Science.gov

Sample records for human-machine interface evaluation

  1. An integrated approach for the design and evaluation of human-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt F.

    1987-01-01

    An integrated environment for the design and evaluation (from a human factors point-of-view) of human-machine interfaces is proposed. Four major components of an experimental environment currently under study are identified and discussed. A scenario highlighting the relationships of these four components in an integrated operational environment is presented. Current status, issues to be addressed and future plans for this activity are discussed.

  2. Next Generation Munitions Handler: Human-Machine Interface and Preliminary Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Jansen, J.F.; Pin, F.G.; Rowe, J.C.

    1999-04-25

    The Next Generation Munitions Handler/Advanced Technology Demonstrator (NGMI-VATTD) is a technology demonstrator for the application of an advanced robotic device for re-arming U.S. Air Force (USAF) and U.S. Navy (USN) tactical fighters. It comprises two key hardware components: a heavy-lift dexterous manipulator (HDM) and a nonholonomic mobility platform. The NGMWATTD is capable of lifting weapons up to 4400 kg (2000 lb) and placing them on any weapons rack on existing fighters (including the F-22 Raptor). This report describes the NGMH mission with particular reference to human-machine interfaces. It also describes preliminary testing to garner feedback about the heavy-lift manipulator arm from experienced fighter load crewmen. The purpose of the testing was to provide preliminary information about control system parameters and to gather feed- back from users about manipulator arm functionality. To that end, the Air Force load crewmen interacted with the NGMWATTD in an informal testing session and provided feedback about the performance of the system. Certain con- trol system parameters were changed during the course of the testing and feedback from the participants was used to make a rough estimate of "good" initial operating parameters. Later, formal testing will concentrate within this range to identify optimal operating parameters. User reactions to the HDM were generally positive, All of the USAF personnel were favorably impressed with the capabilities of the system. Fine-tuning operating parameters created a system even more favorably regarded by the load crews. Further adjustment to control system parameters will result in a system that is operationally efficient, easy to use, and well accepted by users.

  3. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  4. Flexible human machine interface for process diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Graham, G.E.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Brown, K.R.; Chin, R.Y.

    1996-05-01

    A flexible human machine interface to design and display graphical and textual process diagnostic information is presented. The system operates on different computer hardware platforms, including PCs under MS Windows and UNIX Workstations under X-Windows, in a client-server architecture. The interface system is customized for specific process applications in a graphical user interface development environment by overlaying the image of the process piping and instrumentation diagram with display objects that are highlighted in color during diagnostic display. Customization of the system is presented for Commonwealth Edison`s Braidwood PWR Chemical and Volume Control System with transients simulated by a full-scale operator-training simulator and diagnosed by a computer-based system.

  5. Human Machine Interface Programming and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Thomas Garrison

    2013-01-01

    Human Machine Interface (HMI) Programming and Testing is about creating graphical displays to mimic mission critical ground control systems in order to provide NASA engineers with the ability to monitor the health management of these systems in real time. The Health Management System (HMS) is an online interactive human machine interface system that monitors all Kennedy Ground Control Subsystem (KGCS) hardware in the field. The Health Management System is essential to NASA engineers because it allows remote control and monitoring of the health management systems of all the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) and associated field devices. KGCS will have equipment installed at the launch pad, Vehicle Assembly Building, Mobile Launcher, as well as the Multi-Purpose Processing Facility. I am designing graphical displays to monitor and control new modules that will be integrated into the HMS. The design of the display screen will closely mimic the appearance and functionality of the actual modules. There are many different field devices used to monitor health management and each device has its own unique set of health management related data, therefore each display must also have its own unique way to display this data. Once the displays are created, the RSLogix5000 application is used to write software that maps all the required data read from the hardware to the graphical display. Once this data is mapped to its corresponding display item, the graphical display and hardware device will be connected through the same network in order to test all possible scenarios and types of data the graphical display was designed to receive. Test Procedures will be written to thoroughly test out the displays and ensure that they are working correctly before being deployed to the field. Additionally, the Kennedy Ground Controls Subsystem's user manual will be updated to explain to the NASA engineers how to use the new module displays.

  6. Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durlach, Nathaniel I. (Compiler); Sheridan, Thomas B. (Compiler); Ellis, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    In Mar. 1990, a meeting organized around the general theme of teleoperation research into virtual environment display technology was conducted. This is a collection of conference-related fragments that will give a glimpse of the potential of the following fields and how they interplay: sensorimotor performance; human-machine interfaces; teleoperation; virtual environments; performance measurement and evaluation methods; and design principles and predictive models.

  7. Future Cyborgs: Human-Machine Interface for Virtual Reality Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    FUTURE CYBORGS : HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE FOR VIRTUAL REALITY APPLICATIONS Robert R. Powell, Major, USAF April 2007 Blue Horizons...SUBTITLE Future Cyborgs : Human-Machine Interface for Virtual Reality Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Nicholas Negroponte, Being Digital (New York: Alfred A Knopf, Inc, 1995), 123. 23 Ibid. 24 Andy Clark, Natural-Born Cyborgs (New York: Oxford

  8. Development of Simulation-Based Evaluation System for Iterative Design of Human-Machine Interface in a Nuclear Power Plant - Application for Reducing Workload

    SciTech Connect

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Kameda, Akiyuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Wu Wei; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2003-01-15

    Development of simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design (SEAMAID) has been conducted in the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation to simulate the behavior of a few operators and the human-machine interface (HMI) in a commercialized pressurized water reactor plant. The workload is one of the key factors with respect to reducing the human error in the operation of nuclear power plants. In order to produce a high-quality design of HMI, the evaluation method was developed to simulate and analyze the operator's workload. Our method was adopted from the cognition model proposed by Reason. The workload such as the length of the visual point movement and the moving length of the operators was visualized in a monitor image during the simulation, and then recorded as a movie-file. As a consequence, the validation of SEAMAID was clarified.

  9. A Human Machine Interface for EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L.

    EVA astronauts work in a challenging environment that includes high rate of muscle fatigue, haptic and proprioception impairment, lack of dexterity and interaction with robotic equipment. Currently they are heavily dependent on support from on-board crew and ground station staff for information and robotics operation. They are limited to the operation of simple controls on the suit exterior and external robot controls that are difficult to operate because of the heavy gloves that are part of the EVA suit. A wearable human machine interface (HMI) inside the suit provides a powerful alternative for robot teleoperation, procedure checklist access, generic equipment operation via virtual control panels and general information retrieval and presentation. The HMI proposed here includes speech input and output, a simple 6 degree of freedom (dof) pointing device and a heads up display (HUD). The essential characteristic of this interface is that it offers an alternative to the standard keyboard and mouse interface of a desktop computer. The astronaut's speech is used as input to command mode changes, execute arbitrary computer commands and generate text. The HMI can respond with speech also in order to confirm selections, provide status and feedback and present text output. A candidate 6 dof pointing device is Measurand's Shapetape, a flexible "tape" substrate to which is attached an optic fiber with embedded sensors. Measurement of the modulation of the light passing through the fiber can be used to compute the shape of the tape and, in particular, the position and orientation of the end of the Shapetape. It can be used to provide any kind of 3d geometric information including robot teleoperation control. The HUD can overlay graphical information onto the astronaut's visual field including robot joint torques, end effector configuration, procedure checklists and virtual control panels. With suitable tracking information about the position and orientation of the EVA suit

  10. HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI) EVALUATION OF ROOMS TA-50-1-60/60A AT THE RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY (RLWTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Walter E.; Stender, Kerith K.

    2012-08-29

    This effort addressed an evaluation of human machine interfaces (HMIs) in Room TA-50-1-60/60A of the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). The evaluation was performed in accordance with guidance outlined in DOE-STD-3009, DOE Standard Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, 2006 [DOE 2006]. Specifically, Chapter 13 of DOE 2006 highlights the 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, 2012, [CFR 2012] and DOE G 421.1-2 [DOE 2001a] requirements as they relate to the human factors process and, in this case, the safety of the RLWTF. The RLWTF is a Hazard Category 3 facility and, consequently, does not have safety-class (SSCs). However, safety-significant SSCs are identified. The transuranic (TRU) wastewater tanks and associated piping are the only safety-significant SSCs in Rooms TA-50-1-60/60A [LANL 2010]. Hence, the human factors evaluation described herein is only applicable to this particular assemblage of tanks and piping.

  11. Learning algorithms for human-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Zachary; Fishbach, Alon; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this study is to create and examine machine learning algorithms that adapt in a controlled and cadenced way to foster a harmonious learning environment between the user and the controlled device. To evaluate these algorithms, we have developed a simple experimental framework. Subjects wear an instrumented data glove that records finger motions. The high-dimensional glove signals remotely control the joint angles of a simulated planar two-link arm on a computer screen, which is used to acquire targets. A machine learning algorithm was applied to adaptively change the transformation between finger motion and the simulated robot arm. This algorithm was either LMS gradient descent or the Moore-Penrose (MP) pseudoinverse transformation. Both algorithms modified the glove-to-joint angle map so as to reduce the endpoint errors measured in past performance. The MP group performed worse than the control group (subjects not exposed to any machine learning), while the LMS group outperformed the control subjects. However, the LMS subjects failed to achieve better generalization than the control subjects, and after extensive training converged to the same level of performance as the control subjects. These results highlight the limitations of coadaptive learning using only endpoint error reduction.

  12. The neuroergonomic evaluation of human machine interface design in air traffic control using behavioral and EGG/ERP measures.

    PubMed

    Giraudet, L; Imbert, J-P; Bérenger, M; Tremblay, S; Causse, M

    2015-11-01

    The Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment is complex and safety-critical. Whilst exchanging information with pilots, controllers must also be alert to visual notifications displayed on the radar screen (e.g., warning which indicates a loss of minimum separation between aircraft). Under the assumption that attentional resources are shared between vision and hearing, the visual interface design may also impact the ability to process these auditory stimuli. Using a simulated ATC task, we compared the behavioral and neural responses to two different visual notification designs--the operational alarm that involves blinking colored "ALRT" displayed around the label of the notified plane ("Color-Blink"), and the more salient alarm involving the same blinking text plus four moving yellow chevrons ("Box-Animation"). Participants performed a concurrent auditory task with the requirement to react to rare pitch tones. P300 from the occurrence of the tones was taken as an indicator of remaining attentional resources. Participants who were presented with the more salient visual design showed better accuracy than the group with the suboptimal operational design. On a physiological level, auditory P300 amplitude in the former group was greater than that observed in the latter group. One potential explanation is that the enhanced visual design freed up attentional resources which, in turn, improved the cerebral processing of the auditory stimuli. These results suggest that P300 amplitude can be used as a valid estimation of the efficiency of interface designs, and of cognitive load more generally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human-machine interface hardware: The next decade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Elizabeth A.

    1991-01-01

    In order to understand where human-machine interface hardware is headed, it is important to understand where we are today, how we got there, and what our goals for the future are. As computers become more capable, faster, and programs become more sophisticated, it becomes apparent that the interface hardware is the key to an exciting future in computing. How can a user interact and control a seemingly limitless array of parameters effectively? Today, the answer is most often a limitless array of controls. The link between these controls and human sensory motor capabilities does not utilize existing human capabilities to their full extent. Interface hardware for teleoperation and virtual environments is now facing a crossroad in design. Therefore, we as developers need to explore how the combination of interface hardware, human capabilities, and user experience can be blended to get the best performance today and in the future.

  14. Human Reliability Analysis for Digital Human-Machine Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    This paper addresses the fact that existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods do not provide guidance on digital human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Digital HMIs are becoming ubiquitous in nuclear power operations, whether through control room modernization or new-build control rooms. Legacy analog technologies like instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are costly to support, and vendors no longer develop or support analog technology, which is considered technologically obsolete. Yet, despite the inevitability of digital HMI, no current HRA method provides guidance on how to treat human reliability considerations for digital technologies.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 236 - Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design E Appendix E to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... E Appendix E to Part 236—Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design (a) This appendix provides...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 236 - Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design E Appendix E to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... E Appendix E to Part 236—Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design (a) This appendix provides...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 236 - Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design E Appendix E to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... E Appendix E to Part 236—Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design (a) This appendix provides...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 236 - Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design E Appendix E to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... E Appendix E to Part 236—Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design (a) This appendix provides...

  19. Triboelectrification based motion sensor for human-machine interfacing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiqing; Chen, Jun; Wen, Xiaonan; Jing, Qingshen; Yang, Jin; Su, Yuanjie; Zhu, Guang; Wu, Wenzuo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-05-28

    We present triboelectrification based, flexible, reusable, and skin-friendly dry biopotential electrode arrays as motion sensors for tracking muscle motion and human-machine interfacing (HMI). The independently addressable, self-powered sensor arrays have been utilized to record the electric output signals as a mapping figure to accurately identify the degrees of freedom as well as directions and magnitude of muscle motions. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique was employed to analyse the frequency spectra of the obtained electric signals and thus to determine the motion angular velocities. Moreover, the motion sensor arrays produced a short-circuit current density up to 10.71 mA/m(2), and an open-circuit voltage as high as 42.6 V with a remarkable signal-to-noise ratio up to 1000, which enables the devices as sensors to accurately record and transform the motions of the human joints, such as elbow, knee, heel, and even fingers, and thus renders it a superior and unique invention in the field of HMI.

  20. Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In a teleoperator system the human operator senses, moves within, and operates upon a remote or hazardous environment by means of a slave mechanism (a mechanism often referred to as a teleoperator). In a virtual environment system the interactive human machine interface is retained but the slave mechanism and its environment are replaced by a computer simulation. Video is replaced by computer graphics. The auditory and force sensations imparted to the human operator are similarly computer generated. In contrast to a teleoperator system, where the purpose is to extend the operator's sensorimotor system in a manner that facilitates exploration and manipulation of the physical environment, in a virtual environment system, the purpose is to train, inform, alter, or study the human operator to modify the state of the computer and the information environment. A major application in which the human operator is the target is that of flight simulation. Although flight simulators have been around for more than a decade, they had little impact outside aviation presumably because the application was so specialized and so expensive.

  1. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  2. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency. PMID:26448740

  3. Redesigning the Human-Machine Interface for Computer-Mediated Visual Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    This study examined an application of a human machine interface which relies on the use of optical bar codes incorporated in a computer-based module to teach radio production. The sequencing procedure used establishes the user rather than the computer as the locus of control for the mediated instruction. (Author/MBR)

  4. Redesigning the Human-Machine Interface for Computer-Mediated Visual Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    This study examined an application of a human machine interface which relies on the use of optical bar codes incorporated in a computer-based module to teach radio production. The sequencing procedure used establishes the user rather than the computer as the locus of control for the mediated instruction. (Author/MBR)

  5. Materials and optimized designs for human-machine interfaces via epidermal electronics.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Woong; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Akhtar, Aadeel; Norton, James J S; Kwack, Young-Jin; Li, Shuo; Jung, Sung-Young; Su, Yewang; Lee, Woosik; Xia, Jing; Cheng, Huanyu; Huang, Yonggang; Choi, Woon-Seop; Bretl, Timothy; Rogers, John A

    2013-12-17

    Thin, soft, and elastic electronics with physical properties well matched to the epidermis can be conformally and robustly integrated with the skin. Materials and optimized designs for such devices are presented for surface electromyography (sEMG). The findings enable sEMG from wide ranging areas of the body. The measurements have quality sufficient for advanced forms of human-machine interface.

  6. Extraction of SSVEP signals of a capacitive EEG helmet for human machine interface.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Martin; Neumann, Peter; Becker, Matthias; Curio, Gabriel; Schilling, Meinhard

    2008-01-01

    The use of capacitive electrodes for measuring EEG eliminates the preparation procedure known from classical noninvasive EEG measurements. The insulated interface to the brain signals in combination with steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) enables a zero prep human machine interface triggered by brain signals. This paper presents a 28-channel EEG helmet system based on our capacitive electrodes measuring and analyzing SSVEPs even through scalp hair. Correlation analysis is employed to extract the stimulation frequency of the EEG signal. The system is characterized corresponding to the available detection time with different subjects. As demonstration of the use of capacitive electrodes for SSVEP measurements, preliminary online Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) results of the system are presented. Detection times lie about a factor of 3 higher than in galvanic EEG SSVEP measurements, but are low enough to establish a proper communication channel for Human Machine Interface (HMI).

  7. Considerations for human-machine interfaces in tele-operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newport, Curt

    1991-01-01

    Numerous factors impact on the efficiency of tele-operative manipulative work. Generally, these are related to the physical environment of the tele-operator and how he interfaces with robotic control consoles. The capabilities of the operator can be influenced by considerations such as temperature, eye strain, body fatigue, and boredom created by repetitive work tasks. In addition, the successful combination of man and machine will, in part, be determined by the configuration of the visual and physical interfaces available to the teleoperator. The design and operation of system components such as full-scale and mini-master manipulator controllers, servo joysticks, and video monitors will have a direct impact on operational efficiency. As a result, the local environment and the interaction of the operator with the robotic control console have a substantial effect on mission productivity.

  8. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  9. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  10. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  11. Flexible dielectric elastomer actuators for wearable human-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzmacher, Christian; Biggs, James; Srinivasan, Mandayam

    2006-03-01

    Wearable dielectric elastomer actuators have the potential to enable new technologies, such as tactile feedback gloves for virtual reality, and to improve existing devices, such as automatic blood pressure cuffs. They are potentially lighter, quieter, thinner, simpler, and cheaper than pneumatic and hydraulic systems now used to make compliant, actuated interfaces with the human body. Achieving good performance without using a rigid frame to prestrain the actuator is a fundamental challenge in using these actuators on body. To answer this challenge, a new type of fiber-prestrained composite actuator was developed. Equations that facilitate design of the actuator are presented, along with FE analysis, material tests, and experimental results from prototypes. Bending stiffness of the actuator material was found to be comparable to textiles used in clothing, confirming wearability. Two roll-to-roll machines are also presented that permit manufacture of this material in bulk as a modular, compact, prestressed composite that can be cut, stacked, and staggered, in order to build up actuators for a range of desired forces and displacements. The electromechanical properties of single- layered actuators manufactured by this method were measured (N=5). At non-damaging voltages, blocking force ranged from 3,7-5,0 gram per centimeter of actuator width, with linear strains of 20,0-30%. Driving the actuators to breakdown produced maximum force of 8,3-10 gram/cm, and actuation strain in excess 30%. Using this actuator, a prototype tactile display was constructed and demonstrated.

  12. All printed touchless human-machine interface based on only five functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheipl, G.; Zirkl, M.; Sawatdee, A.; Helbig, U.; Krause, M.; Kraker, E.; Andersson Ersman, P.; Nilsson, D.; Platt, D.; Bodö, P.; Bauer, S.; Domann, G.; Mogessie, A.; Hartmann, Paul; Stadlober, B.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate the printing of a complex smart integrated system using only five functional inks: the fluoropolymer P(VDF:TrFE) (Poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) sensor ink, the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) ink, a conductive carbon paste, a polymeric electrolyte and SU8 for separation. The result is a touchless human-machine interface, including piezo- and pyroelectric sensor pixels (sensitive to pressure changes and impinging infrared light), transistors for impedance matching and signal conditioning, and an electrochromic display. Applications may not only emerge in human-machine interfaces, but also in transient temperature or pressure sensing used in safety technology, in artificial skins and in disposable sensor labels.

  13. A Tool for Assessing the Text Legibility of Digital Human Machine Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    A tool intended to aid qualified professionals in the assessment of the legibility of text presented on a digital display is described. The assessment of legibility is primarily for the purposes of designing and analyzing human machine interfaces in accordance with NUREG-0700 and MIL-STD 1472G. The tool addresses shortcomings of existing guidelines by providing more accurate metrics of text legibility with greater sensitivity to design alternatives.

  14. Reverse-micelle-induced porous pressure-sensitive rubber for wearable human-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jaemin; Choi, Suji; Lee, Jongsu; Park, Inhyuk; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-07-23

    A novel method to produce porous pressure-sensitive rubber is developed. For the controlled size distribution of embedded micropores, solution-based procedures using reverse micelles are adopted. The piezosensitivity of the pressure sensitive rubber is significantly increased by introducing micropores. Using this method, wearable human-machine interfaces are fabricated, which can be applied to the remote control of a robot. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing Human Machine Interface Requirements for New Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    This dissertation examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will be deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies with increasingly capable automation, is how work will be accomplished by human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by designers. The human machine interface (HMI), which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the predicted performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements for a detect and avoid (DAA) system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned in order

  16. EMG and EPP-integrated human-machine interface between the paralyzed and rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue H; Fan, Yuan J; Xu, Li D

    2012-07-01

    Although a lower extremity exoskeleton shows great prospect in the rehabilitation of the lower limb, it has not yet been widely applied to the clinical rehabilitation of the paralyzed. This is partly caused by insufficient information interactions between the paralyzed and existing exoskeleton that cannot meet the requirements of harmonious control. In this research, a bidirectional human-machine interface including a neurofuzzy controller and an extended physiological proprioception (EPP) feedback system is developed by imitating the biological closed-loop control system of human body. The neurofuzzy controller is built to decode human motion in advance by the fusion of the fuzzy electromyographic signals reflecting human motion intention and the precise proprioception providing joint angular feedback information. It transmits control information from human to exoskeleton, while the EPP feedback system based on haptic stimuli transmits motion information of the exoskeleton back to the human. Joint angle and torque information are transmitted in the form of air pressure to the human body. The real-time bidirectional human-machine interface can help a patient with lower limb paralysis to control the exoskeleton with his/her healthy side and simultaneously perceive motion on the paralyzed side by EPP. The interface rebuilds a closed-loop motion control system for paralyzed patients and realizes harmonious control of the human-machine system.

  17. Resistance torque control for steer-by-wire system to improve human-machine interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayama, Ryouhei; Kawahara, Sadahiro; Nakano, Shirou; Kumamoto, Hiromitsu

    2010-09-01

    A steer-by-wire system, which has no mechanical constraints between steering wheel and front wheel, is expected to improve steering performance. The mechanical resistance torque is not transmitted from the front wheel to the steering wheel, and it is essential to simulate the torque around the steering wheel for better human-machine interface. Previous studies investigated resistance torque control originating from vehicle behaviour variables such as yaw rate and lateral acceleration. However, other variables such as steering wheel angle and front wheel actuation force are also good candidate sources to generate resistance torque. In this paper, first, four general guidelines are introduced to evaluate three types of resistance torques, i.e., the steering wheel angle origin, the steering force origin and the vehicle behaviour origin. First two guidelines are for 'driver-made' phase to make a turn, while the third guideline is for 'vehicle-made' phase to return to straight driving and the fourth one is the applicability guideline. Satisfaction of these guidelines by each of the three resistance torques is examined by the actual vehicle experiment. A necessity of combining these three types of resistance torques is indicated as a future subject.

  18. The role of augmentative visual training in auditory human-machine-interface performance.

    PubMed

    Hands, Gabrielle L; Larson, Eric; Stepp, Cara E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of augmentative visual feedback training on performance using auditory feedback alone for human-machine interface (HMI) control. Sixteen healthy participants used bilateral facial surface electromyography to achieve two-dimensional control to reach vowel targets. Eight participants trained with combined visual and auditory feedback, while eight participants trained with real-time auditory feedback only. Each subject participated in four sessions over three days; three sessions with their designated feedback modality (auditory only or auditory with supplementary visual) and a fourth session on the third day using novel vowel targets to test generalization of auditory-motor learning. Analyses of variance performed on the percentage of total targets reached demonstrated a main effect of group and the interaction of group and session. Individuals provided with augmentative visual feedback during training outperformed individuals using auditory feedback alone in initial training sessions. However, training with augmentative visual feedback had no effect on individuals' training and generalization performance using auditory feedback alone after three days of training.

  19. Multimodal human-machine interface based on a brain-computer interface and an electrooculography interface.

    PubMed

    Iáñez, Eduardo; Ùbeda, Andrés; Azorín, José M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a multimodal interface that combines a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) with an electrooculography (EOG) interface. The non-invasive spontaneous BCI registers the electrical brain activity through surface electrodes. The EOG interface detects the eye movements through electrodes placed on the face around the eyes. Both kind of signals are registered together and processed to obtain the mental task that the user is thinking and the eye movement performed by the user. Both commands (mental task and eye movement) are combined in order to move a dot in a graphic user interface (GUI). Several experimental tests have been made where the users perform a trajectory to get closer to some targets. To perform the trajectory the user moves the dot in a plane with the EOG interface and using the BCI the dot changes its height.

  20. Assisted navigation based on shared-control, using discrete and sparse human-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana C; Nunes, Urbano; Vaz, Luis; Vaz, Luís

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a shared-control approach for Assistive Mobile Robots (AMR), which depends on the user's ability to navigate a semi-autonomous powered wheelchair, using a sparse and discrete human-machine interface (HMI). This system is primarily intended to help users with severe motor disabilities that prevent them to use standard human-machine interfaces. Scanning interfaces and Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI), characterized to provide a small set of commands issued sparsely, are possible HMIs. This shared-control approach is intended to be applied in an Assisted Navigation Training Framework (ANTF) that is used to train users' ability in steering a powered wheelchair in an appropriate manner, given the restrictions imposed by their limited motor capabilities. A shared-controller based on user characterization, is proposed. This controller is able to share the information provided by the local motion planning level with the commands issued sparsely by the user. Simulation results of the proposed shared-control method, are presented.

  1. Human Reliability and the Current Dilemma in Human-Machine Interface Design Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Passalacqua, Roberto; Yamada, Fumiaki

    2002-07-01

    Since human error dominates the probability of failures of still-existing human-requiring systems (as the Monju reactor), the human-machine interface needs to be improved. Several rationales may lead to the conclusion that 'humans' should limit themselves to monitor the 'machine'. For example, this is the trend in the aviation industry: newest aircrafts are designed to be able to return to a safe state by the use of control systems, which do not need human intervention. Thus, the dilemma whether we really need operators (for example in the nuclear industry) might arise. However, social-technical approaches in recent human error analyses are pointing out the so-called 'organizational errors' and the importance of a human-machine interface harmonization. Typically plant's operators are a 'redundant' safety system with a much lower reliability (than the machine): organizational factors and harmonization requirements suggest designing the human-machine interface in a way that allows improvement of operator's reliability. In addition, taxonomy studies of accident databases have also proved that operators' training should promote processes of decision-making. This is accomplished in the latest trends of PSA technology by introducing the concept of a 'Safety Monitor' that is a computer-based tool that uses a level 1 PSA model of the plant. Operators and maintenance schedulers of the Monju FBR will be able to perform real-time estimations of the plant risk level. The main benefits are risk awareness and improvements in decision-making by operators. Also scheduled maintenance can be approached in a more rational (safe and economic) way. (authors)

  2. Intelligent Adaptive Interface: A Design Tool for Enhancing Human-Machine System Performances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    synthesized from the literature related to adaptations [17,19,43,34,29,50,47,14]. A1: Appropriate adaptation cycles are required for automation to be...models and the analytical methodologies covered all the tasks related to the entire design and evaluation cycle of a human-machine system; consistent...Ortega. London, Springer: 259-270. [29] Kauffman, S. A. (1994). Whispers From Carnot : The Origins of Order and Principles of Adaptation in Complex

  3. The essential human-machine interface for surgery: biological signals transmission.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, W L; Lloyd, A

    1995-01-01

    The concept of a machine-augmented surgeon will become a widespread reality only after the barrier of harnessing the computer as a tool has been successfully accomplished. The prospects of surgical robots for computer-assisted surgery, for telemedicine, and for teleoperation-cybersurgery-will be greatly enhanced when computers are no longer considered a separate component that links a system together, they must lose their identity, becoming transparent. The ideal human-machine interface for surgery is one juxtaposed between surgeon and patient that derives digital biosignals directly from both bodies, transmitting them transparently without perceptible delay, and distributes them bilaterally into afferent (sensory) and efferent (operator or effector) limbs. This ideal human-computer interface will be based upon biosignal processing and will optimize the technology to the physiology, in what has been called biocybernetics. Applications of biosignal interfaces are being developed in entertainment, medicine, commerce, defense, and in sales and distribution (Table 1).

  4. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26884745

  6. Functional requirements analysis and human machine interface specifications for handheld metal detector wands

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, V.; Hartney, C.; Banks, W.

    1994-11-01

    Functional Requirements Analysis (FRA) and Human-Machine-Interface Design Specifications (HMIDs) are critical elements in the development of effective security systems. Handheld metal detector wands are currently used by security personnel to detect metal weapons and munitions that might be smuggled onboard an aircraft by terrorists or individuals who intend to do harm to passengers, aircraft, or other air carrier-related targets. The FAA has requested that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) assist in developing functional requirements for handheld metal detector devices (wands) used at airports. This effort is focused on both defining and assuring adequate functional and human interface designs that are an integral part of airport security operations. In addition to developing functional requirements, LLNL was also requested to examine and review wanding procedures currently used by the airports and air carriers and provide comments, recommendations, and suggestions for enhanced security based upon this review. The phrase ``Human-Machine-Interface`` (HMI) is frequently used to describe the characteristics of a system that allows the human to interact and control the machine or system. Equipment used by checkpoint security Pre-Board Screeners (PBS`s) during rapid search of passengers must be designed to fit a broad range of anthropometric differences in height, hand size, grip strength, upper body strength, visual. acuity, auditory acuity, and other related human variables. In essence, if there is a high degree of compatibility between the end-user and the equipment, there will be a direct enhancement of total system performance and system operability. Thus, this document may also be used as, a guideline to enhance ergonomic compatibility between the PBS`s and the equipment they use.

  7. Computer-based diagnostic monitoring to enhance the human-machine interface of complex processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.

    1992-02-01

    There is a growing interest in introducing an automated, on-line, diagnostic monitoring function into the human-machine interfaces (HMIs) or control rooms of complex process plants. The design of such a system should be properly integrated with other HMI systems in the control room, such as the alarms system or the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). This paper provides a conceptual foundation for the development of a Plant-wide Diagnostic Monitoring System (PDMS), along with functional requirements for the system and other advanced HMI systems. Insights are presented into the design of an efficient and robust PDMS, which were gained from a critical review of various methodologies developed in the nuclear power industry, the chemical process industry, and the space technological community.

  8. A vibro-haptic human-machine interface for structural health monitoring

    DOE PAGES

    Mascarenas, David; Plont, Crystal; Brown, Christina; ...

