CE) OR TECHNICAL REPRESENTATIVES OF EQUIPMENT FAILURE 64. NOTIFY PRCGRAMMERS OR ANALYSIS CF PROCESSING...A08873 MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON DC F/B 5/9 DATA SYSTEMS TASK ANALYSIS . (U) "CLASSIFIEO. -%mm . LEVELIs DATA SYSTEMS O0 TASK ANALYSIS DCI) OO JF AUG 28...QUANTICO, VIRGINIA, 22134 "Ji (o t , - ’ i " DSYS)879 UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS TASK ANALYSIS PROGRAM QUESTICNNAIRE BOCKLET INTROCUCT ION YUU HAVE BEEN

  6. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport.

  7. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  8. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  9. Learning one task by interleaving practice with another task

    PubMed Central

    Szpiro, Sarit; Wright, Beverly A.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a sustainable improvement in performance on a perceptual task following training. A hallmark of perceptual learning is task specificity – after participants have trained on and learned a particular task, learning rarely transfers to another task, even with identical stimuli. Accordingly, it is assumed that performing a task throughout training is a requirement for learning to occur on that specific task. Thus, interleaving training trials of a target task, with those of another task, should not improve performance on the target task. However, recent findings in audition show that interleaving two tasks during training can facilitate perceptual learning, even when the training on neither task yields learning on its own. Here we examined the role of cross-task training in the visual domain by training 4 groups of human observers for 3 consecutive days on an orientation comparison task (target task) and/or spatial-frequency comparison task (interleaving task). Interleaving small amounts of training on each task, which were ineffective alone, not only enabled learning on the target orientation task, as in audition, but also surpassed the learning attained by training on that task alone for the same total number of trials. This study illustrates that cross-task training in visual perceptual learning can be more effective than single-task training. The results reveal a comparable learning principle across modalities and demonstrate how to optimize training regimens to maximize perceptual learning. PMID:24959653

  10. Data analysis tasks: BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1993-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the operation of, and analysis of data from, the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  11. Job and Task Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Morris, Johnnye M.

    1972-01-01

    Job and task analyses for bus boy, short order cook, and child care aide; also contains a career ladder for a child care center and proposed course of study and job analysis form for child care aide. (SB)

  12. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  13. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  14. Goal orientation, perceived task outcome and task demands in mathematics tasks: effects on students' attitude in actual task settings.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Gerard; van Putten, Cornelis M; de Brabander, Cornelis J

    2002-09-01

    In earlier studies, it has been found that students' domain-specific cognitions and personal learning goals (goal orientation) influence task-specific appraisals of actual learning tasks. The relations between domain-specific and task-specific variables have been specified in the model of adaptive learning. In this study, additional influences, i.e., perceived task outcome on a former occasion and variations in task demands, were investigated. The purpose of this study was to identify personality and situational variables that mediate students' attitude when confronted with a mathematics task. Students worked on a mathematics task in two subsequent sessions. Effects of perceived task outcome at the first session on students' attitude at the second session were investigated. In addition, we investigated how differences in task demands influenced students' attitude. Variations in task demands were provoked by different conditions in task-instruction. In one condition, students were told that the result on the test would add to their mark on mathematics. This outcome orienting condition was contrasted with a task-orienting condition where students were told that the results on the test would not be used to give individual grades. Participants were sixth grade students (N = 345; aged 11-12 years) from 14 primary schools. Multivariate and univariate analyses of (co)variance were applied to the data. Independent variables were goal orientation, task demands, and perceived task outcome, with task-specific variables (estimated competence for the task, task attraction, task relevance, and willingness to invest effort) as the dependent variables. The results showed that previous perceived task outcome had a substantial impact on students' attitude. Additional but smaller effects were found for variation in task demands. Furthermore, effects of previous perceived task outcome and task demands were related to goal orientation. The resulting pattern confirmed that, in general

  15. Task-Based Learning: The Interaction between Tasks and Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between tasks and learners in task-based learning. Findings suggest that manipulation of task characteristics and conditions may not achieve the intended pedagogic outcomes, and that new ways are needed to focus learners' attention of form without sacrificing the meaning-driven principles of task-based learning.…

  16. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  17. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  18. Realistic Sensor Tasking Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, C.; Fiedler, H.; Herzog, J.

    2016-09-01

    Efficient sensor tasking is a crucial step in building up and maintaining a catalog of space objects at the highest possible orbit quality. Sensor resources are limited; sensor location and setup (hardware and processing software) influence the quality of observations for initial orbit determination or orbit improvement that can be obtained. Furthermore, improved sensing capabilities are expected to lead to an increase of objects that are sought to be maintained in a catalog, easily reaching over 100'000 objects. Sensor tasking methods hence need to be computationally efficient in order to be successfully applied to operational systems, and need to take realistic constraints, such as limited visibility of objects, time-varying probability of detection and the specific capabilities in software and hardware for the specific sensors into account. This paper shows a method to formulate sensor tasking as an optimization problem and introduces a new method to provide fast and computationally efficient real time, near optimal sensor tasking solutions. Simulations are preformed using the USSTRATCOM TLE catalog of all geosynchronous objects. The results are compared to state of the art observation strategies.

  19. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  20. Chizu Task Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Chizu is a tool for Mapping MPI processes or tasks to physical processors or nodes for optimizing communication performance. It takes the communication graph of a High Performance Computing (HPC) application and the interconnection topology of a supercomputer as input. It outputs a new MPI rand to processor mapping, which can be used when launching the HPC application.

  1. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  2. Thinking about "Rich" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Lorna; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an e-mail conversation between two teachers discussing how to have a "rich task" lesson in which they get to the heart of mathematical modeling and in which students are motivated into working on mathematics. One teacher emphasizes that the power of maths is in developing mathematical descriptions of situations by…

  3. BIA Reorganization Task Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on three hearings held this spring by the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization Task Force, this article presents highlights from the testimony of Forrest Gerard, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs and discusses the matrix system of organization currently under consideration by the BIA. (JC)

  4. Thinking about "Rich" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Lorna; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an e-mail conversation between two teachers discussing how to have a "rich task" lesson in which they get to the heart of mathematical modeling and in which students are motivated into working on mathematics. One teacher emphasizes that the power of maths is in developing mathematical descriptions of situations by…

  5. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  6. Mining Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    In fall 1988, the Board of Directors of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) created a task force to study the training needs of the mining industry in the province and evaluate SIAST's responsiveness to those needs. After assessing the technological changes taking place in the industry, surveying manpower needs,…

  7. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  8. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  9. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  10. Can tasks be inherently boring?

    PubMed

    Charney, Evan

    2013-12-01

    Kurzban et al. argue that the experiences of "effort," "boredom," and "fatigue" are indications that the costs of a task outweigh its benefits. Reducing the costs of tasks to "opportunity costs" has the effect of rendering tasks costless and of denying that they can be inherently boring or tedious, something that "vigilance tasks" were intentionally designed to be.

  11. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in Elementary Cognitive Tasks Reflect Task Difficulty and Task Threshold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caryl, P. G.; Harper, Alison

    1996-01-01

    Effects on the event-related potential (ERP) waveform of differences in stimuli (task difficulty) and threshold were studied with 35 undergraduates performing a visual inspection time task and 30 performing a pitch discrimination task. In both tasks, ERP differences related to threshold were temporally localized differences in waveform shape. (SLD)

  12. Task switching in a hierarchical task structure: evidence for the fragility of the task repetition benefit.

    PubMed

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-05-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms. In Experiments 2-5, adjacent task elements were grouped temporally and/or spatially (forming an ensemble) to create a hierarchical task organization. Results indicate that the effect of switching at the ensemble level dominated the effect of switching at the element level. Experiments 6 and 7, using an ensemble of 3 task elements, revealed that the element-level switch cost was virtually absent between ensembles but was large within an ensemble. The authors conclude that the element-level task repetition benefit is fragile and can be eliminated in a hierarchical task organization.

  13. Task switching in a hierarchical task structure: evidence for the fragility of the task repetition benefit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms. In Experiments 2-5, adjacent task elements were grouped temporally and/or spatially (forming an ensemble) to create a hierarchical task organization. Results indicate that the effect of switching at the ensemble level dominated the effect of switching at the element level. Experiments 6 and 7, using an ensemble of 3 task elements, revealed that the element-level switch cost was virtually absent between ensembles but was large within an ensemble. The authors conclude that the element-level task repetition benefit is fragile and can be eliminated in a hierarchical task organization.

  14. Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrell, Dean H., II

    Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

  15. Nursery Task Force update

    Treesearch

    Russ Pohl

    2007-01-01

    The Nursery Task Force was set up at the behest of the Southern Group of State Foresters in the late winter/spring of 2005. Its mission was to assess the condition of state nurseries across the South and to make recommendations to improve their viability. At the time, tree planting cost-share money was diminished; pulpwood prices were low; much of the Southeast had...

  16. Management Agenda Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Report FY04-4 • Recommendations related to business management priorities for the Secretary of Defense February...Business Board (DBB) formed this Task Group to assess and make recommendations to the Department of Defense on management priorities for the next four...This list should be drawn from the four primary areas of DBB focus over the past three years: human resources, financial management, acquisition

  17. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  18. The task force process

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.S.

    1995-01-31

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several {open_quotes}big picture{close_quotes} issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald.

  19. Generic cognitive adaptations to task interference in task switching.

    PubMed

    Poljac, Edita; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigated how the activation of previous tasks interferes with the execution of future tasks as a result of temporal manipulations. Color and shape matching tasks were organized in runs of two trials each. The tasks were specified by a cue presented before a task run, cueing only the first trials of each run. Response times (RTs) and error rates were measured for task switching and task repetition conditions. Task interference was varied as a function of response-cue interval (RCI of 300 and 900ms), that is, the interval between the task runs. Keeping the response-stimulus interval within the task runs constant at 300ms allowed the disentangling of the direct effects of RCI manipulation on performance (first trials) from the general effects on performance (both trials in the run). The data showed similar performance improvement due to RCI increase on both trials in the task run. Furthermore, increasing RCI improved both switch and repetition performance to a similar extent. Together, our findings provide further evidence for accounts stressing generic effects of proactive task interference in task switching.

  20. Pre-Task Syntactic Priming and Focused Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy S.

    2010-01-01

    Focused tasks engage learners in using language for communication and in addition have a specific predetermined linguistic focus in mind. The difficulty in designing focused tasks is that many meanings can be articulated using more than one language form, making it difficult to design tasks which induce learner use of a specific target form. This…

  1. Learner Mining of Pre-Task and Task Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy Scott

    2008-01-01

    The findings reported in this article suggest that learners inevitably "mine" wordings contained in pre-task and task materials when performing tasks, even when the teacher did not explicitly draw learner attention to these features. However, this was found to be true only with written materials, and learners did not appear to mine specific…

  2. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  3. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  4. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  5. Silicon material task review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Silicon Material Task are to evaluate technologies, new and old; to develop the most promising technologies; to establish practicality of the processes to meet production, energy use, and economic criteria; and to develop an information base on impurities in polysilicon and to determine their effects on solar cell performance. The approach involves determining process feasibility, setting milestones for the forced selection of the processes, and establishing the technical readiness of the integrated process.

  6. Task-Level Robot Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Number) We are investigating how to program robots so that they learn from experience. Our goal is to develop principled methods of learning that can...juggling. We have developed one method of learning, task-level learning, that successfully improves a robot’s performance of both a ball-throwing and a...dramatically improves. Task-level learning is a general method of improving a robot’s performance of complex dynamic tasks. Task-level learning serves

  7. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James

    2012-11-01

    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  8. Principles of Communicative Task Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…

  9. Reverse-Engineering Communication Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamber, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to planning sequences of communication tasks that require learners to become personally involved in their learning. By drawing on their own ideas and experiences, as a product of earlier tasks in a given sequence, learners generate the content and resource material on which subsequent tasks operate. The article…

  10. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  11. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  12. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  13. Task-Based Information Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the relationship between task performance and information searching by end-users, focusing on information searching in electronic environments and information retrieval systems. Topics include task analysis; task characteristics; search goals; modeling information searching; modeling search goals; information seeking behavior;…

  14. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  15. The Effect of Hierarchical Task Representations on Task Selection in Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Starla M.; Arrington, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the potential for hierarchical representations to influence action selection during voluntary task switching. Participants switched between 4 individual task elements. In Experiment 1, participants were encouraged to represent the task elements as grouped within a hierarchy based on experimental manipulations of varying…

  16. The Effect of Hierarchical Task Representations on Task Selection in Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Starla M.; Arrington, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the potential for hierarchical representations to influence action selection during voluntary task switching. Participants switched between 4 individual task elements. In Experiment 1, participants were encouraged to represent the task elements as grouped within a hierarchy based on experimental manipulations of varying…

  17. Task directed sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firby, R. James

    1990-01-01

    High-level robot control research must confront the limitations imposed by real sensors if robots are to be controlled effectively in the real world. In particular, sensor limitations make it impossible to maintain a complete, detailed world model of the situation surrounding the robot. To address the problems involved in planning with the resulting incomplete and uncertain world models, traditional robot control architectures must be altered significantly. Task-directed sensing and control is suggested as a way of coping with world model limitations by focusing sensing and analysis resources on only those parts of the world relevant to the robot's active goals. The RAP adaptive execution system is used as an example of a control architecture designed to deploy sensing resources in this way to accomplish both action and knowledge goals.

  18. Task directed sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firby, R. James

    1990-01-01

    High-level robot control research must confront the limitations imposed by real sensors if robots are to be controlled effectively in the real world. In particular, sensor limitations make it impossible to maintain a complete, detailed world model of the situation surrounding the robot. To address the problems involved in planning with the resulting incomplete and uncertain world models, traditional robot control architectures must be altered significantly. Task-directed sensing and control is suggested as a way of coping with world model limitations by focusing sensing and analysis resources on only those parts of the world relevant to the robot's active goals. The RAP adaptive execution system is used as an example of a control architecture designed to deploy sensing resources in this way to accomplish both action and knowledge goals.

  19. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  20. Task Prioritization in Dual-Tasking: Instructions versus Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Reinier J.; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib

    2016-01-01

    The role of task prioritization in performance tradeoffs during multi-tasking has received widespread attention. However, little is known on whether people have preferences regarding tasks, and if so, whether these preferences conflict with priority instructions. Three experiments were conducted with a high-speed driving game and an auditory memory task. In Experiment 1, participants did not receive priority instructions. Participants performed different sequences of single-task and dual-task conditions. Task performance was evaluated according to participants’ retrospective accounts on preferences. These preferences were reformulated as priority instructions in Experiments 2 and 3. The results showed that people differ in their preferences regarding task prioritization in an experimental setting, which can be overruled by priority instructions, but only after increased dual-task exposure. Additional measures of mental effort showed that performance tradeoffs had an impact on mental effort. The interpretation of these findings was used to explore an extension of Threaded Cognition Theory with Hockey’s Compensatory Control Model. PMID:27391779

  1. Familiarity with the experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Lara; Wascher, Claudia A F; Weiss, Brigitte M; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2014-03-01

    When humans and animals interact with one another over an extended time span they familiarise and may develop a relationship, which can exert an influence on both partners. For example, the behaviour of an animal in experiments may be affected by its relationship to the human experimenter. However, few studies have systematically examined the impact of human-animal relationships on experimental results. In the present study we investigated if familiarity with a human experimenter influences the performance of Common ravens (Corvus corax) and Carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) in interactive tasks. Birds were tested in two interactive cognitive tasks (exchange, object choice) by several experimenters representing different levels of familiarity (long and short-term). Our findings show that the birds participated more often in both tasks and were more successful in the exchange task when working with long-term experimenters than when working with short-term experimenters. Behavioural observations indicate that anxiety did not inhibit experimental performance but that the birds' motivation to work differed between the two kinds of experimenters, familiar and less familiar. We conclude that human-animal relationships (i.e. familiarity) may affect the experimental performance of corvids in interactive cognitive tasks. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, R.; Imbriale, W.; Liewer, P.; Lyons, J.; Manshadi, F.; Patterson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Hypercube Matrix Computation (Year 1986-1987) task investigated the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Two existing electromagnetic scattering codes were selected for conversion to the Mark III Hypercube concurrent computing environment. They were selected so that the underlying numerical algorithms utilized would be different thereby providing a more thorough evaluation of the appropriateness of the parallel environment for these types of problems. The first code was a frequency domain method of moments solution, NEC-2, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second code was a time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations to solve for the scattered fields. Once the codes were implemented on the hypercube and verified to obtain correct solutions by comparing the results with those from sequential runs, several measures were used to evaluate the performance of the two codes. First, a comparison was provided of the problem size possible on the hypercube with 128 megabytes of memory for a 32-node configuration with that available in a typical sequential user environment of 4 to 8 megabytes. Then, the performance of the codes was anlyzed for the computational speedup attained by the parallel architecture.

  3. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, Ruel H.; Imbriale, William A.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Lyons, James R.; Manshadi, Farzin; Patterson, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    A major objective of the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to investigate the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Three scattering analysis codes are being implemented and assessed on a JPL/California Institute of Technology (Caltech) Mark 3 Hypercube. The codes, which utilize different underlying algorithms, give a means of evaluating the general applicability of this parallel architecture. The three analysis codes being implemented are a frequency domain method of moments code, a time domain finite difference code, and a frequency domain finite elements code. These analysis capabilities are being integrated into an electromagnetics interactive analysis workstation which can serve as a design tool for the construction of antennas and other radiating or scattering structures. The first two years of work on the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort is summarized. It includes both new developments and results as well as work previously reported in the Hypercube Matrix Computation Task: Final Report for 1986 to 1987 (JPL Publication 87-18).

  4. Scheduling Tasks In Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Camille C.; Salama, Moktar A.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms sought to minimize time and cost of computation. Report describes research on scheduling of computations tasks in system of multiple identical data processors operating in parallel. Computational intractability requires use of suboptimal heuristic algorithms. First algorithm called "list heuristic", variation of classical list scheduling. Second algorithm called "cluster heuristic" applied to tightly coupled tasks and consists of four phases. Third algorithm called "exchange heuristic", iterative-improvement algorithm beginning with initial feasible assignment of tasks to processors and periods of time. Fourth algorithm is iterative one for optimal assignment of tasks and based on concept called "simulated annealing" because of mathematical resemblance to aspects of physical annealing processes.

  5. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  6. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  7. Escape Behavior in Task Situations: Task versus Social Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jill C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four students (ages 4-6) with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to high intensity and low intensity social interaction in a play situation and a task situation. Interaction intensity made no difference in students' behavior. Two students exhibited task avoidance and two exhibited…

  8. Independent vs. Integrated Writing Tasks: A Comparison of Task Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2010-01-01

    As the field of second language writing embraces the authenticity and meaningfulness of connecting writing with other skills, language teachers and testers require greater understanding of how writers respond to as well as compose for integrated tasks. Research on integrated tasks is critical in highlighting how integration impacts students and…

  9. Escape behavior in task situations: task versus social antecedents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Ekdahl, M M; Romanczyk, R G; Miller, M L

    1994-06-01

    We designed an investigation to differentiate two types of challenging behaviors occurring in teaching situations: those evoked by task stimuli (i.e., task avoidance), and those evoked by social stimuli present in teaching situations (i.e., social avoidance). Four students with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to social interaction in a play situation and task demands in a teaching situation. Results indicated that the students exhibited two distinct behavior patterns. Two of the students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with task avoidance and the other two students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with social avoidance. Implications concerning task versus social avoidance and the need for more fine-grained analyses of the stimuli associated with escape behavior are discussed.

  10. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  11. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  12. Putting Mathematical Tasks into Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney R.; Styers, Jodie L.

    2015-01-01

    Although many factors affect students' mathematical activity during a lesson, the teacher's selection and implementation of tasks is arguably the most influential in determining the level of student engagement. Mathematical tasks are intended to focus students' attention on a particular mathematical concept and it is the careful developing and…

  13. Students' Engagement in Literacy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Parsons, Allison Ward; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers insight into what makes literacy tasks engaging or disengaging based on observations of and interviews with students. In a yearlong study of a sixth-grade classroom in a Title I school, students engaged in integrated literacy-social studies instruction. Researchers studied the degree of task openness and the degree to which…

  14. TASK: Anarchy in the Artroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Cynthia; Van Patten, Kelda

    2012-01-01

    Most teenagers do not really like to be told what to do. For that matter, most adults don't either. This article discusses contemporary artist Oliver Herring's TASK, which is an opportunity for participants to bend or define the rules on their own terms. It is about choice, and, for many, it is a dream come true. TASK is controlled chaos that can…

  15. Creativity, Overinclusion, and Everyday Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Elliott, Colette Seter; Giovannetti, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between creative thinking and performance on routine, everyday tasks. Results were considered in light of past research on the putative relation between creativity and schizophrenia/psychotic thinking. Thirty healthy undergraduates completed the Alternative Uses Task, a measure of divergent thinking, and the 2 × 3…

  16. Procedural Error and Task Interruption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-30

    performance, and pilot data suggest that the task can distinguish between cognitive processes that are impaired by sleep deprivation and those that are...TERMS procedural error, task interruption, individual differences, fluid intelligence, sleep deprivation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...0247 Background Accomplishments Validation studies Modeling Other publications Table of Contents Pilot study: Effects of sleep deprivation

  17. Typist: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the typist, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in developing the…

  18. Drafting Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in drafting. The tasks required to perform the duties of seven types of drafters (i.e., general, architectural, electronic, civil, structural, mechanical, and process pipe drafters) and technical illustrators are outlined. The following are among the duties…

  19. Creativity, Overinclusion, and Everyday Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Elliott, Colette Seter; Giovannetti, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between creative thinking and performance on routine, everyday tasks. Results were considered in light of past research on the putative relation between creativity and schizophrenia/psychotic thinking. Thirty healthy undergraduates completed the Alternative Uses Task, a measure of divergent thinking, and the 2 × 3…

  20. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  1. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  2. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  3. Analysing and Training Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, J.; Gregov, A.; Halliday, P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes two exploratory studies of undergraduate and postgraduate students concerning the difficulties of learning to perform HTA (hierarchical task analysis) and how those difficulties might be overcome through proper training. Errors occurred with respect to all HTA criteria, suggesting that carrying out HTR itself is a complex cognitive task.…

  4. Microcomputer Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the microcomputer series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  5. Science 102: This Month's Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  6. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  7. Microcomputer Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the microcomputer series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  8. Printing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 10 occupations in the printing series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  9. Task Group for Orthodontics Report.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, K W; Brown, D V; Edler, R J; Kirschen, R H; Macadam, T S; Stephens, C D

    1998-08-01

    The UK Specialist Review Group of the General Dental Council's Education Committee has been charged with taking forward the recommendations in the Chief Dental Officer's report 'UK Specialist Dental Training'. The Specialist Review Group has, in turn, established a number of specialty task groups. This report is from the Task Group for Orthodontics. It was submitted in May 1996.

  10. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  11. Receptionist: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of a series of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the receptionist, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in…

  12. Science 102: This Month's Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  13. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  14. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  15. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  16. Service Excellence Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Univ. Libraries.

    A task force was appointed to measure user satisfaction with library services, establish a university libraries' service excellence philosophy and policy, bring the service excellence concept to the attention of every library employee, and recommend approaches for recognizing outstanding staff service. The members of the task force--two library…

  17. Decision paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  18. Task Attention Facilitates Learning of Task-Irrelevant Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Watanabe, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Attention plays a fundamental role in visual learning and memory. One highly established principle of visual attention is that the harder a central task is, the more attentional resources are used to perform the task and the smaller amount of attention is allocated to peripheral processing because of limited attention capacity. Here we show that this principle holds true in a dual-task setting but not in a paradigm of task-irrelevant perceptual learning. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to identify either bright or dim number targets at the screen center and to remember concurrently presented scene backgrounds. Their recognition performances for scenes paired with dim/hard targets were worse than those for scenes paired with bright/easy targets. In Experiment 2, eight participants were asked to identify either bright or dim letter targets at the screen center while a task-irrelevant coherent motion was concurrently presented in the background. After five days of training on letter identification, participants improved their motion sensitivity to the direction paired with hard/dim targets improved but not to the direction paired with easy/bright targets. Taken together, these results suggest that task-irrelevant stimuli are not subject to the attentional control mechanisms that task-relevant stimuli abide. PMID:22563424

  19. Assessment of dialyzer surface in online hemodiafiltration; objective choice of dialyzer surface area.

    PubMed

    Maduell, Francisco; Ojeda, Raquel; Arias-Guillén, Marta; Bazan, Giannina; Vera, Manel; Fontseré, Néstor; Massó, Elisabeth; Gómez, Miquel; Rodas, Lida; Jiménez-Hernández, Mario; Piñeiro, Gastón; Rico, Nayra

    2015-01-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) is currently the most effective technique. Several randomized studies and meta-analyses have observed a reduction in mortality as well as a direct association with convective volume. Currently, it has not been well established whether a larger dialyzer surface area could provide better results in terms of convective and depurative effectiveness. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of larger dialyzer surface areas on convective volume and filtration capacity. A total of 37 patients were studied, including 31 men and 6 women, who were in the OL-HDF program using a 5008 Cordiax monitor with auto-substitution. Each patient was analyzed in 3 sessions in which only the dialyzer surface area varied (1.0, 1.4 or 1.8 m(2)). The concentrations of urea (60 Da), creatinine (113 Da), β2-microglobulin (11800 Da), myoglobin (17200 Da) and α1-microglobulin (33000 Da) were determined in serum at the beginning and end of each session in order to calculate the percent reduction of these solutes. The convective volume reached was 29.8 ± 3.0 with 1.0 m(2), 32.7 ± 3.1 (an increase of 6%) with 1.4 m(2), and 34.7 ± 3.3 L (an increase of 16%) with 1.8 m(2) (p<.001). The increased surface of the dialyzer showed an increase in the dialysis dose as well as urea and creatinine filtration. The percentage of β2m reduction increased from 80.0 ± 5.6 with 1.0 m(2) to 83.2 ± 4.2 with 1.4 m(2) and to 84.3 ± 4.0% with 1.8 m(2). As for myoglobin and a1-microglobulin, significant differences were observed between smaller surface area (1.0 m(2)) 65.6 ± 11 and 20.1 ± 9.3 and the other two surface areas, which were 70.0 ± 8.1 and 24.1 ± 7.1 (1.4 m(2)) and 72.3 ± 8.7 and 28.6 ± 12 (1.8 m(2)). The 40% and 80% increases in surface area led to increased convective volumes of 6 and 16% respectively, while showing minimal differences in both the convective volume as well as the filtration capacity when the CUF was higher than 45 ml/h/mmHg. It is recommended to optimize the performance of dialyzers with the minimal surface area possible when adjusting the treatment prescription. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E.