    2014-11-01

    The structural health monitoring (SHM) community’s goal has been to endow physical systems with a nervous system not unlike those commonly found in living organisms. Typically the SHM community has attempted to do this by instrumenting structures with a variety of sensors, and then applying various signal processing and classification procedures to the data in order to detect the presence of damage, the location of damage, the severity of damage, and to estimate the remaining useful life of the structure. This procedure has had some success, but we are still a long way from achieving the performance of nervous systemsmore » found in biology. This is primarily because contemporary classification algorithms do not have the performance required. In many cases expert judgment is superior to automated classification. This work introduces a new paradigm. We propose interfacing the human nervous system to the distributed sensor network located on the structure and developing new techniques to enable human-machine cooperation. Results from the field of sensory substitution suggest this should be possible. This study investigates a vibro-haptic human-machine interface for SHM. The investigation was performed using a surrogate three-story structure. The structure features three nonlinearity-inducing bumpers to simulate damage. Accelerometers are placed on each floor to measure the response of the structure to a harmonic base excitation. The accelerometer measurements are preprocessed. As a result, the preprocessed data is then encoded encoded as a vibro-tactile stimulus. Human subjects were then subjected to the vibro-tactile stimulus and asked to characterize the damage in the structure.« less

  9. A vibro-haptic human-machine interface for structural health monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenas, David; Plont, Crystal; Brown, Christina; Cowell, Martin; Jameson, N. Jordan; Block, Jessica; Djidjev, Stephanie; Hahn, Heidi A.; Farrar, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The structural health monitoring (SHM) community’s goal has been to endow physical systems with a nervous system not unlike those commonly found in living organisms. Typically the SHM community has attempted to do this by instrumenting structures with a variety of sensors, and then applying various signal processing and classification procedures to the data in order to detect the presence of damage, the location of damage, the severity of damage, and to estimate the remaining useful life of the structure. This procedure has had some success, but we are still a long way from achieving the performance of nervous systems found in biology. This is primarily because contemporary classification algorithms do not have the performance required. In many cases expert judgment is superior to automated classification. This work introduces a new paradigm. We propose interfacing the human nervous system to the distributed sensor network located on the structure and developing new techniques to enable human-machine cooperation. Results from the field of sensory substitution suggest this should be possible. This study investigates a vibro-haptic human-machine interface for SHM. The investigation was performed using a surrogate three-story structure. The structure features three nonlinearity-inducing bumpers to simulate damage. Accelerometers are placed on each floor to measure the response of the structure to a harmonic base excitation. The accelerometer measurements are preprocessed. As a result, the preprocessed data is then encoded encoded as a vibro-tactile stimulus. Human subjects were then subjected to the vibro-tactile stimulus and asked to characterize the damage in the structure.

  10. The remapping of space in motor learning and human-machine interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mussa-Ivaldi, F.A.; Danziger, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of motor adaptation to patterns of deterministic forces have revealed the ability of the motor control system to form and use predictive representations of the environment. One of the most fundamental elements of our environment is space itself. This article focuses on the notion of Euclidean space as it applies to common sensory motor experiences. Starting from the assumption that we interact with the world through a system of neural signals, we observe that these signals are not inherently endowed with metric properties of the ordinary Euclidean space. The ability of the nervous system to represent these properties depends on adaptive mechanisms that reconstruct the Euclidean metric from signals that are not Euclidean. Gaining access to these mechanisms will reveal the process by which the nervous system handles novel sophisticated coordinate transformation tasks, thus highlighting possible avenues to create functional human-machine interfaces that can make that task much easier. A set of experiments is presented that demonstrate the ability of the sensory-motor system to reorganize coordination in novel geometrical environments. In these environments multiple degrees of freedom of body motions are used to control the coordinates of a point in a two-dimensional Euclidean space. We discuss how practice leads to the acquisition of the metric properties of the controlled space. Methods of machine learning based on the reduction of reaching errors are tested as a means to facilitate learning by adaptively changing he map from body motions to controlled device. We discuss the relevance of the results to the development of adaptive human machine interfaces and optimal control. PMID:19665553

  11. Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles such as transport casks in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Pedro; Vale, Alberto; Ventura, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    The Cask and Plug Remote Handling System (CPRHS) and the respective Cask Transfer System (CTS) are designed to transport activated components between the reactor and the hot cell buildings of ITER during maintenance operations. In nominal operation, the CPRHS/CTS shall operate autonomously under human supervision. However, in some unexpected situations, the automatic mode must be overridden and the vehicle must be remotely guided by a human operator due to the harsh conditions of the environment. The CPRHS/CTS is a rhombic-like vehicle with two independent steerable and drivable wheels along its longitudinal axis, giving it omni-directional capabilities. During manual guidance, the human operator has to deal with four degrees of freedom, namely the orientations and speeds of two wheels. This work proposes a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to manage the degrees of freedom and to remotely guide the CPRHS/CTS in ITER taking the most advantages of rhombic like capabilities. Previous work was done to drive each wheel independently, i.e., control the orientation and speed of each wheel independently. The results have shown that the proposed solution is inefficient. The attention of the human operator becomes focused in a single wheel. In addition, the proposed solution cannot assure that the commands accomplish the physical constrains of the vehicle, resulting in slippage or even in clashes. This work proposes a solution that consists in the control of the vehicle looking at the position of its center of mass and its heading in the world frame. The solution is implemented using a rotational disk to control the vehicle heading and a common analogue joystick to control the vector speed of the center of the mass of the vehicle. The number of degrees of freedom reduces to three, i.e., two angles (vehicle heading and the orientation of the vector speed) and a scalar (the magnitude of the speed vector). This is possible using a kinematic model based on the vehicle Instantaneous

  12. Development of a shear measurement sensor for measuring forces at human-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Kuen; Kim, Seong Guk; Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Hyung Joo; Ryu, Jeicheong; Lim, Dohyung; Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Han Sung

    2014-12-01

    Measuring shear force is crucial for investigating the pathology and treatment of pressure ulcers. In this study, we introduced a bi-axial shear transducer based on strain gauges as a new shear sensor. The sensor consisted of aluminum and polyvinyl chloride plates placed between quadrangular aluminum plates. On the middle plate, two strain gauges were placed orthogonal to one another. The shear sensor (54 mm × 54 mm × 4.1 mm), which was validated by using standard weights, displayed high accuracy and precision (measurement range, -50 to 50 N; sensitivity, 0.3N; linear relationship, R(2)=0.9625; crosstalk error, 0.635% ± 0.031%; equipment variation, 4.183). The shear force on the interface between the human body and a stand-up wheelchair was measured during sitting or standing movements, using two mats (44.8 cm × 44.8 cm per mat) that consisted of 24 shear sensors. Shear forces on the sacrum and ischium were almost five times higher (15.5 N at last posture) than those on other sites (3.5 N on average) during experiments periods. In conclusion, the proposed shear sensor may be reliable and useful for measuring the shear force on human-machine interfaces.

  13. Understanding customers' holistic perception of switches in automotive human-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wellings, Tom; Williams, Mark; Tennant, Charles

    2010-01-01

    For successful new product development, it is necessary to understand the customers' holistic experience of the product beyond traditional task completion, and acceptance measures. This paper describes research in which ninety-eight UK owners of luxury saloons assessed the feel of push-switches in five luxury saloon cars both in context (in-car) and out of context (on a bench). A combination of hedonic data (i.e. a measure of 'liking'), qualitative data and semantic differential data was collected. It was found that customers are clearly able to differentiate between switches based on the degree of liking for the samples' perceived haptic qualities, and that the assessment environment had a statistically significant effect, but that it was not universal. A factor analysis has shown that perceived characteristics of switch haptics can be explained by three independent factors defined as 'Image', 'Build Quality', and 'Clickiness'. Preliminary steps have also been taken towards identifying whether existing theoretical frameworks for user experience may be applicable to automotive human-machine interfaces.

  14. Epidermal mechano-acoustic sensing electronics for cardiovascular diagnostics and human-machine interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhao; Norton, James J. S.; Qazi, Raza; Zou, Zhanan; Ammann, Kaitlyn R.; Liu, Hank; Yan, Lingqing; Tran, Phat L.; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Zhang, Douglas; Kilian, Kristopher A.; Jung, Sung Hee; Bretl, Timothy; Xiao, Jianliang; Slepian, Marvin J.; Huang, Yonggang; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological mechano-acoustic signals, often with frequencies and intensities that are beyond those associated with the audible range, provide information of great clinical utility. Stethoscopes and digital accelerometers in conventional packages can capture some relevant data, but neither is suitable for use in a continuous, wearable mode, and both have shortcomings associated with mechanical transduction of signals through the skin. We report a soft, conformal class of device configured specifically for mechano-acoustic recording from the skin, capable of being used on nearly any part of the body, in forms that maximize detectable signals and allow for multimodal operation, such as electrophysiological recording. Experimental and computational studies highlight the key roles of low effective modulus and low areal mass density for effective operation in this type of measurement mode on the skin. Demonstrations involving seismocardiography and heart murmur detection in a series of cardiac patients illustrate utility in advanced clinical diagnostics. Monitoring of pump thrombosis in ventricular assist devices provides an example in characterization of mechanical implants. Speech recognition and human-machine interfaces represent additional demonstrated applications. These and other possibilities suggest broad-ranging uses for soft, skin-integrated digital technologies that can capture human body acoustics. PMID:28138529

  15. Epidermal mechano-acoustic sensing electronics for cardiovascular diagnostics and human-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; Norton, James J S; Qazi, Raza; Zou, Zhanan; Ammann, Kaitlyn R; Liu, Hank; Yan, Lingqing; Tran, Phat L; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Zhang, Douglas; Kilian, Kristopher A; Jung, Sung Hee; Bretl, Timothy; Xiao, Jianliang; Slepian, Marvin J; Huang, Yonggang; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Rogers, John A

    2016-11-01

    Physiological mechano-acoustic signals, often with frequencies and intensities that are beyond those associated with the audible range, provide information of great clinical utility. Stethoscopes and digital accelerometers in conventional packages can capture some relevant data, but neither is suitable for use in a continuous, wearable mode, and both have shortcomings associated with mechanical transduction of signals through the skin. We report a soft, conformal class of device configured specifically for mechano-acoustic recording from the skin, capable of being used on nearly any part of the body, in forms that maximize detectable signals and allow for multimodal operation, such as electrophysiological recording. Experimental and computational studies highlight the key roles of low effective modulus and low areal mass density for effective operation in this type of measurement mode on the skin. Demonstrations involving seismocardiography and heart murmur detection in a series of cardiac patients illustrate utility in advanced clinical diagnostics. Monitoring of pump thrombosis in ventricular assist devices provides an example in characterization of mechanical implants. Speech recognition and human-machine interfaces represent additional demonstrated applications. These and other possibilities suggest broad-ranging uses for soft, skin-integrated digital technologies that can capture human body acoustics.

  16. Categorical vowel perception enhances the effectiveness and generalization of auditory feedback in human-machine-interfaces.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Terry, Howard P; Canevari, Margaux M; Stepp, Cara E

    2013-01-01

    Human-machine interface (HMI) designs offer the possibility of improving quality of life for patient populations as well as augmenting normal user function. Despite pragmatic benefits, utilizing auditory feedback for HMI control remains underutilized, in part due to observed limitations in effectiveness. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which categorical speech perception could be used to improve an auditory HMI. Using surface electromyography, 24 healthy speakers of American English participated in 4 sessions to learn to control an HMI using auditory feedback (provided via vowel synthesis). Participants trained on 3 targets in sessions 1-3 and were tested on 3 novel targets in session 4. An "established categories with text cues" group of eight participants were trained and tested on auditory targets corresponding to standard American English vowels using auditory and text target cues. An "established categories without text cues" group of eight participants were trained and tested on the same targets using only auditory cuing of target vowel identity. A "new categories" group of eight participants were trained and tested on targets that corresponded to vowel-like sounds not part of American English. Analyses of user performance revealed significant effects of session and group (established categories groups and the new categories group), and a trend for an interaction between session and group. Results suggest that auditory feedback can be effectively used for HMI operation when paired with established categorical (native vowel) targets with an unambiguous cue.

  17. A comparative analysis of three non-invasive human-machine interfaces for the disabled.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vikram; Castellini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of rehabilitation robotics, a major role is played by the human-machine interface (HMI) used to gather the patient's intent from biological signals, and convert them into control signals for the robotic artifact. Surprisingly, decades of research have not yet declared what the optimal HMI is in this context; in particular, the traditional approach based upon surface electromyography (sEMG) still yields unreliable results due to the inherent variability of the signal. To overcome this problem, the scientific community has recently been advocating the discovery, analysis, and usage of novel HMIs to supersede or augment sEMG; a comparative analysis of such HMIs is therefore a very desirable investigation. In this paper, we compare three such HMIs employed in the detection of finger forces, namely sEMG, ultrasound imaging, and pressure sensing. The comparison is performed along four main lines: the accuracy in the prediction, the stability over time, the wearability, and the cost. A psychophysical experiment involving ten intact subjects engaged in a simple finger-flexion task was set up. Our results show that, at least in this experiment, pressure sensing and sEMG yield comparably good prediction accuracies as opposed to ultrasound imaging; and that pressure sensing enjoys a much better stability than sEMG. Given that pressure sensors are as wearable as sEMG electrodes but way cheaper, we claim that this HMI could represent a valid alternative/augmentation to sEMG to control a multi-fingered hand prosthesis.

  18. New generation of human machine interfaces for controlling UAV through depth-based gesture recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantecón, Tomás.; del Blanco, Carlos Roberto; Jaureguizar, Fernando; García, Narciso

    2014-06-01

    New forms of natural interactions between human operators and UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) are demanded by the military industry to achieve a better balance of the UAV control and the burden of the human operator. In this work, a human machine interface (HMI) based on a novel gesture recognition system using depth imagery is proposed for the control of UAVs. Hand gesture recognition based on depth imagery is a promising approach for HMIs because it is more intuitive, natural, and non-intrusive than other alternatives using complex controllers. The proposed system is based on a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier that uses spatio-temporal depth descriptors as input features. The designed descriptor is based on a variation of the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) technique to efficiently work with depth video sequences. Other major consideration is the especial hand sign language used for the UAV control. A tradeoff between the use of natural hand signs and the minimization of the inter-sign interference has been established. Promising results have been achieved in a depth based database of hand gestures especially developed for the validation of the proposed system.

  19. Combined Auditory and Vibrotactile Feedback for Human-Machine-Interface Control

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Elias B.; Larson, Eric; Stepp, Cara E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of binary vibrotactile stimulation to continuous auditory feedback (vowel synthesis) for human-machine-interface (HMI) control. Sixteen healthy participants controlled facial surface electromyography to achieve two-dimensional (2D) targets (vowels). Eight participants used only real-time auditory feedback to locate targets whereas the other eight participants were additionally alerted to having achieved targets with confirmatory vibrotactile stimulation at the index finger. All participants trained using their assigned feedback modality (auditory alone or combined auditory and vibrotactile) over three sessions on three days and completed a fourth session on the third day using novel targets to assess generalization. Analyses of variance performed on the 1) percentage of targets reached and 2) percentage of trial time at the target revealed a main effect for feedback modality: participants using combined auditory and vibrotactile feedback performed significantly better than those using auditory feedback alone. No effect was found for session or the interaction of feedback modality and session, indicating a successful generalization to novel targets but lack of improvement over training sessions. Future research is necessary to determine the cognitive cost associated with combined auditory and vibrotactile feedback during HMI control. PMID:23912500

  20. Combined Auditory and Vibrotactile Feedback for Human-Machine-Interface Control.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Elias B; Larson, Eric; Stepp, Cara E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of binary vibrotactile stimulation to continuous auditory feedback (vowel synthesis) for human-machine interface (HMI) control. Sixteen healthy participants controlled facial surface electromyography to achieve 2-D targets (vowels). Eight participants used only real-time auditory feedback to locate targets whereas the other eight participants were additionally alerted to having achieved targets with confirmatory vibrotactile stimulation at the index finger. All participants trained using their assigned feedback modality (auditory alone or combined auditory and vibrotactile) over three sessions on three days and completed a fourth session on the third day using novel targets to assess generalization. Analyses of variance performed on the 1) percentage of targets reached and 2) percentage of trial time at the target revealed a main effect for feedback modality: participants using combined auditory and vibrotactile feedback performed significantly better than those using auditory feedback alone. No effect was found for session or the interaction of feedback modality and session, indicating a successful generalization to novel targets but lack of improvement over training sessions. Future research is necessary to determine the cognitive cost associated with combined auditory and vibrotactile feedback during HMI control.

  1. Personalized keystroke dynamics for self-powered human--machine interfacing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Jin; Jing, Qingshen; Bai, Peng; Yang, Weiqing; Qi, Xuewei; Su, Yuanjie; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-27

    The computer keyboard is one of the most common, reliable, accessible, and effective tools used for human--machine interfacing and information exchange. Although keyboards have been used for hundreds of years for advancing human civilization, studying human behavior by keystroke dynamics using smart keyboards remains a great challenge. Here we report a self-powered, non-mechanical-punching keyboard enabled by contact electrification between human fingers and keys, which converts mechanical stimuli applied to the keyboard into local electronic signals without applying an external power. The intelligent keyboard (IKB) can not only sensitively trigger a wireless alarm system once gentle finger tapping occurs but also trace and record typed content by detecting both the dynamic time intervals between and during the inputting of letters and the force used for each typing action. Such features hold promise for its use as a smart security system that can realize detection, alert, recording, and identification. Moreover, the IKB is able to identify personal characteristics from different individuals, assisted by the behavioral biometric of keystroke dynamics. Furthermore, the IKB can effectively harness typing motions for electricity to charge commercial electronics at arbitrary typing speeds greater than 100 characters per min. Given the above features, the IKB can be potentially applied not only to self-powered electronics but also to artificial intelligence, cyber security, and computer or network access control.

  2. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  3. Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles in remote handling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Pedro; Vale, Alberto; Ventura, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    In the thermonuclear experimental reactor ITER, a vehicle named CTS is designed to transport a container with activated components inside the buildings. In nominal operations, the CTS is autonomously guided under supervision. However, in some unexpected situations, such as in rescue and recovery operations, the autonomous mode must be overridden and the CTS must be remotely guided by an operator. The CTS is a rhombic-like vehicle, with two drivable and steerable wheels along its longitudinal axis, providing omni-directional capabilities. The rhombic kinematics correspond to four control variables, which are difficult to manage in manual mode operation. This paper proposes a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to remotely guide the vehicle in manual mode. The proposed solution is implemented using a HMI with an encoder connected to a micro-controller and an analog 2-axis joystick. Experimental results were obtained comparing the proposed solution with other controller devices in different scenarios and using a software platform that simulates the kinematics and dynamics of the vehicle. (authors)

  4. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition [and control] system (DACS) upgrade study

    SciTech Connect

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-10-22

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system.

  5. Steering a tractor by means of an EMG-based human-machine interface.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; San-Jose-Gonzalez, Israel; Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    An electromiographic (EMG)-based human-machine interface (HMI) is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI) from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver's scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering.

  6. Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; San-Jose-Gonzalez, Israel; Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    An electromiographic (EMG)-based human-machine interface (HMI) is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI) from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver’s scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering. PMID:22164006

  7. Proceedings of the 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of nuclear power systems. The ICHMI system, together with plant personnel, is the 'central nervous system' for operating plants. It senses basic parameters, monitors performance, integrates information, and makes adjustments to plant operations as necessary. It also responds to failures and off-normal events, thus ensuring goals of efficient power production and safety. The ICHMI system embodies the sensing, communications, monitoring, control, and presentation and command systems between the process (i.e., the reactor, heat transport, and energy conversion systems) and the plant personnel. It enables plant personnel to more effectively monitor the health of the plant and to identify opportunities to improve the performance of equipment and systems as well as to anticipate, understand, and respond to potential problems. Improved controls provide the basis to operate more closely to performance margins, and the improved integration of automatic and human response enables them to work cooperatively to accomplish production and safety goals. The ICHMI system thus directly impacts the performance of the entire plant and thereby the economics, safety, and security of current and future reactor designs. The 5. International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Control and Human-Machine Interface Technology (NPIC and HMIT 2006) is specifically devoted to advances in these important technologies. In these proceedings, more than 200 papers and panel sessions from all over the world have been assembled to share the most recent information and innovations in ICHMI technology and to discuss the important issues that face the future of the industry. The papers fall into two major groupings: instrumentation and control (I and C) and human-machine interface technology (HMIT). The I and C papers are organized into five tracks. 'Systems

  8. On the Applicability of Brain Reading for Predictive Human-Machine Interfaces in Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Kim, Su Kyoung; Straube, Sirko; Seeland, Anett; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Krell, Mario Michael; Tabie, Marc; Fahle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The ability of today's robots to autonomously support humans in their daily activities is still limited. To improve this, predictive human-machine interfaces (HMIs) can be applied to better support future interaction between human and machine. To infer upcoming context-based behavior relevant brain states of the human have to be detected. This is achieved by brain reading (BR), a passive approach for single trial EEG analysis that makes use of supervised machine learning (ML) methods. In this work we propose that BR is able to detect concrete states of the interacting human. To support this, we show that BR detects patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that can be related to event-related activity in the EEG like the P300, which are indicators of concrete states or brain processes like target recognition processes. Further, we improve the robustness and applicability of BR in application-oriented scenarios by identifying and combining most relevant training data for single trial classification and by applying classifier transfer. We show that training and testing, i.e., application of the classifier, can be carried out on different classes, if the samples of both classes miss a relevant pattern. Classifier transfer is important for the usage of BR in application scenarios, where only small amounts of training examples are available. Finally, we demonstrate a dual BR application in an experimental setup that requires similar behavior as performed during the teleoperation of a robotic arm. Here, target recognition processes and movement preparation processes are detected simultaneously. In summary, our findings contribute to the development of robust and stable predictive HMIs that enable the simultaneous support of different interaction behaviors. PMID:24358125

  9. On the applicability of brain reading for predictive human-machine interfaces in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Kim, Su Kyoung; Straube, Sirko; Seeland, Anett; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Krell, Mario Michael; Tabie, Marc; Fahle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The ability of today's robots to autonomously support humans in their daily activities is still limited. To improve this, predictive human-machine interfaces (HMIs) can be applied to better support future interaction between human and machine. To infer upcoming context-based behavior relevant brain states of the human have to be detected. This is achieved by brain reading (BR), a passive approach for single trial EEG analysis that makes use of supervised machine learning (ML) methods. In this work we propose that BR is able to detect concrete states of the interacting human. To support this, we show that BR detects patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that can be related to event-related activity in the EEG like the P300, which are indicators of concrete states or brain processes like target recognition processes. Further, we improve the robustness and applicability of BR in application-oriented scenarios by identifying and combining most relevant training data for single trial classification and by applying classifier transfer. We show that training and testing, i.e., application of the classifier, can be carried out on different classes, if the samples of both classes miss a relevant pattern. Classifier transfer is important for the usage of BR in application scenarios, where only small amounts of training examples are available. Finally, we demonstrate a dual BR application in an experimental setup that requires similar behavior as performed during the teleoperation of a robotic arm. Here, target recognition processes and movement preparation processes are detected simultaneously. In summary, our findings contribute to the development of robust and stable predictive HMIs that enable the simultaneous support of different interaction behaviors.

  10. A novel device for head gesture measurement system in combination with eye-controlled human machine interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Ho, Chien-Wa; Chang, Kai-Chieh; Hung, San-Shan; Shei, Hung-Jung; Yeh, Mau-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    This study describes the design and combination of an eye-controlled and a head-controlled human-machine interface system. This system is a highly effective human-machine interface, detecting head movement by changing positions and numbers of light sources on the head. When the users utilize the head-mounted display to browse a computer screen, the system will catch the images of the user's eyes with CCD cameras, which can also measure the angle and position of the light sources. In the eye-tracking system, the program in the computer will locate each center point of the pupils in the images, and record the information on moving traces and pupil diameters. In the head gesture measurement system, the user wears a double-source eyeglass frame, so the system catches images of the user's head by using a CCD camera in front of the user. The computer program will locate the center point of the head, transferring it to the screen coordinates, and then the user can control the cursor by head motions. We combine the eye-controlled and head-controlled human-machine interface system for the virtual reality applications.

  11. A Prototyping Environment for Research on Human-Machine Interfaces in Process Control: Use of Microsoft WPF for Microworld and Distributed Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich

    2014-08-01

    Operators of critical processes, such as nuclear power production, must contend with highly complex systems, procedures, and regulations. Developing human-machine interfaces (HMIs) that better support operators is a high priority for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of critical processes. Human factors engineering (HFE) provides a rich and mature set of tools for evaluating the performance of HMIs, but the set of tools for developing and designing HMIs is still in its infancy. Here we propose that Microsoft Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is well suited for many roles in the research and development of HMIs for process control.

  12. Soft-rubber-packaged Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 MEMS touch sensors for human-machine interface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takei, Ryohei; Itoh, Toshihiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    We proposed and developed soft-rubber-packaged Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) force sensors as human-machine interface sensors of human touch and input. To achieve small and highly sensitive sensors with low-power-consumption, a small PZT MEMS cantilever was used as the sensing element, and it was covered with soft rubber, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), to prevent the cracking of the brittle PZT film when touching the sensor. The PDMS packaging does not affect the ferroelectric characteristics of the sensing PZT film, because the hysteresis and impedance changes of the PZT are less than 5%. The sensor dimensions are 5 × 5 × 1.1 mm3. The sensor generated charges without requiring voltage supply. The sensor generated an electric charge of 7.8 pC under an applied force of 1 N. The sensitivity was adjusted by changing the hardness of the soft rubber package: hard rubber provides high sensitivity, but the sensor is easily cracks. Hence, a sensor with a durometer hardness A of 35.6 was found to be optimal as a human-machine interface sensors of human touch of approximately 5-7 N because it has a linear sensitivity at force smaller than 5 N and the bending is small at forces larger than 5 N, which leads to a highly durable sensor. The sensor with a durometer hardness A of 35.6 did not break or crack until the applied force reached 40 N. By packaging brittle PZT MEMS cantilevers with soft rubber, small-force sensors can be constructed, leading to small, low-energy-consumption human-machine interface sensors.

  13. Robust human machine interface based on head movements applied to assistive robotics.

    PubMed

    Perez, Elisa; López, Natalia; Orosco, Eugenio; Soria, Carlos; Mut, Vicente; Freire-Bastos, Teodiano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user's head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user's head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four individuals with severe motors disability and a quantitative index was developed, in order to objectively evaluate the performance. The results obtained are promising since most users could perform the proposed tasks with the robotic wheelchair.

  14. Robust Human Machine Interface Based on Head Movements Applied to Assistive Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Elisa; López, Natalia; Orosco, Eugenio; Soria, Carlos; Mut, Vicente; Freire-Bastos, Teodiano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user's head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user's head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four individuals with severe motors disability and a quantitative index was developed, in order to objectively evaluate the performance. The results obtained are promising since most users could perform the proposed tasks with the robotic wheelchair. PMID:24453877

  15. A video, text, and speech-driven realistic 3-d virtual head for human-machine interface.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Wang, Zeng-Fu

    2015-05-01

    A multiple inputs-driven realistic facial animation system based on 3-D virtual head for human-machine interface is proposed. The system can be driven independently by video, text, and speech, thus can interact with humans through diverse interfaces. The combination of parameterized model and muscular model is used to obtain a tradeoff between computational efficiency and high realism of 3-D facial animation. The online appearance model is used to track 3-D facial motion from video in the framework of particle filtering, and multiple measurements, i.e., pixel color value of input image and Gabor wavelet coefficient of illumination ratio image, are infused to reduce the influence of lighting and person dependence for the construction of online appearance model. The tri-phone model is used to reduce the computational consumption of visual co-articulation in speech synchronized viseme synthesis without sacrificing any performance. The objective and subjective experiments show that the system is suitable for human-machine interaction.

  16. A novel EOG/EEG hybrid human-machine interface adopting eye movements and ERPs: application to robot control.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiaxin; Zhang, Yu; Cichocki, Andrzej; Matsuno, Fumitoshi

    2015-03-01

    This study presents a novel human-machine interface (HMI) based on both electrooculography (EOG) and electroencephalography (EEG). This hybrid interface works in two modes: an EOG mode recognizes eye movements such as blinks, and an EEG mode detects event related potentials (ERPs) like P300. While both eye movements and ERPs have been separately used for implementing assistive interfaces, which help patients with motor disabilities in performing daily tasks, the proposed hybrid interface integrates them together. In this way, both the eye movements and ERPs complement each other. Therefore, it can provide a better efficiency and a wider scope of application. In this study, we design a threshold algorithm that can recognize four kinds of eye movements including blink, wink, gaze, and frown. In addition, an oddball paradigm with stimuli of inverted faces is used to evoke multiple ERP components including P300, N170, and VPP. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, two different online experiments are carried out. One is to control a multifunctional humanoid robot, and the other is to control four mobile robots. In both experiments, the subjects can complete tasks effectively by using the proposed interface, whereas the best completion time is relatively short and very close to the one operated by hand.

  17. Using Sound to Reduce Visual Distraction from In-vehicle Human-Machine Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Pontus; Niemand, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Driver distraction and inattention are the main causes of accidents. The fact that devices such as navigation displays and media players are part of the distraction problem has led to the formulation of guidelines advocating various means for minimizing the visual distraction from such interfaces. However, although design guidelines and recommendations are followed, certain interface interactions, such as menu browsing, still require off-road visual attention that increases crash risk. In this article, we investigate whether adding sound to an in-vehicle user interface can provide the support necessary to create a significant reduction in glances toward a visual display when browsing menus. Two sound concepts were developed and studied; spearcons (time-compressed speech sounds) and earcons (musical sounds). A simulator study was conducted in which 14 participants between the ages of 36 and 59 took part. Participants performed 6 different interface tasks while driving along a highway route. A 3 × 6 within-group factorial design was employed with sound (no sound /earcons/spearcons) and task (6 different task types) as factors. Eye glances and corresponding measures were recorded using a head-mounted eye tracker. Participants' self-assessed driving performance was also collected after each task with a 10-point scale ranging from 1 = very bad to 10 = very good. Separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted for different eye glance measures and self-rated driving performance. It was found that the added spearcon sounds significantly reduced total glance time as well as number of glances while retaining task time as compared to the baseline (= no sound) condition (total glance time M = 4.15 for spearcons vs. M = 7.56 for baseline, p =.03). The earcon sounds did not result in such distraction-reducing effects. Furthermore, participants ratings of their driving performance were statistically significantly higher in the spearcon conditions compared to the baseline

  18. Sensing Pressure Distribution on a Lower-Limb Exoskeleton Physical Human-Machine Interface

    PubMed Central

    De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Vitiello, Nicola; Lenzi, Tommaso; Ronsse, Renaud; Koopman, Bram; Persichetti, Alessandro; Vecchi, Fabrizio; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; van der Kooij, Herman; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2011-01-01

    A sensory apparatus to monitor pressure distribution on the physical human-robot interface of lower-limb exoskeletons is presented. We propose a distributed measure of the interaction pressure over the whole contact area between the user and the machine as an alternative measurement method of human-robot interaction. To obtain this measure, an array of newly-developed soft silicone pressure sensors is inserted between the limb and the mechanical interface that connects the robot to the user, in direct contact with the wearer’s skin. Compared to state-of-the-art measures, the advantage of this approach is that it allows for a distributed measure of the interaction pressure, which could be useful for the assessment of safety and comfort of human-robot interaction. This paper presents the new sensor and its characterization, and the development of an interaction measurement apparatus, which is applied to a lower-limb rehabilitation robot. The system is calibrated, and an example its use during a prototypical gait training task is presented. PMID:22346574

  19. Sensing pressure distribution on a lower-limb exoskeleton physical human-machine interface.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Vitiello, Nicola; Lenzi, Tommaso; Ronsse, Renaud; Koopman, Bram; Persichetti, Alessandro; Vecchi, Fabrizio; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; van der Kooij, Herman; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2011-01-01

    A sensory apparatus to monitor pressure distribution on the physical human-robot interface of lower-limb exoskeletons is presented. We propose a distributed measure of the interaction pressure over the whole contact area between the user and the machine as an alternative measurement method of human-robot interaction. To obtain this measure, an array of newly-developed soft silicone pressure sensors is inserted between the limb and the mechanical interface that connects the robot to the user, in direct contact with the wearer's skin. Compared to state-of-the-art measures, the advantage of this approach is that it allows for a distributed measure of the interaction pressure, which could be useful for the assessment of safety and comfort of human-robot interaction. This paper presents the new sensor and its characterization, and the development of an interaction measurement apparatus, which is applied to a lower-limb rehabilitation robot. The system is calibrated, and an example its use during a prototypical gait training task is presented.

  20. Driver-passenger collaboration as a basis for human-machine interface design for vehicle navigation systems.

    PubMed

    Antrobus, Vicki; Burnett, Gary; Krehl, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    Human Factors concerns exist with vehicle navigation systems, particularly relating to the effects of current Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) on driver disengagement from the environment. A road study was conducted aiming to provide initial input for the development of intelligent HMIs for in-vehicle systems, using the traditional collaborative navigation relationship between the driver and passenger to inform future design. Sixteen drivers navigated a predefined route in the city of Coventry, UK with the assistance of an existing vehicle navigation system (SatNav), whereas a further 16 followed the navigational prompts of a passenger who had been trained along the same route. Results found that there were no significant differences in the number of navigational errors made on route for the two different methods. However, drivers utilising a collaborative navigation approach had significantly better landmark and route knowledge than their SatNav counterparts. Analysis of individual collaborative transcripts revealed the large individual differences in descriptor use by passengers and reference to environmental landmarks, illustrating the potential for the replacement of distance descriptors in vehicle navigation systems. Results are discussed in the context of future HMIs modelled on a collaborative navigation relationship. Practitioner Summary: Current navigation systems have been associated with driver environmental disengagement, this study uses an on-road approach to look at how the driver-passenger collaborative relationship and dialogue can inform future navigation HMI design. Drivers navigating with passenger assistance demonstrated enhanced landmark and route knowledge over drivers navigating with a SatNav.

  1. Usability testing of the human-machine interface for the Light Duty Utility Arm System

    SciTech Connect

    Kiebel, G.R.; Ellis, J.E.; Masliah, M.R.

    1994-09-20

    This report describes the usability testing that has been done for the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. A program of usability testing has been established as a part of a process for making the LDUA as easy to use as possible. The LDUA System is being designed to deploy a family of tools, called End Effectors, into underground storage tanks by means of a robotic arm on the end of a telescoping mast, and to collect and manage the data that they generate. The LDUA System uses a vertical positioning mast, to lower the arm into a tank through an existing 30.5 cm access riser. A Mobile Deployment Subsystem is used to position the mast and arm over a tank riser for deployment, and to transport them from tank to tank. The LDUA System has many ancillary subsystems including the Operations Control Trailer, the Tank Riser Interface and Confinement Subsystem, the Decontamination Subsystem, and the End Effector Exchange Subsystem. This work resulted in the identification of several important improvements to the LDUA control and data acquisition system before the design was frozen. The most important of these were color coding of joints in motion, simultaneous operator control of multiple joints, and changes to the field-of-views of the camera lenses for the robot and other camera systems.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Three Non-Invasive Human-Machine Interfaces for the Disabled

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, Vikram; Castellini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of rehabilitation robotics, a major role is played by the human–machine interface (HMI) used to gather the patient’s intent from biological signals, and convert them into control signals for the robotic artifact. Surprisingly, decades of research have not yet declared what the optimal HMI is in this context; in particular, the traditional approach based upon surface electromyography (sEMG) still yields unreliable results due to the inherent variability of the signal. To overcome this problem, the scientific community has recently been advocating the discovery, analysis, and usage of novel HMIs to supersede or augment sEMG; a comparative analysis of such HMIs is therefore a very desirable investigation. In this paper, we compare three such HMIs employed in the detection of finger forces, namely sEMG, ultrasound imaging, and pressure sensing. The comparison is performed along four main lines: the accuracy in the prediction, the stability over time, the wearability, and the cost. A psychophysical experiment involving ten intact subjects engaged in a simple finger-flexion task was set up. Our results show that, at least in this experiment, pressure sensing and sEMG yield comparably good prediction accuracies as opposed to ultrasound imaging; and that pressure sensing enjoys a much better stability than sEMG. Given that pressure sensors are as wearable as sEMG electrodes but way cheaper, we claim that this HMI could represent a valid alternative/augmentation to sEMG to control a multi-fingered hand prosthesis. PMID:25386135

  3. A realistic implementation of ultrasound imaging as a human-machine interface for upper-limb amputees

    PubMed Central

    Sierra González, David; Castellini, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the past years, especially with the advent of multi-fingered hand prostheses, the rehabilitation robotics community has tried to improve the use of human-machine interfaces to reliably control mechanical artifacts with many degrees of freedom. Ideally, the control schema should be intuitive and reliable, and the calibration (training) short and flexible. This work focuses on medical ultrasound imaging as such an interface. Medical ultrasound imaging is rich in information, fast, widespread, relatively cheap and provides high temporal/spatial resolution; moreover, it is harmless. We already showed that a linear relationship exists between ultrasound image features of the human forearm and the hand kinematic configuration; here we demonstrate that such a relationship also exists between similar features and fingertip forces. An experiment with 10 participants shows that a very fast data collection, namely of zero and maximum forces only and using no force sensors, suffices to train a system that predicts intermediate force values spanning a range of about 20 N per finger with average errors in the range 10–15%. This training approach, in which the ground truth is limited to an “on-off” visual stimulus, constitutes a realistic scenario and we claim that it could be equally used by intact subjects and amputees. The linearity of the relationship between images and forces is furthermore exploited to build an incremental learning system that works online and can be retrained on demand by the human subject. We expect this system to be able in principle to reconstruct an amputee's imaginary limb, and act as a sensible improvement of, e.g., mirror therapy, in the treatment of phantom-limb pain. PMID:24155719

  4. A realistic implementation of ultrasound imaging as a human-machine interface for upper-limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Sierra González, David; Castellini, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the past years, especially with the advent of multi-fingered hand prostheses, the rehabilitation robotics community has tried to improve the use of human-machine interfaces to reliably control mechanical artifacts with many degrees of freedom. Ideally, the control schema should be intuitive and reliable, and the calibration (training) short and flexible. This work focuses on medical ultrasound imaging as such an interface. Medical ultrasound imaging is rich in information, fast, widespread, relatively cheap and provides high temporal/spatial resolution; moreover, it is harmless. We already showed that a linear relationship exists between ultrasound image features of the human forearm and the hand kinematic configuration; here we demonstrate that such a relationship also exists between similar features and fingertip forces. An experiment with 10 participants shows that a very fast data collection, namely of zero and maximum forces only and using no force sensors, suffices to train a system that predicts intermediate force values spanning a range of about 20 N per finger with average errors in the range 10-15%. This training approach, in which the ground truth is limited to an "on-off" visual stimulus, constitutes a realistic scenario and we claim that it could be equally used by intact subjects and amputees. The linearity of the relationship between images and forces is furthermore exploited to build an incremental learning system that works online and can be retrained on demand by the human subject. We expect this system to be able in principle to reconstruct an amputee's imaginary limb, and act as a sensible improvement of, e.g., mirror therapy, in the treatment of phantom-limb pain.

  5. Modifying the Human-Machine Interface Based on Quantitative Measurements of the Level of Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Louis E.; Knapp, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    This project got underway without funding approved during the summer of 1998. The initial project steps were to identify previously published work in the fields of error classification systems, physiological measurements of awareness, and related topics. This agenda was modified at the request of NASA Ames in August, 1998 to include supporting the new Cargo Air Association (CAA) evaluation of the Human Factors related to the ADS-B technology. Additional funding was promised to fully support both efforts. Work on library research ended in the late Fall, 1998 when the SJSU project directors were informed that NASA would not be adding to the initial funding of the research project as had been initially committed. However, NASA did provide additional funding for the CAA project activity. NASA elected to leave the research grant in place to provide a pathway for the CAA project funding to SJSU (San Jose State University) to support Dr. Freund's work on the CAA tasks. Dr. Knapp essentially terminated his involvement with the project at this time.

  6. Toward best practice in Human Machine Interface design for older drivers: A review of current design guidelines.

    PubMed

    Young, K L; Koppel, S; Charlton, J L

    2017-09-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the driving population. While there is a strong emphasis for older people to maintain their mobility, the safety of older drivers is a serious community concern. Frailty and declines in a range of age-related sensory, cognitive, and physical impairments can place older drivers at an increased risk of crash-related injuries and death. A number of studies have indicated that in-vehicle technologies such as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) may provide assistance to older drivers. However, these technologies will only benefit older drivers if their design is congruent with the complex needs and diverse abilities of this driving cohort. The design of ADAS and IVIS is largely informed by automotive Human Machine Interface (HMI) guidelines. However, it is unclear to what extent the declining sensory, cognitive and physical capabilities of older drivers are addressed in the current guidelines. This paper provides a review of key current design guidelines for IVIS and ADAS with respect to the extent they address age-related changes in functional capacities. The review revealed that most of the HMI guidelines do not address design issues related to older driver impairments. In fact, in many guidelines driver age and sensory cognitive and physical impairments are not mentioned at all and where reference is made, it is typically very broad. Prescriptive advice on how to actually design a system so that it addresses the needs and limitations of older drivers is not provided. In order for older drivers to reap the full benefits that in-vehicle technology can afford, it is critical that further work establish how older driver limitations and capabilities can be supported by the system design process, including their inclusion into HMI design guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human-Machine Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-31

    smaller than those found in other runs. In all bias results, there was an edge effect due to the experimental paradigm: since responses were limited to...aforementioned edge effect (subjects heard sources farther off-center than they were except for the leftmost and ri ’ihtmost positions). Results from Run 5a...results for Experiment F, shown in Fig. 14, show the expected pattern of results. While the edge effect for Experiment F reduces the size of the

  8. Human-machine interfaces for teleoperators: an overview of research and development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Feldman, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper surveys the contributions of human factors to the mission of the Remote Control Engineering (RCE) task over the last six years. These contributions can be divided into two areas, research efforts and design efforts. Some of the topics covered in human factors research are manipulator comparisons, investigation of viewing system characteristics, research into the effects of force reflection, and studies of crew size and task allocation. In the area of component design the human factors group was primarily responsible for the conceptual design of the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) control room, including all operator work stations and overall control room architecture. The human factors group also contributed to the design of the AIMS master controller handle. Recent research at the RCE task has centered on comparison of manipulator systems. This research was planned and conducted by the human factors group and other ORNL personnel. The research is aimed at evaluating three important characteristics of manipulator systems: system dynamics, force feedback, and human-machine interface.

  9. [A new human machine interface in neurosurgery: The Leap Motion(®). Technical note regarding a new touchless interface].

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, L; Aubry, S; Godard, J; Katranji, H; Pauchot, J

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cross-sectional imaging viewing is used in routine practice whereas the surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). This type of contact results in a risk of lack of aseptic control and causes loss of time. The recent appearance of devices such as the Leap Motion(®) (Leap Motion society, San Francisco, USA) a sensor which enables to interact with the computer without any physical contact is of major interest in the field of surgery. However, its configuration and ergonomics produce key challenges in order to adapt to the practitioner's requirements, the imaging software as well as the surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of the Leap Motion(®) in neurosurgery on a PC for an optimized utilization with Carestream(®) Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, USA) using a plug-in (to download at: https://drive.google.com/?usp=chrome_app#folders/0B_F4eBeBQc3ybElEeEhqME5DQkU) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk).

  10. Towards passive brain-computer interfaces: applying brain-computer interface technology to human-machine systems in general.

    PubMed

    Zander, Thorsten O; Kothe, Christian

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive monitoring is an approach utilizing realtime brain signal decoding (RBSD) for gaining information on the ongoing cognitive user state. In recent decades this approach has brought valuable insight into the cognition of an interacting human. Automated RBSD can be used to set up a brain-computer interface (BCI) providing a novel input modality for technical systems solely based on brain activity. In BCIs the user usually sends voluntary and directed commands to control the connected computer system or to communicate through it. In this paper we propose an extension of this approach by fusing BCI technology with cognitive monitoring, providing valuable information about the users' intentions, situational interpretations and emotional states to the technical system. We call this approach passive BCI. In the following we give an overview of studies which utilize passive BCI, as well as other novel types of applications resulting from BCI technology. We especially focus on applications for healthy users, and the specific requirements and demands of this user group. Since the presented approach of combining cognitive monitoring with BCI technology is very similar to the concept of BCIs itself we propose a unifying categorization of BCI-based applications, including the novel approach of passive BCI.

  11. Towards passive brain-computer interfaces: applying brain-computer interface technology to human-machine systems in general

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Thorsten O.; Kothe, Christian

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive monitoring is an approach utilizing realtime brain signal decoding (RBSD) for gaining information on the ongoing cognitive user state. In recent decades this approach has brought valuable insight into the cognition of an interacting human. Automated RBSD can be used to set up a brain-computer interface (BCI) providing a novel input modality for technical systems solely based on brain activity. In BCIs the user usually sends voluntary and directed commands to control the connected computer system or to communicate through it. In this paper we propose an extension of this approach by fusing BCI technology with cognitive monitoring, providing valuable information about the users' intentions, situational interpretations and emotional states to the technical system. We call this approach passive BCI. In the following we give an overview of studies which utilize passive BCI, as well as other novel types of applications resulting from BCI technology. We especially focus on applications for healthy users, and the specific requirements and demands of this user group. Since the presented approach of combining cognitive monitoring with BCI technology is very similar to the concept of BCIs itself we propose a unifying categorization of BCI-based applications, including the novel approach of passive BCI.

  12. Structural health monitoring for bolt loosening via a non-invasive vibro-haptics human-machine cooperative interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekedis, Mahmut; Mascerañas, David; Turan, Gursoy; Ercan, Emre; Farrar, Charles R.; Yildiz, Hasan

    2015-08-01

    For the last two decades, developments in damage detection algorithms have greatly increased the potential for autonomous decisions about structural health. However, we are still struggling to build autonomous tools that can match the ability of a human to detect and localize the quantity of damage in structures. Therefore, there is a growing interest in merging the computational and cognitive concepts to improve the solution of structural health monitoring (SHM). The main object of this research is to apply the human-machine cooperative approach on a tower structure to detect damage. The cooperation approach includes haptic tools to create an appropriate collaboration between SHM sensor networks, statistical compression techniques and humans. Damage simulation in the structure is conducted by releasing some of the bolt loads. Accelerometers are bonded to various locations of the tower members to acquire the dynamic response of the structure. The obtained accelerometer results are encoded in three different ways to represent them as a haptic stimulus for the human subjects. Then, the participants are subjected to each of these stimuli to detect the bolt loosened damage in the tower. Results obtained from the human-machine cooperation demonstrate that the human subjects were able to recognize the damage with an accuracy of 88 ± 20.21% and response time of 5.87 ± 2.33 s. As a result, it is concluded that the currently developed human-machine cooperation SHM may provide a useful framework to interact with abstract entities such as data from a sensor network.

  13. What Do We Really Need? Visions of an Ideal Human-Machine Interface for NOTES Mechatronic Support Systems From the View of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists, and Medical Engineers.

    PubMed

    Kranzfelder, Michael; Schneider, Armin; Fiolka, Adam; Koller, Sebastian; Wilhelm, Dirk; Reiser, Silvano; Meining, Alexander; Feussner, Hubertus

    2015-08-01

    To investigate why natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has not yet become widely accepted and to prove whether the main reason is still the lack of appropriate platforms due to the deficiency of applicable interfaces. To assess expectations of a suitable interface design, we performed a survey on human-machine interfaces for NOTES mechatronic support systems among surgeons, gastroenterologists, and medical engineers. Of 120 distributed questionnaires, each consisting of 14 distinct questions, 100 (83%) were eligible for analysis. A mechatronic platform for NOTES was considered "important" by 71% of surgeons, 83% of gastroenterologist,s and 56% of medical engineers. "Intuitivity" and "simple to use" were the most favored aspects (33% to 51%). Haptic feedback was considered "important" by 70% of participants. In all, 53% of surgeons, 50% of gastroenterologists, and 33% of medical engineers already had experience with NOTES platforms or other surgical robots; however, current interfaces only met expectations in just more than 50%. Whereas surgeons did not favor a certain working posture, gastroenterologists and medical engineers preferred a sitting position. Three-dimensional visualization was generally considered "nice to have" (67% to 72%); however, for 26% of surgeons, 17% of gastroenterologists, and 7% of medical engineers it did not matter (P = 0.018). Requests and expectations of human-machine interfaces for NOTES seem to be generally similar for surgeons, gastroenterologist, and medical engineers. Consensus exists on the importance of developing interfaces that should be both intuitive and simple to use, are similar to preexisting familiar instruments, and exceed current available systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. FwWebViewPlus: integration of web technologies into WinCC OA based Human-Machine Interfaces at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golonka, Piotr; Fabian, Wojciech; Gonzalez-Berges, Manuel; Jasiun, Piotr; Varela-Rodriguez, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    The rapid growth in popularity of web applications gives rise to a plethora of reusable graphical components, such as Google Chart Tools and JQuery Sparklines, implemented in JavaScript and run inside a web browser. In the paper we describe the tool that allows for seamless integration of web-based widgets into WinCC Open Architecture, the SCADA system used commonly at CERN to build complex Human-Machine Interfaces. Reuse of widely available widget libraries and pushing the development efforts to a higher abstraction layer based on a scripting language allow for significant reduction in maintenance of the code in multi-platform environments compared to those currently used in C++ visualization plugins. Adequately designed interfaces allow for rapid integration of new web widgets into WinCC OA. At the same time, the mechanisms familiar to HMI developers are preserved, making the use of new widgets "native". Perspectives for further integration between the realms of WinCC OA and Web development are also discussed.

  15. Stretchable, Transparent, Ultrasensitive, and Patchable Strain Sensor for Human-Machine Interfaces Comprising a Nanohybrid of Carbon Nanotubes and Conductive Elastomers.

    PubMed

    Roh, Eun; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Doil; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-06-23

    Interactivity between humans and smart systems, including wearable, body-attachable, or implantable platforms, can be enhanced by realization of multifunctional human-machine interfaces, where a variety of sensors collect information about the surrounding environment, intentions, or physiological conditions of the human to which they are attached. Here, we describe a stretchable, transparent, ultrasensitive, and patchable strain sensor that is made of a novel sandwich-like stacked piezoresisitive nanohybrid film of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and a conductive elastomeric composite of polyurethane (PU)-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate ( PSS). This sensor, which can detect small strains on human skin, was created using environmentally benign water-based solution processing. We attributed the tunability of strain sensitivity (i.e., gauge factor), stability, and optical transparency to enhanced formation of percolating networks between conductive SWCNTs and PEDOT phases at interfaces in the stacked PU-PEDOT:PSS/SWCNT/PU-PEDOT:PSS structure. The mechanical stability, high stretchability of up to 100%, optical transparency of 62%, and gauge factor of 62 suggested that when attached to the skin of the face, this sensor would be able to detect small strains induced by emotional expressions such as laughing and crying, as well as eye movement, and we confirmed this experimentally.

  16. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Dosen, Strahinja; Amsuess, Sebastian; Yu, Wenwei; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI) cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns) and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources). In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate), decoding (one signal to recognize), and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair), or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces) in order to improve the usability of existing low-bandwidth HMIs.

  17. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Dosen, Strahinja; Amsuess, Sebastian; Yu, Wenwei; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI) cannot easily accommodate the system’s complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns) and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources). In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate), decoding (one signal to recognize), and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair), or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces) in order to improve the usability of existing low-bandwidth HMIs. PMID

  18. An assisted navigation training framework based on judgment theory using sparse and discrete human-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana C; Nunes, Urbano

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present a new framework to train people with severe motor disabilities steering an assisted mobile robot (AMR), such as a powered wheelchair. Users with high level of motor disabilities are not able to use standard HMIs, which provide a continuous command signal (e. g. standard joystick). For this reason HMIs providing a small set of simple commands, which are sparse and discrete in time must be used (e. g. scanning interface, or brain computer interface), making very difficult to steer the AMR. In this sense, the assisted navigation training framework (ANTF) is designed to train users driving the AMR, in indoor structured environments, using this type of HMIs. Additionally it provides user characterization on steering the robot, which will later be used to adapt the AMR navigation system to human competence steering the AMR. A rule-based lens (RBL) model is used to characterize users on driving the AMR. Individual judgment performance choosing the best manoeuvres is modeled using a genetic-based policy capturing (GBPC) technique characterized to infer non-compensatory judgment strategies from human decision data. Three user models, at three different learning stages, using the RBL paradigm, are presented.

  19. U.S. Department Of Energy Advanced Small Modular Reactor R&D Program: Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although the recent progress in constructing new plants has spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, development of advanced reactor concepts, such as Generation IV designs and small modular reactors, introduces different plant conditions (e.g., higher temperatures, different coolants, etc.) and unique plant configurations (e.g., multiunit plants with shared systems, balance of plant architectures with reconfigurable co-generation options) that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve industry goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of modern ICHMI technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, several DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements within their respective research portfolios. This paper describes current

  20. Instrumentation and control and human machine interface science and technology road-map in support of advanced reactors and fuel programs in the U.S

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. W.; Arndt, S. A.; Bond, L. J.; Dudenhoeffer, D.; Hallbert, B.; Holcomb, D. E.; Wood, R. T.; Naser, J. A.; O'Hara, J.; Quinn, E. L.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface (ICHMI) Science and Technology road-map being developed to address the major challenges in this technical area for the Gen IV and other U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) initiatives that support future deployments of nuclear energy systems. Reliable, capable ICHMI systems will be necessary for the advanced nuclear plants to be economically competitive. ICHMI enables measurement, control, protection, monitoring, and maintenance for processes and components. Through improvements in the technologies and demonstration of their use to facilitate licensing, ICHMI can contribute to the reduction of plant operations and maintenance costs while helping to ensure high plant availability. The impact of ICHMI can be achieved through effective use of the technologies to improve operational efficiency and optimize use of human resources. However, current licensing experience with digital I and C systems has provided lessons learned concerning the difficulties that can be encountered when introducing advanced technologies with expanded capabilities. Thus, in the development of advanced nuclear power designs, it will be important to address both the technical foundations of ICHMI systems as well as their licensing considerations. The ICHMI road-map will identify the necessary research, development and demonstration activities that are essential to facilitate necessary technology advancement and resolve outstanding issues. (authors)

  1. A Human-machine-interface Integrating Low-cost Sensors with a Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation System for Post-stroke Balance Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepesh; Das, Abhijit; Lahiri, Uttama; Dutta, Anirban

    2016-04-12

    A stroke is caused when an artery carrying blood from heart to an area in the brain bursts or a clot obstructs the blood flow to brain thereby preventing delivery of oxygen and nutrients. About half of the stroke survivors are left with some degree of disability. Innovative methodologies for restorative neurorehabilitation are urgently required to reduce long-term disability. The ability of the nervous system to reorganize its structure, function and connections as a response to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli is called neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity is involved in post-stroke functional disturbances, but also in rehabilitation. Beneficial neuroplastic changes may be facilitated with non-invasive electrotherapy, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and sensory electrical stimulation (SES). NMES involves coordinated electrical stimulation of motor nerves and muscles to activate them with continuous short pulses of electrical current while SES involves stimulation of sensory nerves with electrical current resulting in sensations that vary from barely perceivable to highly unpleasant. Here, active cortical participation in rehabilitation procedures may be facilitated by driving the non-invasive electrotherapy with biosignals (electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG)) that represent simultaneous active perception and volitional effort. To achieve this in a resource-poor setting, e.g., in low- and middle-income countries, we present a low-cost human-machine-interface (HMI) by leveraging recent advances in off-the-shelf video game sensor technology. In this paper, we discuss the open-source software interface that integrates low-cost off-the-shelf sensors for visual-auditory biofeedback with non-invasive electrotherapy to assist postural control during balance rehabilitation. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept on healthy volunteers.

  2. Biosleeve Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assad, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing human muscle action and gestures in order to control machines or robotic devices are disclosed. One exemplary system employs a tight fitting sleeve worn on a user arm and including a plurality of electromyography (EMG) sensors and at least one inertial measurement unit (IMU). Power, signal processing, and communications electronics may be built into the sleeve and control data may be transmitted wirelessly to the controlled machine or robotic device.

  3. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  4. From human-machine interaction to human-machine cooperation.

    PubMed

    Hoc, J M

    2000-07-01

    Since the 1960s, the rapid growth of information systems has led to the wide development of research on human-computer interaction (HCI) that aims at the designing of human-computer interfaces presenting ergonomic properties, such as friendliness, usability, transparency, etc. Various work situations have been covered--clerical work, computer programming, design, etc. However, they were mainly static in the sense that the user fully controls the computer. More recently, public and private organizations have engaged themselves in the enterprise of managing more and more complex and coupled systems by the means of automation. Modern machines not only process information, but also act on dynamic situations as humans have done in the past, managing stock exchange, industrial plants, aircraft, etc. These dynamic situations are not fully controlled and are affected by uncertain factors. Hence, degrees of freedom must be maintained to allow the humans and the machine to adapt to unforeseen contingencies. A human-machine cooperation (HMC) approach is necessary to address the new stakes introduced by this trend. This paper describes the possible improvement of HCI by HMC, the need for a new conception of function allocation between humans and machines, and the main problems encountered within the new forms of human-machine relationship. It proposes a conceptual framework to study HMC from a cognitive point of view in highly dynamic situations like aircraft piloting or air-traffic control, and concludes on the design of 'cooperative' machines.

  5. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  6. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  7. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  8. Human-Machine Interfaces in Industrial Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    General Motors Fanuc (GMF), International Business Machines (IBM), Schrader Bellows Division of Parker Hannifin, Toshiba, and Unimation/Westinghouse. The...servicing, and electronics in modules that swing out for easy servicing. 6. GMF (GENERAL MOTORS FANUC ) ROBOTICS CORPORATION TEACH PENDANT (see Figure 12...it found to be difficult to handle, but a complete revision seemed required. Fanuc (the Japanese partner in GMF with the General Motors Corporation

  9. Infrared stereo camera for human machine interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Improved situational awareness results not only from improved performance of imaging hardware, but also when the operator and human factors are considered. Situational awareness for IR imaging systems frequently depends on the contrast available. A significant improvement in effective contrast for the operator can result when depth perception is added to the display of IR scenes. Depth perception through flat panel 3D displays are now possible due to the number of 3D displays entering the consumer market. Such displays require appropriate and human friendly stereo IR video input in order to be effective in the dynamic military environment. We report on a stereo IR camera that has been developed for integration on to an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). The camera has auto-convergence capability that significantly reduces ill effects due to image doubling, minimizes focus-convergence mismatch, and eliminates the need for the operator to manually adjust camera properties. Discussion of the size, weight, and power requirements as well as integration onto the robot platform will be given along with description of the stand alone operation.

  10. The Evaluation of Interface Design on CDROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer; Slack, Frances

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the design and evaluation of user interfaces on CD-ROM. Defines interfaces, dialogs and interaction and explores diversity in, and issues associated with, standardization in interface design for CD-ROMs. Reviews current criteria and guidelines for the evaluation of CD-ROM interfaces and proposes alternative guidelines.…

  11. Designing dynamic distributed cooperative Human-Machine Systems.

    PubMed

    Lüdtke, A; Javaux, D; Tango, F; Heers, R; Bengler, K; Ronfle-Nadaud, C

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach to the development of cooperative human-machine systems in the Transportation domain which is currently researched in the European project D3CoS. A necessary precondition for the acceptance of cooperative human-machine systems with shared control is the confidence and trust of the user into the system. D3CoS tackles this important issue by addressing the cooperative system as the object and the target of the system development process. This new perspective, along with corresponding innovative methods, techniques and tools, shall allow the identification of optimal task and authority sharing approaches supported by intuitive human-machine interaction and user interfaces at an early stage of system development. This will support powerful teamwork between humans and machines or between machines and machines that is transparent, intuitive and easy to understand. The paper describes the research dimensions for the development of the methods, techniques and tools as well as first results.

  12. Improving air traffic control: Proving new tools or approving the joint human-machine system?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaillard, Irene; Leroux, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    From the description of a field problem (i.e., designing decision aids for air traffic controllers), this paper points out how a cognitive engineering approach provides the milestones for the evaluation of future joint human-machine systems.

  13. Knowledge-based load leveling and task allocation in human-machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chignell, M. H.; Hancock, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional human-machine systems use task allocation policies which are based on the premise of a flexible human operator. This individual is most often required to compensate for and augment the capabilities of the machine. The development of artificial intelligence and improved technologies have allowed for a wider range of task allocation strategies. In response to these issues a Knowledge Based Adaptive Mechanism (KBAM) is proposed for assigning tasks to human and machine in real time, using a load leveling policy. This mechanism employs an online workload assessment and compensation system which is responsive to variations in load through an intelligent interface. This interface consists of a loading strategy reasoner which has access to information about the current status of the human-machine system as well as a database of admissible human/machine loading strategies. Difficulties standing in the way of successful implementation of the load leveling strategy are examined.