    1981-01-01

    Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

  1. Task Dependent Differences and Individual Differences in Dual Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    conversation with the flight instructor, with the skilled pilot who can easily excercise flight control, and converse in par- allel. A difference...The subjects tested were 35 twelve-year olds , who performed tasks singly first then two dual task pairs and then each singly again. McQueen’s results...conducted by Sverko (1977) on adults in an effort to find evidence for a general factor of time-sharing skill. This study was conducted in order to

  2. Graph Theory of Tower Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Andreas M.

    2012-01-01

    The appropriate mathematical model for the problem space of tower transformation tasks is the state graph representing positions of discs or balls and their moves. Graph theoretical quantities like distance, eccentricities or degrees of vertices and symmetries of graphs support the choice of problems, the selection of tasks and the analysis of performance of subjects whose solution paths can be projected onto the graph. The mathematical model is also at the base of a computerized test tool to administer various types of tower tasks. PMID:22207419

  3. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  4. Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

  5. Resolving Task Rule Incongruence during Task Switching by Competitor Rule Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an…

  6. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    PubMed Central

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  7. Quantum tasks in Minkowski space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    The fundamental properties of quantum information and its applications to computing and cryptography have been greatly illuminated by considering information-theoretic tasks that are provably possible or impossible within non-relativistic quantum mechanics. I describe here a general framework for defining tasks within (special) relativistic quantum theory and illustrate it with examples from relativistic quantum cryptography and relativistic distributed quantum computation. The framework gives a unified description of all tasks previously considered and also defines a large class of new questions about the properties of quantum information in relation to Minkowski causality. It offers a way of exploring interesting new fundamental tasks and applications, and also highlights the scope for a more systematic understanding of the fundamental information-theoretic properties of relativistic quantum theory.

  8. Annual Progress report - General Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  9. Effects of a no-go Task 2 on Task 1 performance in dual - tasking: From benefits to costs.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Markus; Huestegge, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    When two tasks are combined in a dual-task experiment, characteristics of Task 2 can influence Task 1 performance, a phenomenon termed the backward crosstalk effect (BCE). Besides instances depending on the (spatial) compatibility of both responses, a particularly interesting example was introduced by Miller (2006): If Task 2 was a no-go task (i.e., one not requiring any action at all), responses were slowed in Task 1. Subsequent work, however, also reported the opposite result-that is, faster Task 1 responses in cases of no-go Task 2 trials. We report three experiments aiming to more precisely identify the conditions under which a no-go Task 2 facilitates or impedes Task 1 performance. The results suggest that an adverse no-go BCE is only observed when the Task 2 response(s) are sufficiently prepared in advance, yielding strong inhibitory control demands for Task 2 that eventually hamper Task 1 processing as well (i.e., inhibitory costs). If this is not the case, encountering a no-go Task 2 trial facilitates Task 1 performance, suggesting that the underlying task representation is reduced to a single - task. These results are discussed in the context of other recent work on BCEs and of recently suggested accounts of the no-go BCE.

  10. 29 CFR 541.707 - Occasional tasks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.707 Occasional tasks. Occasional, infrequently recurring tasks...

  11. Graphical programming of telerobotic tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies. Graphical Programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia most advanced Graphical Programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia`s recent advances in supervisory control. Sancho, developed to rapidly apply Graphical Programming on a diverse set of robot systems, uses a general set of tools to implement task and operational behavior. Sancho can be rapidly reconfigured for new tasks and operations without modifying the supervisory code. Other innovations include task-based interfaces, event-based sequencing, and sophisticated GUI design. These innovations have resulted in robot control programs and approaches that are easier and safer to use than teleoperation, off-line programming, or full automation.

  12. IEA Wind Task 36 Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut; Shaw, Will; Pinson, Pierre; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Kariniotakis, Georges; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Draxl, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Wind Power Forecasting tries to organise international collaboration, among national weather centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, UK MetOffice, …) and operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets for verification. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts aiming at industry and forecasters alike. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions, especially probabilistic ones. The Operating Agent is Gregor Giebel of DTU, Co-Operating Agent is Joel Cline of the US Department of Energy. Collaboration in the task is solicited from everyone interested in the forecasting business. We will collaborate with IEA Task 31 Wakebench, which developed the Windbench benchmarking platform, which this task will use for forecasting benchmarks. The task runs for three years, 2016-2018. Main deliverables are an up-to-date list of current projects and main project results, including datasets which can be used by researchers around the world to improve their own models, an IEA Recommended Practice on performance evaluation of probabilistic forecasts, a position paper regarding the use of probabilistic forecasts

  13. Subjective Estimation of Task Time and Task Difficulty of Simple Movement Tasks.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that the same neural structures are used for both imagined and real movements. To provide a strong test of the similarity of imagined and actual movement times, 4 simple movement tasks were used to determine the relationship between estimated task time and actual movement time. The tasks were single-component visually controlled movements, 2-component visually controlled, low index of difficulty (ID) moves and pin-to-hole transfer movements. For each task there was good correspondence between the mean estimated times and actual movement times. In all cases, the same factors determined the actual and estimated movement times: the amplitudes of movement and the IDs of the component movements, however the contribution of each of these variables differed for the imagined and real tasks. Generally, the standard deviations of the estimated times were linearly related to the estimated time values. Overall, the data provide strong evidence for the same neural structures being used for both imagined and actual movements.

  14. The Dissipating Task-Repetition Benefit in Cued Task Switching: Task-Set Decay or Temporal Distinctiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horoufchin, Himeh; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2011-01-01

    Decay of task-set activation, as commonly assumed in models of task switching, has been thought to be indexed by manipulating the response-to-cue interval (RCI) in a task-cuing paradigm. We propose an alternative account for RCI effects suggesting that episodic task retrieval is modulated by temporal distinctiveness, which we define as the ratio…

  15. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  16. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  17. Fighting Terrorism: An Enduring Task,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    interview with ADN- Kronos , an Italian news service, was first published in 17. Messaggero. Subsequently it appeared in several European newspapers...ENDURING TASK Brian Michael Jenkins The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California February 1981 The following interview with ADN- Kronos , an Italian news

  18. Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

  19. Task-Based Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of task-based writing instruction, a communicative language-teaching method, on second language acquisition and differentiation of instruction for English language learners during the independent work time instructional component of the Open Court Reading program. Through student-teacher…

  20. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  1. American Indian Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, John E., Ed.

    Assuming that the client is central to any service program, the American Indian Task Force examined a national sample of "grass roots" social service organizations and/or individuals and schools of social work to determine the capability of providing relevant social work education to American Indians. Accordingly, the highest priorities…

  2. Incidental Learning and Task Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedberg, Michael; Wagschal, Tana T.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    For skill learning processes to be effective, they must encode associations that are inherent to the current task and avoid those that are spurious or particular to training conditions so that learning can transfer to novel situations. Some everyday contexts even require grouped responding to simultaneously presented stimuli. Here we test whether…

  3. Incidental Learning and Task Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedberg, Michael; Wagschal, Tana T.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    For skill learning processes to be effective, they must encode associations that are inherent to the current task and avoid those that are spurious or particular to training conditions so that learning can transfer to novel situations. Some everyday contexts even require grouped responding to simultaneously presented stimuli. Here we test whether…

  4. Physiological assessment of task underload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Pope, Alan T.

    1988-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research efforts directed at underload, boredom, or complacency in high-technology work environments is to detect conditions or states of the operator that can be demonstrated to lead to performance degradation, and then to intervene in the environment to restore acceptable system performance. Physiological measures may provide indices of changes in condition or state of the operator that may be of value in high-technology work environments. The focus of the present study was on the use of physiological measures in the assessment of operator condition or state in a task underload scenario. A fault acknowledgement task characterized by simple repetitive responses with minimal novelty, complexity, and uncertainty was employed to place subjects in a task underload situation. Physiological measures (electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and pupil diameter) were monitored during task performance over a one-hour test session for 12 subjects. Each of the physiological measures exhibited changes over the test session indicative of decrements in subject arousal level. While high correlations between physiological measures were found across subjects, individual differences between subjects support the use of profiling techniques to establish baselines unique to each subject.

  5. Inhibition in Prolonged Work Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ven, A. H. G. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A new model is presented that explains reaction time fluctuations in prolonged work tasks. The model extends the so-called Poisson-Erlang model and accounts for long-term trend effects in the reaction time curve. The model is consistent with Spearman's hypothesis that inhibition increases during work and decreases during rest. (TJH)

  6. Task-driven dictionary learning.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Julien; Bach, Francis; Ponce, Jean

    2012-04-01

    Modeling data with linear combinations of a few elements from a learned dictionary has been the focus of much recent research in machine learning, neuroscience, and signal processing. For signals such as natural images that admit such sparse representations, it is now well established that these models are well suited to restoration tasks. In this context, learning the dictionary amounts to solving a large-scale matrix factorization problem, which can be done efficiently with classical optimization tools. The same approach has also been used for learning features from data for other purposes, e.g., image classification, but tuning the dictionary in a supervised way for these tasks has proven to be more difficult. In this paper, we present a general formulation for supervised dictionary learning adapted to a wide variety of tasks, and present an efficient algorithm for solving the corresponding optimization problem. Experiments on handwritten digit classification, digital art identification, nonlinear inverse image problems, and compressed sensing demonstrate that our approach is effective in large-scale settings, and is well suited to supervised and semi-supervised classification, as well as regression tasks for data that admit sparse representations.

  7. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  8. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  9. Conducting the Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for project directors, coordinators, and other professional staff involved in developing and delivering workplace education programs, explains the process of conducting a job task analysis to create customized curricula to meet the workplace education students' needs. After a brief discussion of the rationale for…

  10. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  11. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  12. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  13. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  14. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  15. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  16. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  17. Tasks for Easily Modifiable Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swier, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of learner interaction in virtual worlds have tended to select basic tasks involving open-ended communication. There is evidence that such tasks are supportive of language acquisition, however it may also be beneficial to consider more complex tasks. Research in task-based learning has identified features such as non-linguistic…

  18. An architecture for intelligent task interruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

    1990-01-01

    In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

  19. Task Analysis and the Ability Requirements of Tasks: Collected Papers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    abilities required for jobs. Identification of ability require- ments is a first step in the process of assembling performance tests that are related...rtiteal contact cues outside the cockpit or flight instru- ci t ntnts pertaining to a particular work station; ment cues within the cockpit. A task...defined as individually distinct move- tors assigned to primary training. On the basis ments or mediating responses elicited by environ- of their

  20. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  1. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  2. Novel Peritonsillar Abscess Task Simulator.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven R; Chang, C W David

    2014-07-01

    The management of peritonsillar abscesses is a skill developed early in residency training. Although drainage is not technically complicated, the procedure is intimidating to the neophyte. Task simulators have become increasingly common to provide training opportunities in a controlled environment. The authors designed a peritonsillar abscess simulator using a latex moulage of the oral cavity and other common materials. Twelve medical professionals of various levels of experience were instructed to expose, anesthetize, aspirate, and drain the simulated abscess. After completion, a questionnaire was completed by each volunteer. Initial impressions were positive that the model adequately replicated the tasks requisite for abscess drainage and was suitable as an instructional device. The initial construct cost was approximately 10 dollars, with disposables costing roughly 25 cents. Further research is under way to formally assess the simulator for face, content, and construct validity. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  3. Serpentine Robots for Inspection Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Choset, Howie

    2003-09-11

    Serpentine robots are snake like devices that can use their internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes accessing locations that people or conventional machinery cannot. These devices are ideally suited for minimally invasive inspection tasks where the surrounding areas do not have to be disturbed. Applications for these devices are therefore inspection of underground tanks and other storage facilities for classification purposes. This work deals with the design, construction, and control of a serpentine robot. The challenges lie in developing a device that can lift itself in three dimensions, which is necessary for the inspection tasks. The other challenge in control deals with coordinating all of the internal degrees of freedom to exact purposeful motion.

  4. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  5. Task Organizing for Urban Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    Force D was created under the ccaand of BG Jat A. Via Fleet, Aasistant Division Cawsanl-r of the 2nd Infantry Mivian. Task Force •• ncluded the original...a s to attack Uini# Ro•ack am" to r- c•toiter the high prund to the north. bear th t AdwW1a4 V11 - lages was Singling. It am a mal lla& of nfity bRI

  6. Graphical programming of telerobotic tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies through the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development (DOE OTD) Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP). Graphical programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. Graphical programming uses simulation such as TELEGRIP `on-line` to program and control robots. Characterized by its model-based control architecture, integrated simulation, `point-and-click` graphical user interfaces, task and path planning software, and network communications, Sandia`s Graphical Programming systems allow operators to focus on high-level robotic tasks rather than the low-level details. Use of scripted tasks, rather than customized programs minimizes the necessity of recompiling supervisory control systems and enhances flexibility. Rapid world-modelling technologies allow Graphical Programming to be used in dynamic and unpredictable environments including digging and pipe-cutting. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia`s most advanced graphical programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia`s recent advances in supervisory control. Graphical programming uses 3-D graphics models as intuitive operator interfaces to program and control complex robotic systems. The goal of the paper is to help the reader understand how Sandia implements graphical programming systems and which key features in Sancho have proven to be most effective.

  7. Learner-Learner Interaction during Collaborative Pragmatic Tasks: The Role of Cognitive and Pragmatic Task Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YouJin; Taguchi, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Previous task complexity studies have suggested that learners produce more negotiation of meaning opportunities during complex tasks than simple tasks (Robinson, 2011). The present study builds on the existing task complexity literature by examining the impact of task complexity and pragmatic situational demands on the number of learning…

  8. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two…

  9. Learner-Learner Interaction during Collaborative Pragmatic Tasks: The Role of Cognitive and Pragmatic Task Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YouJin; Taguchi, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Previous task complexity studies have suggested that learners produce more negotiation of meaning opportunities during complex tasks than simple tasks (Robinson, 2011). The present study builds on the existing task complexity literature by examining the impact of task complexity and pragmatic situational demands on the number of learning…

  10. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two…

  11. Updating Sensory "versus" Task Representations during Task-Switching: Insights from Cognitive Brain Potentials in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perianez, Jose A.; Barcelo, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Task-cueing studies suggest that the updating of sensory and task representations both contribute to behavioral task-switch costs [Forstmann, B. U., Brass, M., & Koch, I. (2007). "Methodological and empirical issues when dissociating cue-related from task-related processes in the explicit task-cuing procedure." "Psychological Research, 71"(4),…

  12. The Shielding Function of Task Sets and Its Relaxation during Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the presented experiments was to investigate the dynamic interplay of task shielding and its relaxation during task switching. Task shielding refers to the finding that single task sets in terms of 2-choice categorization rules help shielding against distraction from irrelevant stimulus attributes. During task switching, this shielding…

  13. Attention in a multi-task environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Heers, Susan T.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments used a low fidelity multi-task simulation to investigate the effects of cue specificity on task preparation and performance. Subjects performed a continuous compensatory tracking task and were periodically prompted to perform one of several concurrent secondary tasks. The results provide strong evidence that subjects enacted a strategy to actively divert resources towards secondary task preparation only when they had specific information about an upcoming task to be performed. However, this strategy was not as much affected by the type of task cued (Experiment 1) or its difficulty level (Experiment 2). Overall, subjects seemed aware of both the costs (degraded primary task tracking) and benefits (improved secondary task performance) of cue information. Implications of the present results for computational human performance/workload models are discussed.

  14. Attention in a multi-task environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Heers, Susan T.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments used a low fidelity multi-task simulation to investigate the effects of cue specificity on task preparation and performance. Subjects performed a continuous compensatory tracking task and were periodically prompted to perform one of several concurrent secondary tasks. The results provide strong evidence that subjects enacted a strategy to actively divert resources towards secondary task preparation only when they had specific information about an upcoming task to be performed. However, this strategy was not as much affected by the type of task cued (Experiment 1) or its difficulty level (Experiment 2). Overall, subjects seemed aware of both the costs (degraded primary task tracking) and benefits (improved secondary task performance) of cue information. Implications of the present results for computational human performance/workload models are discussed.

  15. The effects of stimulus modality and task integrality: Predicting dual-task performance and workload from single-task levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S. G.; Shively, R. J.; Vidulich, M. A.; Miller, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of stimulus modality and task difficulty on workload and performance was investigated. The goal was to quantify the cost (in terms of response time and experienced workload) incurred when essentially serial task components shared common elements (e.g., the response to one initiated the other) which could be accomplished in parallel. The experimental tasks were based on the Fittsberg paradigm; the solution to a SternBERG-type memory task determines which of two identical FITTS targets are acquired. Previous research suggested that such functionally integrated dual tasks are performed with substantially less workload and faster response times than would be predicted by suming single-task components when both are presented in the same stimulus modality (visual). The physical integration of task elements was varied (although their functional relationship remained the same) to determine whether dual-task facilitation would persist if task components were presented in different sensory modalities. Again, it was found that the cost of performing the two-stage task was considerably less than the sum of component single-task levels when both were presented visually. Less facilitation was found when task elements were presented in different sensory modalities. These results suggest the importance of distinguishing between concurrent tasks that complete for limited resources from those that beneficially share common resources when selecting the stimulus modalities for information displays.

  16. Task analysis of Air Force pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, A; Sawyer, W T; Coats, L

    1995-01-15

    The frequency with which United States Air Force pharmacists perform specific professional tasks and the pharmacists' views as to the importance of those tasks were studied. A questionnaire was prepared that asked recipients to rate each of 36 tasks selected as representing the spectrum of practice activities. There were four categories of tasks: managerial tasks, dispensing tasks, drug information tasks, and patient care tasks. Recipients rated the tasks with respect to frequency of performance and importance on separate 6-point scales. The questionnaire was mailed in May 1991 to the 225 pharmacists then serving in the Air Force worldwide. Of the 225 questionnaires, 150 usable questionnaires were returned (response rate, 67%). All the tasks in the survey were performed by at least one Air Force pharmacy officer, although the frequency of task performance varied. In particular, the frequency of many patient care tasks was low. All the tasks were perceived to have some importance, but drug information tasks were rated as being significantly more important than tasks in the other categories; patient care tasks were rated lowest in importance. The results varied with the respondents' demographic characteristics. Pharmacy officers with more years of service, more senior positions, higher rank, or an advanced degree in a field other than pharmacy tended to give responses that diverged from those of the population. A 1991 survey showed an awareness among Air Force pharmacists of the need to orient practice around patient care; however, they were not spending substantial time on patient care and tended to view it as less important than more traditional pharmacy tasks.

  17. Age differences in voluntary task switching.

    PubMed

    Butler, Karin M; Weywadt, Christina

    2013-12-01

    Task choice processes in older (60+ years) and younger (18-30 years) adults were compared using a voluntary task switching procedure (Arrington & Logan, 2004). To assess age-related differences in task representation maintenance, preparation times were varied across a large range of response-to-stimulus intervals (100, 500, 1,000, and 5,000 ms) and the environmental influence on task selection was varied by repeating or changing stimuli from trial to trial. Older adults switched less frequently than younger adults and this effect was the same at each RSI. Younger adults were more likely to switch tasks when the stimulus changed than when it repeated suggesting that they used a different process to determine task choices, either endogenous task selection or environmentally supported task repetitions. Older adults' task selection was unaffected by stimulus repetitions indicating that they were less flexible with the processing they used to guide task selection. These findings are consistent with previous observations of age-related increases in goal shielding, but not with age-related deficits in task goal maintenance. Robust age differences in switch costs were observed across RSIs suggesting that task reconfiguration processes are different following endogenous than exogenous task selection. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The BOLD Response during Stroop Task-Like Inhibition Paradigms: Effects of Task Difficulty and Task-Relevant Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…

  19. The BOLD Response during Stroop Task-Like Inhibition Paradigms: Effects of Task Difficulty and Task-Relevant Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…

  20. General Aviation Task Force report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    General aviation is officially defined as all aviation except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general aviation aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General aviation manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.

  1. Antenna pattern study, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Two electromagnetic scattering codes, NEC-BSC and ESP3, were delivered and installed on a NASA VAX computer for use by Marshall Space Flight Center antenna design personnel. The existing codes and certain supplementary software were updated, the codes installed on a computer that will be delivered to the customer, to provide capability for graphic display of the data to be computed by the use of the codes and to assist the customer in the solution of specific problems that demonstrate the use of the codes. With the exception of one code revision, all of these tasks were performed.

  2. Emotional task management: neural correlates of switching between affective and non-affective task-sets.

    PubMed

    Reeck, Crystal; Egner, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Although task-switching has been investigated extensively, its interaction with emotionally salient task content remains unclear. Prioritized processing of affective stimulus content may enhance accessibility of affective task-sets and generate increased interference when switching between affective and non-affective task-sets. Previous research has demonstrated that more dominant task-sets experience greater switch costs, as they necessitate active inhibition during performance of less entrenched tasks. Extending this logic to the affective domain, the present experiment examined (a) whether affective task-sets are more dominant than non-affective ones, and (b) what neural mechanisms regulate affective task-sets, so that weaker, non-affective task-sets can be executed. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants categorized face stimuli according to either their gender (non-affective task) or their emotional expression (affective task). Behavioral results were consistent with the affective task dominance hypothesis: participants were slower to switch to the affective task, and cross-task interference was strongest when participants tried to switch from the affective to the non-affective task. These behavioral costs of controlling the affective task-set were mirrored in the activation of a right-lateralized frontostriatal network previously implicated in task-set updating and response inhibition. Connectivity between amygdala and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was especially pronounced during cross-task interference from affective features.

  3. A design space of visualization tasks.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hans-Jörg; Nocke, Thomas; Heitzler, Magnus; Schumann, Heidrun

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about visualization tasks plays an important role in choosing or building suitable visual representations to pursue them. Yet, tasks are a multi-faceted concept and it is thus not surprising that the many existing task taxonomies and models all describe different aspects of tasks, depending on what these task descriptions aim to capture. This results in a clear need to bring these different aspects together under the common hood of a general design space of visualization tasks, which we propose in this paper. Our design space consists of five design dimensions that characterize the main aspects of tasks and that have so far been distributed across different task descriptions. We exemplify its concrete use by applying our design space in the domain of climate impact research. To this end, we propose interfaces to our design space for different user roles (developers, authors, and end users) that allow users of different levels of expertise to work with it.

  4. Fault-tolerant dynamic task graph scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt, Mehmet C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Agrawal, Gagan

    2014-11-16

    In this paper, we present an approach to fault tolerant execution of dynamic task graphs scheduled using work stealing. In particular, we focus on selective and localized recovery of tasks in the presence of soft faults. We elicit from the user the basic task graph structure in terms of successor and predecessor relationships. The work stealing-based algorithm to schedule such a task graph is augmented to enable recovery when the data and meta-data associated with a task get corrupted. We use this redundancy, and the knowledge of the task graph structure, to selectively recover from faults with low space and time overheads. We show that the fault tolerant design retains the essential properties of the underlying work stealing-based task scheduling algorithm, and that the fault tolerant execution is asymptotically optimal when task re-execution is taken into account. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the low cost of recovery under various fault scenarios.

  5. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  6. Workshift and Antihistamine Effects on Task Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    chlorpheniramine maleate), and time on task accompanying three successive drug doses spaced every four hours. Five performance tasks, two work sample tasks, and...four subjective scales were included in the study. In summary, chlorpheniramine maleate alone had a strong negative influence on a wide range of task...Day Shift tended to get better and during the Mid shift tended to get worse. No evidence was found that chlorpheniramine maleate and work shift combine to produce a multiplicative effect.

  7. Managing Multiple Tasks in Complex, Dynamic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Sketchy planners are designed to achieve goals in realistically complex, time-pressured, and uncertain task environments. However, the ability to manage multiple, potentially interacting tasks in such environments requires extensions to the functionality these systems typically provide. This paper identifies a number of factors affecting how interacting tasks should be prioritized, interrupted, and resumed, and then describes a sketchy planner called APEX that takes account of these factors when managing multiple tasks.

  8. An overview of task order 10

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L

    2011-01-12

    Task Order 10 formalizes a collaboration in high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) experiments between LANL and VNIIEF. The focus is the VNIIEF disk explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) technology. The task order outlines a sequence of tasks and deliverables culminating in an experiment which takes place in the US utilizing US explosives and a Russian DEMG. This talk summarizes task order 10. It gives a brief history and present status in terms of the proposed high pressure EOS experiment (ALT-3).

  9. What Makes a Mathematical Task Interesting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Rimma

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the question of what makes a mathematical task interesting to the 9th year students. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 students of purposive selection of the 9th year. The students were asked to recall a task they found interesting and engaging during the past three years. An analysis of the tasks was made…

  10. The Factor Structure of Some Piagetian Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Nordland, Floyd H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigated was the hypothesis that conservation tasks are unifactor by administering eight different conservation tasks to 96 seventh-grade science students and performing a principal component analysis on the data. Results indicated that conservation tasks may measure up to three different components of cognitive thought. (SL)

  11. Human Performance on the Temporal Bisection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopec, Charles D.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2010-01-01

    The perception and processing of temporal information are tasks the brain must continuously perform. These include measuring the duration of stimuli, storing duration information in memory, recalling such memories, and comparing two durations. How the brain accomplishes these tasks, however, is still open for debate. The temporal bisection task,…

  12. Task Proficiency and L1 Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Minako

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing volume of research on task-based language use; however, the nature of "task proficiency" has not yet been clearly defined. In order to gain new insights, this study examines the relationship between the process of communication in an L2 and a task outcome by analysing lexical density, as obtained from the pattern of a…

  13. Task Difficulty in Oral Speech Act Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…

  14. Task Difficulty in Oral Speech Act Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…

  15. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  16. Tasks That Make Connections through Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Joe; Trinter, Christine P.