  14. Five Papers on Human-Machine Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Donald A.

    Different aspects of human-machine interaction are discussed in the five brief papers that comprise this report. The first paper, "Some Observations on Mental Models," discusses the role of a person's mental model in the interaction with systems. The second paper, "A Psychologist Views Human Processing: Human Errors and Other…

  15. Visual human+machine learning.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Raphael; Waser, Jürgen; Gröller, Meister Eduard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel method to integrate interactive visual analysis and machine learning to support the insight generation of the user. The suggested approach combines the vast search and processing power of the computer with the superior reasoning and pattern recognition capabilities of the human user. An evolutionary search algorithm has been adapted to assist in the fuzzy logic formalization of hypotheses that aim at explaining features inside multivariate, volumetric data. Up to now, users solely rely on their knowledge and expertise when looking for explanatory theories. However, it often remains unclear whether the selected attribute ranges represent the real explanation for the feature of interest. Other selections hidden in the large number of data variables could potentially lead to similar features. Moreover, as simulation complexity grows, users are confronted with huge multidimensional data sets making it almost impossible to find meaningful hypotheses at all. We propose an interactive cycle of knowledge-based analysis and automatic hypothesis generation. Starting from initial hypotheses, created with linking and brushing, the user steers a heuristic search algorithm to look for alternative or related hypotheses. The results are analyzed in information visualization views that are linked to the volume rendering. Individual properties as well as global aggregates are visually presented to provide insight into the most relevant aspects of the generated hypotheses. This novel approach becomes computationally feasible due to a GPU implementation of the time-critical parts in the algorithm. A thorough evaluation of search times and noise sensitivity as well as a case study on data from the automotive domain substantiate the usefulness of the suggested approach.

  16. 1988 workshop on human-machine symbiotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the 1988 Workshop on Human-Machine Symbiotic Systems. Held December 5-6, 1988 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the workshop served as a forum for the discussion of several critical issues in human-machine symbiosis: human-machine communication, autonomous task planning and execution monitoring for heterogeneous agents, dynamic task allocation, human-machine system architecture, and machine learning via experience and human observation.

  17. Optimal design method to minimize users' thinking mapping load in human-machine interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanqun; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between human cognition and machine requirements/behaviors usually results in serious mental thinking mapping loads or even disasters in product operating. It is important to help people avoid human-machine interaction confusions and difficulties in today's mental work mastered society. Improving the usability of a product and minimizing user's thinking mapping and interpreting load in human-machine interactions. An optimal human-machine interface design method is introduced, which is based on the purpose of minimizing the mental load in thinking mapping process between users' intentions and affordance of product interface states. By analyzing the users' thinking mapping problem, an operating action model is constructed. According to human natural instincts and acquired knowledge, an expected ideal design with minimized thinking loads is uniquely determined at first. Then, creative alternatives, in terms of the way human obtains operational information, are provided as digital interface states datasets. In the last, using the cluster analysis method, an optimum solution is picked out from alternatives, by calculating the distances between two datasets. Considering multiple factors to minimize users' thinking mapping loads, a solution nearest to the ideal value is found in the human-car interaction design case. The clustering results show its effectiveness in finding an optimum solution to the mental load minimizing problems in human-machine interaction design.

  18. "Do That Again": Evaluating Spoken Dialogue Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Frankie; Rayner, Manny; Hockey, Beth Ann

    2000-01-01

    We present a new technique for evaluating spoken dialogue interfaces that allows us to separate the dialogue behavior from the rest of the speech system. By using a dialogue simulator that we have developed, we can gather usability data on the system s dialogue interaction and behaviors that can guide improvements to the speech interface. Preliminary testing has shown promising results, suggesting that it is possible to test properties of dialogue separately from other factors such as recognition quality.

  19. "Do That Again": Evaluating Spoken Dialogue Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Frankie; Rayner, Manny; Hockey, Beth Ann

    2000-01-01

    We present a new technique for evaluating spoken dialogue interfaces that allows us to separate the dialogue behavior from the rest of the speech system. By using a dialogue simulator that we have developed, we can gather usability data on the system s dialogue interaction and behaviors that can guide improvements to the speech interface. Preliminary testing has shown promising results, suggesting that it is possible to test properties of dialogue separately from other factors such as recognition quality.

  20. Five Papers on Human-Machine Interaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    AD-AI6 031 CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN DIEGO LA JOLLA CENTER FOR HUMAN -- ETC FIG 5/ B FIVE PAPERS ON HUMAN-MACHINE INTERACTION.(U) MAY 82 0 A NORMAN N0001...model in order - -et the_ necessary results. Mental models will be constrained by such things as the user’s technical background, previous experiences ...especially apt to be the case when a person has experience with a number of different systems, all very similar, but each with some slightly different set of

  1. Interface Evaluation for Open System Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Weight Value Hierarchy ...................................................................................70 Global Weights...69 Figure 19: Interface Evaluation Framework Value Hierarchy Including Global Weights 73 Figure 20...strategy (e.g., the extent of market acceptance and availability of products that comply with a selected standard)” (OSJTF, 2004, p. 16) 4

  2. Deployment of human-machine dialogue systems.

    PubMed Central

    Roe, D B

    1995-01-01

    The deployment of systems for human-to-machine communication by voice requires overcoming a variety of obstacles that affect the speech-processing technologies. Problems encountered in the field might include variation in speaking style, acoustic noise, ambiguity of language, or confusion on the part of the speaker. The diversity of these practical problems encountered in the "real world" leads to the perceived gap between laboratory and "real-world" performance. To answer the question "What applications can speech technology support today?" the concept of the "degree of difficulty" of an application is introduced. The degree of difficulty depends not only on the demands placed on the speech recognition and speech synthesis technologies but also on the expectations of the user of the system. Experience has shown that deployment of effective speech communication systems requires an iterative process. This paper discusses general deployment principles, which are illustrated by several examples of human-machine communication systems. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7479719

  3. A Study on Structured Simulation Framework for Design and Evaluation of Human-Machine Interface System -Application for On-line Risk Monitoring for PWR Nuclear Power Plant-

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, J.; Yang, M.; Li, S.C.; Peng, M.J.; Yan, S.Y.; Zhang, Z.J.

    2006-07-01

    The operators in the main control room of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) need to monitor plant condition through operation panels and understand the system problems by their experiences and skills. It is a very hard work because even a single fault will cause a large number of plant parameters abnormal and operators are required to perform trouble-shooting actions in a short time interval. It will bring potential risks if operators misunderstand the system problems or make a commission error to manipulate an irrelevant switch with their current operation. This study aims at developing an on-line risk monitoring technique based on Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) for monitoring and predicting potential risks in current plant condition by calculating plant reliability. The proposed technique can be also used for navigating operators by estimating the influence of their operations on plant condition before they take an action that will be necessary in plant operation, and therefore, can reduce human errors. This paper describes the risk monitoring technique and illustrates its application by a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) accident in a 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Marine Nuclear Power Plant (MNPP). (authors)

  4. Interface evaluation for soft robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kristin S.; Rodes, William M.; Csencsits, Matthew A.; Kwoka, Martha J.; Gomer, Joshua A.; Pagano, Christopher C.

    2006-05-01

    The results of two usability experiments evaluating an interface for the operation of OctArm, a biologically inspired robotic arm modeled after an octopus tentacle, are reported. Due to the many degrees-of-freedom (DOF) for the operator to control, such 'continuum' robotic limbs provide unique challenges for human operators because they do not map intuitively. Two modes have been developed to control the arm and reduce the DOF under the explicit direction of the operator. In coupled velocity (CV) mode, a joystick controls changes in arm curvature. In end-effector (EE) mode, a joystick controls the arm by moving the position of an endpoint along a straight line. In Experiment 1, participants used the two modes to grasp objects placed at different locations in a virtual reality modeling language (VRML). Objective measures of performance and subjective preferences were recorded. Results revealed lower grasp times and a subjective preference for the CV mode. Recommendations for improving the interface included providing additional feedback and implementation of an error recovery function. In Experiment 2, only the CV mode was tested with improved training of participants and several changes to the interface. The error recovery function was implemented, allowing participants to reverse through previously attained positions. The mean time to complete the trials in the second usability test was reduced by more than 4 minutes compared with the first usability test, confirming the interface changes improved performance. The results of these tests will be incorporated into future versions of the arm and improve future usability tests.

  5. Physiological cognitive state assessment: applications for designing effective human-machine systems.

    PubMed

    Estepp, Justin R; Christensen, James C

    2011-01-01

    Significant growth in the field of neuroscience has occurred over the last decade such that new application areas for basic research techniques are opening up to practitioners in many other areas. Of particular interest to many is the principle of neuroergonomics, by which the traditional work in neuroscience and its related topics can be applied to non-traditional areas such as human-machine system design. While work in neuroergonomics certainly predates the use of the term in the literature (previously identified by others as applied neuroscience, operational neuroscience, etc.), there is great promise in the larger framework that is represented by the general context of the terminology. Here, we focus on the very specific concept that principles in brain-computer interfaces, neural prosthetics and the larger realm of machine learning using physiological inputs can be applied directly to the design and implementation of augmented human-machine systems. Indeed, work in this area has been ongoing for more than 25 years with very little cross-talk and collaboration between clinical and applied researchers. We propose that, given increased interest in augmented human-machine systems based on cognitive state, further progress will require research in the same vein as that being done in the aforementioned communities, and that all researchers with a vested interest in physiologically-based machine learning techniques can benefit from increased collaboration. We thereby seek to describe the current state of cognitive state assessment in human-machine systems, the problems and challenges faced, and the tightly-coupled relationship with other research areas. This supports the larger work of the Cognitive State Assessment 2011 Competition by setting the stage for the purpose of the session by showing the need to increase research in the machine learning techniques used by practitioners of augmented human-machine system design.

  6. Design of the Eurofighter human-machine interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Chris J.

    1998-09-01

    Every new generation of fighter aircraft presents new challenges for the various design disciplines that are involved in their development; the current generation of fighters -- Eurofighter, Rafale, and F22 -- are no different in this respect. We look to using new structural materials advanced flight control systems, and even better and more comprehensive sensors to extend the system's overall performance and capability. This paper looks at the area of cockpit design -- the 'how do we keep the pilot in real control of his tasks' part of the total package of the aircraft and weapons system design. I will look at the design requirements for the cockpit, and discuss some potential solutions to the inevitable resulting design problems.

  7. Modifications to Optimize the AH-1Z Human Machine Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-18

    communicate, navigate, process and present data, manage crew station systems, detect and counter threats, acquire and track targets , employ guided and...maintain situational awareness during targeting , aid the non-flying pilot in target or object detection , recognition, and identification, and...Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) Commander with a capable attack helicopter to utilize in the joint warfighting environment. Increasing its capability

  8. Human machine interface by using stereo-based depth extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chao-Kang; Wu, Chi-Hao; Lin, Hsueh-Yi; Chang, Ting-Ting; Lin, Tung-Yang; Huang, Po-Kuan

    2014-03-01

    The ongoing success of three-dimensional (3D) cinema fuels increasing efforts to spread the commercial success of 3D to new markets. The possibilities of a convincing 3D experience at home, such as three-dimensional television (3DTV), has generated a great deal of interest within the research and standardization community. A central issue for 3DTV is the creation and representation of 3D content. Acquiring scene depth information is a fundamental task in computer vision, yet complex and error-prone. Dedicated range sensors, such as the Time­ of-Flight camera (ToF), can simplify the scene depth capture process and overcome shortcomings of traditional solutions, such as active or passive stereo analysis. Admittedly, currently available ToF sensors deliver only a limited spatial resolution. However, sophisticated depth upscaling approaches use texture information to match depth and video resolution. At Electronic Imaging 2012 we proposed an upscaling routine based on error energy minimization, weighted with edge information from an accompanying video source. In this article we develop our algorithm further. By adding temporal consistency constraints to the upscaling process, we reduce disturbing depth jumps and flickering artifacts in the final 3DTV content. Temporal consistency in depth maps enhances the 3D experience, leading to a wider acceptance of 3D media content. More content in better quality can boost the commercial success of 3DTV.

  9. Advanced human-machine interface for collaborative building control

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xianjun S.; Song, Zhen; Chen, Yanzi; Zhang, Shaopeng; Lu, Yan

    2015-08-11

    A system for collaborative energy management and control in a building, including an energy management controller, one or more occupant HMIs that supports two-way communication between building occupants and a facility manager, and between building occupants and the energy management controller, and a facility manager HMI that supports two-way communication between the facility manager and the building occupants, and between the facility manager and the energy management controller, in which the occupant HMI allows building occupants to provide temperature preferences to the facility manager and the energy management controller, and the facility manager HMI allows the facility manager to configure an energy policy for the building as a set of rules and to view occupants' aggregated temperature preferences, and the energy management controller determines an optimum temperature range that resolves conflicting occupant temperature preferences and occupant temperature preferences that conflict with the facility manager's energy policy for the building.

  10. A human-machine interface for multireactor operation

    SciTech Connect

    Zizzo, D.; Dayal, Y.; Carroll, D. ); Hashimoto, S.; Ishida, T. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes interim results of an ongoing joint effort between G.E. Nuclear Energy and Hitachi, Ltd., to develop functional, performance, and anthropometric requirements for a unique nuclear reactor operating console that facilitates operation of three reactors and a steam turbine by a single licensed reactor operator. The human factors engineering (HFE) challenges associated with the operator console are discussed, a conceptual [open quotes]visualization[close quotes] of the console and control room is presented, and operator support concepts (e.g., alarm handling) are briefly described. The Advanced Reactor Programs group with G.E. Nuclear Energy is designing a modular, pool-type, sodium-cooled reactor with unique safety characteristics whereby no mitigative operator action is required in order to meet the plant's safety limits (radiation release criteria). A full-sized, 1440-MW(electric) plant includes nine such reactors configured as three physically separate, independently operated power blocks. One power block consists of three reactors, each with their individual steam generators headered to jointly deliver superheated steam to a turbine generator. All power blocks are operated from one control room. Furthermore, due to greatly reduced reliance on manual safety actions by the operator, control systems are automated to the extent that one power block is operated by one licensed reactor operator. The control room houses three operator consoles (one per power block) and a supervisor's workstation. This is the primary equipment used by the normal control room shift staffing of three licensed reactor operators, a shift supervisor, and an assistant shift supervisor. The operator and the automated control systems will, in principle, perform together as a single entity. However, one operator operating more than one nuclear reactor has no precedent.

  11. Kinematic design to improve ergonomics in human machine interaction.

    PubMed

    Schiele, André; van der Helm, Frans C T

    2006-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel kinematic design paradigm for ergonomic human machine interaction. Goals for optimal design are formulated generically and applied to the mechanical design of an upper-arm exoskeleton. A nine degree-of-freedom (DOF) model of the human arm kinematics is presented and used to develop, test, and optimize the kinematic structure of an human arm interfacing exoskeleton. The resulting device can interact with an unprecedented portion of the natural limb workspace, including motions in the shoulder-girdle, shoulder, elbow, and the wrist. The exoskeleton does not require alignment to the human joint axes, yet is able to actuate each DOF of our redundant limb unambiguously and without reaching into singularities. The device is comfortable to wear and does not create residual forces if misalignments exist. Implemented in a rehabilitation robot, the design features of the exoskeleton could enable longer lasting training sessions, training of fully natural tasks such as activities of daily living and shorter dress-on and dress-off times. Results from inter-subject experiments with a prototype are presented, that verify usability over the entire workspace of the human arm, including shoulder and shoulder girdle.

  12. Scientific bases of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, R W

    1995-01-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines. PMID:7479802

  13. Scientific Bases of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Ronald W.

    1995-10-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines.

  14. Imagistic evaluation of matrix bone interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NegruÅ£iu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Manescu, Adrian; Topalǎ, Florin I.; Hoinoiu, Bogdan; MǎrcǎuÅ£eanu, Corina; Duma, Virgil; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The problematic elements of bone regenerative materials are represented by their quality control methods. The defects repaired by bone grafting material were evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography and by synchrotron radiation micro-CT. The images obtained by efOCT show defects in some of the investigated samples, at the bone interface with different osteoconductive bone substitutes and we were able to detect gaps as small as 50 μm. After the common synchrotron radiation micro-CT investigations, the slides were reconstructed and the 3D model was obtained. Along with the possibility of navigating inside the structure, one big advantage of this technique was pointed out: the remaining regenerative materials can be separated from the normal bone and the new bone can be visualized. Optical coherence tomography can be performed in vivo and can provide a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the bone augmentation procedure.

  15. CDROM User Interface Evaluation: The Appropriateness of GUIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Victoria Manglano; Hancock-Beaulieu, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    Assesses the appropriateness of GUIs (graphical user interfaces), more specifically Windows-based interfaces for CD-ROM. An evaluation model is described that was developed to carry out an expert evaluation of the interfaces of seven CD-ROM products. Results are discussed in light of HCI (human-computer interaction) usability criteria and design…

  16. CDROM User Interface Evaluation: The Appropriateness of GUIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Victoria Manglano; Hancock-Beaulieu, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    Assesses the appropriateness of GUIs (graphical user interfaces), more specifically Windows-based interfaces for CD-ROM. An evaluation model is described that was developed to carry out an expert evaluation of the interfaces of seven CD-ROM products. Results are discussed in light of HCI (human-computer interaction) usability criteria and design…

  17. Evaluation of navigation interfaces in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre, Daniel R.

    2014-02-01

    When users are immersed in cave-like virtual reality systems, navigational interfaces have to be used when the size of the virtual environment becomes larger than the physical extent of the cave floor. However, using navigation interfaces, physically static users experience self-motion (visually-induced vection). As a consequence, sensorial incoherence between vision (indicating self-motion) and other proprioceptive inputs (indicating immobility) can make them feel dizzy and disoriented. We tested, in two experimental studies, different locomotion interfaces. The objective was twofold: testing spatial learning and cybersickness. In a first experiment, using first-person navigation with a flystick ®, we tested the effect of sensorial aids, a spatialized sound or guiding arrows on the ground, attracting the user toward the goal of the navigation task. Results revealed that sensorial aids tended to impact negatively spatial learning. Moreover, subjects reported significant levels of cybersickness. In a second experiment, we tested whether such negative effects could be due to poorly controlled rotational motion during simulated self-motion. Subjects used a gamepad, in which rotational and translational displacements were independently controlled by two joysticks. Furthermore, we tested first- versus third-person navigation. No significant difference was observed between these two conditions. Overall, cybersickness tended to be lower, as compared to experiment 1, but the difference was not significant. Future research should evaluate further the hypothesis of the role of passively perceived optical flow in cybersickness, but manipulating the virtual environment'sperrot structure. It also seems that video-gaming experience might be involved in the user's sensitivity to cybersickness.

  18. Drusen Analysis in a Human-Machine Synergistic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. Theodore; Sohrab, Mahsa A.; Pumariega, Nicole M.; Mathur, Kanika; Haans, Raymond; Blonska, Anna; Uy, Karl; Despriet, Dominiek; Klaver, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate how human-machine intelligence can be integrated for efficient image analysis of drusen in age-related macular degeneration and to validate the method in 2 large, independently graded, population-based data sets. Methods We studied 358 manually graded color slides from the Netherlands Genetic Isolate Study. All slides were digitized and analyzed with a user-interactive drusen detection algorithm for the presence and quantity of small, intermediate, and large drusen. A graphic user interface was used to preprocess the images, choose a region of interest, select appropriate corrective filters for images with photographic artifacts or prominent choroidal pattern, and perform drusen segmentation. Weighted κ statistics were used to analyze the initial concordance between human graders and the drusen detection algorithm; discordant grades from 177 left-eye slides were subjected to exhaustive analysis of causes of disagreement and adjudication. To validate our method further, we analyzed a second data set from our Columbia Macular Genetics Study. Results The graphical user interface decreased the time required to process images in commercial software by 60.0%. After eliminating borderline size disagreements and applying corrective filters for photographic artifacts and choroidal pattern, the weighted κ values were 0.61, 0.62, and 0.76 for small, intermediate, and large drusen, respectively. Our second data set demonstrated a similarly high concordance. Conclusions Drusen identification performed by our user-interactive method presented fair to good agreement with human graders after filters for common sources of error were applied. This approach exploits a synergistic relationship between the intelligent user and machine computational power, enabling fast and accurate quantitative retinal image analysis. PMID:21220627

  19. 1988 workshop on human-machine symbiotic systems proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the 1988 Workshop on Human-Machine Symbiotic Systems. Held December 5--6, 1988, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the workshop served as a forum for the discussion of several critical issues in human-machine symbiosis: human-machine communication, autonomous task planning and execution monitoring for heterogeneous agents, dynamic task allocation, human-machine system architecture, and machine learning via experience and human observation. The presentation of overview papers by invited keynote speakers provided a background for the breakout session discussions in these five areas. The full powers furnished by the speakers are included in the proceedings, along with written summaries of the group discussions that report session conclusions and recommendations for future work.

  20. Evaluation of a graphic interface to control a robotic grasping arm: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Isabelle; Biard, Nicolas; Chalubert, Gérard; Delahoche, Laurent; Marhic, Bruno; Boyer, François C; Leroux, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    Laffont I, Biard N, Chalubert G, Delahoche L, Marhic B, Boyer FC, Leroux C. Evaluation of a graphic interface to control a robotic grasping arm: a multicenter study. Grasping robots are still difficult to use for persons with disabilities because of inadequate human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of a graphic interface enhanced by a panoramic camera to detect out-of-view objects and control a commercialized robotic grasping arm. Multicenter, open-label trial. Four French departments of physical and rehabilitation medicine. Control subjects (N=24; mean age, 33y) and 20 severely impaired patients (mean age, 44y; 5 with muscular dystrophies, 13 with traumatic tetraplegia, and 2 others) completed the study. None of these patients was able to grasp a 50-cL bottle without the robot. Participants were asked to grasp 6 objects scattered around their wheelchair using the robotic arm. They were able to select the desired object through the graphic interface available on their computer screen. Global success rate, time needed to select the object on the screen of the computer, number of clicks on the HMI, and satisfaction among users. We found a significantly lower success rate in patients (81.1% vs 88.7%; chi(2)P=.017). The duration of the task was significantly higher in patients (71.6s vs 39.1s; P<.001). We set a cut-off for the maximum duration at 79 seconds, representing twice the amount of time needed by the control subjects to complete the task. In these conditions, the success rate for the impaired participants was 65% versus 85.4% for control subjects. The mean number of clicks necessary to select the object with the HMI was very close in both groups: patients used (mean +/- SD) 7.99+/-6.07 clicks, whereas controls used 7.04+/-2.87 clicks. Considering the severity of patients' impairment, all these differences were considered tiny. Furthermore, a high satisfaction rate was reported for this population concerning the use of the

  1. Supporting operator problem solving through ecological interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Vicente, K.J.; Christoffersen, K.; Pereklita, A.

    1995-04-01

    Two experiments are described evaluating ecological interface design (EID), a novel theoretical framework for the design of interfaces for complex human-machine systems. The findings of experiment one are consistent with the claim that an interface based on an abstraction hierarchy representation can provide more support for problem solving than an interface based on physical variable alone, thereby providing some initial support for the EID framework. The findings of experiment two indicate that subjects that exhibited effective diagnosis performance using the P + F interface tended to start their search at a high level of abstraction and gradually work their way down to more detailed levels, as predicted. 28 refs.

  2. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  3. Cooperative human-machine fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Palmer, Everett

    1987-01-01

    Current expert system technology does not permit complete automatic fault diagnosis; significant levels of human intervention are still required. This requirement dictates a need for a division of labor that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of both human and machine diagnostic skills. Relevant findings from the literature on human cognition are combined with the results of reviews of aircrew performance with highly automated systems to suggest how the interface of a fault diagnostic expert system can be designed to assist human operators in verifying machine diagnoses and guiding interactive fault diagnosis. It is argued that the needs of the human operator should play an important role in the design of the knowledge base.

  4. Cooperative human-machine fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Palmer, Everett

    1987-01-01

    Current expert system technology does not permit complete automatic fault diagnosis; significant levels of human intervention are still required. This requirement dictates a need for a division of labor that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of both human and machine diagnostic skills. Relevant findings from the literature on human cognition are combined with the results of reviews of aircrew performance with highly automated systems to suggest how the interface of a fault diagnostic expert system can be designed to assist human operators in verifying machine diagnoses and guiding interactive fault diagnosis. It is argued that the needs of the human operator should play an important role in the design of the knowledge base.

  5. Cooperative Human-Machine Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Roger; Palmer, Everett

    1987-02-01

    Current expert system technology does not permit complete automatic fault diagnosis; significant levels of human intervention are still required. This requirement dictates a need for a division of labor that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of both human and machine diagnostic skills. Relevant findings from the literature on human cognition are combined with the results of reviews of aircrew performance with highly automated systems to suggest how the interface of a fault diagnostic expert system can be designed to assist human operators in verifying machine diagnoses and guiding interactive fault diagnosis. It is argued that the needs of the human operator should play an important role in the design of the knowledge base.

  6. A system for medical consultation and education using multimodal human/machine communication.

    PubMed

    Akay, M; Marsic, I; Medl, A; Bu, G

    1998-12-01

    Recent developments in networking and computing have enabled collaborative biomedical engineering research by geographically separated participants. One of the most promising goals is to use these technologies to extend human intellectual capabilities in medical decision making. These emerging technologies are poised to drastically reduce healthcare cost by providing service at remote locations. This also increases diagnosis capacity since information is made available to experts at any location. In this paper, we propose a novel application of a recently developed interactive and distributed system in medical consultation and education. Our approach builds on the notion that interactive and distributive capabilities of the system are crucial for medical consultation and education. The presented application uses a multiuser, collaborative environment with multimodal human/machine communication in the dimensions of sight, sound, and touch. The experimental setup, consisting of two user stations, and the multimodal interfaces, including sight (eye-tracking), sound (automatic speech), and touch (microbeam pen), were tested and evaluated. The system uses a collaborative workspace as a common visualization space. Users communicate with the application through a fusion agent by eye-tracking, speech, and microbeam pen. The audio/video teleconferencing is also included to help the radiologists to communicate with each other simultaneously while they are working on the mammograms. The system used in this study has three software agents: a fusion agent, a conversational agent, and an analytic agent. The fusion agent interprets multimodal commands by integrating the multimodal inputs. The conversational agent answers the user's questions and detects human-related or semantic errors and notifies the user about the results of the image analysis. The analytic agent enhances the digitized images using the wavelet denoising algorithm if requested by the user. To show how well the

  7. Context in Models of Human-Machine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    All human-machine systems models represent context. This paper proposes a theory of context through which models may be usefully related and integrated for design. The paper presents examples of context representation in various models, describes an application to developing models for the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS), and advances context as a foundation for integrated design of complex dynamic systems.

  8. A User-Centred Design and Evaluation of IR Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, S. M. Zabed; McKnight, Cliff; Oppenheim, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a user-centred design and evaluation methodology for ensuring the usability of IR interfaces. The methodology is based on sequentially performing: a competitive analysis, user task analysis, heuristic evaluation, formative evaluation and a summative comparative evaluation. These techniques are described, and their application…

  9. A User-Centred Design and Evaluation of IR Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, S. M. Zabed; McKnight, Cliff; Oppenheim, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a user-centred design and evaluation methodology for ensuring the usability of IR interfaces. The methodology is based on sequentially performing: a competitive analysis, user task analysis, heuristic evaluation, formative evaluation and a summative comparative evaluation. These techniques are described, and their application…

  10. Computer-Based Tools for Evaluating Graphical User Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Loretta A.

    1997-01-01

    The user interface is the component of a software system that connects two very complex system: humans and computers. Each of these two systems impose certain requirements on the final product. The user is the judge of the usability and utility of the system; the computer software and hardware are the tools with which the interface is constructed. Mistakes are sometimes made in designing and developing user interfaces because the designers and developers have limited knowledge about human performance (e.g., problem solving, decision making, planning, and reasoning). Even those trained in user interface design make mistakes because they are unable to address all of the known requirements and constraints on design. Evaluation of the user inter-face is therefore a critical phase of the user interface development process. Evaluation should not be considered the final phase of design; but it should be part of an iterative design cycle with the output of evaluation being feed back into design. The goal of this research was to develop a set of computer-based tools for objectively evaluating graphical user interfaces. The research was organized into three phases. The first phase resulted in the development of an embedded evaluation tool which evaluates the usability of a graphical user interface based on a user's performance. An expert system to assist in the design and evaluation of user interfaces based upon rules and guidelines was developed during the second phase. During the final phase of the research an automatic layout tool to be used in the initial design of graphical inter- faces was developed. The research was coordinated with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Mission Operations Laboratory's efforts in developing onboard payload display specifications for the Space Station.

  11. Evaluation of wearable simulation interface for military training.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Grant S; Barnett, John S

    2013-06-01

    This research evaluated the training effectiveness of a novel simulation interface, a wearable computer integrated into a soldier's load-bearing equipment. Military teams often use game-based simulators on desktop computers to train squad-level procedures. A wearable computer interface that mimics the soldier's equipment was expected to provide better training through increased realism and immersion. A heuristic usability evaluation and two experiments were conducted. Eight evaluators interacted with both wearable and desktop interfaces and completed a usability survey. The first experiment compared the training retention of the wearable interface with a desktop simulator and interactive training video. The second experiment compared the training transfer of the wearable and desktop simulators with a live training environment. Results indicated the wearable interface was more difficult to use and elicited stronger symptoms of simulator sickness. There was no significant difference in training retention between the wearable, desktop, or interactive video training methods. The live training used in the second experiment provided superior training transfer than the simulator conditions, with no difference between the desktop and wearable. The wearable simulator interface did not provide better training than the desktop computer interface. It also had poorer usability and caused worse simulator sickness. Therefore, it was a less effective training tool. This research illustrates the importance of conducting empirical evaluations of novel training technologies. New and innovative technologies are always coveted by users, but new does not always guarantee improvement.

  12. Physically based feature mapping concepts in bond interface evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, D.; Rose, J.; Hodiwalla, N.

    Feature mapping in bond interface evaluation is explored to produce a number of physically based images of the interface state, drawing upon a number of different features in both time and frequency domain extracted from experimentally obtained bulk and guided wave test data. Gaussian filters are applied to the obtained RF signals, and F-maps of interface echoes are obtained to show the image variations as a function of frequency. Experiments on two specimens are conducted to inspect the bonding qualities by transverse wave oblique incidence, longitudinal wave normal incidence, as well as leaky Lamb wave techniques. Other features, such as skewness and kurtosis, can also provide information on the influence of the frequency and the interface properties of the interface layer.

  13. [Cybersurgery: human-machine integration for surgery of the future].

    PubMed

    Marescaux, Jacques; Diana, Michele

    2013-10-01

    The concept whereby human-machine collaboration can enhance surgical performance is briefly reviewed in this editorial. Implementation of computer and robotic technologies in the operating room may enhance the safety, efficacy and precision of the surgical procedure and facilitate minimally invasive approaches. The coming cybernetic revolution in surgery is no longer science fiction: a surgical robot equipped with image recognition, specific algorithms and artificial intelligence has the potential replace surgeons and to perform complex procedures autonomously.

  14. A simple ERP method for quantitative analysis of cognitive workload in myoelectric prosthesis control and human-machine interaction.

    PubMed

    Deeny, Sean; Chicoine, Caitlin; Hargrove, Levi; Parrish, Todd; Jayaraman, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of control, direct control (DC) and pattern recognition control (PRC), while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. Eighteen healthy participants with intact limbs were tested using DC and PRC under three conditions: passive viewing, easy, and hard. Novel auditory probes were presented at random intervals during testing, and significant task-difficulty effects were observed in the P200, P300, and a late positive potential (LPP), supporting the efficacy of ERPs as a cognitive workload measure in HMI tasks. LPP amplitude distinguished DC from PRC in the hard condition with higher amplitude in PRC, consistent with lower cognitive workload in PRC relative to DC for complex movements. Participants completed trials faster in the easy condition using DC relative to PRC, but completed trials more slowly using DC relative to PRC in the hard condition. The results provide promising support for ERPs as an outcome measure for cognitive workload in HMI research such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices, and can be used to evaluate and guide new technologies for more intuitive HMI control.

  15. A Simple ERP Method for Quantitative Analysis of Cognitive Workload in Myoelectric Prosthesis Control and Human-Machine Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Deeny, Sean; Chicoine, Caitlin; Hargrove, Levi; Parrish, Todd; Jayaraman, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of control, direct control (DC) and pattern recognition control (PRC), while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. Eighteen healthy participants with intact limbs were tested using DC and PRC under three conditions: passive viewing, easy, and hard. Novel auditory probes were presented at random intervals during testing, and significant task-difficulty effects were observed in the P200, P300, and a late positive potential (LPP), supporting the efficacy of ERPs as a cognitive workload measure in HMI tasks. LPP amplitude distinguished DC from PRC in the hard condition with higher amplitude in PRC, consistent with lower cognitive workload in PRC relative to DC for complex movements. Participants completed trials faster in the easy condition using DC relative to PRC, but completed trials more slowly using DC relative to PRC in the hard condition. The results provide promising support for ERPs as an outcome measure for cognitive workload in HMI research such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices, and can be used to evaluate and guide new technologies for more intuitive HMI control. PMID:25402345

  16. Evaluation of a generic RIS-PACS interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soehlke, Karen; Fisher, Paul D.

    1992-07-01

    An interface between a Radiology Information System (RIS) and a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) has been designed in Victoria. A prototype has been developed for a Health Care Systems Inc. RIS and a Siemens PACS. The main design objective for this prototype was to create a generic RIS-PACS interface. The portability of the interface is ensured by its modularity, the utilization of a standardized language and communication protocols and the face that no changes were required to either RIS or PACS. In the case of the prototype the communication of data is unidirectional, i.e. 36 data elements are exported from RIS to PACS. Although full integration of these two information systems in the Medical Imaging department appears more desirable than interfacing, an efficient, slim RIS-PACS interface is usually the more feasibly option. Current PACS projects have to cope with the restrictions of today''s RIS and PACS, which are often not transaction-oriented, rarely use modern database models and have been designed neglecting interfacing considerations. The paper summarizes interconnection experiences of four other international projects, outlines the design of the Generic RIMS-PACS Interface and evaluates the experience with the Victoria prototype.

  17. Comparing sequencing assays and human-machine analyses in actionable genomics for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O; Frank, Mayu O; Koyama, Takahiko; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Robine, Nicolas; Utro, Filippo; Emde, Anne-Katrin; Chen, Bo-Juen; Arora, Kanika; Shah, Minita; Vacic, Vladimir; Norel, Raquel; Bilal, Erhan; Bergmann, Ewa A; Moore Vogel, Julia L; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Lassman, Andrew B; Canoll, Peter; Grommes, Christian; Harvey, Steve; Parida, Laxmi; Michelini, Vanessa V; Zody, Michael C; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Royyuru, Ajay K; Darnell, Robert B

    2017-08-01

    To analyze a glioblastoma tumor specimen with 3 different platforms and compare potentially actionable calls from each. Tumor DNA was analyzed by a commercial targeted panel. In addition, tumor-normal DNA was analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and tumor RNA was analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The WGS and RNA-seq data were analyzed by a team of bioinformaticians and cancer oncologists, and separately by IBM Watson Genomic Analytics (WGA), an automated system for prioritizing somatic variants and identifying drugs. More variants were identified by WGS/RNA analysis than by targeted panels. WGA completed a comparable analysis in a fraction of the time required by the human analysts. The development of an effective human-machine interface in the analysis of deep cancer genomic datasets may provide potentially clinically actionable calls for individual patients in a more timely and efficient manner than currently possible. NCT02725684.

  18. The use of thermal manikin to evaluate interface pressure distribution.

    PubMed

    Ciaccia, Flavia Renata Dantas Alves Silva; Gonçalves, Clenilson Jordão; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

    2012-01-01

    The use of a thermal buttocks manikin was explored as a tool to standardize the evaluation of seat comfort. Thermal manikin buttocks were developed and calibrated thermally and anatomically to simulate the sensible heat transfer of a seated person and used to evaluate interface pressure distribution. In essence, the pressure maps of manikin buttocks with and without heating were compared to those of a seated person. The results of average pressure demonstrated that the thermal manikins have a better response in interface pressure measurement than manikins without heating.

  19. Integrated human-machine intelligence in space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, Guy A.

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence approach to integrated human-machine intelligence in space systems. It discusses the motivations for Intelligent Assistant Systems in both nominal and abnormal situations. The problem of constructing procedures is shown to be a very critical issue. In particular, keeping procedural experience in both design and operation is critical. We suggest what artificial intelligence can offer in this direction. Some crucial problems induced by this approach are discussed in detail. Finally, we analyze the various roles that would be shared by both astronauts, ground operators, and the intelligent assistant system.

  20. A Framework for Modeling Human-Machine Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafto, Michael G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Modern automated flight-control systems employ a variety of different behaviors, or modes, for managing the flight. While developments in cockpit automation have resulted in workload reduction and economical advantages, they have also given rise to an ill-defined class of human-machine problems, sometimes referred to as 'automation surprises'. Our interest in applying formal methods for describing human-computer interaction stems from our ongoing research on cockpit automation. In this area of aeronautical human factors, there is much concern about how flight crews interact with automated flight-control systems, so that the likelihood of making errors, in particular mode-errors, is minimized and the consequences of such errors are contained. The goal of the ongoing research on formal methods in this context is: (1) to develop a framework for describing human interaction with control systems; (2) to formally categorize such automation surprises; and (3) to develop tests for identification of these categories early in the specification phase of a new human-machine system.

  1. A Framework for Modeling Human-Machine Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafto, Michael G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Modern automated flight-control systems employ a variety of different behaviors, or modes, for managing the flight. While developments in cockpit automation have resulted in workload reduction and economical advantages, they have also given rise to an ill-defined class of human-machine problems, sometimes referred to as 'automation surprises'. Our interest in applying formal methods for describing human-computer interaction stems from our ongoing research on cockpit automation. In this area of aeronautical human factors, there is much concern about how flight crews interact with automated flight-control systems, so that the likelihood of making errors, in particular mode-errors, is minimized and the consequences of such errors are contained. The goal of the ongoing research on formal methods in this context is: (1) to develop a framework for describing human interaction with control systems; (2) to formally categorize such automation surprises; and (3) to develop tests for identification of these categories early in the specification phase of a new human-machine system.

  2. A New Approach for Evaluating Thin Film Interface Fracture Toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wright, Ian G; Lance, Michael J; Liu, Ken C

    2006-01-01

    A material configuration of central importance in micro electronics, optoelectronics, and thermal barrier coating technology is a thin film of one material deposited onto a substrate of a different material. Fabrication of such a structure inevitably gives rise to stress in the film due to lattice mismatch, differing coefficient of thermal expansion, chemical reactions, or other physical effects. Therefore, in general, the weakest link in this composite system often resides at the interface between the thin film and substrate. In order to make multi-layered electronic devices and structural composites with long-term reliability, the fracture behavior of the material interfaces must be known. This project is intended to address the problems associated with the deficiency of the existing methods, which show severe scatter in the existing data and the procedure dependence in thin film/coating evaluation methods, and offers an innovative testing procedure for the determination of interface fracture toughness applicable to thin coating materials in general.

  3. Review of the 1988 workshop on human-machine symbiotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a review of the 1988 Workshop on Human-Machine Symbiotic Systems. Held December 5--6, 1988 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the workshop served as a forum for the discussion of several critical issues in human-machine symbiosis: human-machine communication, autonomous task planning and execution monitoring for heterogeneous agents, dynamic task allocation, human-machine system architecture, and machine learning via experience and human observation. The presentation of overview papers by invited keynote speakers provided a background for the breakout session discussions in these five areas. A summary of the conclusions and recommendations for future work resulting from the workshop is reported. 6 refs.

  4. Integrated human-machine intelligence in space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of human and machine intelligence in space systems is outlined with respect to the contributions of artificial intelligence. The current state-of-the-art in intelligent assistant systems (IASs) is reviewed, and the requirements of some real-world applications of the technologies are discussed. A concept of integrated human-machine intelligence is examined in the contexts of: (1) interactive systems that tolerate human errors; (2) systems for the relief of workloads; and (3) interactive systems for solving problems in abnormal situations. Key issues in the development of IASs include the compatibility of the systems with astronauts in terms of inputs/outputs, processing, real-time AI, and knowledge-based system validation. Real-world applications are suggested such as the diagnosis, planning, and control of enginnered systems.

  5. Integrated human-machine intelligence in space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of human and machine intelligence in space systems is outlined with respect to the contributions of artificial intelligence. The current state-of-the-art in intelligent assistant systems (IASs) is reviewed, and the requirements of some real-world applications of the technologies are discussed. A concept of integrated human-machine intelligence is examined in the contexts of: (1) interactive systems that tolerate human errors; (2) systems for the relief of workloads; and (3) interactive systems for solving problems in abnormal situations. Key issues in the development of IASs include the compatibility of the systems with astronauts in terms of inputs/outputs, processing, real-time AI, and knowledge-based system validation. Real-world applications are suggested such as the diagnosis, planning, and control of enginnered systems.

  6. Social Intelligence in a Human-Machine Collaboration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Morishima, Yasunori; Yamada, Ryota; Brave, Scott; Maldonado, Heidy; Nass, Clifford; Kawaji, Shigeyasu

    In this information society of today, it is often argued that it is necessary to create a new way of human-machine interaction. In this paper, an agent with social response capabilities has been developed to achieve this goal. There are two kinds of information that is exchanged by two entities: objective and functional information (e.g., facts, requests, states of matters, etc.) and subjective information (e.g., feelings, sense of relationship, etc.). Traditional interactive systems have been designed to handle the former kind of information. In contrast, in this study social agents handling the latter type of information are presented. The current study focuses on sociality of the agent from the view point of Media Equation theory. This article discusses the definition, importance, and benefits of social intelligence as agent technology and argues that social intelligence has a potential to enhance the user's perception of the system, which in turn can lead to improvements of the system's performance. In order to implement social intelligence in the agent, a mind model has been developed to render affective expressions and personality of the agent. The mind model has been implemented in a human-machine collaborative learning system. One differentiating feature of the collaborative learning system is that it has an agent that performs as a co-learner with which the user interacts during the learning session. The mind model controls the social behaviors of the agent, thus making it possible for the user to have more social interactions with the agent. The experiment with the system suggested that a greater degree of learning was achieved when the students worked with the co-learner agent and that the co-learner agent with the mind model that expressed emotions resulted in a more positive attitude toward the system.

  7. Applications of Computed Tomography to Evaluate Cellular Solid Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisano, Josephine; Marse, Daryl J.; Schilling, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The major morphological features - foam cells, voids, knit lines, and the bondline interface were evaluated. The features identified by micro-CT correlate well to those observed by SEM. 3D reconstructions yielded volumetric dimensions for large voids (max 30 mm). Internal voids and groupings of smaller cells at the bondline are concluded to be the cause of the indications noted during the NDE prescreening process.

  8. Collaborative human-machine nuclear non-proliferation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, F.L.; Badalamente, R.V.; Stewart, T.S.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a project investigating support concepts for the information treatment needs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, also referred to as the Agency) and its attempts to strengthen international safeguards. The aim of the research was to define user/computer interface concepts and intelligent support features that will enhance the analyst`s access to voluminous and diverse information, the ability to recognize and evaluate uncertain data, and the capability to make decisions and recommendations. The objective was to explore techniques for enhancing safeguards analysis through application of (1) more effective user-computer interface designs and (2) advanced concepts involving human/system collaboration. The approach was to identify opportunities for human/system collaboration that would capitalize on human strengths and still accommodate human limitations. This paper documents the findings and describes a concept prototype, Proliferation Analysis Support System (PASS), developed for demonstration purposes. The research complements current and future efforts to enhance the information systems used by the IAEA, but has application elsewhere, as well.

  9. Evaluation plan for space station network interface units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    Outlined here is a procedure for evaluating network interface units (NIUs) produced for the Space Station program. The procedures should be equally applicable to the data management system (DMS) testbed NIUs produced by Honeywell and IBM. The evaluation procedures are divided into four areas. Performance measurement tools are hardware and software that must be developed in order to evaluate NIU performance. Performance tests are a series of tests, each of which documents some specific characteristic of NIU and/or network performance. In general, these performance tests quantify the speed, capacity, latency, and reliability of message transmission under a wide variety of conditions. Functionality tests are a series of tests and code inspections that demonstrate the functionality of the particular subset of ISO protocols which have been implemented in a given NIU. Conformance tests are a series of tests which would expose whether or not selected features within the ISO protocols are present and interoperable.

  10. Human-machine teaming for effective estimation and path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCourt, Michael J.; Mehta, Siddhartha S.; Doucette, Emily A.; Curtis, J. Willard

    2016-05-01

    While traditional sensors provide accurate measurements of quantifiable information, humans provide better qualitative information and holistic assessments. Sensor fusion approaches that team humans and machines can take advantage of the benefits provided by each while mitigating the shortcomings. These two sensor sources can be fused together using Bayesian fusion, which assumes that there is a method of generating a probabilistic representation of the sensor measurement. This general framework of fusing estimates can also be applied to joint human-machine decision making. In the simple case, binary decisions can be fused by using a probability of taking an action versus inaction from each decision-making source. These are fused together to arrive at a final probability of taking an action, which would be taken if above a specified threshold. In the case of path planning, rather than binary decisions being fused, complex decisions can be fused by allowing the human and machine to interact with each other. For example, the human can draw a suggested path while the machine planning algorithm can refine it to avoid obstacles and remain dynamically feasible. Similarly, the human can revise a suggested path to achieve secondary goals not encoded in the algorithm such as avoiding dangerous areas in the environment.

  11. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  12. Safe asleep? Human-machine relations in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Mort, Maggie; Goodwin, Dawn; Smith, Andrew F; Pope, Catherine

    2005-11-01

    In the process of anaesthesia the patient must surrender vital functions to the care of clinicians and machines who will act for, and advocate for the patient during the surgical procedure. In this paper, we discuss the practices and knowledge sources that underpin safety in a risky field in which many boundaries are crossed and dissolved. Anaesthetic practice is at the frontier not only of conscious/unconsciousness but is also at the human/machine frontier, where a range of technologies acts as both delegates and intermediaries between patient and practitioner. We are concerned with how practitioners accommodate and manage these shifting boundaries and what kinds of knowledge sources the 'expert' must employ to make decisions. Such sources include clinical, social and electronic which in their various forms demonstrate the hybrid and collective nature of anaesthetised patients. In managing this collective, the expert is one who is able to judge where the boundary lies between what is routine and what is critical in practice, while the junior must judge the personal limits of expertise in practice. In exploring the working of anaesthetic hybrids, we argue that recognising the changing distribution of agency between humans and machines itself illustrates important features of human authorship and expertise.

  13. Visualizing failure effects in complex human-machine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jana M.; Mathur, Amit; Morley, Rebecca M.; Scalzo, Richard C.

    2001-07-01

    The ability to understand a system's behavior in both normal and failed conditions is fundamental to the design of error-tolerant systems as well as to the development of diagnostics. The System Analysis for Failure and Error Reduction (SAFER) Project seeks to provide designers with tools to visualize potential sources of error and their effects early in the design of human-machine systems. The project is based on an existing technology that provides a failure-space modeling environment, analysis capabilities for troubleshooting, and error diagnostics using design data of machine systems. The SAFER Project extends the functionality of the existing technology in two significant ways. First, by adding a model of human error probability within the tool, designers are able to estimate the probabilities of human errors and the effects that these errors may have on system components and on the entire system. Second, the visual presentation of failure-related measures and metrics has been improved through a process of user-centered design. This paper will describe the process that was used to develop the human error probability model and will present novel metrics for assessing failure within complex systems.

  14. Heuristic evaluation on mobile interfaces: a new checklist.

    PubMed

    Yáñez Gómez, Rosa; Cascado Caballero, Daniel; Sevillano, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution and adoption of mobile devices raise new usability challenges, given their limitations (in screen size, battery life, etc.) as well as the specific requirements of this new interaction. Traditional evaluation techniques need to be adapted in order for these requirements to be met. Heuristic evaluation (HE), an Inspection Method based on evaluation conducted by experts over a real system or prototype, is based on checklists which are desktop-centred and do not adequately detect mobile-specific usability issues. In this paper, we propose a compilation of heuristic evaluation checklists taken from the existing bibliography but readapted to new mobile interfaces. Selecting and rearranging these heuristic guidelines offer a tool which works well not just for evaluation but also as a best-practices checklist. The result is a comprehensive checklist which is experimentally evaluated as a design tool. This experimental evaluation involved two software engineers without any specific knowledge about usability, a group of ten users who compared the usability of a first prototype designed without our heuristics, and a second one after applying the proposed checklist. The results of this experiment show the usefulness of the proposed checklist for avoiding usability gaps even with nontrained developers.

  15. Heuristic Evaluation on Mobile Interfaces: A New Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez Gómez, Rosa; Cascado Caballero, Daniel; Sevillano, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution and adoption of mobile devices raise new usability challenges, given their limitations (in screen size, battery life, etc.) as well as the specific requirements of this new interaction. Traditional evaluation techniques need to be adapted in order for these requirements to be met. Heuristic evaluation (HE), an Inspection Method based on evaluation conducted by experts over a real system or prototype, is based on checklists which are desktop-centred and do not adequately detect mobile-specific usability issues. In this paper, we propose a compilation of heuristic evaluation checklists taken from the existing bibliography but readapted to new mobile interfaces. Selecting and rearranging these heuristic guidelines offer a tool which works well not just for evaluation but also as a best-practices checklist. The result is a comprehensive checklist which is experimentally evaluated as a design tool. This experimental evaluation involved two software engineers without any specific knowledge about usability, a group of ten users who compared the usability of a first prototype designed without our heuristics, and a second one after applying the proposed checklist. The results of this experiment show the usefulness of the proposed checklist for avoiding usability gaps even with nontrained developers. PMID:25295300

  16. Comparing sequencing assays and human-machine analyses in actionable genomics for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O.; Frank, Mayu O.; Koyama, Takahiko; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Robine, Nicolas; Utro, Filippo; Emde, Anne-Katrin; Chen, Bo-Juen; Arora, Kanika; Shah, Minita; Vacic, Vladimir; Norel, Raquel; Bilal, Erhan; Bergmann, Ewa A.; Moore Vogel, Julia L.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Lassman, Andrew B.; Canoll, Peter; Grommes, Christian; Harvey, Steve; Parida, Laxmi; Michelini, Vanessa V.; Zody, Michael C.; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Royyuru, Ajay K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To analyze a glioblastoma tumor specimen with 3 different platforms and compare potentially actionable calls from each. Methods: Tumor DNA was analyzed by a commercial targeted panel. In addition, tumor-normal DNA was analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and tumor RNA was analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The WGS and RNA-seq data were analyzed by a team of bioinformaticians and cancer oncologists, and separately by IBM Watson Genomic Analytics (WGA), an automated system for prioritizing somatic variants and identifying drugs. Results: More variants were identified by WGS/RNA analysis than by targeted panels. WGA completed a comparable analysis in a fraction of the time required by the human analysts. Conclusions: The development of an effective human-machine interface in the analysis of deep cancer genomic datasets may provide potentially clinically actionable calls for individual patients in a more timely and efficient manner than currently possible. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02725684. PMID:28740869

  17. Three-dimensional sensing, graphics, and interactive control in a human-machine system for decontamination and decommissioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Scott M.; Gourley, Christopher S.; Butler, Philip L.; Costello, Hugh; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Chen, ChuXin; Marapane, Suresh B.

    1992-11-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D important requirement of the U.S. Department of Energy''s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. Means need to be devised to minimize radiation exposure to humans involved in the D research presented in this paper describes a human-machine system which can be employed for performing radiation scan and pipe cutting operations in a typical D Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have designed a hybrid telerobotic pipe-cutting module. The module, when fully integrated, will allow users of the ASM to exploit the original functionality of the telerobot when our pipe cutting system is not in use. Comprising the pipe-cutting system are interactive three- dimensional object localization, graphical task modeler, arm control, human-machine interface, radiation sensor, and cut-tool sub-systems. Only the task modeler and interactive object localization modules are discussed in this paper. The goal of these modules is to interactively localize an object, usually a pipe, and display it in a three-dimensional rendering of the work space. Through interaction with these modules, the supervisor coordinates a task- specific sequence of actions that the lower-level sub-systems will perform.

  18. Evaluating insect-microbiomes at the plant-insect interface.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Hansen, Allison K

    2014-07-01

    Plants recognize biotic challengers and respond with the appropriate defense by utilizing phytohormone signaling and crosstalk. Despite this, microbes and insects have evolved mechanisms that compromise the plant surveillance system and specific defenses, thus ensuring successful colonization. In nature, plants do not experience insect herbivores and microbes in isolation, but in combination. Over time, relationships have developed between insects and microbes, varying on a continuum from no-relationship to obligate relationships that are required for both organisms to survive. While many reviews have examined plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions and the mechanisms of plant defense, few have considered the interface where microbes and insects may overlap, and synergies may develop. In this review, we critically evaluate the requirements for insect-associated microbes to develop synergistic relationships with their hosts, and we mechanistically discuss how some of these insect-associated microbes can target or modify host plant defenses. Finally, by using bioinformatics and the recent literature, we review evidence for synergies in insect-microbe relationships at the interface of plant-insect defenses. Insect-associated microbes can influence host-plant detection and/or signaling through phytohormone synthesis, conserved microbial patterns, and effectors, however, microbes associated with insects must be maintained in the environment and located in opportunistic positions.

  19. Evaluating polymeric biomaterial–environment interfaces by Langmuir monolayer techniques

    PubMed Central

    Schöne, Anne-Christin; Roch, Toralf; Schulz, Burkhard

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric biomaterials are of specific relevance in medical and pharmaceutical applications due to their wide range of tailorable properties and functionalities. The knowledge about interactions of biomaterials with their biological environment is of crucial importance for developing highly sophisticated medical devices. To achieve optimal in vivo performance, a description at the molecular level is required to gain better understanding about the surface of synthetic materials for tailoring their properties. This is still challenging and requires the comprehensive characterization of morphological structures, polymer chain arrangements and degradation behaviour. The review discusses selected aspects for evaluating polymeric biomaterial–environment interfaces by Langmuir monolayer methods as powerful techniques for studying interfacial properties, such as morphological and degradation processes. The combination of spectroscopic, microscopic and scattering methods with the Langmuir techniques adapted to polymers can substantially improve the understanding of their in vivo behaviour. PMID:28468918

  20. Triage methodology for the evaluation of implant-bone interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mariolani, J R; Belangero, W D; de Arruda, A C

    1994-06-01

    Stainless steel plugs coated with and without Al2O3, TiO2 and Nb2O5 were inserted into canine femora in order to develop a methodology of rapid identification of appropriate specimens for deeper analysis of implant-bone interfaces. This approach is especially meaningful in areas where research funds are scarce. After a maximum follow-up period of 52 wk, bone segments containing plugs were radiographed using conventional techniques, high resolution techniques (which allowed a good preliminary evaluation) and microradiography. Analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry indicated release of the materials by the implants. Microdensitometry of the microradiographs allowed a precise thickness determination of the tissue formed around the implants.

  1. Orbiter multiplexer-demultiplexer (MDM)/Space Lab Bus Interface Unit (SL/BIU) serial data interface evaluation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobey, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate the operating characteristics of the interface between the Space Lab Bus Interface Unit (SL/BIU) and the Orbiter Multiplexer-Demultiplexer (MDM) serial data input-output (SIO) module. This volume contains the test equipment preparation procedures and a detailed description of the Nova/Input Output Processor Simulator (IOPS) software used during the data transfer tests to determine word error rates (WER).

  2. Embodied Interactions in Human-Machine Decision Making for Situation Awareness Enhancement Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0222 Embodied Interactions in Human-Machine Decision Making for Situation Awareness Enhancement Systems Juan Wachs PURDUE...22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to...Interactions in Human-Machine Decision Making for Situation Awareness Enhancement Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0141 5c

  3. An osseointegrated human-machine gateway for long-term sensory feedback and motor control of artificial limbs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Catalan, Max; Håkansson, Bo; Brånemark, Rickard

    2014-10-08

    A major challenge since the invention of implantable devices has been a reliable and long-term stable transcutaneous communication. In the case of prosthetic limbs, existing neuromuscular interfaces have been unable to address this challenge and provide direct and intuitive neural control. Although prosthetic hardware and decoding algorithms are readily available, there is still a lack of appropriate and stable physiological signals for controlling the devices. We developed a percutaneous osseointegrated (bone-anchored) interface that allows for permanent and unlimited bidirectional communication with the human body. With this interface, an artificial limb can be chronically driven by implanted electrodes in the peripheral nerves and muscles of an amputee, outside of controlled environments and during activities of daily living, thus reducing disability and improving quality of life. We demonstrate in one subject, for more than 1 year, that implanted electrodes provide a more precise and reliable control than surface electrodes, regardless of limb position and environmental conditions, and with less effort. Furthermore, long-term stable myoelectric pattern recognition and appropriate sensory feedback elicited via neurostimulation was demonstrated. The opportunity to chronically record and stimulate the neuromuscular system allows for the implementation of intuitive control and naturally perceived sensory feedback, as well as opportunities for the prediction of complex limb motions and better understanding of sensory perception. The permanent bidirectional interface presented here is a critical step toward more natural limb replacement, by combining stable attachment with permanent and reliable human-machine communication. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Evaluation of a sensor for low interface pressure applications.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Pell, M; Hagisawa, S; Bain, D

    2000-11-01

    An ultra-thin, small sensor has recently been developed, "FlexiForce" (Tekscan, Boston, MA, USA), which may be effective for the measurement of low interface pressure between the skin, support surfaces and pressure garments. To evaluate the suitability of the sensor for these applications, drift, repeatability, linearity, hysteresis and curvature effects were tested under laboratory conditions. The drift was 1.7-2.5%/logarithmic time, the repeatability was 2.3-6.6% and the linearity was 1.9-9.9% in the range of forces of 10-50 g applied. The hysteresis was 5.4% on average. The output offset of the sensor increased with decreasing radius of curvature for radii less than 32 mm compared with a flat surface when no pressure was applied. The sensitivity to pressure decreased with curvature for radii less than 32 mm. It was found that the sensor had acceptable drift, repeatability, linearity and hysteresis. However, a significant curvature effect was observed indicating that the sensor is suitable for direct measurement on surfaces with the radii greater than 32 mm under static conditions.

  5. Case study for the evaluation and selection of man-machine interface (MMI) software

    SciTech Connect

    Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Macdonald, J.; Bibeau, R.; Gomez, B.; Sellon, D.

    1996-06-01

    The authors evaluated three of the top man-machine interface (MMI) software systems. The main categories upon which they based their evaluation on were the following: operator interface; network and data distribution; input/output (I/O) interface; application development; alarms; real-time and historical trending; support, documentation, and training; processing tools (batch, recipe, logic); reports; custom interfacing; start-up/recovery; external database; and multimedia. They also present their MMI requirements and guidelines for the selection and evaluation of these MMI systems.

  6. The human/robot interface.

    PubMed

    Wiker, S F

    1993-10-01

    The use of telerobotic technology in space exploration is examined. Early aspirations for anthropomorphic designs and advances in the field are reviewed. The application of human factors engineering to robotics design and the human-machine interface are examined. New strategies in design and automation are presented.

  7. Towards an Educational SuperInterface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Diana, Italo P. F.; White, T. N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an educational computer network, SuperInterface, that could be used for telestudy for university education. Topics discussed include computer-supported collaborative work; computer-based learning; multimedia databases, or electronic books; human-machine interfaces; hardware, software, and groupware; learners; teachers; organizations and…

  8. Adhesive joint evaluation by ultrasonic interface and lamb waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokhlin, S. I.

    1986-01-01

    Some results on the application of interface and Lamb waves for the study of curing of thin adhesive layers were summarized. In the case of thick substrates (thickness much more than the wave length) the interface waves can be used. In this case the experimental data can be inverted and the shear modulus of the adhesive film may be explicitly found based on the measured interface wave velocity. It is shown that interface waves can be used for the study of curing of structural adhesives as a function of different temperatures and other experimental conditions. The kinetics of curing was studied. In the case of thin substrates the wave phenomena are much more complicated. It is shown that for successful measurements proper selection of experimental conditions is very important. This can be done based on theoretical estimations. For correctly selected experimental conditions the Lamb waves may be a sensitive probe of adhesive bond quality and may be used or cure monitoring.

  9. Developing Human-Machine Interfaces to Support Appropriate Trust and Reliance on Automated Combat Identification Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-17

    Signal Detection Theory (SDT) (Macmillan & Creelman , 1991; Wickens & Hollands, 2000). In SDT, the participants’ performance is characterized by two...probability, whereas their sensitivity will stay constant (Macmillan & Creelman , 1991; Wickens & Hollands, 2000). If this hypothesis holds, it will...Macmillan & Creelman , 1991, p273), and it was also the measure used in Dzindolet et al.’s study (2001a). Thus, C was used in the analysis HMIs for Trust and

  10. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 236 - Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operator to change position; (4) Arrange controls according to their expected order of use; (5) Group similar controls together; (6) Design for high stimulus-response compatibility (geometric and...

  11. Design and Development of Functionally Effective Human-Machine Interfaces for Firing Room Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This project involves creating software for support equipment used on the Space Launch System (SLS). The goal is to create applications and displays that will be used to remotely operate equipment from the firing room and will continue to support the SLS launch vehicle to the extent of its program. These displays include design practices that help to convey information effectively, such as minimizing distractions at normal operating state and displaying intentional distractions during a warning or alarm state. The general practice for creating an operator display is to reduce the detail of unimportant aspects of the display and promote focus on data and dynamic information. These practices include using minimalist design, using muted tones for background colors, using a standard font at a readable text size, displaying alarms visible for immediate attention, grouping data logically, and displaying data appropriately varying on the type of data. Users of these displays are more likely to stay focused on operating for longer periods by using design practices that reduce eye strain and fatigue. Effective operator displays will improve safety by reducing human errors during operation, which will help prevent catastrophic accidents. This report entails the details of my work on developing remote displays for the Hypergolic fuel servicing system. Before developing a prototype display, the design and requirements of the system are outlined and compiled into a document. Then each subsystem has schematic representations drawn that meet the specifications detailed in the document. The schematics are then used as the outline to create display representations of each subsystem. Each display is first tested individually. Then the displays are integrated with a prototype of the master system, and they are tested in a simulated environment then retested in the real environment. Extensive testing is important to ensure the displays function reliably as intended.