    2012-01-01

    By working through well-designed tasks, students can expand their thinking about mathematical ideas and their approaches to solving mathematical problems. They can come to see the value of looking at tasks from different perspectives and of using different representations. This article discusses four tasks that encourage high school students and…

  17. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  18. Learning Opportunities: Adding Learning Value to Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, David

    2007-01-01

    Tasks provide a framework for communicative performance. Underlying each task is a set of learning opportunities--potential activities for learning. Not all of these opportunities are exploited for learning by teachers or learners. It is proposed that, when using tasks, the range of such learning opportunities needs to be identified and modelled…

  19. Emergency Medical Technician Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 12 duties in the occupation of emergency medical technician. Each duty is divided into a number of tasks. A separate page for each duty lists the task with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for comments. The 12 duties…

  20. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  1. Task Analysis: A Top-Down Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Paul

    1983-01-01

    This approach to task analysis includes descriptions of (1) inputs, outputs, and jobs; (2) flow of materials and decisions between jobs; (3) inputs, major tasks, and outputs of each job; (4) sequence of steps for major tasks; (5) heuristics/algorithms for each sequence step; and (6) information needed to use heuristics algorithms. (EAO)

  2. Task Switching Effects in Anticipation Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Brueckner, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    To understand how task switching affects human performance, there is a need to investigate how it influences the performance of tasks other than those involving bivalent stimulus categorization. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of task switching on anticipation timing performance, which typically requires…

  3. A Task Is a Task Is a Task Is a Task... Or Is It? Researching Telecollaborative Teacher Competence Development--The Need for More Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller-Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The concept of task has become central not only to an understanding of language learning per se, but also to the design and research of Online Intercultural Exchanges (OIEs). While research on the design of tasks in OIEs has been very productive, we still lack insights into how teachers develop competences in task design on the micro-level.…

  4. Task Switching Effects in Anticipation Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Brueckner, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    To understand how task switching affects human performance, there is a need to investigate how it influences the performance of tasks other than those involving bivalent stimulus categorization. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of task switching on anticipation timing performance, which typically requires…

  5. Economics of simulation task force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Steven C.

    2001-09-01

    It is both logical and appropriate for decision-makers to ask for ways to judge the value of simulation. Often, the request is even more pointed than just wanting a report on the value of simulation, and specifics on the economics of simulation are requested. Clearly, undertaking to answer questions about the economics of simulation will be critical to building an understanding of how to spend future marginal National Defense dollars. As an example, one can evaluate the economics of simulation where it supports our ability to develop, build, and test new weapon systems. Here, historically derived returns on investment, cost avoidance, cycle time reductions, and lifecycle cost savings have been documented and warrant further investigation. However, there is a larger area of use for simulation where judging its value must go beyond economics. Simulation, in most uses, has a value (or benefit or impact) beyond cost savings, and most efforts to understand the economics of simulation really intend to include the more general topic of the value of simulation. The broader question of the value of simulation will be tackled because simulation must prove its worth. If it is adequately funded and intelligently used, simulation will save valuable national resources and improve readiness. A task force of volunteers is now looking at the economics (benefits, value, impact) of simulation, and this paper seeks to provide an overview of the state of understanding of this topic and solicit volunteers to join this task force effort.

  6. Resolving task rule incongruence during task switching by competitor rule suppression.

    PubMed

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-07-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an experiment involving 2 object classification tasks and 2 location classification tasks, the authors show that irrelevant task rules that generate response conflicts are inhibited. This competitor rule suppression (CRS) is seen in response slowing in subsequent trials, when the competing rules become relevant. CRS is shown to operate on specific rules without affecting similar rules. CRS and backward inhibition, which is another inhibitory phenomenon, produced additive effects on reaction time, suggesting their mutual independence. Implications for current formal theories of task switching as well as for conflict monitoring theories are discussed.

  7. TASK-1 and TASK-3 may form heterodimers in human atrial cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rinné, Susanne; Kiper, Aytug K; Schlichthörl, Günter; Dittmann, Sven; Netter, Michael F; Limberg, Sven H; Silbernagel, Nicole; Zuzarte, Marylou; Moosdorf, Rainer; Wulf, Hinnerk; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Rolfes, Caroline; Decher, Niels

    2015-04-01

    TASK-1 channels have emerged as promising drug targets against atrial fibrillation, the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. While TASK-3, the closest relative of TASK-1, was previously not described in cardiac tissue, we found a very prominent expression of TASK-3 in right human auricles. Immunocytochemistry experiments of human right auricular cardiomyocytes showed that TASK-3 is primarily localized at the plasma membrane. Single-channel recordings of right human auricles in the cell-attached mode, using divalent-cation-free solutions, revealed a TASK-1-like channel with a single-channel conductance of about 30pS. While homomeric TASK-3 channels were not found, we observed an intermediate single-channel conductance of about 55pS, possibly reflecting the heteromeric channel formed by TASK-1 and TASK-3. Subsequent experiments with TASK-1/TASK-3 tandem channels or with co-expressed TASK-1 and TASK-3 channels in HEK293 cells or Xenopus oocytes, supported that the 55pS channels observed in right auricles have electrophysiological characteristics of TASK-1/TASK-3 heteromers. In addition, co-expression experiments and single-channel recordings suggest that heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channels have a predominant surface expression and a reduced affinity for TASK-1 blockers. In summary, the evidence for heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channel complexes together with an altered pharmacologic response to TASK-1 blockers in vitro is likely to have further impact for studies isolating ITASK-1 from cardiomyocytes and for the development of drugs specifically targeting TASK-1 in atrial fibrillation treatment.

  8. Testing Task Schedulers on Linux System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenković, Leonardo; Groš, Stjepan; Jakobović, Domagoj

    Testing task schedulers on Linux operating system proves to be a challenging task. There are two main problems. The first one is to identify which properties of the scheduler to test. The second problem is how to perform it, e.g., which API to use that is sufficiently precise and in the same time supported on most platforms. This paper discusses the problems in realizing test framework for testing task schedulers and presents one potential solution. Observed behavior of the scheduler is the one used for “normal” task scheduling (SCHED_OTHER), unlike one used for real-time tasks (SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR).

  9. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  10. Factors affecting task management in aviation.

    PubMed

    Iani, Cristina; Wickens, Christopher D

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the influence of ongoing task display "compellingness" on attention allocation patterns and assessed its interaction with interrupting task salience and importance. There are some concerns that the compellingness of flight deck tunnel displays renders the task they support more resistant to interruptions, thus preventing the pilot from noticing cues signaling the need to divert attention to other tasks. Forty pilots flew three curved approaches in a high-fidelity simulation using a synthetic vision system (SVS) display. In addition to the primary task of flying, during the last approach they were required to select the approach path on the basis of environmental information concerning weather. The display layout supporting the primary flight task (tunnel vs. baseline display), the nature of the cue signaling the need to divert attention to the path selection task (visual vs. auditory-visual cue), and the cost of not performing the secondary task were manipulated to investigate their influence on task prioritization. The modality and priority of the cue affected the frequency of the switch to the secondary task. Furthermore, pilots flying with a tunnel display were more likely to detect the change in the weather and were easily interrupted by the secondary task when priority was high. Our results suggest that some of the concerns regarding the negative consequences of the compelling nature of the tunnel display may not be as pronounced as thought. This study highlights the utility of the tunnel display in improving flight safety.

  11. Task parallelism and high-performance languages

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1996-03-01

    The definition of High Performance Fortran (HPF) is a significant event in the maturation of parallel computing: it represents the first parallel language that has gained widespread support from vendors and users. The subject of this paper is to incorporate support for task parallelism. The term task parallelism refers to the explicit creation of multiple threads of control, or tasks, which synchronize and communicate under programmer control. Task and data parallelism are complementary rather than competing programming models. While task parallelism is more general and can be used to implement algorithms that are not amenable to data-parallel solutions, many problems can benefit from a mixed approach, with for example a task-parallel coordination layer integrating multiple data-parallel computations. Other problems admit to both data- and task-parallel solutions, with the better solution depending on machine characteristics, compiler performance, or personal taste. For these reasons, we believe that a general-purpose high-performance language should integrate both task- and data-parallel constructs. The challenge is to do so in a way that provides the expressivity needed for applications, while preserving the flexibility and portability of a high-level language. In this paper, we examine and illustrate the considerations that motivate the use of task parallelism. We also describe one particular approach to task parallelism in Fortran, namely the Fortran M extensions. Finally, we contrast Fortran M with other proposed approaches and discuss the implications of this work for task parallelism and high-performance languages.

  12. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching.

    PubMed

    Tieges, Zoë; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G; Lorist, Monicque M; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

    2006-08-01

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials (e.g. AB) compared to task-repeat trials (e.g. BB); mixing costs refer to longer RTs in task-repeat trials compared to single-task trials. In a double-blind, within-subjects experiment, two caffeine doses (3 and 5mg/kg body weight) and a placebo were administered to 18 coffee drinkers. Both caffeine doses reduced switch costs compared to placebo. Event-related brain potentials revealed a negative deflection developing within the preparatory interval, which was larger for switch than for repeat trials. Caffeine increased this switch-related difference. These results suggest that coffee consumption improves task-switching performance by enhancing anticipatory processing such as task set updating, presumably through the neurochemical effects of caffeine on the dopamine system.

  13. Components of competitor priming in task switching.

    PubMed

    Teskey, Morgan L; Masson, Michael E J

    2017-07-17

    Executing an action in response to a stimulus is thought to result in the creation of an event code that integrates stimulus and action features (Allport, 1987; Hommel in Visual Cognition 5: 183-216, 1998). When switching between tasks, competitor priming occurs if a distractor stimulus cues the retrieval of a previously established event code in which that distractor is bound to a competing task, creating a source of interference with the current task whereby the observer is encouraged to apply the competing task to the distractor. We propose a second aspect of competitor priming: the misapplication of the retrieved competing task to the target stimulus. We report two task-switching experiments in which tasks applied to picture-word compound stimuli were manipulated to create conditions in which this second aspect of competitor priming could be revealed and distinguished from other sources of task- and stimulus-based priming. A substantial increase in competitor priming was observed when subjects switched between tasks that required very different processing operations and the competing task was highly relevant to the target stimulus. These results are consistent with our claim that competitor priming can result from applying the competing task either to the distractor that cued it or to the target stimulus.

  14. CNTRICS Final Task Selection: Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barch, Deanna M.; Berman, Marc G.; Engle, Randy; Jones, Jessica Hurdelbrink; Jonides, John; MacDonald, Angus; Nee, Derek Evan; Redick, Thomas S.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The third meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) was focused on selecting promising measures for each of the cognitive constructs selected in the first CNTRICS meeting. In the domain of working memory, the 2 constructs of interest were goal maintenance and interference control. CNTRICS received 3 task nominations for each of these constructs, and the breakout group for working memory evaluated the degree to which each of these tasks met prespecified criteria. For goal maintenance, the breakout group for working memory recommended the AX-Continuous Performance Task/Dot Pattern Expectancy task for translation for use in clinical trial contexts in schizophrenia research. For interference control, the breakout group recommended the recent probes and operation/symmetry span tasks for translation for use in clinical trials. This article describes the ways in which each of these tasks met the criteria used by the breakout group to recommend tasks for further development. PMID:18990711

  15. How to Correct a Task Error: Task-Switch Effects Following Different Types of Error Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Marco

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that switch costs in task switching reflect the strengthening of task-related associations and that strengthening is triggered by response execution. The present study tested the hypothesis that only task-related responses are able to trigger strengthening. Effects of task strengthening caused by error corrections were…

  16. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  17. National Task Bank. Tasks in Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Services, Administration, Money Payments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upjohn (W.E.) Inst. for Employment Research, Washington, DC.

    The National Task Bank of 547 tasks in the public welfare field was developed from tasks written by eight states and by the Social and Rehabilitation Service. This document describes the background and development of the bank and outlines the procedures used. The task bank illustrates 13 functional cagegories of data, people, and things for…

  18. Is Performance in Task-Cuing Experiments Mediated by Task Set Selection or Associative Compound Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Charlotte L. D.; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P. L.

    2014-01-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed,…

  19. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  20. Cue-Independent Task-Specific Representations in Task Switching: Evidence from Backward Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Erik M.

    2007-01-01

    The compound-cue model of cognitive control in task switching explains switch cost in terms of a switch of task cues rather than of a switch of tasks. The present study asked whether the model generalizes to Lag 2 repetition cost (also known as backward inhibition), a related effect in which the switch from B to A in ABA task sequences is costlier…

  1. 78 FR 27969 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health... Prevention (CDC) announces the next meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)....

  2. The Effect of a Workload-Preview on Task-Prioritization and Task-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minotra, Dev

    2012-01-01

    With increased volume and sophistication of cyber attacks in recent years, maintaining situation awareness and effective task-prioritization strategy is critical to the task of cybersecurity analysts. However, high levels of mental-workload associated with the task of cybersecurity analyst's limits their ability to prioritize tasks.…

  3. Stimulus-Based Priming of Task Choice during Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Catherine M.; Weaver, Starla M.; Pauker, Rachel L.

    2010-01-01

    Two voluntary task-switching experiments probed the influence of previous exposures to stimuli and categorizations of these stimuli on task choice during subsequent exposures to the same stimuli. Subjects performed origin and size judgments under standard voluntary task-switching instructions to perform the tasks equally often in a random order.…

  4. Is Performance in Task-Cuing Experiments Mediated by Task Set Selection or Associative Compound Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Charlotte L. D.; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P. L.

    2014-01-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed,…

  5. The Effect of a Workload-Preview on Task-Prioritization and Task-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minotra, Dev

    2012-01-01

    With increased volume and sophistication of cyber attacks in recent years, maintaining situation awareness and effective task-prioritization strategy is critical to the task of cybersecurity analysts. However, high levels of mental-workload associated with the task of cybersecurity analyst's limits their ability to prioritize tasks.…

  6. Robust Multi-Task Feature Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Pinghua; Ye, Jieping; Zhang, Changshui

    2013-01-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve the performance of multiple related tasks by exploiting the intrinsic relationships among them. Recently, multi-task feature learning algorithms have received increasing attention and they have been successfully applied to many applications involving high-dimensional data. However, they assume that all tasks share a common set of features, which is too restrictive and may not hold in real-world applications, since outlier tasks often exist. In this paper, we propose a Robust MultiTask Feature Learning algorithm (rMTFL) which simultaneously captures a common set of features among relevant tasks and identifies outlier tasks. Specifically, we decompose the weight (model) matrix for all tasks into two components. We impose the well-known group Lasso penalty on row groups of the first component for capturing the shared features among relevant tasks. To simultaneously identify the outlier tasks, we impose the same group Lasso penalty but on column groups of the second component. We propose to employ the accelerated gradient descent to efficiently solve the optimization problem in rMTFL, and show that the proposed algorithm is scalable to large-size problems. In addition, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the proposed rMTFL formulation. Specifically, we present a theoretical bound to measure how well our proposed rMTFL approximates the true evaluation, and provide bounds to measure the error between the estimated weights of rMTFL and the underlying true weights. Moreover, by assuming that the underlying true weights are above the noise level, we present a sound theoretical result to show how to obtain the underlying true shared features and outlier tasks (sparsity patterns). Empirical studies on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that our proposed rMTFL is capable of simultaneously capturing shared features among tasks and identifying outlier tasks. PMID:24078896

  7. Assessing the Cost of Task Switching with a Three-Task Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    To study task switching when subjects need not inhibit inappropriate responses, we examine tasks with non-overlapping stimulus sets (e.g. color patches and uncolored letters). A new three-task paradigm permits the dissociation of several otherwise confounded variables. We find that performance declines monotonically with increasing time since last performance of a task. Adjusting for the effects of this factor permits a fresh assessment of the relationship between task expectancy and recency (Ruthruff, Remington & Johnston, 1996).

  8. Assessing the Cost of Task Switching with a Three-Task Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    To study task switching when subjects need not inhibit inappropriate responses, we examine tasks with non-overlapping stimulus sets (e.g. color patches and uncolored letters). A new three-task paradigm permits the dissociation of several otherwise confounded variables. We find that performance declines monotonically with increasing time since last performance of a task. Adjusting for the effects of this factor permits a fresh assessment of the relationship between task expectancy and recency (Ruthruff, Remington & Johnston, 1996).

  9. Effects of Single-Task Interference on Dual-Task Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James C.; Ruthruff, Eric; VanSelst, Mark; Remington, Roger W.

    1998-01-01

    Van Sergi, Ruthruff and Johnston found that dual-task practice can markedly reduce interference in the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm. Their results are consistent with a bottleneck model in which practice serves primarily to reduce stage durations. This model predicts that single-task practice on Task 1 alone should produce marked reductions in interference, whereas single-task practice on Task 2 should not. New experiments test these predictions. Alternative theoretical accounts are also considered.

  10. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects. PMID:25904890

  11. Tool and Task Analysis Guide for Vocational Welding (150 Tasks). Performance Based Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John H. Hinds Area Vocational School, Elwood, IN.

    This book contains a task inventory, a task analysis of 150 tasks from that inventory, and a tool list for performance-based welding courses in the state of Indiana. The task inventory and tool list reflect 28 job titles found in Indiana. In the first part of the guide, tasks are listed by these domains: carbon-arc, electron beam, G.M.A.W., gas…

  12. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  13. Tool and Task Analysis Guide for Vocational Welding (150 Tasks). Performance Based Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John H. Hinds Area Vocational School, Elwood, IN.

    This book contains a task inventory, a task analysis of 150 tasks from that inventory, and a tool list for performance-based welding courses in the state of Indiana. The task inventory and tool list reflect 28 job titles found in Indiana. In the first part of the guide, tasks are listed by these domains: carbon-arc, electron beam, G.M.A.W., gas…

  14. Task switching: the effect of task recency with dual- and single-affordance stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Petroc; Ahmed, Lubna

    2006-07-01

    When we switch to a new task, performance is transiently relatively poor, but improves dramatically after one trial. Such a "switch cost" may result from the preceding task being highly primed while the new task is not yet primed. This predicts that it should become more difficult to switch back to Task A when more trials of Task B have intervened. Such a lag effect has been found in some but not in most previous experiments, and to resolve this discrepancy we examined the effects of task lag with different stimuli. We found that when stimuli uniquely and clearly cued the task--minimizing the need for control--switch reaction time increased with task lag. However, when the need for control was increased by using similar or identical stimuli in the two tasks, this lag effect was abolished or reversed. Thus only when control processes are minimized can priming explain the difficulty of switching back from Task B to Task A. Second, we asked how the impact of control is mediated in conditions where it is not minimized. If it is mediated through altering the relative activation states of competing tasks, then as it becomes easier to do one task--the relative task-set activation state is tipped in that task's favour--it should always become harder to do the other task. On the other hand, if control bias affects switch performance directly, this relationship need not hold. We found that as it becomes easier to perform one task it can become easier, not harder, to switch to the competing task. Thus control bias must act directly on switch performance, rather than only through its influence on relative task-set activation.

  15. Response selection in dual task paradigms: observations from random generation tasks.

    PubMed

    Dirnberger, Georg; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2010-03-01

    Performance of attention-demanding tasks is worse if two tasks are carried out simultaneously than if each of the tasks is performed alone. Our aim was to determine whether these 'dual task costs' can be attributed to mechanisms on a supra-trial level such as switching of limited resources between trials or concurrent breakdown of supervisory functions, or to mechanisms effective within each trial such as demands of response selection. Twenty healthy volunteers performed verbal random number generation (RNG) and random movement generation (RMG) at three different rates. For each rate, both tasks were examined once in a single task condition and once in a dual task condition. Results showed that performance (quality of randomness) in each random generation task (RNG/RMG) was reduced at faster rates and impaired by concurrent performance of a secondary random generation task. In the dual task condition, transient increase or decrease of bias in one random generation task during any short interval was not associated with concurrent increase or decrease of bias in the other task. In conclusion, the fact that during dual task performance transient bias in one task was not associated with concurrent improvement of performance in the other task indicates that alternation of supervisory control or attentional resources from one to the other task does not mediate the observed dual task costs. Resources of the central executive are not re-allocated or 'switched' from one to the other task. Dual task costs may result from mechanisms effective within each trial such as the demands of response selection.

  16. Optimal stimulus encoders for natural tasks

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Wilson S.; Najemnik, Jiri; Ing, Almon D.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the features of natural stimuli that are most useful for specific natural tasks is critical for understanding perceptual systems. A new approach is described that involves finding the optimal encoder for the natural task of interest, given a relatively small population of noisy “neurons” between the encoder and decoder. The optimal encoder, which necessarily specifies the most useful features, is found by maximizing accuracy in the natural task, where the decoder is the Bayesian ideal observer operating on the population responses. The approach is illustrated for a patch identification task, where the goal is to identify patches of natural image, and for a foreground identification task, where the goal is to identify which side of a natural surface boundary belongs to the foreground object. The optimal features (receptive fields) are intuitive and perform well in the two tasks. The approach also provides insight into general principles of neural encoding and decoding. PMID:20055550

  17. Cognate effects in bilingual language comprehension tasks.

    PubMed

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa

    2010-05-12

    We examined cognate effects when late fluent Spanish/English bilingual speakers undergoing event-related potential recordings performed two tasks on word pairs. In an association decision task, participants decided whether or not pairs of Spanish words were related in meaning. In a translation decision task, they reported whether English target words were correct translations of Spanish primes. In both the tasks, word primes were either cognates or noncognates. In the translation decision task, faster and more accurate responses were associated with reduced N400 amplitudes in word pairs featuring a cognate. However, cognates did not modulate performance or event-related potentials in the association decision task. The results suggest that language coactivation in bilingual speakers is modulated by cognitive context.

  18. Task-level control for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid

    1994-01-01

    Task-level control refers to the integration and coordination of planning, perception, and real-time control to achieve given high-level goals. Autonomous mobile robots need task-level control to effectively achieve complex tasks in uncertain, dynamic environments. This paper describes the Task Control Architecture (TCA), an implemented system that provides commonly needed constructs for task-level control. Facilities provided by TCA include distributed communication, task decomposition and sequencing, resource management, monitoring and exception handling. TCA supports a design methodology in which robot systems are developed incrementally, starting first with deliberative plans that work in nominal situations, and then layering them with reactive behaviors that monitor plan execution and handle exceptions. To further support this approach, design and analysis tools are under development to provide ways of graphically viewing the system and validating its behavior.

  19. [Task force for falsified medicines].

    PubMed

    Weber, Gabriele

    2017-09-13

    In 2014, a large number of falsified medicines of Italian origin had come to light. Because of the extent of the falsification, the situation that most of these falsified medicines had been traced back to thefts in Italy by criminal networks, and the necessity of actions by national and local authorities, an intensified exchange of information was essential, in addition to a process of coordination. A task force for falsified medicines was established to optimize the flow of information among all parties involved and to coordinate the necessary measures.One result was the implementation of a procedure for optimizing the exchange of information and for harmonisation of required measures on falsified medicines. In particular, this procedure covers situations in which there is no clear legal responsibility, and is now considered as part of the work of the authorities. In addition, a database has been established in which all pharmaceutical wholesalers located in Germany with a valid wholesale license are publicly accessible. As a preventive measure, information about known thefts will be forwarded to parallel traders and their associations. This is to avoid these products coming onto the market in Germany.

  20. Task 7: ADPAC User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.; Topp, D. A.; Delaney, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop a 3-D numerical analysis for compressor casing treatment flowfields. The current version of the computer code resulting from this study is referred to as ADPAC (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Version 7). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC code developed under Tasks 6 and 7 of the NASA Contract. The ADPAC program is based on a flexible multiple- block grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. An iterative implicit algorithm is available for rapid time-dependent flow calculations, and an advanced two equation turbulence model is incorporated to predict complex turbulent flows. The consolidated code generated during this study is capable of executing in either a serial or parallel computing mode from a single source code. Numerous examples are given in the form of test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modem turbomachinery configurations.

  1. The Workforce Task Force Report

    PubMed Central

    Vatz, Kenneth A.; Griggs, Robert C.; Pedley, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Neurology Workforce Task Force (WFTF) report predicts a future shortfall of neurologists in the United States. The WFTF data also suggest that for most states, the current demand for neurologist services already exceeds the supply, and by 2025 the demand for neurologists will be even higher. This future demand is fueled by the aging of the US population, the higher health care utilization rates of neurologic services, and by a greater number of patients gaining access to the health care system due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Uncertainties in health care delivery and patient access exist due to looming concerns about further Medicare reimbursement cuts. This uncertainty is set against a backdrop of Congressional volatility on a variety of issues, including the repeal of the sustainable growth rate for physician reimbursement. The impact of these US health care changes on the neurology workforce, future increasing demands, reimbursement, and alternative health care delivery models including accountable care organizations, nonphysician providers such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants, and teleneurology for both stroke and general neurology are discussed. The data lead to the conclusion that neurologists will need to play an even larger role in caring for the aging US population by 2025. We propose solutions to increase the availability of neurologic services in the future and provide other ways of meeting the anticipated increased demand for neurologic care. PMID:23783750

  2. The harder the task, the more inconsistent the performance: a PPT analysis on task difficulty.

    PubMed

    Rice, Stephen; Geels, Kasha; Hackett, Holly Raye; Trafimow, David; McCarley, Jason S; Schwark, Jeremy; Hunt, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that as task difficulty increases, task performance subsequently decreases. These decrements in task performance as difficulty increases have been attributed to the processes individuals use to complete tasks. Over a series of three experiments, Potential Performance Theory (PPT; Trafimow & Rice, 2008 ; 2009), was used to test the hypothesis that decreases in task performance are, in part, due to inconsistency rather than only systematic factors. Task difficulty was manipulated in three visual search tasks by increasing set size (Experiment 1), decreasing contrast (Experiment 2), and increasing background distracters (Experiment 3). Findings over the three studies indicated that decreases in observed task performance as task difficulty increases are primarily due to a decrease of consistency rather than systematic factors. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Predictive performance models and multiple task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Larish, Inge; Contorer, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Five models that predict how performance of multiple tasks will interact in complex task scenarios are discussed. The models are shown in terms of the assumptions they make about human operator divided attention. The different assumptions about attention are then empirically validated in a multitask helicopter flight simulation. It is concluded from this simulation that the most important assumption relates to the coding of demand level of different component tasks.

  4. A task control architecture for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Mitchell, Tom

    1990-01-01

    An architecture is presented for controlling robots that have multiple tasks, operate in dynamic domains, and require a fair degree of autonomy. The architecture is built on several layers of functionality, including a distributed communication layer, a behavior layer for querying sensors, expanding goals, and executing commands, and a task level for managing the temporal aspects of planning and achieving goals, coordinating tasks, allocating resources, monitoring, and recovering from errors. Application to a legged planetary rover and an indoor mobile manipulator is described.

  5. Predictive performance models and multiple task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Larish, Inge; Contorer, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Five models that predict how performance of multiple tasks will interact in complex task scenarios are discussed. The models are shown in terms of the assumptions they make about human operator divided attention. The different assumptions about attention are then empirically validated in a multitask helicopter flight simulation. It is concluded from this simulation that the most important assumption relates to the coding of demand level of different component tasks.

  6. The functional neuroanatomy of multitasking: combining dual tasking with a short term memory task.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm.

  7. Bilateral synergies in foot force production tasks.

    PubMed

    Sarabon, Nejc; Markovic, Goran; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    We analysed the effects of task symmetry during bilateral accurate force production tasks performed by the two feet. In particular, we tested a hypothesis that bilateral deficit would lead to higher indices of synergies defined as co-varied adjustments in the two forces across trials that reduced total force variability. The subjects produced steady-state force followed by a quick force pulse into the target. The two feet could be acting both into plantar flexion and into dorsiflexion (symmetrical tasks), or in opposite directions (asymmetrical task). We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to quantify two variance components, one of which did not change total force (V UCM), while the other did (V ORT). Synergy indices during the asymmetrical task were higher than in either symmetrical task. The difference was due to higher V UCM (compared to the symmetrical plantar flexion task) or lower V ORT (compared to the symmetrical dorsiflexion task). The synergy index showed a drop (anticipatory synergy adjustment, ASA) starting 100-150 ms prior to the force pulse initiation. The ASA tended to be shorter and of a smaller magnitude for the asymmetrical task. This is the first demonstration of bilateral synergies during accurate force production by the legs. We conclude that bilateral deficit has no or weak effects on two-leg synergies. The results fit the earlier introduced scheme with two groups of neural variables defining average performance of a redundant system and patterns of co-variation among its elemental variables, respectively.

  8. Ada task scheduling: A focused Ada investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1988-01-01

    The types of control that are important for real time task scheduling are discussed. Some closely related real time issues are mentioned and major committee and research activities in this area are delineated. Although there are some problems with Ada and its real time task scheduling, Ada presents fewer than any known alternative. Ada was designed for the domain of real time embedded systems, but Ada compilers may not contain a level of task scheduling support that is adequate for all real time applications. The question addressed is which implementations of Ada's task scheduling are adequate for effective real time systems for NASA applications.

  9. Guessing versus Choosing an Upcoming Task

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of guessing vs. choosing an upcoming task. In a task-switching paradigm with four tasks, two groups of participants were asked to either guess or choose which task will be presented next under otherwise identical conditions. The upcoming task corresponded to participants’ guesses or choices in 75 % of the trials. However, only participants in the Choosing condition were correctly informed about this, whereas participants in the Guessing condition were told that tasks were determined at random. In the Guessing condition, we replicated previous findings of a pronounced reduction of switch costs in case of incorrect guesses. This switch cost reduction was considerably less pronounced with denied choices in the Choosing condition. We suggest that in the Choosing condition, the signaling of prediction errors associated with denied choices is attenuated because a certain proportion of denied choices is consistent with the overall representation of the situation as conveyed by task instructions. In the Guessing condition, in contrast, the mismatch of guessed and actual task is resolved solely on the level of individual trials by strengthening the representation of the actual task. PMID:27047423

  10. Anxiety Interaction with Task Difficulty Levels, Memory Support, and Estimated Task Competency in a Concept Identification Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutwell, Richard C.

    The intent of this study was to determine the relationship of the independent variables of task difficulty and memory support for high and low anxious subjects on certain dependent variables: correct task performances, measured anxiety level, and self-estimated competency rating. A further purpose was to investigate the relationship of obtained…

  11. Dual-Task Processing When Task 1 Is Hard and Task 2 Is Easy: Reversed Central Processing Order?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonhard, Tanja; Fernandez, Susana Ruiz; Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Five psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted with an especially time-consuming first task (Experiments 1, 3, and 5: mental rotation; Experiments 2 and 4: memory scanning) and with equal emphasis on the first task and on the second (left-right tone judgment). The standard design with varying stimulus onset asynchronies…

  12. Dual-Task Processing When Task 1 Is Hard and Task 2 Is Easy: Reversed Central Processing Order?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonhard, Tanja; Fernandez, Susana Ruiz; Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Five psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted with an especially time-consuming first task (Experiments 1, 3, and 5: mental rotation; Experiments 2 and 4: memory scanning) and with equal emphasis on the first task and on the second (left-right tone judgment). The standard design with varying stimulus onset asynchronies…

  13. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  14. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  15. Materials processing in space tasks. WBS task 5.4: Generic tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crull, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This task encompassed a wide range of activities related to materials processing in space. For example, all aspects of the space station's flight and ground based systems design were assessed for the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) Space Processing Division Office. Activities for that organization also included the consolidation of space processing payload requirements for the space station and the development of an OACT payload operations plan. Similar duties were performed for the MSFC Payload Project Office. The SPACECOM database was used to conduct preliminary design studies for microgravity payload carriers and to conduct assessments of materials processing technology. Concepts for the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth Facility (APCGF) were developed. Materials processing vent products were analyzed and a furnace facility filter concept was developed using those studies. A preliminary design for a space station aluminum payload rack was developed. Analysis was conducted to characterize the acceleration environment onboard the space shuttle. Equipment for two fluid experiment apparatus was designed and manufactured for the Space Science Laboratory. The Fluids and Materials Experiments (FAME) data base was expanded. Also, Mir payload integration, technology transfer, and spacelab-to-space station transition studies were conducted.

  16. The shielding function of task rules in the context of task switching.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Renate; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that task rules help shield the response against distractor interference. Here, the authors investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying this assumed shielding function of task rules and how it is adjusted to changing task demands. In two experiments, participants switched between a noun categorization and an adjective categorization task. Target words were superimposed on distractor pictures. These pictures were always irrelevant and depicted either objects also used as target words in the noun task (noun distractors) or objects that were not part of the noun target-set but could be categorized according to the noun task (noun-related distractors). Results show that (a) on task repetitions shielding prevents interference from any distractors associated with a competing task; this is indicated by the lack of interference on adjective task repetitions; and (b) shielding is reduced on task switches. In the noun task, this reduction resulted in attenuated interference by noun-related distractors. In the adjective task, spatial distractors did not interfere despite the reduction. This result suggests that shielding is supported by a processing advantage for task-related information and not by distractor suppression.

  17. Different Neuroplasticity for Task Targets and Distractors

    PubMed Central

    Spingath, Elsie Y.; Kang, Hyun Sug; Plummer, Thane; Blake, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from nonselective

  18. SOCIAL MEDIA MINING SHARED TASK WORKSHOP.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Abeed; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Social media has evolved into a crucial resource for obtaining large volumes of real-time information. The promise of social media has been realized by the public health domain, and recent research has addressed some important challenges in that domain by utilizing social media data. Tasks such as monitoring flu trends, viral disease outbreaks, medication abuse, and adverse drug reactions are some examples of studies where data from social media have been exploited. The focus of this workshop is to explore solutions to three important natural language processing challenges for domain-specific social media text: (i) text classification, (ii) information extraction, and (iii) concept normalization. To explore different approaches to solving these problems on social media data, we designed a shared task which was open to participants globally. We designed three tasks using our in-house annotated Twitter data on adverse drug reactions. Task 1 involved automatic classification of adverse drug reaction assertive user posts; Task 2 focused on extracting specific adverse drug reaction mentions from user posts; and Task 3, which was slightly ill-defined due to the complex nature of the problem, involved normalizing user mentions of adverse drug reactions to standardized concept IDs. A total of 11 teams participated, and a total of 24 (18 for Task 1, and 6 for Task 2) system runs were submitted. Following the evaluation of the systems, and an assessment of their innovation/novelty, we accepted 7 descriptive manuscripts for publication--5 for Task 1 and 2 for Task 2. We provide descriptions of the tasks, data, and participating systems in this paper.

  19. Different neuroplasticity for task targets and distractors.

    PubMed

    Spingath, Elsie Y; Kang, Hyun Sug; Plummer, Thane; Blake, David T

    2011-01-31

    Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from nonselective

  20. Control and Interference in Task Switching--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesel, Andrea; Steinhauser, Marco; Wendt, Mike; Falkenstein, Michael; Jost, Kerstin; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    The task-switching paradigm offers enormous possibilities to study cognitive control as well as task interference. The current review provides an overview of recent research on both topics. First, we review different experimental approaches to task switching, such as comparing mixed-task blocks with single-task blocks, predictable task-switching…

  1. Task decision difficulty: effects on ERPs in a same-different letter classification task.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B; Nasman, V T; Wilson, G F

    1994-10-01

    A "same-different" letter pair choice reaction time task was used to compare reaction time, performance accuracy, and P3 amplitude and latency at three levels of task difficulty. Stimulus set was held constant across tasks, and task difficulty was manipulated by instructions to the subject. Subjects delivered a button-press response to designate whether members of each letter pair matched or mismatched on the basis of their physical identity (low difficulty), name identity (medium difficulty), or category identity (vowels/consonants, high difficulty). Task decision difficulty was confirmed by slower reaction times and reduced response accuracy. P3 amplitude was inversely related to task decision difficulty; relatively larger P3s were associated with matched (vs. mismatched) letter pairs. These findings evidence direct effects of task difficulty on P3 amplitude, possibly as the result of "equivocation" related to more difficult task judgments.

  2. Modeling of autonomous problem solving process by dynamic construction of task models in multiple tasks environment.

    PubMed

    Ohigashi, Yu; Omori, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    Traditional reinforcement learning (RL) supposes a complex but single task to be solved. When a RL agent faces a task similar to a learned one, the agent must re-learn the task from the beginning because it doesn't reuse the past learned results. This is the problem of quick action learning, which is the foundation of decision making in the real world. In this paper, we suppose agents that can solve a set of tasks similar to each other in a multiple tasks environment, where we encounter various problems one after another, and propose a technique of action learning that can quickly solve similar tasks by reusing previously learned knowledge. In our method, a model-based RL uses a task model constructed by combining primitive local predictors for predicting task and environmental dynamics. To evaluate the proposed method, we performed a computer simulation using a simple ping-pong game with variations.

  3. Perceived Difficulty of a Visual Search Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Gunnar; And Others

    An experiment was carried out on perceived difficulty of a simple attention task. Seven complex stimulus matrices were used, consisting of different numbers of pairs of consonants. The subjects' task was to search for targets determined by the experimenter one by one. Search time was measured as performance criterion. Perceived difficulty of the…

  4. Teachers as Designers of Effective Numeracy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Vince

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary research into an effective approach to numeracy task design is described and analysed using a conceptual framework based on two dimensions--one related to the nature of numeracy and the other concerned with the characteristics of effective mathematical tasks. A case that documents one teacher's attempt to create a…

  5. Instructional Objectives: Selecting and Devising Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mileff, Milo

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper and the discussion that follows, the author presents aspects of test construction and a careful description of instructional objectives. Constructing tests involves several stages such as describing language objectives, selecting appropriate test task, devising and assembling test tasks, and devising a scoring system for…

  6. What Writing Tasks Do TESOL Professors Require?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies about writing assignments in higher education have explained that the library research paper, report on experiment, summary, and article/book review were the most common writing assignment tasks assigned across disciplines. No previous studies have explored writing tasks in the TESOL discipline at a national level. In this study…

  7. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Task forces. 701.58 Section 701.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION... establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  8. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58 Section 701.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION... establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  9. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58 Section 701.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION... establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  10. Tailoring Tasks to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Amy Roth; Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Just as ready-made clothes may not provide a perfect fit for all bodies, math lessons may not be a perfect fit for all students. Published instructional tasks, including problems in mathematics textbooks, often need to be tailored to be meaningful, relevant, or accessible to each student. Ways are possible to take high-level reasoning tasks and…

  11. Pleasantness of Creative Tasks and Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of emotion on creative potential, experimental studies have typically focused on the impact of induced or spontaneous mood states on creative performance. In this report the relationship between the perceived pleasantness of tasks (using divergent thinking and story writing tasks) and creative performance was examined.…

  12. What Writing Tasks Do TESOL Professors Require?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies about writing assignments in higher education have explained that the library research paper, report on experiment, summary, and article/book review were the most common writing assignment tasks assigned across disciplines. No previous studies have explored writing tasks in the TESOL discipline at a national level. In this study…

  13. ENRO Task Analysis. Worker Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, Chicago, IL.

    This task analysis for positions at the ENRO shirt and tie manufacturing plant in Louisville, Kentucky, was developed to help teach English as a second language in order to improve communication in the workplace and prepare all employees for a total quality management model. The task analysis includes information about workers in the Raw…

  14. Interpretative Tasks Applied to Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Felicity

    1986-01-01

    The use of "interpretative tasks" is advocated in the teaching of short stories. Such tasks encourage learners to explore stories beyond the level of pure narrative and also encourage development of a "feel" for creative uses of English in literature. (Author/CB)

  15. Effective Task Design for the TBL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Bill; Franchini, Billie

    2014-01-01

    Group and team tasks are the culminating outputs of student learning in team and collaborative learning environments. How they are conceived and designed, therefore, can directly determine the success of the pedagogical strategy. A key design issue for creating effective tasks is how best to focus student knowledge, observation, and analysis…

  16. Task Force IV: Environment and Natural Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Summarizing the Task Force Issues Paper presented at the Appalachian Conference on Balanced Growth and Economic Development (1977), this article presents Task Force recommendations on: the price of growth; relaxation of environmental regulations; mitigation of regional impact costs; policy regarding the use of public lands; growth management…

  17. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  18. Students' Views of Example Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Sinead; O'Shea, Ann; Pfeiffer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here on students' views of example generation tasks assigned to them in two first year undergraduate Calculus courses. The design and use of such tasks was undertaken as part of a project which aimed to afford students opportunities to develop their thinking skills and their conceptual understanding. In interviews with 10 students, we…

  19. Posing Cognitively Demanding Tasks to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Rachel; Stylianou, Despina A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitively demanding tasks (CDT) (Stein et al. 2000) are necessary for the development of students' mathematical reasoning skills. Research is unequivocal on the importance of giving students opportunities to engage in such tasks. Although current reform efforts call for mathematics learning for "all" students, learners who…

  20. What Is Task-Centered Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francom, Gregory M.; Gardner, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Many recent models of learning and instruction center learning on real-world tasks and problems to support knowledge application and transfer. Of the many different approaches to centering learning on real-world tasks and problems, one main area in recent literature attempts to balance the efficiency of adequate learner support with the…

  1. Students' Performance on a Symmetry Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Siew Yin; Logan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Singapore and Australian Grade 6 students' (n=1,187) performance on a symmetry task in a recently developed Mathematics Processing Instrument (MPI). The MPI comprised tasks sourced from Australia and Singapore's national assessments, NAPLAN and PSLE. Only half of the cohort solved the item successfully. It is possible that…

  2. Tailoring Tasks to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Amy Roth; Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Just as ready-made clothes may not provide a perfect fit for all bodies, math lessons may not be a perfect fit for all students. Published instructional tasks, including problems in mathematics textbooks, often need to be tailored to be meaningful, relevant, or accessible to each student. Ways are possible to take high-level reasoning tasks and…

  3. Preschoolers Learn Cognitive Tasks in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoon, Owen W.

    The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of certain cognitive training tasks on children in group settings under natural preschool conditions. Thirty-five children, aged 47-63 months, were divided into six experimental groups and received various cognitive tasks. Results indicated that most children experienced at least moderate…

  4. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  5. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  6. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    This book provides teachers with a practical introduction to the design and development of communicative language learning tasks. The ideas presented are relevant to teachers working in or preparing for a range of situations with a variety of learner types. First, some basic issues concerning communicative learning tasks are discussed, and the…

  7. A Bilingual Advantage in Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that lifelong bilingualism may lead to enhanced efficiency in the ability to shift between mental sets. We compared the performance of monolingual and fluent bilingual college students in a task-switching paradigm. Bilinguals incurred reduced switching costs in the task-switching paradigm when compared with…

  8. Auto Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the auto mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  9. Pleasantness of Creative Tasks and Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of emotion on creative potential, experimental studies have typically focused on the impact of induced or spontaneous mood states on creative performance. In this report the relationship between the perceived pleasantness of tasks (using divergent thinking and story writing tasks) and creative performance was examined.…

  10. Ecology and Task Structures in Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmudy, Mark H.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; Steffen, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Many of the characteristics of effective physical education lessons have been discovered by sport pedagogy researchers by employing what has become known as the ecological or task structures perspective. The purpose of this study was to describe the task structures and ecology that existed in two consecutive 7-day summer adventure camps run by an…

  11. Researchers as Evaluators: Tasks, Tensions and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langfeldt, Liv; Kyvik, Svein

    2011-01-01

    Researchers undertake a number of different research evaluation tasks, taking up a substantial part of their research time--estimated to about one work month per year for a professor. This paper addresses the various evaluator roles and tasks researchers take on, and the tensions they involve. How the research evaluator role may conflict with the…

  12. Report of the Transfer Articulation Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    This report to the Arizona State Legislature describes a model transfer system developed by the Transfer Articulation Task Force, a cooperative effort among the state's universities and community colleges to improve articulation and transfer. Following an introduction to the Task Force, elements of the proposed transfer model are reviewed,…

  13. Concurrent Cognitive Task Modulates Coordination Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellecchia, Geraldine L.; Shockley, Kevin; Turvey, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Does a concurrent cognitive task affect the dynamics of bimanual rhythmic coordination? In-phase coordination was performed under manipulations of phase detuning and movement frequency and either singly or in combination with an arithmetic task. Predicted direction-specific shifts in stable relative phase from 0 degrees due to detuning and…

  14. Paternal Effectiveness in a Selected Cognitive Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuff, Nancy Hamblen

    The immediate effectiveness of paternal instruction in a selected cognitive task was investigated. The sub-problems were (1) to compare paternal and maternal instruction, and (2) to analyze paternal instructional effectiveness with the son or the daughter. The cognitive task selected was the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test. Subjects were 42…

  15. Occupational Food Service Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the occupational food service series. Each occupation is divided into three to eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and…

  16. Parallel processing considerations for image recognition tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simske, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Many image recognition tasks are well-suited to parallel processing. The most obvious example is that many imaging tasks require the analysis of multiple images. From this standpoint, then, parallel processing need be no more complicated than assigning individual images to individual processors. However, there are three less trivial categories of parallel processing that will be considered in this paper: parallel processing (1) by task; (2) by image region; and (3) by meta-algorithm. Parallel processing by task allows the assignment of multiple workflows-as diverse as optical character recognition [OCR], document classification and barcode reading-to parallel pipelines. This can substantially decrease time to completion for the document tasks. For this approach, each parallel pipeline is generally performing a different task. Parallel processing by image region allows a larger imaging task to be sub-divided into a set of parallel pipelines, each performing the same task but on a different data set. This type of image analysis is readily addressed by a map-reduce approach. Examples include document skew detection and multiple face detection and tracking. Finally, parallel processing by meta-algorithm allows different algorithms to be deployed on the same image simultaneously. This approach may result in improved accuracy.

  17. Auto Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the auto mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  18. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    This book provides teachers with a practical introduction to the design and development of communicative language learning tasks. The ideas presented are relevant to teachers working in or preparing for a range of situations with a variety of learner types. First, some basic issues concerning communicative learning tasks are discussed, and the…

  19. Students' Views of Example Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Sinead; O'Shea, Ann; Pfeiffer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here on students' views of example generation tasks assigned to them in two first year undergraduate Calculus courses. The design and use of such tasks was undertaken as part of a project which aimed to afford students opportunities to develop their thinking skills and their conceptual understanding. In interviews with 10 students, we…

  20. Industrial Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for industrial occupations. The industrial occupations are divided into eight clusters. The clusters and occupations are: construction cluster (bricklayer, carpenter, building maintenance…

  1. Residential Carpentry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for nine occupations in the residential carpentry series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  2. Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…

  3. Data Processing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for five occupations in the data processing series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  4. Occupational Food Service Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the occupational food service series. Each occupation is divided into three to eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and…

  5. Business & Office Secretarial Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the business and office secretarial series. Each occupation is divided into three to seven duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught…

  6. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  7. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  8. Using ADA Tasks to Simulate Operating Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAcetis, Louis A.; Schmidt, Oron; Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    A method of simulating equipment using ADA tasks is discussed. Individual units of equipment are coded as concurrently running tasks that monitor and respond to input signals. This technique has been used in a simulation of the space-to-ground Communications and Tracking subsystem of Space Station Freedom.

  9. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  10. The Instructor as Manager: Time and Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty; Nijhuis, Gerard Gervedink

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of information and communication technologies at the University of Twente (Netherlands) and considers the management tasks, defined as all tasks outside of content-specific aspects, related to online learning via the World Wide Web that instructors must address. Focuses on handling assignments and feedback. (LRW)

  11. Task Analysis - Its Relation to Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Robert M.

    Task analysis is a procedure having the purpose of identifying different kinds of performances which are outcomes of learning, in order to make possible the specification of optimal instructional conditions for each kind of outcome. Task analysis may be related to content analysis in two different ways: (1) it may be used to identify the probably…

  12. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  13. Using Perceptrons to Explore the Reorientation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Michael R. W.; Kelly, Debbie M.; Spetch, Marcia L.; Dupuis, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The reorientation task is a paradigm that has been used extensively to study the types of information used by humans and animals to navigate in their environment. In this task, subjects are reinforced for going to a particular location in an arena that is typically rectangular in shape. The subject then has to find that location again after being…

  14. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  15. Mathematically Rich, Investigative Tasks for Teaching Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for teachers is to incorporate the Standards for Mathematical Practice (CCSSI 2010) throughout their teaching of mathematics so that the Common Core Standards do not revert back to a purely content-driven curriculum. One way to achieve this is through the use of mathematically rich, investigative tasks. These tasks encourage students…

  16. The Ultimate Developmental Task in Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Richard F.

    The significance of adolescent literature has been judged on the basis of the developmental tasks encountered by the main character. One writer has identified eight developmental tasks that teenagers must undertake as they move toward adulthood: discovering one's sex role in our culture, developing relationships with peers, achieving an easy…

  17. Governor's Task Force on Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Governor's Task Force on Adult Literacy, Atlanta.

    The Georgia Governor's Task Force on Adult Literacy conducted a study to determine the extent of adult illiteracy in the state, develop a program to deal with illiteracy, and make recommendations to the state for a future course of action to reduce the problem. The task force arrived at a working definition of adult literacy that included three…

  18. Using Ada tasks to simulate operating equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deacetis, Louis A.; Schmidt, Oron; Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    A method of simulating equipment using Ada tasks is discussed. Individual units of equipment are coded as concurrently running tasks that monitor and respond to input signals. This technique has been used in a simulation of the space-to-ground Communications and Tracking subsystem of Space Station Freedom.