  12. Design and Development of Functionally Effective Human-Machine Interfaces for Firing Room Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This project involves creating software for support equipment used on the Space l aunch System (SLS). The goal is to create applications and displays that will be used to remotely operate equipment from the firing room and will continue to support the SLS launch vehicle to the extent of its program. These displays include design practices that help to convey information effectively, such as minimizing distractions at normal operating state and displaying intentional distractions during a warning or alarm state. The general practice for creating an operator display is to reduce the detail of unimportant aspects of the display and promote focus on data and dynamic information. These practices include using minimalist design, using muted tones for background colors, using a standard font at a readable text size, displaying alarms visible for Immediate attention, grouping data logically, and displaying data appropriately varying on the type of data. Users of these displays are more likely to stay focused on operating for longer periods by using design practices that reduce eye strain and fatigue. Effective operator displays will improve safety by reducing human errors during operation, which will help prevent catastrophic accidents. This report entails the details of my work on developing remote displays for the Hypergolics ground system. Before developing a prototype display, the design and requirements of the system are outlined and compiled into a document. Then each subsystem has schematic representations drawn tha.t meet the specifications detailed in the document. The schematics are then used as the outline to create display representations of each subsystem. Each display is first tested individually. Then the displays are integrated with a prototype of the master system, and they are tested in a simulated environment then retested in the real environment. Extensive testing is important to ensure the displays function reliably as intended.

  13. Aiding the Decision Maker: Perceptual and Cognitive Issues at the Human-Machine Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    documents. Use of trade names in this report does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. mm z am...attention, because these mechanisms form the foundation of our ability to acquire relevant and timely problem data. k r. 20. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABIIUTY OF...anything, given enough time and engineers. But man has limits to his development as far as we can see it. . . . Machines that demand superhuman

  14. Comparison of two human-machine-interfaces for cooperative maneuver-based driving.

    PubMed

    Franz, Benjamin; Kauer, Michaela; Blanke, Anton; Schreiber, Michael; Bruder, Ralph; Geyer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In the project "Conduct-by-Wire" which is founded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) cooperative maneuver based driving is examined. In this paper two different input devices (gesture recognition and tactile touch display) are compared in a simulator study with 29 participants. It shows that the major advantage of the gesture recognition is that there is no need for the driver to take his gaze off the road. In contrast, the number of gazes at the tactile touch display is significantly higher. The major advantage of the tactile touch display is that no input errors occurred during the test drives. Conversely, the gesture recognition was significantly worse. Nevertheless, further work is needed to decide which input device is the best.

  15. Developing Human-Machine Interfaces to Support Monitoring of UAV Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-31

    opérateurs humains sont mal adaptés pour ce rôle. Une masse croissante de documentation témoigne du rôle crucial que joue la confiance dans l’automatisation...pour déterminer l’efficacité du contrôle humain sur des systèmes automatisés. D’après une récente compilation de la recherche menée sur la...vers des systèmes plus hautement automatisés et que les opérateurs humains sont relégués au rôle de contrôleurs- superviseurs. Les humains ont

  16. PyzoFlex: a printed piezoelectric pressure sensing foil for human machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirkl, M.; Scheipl, G.; Stadlober, B.; Rendl, C.; Greindl, P.; Haller, M.; Hartmann, P.

    2013-09-01

    Ferroelectric material supports both pyro- and piezoelectric effects that can be used for sensing pressures on large, bended surfaces. We present PyzoFlex, a pressure-sensing input device that is based on a ferroelectric material (PVDF:TrFE). It is constructed by a sandwich structure of four layers that can easily be printed on any substrate. The PyzoFlex foil is sensitive to pressure- and temperature changes, bendable, energy-efficient, and it can easily be produced by a screen-printing routine. Even a hovering input-mode is feasible due to its pyroelectric effect. In this paper, we introduce this novel, fully printed input technology and discuss its benefits and limitations.

  17. Further Research on Super Auditory Localization for Improved Human-Machine Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    localization cues. We had initially intended to conduct this work using a virtual-environment ( VE ) system for visual as well as auditory stimulation...and to include examination of a wide variety of transformations (rotations, scalings , filterings, asymmetries, exponentiations). As will be seen in...the following discussion, we have made substantial progress towards our general objectives. However, our work was conducted using a hybrid VE in which

  18. Evaluation on thermal explosion induced by slightly exothermic interface reaction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ma-Hong; Li, Yong-Fu; Sun, Jin-Hua; Hasegawa, Kazutoshi

    2004-09-10

    An asphalt-salt mixture (ASM), which once caused a fire and explosion in a reprocessing plant, was prepared by imitating the real bituminization process of waste on a lab scale to evaluate its actual thermal hazards. Heat flux reaction calorimeters were used to measure the release of heat for the simulated ASM at a constant heating rate and at a constant temperature, respectively. Experimental results show that the reaction in the ASM below about 250 degrees C is a slightly exothermic interface reaction between the asphalt and the salt particles contained in the asphalt, and that the heat release rate increases sharply above about 250 degrees C due to melting of the salt particles. The reaction rates were formulated on the basis of an assumed reaction model, and the kinetic parameters were determined. Using the model with the kinetic parameters, temperature changes with time and drum-radius axes for the ASM-filled drum were numerically simulated assuming a one-dimensional infinite cylinder system, where the drum was being cooled at an ambient temperature of 50 degrees C. The minimum filling temperature, at which the runaway reaction (MFTRR) can occur for the simulated ASM in the drum is about 194 degrees C. Furthermore, a very good linear correlation exists between this MFTRR and the initial radius of salt particles formed in the bituminization product. The critical filling temperature to the runaway reaction is about 162 degrees C for the asphalt-salt mixture, containing zero-size salt particles, filled in the same drum at an ambient temperature of 50 degrees C. Thus, the runaway reaction will never occur in the drum filled with the asphalt-salt mixture under the conditions of the filling temperature below 162 degrees C and a constant ambient temperature of 50 degrees C. As a consequence, the ASM explosion occurred in the reprocessing plant likely was due to a slightly exothermically reaction and self heating.

  19. Evaluation of EMG, force and joystick as control interfaces for active arm supports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The performance capabilities and limitations of control interfaces for the operation of active movement-assistive devices remain unclear. Selecting an optimal interface for an application requires a thorough understanding of the performance of multiple control interfaces. Methods In this study the performance of EMG-, force- and joystick-based control interfaces were assessed in healthy volunteers with a screen-based one-dimensional position-tracking task. The participants had to track a target that was moving according to a multisine signal with a bandwidth of 3 Hz. The velocity of the cursor was proportional to the interface signal. The performance of the control interfaces were evaluated in terms of tracking error, gain margin crossover frequency, information transmission rate and effort. Results None of the evaluated interfaces was superior in all four performance descriptors. The EMG-based interface was superior in tracking error and gain margin crossover frequency compared to the force- and the joystick-based interfaces. The force-based interface provided higher information transmission rate and lower effort than the EMG-based interface. The joystick-based interface did not present any significant difference with the force-based interface for any of the four performance descriptors. We found that significant differences in terms of tracking error and information transmission rate were present beyond 0.9 and 1.4 Hz respectively. Conclusions Despite the fact that the EMG-based interface is far from the natural way of interacting with the environment, while the force-based interface is closer, the EMG-based interface presented very similar and for some descriptors even a better performance than the force-based interface for frequencies below 1.4 Hz. The classical joystick presented a similar performance to the force-based interface and holds the advantage of being a well established interface for the control of many assistive devices. From these

  20. Evaluation of Telerobotic Interface Components for Teaching Robot Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstain, Ofir H.; Ben-Gal, Irad; Bukchin, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Remote learning has been an increasingly growing field in the last two decades. The Internet development, as well as the increase in PC's capabilities and bandwidth capacity, has made remote learning through the internet a convenient learning preference, leading to a variety of new interfaces and methods. In this work, we consider a remote…

  1. Evaluation of Telerobotic Interface Components for Teaching Robot Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstain, Ofir H.; Ben-Gal, Irad; Bukchin, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Remote learning has been an increasingly growing field in the last two decades. The Internet development, as well as the increase in PC's capabilities and bandwidth capacity, has made remote learning through the internet a convenient learning preference, leading to a variety of new interfaces and methods. In this work, we consider a remote…

  2. Ultrasonic guided wave nondestructive evaluation using generalized anisotropic interface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Michael D.

    The motivation for this work is a goal to inspect interfaces between thick layers of materials that can be anisotropic. The specific application is a thick composite bonded to a metal substrate. The interface is inspected for disbonds between the metal and composite. The large thickness allows the problem to be modeled as a half space. The theory behind guided waves in plates is presented. This theory includes the calculation and analysis of dispersion curves and the resulting wave structure. It is noted that for high frequency-thickness values, certain modes will converge to the half-space waves, e.g. the Rayleigh wave and the Stoneley wave. Points of high energy, especially shear energy, at the interface are desirable for interfacial inspection. Therefore, the wave structure for all modes and frequencies is searched for ideal inspection points. Interface waves are inherently good modes to use for interface inspection. Results from the dispersion curves and wave structures are verified in the finite element model software package called Abaqus. It is confirmed that the group speeds and wave structures of the modes match the predicted values. A theoretical development of interface waves is given wherein Rayleigh, Stoneley, and generalized interface waves are discussed. This is applied to both isotropic and anisotropic materials. It is shown that the Stoneley wave only exists for a certain range of material parameters. Because the Stoneley wave is the interface wave between two solid half spaces, it might appear that only certain pairs of solids would allow for inspection via interface wave. However, it is shown that for perturbations of the Stoneley-wave-valid material properties, interface waves which leak energy away from the interface can still propagate. They can also be used for inspection. Certain choices of materials will leak less energy and will therefore allow for longer inspection distances. The solutions to the isotropic leaky wave problem exist on

  3. The role of voice input for human-machine communication.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, P R; Oviatt, S L

    1995-01-01

    Optimism is growing that the near future will witness rapid growth in human-computer interaction using voice. System prototypes have recently been built that demonstrate speaker-independent real-time speech recognition, and understanding of naturally spoken utterances with vocabularies of 1000 to 2000 words, and larger. Already, computer manufacturers are building speech recognition subsystems into their new product lines. However, before this technology can be broadly useful, a substantial knowledge base is needed about human spoken language and performance during computer-based spoken interaction. This paper reviews application areas in which spoken interaction can play a significant role, assesses potential benefits of spoken interaction with machines, and compares voice with other modalities of human-computer interaction. It also discusses information that will be needed to build a firm empirical foundation for the design of future spoken and multimodal interfaces. Finally, it argues for a more systematic and scientific approach to investigating spoken input and performance with future language technology. PMID:7479803

  4. The Study to the Theory of Human-Machine-Integration in Product Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Zhou, Renhe

    2017-09-01

    The paper puts forward a design concept named Human-Machine-Integration which refers to the shape of the product designed according to the location and contact type when the product is used. It considers the double properties of function and aesthetics to product and makes the designer combine the formal principle with Human-Machine Engineering theory together to mould the product shape conforming to the easy-to-user principle with the consideration of form beauty at the same time. It regards the man - machine – environment as a whole body and has practical significance to the system design of the product. When a product is designed according to Human-Machine-Integration theory, contact parts form and contact area and the harmonious relationship between forms of contact parts and overall product should be considered. And the Convex-concave match of product part and body part should be complement with each other and tolerant match of product part is contacted with the human body part. At the same time, the purpose of form should be fully considered. Correspondence, Integrity, Systematicness and Independence are four characteristics of Human-Machine-Integration design.

  5. [Human machines--mechanical humans? The industrial arrangement of the relation between human being and machine on the basis of psychotechnik and Georg Schlesingers work with disabled soldiers].

    PubMed

    Patzel-Mattern, Katja

    2005-01-01

    The 20th Century is the century of of technical artefacts. With their existance and use they create an artificial reality, within which humans have to position themselves. Psychotechnik is an attempt to enable humans for this positioning. It gained importance in Germany after World War I and had its heyday between 1919 and 1926. On the basis of the activity of the engineer and supporter of Psychotechnik Georg Schlesinger, whose particular interest were disabled soldiers, the essay on hand will investigate the understanding of the body and the human being of Psychotechnik as an applied science. It turned out, that the biggest achievement of Psychotechnik was to establish a new view of the relation between human being and machine. Thus it helped to show that the human-machine-interface is a shapable unit. Psychotechnik sees the human body and its physique as the last instance for the design of machines. Its main concern is to optimize the relation between human being and machine rather than to standardize human beings according to the construction of machines. After her splendid rise during the Weimar Republic and her rapid decline since the late 1920s Psychotechnik nowadays gains scientifical attention as a historical phenomenon. The main attention in the current discourse lies on the aspects conserning philosophy of science: the unity of body and soul, the understanding of the human-machine-interface as a shapable unit and the human being as a last instance of this unit.

  6. Operator Performance Evaluation of Fault Management Interfaces for Next-Generation Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Ravinder, Ujwala; Beutter, Brent; McCann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Renema, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    In the cockpit of the NASA's next generation of spacecraft, most of vehicle commanding will be carried out via electronic interfaces instead of hard cockpit switches. Checklists will be also displayed and completed on electronic procedure viewers rather than from paper. Transitioning to electronic cockpit interfaces opens up opportunities for more automated assistance, including automated root-cause diagnosis capability. The paper reports an empirical study evaluating two potential concepts for fault management interfaces incorporating two different levels of automation. The operator performance benefits produced by automation were assessed. Also, some design recommendations for spacecraft fault management interfaces are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of ultrasonic signals from diffusion and eutectic bond interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C. M.

    1980-12-10

    A research program is in progress at Rocky Flats to determine correlations between ultrasonic signal content and diffusion or eutectic bond joint condition, and to develop a computer-controlled scanning, data acquisition and analysis system which utilizes these correlations and waveform analysis techniques. The initial efforts to determine effective ultrasonic waveform parameters to characterize the strength of bond interfaces is complete. A development version of a computer-controlled, automated scanning and data acquisition system is in operation.

  8. Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

  9. Systematically evaluating interfaces for RNA-seq analysis from a life scientist perspective.

    PubMed

    Poplawski, Alicia; Marini, Federico; Hess, Moritz; Zeller, Tanja; Mazur, Johanna; Binder, Harald

    2016-03-01

    RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has become an established way for measuring gene expression in model organisms and humans. While methods development for refining the corresponding data processing and analysis pipeline is ongoing, protocols for typical steps have been proposed and are widely used. Several user interfaces have been developed for making such analysis steps accessible to life scientists without extensive knowledge of command line tools. We performed a systematic search and evaluation of such interfaces to investigate to what extent these can indeed facilitate RNA-seq data analysis. We found a total of 29 open source interfaces, and six of the more widely used interfaces were evaluated in detail. Central criteria for evaluation were ease of configuration, documentation, usability, computational demand and reporting. No interface scored best in all of these criteria, indicating that the final choice will depend on the specific perspective of users and the corresponding weighting of criteria. Considerable technical hurdles had to be overcome in our evaluation. For many users, this will diminish potential benefits compared with command line tools, leaving room for future improvement of interfaces. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Manipulator system man-machine interface evaluation program. [technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.; Kirkpatrick, M.; Shields, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    Application and requirements for remote manipulator systems for future space missions were investigated. A manipulator evaluation program was established to study the effects of various systems parameters on operator performance of tasks necessary for remotely manned missions. The program and laboratory facilities are described. Evaluation criteria and philosophy are discussed.

  11. A Collaborative 20 Questions Model for Target Search with Human-Machine Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    recognition ( ATR ) sensor. In the ATR set- ting the objective of the human-machine-interaction is to collabo- rate on estimating an unknown target location...where the human is repeatedly queried about target location in order to improve ATR performance. We propose a 20 questions framework for studying the...SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 5 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  12. Human perceptual deficits as factors in computer interface test and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, S.E.

    1992-06-01

    Issues related to testing and evaluating human computer interfaces are usually based on the machine rather than on the human portion of the computer interface. Perceptual characteristics of the expected user are rarely investigated, and interface designers ignore known population perceptual limitations. For these reasons, environmental impacts on the equipment will more likely be defined than will user perceptual characteristics. The investigation of user population characteristics is most often directed toward intellectual abilities and anthropometry. This problem is compounded by the fact that some deficits capabilities tend to be found in higher-than-overall population distribution in some user groups. The test and evaluation community can address the issue from two primary aspects. First, assessing user characteristics should be extended to include tests of perceptual capability. Secondly, interface designs should use multimode information coding.

  13. Participatory Heuristic Evaluation of the Second Iteration of the eWALL Interface Application.

    PubMed

    Hangaard, Stine; Schaarup, Clara; Hejlesen, Ole K

    2016-01-01

    The number of people having a chronic disease is increasing. Telehealth may provide an alternative to traditional medicine as telehealth solutions have shown to have a positive influence on quality of live and to decrease the number of hospital visits. A new telehealth solution is the eWALL system. Previously, the eWALL interface application has been evaluated using participatory heuristic evaluation (PHE). The previous round of PHE lead to drastic changes of the eWALL interface application. Consequently, a second round of PHE was performed. Five usability experts and two work-domain professionals inspected the eWALL interface application and identified usability problems (n = 384). The work domain professionals had a tendency to use other heuristics than the usability experts highlighting the relevance of using PHE in an interface development process.

  14. Cognitive evaluation of the user interface and vocabulary of an outpatient information system.

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, A.; Patel, V.; Cimino, J. J.; Barrows, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach to the evaluation of the user interface and vocabulary of a medical information system. The use of video recording for collecting usability data is detailed. The technique employed involves the collection of data consisting of transcripts of physicians as they "think aloud" while interacting with the system, along with a video record of the complete user-computer interaction. Using methods of analysis from cognitive science, the study was able to distinguish the source of physician problems in using the system's interface and in interacting with its controlled medical vocabulary. Analysis of the protocols indicated that all subjects encountered several generic problems, the most common ones indicative of a need for greater consistency in the interface design. Based on this evaluation, parts of the user interface have been re-implemented in an ongoing process of iterative system development. PMID:8947620

  15. A human factors evaluation of the robotic interface for Space Station Freedom orbital replaceable units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Hwang, Ellen Y.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Legendre, A. Jay

    1992-01-01

    An orbital replaceable unit (ORU) is often defined as any orbital unit aboard Space Station with a wearout life of less than 30 years. The capability of successful changeout of these units by remote manipulation is critical to the ORU to telerobot interface design. A human factors evaluation of the selected interface showed certain inadequacies of the alignment target concept that was part of the interface package. Alternative target concepts which addressed these inadequacies were developed and are presented. Recommendations will be incorporated into NASA requirements documents which ORU suppliers and manufacturers must then build to.

  16. Brain-computer interfacing under distraction: an evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, Stephanie; Frølich, Laura; Höhne, Johannes; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Samek, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    Objective. While motor-imagery based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been studied over many years by now, most of these studies have taken place in controlled lab settings. Bringing BCI technology into everyday life is still one of the main challenges in this field of research. Approach. This paper systematically investigates BCI performance under 6 types of distractions that mimic out-of-lab environments. Main results. We report results of 16 participants and show that the performance of the standard common spatial patterns (CSP) + regularized linear discriminant analysis classification pipeline drops significantly in this ‘simulated’ out-of-lab setting. We then investigate three methods for improving the performance: (1) artifact removal, (2) ensemble classification, and (3) a 2-step classification approach. While artifact removal does not enhance the BCI performance significantly, both ensemble classification and the 2-step classification combined with CSP significantly improve the performance compared to the standard procedure. Significance. Systematically analyzing out-of-lab scenarios is crucial when bringing BCI into everyday life. Algorithms must be adapted to overcome nonstationary environments in order to tackle real-world challenges.

  17. Evaluation of a Compact Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface System.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyoung; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schmitz, Christoph H; Kim, Do-Won; Hwang, Han-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    We realized a compact hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system by integrating a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device with an economical electroencephalography (EEG) system. The NIRS array was located on the subjects' forehead, covering the prefrontal area. The EEG electrodes were distributed over the frontal, motor/temporal, and parietal areas. The experimental paradigm involved a Stroop word-picture matching test in combination with mental arithmetic (MA) and baseline (BL) tasks, in which the subjects were asked to perform either MA or BL in response to congruent or incongruent conditions, respectively. We compared the classification accuracies of each of the modalities (NIRS or EEG) with that of the hybrid system. We showed that the hybrid system outperforms the unimodal EEG and NIRS systems by 6.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Since the proposed hybrid system is based on portable platforms, it is not confined to a laboratory environment and has the potential to be used in real-life situations, such as in neurorehabilitation.

  18. Evaluation of a Compact Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface System

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schmitz, Christoph H.

    2017-01-01

    We realized a compact hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system by integrating a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device with an economical electroencephalography (EEG) system. The NIRS array was located on the subjects' forehead, covering the prefrontal area. The EEG electrodes were distributed over the frontal, motor/temporal, and parietal areas. The experimental paradigm involved a Stroop word-picture matching test in combination with mental arithmetic (MA) and baseline (BL) tasks, in which the subjects were asked to perform either MA or BL in response to congruent or incongruent conditions, respectively. We compared the classification accuracies of each of the modalities (NIRS or EEG) with that of the hybrid system. We showed that the hybrid system outperforms the unimodal EEG and NIRS systems by 6.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Since the proposed hybrid system is based on portable platforms, it is not confined to a laboratory environment and has the potential to be used in real-life situations, such as in neurorehabilitation. PMID:28373984

  19. Comparing two anesthesia information management system user interfaces: a usability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Rao, Anoop V; Rothwell, Sarah H; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2012-11-01

    Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) have been developed by multiple vendors and are deployed in thousands of operating rooms around the world, yet not much is known about measuring and improving AIMS usability. We developed a methodology for evaluating AIMS usability in a low-fidelity simulated clinical environment and used it to compare an existing user interface with a revised version. We hypothesized that the revised user interface would be more useable. In a low-fidelity simulated clinical environment, twenty anesthesia providers documented essential anesthetic information for the start of the case using both an existing and a revised user interface. Participants had not used the revised user interface previously and completed a brief training exercise prior to the study task. All participants completed a workload assessment and a satisfaction survey. All sessions were recorded. Multiple usability metrics were measured. The primary outcome was documentation accuracy. Secondary outcomes were perceived workload, number of documentation steps, number of user interactions, and documentation time. The interfaces were compared and design problems were identified by analyzing recorded sessions and survey results. Use of the revised user interface was shown to improve documentation accuracy from 85.1% to 92.4%, a difference of 7.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference 1.8 to 12.7). The revised user interface decreased the number of user interactions by 6.5 for intravenous documentation (95% CI 2.9 to 10.1) and by 16.1 for airway documentation (95% CI 11.1 to 21.1). The revised user interface required 3.8 fewer documentation steps (95% CI 2.3 to 5.4). Airway documentation time was reduced by 30.5 seconds with the revised workflow (95% CI 8.5 to 52.4). There were no significant time differences noted in intravenous documentation or in total task time. No difference in perceived workload was found between the user interfaces. Two user interface

  20. Evaluating a Web-Based Interface for Internet Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Newman, Dava J.; Sebrechts, Marc M.; Doarn, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective is to introduce the usability engineering methodology, heuristic evaluation, to the design and development of a web-based telemedicine system. Using a set of usability criteria, or heuristics, one evaluator examined the Spacebridge to Russia web-site for usability problems. Thirty-four usability problems were found in this preliminary study and all were assigned a severity rating. The value of heuristic analysis in the iterative design of a system is shown because the problems can be fixed before deployment of a system and the problems are of a different nature than those found by actual users of the system. It was therefore determined that there is potential value of heuristic evaluation paired with user testing as a strategy for optimal system performance design.

  1. Evaluation of a Handheld Data Collection Interface for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Cynthia Sims; Jones, Tricia; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2004-01-01

    Despite a rise in the use of handheld computers in classrooms, meaningful learning with personal digital assistant (PDA) technology remains poorly studied. This article reports results from an evaluation of customized handheld data collection software, the BioKIDS Sequence, which was used during an 8-week biodiversity curriculum unit by 5th and…

  2. Evaluation of a Handheld Data Collection Interface for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Cynthia Sims; Jones, Tricia; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2004-01-01

    Despite a rise in the use of handheld computers in classrooms, meaningful learning with personal digital assistant (PDA) technology remains poorly studied. This article reports results from an evaluation of customized handheld data collection software, the BioKIDS Sequence, which was used during an 8-week biodiversity curriculum unit by 5th and…

  3. Performance Evaluation of Speech Recognition Systems as a Next-Generation Pilot-Vehicle Interface Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-01-01

    During the flight trials known as Gulfstream-V Synthetic Vision Systems Integrated Technology Evaluation (GV-SITE), a Speech Recognition System (SRS) was used by the evaluation pilots. The SRS system was intended to be an intuitive interface for display control (rather than knobs, buttons, etc.). This paper describes the performance of the current "state of the art" Speech Recognition System (SRS). The commercially available technology was evaluated as an application for possible inclusion in commercial aircraft flight decks as a crew-to-vehicle interface. Specifically, the technology is to be used as an interface from aircrew to the onboard displays, controls, and flight management tasks. A flight test of a SRS as well as a laboratory test was conducted.

  4. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded and Bolted Cold Plates with Al/Cu Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Suresh, M.; Sibi Varshan, M.

    2015-05-01

    An attempt is made to design and fabricate a cold plate with aluminum-copper dissimilar interface joined by friction stir welding. Optimum welding conditions for obtaining sound-quality corner and T joints with an aluminum-copper interface were established. Welded cross sections of the friction stir welded cold plate were analyzed to understand the bonding characteristics. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the fluid-flow characteristics and thermal resistance of friction stir welded cold plate and the resulted are compared with the conventional bolted cold plate configuration. For CFD modeling of a cold plate with a dissimilar interface, a new methodology is proposed. From the CFD analysis and experimental results, it is observed that friction stir welded cold plate offered better thermal performance compared to the bolted cold plate and it is due to the metallurgical bonding at the aluminum-copper interface with the dispersion of copper particles.

  5. Flight System Testbed for Low Cost Spacecraft Interface Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casani, E.; Thomas, N.

    1994-01-01

    A world leader in space technology, JPL has over 30 years experience in developing spacecraft systems and managing deep space missions for NASA. Future scientific missions will require the rapid development of small, lightweight, high-technology, low-cost spacecraft. JPL is developing a method of meeting these requirements: a test facility specifically for supporting a rapid prototyping development environment that creates a virtual (simulated) spacecraft in which system-level evaluations of components can be carried out very early in the development cycle, long before an actual spacecraft is built.

  6. Using ABAQUS Scripting Interface for Materials Evaluation and Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Lynn M.; Arnold, Steven M.; Baranski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    An ABAQUS script has been written to aid in the evaluation of the mechanical behavior of viscoplastic materials. The purposes of the script are to: handle complex load histories; control load/displacement with alternate stopping criteria; predict failure and life; and verify constitutive models. Material models from the ABAQUS library may be used or the UMAT routine may specify mechanical behavior. User subroutines implemented include: UMAT for the constitutive model; UEXTERNALDB for file manipulation; DISP for boundary conditions; and URDFIL for results processing. Examples presented include load, strain and displacement control tests on a single element model. The tests are creep with a life limiting strain criterion, strain control with a stress limiting cycle and a complex interrupted cyclic relaxation test. The techniques implemented in this paper enable complex load conditions to be solved efficiently with ABAQUS.

  7. Formative evaluation of a mobile liquid portion size estimation interface for people with varying literacy skills

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Kay; Siek, Katie A.; Welch, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Chronically ill people, especially those with low literacy skills, often have difficulty estimating portion sizes of liquids to help them stay within their recommended fluid limits. There is a plethora of mobile applications that can help people monitor their nutritional intake but unfortunately these applications require the user to have high literacy and numeracy skills for portion size recording. In this paper, we present two studies in which the low- and the high-fidelity versions of a portion size estimation interface, designed using the cognitive strategies adults employ for portion size estimation during diet recall studies, was evaluated by a chronically ill population with varying literacy skills. The low fidelity interface was evaluated by ten patients who were all able to accurately estimate portion sizes of various liquids with the interface. Eighteen participants did an in situ evaluation of the high-fidelity version incorporated in a diet and fluid monitoring mobile application for 6 weeks. Although the accuracy of the estimation cannot be confirmed in the second study but the participants who actively interacted with the interface showed better health outcomes by the end of the study. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for designing the next iteration of an accurate and low literacy-accessible liquid portion size estimation mobile interface. PMID:24443659

  8. An empirical evaluation of graphical interfaces to support flight planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Bihari, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Whether optimization techniques or expert systems technologies are used, the underlying inference processes and the model or knowledge base for a computerized problem-solving system are likely to be incomplete for any given complex, real-world task. To deal with the resultant brittleness, it has been suggested that 'cooperative' rather than 'automated' problem-solving systems be designed. Such cooperative systems are proposed to explicitly enhance the collaboration of people and the computer system when working in partnership to solve problems. This study evaluates the impact of alternative design concepts on the performance of airline pilots interacting with such a cooperative system designed to support enroute flight planning. Thirty pilots were studied using three different versions of the system. The results clearly demonstrate that different system design concepts can strongly influence the cognitive processes of users. Indeed, one of the designs studied caused four times as many pilots to accept a poor flight amendment. Based on think-aloud protocols, cognitive models are proposed to account for how features of the computer system interacted with specific types of scenarios to influence exploration and decision-making by the pilots. The results are then used to develop recommendations for guiding the design of cooperative systems.

  9. J-integral evaluation for an interface crack under thermal load using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hiroto; Arikawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Satoru; Watanabe, Yasuaki; Asai, Tatsuhiko; Shiokawa, Kunio

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a method for evaluating a fracture parameter, J-integral, for an interface crack from the displacement fields under thermal deformation is developed for studying the fracture behavior of an interface crack in an actual electronic component. First, the displacement fields around an interface crack tip are measured using digital image correlation (DIC). Second, the displacement gradient and strain are determined from the displacement fields using a finite element smoothing technique on the domain of integration. Then, the stress components are determined from the strains using the elastic-plastic relations with the incremental strain theory and the each material property. Finally, the J-integral value is determined by the numerical integration on the domain of integration. The effectiveness of this evaluation method is demonstrated by applying this method to the displacement fields obtained from the elastic-plastic finite element analysis.

  10. Development and validation of methods for man-made machine interface evaluation. [for shuttles and shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.; Micocci, A.

    1975-01-01

    The alternate methods of conducting a man-machine interface evaluation are classified as static and dynamic, and are evaluated. A dynamic evaluation tool is presented to provide for a determination of the effectiveness of the man-machine interface in terms of the sequence of operations (task and task sequences) and in terms of the physical characteristics of the interface. This dynamic checklist approach is recommended for shuttle and shuttle payload man-machine interface evaluations based on reduced preparation time, reduced data, and increased sensitivity of critical problems.