  19. The Ultimate Developmental Task in Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Richard F.

    The significance of adolescent literature has been judged on the basis of the developmental tasks encountered by the main character. One writer has identified eight developmental tasks that teenagers must undertake as they move toward adulthood: discovering one's sex role in our culture, developing relationships with peers, achieving an easy…

  20. Brief Family Therapy: A Metaphorical Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Shazer, Steve

    1980-01-01

    Presents a therapeutic procedure designed to prescribe the family's troublesome behavior pattern. A complement precedes delivering a task assignment. The metaphorical task redefines the serious complaint pattern into only one of the many options a family has for dealing with each other. A case study is presented. (Author/BEF)

  1. Optimization: Old Dogs and New Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Otten, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces an optimization task with a ready-made motivating question that may be paraphrased as follows: "Are you smarter than a Welsh corgi?" The authors present the task along with descriptions of the ways in which two groups of students approached it. These group vignettes reveal as much about the nature of calculus students'…

  2. Residential Carpentry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for nine occupations in the residential carpentry series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  3. Health Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for health occupations. The health occupations are divided into five clusters. The clusters and occupations are: health occupations, nursing occupations (home health aide, geriatric aide,…

  4. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  5. Child Care Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the child care series. Each occupation is divided into 13 to 15 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  6. Mathematically Rich, Investigative Tasks for Teaching Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for teachers is to incorporate the Standards for Mathematical Practice (CCSSI 2010) throughout their teaching of mathematics so that the Common Core Standards do not revert back to a purely content-driven curriculum. One way to achieve this is through the use of mathematically rich, investigative tasks. These tasks encourage students…

  7. Knowledge Mapping: A Multipurpose Task Analysis Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esque, Timm J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes knowledge mapping, a tool developed to increase the objectivity and accuracy of task difficulty ratings for job design. Application in a semiconductor manufacturing environment is discussed, including identifying prerequisite knowledge for a given task; establishing training development priorities; defining knowledge levels; identifying…

  8. Havighurst's Developmental Tasks, Young Adolescents, and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, M. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Notes that the middle school years can be difficult for young adolescents as they face new and challenging developmental tasks. Provides a brief overview of Robert Havighurst's developmental theory. Proposes developmental tasks specifically for ten- to fifteen-year-olds in increasingly diverse schools and society. (PM)

  9. Legal Secretary: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of a series of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the legal secretary, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in…

  10. Task-Based Instruction Using the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumposky, Nancy Rennau

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) task-based module consistent with Skehan's information processing model of second language acquisition (1998) and with the framework for task design elaborated by Willis (1996), using the Internet as a primary source of language input. In settings where…

  11. Fashion Merchandising Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for seven occupations in the fashion merchandising series. Each occupation is divided into 6 to 15 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  12. Word Processing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for two occupations in the word processing series. Each occupation is divided into 9 or 10 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  13. Knowledge Mapping: A Multipurpose Task Analysis Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esque, Timm J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes knowledge mapping, a tool developed to increase the objectivity and accuracy of task difficulty ratings for job design. Application in a semiconductor manufacturing environment is discussed, including identifying prerequisite knowledge for a given task; establishing training development priorities; defining knowledge levels; identifying…

  14. Cross Cultural Task Cards: Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jeanette; Carty, Elaine

    Twenty cross-cultural learning tasks focus on concepts developed through units on food, clothing, shelter, and natural resources. The tasks progress from simple to complex. They focus on concepts and vocabulary on culture, beginning with a discussion of housing and clothing and concluding with discussions on slavery and the Bill of Rights. Each…

  15. Using Perceptrons to Explore the Reorientation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Michael R. W.; Kelly, Debbie M.; Spetch, Marcia L.; Dupuis, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The reorientation task is a paradigm that has been used extensively to study the types of information used by humans and animals to navigate in their environment. In this task, subjects are reinforced for going to a particular location in an arena that is typically rectangular in shape. The subject then has to find that location again after being…

  16. Motor Task Variation Induces Structural Learning

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Daniel A.; Aertsen, Ad; Wolpert, Daniel M.; Mehring, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Summary When we have learned a motor skill, such as cycling or ice-skating, we can rapidly generalize to novel tasks, such as motorcycling or rollerblading [1–8]. Such facilitation of learning could arise through two distinct mechanisms by which the motor system might adjust its control parameters. First, fast learning could simply be a consequence of the proximity of the original and final settings of the control parameters. Second, by structural learning [9–14], the motor system could constrain the parameter adjustments to conform to the control parameters' covariance structure. Thus, facilitation of learning would rely on the novel task parameters' lying on the structure of a lower-dimensional subspace that can be explored more efficiently. To test between these two hypotheses, we exposed subjects to randomly varying visuomotor tasks of fixed structure. Although such randomly varying tasks are thought to prevent learning, we show that when subsequently presented with novel tasks, subjects exhibit three key features of structural learning: facilitated learning of tasks with the same structure, strong reduction in interference normally observed when switching between tasks that require opposite control strategies, and preferential exploration along the learned structure. These results suggest that skill generalization relies on task variation and structural learning. PMID:19217296

  17. Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…

  18. Improving Closing Task Completion in a Drugstore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fante, Rhiannon; Davis, Ora L.; Kempt, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    A within-subject ABAB reversal design was utilized to investigate the effects of graphic feedback and goal setting on employee closing task completion. Goal setting was contingent upon baseline performance and graphic feedback was posted weekly. It was found that goal setting and graphic feedback improved employee closing task completion.…

  19. The Keck Task Library (KTL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupton, W. F.; Conrad, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    KTL is a set of routines which eases the job of writing applications which must interact with a variety of underlying sub-systems (known as services). A typical application is an X Window user interface coordinating telescope and instruments. In order to connect to a service, application code specifies a service name--typically an instrument name--and a style, which defines the way in which the application will interact with the service. Two styles are currently supported: keyword, where the application reads and writes named keywords and the resulting inter-task message traffic is hidden; and message, where the application deals directly with messages. The keyword style is intended mainly for user interfaces, and the message style is intended mainly for lower-level applications. KTL applications are event driven: a typical application first connects to all its desired services, then expresses interest in specified events. The application then enters an event dispatch loop in which it waits for events and calls the appropriate service's event-handling routine. Each event is associated with a call-back routine which is invoked when the event occurs. Call-back routines may (and typically do) interact with other sub-systems and KTL provides the means of doing so without blocking the application (vital for X Window user interfaces). This approach is a marriage of ideas culled from the X window, ADAM, Keck instrument, and Keck telescope control systems. A novel feature of KTL is that it knows nothing about any services or styles. Instead it defines a generic set of routines which must be implemented by all services and styles (essentially open(), ioctl(), read(), write(), event(), and close()) and activates sharable libraries at run-time. Services have been implemented (in both keyword and message styles) for HIRES (the Keck high resolution echelle spectrograph built by Lick Observatory), LWS (the Keck long wavelength spectrometer built by UC San Diego), and the Keck

  20. Prospective memory in young and older adults: the effects of task importance and ongoing task load.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed

    2014-01-01

    Remembering to perform an action in the future, called prospective memory, often shows age-related differences in favor of young adults when tested in the laboratory. Recently Smith, Horn, and Bayen (2012; Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19, 495) embedded a PM task in an ongoing color-matching task and manipulated the difficulty of the ongoing task by varying the number of colors on each trial of the task. Smith et al. found that age-related differences in PM performance (lower PM performance for older adults relative to young adults) persisted even when older adults could perform the ongoing task as well or better than the young adults. The current study investigates a possible explanation for the pattern of results reported by Smith et al. by including a manipulation of task emphasis: for half of the participants the prospective memory task was emphasize, while for the other half the ongoing color-matching task was emphasized. Older adults performed a 4-color version of the ongoing color-matching task, while young adults completed either the 4-color or a more difficult 6-color version of the ongoing task. Older adults failed to perform as well as the young adults on the prospective memory task regardless of task emphasis, even when older adults were performing as well or better than the young adults on the ongoing color-matching task. The current results indicate that the lack of an effect of ongoing task load on prospective memory task performance is not due to a perception that one or the other task is more important than the other.

  1. Deriving directions through procedural task analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuen, H K; D'Amico, M

    1998-01-01

    Task analysis is one of the essential components of activity analysis. Procedural task analysis involves breaking down an activity into a sequence of steps. Directions are the sequence of steps resulting from the task analysis (i.e., the product of the task analysis). Directions become a guide for caregivers or trainers use in teaching clients a specific skill. However, occupational therapy students often have difficulty in writing directions that are clear enough for caregivers or trainers to carry out. Books on activity analysis only provide examples of directions without giving guidelines on how to perform the writing process. The purposes of this paper are to describe the process of procedural task analysis and to provide a guideline for writing steps of directions.

  2. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention. PMID:27247561

  3. Robot Task Commander with Extensible Programming Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.

  4. EVA Task Timing and Timeline Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looper, Christopher A.; Ney, Zane A.

    2007-01-01

    EVA timeline development occurs using task execution data generated through underwater training and simulation. This project collected task time data during final training events for several Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions and compared like task time data collected during on-orbit execution. Analysis was performed to compare types of activities and times required for each looking specifically for how activities can be accurately trained from a timeline planning perspective. The data revealed two significant aspects of flight timeline planning; Zero-g task times will match training times for activities that can be accurately simulated with appropriate fidelity hardware; and not all activities can be simulated sufficiently to produce training task times that will reflect required zero-g times. An approach for timeline planning utilizing this knowledge is also presented.

  5. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  6. Human performance on the temporal bisection task.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Charles D; Brody, Carlos D

    2010-12-01

    The perception and processing of temporal information are tasks the brain must continuously perform. These include measuring the duration of stimuli, storing duration information in memory, recalling such memories, and comparing two durations. How the brain accomplishes these tasks, however, is still open for debate. The temporal bisection task, which requires subjects to compare temporal stimuli to durations held in memory, is perfectly suited to address these questions. Here we perform a meta-analysis of human performance on the temporal bisection task collected from 148 experiments spread across 18 independent studies. With this expanded data set we are able to show that human performance on this task contains a number of significant peculiarities, which in total no single model yet proposed has been able to explain. Here we present a simple 2-step decision model that is capable of explaining all the idiosyncrasies seen in the data.

  7. Learning to Model Task-Oriented Attention.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention.

  8. TASK-3 as a Potential Antidepressant Target

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Santarelli, Vincent P.; Doran, Scott M.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Kraus, Richard L.; Rosahl, Thomas W.; Meziane, Hamid; Montial, Marina; Reiss, Duane R.; Wessner, Keith; McCampbell, Alexander; Stevens, Joanne; Brunner, Joseph; Fox, Steven V.; Uebele, Victor N.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Winrow, Christopher J.; Renger, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of TASK-3 (Kcnk9) potassium channels affect neurotransmitter release in thalamocortical centers and other sleep-related nuclei having the capacity to regulate arousal cycles and REM sleep changes associated with mood disorders and antidepressant action. Circumstantial evidence from this and previous studies suggest the potential for TASK-3 to be a novel antidepressant therapeutic target; TASK-3 knock-out mice display augmented circadian amplitude and exhibit sleep architecture characterized by suppressed REM activity. Detailed analysis of locomotor activity indicate that the amplitude of activity bout duration and bout number are augmented in TASK-3 mutants well beyond that seen wildtypes, findings substantiated by amplitude increases in body temperature and EEG recordings of sleep stage bouts. Polysomnographic analysis of TASK-3 mutants reveal increases in nocturnal active wake and suppressed REM sleep time while increased slow wave sleep typifies the inactive phase, findings that have implications for the cognitive impact of reduced TASK-3 activity. In direct measures of their resistance to despair behavior, TASK-3 knock-outs displayed significant decreases in immobility relative to wildtype controls in both tail suspension and forced swim tests. Treatment of wildtype animals with the antidepressant Fluoxetine markedly reduced REM sleep, while leaving active wake and slow wave sleep relatively intact. Remarkably, these effects were absent in TASK-3 mutants indicating that TASK-3 is either directly involved in the mechanism of this drug’s action, or participates in parallel pathways that achieve the same effect. Together, these results support the TASK-3 channel to act as a therapeutic target for antidepressant action. PMID:21885038

  9. Solving belief problems: toward a task analysis.

    PubMed

    Roth, D; Leslie, A M

    1998-04-01

    Solving belief problems develops as a skill in normal children during the preschool years. To understand this process of development, it is necessary to provide an analysis of the tasks used to test preschool 'theory of mind' skills. This analysis should allow us to relate the structure of a given task to the underlying cognitive mechanisms that the task engages. In two experiments, we find that 3-year-old children show a pattern of success and failure on belief tasks that is not consistent with 'conceptual deficit' accounts. Young children possess the concept, BELIEF, but have certain characteristic difficulties with correctly calculating the contents of beliefs. In childhood autism, by contrast, the mechanisms that in normal development bestow conceptual competence in this domain are impaired. In the first experiment, parallel task structures are used to show that 3-year-olds are no better at predicting behavior from a partially true belief than they are at predicting behavior from an entirely false belief. We develop specific proposals about task structural factors that either facilitate or hinder success in belief-content calculation. These proposals are supported in a second experiment. We compare two false-belief tasks, one of which has helpful structural factors, the other of which has hampering factors, with a third task which exemplifies a hampering task structure but without any theory of mind content. We compare 3- and 4-year-olds' patterns of performance with that of autistic children. Each of the three groups shows a distinct performance profile across the three tasks, as predicted for each case by our model. Innate attentional mechanisms provide the conceptual foundations for 'theory of mind' but must be supplemented by a robust executive process that allows false beliefs to achieve 'conceptual pop-out.' Our approach has general implications for the study of conceptual development.

  10. Cognitive Complexity of Mathematics Instructional Tasks in a Taiwanese Classroom: An Examination of Task Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…

  11. The Role of Task Repetition in Learning Word-Stress Patterns through Auditory Priming Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, YeonJoo; Kim, YouJin; Murphy, John

    This study focused on an instructional component often neglected when teaching the pronunciation of English as either a second, foreign, or international language--namely, the suprasegmental feature of lexical stress. Extending previous research on collaborative priming tasks and task repetition, the study investigated the impact of task and…

  12. Promoting Task-Based Pragmatics Instruction in EFL Classroom Contexts: The Role of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youjin; Taguchi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Robinson's (2001) Cognition Hypothesis claims that more complex tasks promote interaction and language development. This study examined the effect of task complexity in the learning of request-making expressions. Task complexity was operationalized as [+/- reasoning] following Robinson's framework. The study employed a pretest-posttest research…

  13. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  14. The Task Is Not Enough: Processing Approaches to Task-Based Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter; Xiaoyue, Bei; Qian, Li; Wang, Zhan

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on three research studies, all of which concern second language task performance. The first focuses on planning, and compares on-line and strategic planning as well as task repetition. The second study examines the role of familiarity on task performance, and compares this with conventional strategic planning. The third study…

  15. Task Inventory Construction. Evaluation of the Marine Corps Task Analysis Program. Technical Report No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishi, Akemi

    To aid in the construction of effective task analysis inventories, this technical report discusses: (1) an optimum questionnaire length that adequately covers Marine tasks without unduly fatiguing respondents; (2) procedures for the phrasing of task statements to avoid ambiguities and be understandable to as broad a range of Marines as is…

  16. The Unconscious Allocation of Cognitive Resources to Task-Relevant and Task-Irrelevant Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Bakar, Zainudin Abu

    2014-01-01

    Conscious allocation of cognitive resources to task-relevant thoughts is necessary for learning. However, task-irrelevant thoughts often associated with fear of failure can enter the mind and interfere with learning. Effects like this prompt the question of whether or not learners consciously shift their cognitive resources from task-relevant to…

  17. Task Repetition Effects on L1 Use in EFL Child Task-Based Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azkarai, Agurtzane; García Mayo, María del Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that tasks provide second language (L2) learners with many opportunities to learn the L2. Task repetition has been claimed to benefit L2 learning since familiarity with procedure and/or content gives learners the chance to focus on more specific aspects of language. Most research on task repetition has focused on adult…

  18. Task Interspersal and Performance of Matching Tasks by Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Christian A.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of task interspersal on the performance of matching-to-sample tasks by three children with autism. A pre-baseline assessed each child's mastery level of a large body of matching stimuli. These matching tasks included matching identical and non-identical animals, numbers, letters, and shapes. Through this…

  19. Task reconfiguration and carryover in task switching: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shulan; Cheng, Poyu

    2006-04-21

    This study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of the processes involved in task switching. A pair-wise task-switching paradigm was used where each trial comprised two tasks that were either the same (task repeat) or different (task switch). In the paradigm, task-switch and repeat trials are compared in conditions of foreknowledge and non-foreknowledge of the forthcoming task type and during different response-stimulus intervals (RSIs). The results of this study show that, before the second task began in a task-pair trial, i.e., during the RSI, there was a CNV-like negativity for all trials. This indicates a general anticipatory effect. In foreknowledge conditions, there is an additional switch-specific reconfiguration process followed by a task-specific (including both switch- and repeat-related) preparatory process. During the post-task 2 stage, P3b was found to be smaller in switch trials than in repeat trials. Such differential P3b between switch and repeat trials appeared earlier and larger in foreknowledge than in non-foreknowledge conditions. The results of this study support the existence of advance preparation and uphold the role of carryover effects in task switching.

  20. Can the Task-Cuing Paradigm Measure an Endogenous Task-Set Reconfiguration Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsell, Stephen; Mizon, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    In 6 task-cuing experiments, with 2 cues per task, the authors varied cue-stimulus interval to investigate G. D. Logan and C. Bundesen's (2003) claim that when cue repetition is controlled for, task-switch cost and its reduction with preparation are largely eliminated and hence cannot index an endogenous control process. Experiment 1 replicates…

  1. CLASS Challenging Tasks: Using Cognitive Load Theory to Inform the Design of Challenging Mathematical Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, James; Hopkins, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a seven-step process for developing problem-solving tasks informed by cognitive load theory. Through an example of a task developed for Year 2 students, we show how this approach can be used to produce challenging mathematical tasks that aim to optimise cognitive load for each student.

  2. Task Interspersal and Performance of Matching Tasks by Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Christian A.; Poulson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of task interspersal on the performance of matching-to-sample tasks by three children with autism. A pre-baseline assessed each child's mastery level of a large body of matching stimuli. These matching tasks included matching identical and non-identical animals, numbers, letters, and shapes. Through this…

  3. The Effects of Task Fluency and Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules on Student Choice Allocation between Math Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Maliha

    2010-01-01

    Students may avoid working on difficult tasks because it takes them longer to complete those tasks, which results in a delay to reinforcement. Research studies show that reinforcer and response dimensions can be manipulated within a concurrent operants framework to bias choice allocation toward more difficult tasks. The current study extends…

  4. The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners' Oral Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Second Language learners' oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners' oral…

  5. The Task Is Not Enough: Processing Approaches to Task-Based Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter; Xiaoyue, Bei; Qian, Li; Wang, Zhan

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on three research studies, all of which concern second language task performance. The first focuses on planning, and compares on-line and strategic planning as well as task repetition. The second study examines the role of familiarity on task performance, and compares this with conventional strategic planning. The third study…

  6. Updating sensory versus task representations during task-switching: insights from cognitive brain potentials in humans.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, Jose A; Barceló, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    Task-cueing studies suggest that the updating of sensory and task representations both contribute to behavioral task-switch costs [Forstmann, B. U., Brass, M., & Koch, I. (2007). Methodological and empirical issues when dissociating cue-related from task-related processes in the explicit task-cuing procedure. Psychological Research, 71(4), 393-400]. Here we used transition cues to orthogonally manipulate Cue- and Task updating (switches vs. repetitions), in order to identify distinct behavioral indicators and event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with the exogenous and endogenous control of task preparation and execution. Both Cue- and Task updating, as well as their interaction, yielded significant behavioral costs, and evoked distinct cue- and target-locked ERPs. Task-switches enhanced cue-locked early P3 amplitudes (180-220 ms) over mid-central scalp regions, whereas cue switches reduced a fronto-central negativity (N2; 255-295 ms). In contrast, both cue- and task-switches enhanced cue-locked late P3 amplitudes (300-340 ms; novelty P3) over centro-parietal regions, supporting the hypothesis of a common neural substrate for processing stimulus and task novelty [Barceló, F., Escera, C., Corral, M. J., & Perianez, J. A. (2006). Task switching and novelty processing activate a common neural network for cognitive control. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(10), 1734-1748]. In the target period, both cue- and task-switches reduced target P3 activity (310-730 ms) with short cue-target intervals only, suggesting that behavioral switch costs reflect the accrual of various time-dependent control operations during task preparation and execution. We conclude that the cognitive control of task-switching seems to emerge from a dynamic interplay between exogenous and endogenous sources of information.

  7. Overview of the ID, EPI and REL tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present the preparation, resources, results and analysis of three tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011: the main tasks on Infectious Diseases (ID) and Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications (EPI), and the supporting task on Entity Relations (REL). The two main tasks represent extensions of the event extraction model introduced in the BioNLP Shared Task 2009 (ST'09) to two new areas of biomedical scientific literature, each motivated by the needs of specific biocuration tasks. The ID task concerns the molecular mechanisms of infection, virulence and resistance, focusing in particular on the functions of a class of signaling systems that are ubiquitous in bacteria. The EPI task is dedicated to the extraction of statements regarding chemical modifications of DNA and proteins, with particular emphasis on changes relating to the epigenetic control of gene expression. By contrast to these two application-oriented main tasks, the REL task seeks to support extraction in general by separating challenges relating to part-of relations into a subproblem that can be addressed by independent systems. Seven groups participated in each of the two main tasks and four groups in the supporting task. The participating systems indicated advances in the capability of event extraction methods and demonstrated generalization in many aspects: from abstracts to full texts, from previously considered subdomains to new ones, and from the ST'09 extraction targets to other entities and events. The highest performance achieved in the supporting task REL, 58% F-score, is broadly comparable with levels reported for other relation extraction tasks. For the ID task, the highest-performing system achieved 56% F-score, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance at the established ST'09 task. In the EPI task, the best result was 53% F-score for the full set of extraction targets and 69% F-score for a reduced set of core extraction targets, approaching a level of performance sufficient

  8. An FMRI-compatible Symbol Search task.

    PubMed

    Liebel, Spencer W; Clark, Uraina S; Xu, Xiaomeng; Riskin-Jones, Hannah H; Hawkshead, Brittany E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Labbe, Donald; Jerskey, Beth A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants' performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test-retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; p<.001). The criterion validity of the new task was supported, as it exhibited a strong positive correlation with the WAIS Symbol Search (r=.717; p<.001). Predicted convergent and discriminant validity patterns of the FMRI Symbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance.

  9. An FMRI-Compatible Symbol Search Task

    PubMed Central

    Liebel, Spencer W.; Clark, Uraina S.; Xu, Xiaomeng; Riskin-Jones, Hannah H.; Hawkshead, Brittany E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Labbe, Donald; Jerskey, Beth A.; Sweet, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants’ performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test–retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r = .791; p<.001). The criterion validity of the new task was supported, as it exhibited a strong positive correlation with the WAIS Symbol Search (r = .717; p<.001). Predicted convergent and discriminant validity patterns of the FMRI Symbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance. PMID:25794263

  10. A Reverse Stroop Task with Mouse Tracking.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T

    2016-01-01

    In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed-for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants' responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants' performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse's approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks.

  11. A Reverse Stroop Task with Mouse Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T.

    2016-01-01

    In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed—for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants’ responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants’ performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse’s approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks. PMID:27199881

  12. The impact of secondary tasks on multi-tasking in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Law, Anna S; Logie, Robert H; Pearson, David G

    2006-05-01

    One experiment is described that examined the possible involvement of working memory in the Virtual Errands Test (McGeorge et al. (2001). Using virtual environments in the assessment of executive dysfunction. Presence, 10, 375-383), which requires participants to complete errands within a virtual environment, presented on a computer screen. Time was limited, therefore participants had to swap between tasks (multi-task) efficiently to complete the errands. Forty-two undergraduates participated, all attempting the test twice. On one of these occasions they were asked to perform a concurrent task throughout (order of single and dual-task conditions was counterbalanced). The type of secondary task was manipulated between groups. Twenty-one participants were asked to randomly generate months of the year aloud in the dual-task condition, while another 21 were asked to suppress articulation by repeating the word "December". An overall dual-task effect on the Virtual Errands Test was observed, although this was qualified by an interaction with the order of single and dual-task conditions. Analysis of the secondary task data showed a drop in performance (relative to baseline) under dual-task conditions, and that drop was greater for the random generation group than the articulatory suppression group. These data are interpreted as suggesting that the central executive and phonological loop components of working memory are implicated in this test of multi-tasking.

  13. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-08

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects.

  14. The influence of degree of expertise and objective task complexity on perceived task complexity and performance.

    PubMed

    Haerem, Thorvald; Rau, Devaki

    2007-09-01

    Research on expertise has shown that nonexperts may sometimes outperform experts. Some researchers have suggested that superior performance by experts depends on the match between the experts' cognition and the demands of the task. The authors explored this issue using a quasi-experiment set in an organization. They examined how 3 sets of similar tasks that differ in their type of complexity can lead to differences in task perceptions and performance among experts, intermediates, and novices. The results suggest that experts and novices pay attention to different aspects of a task and that this affects both their perceptions of task complexity (i.e., task analyzability and variability) and their performance on the task. (c) 2007 APA.

  15. Deep thinking increases task-set shielding and reduces shifting flexibility in dual-task performance.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-05-01

    Performing two tasks concurrently is difficult, which has been taken to imply the existence of a structural processing bottleneck. Here we sought to assess whether and to what degree one's multitasking abilities depend on the cognitive-control style one engages in. Participants were primed with creativity tasks that either called for divergent thinking-which were suspected to induce a holistic, flexible task processing mode, or convergent thinking-which were assumed to induce a systematic, focused processing mode. Participants showed reduced cross-talk between tasks and increased task-component switching costs (dual-task costs) for the convergent-thinking group compared to both, a divergent-thinking group and a neutral control group. The results suggest that the cognitive-control style people engage in prior to the task predicts their multitasking performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-task connectivity reveals flexible hubs for adaptive task control.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael W; Reynolds, Jeremy R; Power, Jonathan D; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan; Braver, Todd S

    2013-09-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that the human ability to adaptively implement a wide variety of tasks is preferentially a result of the operation of a fronto-parietal brain network (FPN). We hypothesized that this network's adaptability is made possible by flexible hubs: brain regions that rapidly update their pattern of global functional connectivity according to task demands. Using recent advances in characterizing brain network organization and dynamics, we identified mechanisms consistent with the flexible hub theory. We found that the FPN's brain-wide functional connectivity pattern shifted more than those of other networks across a variety of task states and that these connectivity patterns could be used to identify the current task. Furthermore, these patterns were consistent across practiced and novel tasks, suggesting that reuse of flexible hub connectivity patterns facilitates adaptive (novel) task performance. Together, these findings support a central role for fronto-parietal flexible hubs in cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands.

  17. Using qualitative reasoning for robot task planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Phil

    1992-03-01

    As robots are called upon to perform increasingly complex tasks, such as intelligent assembly, maintenance, and inspection in space, the problems of efficient task planning, contingency detection, and recovery become increasingly difficult. While work has progressed toward meeting some of these goals for robotic systems another, for the most part unrelated, area of research in artificial intelligence, qualitative reasoning (QR), has simultaneously been addressing similar reasoning tasks for different classes of complex systems. This paper presents some techniques for bridging the gap between the two research areas, QR representations for reasoning about robotic systems, and examples demonstrating some successful results.

  18. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckannan, E. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A list of active research tasks as of the end of 1978 of the Materials Processing in Space Program of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA Centers and other organizations is reported. An overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university and government communities is provided. The program, its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved; and each research task are described. Tasks are categorized by ground based research according to four process areas. Cross references to the performing organizations and principal investigators are provided.

  19. Task specific computations in attentional maps

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Balan, Puiu F.; Oristaglio, Jeff; Schneider, David

    2008-01-01

    The lateral intraparietal area (LIP), a portion of monkey posterior parietal cortex, has been implicated in spatial attention. We review recent evidence from our laboratory showing that LIP encodes a priority map of the external environment that specifies the momentary locus of attention and is activated in a variety of behavioral tasks. The priority map in LIP is shaped by task-specific variables. We suggest that the multifaceted responses in LIP represent mechanisms for allocating attention, and that the attentional system may flexibly configure itself to meet the cognitive, motor and motivational demands of individual tasks. PMID:18502468

  20. Task performance in astronomical adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, J. C.; Caucci, Luca

    2006-06-01

    In objective or task-based assessment of image quality, figures of merit are defined by the performance of some specific observer on some task of scientific interest. This methodology is well established in medical imaging but is just beginning to be applied in astronomy. In this paper we survey the theory needed to understand the performance of ideal or ideal-linear (Hotelling) observers on detection tasks with adaptive-optical data. The theory is illustrated by discussing its application to detection of exoplanets from a sequence of short-exposure images.

  1. An approach to elemental task learning

    SciTech Connect

    Belmans, P

    1990-01-01

    In this article we deal with the automated learning of tasks by a robotic system through observation of a human operator. Particularly, we explain what is meant by a learning ability in autonomous robots and in teleoperation systems, where several operators and several machines may work in cooperation to perform tasks. We discuss different approaches to learning in these systems and outline the features of the models they are based upon. This leads us to choose an analytical model suited for tasks analysis. We then present the software architecture for our proposed approach and show the first results obtained on sample tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Analysis of Human Communication during Assembly Tasks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    AD-A7l 43 ANALYSIS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION DURING ASSEMBLY TASKS in1(U) CRNEGIE-MELLO UNIY PITTSBURGH PA ROBOTICS INST UNCLSSIIEDK S BARBER ET AL...ao I Dur~~~~IngAbcbyTs; 7c .S:in i lSAo .0. Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Tasks K. Suzanne Barber and Gerald J. Agin CMU-RI-TR-86-1...TYPE or REPORT & PE-Rioo CevCZaz Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Inlterim Tasks I . PERFORMING 00RG. REPORT NUMBER 1. £UT~oOR~e) IL

  3. Team task analysis: differentiating between tasks using team relatedness and team workflow as metrics of team task interdependence.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Winfred; Glaze, Ryan M; Bhupatkar, Alok; Villado, Anton J; Bennett, Winston; Rowe, Leah J

    2012-04-01

    As a constructive replication and extension of Arthur, Edwards, Bell, Villado, and Bennett (2005), the objective of the current study was to further investigate the efficacy of team relatedness and team workflow ratings (along with their composite) as metrics of interdependence. Although an analysis of task and job interdependence has important implications and uses in domains such as job design, selection, and training, the job analysis literature has been slow to develop an effective method to identify team-based tasks and jobs. To achieve the study's objectives, 140 F-16 fighter pilots (35 four-person teams) rated 34 task and activity statements in terms of their team relatedness and team workflow. The results indicated that team relatedness and team workflow effectively differentiated between tasks with varying levels of interdependency (as identified by instructor pilots who served as subject matter experts) within the same job. In addition, teams that accurately perceived the level of interdependency performed better on a four-ship F-16 flight-training program than those that did not. Team relatedness and team workflow ratings can effectively differentiate between tasks with varying levels of interdependency. Like traditional individual task or job analysis, this information can serve as the basis for specified human resource functions and interventions, and as diagnostic indicators as well.

  4. "Native" Objects and Collaborators: Infants' Object Choices and Acts of Giving Reflect Favor for Native over Foreign Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Infants learn from adults readily and cooperate with them spontaneously, but how do they select culturally appropriate teachers and collaborators? Building on evidence that children demonstrate social preferences for speakers of their native language, Experiment 1 presented 10-month-old infants with videotaped events in which a native and a…

  5. Overview of the Cancer Genetics and Pathway Curation tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Since their introduction in 2009, the BioNLP Shared Task events have been instrumental in advancing the development of methods and resources for the automatic extraction of information from the biomedical literature. In this paper, we present the Cancer Genetics (CG) and Pathway Curation (PC) tasks, two event extraction tasks introduced in the BioNLP Shared Task 2013. The CG task focuses on cancer, emphasizing the extraction of physiological and pathological processes at various levels of biological organization, and the PC task targets reactions relevant to the development of biomolecular pathway models, defining its extraction targets on the basis of established pathway representations and ontologies. Results Six groups participated in the CG task and two groups in the PC task, together applying a wide range of extraction approaches including both established state-of-the-art systems and newly introduced extraction methods. The best-performing systems achieved F-scores of 55% on the CG task and 53% on the PC task, demonstrating a level of performance comparable to the best results achieved in similar previously proposed tasks. Conclusions The results indicate that existing event extraction technology can generalize to meet the novel challenges represented by the CG and PC task settings, suggesting that extraction methods are capable of supporting the construction of knowledge bases on the molecular mechanisms of cancer and the curation of biomolecular pathway models. The CG and PC tasks continue as open challenges for all interested parties, with data, tools and resources available from the shared task homepage. PMID:26202570

  6. Space station operations task force summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A companion to the Space Stations Operation Task Force Panels' Reports, this document summarizes all space station program goals, operations, and the characteristics of the expected user community. Strategies for operation and recommendations for implementation are included.

  7. Orientation in Eye-Hand Coordination Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Helen M.; Eichorn, Dorothy H.

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinal data on six eye-hand coordination tasks for 25 children aged five and one-half through eight and one-half years were factor analyzed in terms of functional and structural cognitive orientation. (Author)

  8. Communicative Tasks and the Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the conceptual, curricular, and empirical bases of task-based language teaching and suggests future trends, concluding that the conceptual and empirical bases need to be extended both substantively and methodologically. (38 references) (CB)

  9. Orientation in Eye-Hand Coordination Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Helen M.; Eichorn, Dorothy H.

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinal data on six eye-hand coordination tasks for 25 children aged five and one-half through eight and one-half years were factor analyzed in terms of functional and structural cognitive orientation. (Author)

  10. Communicative Tasks and the Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the conceptual, curricular, and empirical bases of task-based language teaching and suggests future trends, concluding that the conceptual and empirical bases need to be extended both substantively and methodologically. (38 references) (CB)

  11. A Study on Mental Tasks Discriminative Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrea, Dan Marius; Dobrea, Monica-Claudia

    The present study was done as part of a more complex project whose final aim is to design and implement an autonomic self-organizing system, mentally commanded by an user giving one of the 4 possible commands: forth, back, left, right. For this, we used the most studied method for designing non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI), namely, the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals acquired during mental tasks. To command, in real-time, the system requires very discriminative mental tasks to be used to trigger the corresponding device commands. The novelty of our paper consists in revealing the great importance the preliminary selecting process of subject-specific set of tasks plays within the implementation of any particular BCI application. In this idea, our research focuses on an extensive analysis of twelve mental tasks; the processing and classification approaches used by us are classical ones.

  12. Final report for task order No. 26

    SciTech Connect

    Trela, W.J.

    1995-10-01

    This is a final report for task order No. 26 between the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sumner Associates issued 20 March, 1995. The task statement for order No. 26 is as follows: {open_quotes}Provide assistance on the design of experimental arrangements for acquisition of data describing the interaction of neutrons with selected materials arranged in geometry.{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Provide assistance in the delivery of drawings and specifications associated with the task.{close_quotes} Three experimental descriptions follow; Dynamic Temperature Measurements in Explosives and Inert Simulants Using Neutron Resonance Radiography, Measurements of the Phonon Frequency Spectrum of Pu from Neutron Resonance Broadening, and Resonant Neutron Absorption Spectroscopy of Hi-Temperature Superconductors, that fulfill the task statement.

  13. Piagetian Tasks, Traditional Intelligence and Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, J.; Koops, W.

    1983-01-01

    A study conducted with kindergarten and elementary school children showed that Piagetian tasks which measured seriation, conservation, and multiple classification were equal or superior to traditional intelligence tests in predicting number language, number line comprehension, and verbal arithmetic. (GC)

  14. Brain oscillatory signatures of motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-06-01

    Noninvasive brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) coupled with prosthetic devices were recently introduced in the rehabilitation of chronic stroke and other disorders of the motor system. These BCI systems and motor rehabilitation in general involve several motor tasks for training. This study investigates the neurophysiological bases of an EEG-oscillation-driven BCI combined with a neuroprosthetic device to define the specific oscillatory signature of the BCI task. Controlling movements of a hand robotic orthosis with motor imagery of the same movement generates sensorimotor rhythm oscillation changes and involves three elements of tasks also used in stroke motor rehabilitation: passive and active movement, motor imagery, and motor intention. We recorded EEG while nine healthy participants performed five different motor tasks consisting of closing and opening of the hand as follows: 1) motor imagery without any external feedback and without overt hand movement, 2) motor imagery that moves the orthosis proportional to the produced brain oscillation change with online proprioceptive and visual feedback of the hand moving through a neuroprosthetic device (BCI condition), 3) passive and 4) active movement of the hand with feedback (seeing and feeling the hand moving), and 5) rest. During the BCI condition, participants received contingent online feedback of the decrease of power of the sensorimotor rhythm, which induced orthosis movement and therefore proprioceptive and visual information from the moving hand. We analyzed brain activity during the five conditions using time-frequency domain bootstrap-based statistical comparisons and Morlet transforms. Activity during rest was used as a reference. Significant contralateral and ipsilateral event-related desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm was present during all motor tasks, largest in contralateral-postcentral, medio-central, and ipsilateral-precentral areas identifying the ipsilateral precentral cortex as an integral

  15. Variance components in discrete force production tasks.

    PubMed

    Varadhan, S K M; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2010-09-01

    The study addresses the relationships between task parameters and two components of variance, "good" and "bad", during multi-finger accurate force production. The variance components are defined in the space of commands to the fingers (finger modes) and refer to variance that does ("bad") and does not ("good") affect total force. Based on an earlier study of cyclic force production, we hypothesized that speeding-up an accurate force production task would be accompanied by a drop in the regression coefficient linking the "bad" variance and force rate such that variance of the total force remains largely unaffected. We also explored changes in parameters of anticipatory synergy adjustments with speeding-up the task. The subjects produced accurate ramps of total force over different times and in different directions (force-up and force-down) while pressing with the four fingers of the right hand on individual force sensors. The two variance components were quantified, and their normalized difference was used as an index of a total force stabilizing synergy. "Good" variance scaled linearly with force magnitude and did not depend on force rate. "Bad" variance scaled linearly with force rate within each task, and the scaling coefficient did not change across tasks with different ramp times. As a result, a drop in force ramp time was associated with an increase in total force variance, unlike the results of the study of cyclic tasks. The synergy index dropped 100-200 ms prior to the first visible signs of force change. The timing and magnitude of these anticipatory synergy adjustments did not depend on the ramp time. Analysis of the data within an earlier model has shown adjustments in the variance of a timing parameter, although these adjustments were not as pronounced as in the earlier study of cyclic force production. Overall, we observed qualitative differences between the discrete and cyclic force production tasks: Speeding-up the cyclic tasks was associated with

  16. Variance Components in Discrete Force Production Tasks

    PubMed Central

    SKM, Varadhan; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The study addresses the relationships between task parameters and two components of variance, “good” and “bad”, during multi-finger accurate force production. The variance components are defined in the space of commands to the fingers (finger modes) and refer to variance that does (“bad”) and does not (“good”) affect total force. Based on an earlier study of cyclic force production, we hypothesized that speeding-up an accurate force production task would be accompanied by a drop in the regression coefficient linking the “bad” variance and force rate such that variance of the total force remains largely unaffected. We also explored changes in parameters of anticipatory synergy adjustments with speeding-up the task. The subjects produced accurate ramps of total force over different times and in different directions (force-up and force-down) while pressing with the four fingers of the right hand on individual force sensors. The two variance components were quantified, and their normalized difference was used as an index of a total force stabilizing synergy. “Good” variance scaled linearly with force magnitude and did not depend on force rate. “Bad” variance scaled linearly with force rate within each task, and the scaling coefficient did not change across tasks with different ramp times. As a result, a drop in force ramp time was associated with an increase in total force variance, unlike the results of the study of cyclic tasks. The synergy index dropped 100-200 ms prior to the first visible signs of force change. The timing and magnitude of these anticipatory synergy adjustments did not depend on the ramp time. Analysis of the data within an earlier model has shown adjustments in the variance of a timing parameter, although these adjustments were not as pronounced as in the earlier study of cyclic force production. Overall, we observed qualitative differences between the discrete and cyclic force production tasks: Speeding-up the cyclic

  17. Brain oscillatory signatures of motor tasks

    PubMed Central

    Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) coupled with prosthetic devices were recently introduced in the rehabilitation of chronic stroke and other disorders of the motor system. These BCI systems and motor rehabilitation in general involve several motor tasks for training. This study investigates the neurophysiological bases of an EEG-oscillation-driven BCI combined with a neuroprosthetic device to define the specific oscillatory signature of the BCI task. Controlling movements of a hand robotic orthosis with motor imagery of the same movement generates sensorimotor rhythm oscillation changes and involves three elements of tasks also used in stroke motor rehabilitation: passive and active movement, motor imagery, and motor intention. We recorded EEG while nine healthy participants performed five different motor tasks consisting of closing and opening of the hand as follows: 1) motor imagery without any external feedback and without overt hand movement, 2) motor imagery that moves the orthosis proportional to the produced brain oscillation change with online proprioceptive and visual feedback of the hand moving through a neuroprosthetic device (BCI condition), 3) passive and 4) active movement of the hand with feedback (seeing and feeling the hand moving), and 5) rest. During the BCI condition, participants received contingent online feedback of the decrease of power of the sensorimotor rhythm, which induced orthosis movement and therefore proprioceptive and visual information from the moving hand. We analyzed brain activity during the five conditions using time-frequency domain bootstrap-based statistical comparisons and Morlet transforms. Activity during rest was used as a reference. Significant contralateral and ipsilateral event-related desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm was present during all motor tasks, largest in contralateral-postcentral, medio-central, and ipsilateral-precentral areas identifying the ipsilateral precentral cortex as an integral

  18. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    PubMed Central

    Gathmann, Bettina; Schiebener, Johannes; Wolf, Oliver T.; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring—an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task). This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST) and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST), measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task. PMID:25741308

  19. Eye/Brain/Task Testbed And Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.

  20. Task sequencing for autonomous robotic vacuum cleaners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbenko, Anna; Popov, Vladimir

    2017-07-01

    Various planning problems for robotic systems are of considerable interest. One of such problems is the problem of task sequencing. In this paper, we consider the problem of task sequencing for autonomous vacuum floor cleaning robots. We consider a graph model for the problem. We propose an efficient approach to solve the problem. In particular, we use an explicit reduction from the decision version of the problem to the satisfiability problem. We present the results of computational experiments for different satisfiability algorithms.

  1. Mechanics of conducting a task analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappold, V.

    1983-01-01

    Task analysis (TA) which is a set of analytical procedures used to describe human work in terms of tasks is discussed. The method of TA was derived from various techniques of methods analysis of the industrial engineers. The topic of TA is organized around the following main areas: (1) a detailed discussion of what a TA is; (2) the uses of TA; (3) evaluation of the TA procedure and an assessment of the procedure's worth.

  2. Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks Anthony Cowley, Hwa-Chow Hsu, Camillo J. Taylor GRASP Laboratory University of...network, distributed computing , software design 1. INTRODUCTION As efforts to field sensor networks, or teams of mobile robots, become more...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  3. Manipulator Performance Evaluation Using Fitts' Taping Task

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Jared, B.C.; Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    Metaphorically, a teleoperator with master controllers projects the user's arms and hands into a re- mote area, Therefore, human users interact with teleoperators at a more fundamental level than they do with most human-machine systems. Instead of inputting decisions about how the system should func- tion, teleoperator users input the movements they might make if they were truly in the remote area and the remote machine must recreate their trajectories and impedance. This intense human-machine inter- action requires displays and controls more carefully attuned to human motor capabilities than is neces- sary with most systems. It is important for teleoperated manipulators to be able to recreate human trajectories and impedance in real time. One method for assessing manipulator performance is to observe how well a system be- haves while a human user completes human dexterity tasks with it. Fitts' tapping task has been, used many times in the past for this purpose. This report describes such a performance assessment. The International Submarine Engineering (ISE) Autonomous/Teleoperated Operations Manipulator (ATOM) servomanipulator system was evalu- ated using a generic positioning accuracy task. The task is a simple one but has the merits of (1) pro- ducing a performance function estimate rather than a point estimate and (2) being widely used in the past for human and servomanipulator dexterity tests. Results of testing using this task may, therefore, allow comparison with other manipulators, and is generically representative of a broad class of tasks. Results of the testing indicate that the ATOM manipulator is capable of performing the task. Force reflection had a negative impact on task efficiency in these data. This was most likely caused by the high resistance to movement the master controller exhibited with the force reflection engaged. Measurements of exerted forces were not made, so it is not possible to say whether the force reflection helped partici- pants

  4. Eye/Brain/Task Testbed And Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.

  5. Laparoscopic task recognition using Hidden Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Dosis, Aristotelis; Bello, Fernando; Gillies, Duncan; Undre, Shabnam; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara

    2005-01-01

    Surgical skills assessment has been paid increased attention over the last few years. Stochastic models such as Hidden Markov Models have recently been adapted to surgery to discriminate levels of expertise. Based on our previous work combining synchronized video and motion analysis we present preliminary results of a HMM laparoscopic task recognizer which aims to model hand manipulations and to identify and recognize simple surgical tasks.

  6. Improved Task Scheduling for Parallel Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    number of data variables to ensure comparable utilization of the physical system. Also, the time for program loading, serial bottlenecks, and 1/0 that make ...task iterations. 2-1 Graphical methods are employed to make understanding of such relationships clear [7]. The partial order -< is conveniently...system. In this case, a separate task scheduler is required to make these decisions rather than relying on the operating system of the single processor

  7. When Predictions Take Control: The Effect of Task Predictions on Task Switching Performance

    PubMed Central

    Duthoo, Wout; De Baene, Wouter; Wühr, Peter; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to investigate the role of self-generated predictions in the flexible control of behavior. Therefore, we ran a task switching experiment in which participants were asked to try to predict the upcoming task in three conditions varying in switch rate (30, 50, and 70%). Irrespective of their predictions, the color of the target indicated which task participants had to perform. In line with previous studies (Mayr, 2006; Monsell and Mizon, 2006), the switch cost was attenuated as the switch rate increased. Importantly, a clear task repetition bias was found in all conditions, yet the task repetition prediction rate dropped from 78 over 66 to 49% with increasing switch probability in the three conditions. Irrespective of condition, the switch cost was strongly reduced in expectation of a task alternation compared to the cost of an unexpected task alternation following repetition predictions. Hence, our data suggest that the reduction in the switch cost with increasing switch probability is caused by a diminished expectancy for the task to repeat. Taken together, this paper highlights the importance of predictions in the flexible control of behavior, and suggests a crucial role for task repetition expectancy in the context-sensitive adjusting of task switching performance. PMID:22891063

  8. Towards models of tasks and task complexity in supervisory control applications.

    PubMed

    Sundström, G A

    1993-11-01

    Dynamic task environments in supervisory control situations differ from those traditionally investigated in problem-solving research in that (1) several task goals exist in parallel, (2) task goals change dynamically as the behaviour of the technical process changes, and (3) information required to accomplish task goals changes across time. In the present work, it is suggested that such dynamic task environments can be described using two types of task goal networks, namely a control task goal (CTG) network and an information processing goal (IPG) network. CTG networks are generated by analysis of the operational states required to produce the commodity for which a technical system has been designed. For example, such analyses can be performed using approaches such as Mitchell's operator function model or canonical means-end analyses. IPG networks are generated by using the recently proposed functional information and knowledge acquisition (FIKA) modelling technique. Two examples from different domains illustrate how these task goals networks can be used to describe dynamic task environments. Finally, two different ways of using the task modelling approach are briefly discussed.

  9. Effects of extensive dual-task practice on processing stages in simultaneous choice tasks.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Liepelt, Roman; Pashler, Harold; Frensch, Peter A; Schubert, Torsten

    2013-07-01

    Schumacher et al. Psychological Science 12:101-108, (2001) demonstrated the elimination of most dual-task costs ("perfect time-sharing") after extensive dual-task practice of a visual and an auditory task in combination. For the present research, we used a transfer methodology to examine this practice effect in more detail, asking what task-processing stages were sped up by this dual-task practice. Such research will be essential to specify mechanisms associated with the practice-related elimination of dual-task costs. In three experiments, we introduced postpractice transfer probes focusing on the perception, central response-selection, and final motor-response stages. The results indicated that the major change achieved by dual-task practice was a speed-up in the central response-selection stages of both tasks. Additionally, perceptual-stage shortening of the auditory task was found to contribute to the improvements in time-sharing. For a better understanding of such time-sharing, we discuss the contributions of the present findings in relation to models of practiced dual-task performance.

  10. Strategic Adaptation to Task Characteristics, Incentives, and Individual Differences in Dual-Tasking.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Christian P; Brumby, Duncan P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how good people are at multitasking by comparing behavior to a prediction of the optimal strategy for dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. In our experiment, 24 participants had to interleave entering digits on a keyboard with controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. The difficulty of the tracking task was systematically varied as a within-subjects factor. Participants were also exposed to different explicit reward functions that varied the relative importance of the tracking task relative to the typing task (between-subjects). Results demonstrate that these changes in task characteristics and monetary incentives, together with individual differences in typing ability, influenced how participants choose to interleave tasks. This change in strategy then affected their performance on each task. A computational cognitive model was used to predict performance for a wide set of alternative strategies for how participants might have possibly interleaved tasks. This allowed for predictions of optimal performance to be derived, given the constraints placed on performance by the task and cognition. A comparison of human behavior with the predicted optimal strategy shows that participants behaved near optimally. Our findings have implications for the design and evaluation of technology for multitasking situations, as consideration should be given to the characteristics of the task, but also to how different users might use technology depending on their individual characteristics and their priorities.

  11. A change of task prolongs early processes: evidence from ERPs in lexical tasks.

    PubMed

    Elchlepp, Heike; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Switching tasks costs time. Allowing time to prepare reduces the cost, but usually leaves an irreducible "residual cost." Most accounts of this residual cost locate it within the response-selection stage of processing. To determine which processing stage is affected, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants performed a reading task or a perceptual judgment task, and examined the effect of a task switch on early markers of lexical processing. A task cue preceding a string of blue and red letters instructed the participant either to read the letter string (for a semantic classification in Experiment 1, and a lexical decision in Experiment 2) or to judge the symmetry of its color pattern. In Experiment 1, having to switch to the reading task delayed the evolution of the effect of word frequency on the reading task ERP by a substantial fraction of the effect on reaction time (RT). In Experiment 2, a task switch delayed the onset of the effect of lexical status on the ERP by about the same extent that it prolonged the RT. These effects indicate an early locus of (most of) the residual switch cost: We propose that this reflects a form of task-related attentional inertia. Other findings have implications for the automaticity of lexical access: Effects of frequency, lexicality, and orthographic familiarity on ERPs in the symmetry task indicated involuntary, but attenuated, orthographic and lexical processing even when attention was focused on a nonlexical property.

  12. Monkeys are more patient in a foraging task than in a standard intertemporal choice task.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Tommy C; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal impulsivity generally find steep subjective devaluation, or discounting, of delayed rewards - often on the order of a 50% reduction in value in a few seconds. Because such steep discounting is highly disfavored in evolutionary models of time preference, we hypothesize that discounting tasks provide a poor measure of animals' true time preferences. One prediction of this hypothesis is that estimates of time preferences based on these tasks will lack external validity, i.e. fail to predict time preferences in other contexts. We examined choices made by four rhesus monkeys in a computerized patch-leaving foraging task interleaved with a standard intertemporal choice task. Monkeys were significantly more patient in the foraging task than in the intertemporal choice task. Patch-leaving behavior was well fit by parameter-free optimal foraging equations but poorly fit by the hyperbolic discount parameter obtained from the intertemporal choice task. Day-to-day variation in time preferences across the two tasks was uncorrelated with each other. These data are consistent with the conjecture that seemingly impulsive behavior in animals is an artifact of their difficulty understanding the structure of intertemporal choice tasks, and support the idea that animals are more efficient rate maximizers in the multi-second range than intertemporal choice tasks would suggest.

  13. Distractor onset but not preparation time affects the frequency of task confusions in task switching

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Marco; Gade, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    When participants rapidly switch between tasks that share the same stimuli and responses, task confusions (i.e., the accidental application of the wrong task) can occur. The present study investigated whether these task confusions result from failures of endogenous control (i.e., from ineffective task preparation) or from failures of exogenous control (i.e., from stimulus-induced task conflicts). The frequency of task confusions was estimated by considering the relative proportion of distractor errors, that is, errors that result when participants erroneously respond to the distractor associated with the alternative task. In Experiment 1, the efficiency of exogenous control was manipulated by varying the temporal order of target and distractor presentation. In Experiment 2, the efficiency of endogenous control was manipulated by varying the time available for preparing the task in advance. It turned out that only the efficiency of exogenous control but not the efficiency of endogenous control influenced the proportion of distractor errors. Accordingly, task confusions are more related to failures in exogenous control. PMID:26579050

  14. Card Perseveration Task performance and post-task feeling states: relationship to drug use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martin, C A; Rayens, M K; Kelly, T; Hartung, C; Leukefeld, C; Haigler, E

    2000-05-01

    This study examined whether performance on the Card Perseveration Task (Card Task) and self-report of feeling state after the task are related to self-report of drug use. The evaluation was of 64 adolescents from an adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic (40 males, aged 15.5 years, SD = 1.6; 24 females aged 16.9 years, SD = 1.5). Drug use histories were obtained using a substance dependence symptom checklist based on DSM-III-R. The Card Task was administered, and after completion, a Post-Task Self-Report (PTSR) was administered. A factor analysis with varimax rotation grouped the 28 items of the PTSR into Distress, Happy, Satisfied, and Wanting to Win subscales. Correlations of drug use with performance on the Card Task and the PTSR subscales were obtained. Cards Played on the Card Task were correlated with alcohol (cc = .31, p < or = .01); marijuana (cc = .35, p < or = .01) and polydrug (cc = .26, p < or = .05) dependence symptoms. Money Won on the Card Task was correlated negatively with nicotine (cc = -.26, p < or = .05) and marijuana (cc = -.27, p < or = .05) dependence symptoms. The PTSR Distress subscale correlated with nicotine (cc = .49, p < or = .001), alcohol (cc = .37, p < or = .01), marijuana (cc = .39, p < or = .01), and polydrug (cc = .49, p < or = .001) dependence symptoms. These findings provide evidence that both the Card Task and feeling states associated with task performance are related to self-reports of drug use.

  15. Is performance in task-cuing experiments mediated by task set selection or associative compound retrieval?

    PubMed

    Forrest, Charlotte L D; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P L

    2014-07-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed, after a short or long interval, by a digit to which 1 of 2 responses was required. In a tasks condition, participants were (as usual) directed to interpret the cue as an instruction to perform either an odd/even or a high/low classification task. In a cue + stimulus → response (CSR) condition, to induce learning of mappings between cue-stimulus compound and response, participants were, in Experiment 1, given standard task instructions and additionally encouraged to learn the CSR mappings; in Experiment 2, informed of all the CSR mappings and asked to learn them, without standard task instructions; in Experiment 3, required to learn the mappings by trial and error. The effects of a task switch, response congruence, preparation, and transfer to a new set of stimuli differed substantially between the conditions in ways indicative of classification according to task rules in the tasks condition, and retrieval of responses specific to stimulus-cue combinations in the CSR conditions. Qualitative features of the latter could be captured by an associative learning network. Hence associatively based compound retrieval can serve as the basis for performance with a small stimulus set. But when organization by tasks is apparent, control via task set selection is the natural and efficient strategy.