  11. A human engineering and ergonomic evaluation of the security access panel interface

    SciTech Connect

    Hartney, C.; Banks, W.W.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine which of several security hardware interface designs produced the highest levels of end-user performance and acceptance. The FESSP Security Alarms and Monitoring Systems program area commissioned the authors study as decision support for upgrading the Argus security system`s primary user interface so that Argus equipment will support the new DOE and DoD security access badges. Twenty-two test subjects were repeatedly tested using six remote access panel (RAP) designs. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses one of these interface designs in its security access booths. Along with the RAP B insert-style reader, the authors tested five prototype RAP variants, each with a different style of swipe badge reader, through which a badge is moved or swiped. The authors asked the untrained test subjects to use each RAP while they described how they thought they should respond so that the system would operate correctly in reading the magnetic strip on a security badge. With each RAP variant, subjects were required to make four successful card reads (swipes) in which the card reader correctly read and logged the transaction. After each trial, a subject completed a 10-item interface acceptance evaluation before approaching the next RAP. After interacting with the RAP interfaces (for a total of the six RAP trials), each subject completed a 7-item overview evaluation that compared and ranked the five experimental RAPs, using the original (RAP B) insert style as a standard.

  12. Hierarchical analytical and simulation modelling of human-machine systems with interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braginsky, M. Ya; Tarakanov, D. V.; Tsapko, S. G.; Tsapko, I. V.; Baglaeva, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the principles of building the analytical and simulation model of the human operator and the industrial control system hardware and software. E-networks as the extension of Petri nets are used as the mathematical apparatus. This approach allows simulating complex parallel distributed processes in human-machine systems. The structural and hierarchical approach is used as the building method for the mathematical model of the human operator. The upper level of the human operator is represented by the logical dynamic model of decision making based on E-networks. The lower level reflects psychophysiological characteristics of the human-operator.

  13. Novice Use of a Dimensional Scale for the Evaluation of the Hypermedia User Interface: Caveat Emptor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a dimensional scale for the evaluation of the multimedia user interface. Reports on a study of the use of the scale by novice graduate students at the University of Houston Clear Lake. Discusses hypermedia as a subset of multimedia, and investigates dependent measures including navigation. (LRW)

  14. The Design and Evaluation of a Front-End User Interface for Energy Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgman, Christine L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports on the Online Access to Knowledge (OAK) Project, which developed software to support end user access to a Department of Energy database based on the skill levels and needs of energy researchers. The discussion covers issues in development, evaluation, and the study of user behavior in designing an interface tailored to a special…

  15. Evaluating curvature for the volume of fluid method via interface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Fabien; Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend

    2016-11-01

    The volume of fluid method (VOF) is widely adopted for the simulation of interfacial flows. A critical step in VOF modelling is to evaluate the local mean curvature of the fluid interface for the computation of surface tension. Most existing curvature evaluation techniques exhibit errors due to the discrete nature of the field they are dealing with, and potentially to the smoothing of this field that the method might require. This leads to the production of inaccurate or unphysical results. We present a curvature evaluation method which aims at greatly reducing these errors. The interface is reconstructed from the volume fraction field and the curvature is evaluated by fitting local quadric patches onto the resulting triangulation. The patch that best fits the triangulated interface can be found by solving a local minimisation problem. Combined with a partition of unity strategy with compactly supported radial basis functions, the method provides a semi-global implicit expression for the interface from which curvature can be exactly derived. The local mean curvature is then integrated back on the Eulerian mesh. We show a detailed analysis of the associated errors and comparisons with existing methods. The method can be extended to unstructured meshes. Financial support from Petrobras is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. A 3D Human-Machine Integrated Design and Analysis Framework for Squat Exercises with a Smith Machine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haerin; Jung, Moonki; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Lee, Sang Hun

    2017-02-06

    In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional design and evaluation framework and process based on a probabilistic-based motion synthesis algorithm and biomechanical analysis system for the design of the Smith machine and squat training programs. Moreover, we implemented a prototype system to validate the proposed framework. The framework consists of an integrated human-machine-environment model as well as a squat motion synthesis system and biomechanical analysis system. In the design and evaluation process, we created an integrated model in which interactions between a human body and machine or the ground are modeled as joints with constraints at contact points. Next, we generated Smith squat motion using the motion synthesis program based on a Gaussian process regression algorithm with a set of given values for independent variables. Then, using the biomechanical analysis system, we simulated joint moments and muscle activities from the input of the integrated model and squat motion. We validated the model and algorithm through physical experiments measuring the electromyography (EMG) signals, ground forces, and squat motions as well as through a biomechanical simulation of muscle forces. The proposed approach enables the incorporation of biomechanics in the design process and reduces the need for physical experiments and prototypes in the development of training programs and new Smith machines.

  17. Fuzzy Decision-Making Fuser (FDMF) for Integrating Human-Machine Autonomous (HMA) Systems with Adaptive Evidence Sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Pal, Nikhil R; Marathe, Amar R; Wang, Yu-Kai; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2017-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) creates a direct communication pathway between the human brain and an external device or system. In contrast to patient-oriented BCIs, which are intended to restore inoperative or malfunctioning aspects of the nervous system, a growing number of BCI studies focus on designing auxiliary systems that are intended for everyday use. The goal of building these BCIs is to provide capabilities that augment existing intact physical and mental capabilities. However, a key challenge to BCI research is human variability; factors such as fatigue, inattention, and stress vary both across different individuals and for the same individual over time. If these issues are addressed, autonomous systems may provide additional benefits that enhance system performance and prevent problems introduced by individual human variability. This study proposes a human-machine autonomous (HMA) system that simultaneously aggregates human and machine knowledge to recognize targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The HMA focuses on integrating an RSVP BCI with computer vision techniques in an image-labeling domain. A fuzzy decision-making fuser (FDMF) is then applied in the HMA system to provide a natural adaptive framework for evidence-based inference by incorporating an integrated summary of the available evidence (i.e., human and machine decisions) and associated uncertainty. Consequently, the HMA system dynamically aggregates decisions involving uncertainties from both human and autonomous agents. The collaborative decisions made by an HMA system can achieve and maintain superior performance more efficiently than either the human or autonomous agents can achieve independently. The experimental results shown in this study suggest that the proposed HMA system with the FDMF can effectively fuse decisions from human brain activities and the computer vision techniques to improve overall performance on the RSVP recognition task. This conclusion

  18. Novel user interface design for medication reconciliation: an evaluation of Twinlist.

    PubMed

    Plaisant, Catherine; Wu, Johnny; Hettinger, A Zach; Powsner, Seth; Shneiderman, Ben

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate time, number of interface actions, and accuracy on medication reconciliation tasks using a novel user interface (Twinlist, which lays out the medications in five columns based on similarity and uses animation to introduce the grouping - www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/sharp/twinlist) compared to a Control interface (where medications are presented side by side in two columns). A secondary objective was to assess participant agreement with statements regarding clarity and utility and to elicit comparisons. A 1 × 2 within-subjects experimental design was used with interface (Twinlist or Control) as an independent variable; time, number of clicks, scrolls, and errors were used as dependent variables. Participants were practicing medical providers with experience performing medication reconciliation but no experience with Twinlist. They reconciled two cases in each interface (in a counterbalanced order), then provided feedback on the design of the interface. Twenty medical providers participated in the study for a total of 80 trials. The trials using Twinlist were statistically significantly faster (18%), with fewer clicks (40%) and scrolls (60%). Serious errors were noted 12 and 31 times in Twinlist and Control trials, respectively. Trials using Twinlist were faster and more accurate. Subjectively, participants rated Twinlist more favorably than Control. They valued the novel layout of the drugs, but indicated that the included animation would be valuable for novices, but not necessarily for advanced users. Additional feedback from participants provides guidance for further development and clinical implementations. Cognitive support of medication reconciliation through interface design can significantly improve performance and safety. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Evaluation of joint interface of friction stir welding between dissimilar metals using HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashiko, Y.; Hatsukade, Y.; Yasui, T.; Takenaka, H.; Todaka, Y.; Fukumoto, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated conductive properties of joint interfaces of friction stir welding (FSW) between dissimilar metals, stainless steel SUS304 and aluminum A6063, using a SQUID nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system. With current injection method, the current maps above the FSW specimens jointed under various conditions were measured by a HTS-SQUID gradiometer. The conductivities of the joint interfaces, which were estimated from the current maps, differed between the joint conditions. By destructive tests using optical microscope, large voids were observed on the joint interfaces with low welding speed that generated excess heating. In case of one specimen, which was welded with welding speed of 500 and 200 mm/min, the conductivity of the former was higher than that of the latter, although the inside voids in the respective regions were not much different. From these results, it is suggested that the current maps were influenced not only by the conductivity of the joint interface but also by inside voids. By hardness test on the SUS boards near the interfaces, only the SUS jointed with 200 mm/min was about half softer than its matrix.

  20. Evaluation of the user interface simplicity in the modern generation of mechanical ventilators.

    PubMed

    Uzawa, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Suzukawa, Masayuki

    2008-03-01

    We designed this study to evaluate the simplicity of the user interface in modern-generation mechanical ventilators. We hypothesized that different designs in the user interface could result in different rates of operational failures. A laboratory in a tertiary teaching hospital. Crossover design. Twenty-one medical resident physicians who did not possess operating experience with any of the selected ventilators. Four modern mechanical ventilators were selected: Dräger Evita XL, Maquet Servo-i, Newport e500, and Puritan Bennett 840. Each subject was requested to perform 8 tasks on each ventilator. Two objective variables (the number of successfully completed tasks without operational failures and the operational time) and the overall subjective rating of the ease of use, measured with a 100-mm visual analog scale were recorded. The total percentage of operational failures made for all subjects, for all tasks, was 23%. There were significant differences in the rates of operational failures and operational time among the 4 ventilators. Subjects made more operational failures in setting up the ventilators and in making ventilator-setting changes than in reacting to alarms. The subjective feeling of the ease of use was also significantly different among the ventilators. The design of the user interface is relevant to the occurrence of operational failures. Our data indicate that ventilator designers could optimize the user-interface design to reduce the operational failures; therefore, basic user interface should be standardized among the clinically used mechanical ventilators.

  1. Design and Development of an Affective Interface for Supporting Energy-saving Activities and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kyoko; Tomita, Daisuke; Imaki, Tomotaka; Hongo, Taishiro; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    Toward a sustainable society, energy and environmental issues are very important and controversial problems, and it is expected to support various human activities for the measures by using Information Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an affective interface for supporting people's energy-saving activities. First, a model for supporting people's energy-saving activities involving affective elements has been constructed for supporting people's energy-saving activities, based on social psychological approaches. Based on the proposed model, the requirements on an affective interface for people's energy-saving activities have been considered. In this study, the affective interface presents suitable energy-saving activities and current electric energy consumption by a character agent with a graphical shape and synthesized voice. The character agent recommends people's energy-saving activities, tells the method of energy-saving activities and the effectiveness, and so on. The affective interface for supporting energy-saving activities has been designed in detail and developed. Then, the evaluation experiment of the developed interface has been conducted, and the results of the experiments were analyzed.

  2. The Design and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Real-Walking Locomotion Interface

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Tabitha C.; Fuchs, Henry; Whitton, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Redirected Free Exploration with Distractors (RFED) is a large-scale real-walking locomotion interface developed to enable people to walk freely in virtual environments that are larger than the tracked space in their facility. This paper describes the RFED system in detail and reports on a user study that evaluated RFED by comparing it to walking-in-place and joystick interfaces. The RFED system is composed of two major components, redirection and distractors. This paper discusses design challenges, implementation details, and lessons learned during the development of two working RFED systems. The evaluation study examined the effect of the locomotion interface on users’ cognitive performance on navigation and wayfinding measures. The results suggest that participants using RFED were significantly better at navigating and wayfinding through virtual mazes than participants using walking-in-place and joystick interfaces. Participants traveled shorter distances, made fewer wrong turns, pointed to hidden targets more accurately and more quickly, and were able to place and label targets on maps more accurately, and more accurately estimate the virtual environment size. PMID:22184262

  3. Evaluation of pH at the Bacteria–Dental Cement Interface

    PubMed Central

    Mayanagi, G.; Igarashi, K.; Washio, J.; Nakajo, K.; Domon-Tawaraya, H.; Takahashi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Physiochemical assessment of the parasite-biomaterial interface is essential in the development of new biomaterials. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to evaluate pH at the bacteria-dental cement interface and to demonstrate physiochemical interaction at the interface. The experimental apparatus with a well (4.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm deep) was made of polymethyl methacrylate with dental cement or polymethyl methacrylate (control) at the bottom. Three representative dental cements (glass-ionomer, zinc phosphate, and zinc oxide-eugenol cements) were used. Each specimen was immersed in 2 mM potassium phosphate buffer for 10 min, 24 hrs, 1 wk, or 4 wks. The well was packed with Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449, and a miniature pH electrode was placed at the interface between bacterial cells and dental cement. The pH was monitored after the addition of 1% glucose, and the fluoride contained in the cells was quantified. Glass-ionomer cement inhibited the bacteria-induced pH fall significantly compared with polymethyl methacrylate (control) at the interface (10 min, 5.16 ± 0.19 vs. 4.50 ± 0.07; 24 hrs, 5.20 ± 0.07 vs. 4.59 ± 0.11; 1 wk, 5.34 ± 0.14 vs. 4.57 ± 0.11; and 4 wks, 4.95 ± 0.27 vs. 4.40 ± 0.14), probably due to the fluoride released from the cement. This method could be useful for the assessment of pH at the parasite-biomaterial interface. PMID:21933936

  4. Application of color image processing and low-coherent optical computer tomography in evaluation of adhesive interfaces of dental restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Shlyapnikova, Olga A.; Venig, Sergey B.; Genina, Elina A.; Sadovnikov, Alexandr V.

    2015-03-01

    Durability of bonded interfaces between dentin and a polymer material in resin-based composite restorations remains a clinical dentistry challenge. In the present study the evolution of bonded interfaces in biological active environment is estimated in vivo. A novel in vivo method of visual diagnostics that involves digital processing of color images of composite restorations and allows the evaluation of adhesive interface quality over time, has been developed and tested on a group of volunteers. However, the application of the method is limited to the analysis of superficial adhesive interfaces. Low-coherent optical computer tomography (OCT) has been tested as a powerful non-invasive tool for in vivo, in situ clinical diagnostics of adhesive interfaces over time. In the long-term perspective adhesive interface monitoring using standard methods of clinical diagnostics along with colour image analysis and OCT could make it possible to objectivise and prognosticate the clinical longevity of composite resin-based restorations with adhesive interfaces.

  5. Qualitative evaluation of the adesive interface between lithium disilicate, luting composite and natural tooth

    PubMed Central

    Mobilio, Nicola; Fasiol, Alberto; Catapano, Santo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim of this work was to qualitatively evaluate the interface between tooth, luting composite and lithium disilicate surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An extracted restoration-free human molar was stored in physiological solution until it was embedded in an autopolimerysing acrylic resin. A standard preparation for overlay was completed and after preparation an anatomic overlay was waxed on the tooth and then hot pressed using lithium disilicate ceramic. After cementation the sample was dissected and the section was analysed using an Automatic Micromet (Remet s.a.s) and the section was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM evaluation of the tooth showed the three layers seamlessly; by increasing the enlargement the interface did not change. PMID:27486504

  6. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of the Sealer-Dentine Interface of Three Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Fatemeh; Farahanimastary, Farzad; Dibaji, Fatemeh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the dentine-sealer interface in three different sealers using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: Thirty extracted human single-rooted teeth were prepared using ProTaper rotary files and were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) including BC Sealer, AH-Plus and Dorifill. The root canals were filled with cold lateral condensation technique and stored for 7 days in 100% humidity at 37°C. Cross sections were prepared from the coronal, middle, and apical sections of the roots. Then SEM images were taken and the width of gaps was measured by software. Sectional images were evaluated by two endodontists. Data were analyzed using two- and one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: The mean gap width was significantly lower in coronal area in BC Sealer group compared to Dorifill (P=0.043) and likewise in AH-Plus group compared to Dorifill (P=0.018). There was no significant difference between BC Sealer and AH-Plus group in this area (P=0.923). No significant difference was detected in apical and middle zones among three sealers (P=0.367 and 0.643, respectively). Dentine-sealer interface showed no significant difference in three sealers in the apical area (P=0.051), but dentine-BC Sealer interface was better than AH-Plus in middle and coronal areas, and both outperformed Dorifill (P=0.001). Conclusion: BC Sealer and AH-Plus had less gaps than Dorifill in coronal area. In addition, BC Sealer had better dentine interface in middle and coronal area compared to AH-Plus, and both performed better than Dorifill. Reverse relationship was observed between the mean gap width and dentine-sealer interface quality. PMID:28179922

  7. Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Critical Interface Features of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX)

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenberg, Kevin D; Litherland, P Steve; Cole, Michael J; Williamson, David E; Goranson, Paul L; Nelson, Brad E; Heitzenroeder, P.; Myatt, R.

    2009-01-01

    The (18) modular coils for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are joined at assembly by interfaces to form a toroidal shell which serves as the structural backbone of the device. There are six each of three coil types (A, B, and C); consequently, there are 4 distinct interface designs (A-A, A-B, B-C, C-C). This paper describes the performance evaluations and analyses used in the development of these critical interfaces. Initial analyses indicated that the baseline interface designs did not provide adequate shear capability along the inner (unbolted) legs between the modular coils and did not adequately address assembly tolerance requirements. Consequently a design effort was undertaken to develop interfaces with adequate shear capability and which would facilitate the achievement of assembly tolerances. Analyses indicated that a friction coefficient of 0.3 is necessary for 'no-slip' joints with a preload value of {approx}320 kN in the outboard regions. Two types of compatible segmented friction shims were developed to meet the friction requirement. One type uses alumina coated stainless steel shims and the other uses G-10/ stainless steel/ G-10 'sandwich shims.' Analyses indicated that the time constant requirements for induced currents in the shell could still be achieved with welds along all the inner (unbolted) legs except at the C-C interface. Consequently, welded interfaces utilizing alternating MIG fillet welds on each end of shims between coil castings were developed to react the shear loads. This configuration minimizes distortion since it avoids direct weld shrinkage stress across the interfaces. Analyses indicates that a 12.7 mm fillet weld has adequate shear capability, with average stress through the welds of 90-125 MPa, compared to a static limit of 217 MPa. Custom sized compression pucks located in the middle of the welded shims react the compressive loads and have average stresses less than 137 MPa. Fatigue acceptability of the welded

  8. Evaluation and use of regenerative multi electrode interfaces in peripheral nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Vidhi

    Peripheral nerves offer unique accessibility to the innate motor and sensory pathways that can be interfaced with high degree of selectivity for intuitive and bidirectional control of advanced upper extremity prosthetic limbs. Several peripheral nerve interfaces have been proposed and investigated over the last few decades with significant progress made in the area of sensory feedback. However, clinical translation still remains a formidable challenge due to the lack of long term recordings. Prominent causes include signal degradation, eventual interface failures, and lack of specificity in the low amplitude nerve signals. This dissertation evaluates the capabilities of the newly developed Regenerative Multi-electrode Interface (REMI) by the characterization of signal quality progression, the identification of interfaced axon types, and the demonstration of "functional linkage" between acquired signals and target organs. Chapter 2 details the chronic recording of high quality signals from REMI in sciatic nerve which remained stable over a 120 day implantation period indicative of minimal ongoing tissue response with no detrimental effects on the recording ability. The dominant cause of failures was attributable to abiotic factors pertaining to the connector/wire breakage, observed in 76% of REMI implants. Also, the REMI implants had 20% higher success rate and significantly larger Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in comparison to the Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA). Chapter 3 describes the successful feasibility of interfacing with motor and sensory axons by REMI implantation in the tibial and sural fascicles of the sciatic nerve. A characteristic sampling bias towards recording signals from medium-to-large diameter axons that are primarily involved in mechanoception and proprioception sensory functions was uncovered. Specific bursting units (Inter Spike Interval of 30-70ms) were observed most frequently from the tibial fascicle during bipedal locomotion. Chapter 4

  9. Evaluation of a novel Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface for consumer health information: a crowdsourced comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Licong; Carter, Rebecca; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2014-02-10

    Numerous consumer health information websites have been developed to provide consumers access to health information. However, lookup search is insufficient for consumers to take full advantage of these rich public information resources. Exploratory search is considered a promising complementary mechanism, but its efficacy has never before been rigorously evaluated for consumer health information retrieval interfaces. This study aims to (1) introduce a novel Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface (CENI) for supporting effective consumer health information retrieval and navigation, and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of CENI through a search-interface comparative evaluation using crowdsourcing with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). We collected over 60,000 consumer health questions from NetWellness, one of the first consumer health websites to provide high-quality health information. We designed and developed a novel conjunctive exploratory navigation interface to explore NetWellness health questions with health topics as dynamic and searchable menus. To investigate the effectiveness of CENI, we developed a second interface with keyword-based search only. A crowdsourcing comparative study was carefully designed to compare three search modes of interest: (A) the topic-navigation-based CENI, (B) the keyword-based lookup interface, and (C) either the most commonly available lookup search interface with Google, or the resident advanced search offered by NetWellness. To compare the effectiveness of the three search modes, 9 search tasks were designed with relevant health questions from NetWellness. Each task included a rating of difficulty level and questions for validating the quality of answers. Ninety anonymous and unique AMT workers were recruited as participants. Repeated-measures ANOVA analysis of the data showed the search modes A, B, and C had statistically significant differences among their levels of difficulty (P<.001). Wilcoxon signed-rank test (one

  10. A usability evaluation of a SNOMED CT based compositional interface terminology for intensive care.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi-Raiez, F; de Keizer, N F; Cornet, R; Dorrepaal, M; Dongelmans, D; Jaspers, M W M

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the usability of a large compositional interface terminology based on SNOMED CT and the terminology application for registration of the reasons for intensive care admission in a Patient Data Management System. Observational study with user-based usability evaluations before and 3 months after the system was implemented and routinely used. Usability was defined by five aspects: effectiveness, efficiency, learnability, overall user satisfaction, and experienced usability problems. Qualitative (the Think-Aloud user testing method) and quantitative (the System Usability Scale questionnaire and Time-on-Task analyses) methods were used to examine these usability aspects. The results of the evaluation study revealed that the usability of the interface terminology fell short (SUS scores before and after implementation of 47.2 out of 100 and 37.5 respectively out of 100). The qualitative measurements revealed a high number (n=35) of distinct usability problems, leading to ineffective and inefficient registration of reasons for admission. The effectiveness and efficiency of the system did not change over time. About 14% (n=5) of the revealed usability problems were related to the terminology content based on SNOMED CT, while the remaining 86% (n=30) was related to the terminology application. The problems related to the terminology content were more severe than the problems related to the terminology application. This study provides a detailed insight into how clinicians interact with a controlled compositional terminology through a terminology application. The extensiveness, complexity of the hierarchy, and the language usage of an interface terminology are defining for its usability. Carefully crafted domain-specific subsets and a well-designed terminology application are needed to facilitate the use of a complex compositional interface terminology based on SNOMED CT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Human-system interfaces and procedures. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. In addition, a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists served as subject matter experts. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present report focuses on an evaluation of the human-system interfaces in relation to the treatment machines and supporting equipment (e.g., simulators, treatment planning computers, control consoles, patient charts) found in the teletherapy environment. The report also evaluates operating, maintenance and emergency procedures and practices involved in teletherapy. The evaluations are based on the function and task analysis and established human engineering guidelines, where applicable.

  12. Evaluation of vitreoretinal interface changes in patients receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy.

    PubMed

    Kinra, Vartika; Singh, Satvir; Khanduja, Sumeet; Nada, Manisha

    2017-03-15

    To study the effects of repeated intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drug bevacizumab on the vitreoretinal interface (VRI). Patients undergoing intravitreal injection of bevacizumab were enrolled. Eyes with media haze, uveitis, high myopia, history of cataract surgery or laser capsulotomy in last 6 months and complicated pseudophakia were excluded. VRI evaluation was done monthly for a minimum of 6 months. The nature and timing of the change(s) event was recorded. A total of 100 eyes were evaluated. Thirty-seven eyes developed new vitreoretinal interface change event (VICE). Pseudophakia (OR = 5.23, 95% CI = 1.99-14.07, p = 0.001), pre-injection VRI abnormality (OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.13-6.14, p = 0.024) and older age at enrollment (62.6 ± 13.9 vs. 56.3 ± 14 years) were risk factors for development of VICE. Eighty percent of interface events occurred in the first 3 months of therapy. Eight needed surgical intervention for consequences of vitreoretinal separation. VICE is not infrequent in eyes receiving anti-VEGF therapy though rarely need surgical intervention. The first 3 months are the critical months to watch out for these events. The treating ophthalmologists must keep the risk factors for development of in mind and monitor and counsel patients accordingly.

  13. Interfacing theories of program with theories of evaluation for advancing evaluation practice: Reductionism, systems thinking, and pragmatic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey T

    2016-12-01

    Theories of program and theories of evaluation form the foundation of program evaluation theories. Theories of program reflect assumptions on how to conceptualize an intervention program for evaluation purposes, while theories of evaluation reflect assumptions on how to design useful evaluation. These two types of theories are related, but often discussed separately. This paper attempts to use three theoretical perspectives (reductionism, systems thinking, and pragmatic synthesis) to interface them and discuss the implications for evaluation practice. Reductionism proposes that an intervention program can be broken into crucial components for rigorous analyses; systems thinking view an intervention program as dynamic and complex, requiring a holistic examination. In spite of their contributions, reductionism and systems thinking represent the extreme ends of a theoretical spectrum; many real-world programs, however, may fall in the middle. Pragmatic synthesis is being developed to serve these moderate- complexity programs. These three theoretical perspectives have their own strengths and challenges. Knowledge on these three perspectives and their evaluation implications can provide a better guide for designing fruitful evaluations, improving the quality of evaluation practice, informing potential areas for developing cutting-edge evaluation approaches, and contributing to advancing program evaluation toward a mature applied science.

  14. Automating a human factors evaluation of graphical user interfaces for NASA applications: An update on CHIMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jian-Ping; Murphy, Elizabeth D.; Bailin, Sidney C.; Truszkowski, Walter F.

    1993-01-01

    Capturing human factors knowledge about the design of graphical user interfaces (GUI's) and applying this knowledge on-line are the primary objectives of the Computer-Human Interaction Models (CHIMES) project. The current CHIMES prototype is designed to check a GUI's compliance with industry-standard guidelines, general human factors guidelines, and human factors recommendations on color usage. Following the evaluation, CHIMES presents human factors feedback and advice to the GUI designer. The paper describes the approach to modeling human factors guidelines, the system architecture, a new method developed to convert quantitative RGB primaries into qualitative color representations, and the potential for integrating CHIMES with user interface management systems (UIMS). Both the conceptual approach and its implementation are discussed. This paper updates the presentation on CHIMES at the first International Symposium on Ground Data Systems for Spacecraft Control.

  15. Thermal Interface Evaluation of Heat Transfer from a Pumped Loop to Titanium-Water Thermosyphons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in the heat rejection system for lunar outpost fission surface power. Key to their use is heat transfer between a closed loop heat source and the heat pipe evaporators. This work describes laboratory testing of several interfaces that were evaluated for their thermal performance characteristics, in the temperature range of 350 to 400 K, utilizing a water closed loop heat source and multiple thermosyphon evaporator geometries. A gas gap calorimeter was used to measure heat flow at steady state. Thermocouples in the closed loop heat source and on the evaporator were used to measure thermal conductance. The interfaces were in two generic categories, those immersed in the water closed loop heat source and those clamped to the water closed loop heat source with differing thermal conductive agents. In general, immersed evaporators showed better overall performance than their clamped counterparts. Selected clamped evaporator geometries offered promise.

  16. Ci4SeR--curation interface for semantic resources--evaluation with adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Souvignet, Julien; Asfari, Hadyl; Declerck, Gunnar; Lardon, Jérémy; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Bousquet, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation and validation have become a crucial problem for the development of semantic resources. We developed Ci4SeR, a Graphical User Interface to optimize the curation work (not taking into account structural aspects), suitable for any type of resource with lightweight description logic. We tested it on OntoADR, an ontology of adverse drug reactions. A single curator has reviewed 326 terms (1020 axioms) in an estimated time of 120 hours (2.71 concepts and 8.5 axioms reviewed per hour) and added 1874 new axioms (15.6 axioms per hour). Compared with previous manual endeavours, the interface allows increasing the speed-rate of reviewed concepts by 68% and axiom addition by 486%. A wider use of Ci4SeR would help semantic resources curation and improve completeness of knowledge modelling.

  17. Improvement of S-factor method for evaluation of MOS interface state density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weili; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the accuracy of the S-factor method for evaluating the energy distribution of density of interface states (Dit) at MOS interfaces is examined by device simulation. Based on the analysis, we propose an improved S-factor method including the accurate depletion layer capacitance (Cd) values as a function of gate voltage, determined by gate-substrate capacitance (Cgb) and gate-channel capacitance (Cgc), and a new term, proportion to S/φs, in the analytical formulation of the relationship between Dit and the S-factor. The accuracy of Dit in this improved method is also quantitatively studied through the simulation. The above modifications for the S-factor method allow us to accurately provide the energy distribution of Dit. It has been found that the accuracy of lower half of 1010 cm-2 eV-1 order can be obtained for Dit extracted by using the improved S-factor method.

  18. Human factors issues for resolving adverse effects of human work underload and workload transitions in complex human-machine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    A workshop was conducted whose specific purpose was to build on earlier work of the United States National Research Council, United States Federal government agencies, and the larger human factors community to: (1) clarify human factors issues pertaining to degraded performance in advanced human-machine systems (e.g., nuclear production, transportation, aerospace) due to human work underload and workload transition, and (2) develop strategies for resolving these issues. Recent history demonstrates that: (1) humans often react adversely to their diminishing roles in advanced human-machine systems, and therefore (2) new allocation models and strategies are required if humans are to be willing and able to assume diminishing and shifting roles assigned to them in these systems, and are to accept new technologies making up these systems. Problems associated with theses diminishing and shifting human roles are characterized as work underload and workload transitions. The workshop affirmed that: (1) work underload and workload transition are issues that will have to be addressed by designers of advanced human-machine systems, especially those relying on automation, if cost, performance, safety, and operator acceptability are to be optimized, (2) human machine allocation models, standards, and guidelines which go beyond simple capability approaches will be needed to preclude or seriously diminish the work underload and workload transition problems, and (3) the 16 workload definition, measurement, situational awareness, and trust issues identified during the workshop, need resolution if these models, standards, and guidelines are to be achieved.