  16. Reverse control for humanoid robot task recognition.

    PubMed

    Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes.

  17. Shared Learning Shapes Human Performance: Transfer Effects in Task Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanese, Nadia; Iani, Cristina; Rubichi, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether performing a task with a co-actor shapes the way a subsequent task is performed. In four experiments participants were administered a Simon task after practicing a spatial compatibility task with an incompatible S-R mapping. In Experiment 1 they performed both tasks alongside another person; in Experiment 2 they performed…

  18. A Chain-Retrieval Model for Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandierendonck, Andre; Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    To account for the findings obtained in voluntary task switching, this article describes and tests the chain-retrieval model. This model postulates that voluntary task selection involves retrieval of task information from long-term memory, which is then used to guide task selection and task execution. The model assumes that the retrieved…

  19. A Chain-Retrieval Model for Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandierendonck, Andre; Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    To account for the findings obtained in voluntary task switching, this article describes and tests the chain-retrieval model. This model postulates that voluntary task selection involves retrieval of task information from long-term memory, which is then used to guide task selection and task execution. The model assumes that the retrieved…

  20. 49 CFR 236.1043 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Task analysis and basic requirements. 236.1043... Train Control Systems § 236.1043 Task analysis and basic requirements. (a) Training structure and... of work, etc.), task(s), and desired success rate; (2) Based on a formal task analysis, identify...

  1. 49 CFR 236.1043 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Task analysis and basic requirements. 236.1043... Train Control Systems § 236.1043 Task analysis and basic requirements. (a) Training structure and... of work, etc.), task(s), and desired success rate; (2) Based on a formal task analysis, identify...

  2. Sticky Plans: Inhibition and Binding during Serial-Task Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests substantial response-time costs associated with lag-2 repetitions of tasks within explicitly controlled task sequences [Koch, I., Philipp, A. M., Gade, M. (2006). Chunking in task sequences modulates task inhibition. "Psychological Science," 17, 346-350; Schneider, D. W. (2007). Task-set inhibition in chunked task…

  3. Focus on Form through Task Repetition in TBLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Guchte, Marrit; Braaksma, Martine; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bimmel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Because there has been little research on focus on form during the post-task phase in task-based language teaching, this experimental study investigates the effects of task repetition after having directed learners' attention to form during the main task. The study comprises two interventions, where each consisted of a task with a focus on a…

  4. Sticky Plans: Inhibition and Binding during Serial-Task Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests substantial response-time costs associated with lag-2 repetitions of tasks within explicitly controlled task sequences [Koch, I., Philipp, A. M., Gade, M. (2006). Chunking in task sequences modulates task inhibition. "Psychological Science," 17, 346-350; Schneider, D. W. (2007). Task-set inhibition in chunked task…

  5. Focus on Form through Task Repetition in TBLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Guchte, Marrit; Braaksma, Martine; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bimmel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Because there has been little research on focus on form during the post-task phase in task-based language teaching, this experimental study investigates the effects of task repetition after having directed learners' attention to form during the main task. The study comprises two interventions, where each consisted of a task with a focus on a…

  6. Slowing after Observed Error Transfers across Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Pan, Weigang; Tan, Jinfeng; Liu, Congcong; Chen, Antao

    2016-01-01

    After committing an error, participants tend to perform more slowly. This phenomenon is called post-error slowing (PES). Although previous studies have explored the PES effect in the context of observed errors, the issue as to whether the slowing effect generalizes across tasksets remains unclear. Further, the generation mechanisms of PES following observed errors must be examined. To address the above issues, we employed an observation-execution task in three experiments. During each trial, participants were required to mentally observe the outcomes of their partners in the observation task and then to perform their own key-press according to the mapping rules in the execution task. In Experiment 1, the same tasksets were utilized in the observation task and the execution task, and three error rate conditions (20%, 50% and 80%) were established in the observation task. The results revealed that the PES effect after observed errors was obtained in all three error rate conditions, replicating and extending previous studies. In Experiment 2, distinct stimuli and response rules were utilized in the observation task and the execution task. The result pattern was the same as that in Experiment 1, suggesting that the PES effect after observed errors was a generic adjustment process. In Experiment 3, the response deadline was shortened in the execution task to rule out the ceiling effect, and two error rate conditions (50% and 80%) were established in the observation task. The PES effect after observed errors was still obtained in the 50% and 80% error rate conditions. However, the accuracy in the post-observed error trials was comparable to that in the post-observed correct trials, suggesting that the slowing effect and improved accuracy did not rely on the same underlying mechanism. Current findings indicate that the occurrence of PES after observed errors is not dependent on the probability of observed errors, consistent with the assumption of cognitive control account

  7. Effects of Selected Task Performance Criteria at Initiating Adaptive Task Real locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Demaris A.

    2001-01-01

    In the current report various performance assessment methods used to initiate mode transfers between manual control and automation for adaptive task reallocation were tested. Participants monitored two secondary tasks for critical events while actively controlling a process in a fictional system. One of the secondary monitoring tasks could be automated whenever operators' performance was below acceptable levels. Automation of the secondary task and transfer of the secondary task back to manual control were either human- or machine-initiated. Human-initiated transfers were based on the operator's assessment of the current task demands while machine-initiated transfers were based on the operators' performance. Different performance assessment methods were tested in two separate experiments.

  8. Dual-task interference with equal task emphasis: graded capacity sharing or central postponement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold E.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    Most studies using the psychological refractory period (PRP) design suggest that dual-task performance is limited by a central bottleneck. Because subjects are usually told to emphasize Task 1, however, the bottleneck might reflect a strategic choice rather than a structural limitation. To evaluate the possibility that central operations can proceed in parallel, albeit with capacity limitations, we conducted two dual-task experiments with equal task emphasis. In both experiments, subjects tended to either group responses together or respond to one task well before the other. In addition, stimulus-response compatibility effects were roughly constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). At the short SOA, compatibility effects also carried over onto response times for the other task. This pattern of results is difficult to reconcile with the possibility that subjects share capacity roughly equally between simultaneous central operations. However, this pattern is consistent with the existence of a structural central bottleneck.

  9. Secondary task for full flight simulation incorporating tasks that commonly cause pilot error: Time estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, E.

    1975-01-01

    The task of time estimation, an activity occasionally performed by pilots during actual flight, was investigated with the objective of providing human factors investigators with an unobtrusive and minimally loading additional task that is sensitive to differences in flying conditions and flight instrumentation associated with the main task of piloting an aircraft simulator. Previous research indicated that the duration and consistency of time estimates is associated with the cognitive, perceptual, and motor loads imposed by concurrent simple tasks. The relationships between the length and variability of time estimates and concurrent task variables under a more complex situation involving simulated flight were clarified. The wrap-around effect with respect to baseline duration, a consequence of mode switching at intermediate levels of concurrent task distraction, should contribute substantially to estimate variability and have a complex effect on the shape of the resulting distribution of estimates.

  10. Heimdall System for MSSS Sensor Tasking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, A.; Jones, B.; Herz, E.; George, D.; Axelrad, P.; Gehly, S.

    In Norse Mythology, Heimdall uses his foreknowledge and keen eyesight to keep watch for disaster from his home near the Rainbow Bridge. Orbit Logic and the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado (CU) have developed the Heimdall System to schedule observations of known and uncharacterized objects and search for new objects from the Maui Space Surveillance Site. Heimdall addresses the current need for automated and optimized SSA sensor tasking driven by factors associated with improved space object catalog maintenance. Orbit Logic and CU developed an initial baseline prototype SSA sensor tasking capability for select sensors at the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) using STK and STK Scheduler, and then added a new Track Prioritization Component for FiSST-inspired computations for predicted Information Gain and Probability of Detection, and a new SSA-specific Figure-of-Merit (FOM) for optimized SSA sensor tasking. While the baseline prototype addresses automation and some of the multi-sensor tasking optimization, the SSA-improved prototype addresses all of the key elements required for improved tasking leading to enhanced object catalog maintenance. The Heimdall proof-of-concept was demonstrated for MSSS SSA sensor tasking for a 24 hour period to attempt observations of all operational satellites in the unclassified NORAD catalog, observe a small set of high priority GEO targets every 30 minutes, make a sky survey of the GEO belt region accessible to MSSS sensors, and observe particular GEO regions that have a high probability of finding new objects with any excess sensor time. This Heimdall prototype software paves the way for further R&D that will integrate this technology into the MSSS systems for operational scheduling, improve the software's scalability, and further tune and enhance schedule optimization. The Heimdall software for SSA sensor tasking provides greatly improved performance over manual tasking, improved

  11. Exploring the Cosmic Frontier, Task A - Direct Detection of Dark Matter, Task B - Experimental Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, John A.J.; Gold, Michael S.

    2016-08-11

    This report summarizes the work of Task A and B for the period 2013-2016. For Task A the work is for direct detection of dark matter with the single-phase liquid argon experiment Mini-CLEAN. For Task B the work is for the search for new physics in the analysis of fluorescence events with the Auger experiment and for the search for the indirect detection of dark matter with the HAWC experiment.

  12. Anterior Medial Prefrontal Cortex Exhibits Activation during Task Preparation but Deactivation during Task Execution

    PubMed Central

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko; Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN), which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC) is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition) or to ignore them (No face memory condition), then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing. PMID:21829668

  13. Task Switching versus Cue Switching: Using Transition Cuing to Disentangle Sequential Effects in Task-Switching Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent methodological advances have allowed researchers to address confounds in the measurement of task-switch costs in task-switching performance by dissociating cue switching from task switching. For example, in the transition-cuing procedure, which involves presenting cues for task transitions rather than for tasks, cue transitions (cue…

  14. Task representation in individual and joint settings

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a framework for task representation and discusses applications to interference tasks in individual and joint settings. The framework is derived from the Theory of Event Coding (TEC). This theory regards task sets as transient assemblies of event codes in which stimulus and response codes interact and shape each other in particular ways. On the one hand, stimulus and response codes compete with each other within their respective subsets (horizontal interactions). On the other hand, stimulus and response code cooperate with each other (vertical interactions). Code interactions instantiating competition and cooperation apply to two time scales: on-line performance (i.e., doing the task) and off-line implementation (i.e., setting the task). Interference arises when stimulus and response codes overlap in features that are irrelevant for stimulus identification, but relevant for response selection. To resolve this dilemma, the feature profiles of event codes may become restructured in various ways. The framework is applied to three kinds of interference paradigms. Special emphasis is given to joint settings where tasks are shared between two participants. Major conclusions derived from these applications include: (1) Response competition is the chief driver of interference. Likewise, different modes of response competition give rise to different patterns of interference; (2) The type of features in which stimulus and response codes overlap is also a crucial factor. Different types of such features give likewise rise to different patterns of interference; and (3) Task sets for joint settings conflate intraindividual conflicts between responses (what), with interindividual conflicts between responding agents (whom). Features of response codes may, therefore, not only address responses, but also responding agents (both physically and socially). PMID:26029085

  15. The association between media multitasking, task-switching, and dual-task performance.

    PubMed

    Alzahabi, Reem; Becker, Mark W

    2013-10-01

    The recent rise in media use has prompted researchers to investigate its influence on users' basic cognitive processes, such as attention and cognitive control. However, most of these investigations have failed to consider that the rise in media use has been accompanied by an even more dramatic rise in media multitasking (engaging with multiple forms of media simultaneously). Here we investigate how one's ability to switch between 2 tasks and to perform 2 tasks simultaneously is associated with media multitasking experience. Participants saw displays comprised of a number-letter pair and classified the number as odd or even and/or the letter as a consonant or vowel. In task-switching blocks, a cue indicated which classification to perform on each trial. In dual-task blocks, participants performed both classifications. Heavy and light media multitaskers showed comparable performance in the dual-task. Across 2 experiments, heavy media multitaskers were better able to switch between tasks in the task-switching paradigm. Thus, while media multitasking was not associated with increased ability to process 2 tasks in parallel, it was associated with an increased ability to shift between discrete tasks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. iTasks 2: iTasks for End-users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijnse, Bas; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    Workflow management systems (WFMSs) are systems that generate, coordinate and monitor tasks performed by human workers in collaboration with automated (information) systems. The iTask system (iTask) is a WFMS that uses a combinator language embedded in the pure and lazy functional language Clean for the specification of highly dynamic workflows. iTask workflow specifications are declarative in the sense that they only specify (business) processes and the types of data involved. They abstract from user interface and storage issues, which are handled generically by the workflow engine.

  17. Exploring relations between task conflict and informational conflict in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Shahar, Nitzan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we tested the proposal that the Stroop task involves two conflicts--task conflict and informational conflict. Task conflict was defined as the latency difference between color words and non-letter neutrals, and manipulated by varying the proportion of color words versus non-letter neutrals. Informational conflict was defined as the latency difference between incongruent and congruent trials and manipulated by varying the congruent-to-incongruent trial ratio. We replicated previous findings showing that increasing the ratio of incongruent-to-congruent trials reduces the latency difference between the incongruent and congruent condition (i.e., informational conflict), as does increasing the proportion of color words (i.e., task conflict). A significant under-additive interaction between the two proportion manipulations (congruent vs. incongruent and color words vs. neutrals) indicated that the effects of task conflict and informational conflict were not additive. By assessing task conflict as the contrast between color words and neutrals, we found that task conflict existed in all of our experimental conditions. Under specific conditions, when task conflict dominated behavior by explaining most of the variability between congruency conditions, we also found negative facilitation, thus demonstrating that this effect is a special case of task conflict.

  18. The Genia Event and Protein Coreference tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Genia task, when it was introduced in 2009, was the first community-wide effort to address a fine-grained, structural information extraction from biomedical literature. Arranged for the second time as one of the main tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011, it aimed to measure the progress of the community since 2009, and to evaluate generalization of the technology to full text papers. The Protein Coreference task was arranged as one of the supporting tasks, motivated from one of the lessons of the 2009 task that the abundance of coreference structures in natural language text hinders further improvement with the Genia task. Results The Genia task received final submissions from 15 teams. The results show that the community has made a significant progress, marking 74% of the best F-score in extracting bio-molecular events of simple structure, e.g., gene expressions, and 45% ~ 48% in extracting those of complex structure, e.g., regulations. The Protein Coreference task received 6 final submissions. The results show that the coreference resolution performance in biomedical domain is lagging behind that in newswire domain, cf. 50% vs. 66% in MUC score. Particularly, in terms of protein coreference resolution the best system achieved 34% in F-score. Conclusions Detailed analysis performed on the results improves our insight into the problem and suggests the directions for further improvements. PMID:22759455

  19. Motor hysteresis in a sequential grasping and pointing task is absent in task-critical joints.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Christoph; Weigelt, Matthias; Schack, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    In a prior study (Schütz et al. in Exp Brain Res 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00221-016-4608-6 ), we demonstrated that the cognitive cost of motor planning did not differ in a vertical pointing and grasping task. It was unclear whether the similar cost implied that both tasks required the same number of independent degrees of freedom (IDOFs) or that the number of IDOFs did not affect motor planning. To differentiate between both cases, a reanalysis of the prior data was conducted. The number of IDOFs in the pointing and grasping tasks was computed by factor analysis. In both tasks, two IDOFs were used, which was the minimum number required for position control. This indicates that hand alignment in the grasping task did not require an additional IDOF. No conclusions regarding the link between the cognitive cost of motor planning and the number of IDOFs could be drawn. A subset of task-critical joint angles was not affected by motor hysteresis. This indicates that a joint's susceptibility to motor hysteresis depends on its relevance to the task goal. In task-critical joints, planning cost minimization by motor plan reuse is suppressed in favor of the task goal.

  20. The Role of Tasks in Developing Communities of Mathematical Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peressini, Dominic; Knuth, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Examines the nature of mathematically rich tasks and varied ways in which students respond to these tasks. Explores approaches for using such tasks to foster inquiry that engages children in mathematical practice. (Contains 16 references.) (ASK)

  1. Selecting and Creating Mathematical Tasks: From Research To Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Margaret Schwan; Stein, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the selection and creation of mathematical tasks, drawing on QUASAR's research on mathematical tasks and experiences with teachers and teacher educators. Presents examples of task analysis and issues that teachers should reflect on. (ASK)

  2. Selecting and Creating Mathematical Tasks: From Research To Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Margaret Schwan; Stein, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the selection and creation of mathematical tasks, drawing on QUASAR's research on mathematical tasks and experiences with teachers and teacher educators. Presents examples of task analysis and issues that teachers should reflect on. (ASK)

  3. Three Techniques for Task Analysis: Examples from the Nuclear Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Kenneth E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses three task analysis techniques utilized at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station to review training programs: analysis of (1) job positions, (2) procedures, and (3) instructional presentations. All of these include task breakdown, relationship determination, and task restructuring. (MBR)

  4. Task Demands in OSCEs Influence Learning Strategies.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Alexandre; Laflamme, Jonathan; Leppink, Jimmie; Côté, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis"). When studying for HDPE, students will dedicate more time to hypothesis-driven discussions and practice than when studying for a part-task OSCE ("Perform the shoulder exam"). It is expected that the whole-task nature of HDPE will lead to a hypothesis-oriented use of the learning resources, a frequent use of adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. In a mixed-methods study, 40 medical students were randomly paired and filmed while studying together for two hypothetical OSCE stations. Each 25-min study period began with video cues asking to study for either a part-task OSCE or an HDPE. In a crossover design, sequences were randomized for OSCEs and contents (shoulder or spine). Time-on-task for discussions or practice were categorized as "hypothesis-driven" or "sequence of signs and maneuvers." Content analysis of focus group interviews summarized students' perception of learning resources, adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. When studying for HDPE, students allocate significantly more time for hypothesis-driven discussions and practice. Students use resources contrasting diagnoses and report persistence with learning. When studying for part-task OSCEs, time-on-task is reversed, spent on rehearsing a sequence of signs and maneuvers. OSCEs with

  5. The minimum entropy principle and task performance.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten; Weinberger, Kelsey

    2013-07-01

    According to the minimum entropy principle, efficient cognitive performance is produced with a neurocognitive strategy that involves a minimum of degrees of freedom. Although high performance is often regarded as consistent performance as well, some variability in performance still remains which allows the person to adapt to changing goal conditions or fatigue. The present study investigated the connection between performance, entropy in performance, and four task-switching strategies. Fifty-one undergraduates performed 7 different computer-based cognitive tasks producing sets of 49 responses under instructional conditions requiring task quotas or no quotas. The temporal patterns of performance were analyzed using orbital decomposition to extract pattern types and lengths, which were then compared with regard to Shannon entropy, topological entropy, and overall performance. Task switching strategies from a previous study were available for the same participants as well. Results indicated that both topological entropy and Shannon entropy were negatively correlated with performance. Some task-switching strategies produced lower entropy in performance than others. Stepwise regression showed that the top three predictors of performance were Shannon entropy and arithmetic and spatial abilities. Additional implications for the prediction of work performance with cognitive ability measurements and the applicability of the minimum entropy principle to multidimensional performance criteria and team work are discussed.

  6. Dual task interference in psychogenic tremor.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Hatice; Begeman, Maaike; Tolosa, Eduardo; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2007-10-31

    Psychogenic tremor (PT) is visually indistinguishable from voluntarily mimicked tremor. Healthy volunteers have difficulties with carrying out simultaneously two tasks due to the phenomenon known as dual task interference. Therefore, performing voluntary rhythmic movements would be a burden for carrying out fast ballistic movements with the contralateral hand. We hypothesized that, similarly to healthy volunteers performing rhythmic movements, patients with PT should show the effects of dual task interference, and this may distinguish them from patients with other types of tremor. We studied 6 patients with PT, 9 with Parkinson's disease (PD) and predominantly unilateral tremor, 11 with essential tremor (ET), and 10 normal volunteers (NV) mimicking tremor. They were requested to perform a unilateral simple reaction time task (SRT) to a visual imperative signal in two different conditions: at rest (rSRT) and during contralateral hand tremor (tSRT). Reaction time was significantly longer in tSRT than in rSRT in PT and in NV groups (P < 0.01 for both groups). However, no significant differences were observed between rSRT and tSRT in PD and ET. The delay of unilateral tSRT with respect to rSRT suggests an effect of tremorlike oscillatory movements on reaction time that is consistent with the concept of dual-task interference in NV or PT patients but not in PD or ET. These observations may be useful in the evaluation of psychogenic movement disorders.

  7. Knowledge Modelling to Support Inquiry Learning Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Annika; Mulholland, Paul; Zdrahal, Zdenek; Blasko, Miroslav

    In this paper we describe the SILVER toolkit, which is designed for tasks in which a user learns by analysing and interpreting a set of resources. The user categorises each resource according to the set of properties that they identify as being applicable to it. Due to the large amount of data generated by this type of task, the user may find it hard to identify patterns in their classification and tagging, to recognise their own inconsistencies or make comparisons between themselves and others. In the first SILVER task described, the ID3 decision tree algorithm is applied to the user's data to identify patterns and generate different types of feedback. Principles of spatial hypertext are used to produce an interactive visualization of the summarized data. As the user interacts with the resources, they can see their progress and changing perspective on the task. In the second SILVER task described, a conceptual model is used to provide explanations of the model underlying the user's classification of resources.

  8. Querying and tasking in sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaikaeo, Chaiporn; Srisathapornphat, Chavalit; Shen, Chien-Chung

    2000-08-01

    With the advancement of hardware technology, it becomes feasible to develop a networked system of pervasive computing platforms that combine programmable general purpose computers with multiple sensing and wireless communication capability. This networked system of programmable sensor nodes, together called a sensor network, poses unique challenges on how information collected by and stored within the sensor network should be queried and accessed, and how concurrent sensing tasks should be programmed from external clients. In this paper, we describe an architecture that facilitates querying and tasking of sensor networks. The key idea to the architecture lies in the development of the Sensor Querying and Tasking Language (SQTL) and the corresponding Sensor Execution Environment (SEE). We model a sensor network as a distributed set of collaborating nodes that carry out querying and tasking activities programmed in SQTL. A frontend node injects a message, that encapsulates an SQTL program, into a sensor node and starts a diffusion computation. A sensor node may diffuse the encapsulated SQTL program to other nodes as dictated by its logic and collaborately perform the specified querying or tasking activity. We will present the SQTL language and demonstrate its applicability using a maximum temperature querying application and a vehicle tracking application.

  9. Task characteristics and the contextual interference effect.

    PubMed

    Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Van Gyn, Geraldine H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the influence of blocked and random practice on the acquisition and retention of a criterion multisegment motor task practiced alongside either two similar-distractors tasks or two different-distractors tasks. The random-practice similar-distractors group made more decision-making errors and performed the criterion task more slowly than the blocked-practice similar-distractors group during the acquisition phase. Following a brief filled retention interval, the blocked-practice similar-distractors group demonstrated a loss of acquired performance capabilities, whereas the random-practice similar-distractors group did not. The blocked- and random-practice different-distractors groups performed similarly throughout the experiment. Results are interpreted within Glenberg's component-levels theory, in which it was argued that random practice must stimulate the differential storage of multilevel contextual components associated with the multiple motor tasks being learned to produce a contextual interference effect. The theoretical and practical implications of differential storage versus nonrepetition as a function of random practice are discussed.

  10. Distraction during learning with hypermedia: difficult tasks help to keep task goals on track.

    PubMed

    Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Heise, Elke

    2014-01-01

    In educational hypermedia environments, students are often confronted with potential sources of distraction arising from additional information that, albeit interesting, is unrelated to their current task goal. The paper investigates the conditions under which distraction occurs and hampers performance. Based on theories of volitional action control it was hypothesized that interesting information, especially if related to a pending goal, would interfere with task performance only when working on easy, but not on difficult tasks. In Experiment 1, 66 students learned about probability theory using worked examples and solved corresponding test problems, whose task difficulty was manipulated. As a second factor, the presence of interesting information unrelated to the primary task was varied. Results showed that students solved more easy than difficult probability problems correctly. However, the presence of interesting, but task-irrelevant information did not interfere with performance. In Experiment 2, 68 students again engaged in example-based learning and problem solving in the presence of task-irrelevant information. Problem-solving difficulty was varied as a first factor. Additionally, the presence of a pending goal related to the task-irrelevant information was manipulated. As expected, problem-solving performance declined when a pending goal was present during working on easy problems, whereas no interference was observed for difficult problems. Moreover, the presence of a pending goal reduced the time on task-relevant information and increased the time on task-irrelevant information while working on easy tasks. However, as revealed by mediation analyses these changes in overt information processing behavior did not explain the decline in problem-solving performance. As an alternative explanation it is suggested that goal conflicts resulting from pending goals claim cognitive resources, which are then no longer available for learning and problem solving.

  11. Task complexity, student perceptions of vocabulary learning in EFL, and task performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-efficacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a fine-tuned task-specific level. The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-efficacy beliefs, domain-related prior knowledge, learning strategy use, and task performance as they were applied to English vocabulary learning from reading tasks. Participants were 120 second-year university students (mean age 21) from a Chinese university. This experiment had two conditions (simple/complex). A vocabulary level test was first conducted to measure participants' prior knowledge of English vocabulary. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the learning tasks. Participants were administered task booklets together with the self-efficacy scales, measures of learning strategy use, and post-tests. Data obtained were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis. Results from the MANOVA model showed a significant effect of vocabulary level on self-efficacy beliefs, learning strategy use, and task performance. Task complexity showed no significant effect; however, an interaction effect between vocabulary level and task complexity emerged. Results from the path analysis showed self-efficacy beliefs had an indirect effect on performance. Our results highlighted the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs and learning strategy use. Our findings indicate that students' prior knowledge plays a crucial role on both self-efficacy beliefs and task performance, and the predictive power of self-efficacy on task performance may lie in its association with learning strategy use. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Task set determines the amount of crowding.

    PubMed

    Huckauf, Anke

    2007-11-01

    The present study deals with the question of how crowding effects, which are interactions among adjacent features or characters, emerges automatically or by so-called higher level controlled processing. Two experiments are presented comparing performances during detecting, localizing, and identifying a flanked target in same strings when the target was defined on the basis of either its form or its category. Detection and localization performances were better for form- relative to category-defined targets whereas the reverse was observed for identification performance. This shows that the interacting information is indeed high level in that it is affected by task settings like the defining target feature and the observers' task set. The results suggest that crowding effects do not emerge due to processes depending on the parameters of stimulus presentation, but due to processes activated by certain task sets.

  13. Pointing Device Performance in Steering Tasks.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Ransalu; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S

    2016-06-01

    Use of touch-screen-based interactions is growing rapidly. Hence, knowing the maneuvering efficacy of touch screens relative to other pointing devices is of great importance in the context of graphical user interfaces. Movement time, accuracy, and user preferences of four pointing device settings were evaluated on a computer with 14 participants aged 20.1 ± 3.13 years. It was found that, depending on the difficulty of the task, the optimal settings differ for ballistic and visual control tasks. With a touch screen, resting the arm increased movement time for steering tasks. When both performance and comfort are considered, whether to use a mouse or a touch screen for person-computer interaction depends on the steering difficulty. Hence, a input device should be chosen based on the application, and should be optimized to match the graphical user interface.

  14. Psychological Issues in Online Adaptive Task Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.; Ward, S. L.; Frey, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Adaptive aiding is an idea that offers potential for improvement over many current approaches to aiding in human-computer systems. The expected return of tailoring the system to fit the user could be in the form of improved system performance and/or increased user satisfaction. Issues such as the manner in which information is shared between human and computer, the appropriate division of labor between them, and the level of autonomy of the aid are explored. A simulated visual search task was developed. Subjects are required to identify targets in a moving display while performing a compensatory sub-critical tracking task. By manipulating characteristics of the situation such as imposed task-related workload and effort required to communicate with the computer, it is possible to create conditions in which interaction with the computer would be more or less desirable. The results of preliminary research using this experimental scenario are presented, and future directions for this research effort are discussed.

  15. CNTRICS Final Task Selection: Control of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Luck, Steven J.; Lustig, Cindy; Sarter, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The construct of attention has many facets that have been examined in human and animal research and in healthy and psychiatrically disordered conditions. The Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) group concluded that control of attention—the processes that guide selection of task-relevant inputs—is particularly impaired in schizophrenia and could profit from further work with refined measurement tools. Thus, nominations for cognitive tasks that provide discrete measures of control of attention were sought and were then evaluated at the third CNTRICS meeting for their promise for future use in treatment development. This article describes the 5 nominated measures and their strengths and weaknesses for cognitive neuroscience work relevant to treatment development. Two paradigms, Guided Search and the Distractor Condition Sustained Attention Task, were viewed as having the greatest immediate promise for development into tools for treatment research in schizophrenia and are described in more detail by their nominators. PMID:19074499

  16. Task analysis of laparoscopic camera control schemes.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R Darin; Munaco, Anthony J; Reisner, Luke A; Klein, Michael D; Composto, Anthony M; Pandya, Abhilash K; King, Brady W

    2016-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgeries rely on laparoscopic camera views to guide the procedure. Traditionally, an expert surgical assistant operates the camera. In some cases, a robotic system is used to help position the camera, but the surgeon is required to direct all movements of the system. Some prior research has focused on developing automated robotic camera control systems, but that work has been limited to rudimentary control schemes due to a lack of understanding of how the camera should be moved for different surgical tasks. This research used task analysis with a sample of eight expert surgeons to discover and document several salient methods of camera control and their related task contexts. Desired camera placements and behaviours were established for two common surgical subtasks (suturing and knot tying). The results can be used to develop better robotic control algorithms that will be more responsive to surgeons' needs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Practice increases procedural errors after task interruption.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Erik M; Hambrick, David Z

    2017-05-01

    Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions of task interruption. As steps of a procedure are performed more quickly, memory for past performance should become less accurate, increasing the rate of skipped or repeated steps after an interruption. We found this effect, with practice generally improving speed and accuracy, but impairing accuracy after interruptions. The results show that positive effects of practice can interact with architectural constraints on episodic memory to have negative effects on performance. In practical terms, the results suggest that practice can be a risk factor for procedural errors in task environments with a high incidence of task interruption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Park, Alfred J

    2014-01-01

    In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

  19. AGENDA: A task organizer and scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fratter, Isabelle

    1993-01-01

    AGENDA will be the main tool used in running the SPOT 4 Earth Observation Satellite's Operational Control Center. It will reduce the operator's work load and make the task easier. AGENDA sets up the work plan for a day of operations, automatically puts the day's tasks into sequence and monitors their progress in real time. Monitoring is centralized, and the tasks are run on different computers in the Center. Once informed of any problems, the operator can intervene at any time while an activity is taking place. To carry out the various functions, the operator has an advanced, efficient, ergonomic graphic interface based on X11 and OSF/MOTIF. Since AGENDA is the heart of the Center, it has to satisfy several constraints that have been taken into account during the various development phases. AGENDA is currently in its final development stages.

  20. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Kijewski-Correa, Tracy; Thain, Douglas; Kareem, Ahsan; Madey, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations. Harnessing Crowdworkers for Engineering Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data. Virtual Wind Tunnel We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task. Conclusions With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and

  1. Lessons Learned from Crowdsourcing Complex Engineering Tasks.

    PubMed

    Staffelbach, Matthew; Sempolinski, Peter; Kijewski-Correa, Tracy; Thain, Douglas; Wei, Daniel; Kareem, Ahsan; Madey, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed ideas, services, or content by requesting contributions from a large group of people. Amazon Mechanical Turk is a web marketplace for crowdsourcing microtasks, such as answering surveys and image tagging. We explored the limits of crowdsourcing by using Mechanical Turk for a more complicated task: analysis and creation of wind simulations. Our investigation examined the feasibility of using crowdsourcing for complex, highly technical tasks. This was done to determine if the benefits of crowdsourcing could be harnessed to accurately and effectively contribute to solving complex real world engineering problems. Of course, untrained crowds cannot be used as a mere substitute for trained expertise. Rather, we sought to understand how crowd workers can be used as a large pool of labor for a preliminary analysis of complex data. We compared the skill of the anonymous crowd workers from Amazon Mechanical Turk with that of civil engineering graduate students, making a first pass at analyzing wind simulation data. For the first phase, we posted analysis questions to Amazon crowd workers and to two groups of civil engineering graduate students. A second phase of our experiment instructed crowd workers and students to create simulations on our Virtual Wind Tunnel website to solve a more complex task. With a sufficiently comprehensive tutorial and compensation similar to typical crowd-sourcing wages, we were able to enlist crowd workers to effectively complete longer, more complex tasks with competence comparable to that of graduate students with more comprehensive, expert-level knowledge. Furthermore, more complex tasks require increased communication with the workers. As tasks become more complex, the employment relationship begins to become more akin to outsourcing than crowdsourcing. Through this investigation, we were able to stretch and explore the limits of crowdsourcing as a tool for solving complex problems.

  2. Time constraints in the alcohol purchase task.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Murphy, James G; Henley, Amy J; Reed, Florence D DiGennaro; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    Hypothetical purchase tasks have advanced behavioral economic evaluations of demand by circumventing practical and ethical restrictions associated with delivering drug reinforcers to participants. Numerous studies examining the reliability and validity of purchase task methodology suggest that it is a valuable method for assessing demand that warrants continued use and evaluation. Within the literature examining purchase tasks, the alcohol purchase task (APT) has received the most investigation, and currently represents the most experimentally validated variant. However, inconsistencies in purchase task methodology between studies exist, even within APT studies, and, to date, none have assessed the influence of experimental economic constraints on responding. This study examined changes in Q0 (reported consumption when drinks are free), breakpoint (price that suppresses consumption), and α (rate of change in demand elasticity) in the presence of different hypothetical durations of access to alcohol in an APT. One hundred seventy-nine participants (94 males, 85 females) from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed 3 APTs that varied in the duration of time at a party (i.e., access to alcoholic beverages) as described in the APT instructions (i.e., vignette). The 3 durations included 5-hr (used by Murphy et al., 2013), 1-hr, and 9-hr time frames. We found that hypothetical duration of access was significantly related to Q0 and breakpoint at the individual level. Additionally, group-level mean α decreased significantly with increases in duration of access, thus indicating relatively higher demand for alcohol with longer durations of access. We discuss implications for conducting hypothetical purchase task research and alcohol misuse prevention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Impact of task design on task performance and injury risk: case study of a simulated drilling task.

    PubMed

    Alabdulkarim, Saad; Nussbaum, Maury A; Rashedi, Ehsan; Kim, Sunwook; Agnew, Michael; Gardner, Richard

    2016-08-31

    Existing evidence is limited regarding the influence of task design on performance and ergonomic risk, or the association between these two outcomes. In a controlled experiment, we constructed a mock fuselage to simulate a drilling task common in aircraft manufacturing, and examined the effect of three levels of workstation adjustability on performance as measured by productivity (e.g. fuselage completion time) and quality (e.g. fuselage defective holes), and ergonomic risk as quantified using two common methods (rapid upper limb assessment and the strain index). The primary finding was that both productivity and quality significantly improved with increased adjustability, yet this occurred only when that adjustability succeeded in reducing ergonomic risk. Supporting the inverse association between ergonomic risk and performance, the condition with highest adjustability created the lowest ergonomic risk and the best performance while there was not a substantial difference in ergonomic risk between the other two conditions, in which performance was also comparable. Practitioner Summary: Findings of this study supported a causal relationship between task design and both ergonomic risk and performance, and that ergonomic risk and performance are inversely associated. While future work is needed under more realistic conditions and a broader population, these results may be useful for task (re)design and to help cost-justify some ergonomic interventions.

  4. Korean EFL Learners' Perspectives on Speaking Tasks: Discussion, Summary, and Information-Exchange Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihye, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates Korean university English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' task preference among three different speaking tasks. Quantitative data were collected through questionnaires and qualitative data were collected from interviews. Quantitative data were obtained from 88 survey respondents and qualitative data from 50 interview…

  5. Three DIBELS Tasks vs. Three Informal Reading/Spelling Tasks: A Comparison of Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell; Trathen, Woodrow; Perney, Jan; Gill, Tom; Schlagal, Robert; Ward, Devery; Frye, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Within a developmental framework, this study compared the predictive validity of three DIBELS tasks (phoneme segmentation fluency [PSF], nonsense word fluency [NWF], and oral reading fluency [ORF]) with that of three alternative tasks drawn from the field of reading (phonemic spelling [phSPEL], word recognition-timed [WR-t], and graded passage…

  6. Effect of Redundant Haptic Information on Task Performance during Visuo-Tactile Task Interruption and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee-Seung; Baek, Jongsoo; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that interruption induces disruptive influences on the performance of cognitive tasks. While much research has focused on the use of multimodal channels to reduce the cost of interruption, few studies have utilized haptic information as more than an associative cue. In the present study, we utilized a multimodal task interruption scenario involving the simultaneous presentation of visual information and haptic stimuli in order to investigate how the combined stimuli affect performance on the primary task (cost of interruption). Participants were asked to perform a two-back visuo-tactile task, in which visual and haptic stimuli were presented simultaneously, which was interrupted by a secondary task that also utilized visual and haptic stimuli. Four experimental conditions were evaluated: (1) paired information (visual stimulus + paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; (2) paired information without interruption; (3) non-paired information (visual stimulus + non-paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; and (4) non-paired information without interruption. Our findings indicate that, within a visuo-tactile task environment, redundant haptic information may not only increase accuracy on the primary task but also reduce the cost of interruption in terms of accuracy. These results suggest a new way of understanding the task recovery process within a multimodal environment. PMID:28008321

  7. Effect of Redundant Haptic Information on Task Performance during Visuo-Tactile Task Interruption and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee-Seung; Baek, Jongsoo; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that interruption induces disruptive influences on the performance of cognitive tasks. While much research has focused on the use of multimodal channels to reduce the cost of interruption, few studies have utilized haptic information as more than an associative cue. In the present study, we utilized a multimodal task interruption scenario involving the simultaneous presentation of visual information and haptic stimuli in order to investigate how the combined stimuli affect performance on the primary task (cost of interruption). Participants were asked to perform a two-back visuo-tactile task, in which visual and haptic stimuli were presented simultaneously, which was interrupted by a secondary task that also utilized visual and haptic stimuli. Four experimental conditions were evaluated: (1) paired information (visual stimulus + paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; (2) paired information without interruption; (3) non-paired information (visual stimulus + non-paired haptic stimulus) with interruption; and (4) non-paired information without interruption. Our findings indicate that, within a visuo-tactile task environment, redundant haptic information may not only increase accuracy on the primary task but also reduce the cost of interruption in terms of accuracy. These results suggest a new way of understanding the task recovery process within a multimodal environment.

  8. Cognitive Complexity and Task Sequencing: Studies in a Componential Framework for Second Language Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for researching the Cognition Hypothesis which claims that pedagogic tasks be sequenced for learners on the basis of increases in their cognitive complexity. It distinguishes dimensions of complexity which increase the conceptual and linguistic demands tasks make on communication, so creating the conditions for L2…

  9. Using Goal Setting and Task Analysis to Enhance Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching has received sustained attention from teachers and researchers for over thirty years. It is a well-established pedagogy that includes the following characteristics: major focus on authentic and real-world tasks, choice of linguistic resources by learners, and a clearly defined non-linguistic outcome. This…

  10. Deep Thinking Increases Task-Set Shielding and Reduces Shifting Flexibility in Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Rico; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Performing two tasks concurrently is difficult, which has been taken to imply the existence of a structural processing bottleneck. Here we sought to assess whether and to what degree one's multitasking abilities depend on the cognitive-control style one engages in. Participants were primed with creativity tasks that either called for divergent…

  11. Appraisal, Coping, Task Performance, and Cardiovascular Responses during the Evaluated Speaking Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, H. Lane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Appraisal, coping, task performance, and cardiovascular responses were examined among men high and low in speech anxiety who prepared and performed a speech under evaluative conditions. Speech-anxious men saw the task as more threatening. They were more stressed, anxious, distracted, and aware of their emotions, focused on the passage of time, and…

  12. Task Selection, Task Switching and Multitasking during Computer-Based Independent Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Detailed logs of students' computer use, during independent study sessions, were captured in an open-access computer laboratory. Each log consisted of a chronological sequence of tasks representing either the application or the Internet domain displayed in the workstation's active window. Each task was classified using a three-tier schema…

  13. Deep Thinking Increases Task-Set Shielding and Reduces Shifting Flexibility in Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Rico; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Performing two tasks concurrently is difficult, which has been taken to imply the existence of a structural processing bottleneck. Here we sought to assess whether and to what degree one's multitasking abilities depend on the cognitive-control style one engages in. Participants were primed with creativity tasks that either called for divergent…

  14. 78 FR 59939 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health... Control and Prevention (CDC) published a document in the Federal Register of September 17, 2013...

  15. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Medical Assisting. Occupation: Medical Assistant. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    Task analyses are provided for two duty areas for the occupation of medical assistant in the medical assisting cluster. Five tasks for the duty area "providing therapeutic measures" are as follows: assist with dressing change, apply clean dressing, apply elastic bandage, assist physician in therapeutic procedure, and apply topical…

  16. Putting Tasks to the Test: Human Capital, Job Tasks and Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15116

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autor, David H.; Handel, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Employing original, representative survey data, we document that cognitive, interpersonal and physical job task demands can be measured with high validity using standard interview techniques. Job tasks vary substantially within and between occupations, are significantly related to workers' characteristics, and are robustly predictive of wage…

  17. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Nursing. Occupation: Home Health Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    This document contains a task analysis for health occupations (home health aid) in the nursing cluster. For each task listed, occupation, duty area, performance standard, steps, knowledge, attitudes, safety, equipment/supplies, source of analysis, and Illinois state goals for learning are listed. For the duty area of "providing therapeutic…

  18. Challenging Tasks: What Happens When Challenging Tasks Are Used in Mixed Ability Middle School Mathematics Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The topics of decimals and polygons were taught to two classes by using challenging tasks, rather than the more conventional textbook approach. Students were given a pre-test and a post-test. A comparison between the two classes on the pre- and post-test was made. Prior to teaching through challenging tasks, students were surveyed about their…

  19. Three DIBELS Tasks vs. Three Informal Reading/Spelling Tasks: A Comparison of Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell; Trathen, Woodrow; Perney, Jan; Gill, Tom; Schlagal, Robert; Ward, Devery; Frye, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Within a developmental framework, this study compared the predictive validity of three DIBELS tasks (phoneme segmentation fluency [PSF], nonsense word fluency [NWF], and oral reading fluency [ORF]) with that of three alternative tasks drawn from the field of reading (phonemic spelling [phSPEL], word recognition-timed [WR-t], and graded passage…

  20. The Effect of Writing Task and Task Conditions on Colombian EFL Learners' Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Fuentes, César García

    2015-01-01

    This classroom study examines whether English L2 writers' language use differs depending on the writing task (operationalized as paragraph type), and task conditions (operationalized as individual or collaborative writing). The texts written by English L2 university students in Colombia (N = 26) in response to problem/solution and cause/effect…

  1. The Influence of Task Repetition and Task Structure on EFL Learners' Oral Narrative Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeedi, Masoud; Rahimi Kazerooni, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study which attempted to explore the influence of repeating two different types of narrative tasks on complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) in the oral production of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). For this purpose, the effects of four conditions (i.e. no task repetition with a loosely…

  2. A Blended Learning Study on Implementing Video Recorded Speaking Tasks in Task-Based Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates designing and implementing a speaking course in which face-to-face instruction informed by the principles of Task-Based Learning is blended with the use of technology, the video, for the first-year student teachers of English in Turkish higher education. The study consisted of three hours of task-based classroom…

  3. Cognitive Complexity and Task Sequencing: Studies in a Componential Framework for Second Language Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for researching the Cognition Hypothesis which claims that pedagogic tasks be sequenced for learners on the basis of increases in their cognitive complexity. It distinguishes dimensions of complexity which increase the conceptual and linguistic demands tasks make on communication, so creating the conditions for L2…

  4. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Dental Assisting. Occupation: Dental Assistant. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    This document contains a task analysis for health occupations (dental assistant) in the dental assisting cluster. For each task listed, occupation, duty area, performance standard, steps, knowledge, attitudes, safety, equipment/supplies, source of analysis, and Illinois state goals for learning are listed. For the duty area of "providing…

  5. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Nursing. Occupation: Home Health Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    This document contains a task analysis for health occupations (home health aid) in the nursing cluster. For each task listed, occupation, duty area, performance standard, steps, knowledge, attitudes, safety, equipment/supplies, source of analysis, and Illinois state goals for learning are listed. For the duty area of "providing therapeutic…

  6. The Role of Task Complexity, Modality, and Aptitude in Narrative Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Trebits, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the relationship between components of aptitude and the fluency, lexical variety, syntactic complexity, and accuracy of performance in two types of written and spoken narrative tasks. We also addressed the question of how narrative performance varies in tasks of different cognitive complexity in the…

  7. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Dental Assisting. Occupation: Dental Assistant. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    This document contains a task analysis for health occupations (dental assistant) in the dental assisting cluster. For each task listed, occupation, duty area, performance standard, steps, knowledge, attitudes, safety, equipment/supplies, source of analysis, and Illinois state goals for learning are listed. For the duty area of "providing…

  8. Between-task transfer of learning from spatial compatibility to a color stroop task.

    PubMed

    Marini, Maddalena; Iani, Cristina; Nicoletti, Roberto; Rubichi, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Responses to a relevant stimulus dimension are faster and more accurate when the stimulus and response spatially correspond compared to when they do not, even though stimulus position is irrelevant (Simon effect). It has been demonstrated that practicing with an incompatible spatial stimulus-response (S-R) mapping before performing a Simon task can eliminate this effect. In the present study we assessed whether a learned spatially incompatible S-R mapping can be transferred to a nonspatial conflict task, hence supporting the view that transfer effects are due to acquisition of a general "respond to the opposite stimulus value" rule. To this aim, we ran two experiments in which participants performed a spatial compatibility task with either a compatible or an incompatible mapping and then transferred, after a 5 min delay, to a color Stroop task. In Experiment 1, responses were executed by pressing one of two keys on the keyboard in both practice and transfer tasks. In Experiment 2, responses were manual in the practice task and vocal in the transfer task. The spatially incompatible practice significantly reduced the color Stroop effect only when responses were manual in both tasks. These results suggest that during practice participants develop a response-selection strategy of emitting the alternative spatial response.

  9. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Medical Assisting. Occupation: Medical Assistant. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    Task analyses are provided for two duty areas for the occupation of medical assistant in the medical assisting cluster. Five tasks for the duty area "providing therapeutic measures" are as follows: assist with dressing change, apply clean dressing, apply elastic bandage, assist physician in therapeutic procedure, and apply topical…

  10. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) word repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. In this article, the authors (a) describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetition Task…

  11. Putting Tasks to the Test: Human Capital, Job Tasks and Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15116

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autor, David H.; Handel, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Employing original, representative survey data, we document that cognitive, interpersonal and physical job task demands can be measured with high validity using standard interview techniques. Job tasks vary substantially within and between occupations, are significantly related to workers' characteristics, and are robustly predictive of wage…

  12. Radiation protection technician job task analysis manual

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-01

    This manual was developed to assist all DOE contractors in the design and conduct of job task analysis (JTA) for the radiation protection technician. Experience throughout the nuclear industry and the DOE system has indicated that the quality and efficiency in conducting a JTA at most sites is greatly enhanced by using a generic task list for the position, and clearly written guidelines on the JTA process. This manual is designed to provide this information for personnel to use in developing and conducting site-specific JTAs. (VC)

  13. Runtime support for data parallel tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Matthew; Hess, Bryan; Mehrotra, Piyush; Vanrosendale, John; Zima, Hans

    1994-01-01

    We have recently introduced a set of Fortran language extensions that allow for integrated support of task and data parallelism, and provide for shared data abstractions (SDA's) as a method for communications and synchronization among these tasks. In this paper we discuss the design and implementation issues of the runtime system necessary to support these extensions, and discuss the underlying requirements for such a system. To test the feasibility of this approach, we implement a prototype of the runtime system and use this to support an abstract multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) problem for aircraft design. We give initial results and discuss future plans.

  14. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used. PMID:17970261

  15. [The notion of task in focus groups].

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria; de Magalhães, Ana Maria Müller; Mano, Gustavo Caetano de Mattos; Olschowsky, Agnes; da Silva, Flávia Pacheco

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the concept of task in light of Pichon-Riviére's referential and to discuss its application in research with focus groups. Focus groups are understood as a research technique which proposes to investigate a topic in depth, allowing the construction of new ideas and answers on the subject in focus. The presuppositions of operative groups were used to support the research practice with focus groups. In these, the notion of task has a key strategic position from which it seeks to intervene in society through dialogue and collective construction, unlike simple data collecting

  16. Radiation protection technician job task analysis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This manual was developed to assist all DOE contractors in the design and conduct of job task analysis (JTA) for the radiation protection technician. Experience throughout the nuclear industry and the DOE system has indicated that the quality and efficiency in conducting a JTA at most sites is greatly enhanced by using a generic task list for the position, and clearly written guidelines on the JTA process. This manual is designed to provide this information for personnel to use in developing and conducting site-specific JTAs. (VC)

  17. Integrated Task and Data Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    This research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers 1995 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  18. Electroencephalographic monitoring of complex mental tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guisado, Raul; Montgomery, Richard; Montgomery, Leslie; Hickey, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Outlined here is the development of neurophysiological procedures to monitor operators during the performance of cognitive tasks. Our approach included the use of electroencepalographic (EEG) and rheoencephalographic (REG) techniques to determine changes in cortical function associated with cognition in the operator's state. A two channel tetrapolar REG, a single channel forearm impedance plethysmograph, a Lead I electrocardiogram (ECG) and a 21 channel EEG were used to measure subject responses to various visual-motor cognitive tasks. Testing, analytical, and display procedures for EEG and REG monitoring were developed that extend the state of the art and provide a valuable tool for the study of cerebral circulatory and neural activity during cognition.

  19. Balance Performance With a Cognitive Task: A Continuation of the Dual-Task Testing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Jacob E.; May, Bryson; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Ferrara, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: To ensure that concussed athletes return to play safely, we need better methods of measuring concussion severity and monitoring concussion resolution. Objective: To develop a dual-task model that assesses postural stability and cognitive processing in concussed athletes. Design: Repeated measures study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty healthy, college-aged students (10 men, 10 women; age  =  20 ± 1.86 years, height  =  173 ± 4.10 cm, mass  =  71.83 + 35.77 kg). Intervention(s): Participants were tested individually in 2 sessions separated by 2 days. In one session, a balance task and a cognitive task were performed separately. In the other session, the balance and cognitive tasks were performed concurrently. The balance task consisted of 6 conditions of the Sensory Organization Test performed on the NeuroCom Smart Balance Master. The cognitive task consisted of an auditory switch task (3 trials per condition, 60 seconds per trial). Main Outcome Measure(s): For the balance test, scores for each Sensory Organization Test condition; the visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and visual-conflict subscores; and the composite balance score were calculated. For the cognitive task, response time and accuracy were measured. Results: Balance improved during 2 dual-task conditions: fixed support and fixed visual reference (t18  =  −2.34, P < .05) and fixed support and sway visual reference (t18  =  −2.72, P  =  .014). Participants' response times were longer (F1,18  =  67.77, P < .001, η2  =  0.79) and choice errors were more numerous under dual-task conditions than under single-task conditions (F1,18  =  5.58, P  =  .03, η2  =  0.24). However, differences were observed only during category-switch trials. Conclusions: Balance was either maintained or improved under dual-task conditions. Thus, postural control took priority over cognitive processing when the tasks were

  20. Sequential Modulation of Cue Use in the Task Switching Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Reisenauer, Renate; Jacobsen, Thomas; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2012-01-01

    In task switching studies, pre-cuing of the upcoming task improves performance, indicating preparatory activation of the upcoming task-set, and/or inhibition of the previous task-set. To further investigate cue-based task preparation, the authors presented both valid and invalid task cues in a task switching experiment involving three tasks. Consistent with previous findings, a validity effect in terms of higher reaction times on invalidly compared to validly cued tasks was obtained. However, this validity effect was reduced following invalidly cued trials, suggesting dynamic adjustment in terms of decreased cue-based preparation after being misled. Performance was particularly impaired when the current task was the one that was invalidly cued on the preceding trial. This finding may reflect either particular reluctance to prepare or persisting inhibition of the erroneously prepared task-set from the pre-trial. PMID:22908004