  19. Ontological modelling of knowledge management for human-machine integrated design of ultra-precision grinding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Haibo; Yin, Yuehong; Chen, Xing

    2016-11-01

    Despite the rapid development of computer science and information technology, an efficient human-machine integrated enterprise information system for designing complex mechatronic products is still not fully accomplished, partly because of the inharmonious communication among collaborators. Therefore, one challenge in human-machine integration is how to establish an appropriate knowledge management (KM) model to support integration and sharing of heterogeneous product knowledge. Aiming at the diversity of design knowledge, this article proposes an ontology-based model to reach an unambiguous and normative representation of knowledge. First, an ontology-based human-machine integrated design framework is described, then corresponding ontologies and sub-ontologies are established according to different purposes and scopes. Second, a similarity calculation-based ontology integration method composed of ontology mapping and ontology merging is introduced. The ontology searching-based knowledge sharing method is then developed. Finally, a case of human-machine integrated design of a large ultra-precision grinding machine is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  20. An Evaluation of Navigational Ability Comparing Redirected Free Exploration with Distractors to Walking-in-Place and Joystick Locomotion Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Peck, Tabitha C; Fuchs, Henry; Whitton, Mary C

    2011-03-19

    We report on a user study evaluating Redirected Free Exploration with Distractors (RFED), a large-scale, real-walking, locomotion interface, by comparing it to Walking-in-Place (WIP) and Joystick (JS), two common locomotion interfaces. The between-subjects study compared navigation ability in RFED, WIP, and JS interfaces in VEs that are more than two times the dimensions of the tracked space. The interfaces were evaluated based on navigation and wayfinding metrics and results suggest that participants using RFED were significantly better at navigating and wayfinding through virtual mazes than participants using walking-in-place and joystick interfaces. Participants traveled shorter distances, made fewer wrong turns, pointed to hidden targets more accurately and more quickly, and were able to place and label targets on maps more accurately. Moreover, RFED participants were able to more accurately estimate VE size.

  1. Similarities and differences of emotions in human-machine and human-human interactions: what kind of emotions are relevant for future companion systems?

    PubMed

    Walter, Steffen; Wendt, Cornelia; Böhnke, Jan; Crawcour, Stephen; Tan, Jun-Wen; Chan, Andre; Limbrecht, Kerstin; Gruss, Sascha; Traue, Harald C

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-technical intelligence is envisioned to be constantly available and capable of adapting to the user's emotions. However, the question is: what specific emotions should be reliably recognised by intelligent systems? Hence, in this study, we have attempted to identify similarities and differences of emotions between human-human (HHI) and human-machine interactions (HMI). We focused on what emotions in the experienced scenarios of HMI are retroactively reflected as compared with HHI. The sample consisted of N = 145 participants, who were divided into two groups. Positive and negative scenario descriptions of HMI and HHI were given by the first and second groups, respectively. Subsequently, the participants evaluated their respective scenarios with the help of 94 adjectives relating to emotions. The correlations between the occurrences of emotions in the HMI versus HHI were very high. The results do not support the statement that only a few emotions in HMI are relevant.

  2. Evaluation of dose calculation accuracy of treatment planning systems at hip prosthesis interfaces.

    PubMed

    Paulu, David; Alaei, Parham

    2017-03-20

    There are an increasing number of radiation therapy patients with hip prosthesis. The common method of minimizing treatment planning inaccuracies is to avoid radiation beams to transit through the prosthesis. However, the beams often exit through them, especially when the patient has a double-prosthesis. Modern treatment planning systems employ algorithms with improved dose calculation accuracies but even these algorithms may not predict the dose accurately at high atomic number interfaces. The current study evaluates the dose calculation accuracy of three common dose calculation algorithms employed in two commercial treatment planning systems. A hip prosthesis was molded inside a cylindrical phantom and the dose at several points within the phantom at the interface with prosthesis was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measured doses were then compared to the predicted ones by the planning systems. The results of the study indicate all three algorithms underestimate the dose at the prosthesis interface, albeit to varying degrees, and for both low- and high-energy x rays. The measured doses are higher than calculated ones by 5-22% for Pinnacle Collapsed Cone Convolution algorithm, 2-23% for Eclipse Acuros XB, and 6-25% for Eclipse Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm. There are generally better agreements for AXB algorithm and the worst results are for the AAA.

  3. Different scanning electron microscopic evaluation methods of cement interface homogeneity of adhesively luted glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Watzke, Ronny; Frankenberger, Roland; Naumann, Michael

    2011-03-01

    To compare two methods used to examine the cement interface homogeneity of adhesively luted glass fiber posts (GFPs). GFPs were divided into four groups (n = 5 in each) and inserted into artificial root canals under standardized conditions: Group I = RelyX Unicem, application with application aid; Group II = RelyX Unicem; Group III = Panavia F 2.0; and Group IV = Variolink II. Posts in Groups II-IV were cemented without using an appliance. All specimens were sectioned at three levels (cervical, middle and apical) perpendicularly to the post's long axis and examined and photographed (n = 60) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cement interface inhomogeneities were (A) measured by means of SEM software and (B) estimated using a graphics program with SEM images being divided into 72 equal circle segments to calculate a percentage value of inhomogeneities of the 360° circumference. Median values of inhomogeneities (A/B; %) within the cement interface for the cervical, middle and apical levels of analysis, respectively were 1.4/2.1, 2.2/4.2 and 1.9/2.1 for Group I; 21.0/20.1, 24.8/23.6 and 27.0/24.3 for Group II; 1.5/1.7, 5.5/6.3 and 19.4/20.8 for Group III; and 18.1/16.7, 16.1/15.3 and 27.2/25.7 for Group IV. The two methods correlated very well (0.994), with a value of one indicating a 100% correlation. Both evaluation methods were found to be equally appropriate for quantifying the cement interface homogeneity of SEM cross-sections of adhesively luted GFPs.

  4. The development and evaluation of guidelines for the review of advanced human-system interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.

    1992-12-31

    Advanced control rooms for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes a general approach to advanced human-system interface review, development of human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems, and the results of a guideline test and evaluation program.

  5. Expanding the human-machine interface model to address the effect of leadership and management on performance

    SciTech Connect

    Briant, V.S.; Childress, J.R.; Hannaman, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The US nuclear industry now focuses on improving plant performance in measurable areas such as availability, safety, and operations. Risk assessment and pioneering work in human reliability analysis (HRA) have provided methods to identify and prioritize numerous design improvements. Improvements such as control room design, training, and procedures have contributed positively to plant performance. Human performance is increasingly recognized as a fundamental contributor to safe, economic, and reliable operation. Industry leaders suggest that improved leadership and management are keys to enhanced plant performance. This paper identifies several critical aspects of individual and group behavior that, if managed, could significantly contribute to improved performance. Some existing tools for measuring performance are cited.

  6. Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments: Conference Held in Santa Barbara, California on 4-9 March 1990.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    81 Michael W, McGreevy MEASUREMENT AND MODIFACTION OF THE EEG AND RELATED B E H A V IO R...Krueger BINAURAL ROOM SIM ULATION ............................................................................. 132 H. Lehnert, J. Blauert, and W...Pompetzki ACTIVE LOCALIZATION OF VIRTUAL SOUNDS .................................................. 134 J. M. Loomis, C. Hebert, and J. G. Cicinelli

  7. Human-machine interface issues in the use of helmet-mounted displays in short conjugate simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, James E.

    2011-06-01

    With the introduction of helmet-mounted displays (HMD) into modern aircraft, there is a desire on the part of pilot trainees to achieve a "look and feel" for the simulation environment similar to the real flight hardware. Given this requirement for high fidelity, it may be necessary to configure - or to perhaps re-configure - the HMD for a short conjugate viewing distance and to do so without causing eye strain or other adverse physiological effects. This paper will survey the human factors literature and provide an analysis on the visual construct issues of focus and vergence which - if not properly configured for the short conjugate simulator - could cause adverse effects, which can negatively affect training.

  8. Discrete Versus Continuous Mapping of Facial Electromyography for Human-Machine Interface Control: Performance and Training Effects.

    PubMed

    Cler, Meredith J; Stepp, Cara E

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with high spinal cord injuries are unable to operate a keyboard and mouse with their hands. In this experiment, we compared two systems using surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded from facial muscles to control an onscreen keyboard to type five-letter words. Both systems used five sEMG sensors to capture muscle activity during five distinct facial gestures that were mapped to five cursor commands: move left, move right, move up, move down, and "click". One system used a discrete movement and feedback algorithm in which the user produced one quick facial gesture, causing a corresponding discrete movement to an adjacent letter. The other system was continuously updated and allowed the user to control the cursor's velocity by relative activation between different sEMG channels. Participants were trained on one system for four sessions on consecutive days, followed by one crossover session on the untrained system. Information transfer rates (ITRs) were high for both systems compared to other potential input modalities, both initially and with training (Session 1: 62.1 bits/min, Session 4: 105.1 bits/min). Users of the continuous system showed significantly higher ITRs than the discrete users. Future development will focus on improvements to both systems, which may offer differential advantages for users with various motor impairments.

  9. Evaluation of User Interface and Workflow Design of a Bedside Nursing Clinical Decision Support System

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Michael Juntao; Finley, George Mike; Mills, Christy; Johnson, Ron Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are important tools to improve health care outcomes and reduce preventable medical adverse events. However, the effectiveness and success of CDSS depend on their implementation context and usability in complex health care settings. As a result, usability design and validation, especially in real world clinical settings, are crucial aspects of successful CDSS implementations. Objective Our objective was to develop a novel CDSS to help frontline nurses better manage critical symptom changes in hospitalized patients, hence reducing preventable failure to rescue cases. A robust user interface and implementation strategy that fit into existing workflows was key for the success of the CDSS. Methods Guided by a formal usability evaluation framework, UFuRT (user, function, representation, and task analysis), we developed a high-level specification of the product that captures key usability requirements and is flexible to implement. We interviewed users of the proposed CDSS to identify requirements, listed functions, and operations the system must perform. We then designed visual and workflow representations of the product to perform the operations. The user interface and workflow design were evaluated via heuristic and end user performance evaluation. The heuristic evaluation was done after the first prototype, and its results were incorporated into the product before the end user evaluation was conducted. First, we recruited 4 evaluators with strong domain expertise to study the initial prototype. Heuristic violations were coded and rated for severity. Second, after development of the system, we assembled a panel of nurses, consisting of 3 licensed vocational nurses and 7 registered nurses, to evaluate the user interface and workflow via simulated use cases. We recorded whether each session was successfully completed and its completion time. Each nurse was asked to use the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  10. Evaluation of user interface and workflow design of a bedside nursing clinical decision support system.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Michael Juntao; Finley, George Mike; Long, Ju; Mills, Christy; Johnson, Ron Kim

    2013-01-31

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are important tools to improve health care outcomes and reduce preventable medical adverse events. However, the effectiveness and success of CDSS depend on their implementation context and usability in complex health care settings. As a result, usability design and validation, especially in real world clinical settings, are crucial aspects of successful CDSS implementations. Our objective was to develop a novel CDSS to help frontline nurses better manage critical symptom changes in hospitalized patients, hence reducing preventable failure to rescue cases. A robust user interface and implementation strategy that fit into existing workflows was key for the success of the CDSS. Guided by a formal usability evaluation framework, UFuRT (user, function, representation, and task analysis), we developed a high-level specification of the product that captures key usability requirements and is flexible to implement. We interviewed users of the proposed CDSS to identify requirements, listed functions, and operations the system must perform. We then designed visual and workflow representations of the product to perform the operations. The user interface and workflow design were evaluated via heuristic and end user performance evaluation. The heuristic evaluation was done after the first prototype, and its results were incorporated into the product before the end user evaluation was conducted. First, we recruited 4 evaluators with strong domain expertise to study the initial prototype. Heuristic violations were coded and rated for severity. Second, after development of the system, we assembled a panel of nurses, consisting of 3 licensed vocational nurses and 7 registered nurses, to evaluate the user interface and workflow via simulated use cases. We recorded whether each session was successfully completed and its completion time. Each nurse was asked to use the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Task Load Index to self-evaluate

  11. The Interface of Opinion, Understanding and Evaluation While Learning About a Socioscientific Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Halverson, Kristy L.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.

    2013-10-01

    Scientific literacy is an important goal for science education, especially within controversial socioscientific issues. In this study, we analysed 143 students' research reports about stem cell research (SCR) for how they addressed specific source evaluation criteria provided within the assignment. We investigated students' opinions about SCR, how they used the evaluation criteria to evaluate online sources and whether the evaluation criteria and/or the specific sources influenced their opinion and/or understanding of SCR. We found that most of the students supported some form of SCR and reported that their sources were credible and contained more factual information than opinions. Students critiqued the language of the authors, as well as status in their respective fields, along with the content within each source. Additionally, students reported that their sources influenced their content knowledge, but had little influence regarding their SCR opinions. Through this work, we present a new working model and suggest the need for additional research about the understudied interface of opinion, understanding and evaluation within the context of important socioscientific issues. Students' opinions and content knowledge, located at the model's centre, influence and are influenced by the research topic, the sources used, the evaluation criteria and the evaluation of the sources that students use to provide evidence for claims.

  12. Military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, C J

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479718

  13. Military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, C J

    1995-10-24

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs.

  14. State Event Models for the Formal Analysis of Human-Machine Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combefis, Sebastien; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pecheur, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this paper was motivated by our experience with applying a framework for formal analysis of human-machine interactions (HMI) to a realistic model of an autopilot. The framework is built around a formally defined conformance relation called "fullcontrol" between an actual system and the mental model according to which the system is operated. Systems are well-designed if they can be described by relatively simple, full-control, mental models for their human operators. For this reason, our framework supports automated generation of minimal full-control mental models for HMI systems, where both the system and the mental models are described as labelled transition systems (LTS). The autopilot that we analysed has been developed in the NASA Ames HMI prototyping tool ADEPT. In this paper, we describe how we extended the models that our HMI analysis framework handles to allow adequate representation of ADEPT models. We then provide a property-preserving reduction from these extended models to LTSs, to enable application of our LTS-based formal analysis algorithms. Finally, we briefly discuss the analyses we were able to perform on the autopilot model with our extended framework.

  15. Military and Government Applications of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Clifford J.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs.

  16. Implementation of Human-Machine Synchronization Control for Active Rehabilitation Using an Inertia Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhibin; Guo, Shuxiang; Xiao, Nan; Gao, Baofeng; Shi, Liwei

    2012-01-01

    According to neuro-rehabilitation practice, active training is effective for mild stroke patients, which means these patients are able to recovery effective when they perform the training to overcome certain resistance by themselves. Therefore, for rehabilitation devices without backdrivability, implementation of human-machine synchronization is important and a precondition to perform active training. In this paper, a method to implement this precondition is proposed and applied in a user’s performance of elbow flexions and extensions when he wore an upper limb exoskeleton rehabilitation device (ULERD), which is portable, wearable and non-backdrivable. In this method, an inertia sensor is adapted to detect the motion of the user’s forearm. In order to get a smooth value of the velocity of the user’s forearm, an adaptive weighted average filtering is applied. On the other hand, to obtain accurate tracking performance, a double close-loop control is proposed to realize real-time and stable tracking. Experiments have been conducted to prove that these methods are effective and feasible for active rehabilitation. PMID:23443366

  17. Analysis of human-machine cooperation when driving with different degrees of haptic shared control.

    PubMed

    Mars, Franck; Deroo, Mathieu; Hoc, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated human-machine cooperation when driving with different degrees of a shared control system. By means of a direct intervention on the steering wheel, shared control systems partially correct the vehicle's trajectory and, at the same time, provide continuous haptic guidance to the driver. A crucial point is to determine the optimal level of steering assistance for effective cooperation between the two agents. Five system settings were compared with a condition in which no assistance was present. In addition, road visibility was manipulated by means of additional fog or self-controlled visual occlusions. Several performance indicators and subjective assessments were analyzed. The results show that the best repartition of control in terms of cooperation between human and machine can be identified through an analysis of the steering wheel reversal rate, the steering effort and the mean lateral position of the vehicle. The best cooperation was achieved with systems of relatively low-level haptic authority, although more intervention may be preferable in poor visibility conditions. Increasing haptic authority did not yield higher benefits in terms of steering behavior, visual demand or subjective feeling.

  18. Unsupervised learning framework for large-scale flight data analysis of cockpit human machine interaction issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Abhishek B.

    As the level of automation within an aircraft increases, the interactions between the pilot and autopilot play a crucial role in its proper operation. Issues with human machine interactions (HMI) have been cited as one of the main causes behind many aviation accidents. Due to the complexity of such interactions, it is challenging to identify all possible situations and develop the necessary contingencies. In this thesis, we propose a data-driven analysis tool to identify potential HMI issues in large-scale Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) dataset. The proposed tool is developed using a multi-level clustering framework, where a set of basic clustering techniques are combined with a consensus-based approach to group HMI events and create a data-driven model from the FOQA data. The proposed framework is able to effectively compress a large dataset into a small set of representative clusters within a data-driven model, enabling subject matter experts to effectively investigate identified potential HMI issues.

  19. Hand Shape Recognition in Human Machine Interaction through the Singularity Detection with Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jinwen; Chen, Yanling; Qin, Hequn; Guo, Junjie

    This paper represents a hand shapes recognition system for the Human Machine Interaction (HMI) with service robot of disable people. This system uses a touchpad to precept the touching of fingers, as well as to provide a background for hand shapes image. Each finger can stay in one of the 4 statuses: stretch- touching on the pad, retracting-touching on the pad, stretch-detaching over the pad and retracting-detaching over the pad. Hand shapes, posed to express HMI instructions, are defined by the status combinations of Index finger, Middle finger, Ring finger and Little finger. Hand shape features, the relative heights of the fingertips, are extracted through the singularity detection with wavelet transform on hand shape contour. The hand shape recognition of this system is based on an optimized Bayesian decision binary tree. The design of 2 types of classifier in the tree and the corresponding error rates of the classifiers are analyzed. Implemented by a DSP processor, a correctness ratio of over 98% is obtained in the identification of 12 hand shapes. Experiments show that this system can provide a flexible, humanized and expendable HMI for service robot, as well as for other applications.

  20. Human-machine cooperation: a solution for life-critical systems?

    PubMed

    Millot, Patrick; Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Decision-making plays an important role in life-critical systems. It entails cognitive functions such as monitoring, as well as fault prevention and recovery. Three kinds of objectives are typically considered: safety, efficiency and comfort. People involved in the control and management of such systems provide two kinds of contributions: positive with their unique involvement and capacity to deal with the unexpected; and negative with their ability to make errors. In the negative view, people are the problem and need to be supervised by regulatory systems in the form of operational constraints or by design. In the positive view, people are the solution and lead the game; they are decision-makers. The former view also deals with error resistance, and the latter with error tolerance, which, for example, enables cooperation between people and decision support systems (DSS). In the real life, both views should be considered with respect to appropriate situational factors, such as time constraints and very dangerous environments. This is known as function allocation between people and systems. This paper presents a possibility to reconcile both approaches into a joint human-machine organization, where the main dimensioning factors are safety and complexity. A framework for cooperative and fault tolerant systems is proposed, and illustrated by an example in Air Traffic Control.

  1. Evaluation of Resin-Resin Interface in Direct Composite Restoration Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoleriu, S.; Andrian, S.; Pancu, G.; Nica, I.; Iovan, G.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resin-resin interface when a universal bonding agent was used in two different strategies in direct restoration repair. Two composite resins (a micro-filled hybrid and a nano-filled hybrid) as old restorations that have to be repair, a universal bonding agent and a micro-filled hybrid composite resin (different then that aged) as new material for repair were chosen for the study. Non-aged samples were used as control and aged samples were used as study groups. The universal bonding agent was applied in etch-and-rinse and in self-etch strategies. The interface between old and new composite resins was evaluated by SEM and the microleakage was assessed by scoring the dye penetration. Very good adaptation of the two different composite resins placed in direct contact in non-aged samples was recorded. No gaps or defects were visible and strong resin-resin contact was observed. After aging, enlargement of resin-resin junction were observed in most of the samples and a increased dye penetration was recorded irrespective of the strategy (etch-and-rinse or self-etch) used for bonding agent application.

  2. Improvement and evaluation of thermal, electrical, sealing and mechanical contacts, and their interface materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiangcheng

    Material contacts, including thermal, electrical, seating (fluid sealing and electromagnetic sealing) and mechanical (pressure) contacts, together with their interface materials, were, evaluated, and in some cases, improved beyond the state of the art. The evaluation involved the use of thermal, electrical and mechanical methods. For thermal contacts, this work evaluated and improved the heat transfer efficiency between two contacting components by developing various thermal interface pastes. Sodium silicate based thermal pastes (with boron nitride particles as the thermally conductive filler) as well as polyethylene glycol (PEG) based thermal pastes were developed and evaluated. The optimum volume fractions of BN in sodium silicate based pastes and PEG based pastes were 16% and 18% respectively. The contribution of Li+ ions to the thermal contact conductance in the PEG-based paste was confirmed. For electrical contacts, the relationship between the mechanical reliability and electrical reliability of solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints was addressed. Mechanical pull-out testing was conducted on solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints, while the contact electrical resistivity was measured. Cleansing of the copper surface was more effective for the reliability of silver-epoxy/copper joint than that of solder/copper joint. For sealing contacts, this work evaluated flexible graphite as an electromagnetic shielding gasket material. Flexible graphite was found to be at least comparable to conductive filled silicone (the state of the art) in terms of the shielding effectiveness. The conformability of flexible graphite with its mating metal surface under repeated compression was characterized by monitoring the contact electrical resistance, as the conformability is important to both electromagnetic scaling and fluid waling using flexible graphite. For mechanical contacts, this work focused on the correlation of the interface structure (such as elastic

  3. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality By Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mi; G. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-08-10

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Bao; Zhao, Xiaoliang (George); Bayles, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  5. Development and Evaluation of Disaster Information Management System Using Digital Pens and Tabletop User Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukada, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Kazue; Satou, Kenji; Kawana, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomohiro

    Most traditional disaster information systems are necessary to post expert staff with high computer literacy to operate the system quickly and correctly in the tense situation when a disaster occurs. However, in the current disaster response system of local governments, it is not easy for local governments to post such expert staff because they are struggling with staff cuts due to administrative and fiscal reform. In this research, we propose a disaster information management system that can be easily operated, even under the disorderly conditions of a disaster, by municipal personnel in charge of disaster management. This system achieves usability enabling easy input of damage information, even by local government staff with no expertise, by using a digital pen and tabletop user interface. Evaluation was conducted by prospective users using a prototype, and the evaluation results are satisfactory with regard to the function and operationality of the proposed system.

  6. Evaluation of pavement layers` interface bonding conditions using a falling weight deflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Nageim, H.; Al-Hakim, B.; Lesley, L.

    1997-07-01

    The paper describes advanced analysis procedures to evaluate pavement layers` interface bonding conditions using non-destructive techniques and Falling Weight Deflectometer surveys. The pavement mechanical properties in terms of the layers` moduli were evaluated under the impact of a dynamic loading by using the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) surveys. The results revealed that the use of the advanced analysis procedures allows for more accurate calculation of the pavement mechanical properties and thus more accurate analysis of the pavement`s structure life. This is one of the advantages of the advanced analysis procedure since the restriction imposed on the conventional back calculation methods that full bonding between the individual layers exist, has been relaxed.

  7. Evaluation of the interface between one-bottle adhesive systems and dentin by Goldner's trichrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the hybrid layers in interfaces between dentin and six contemporary one-bottle adhesive systems using a nondestructive differential staining micro-technique. The adhesive systems used in this study were divided to three groups based on hydrophilic/hydrophobic component ratios (i.e. ability to dissolve in water), from highest to lowest as follows: Group 1 (Dentastic UNO.DUO, PermaQuick PQ1) > Group 2 (One-Step, Primer&Bond NT) > Group 3 (Optibond Solo, Single Bond). The occlusal third of the crown was removed from 36 extracted, unerupted human 3rd molars. Smear layers were created by abrading the dentin with 600 grit SiC under water. The exposed dentin was treated with one of the adhesive systems per manufacturer's instructions. After 24 hours in water, 3-5 microm thin sections of the adhesive/dentin (adhesive/dentin ) interface were cut with a microtome and stained with Goldner's trichrome. Stained thin sections from each prepared tooth were imaged with light microscopy. The thickness and color difference of adhesive/dentin interfaces among these one-bottle adhesive systems were clearly visualized. The width of the hybrid layers varied, ranged from 4.1-9.2 microm for six adhesive systems. The color differences in the stained sections are reflected to the extent and degree to which the adhesive envelops the exposed collagen. Among these six bonding systems, resin encapsulation of collagen varied from highest to lowest as follows: Group 1 (UNO, PQ1) > Group 2 (OS, PBNT) > Group 3 (OP, SB). The differences in collagen encapsulation are dependent on the adhesive composition, or the ability to tolerate water during the infiltration of the wet demineralized matrix.

  8. Effect of Restorative System and Thermal Cycling on the Tooth-Restoration Interface - OCT Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, C S; Rodrigues, R V; Souza-Junior, E J; Freitas, A Z; Ambrosano, G M B; Pascon, F M; Puppin-Rontani, R M

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the tooth/noncarious cervical lesion restoration interface when using different adhesive systems and resin composites, submitted to thermal cycling (TC), using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Noncarious cervical lesion (NCCL) preparations (0.7 mm depth × 2 mm diameter) were performed on 60 human third molars and randomly divided into six groups, according to the adhesive system and resin composite used: group 1 = Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2) + Aelite LS Posterior (AP); group 2 = SB2 + Venus Diamond (VD); group = SB2 + Filtek Z250XT (Z250); group 4 = Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) + AP; group 5 = CSE + VD; group 6 = CSE + Z250. Selective enamel etching was performed for 30 seconds on groups 4, 5, and 6, while groups 1, 2, and 3 were etched for 30 seconds in enamel and 15 seconds in dentin. All groups were evaluated using OCT before and after TC (n=10). Images were analyzed using Image J software; enamel and dentin margins were separately evaluated. Data from OCT were submitted to PROC MIXED for repeated measurements and Tukey Kramer test (α = 0.05). No marginal gaps were observed in etched enamel, either before or after TC, for all adhesive and resin composite systems. A significant interaction was found between adhesive system and TC for the dentin groups; after TC, restorations with CSE showed smaller gaps at the dentin/restoration interface compared with SB2 for all resin composites. Increased gap percentages were noticed after TC compared with the gaps before TC for all groups. In conclusion, TC affected marginal integrity only in dentin margins, whereas etched enamel margins remained stable even after TC. Dentin margins restored with CSE adhesive system showed better marginal adaptation than those restored with SB2. Resin composites did not influence marginal integrity of NCCL restorations.

  9. Evaluation of different speech and touch interfaces to in-vehicle music retrieval systems.

    PubMed

    Garay-Vega, L; Pradhan, A K; Weinberg, G; Schmidt-Nielsen, B; Harsham, B; Shen, Y; Divekar, G; Romoser, M; Knodler, M; Fisher, D L

    2010-05-01

    In-vehicle music retrieval systems are becoming more and more popular. Previous studies have shown that they pose a real hazard to drivers when the interface is a tactile one which requires multiple entries and a combination of manual control and visual feedback. Voice interfaces exist as an alternative. Such interfaces can require either multiple or single conversational turns. In this study, each of 17 participants between the ages of 18 and 30 years old was asked to use three different music retrieval systems (one with a multiple entry touch interface, the iPod, one with a multiple turn voice interface, interface B, and one with a single turn voice interface, interface C) while driving through a virtual world. Measures of secondary task performance, eye behavior, vehicle control, and workload were recorded. When compared with the touch interface, the voice interfaces reduced the total time drivers spent with their eyes off the forward roadway, especially in prolonged glances, as well as both the total number of glances away from the forward roadway and the perceived workload. Furthermore, when compared with driving without a secondary task, both voice interfaces did not significantly impact hazard anticipation, the frequency of long glances away from the forward roadway, or vehicle control. The multiple turn voice interface (B) significantly increased both the time it took drivers to complete the task and the workload. The implications for interface design and safety are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Different Speech and Touch Interfaces to In-Vehicle Music Retrieval Systems

    PubMed Central

    Garay-Vega, L.; Pradhan, A. K.; Weinberg, G.; Schmidt-Nielsen, B.; Harsham, B.; Shen, Y.; Divekar, G.; Romoser, M.; Knodler, M.; Fisher, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    In-vehicle music retrieval systems are becoming more and more popular. Previous studies have shown that they pose a real hazard to drivers when the interface is a tactile one which requires multiple entries and a combination of manual control and visual feedback. Voice interfaces exist as an alternative. Such interfaces can require either multiple or single conversational turns. In this study, each of 17 participants between the ages of 18 and 30 years old was asked to use three different music-retrieval systems (one with a multiple entry touch interface, the iPod™, one with a multiple turn voice interface, interface B, and one with a single turn voice interface, interface C) while driving through a virtual world. Measures of secondary task performance, eye behavior, vehicle control, and workload were recorded. When compared with the touch interface, the voice interfaces reduced the total time drivers spent with their eyes off the forward roadway, especially in prolonged glances, as well as both the total number of glances away from the forward roadway and the perceived workload. Furthermore, when compared with driving without a secondary task, both voice interfaces did not significantly impact hazard anticipation, the frequency of long glances away from the forward roadway, or vehicle control. The multiple turn voice interface (B) significantly increased both the time it took drivers to complete the task and the workload. The implications for interface design and safety are discussed. PMID:20380920

  11. Technical communication: An initial evaluation of a novel anesthetic scavenging interface.

    PubMed

    Barwise, John A; Lancaster, Leland J; Michaels, Damon; Pope, Jason E; Berry, James M

    2011-11-01

    Waste anesthetic gas scavenging technology has not changed appreciably in the past 30 years. Open reservoir systems entrain high volumes of room air and dilute waste gases before emission into the atmosphere. This process requires a large vacuum pump, which is both costly to install and, although efficient, operates continuously and at near-full capacity. In an era of increasing energy costs and environmental awareness, carbon footprint reduction is a priority and a more efficient system of safely scavenging waste anesthetic gases is desirable. We tested a low-flow scavenger interface to evaluate the potential for cost and energy savings. The use of this interface in a suite of 4 operating rooms reduced scavenging flow from a constant 37 L/min to a value equal to the fresh gas flow (usually 2 L/min) for each anesthesia machine. Using the ventilator increased this flow by approximately 6 L/min because of the exhaust of ventilator drive gas into the scavenging circuit. Daytime workload of the central vacuum pump decreased from 92% to 12% (expressed as duty cycle). The new system produces energy savings and may increase vacuum pump lifespan.

  12. Morphological evaluation of new total etching and self etching adhesive system interfaces with dentin

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Mithra N; Hegde, Priyadarshini; Chandra, C Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resin-dentin interface, quality of the hybrid layer of total-etching and self-etching adhesive systems under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared in 40 extracted human molars. In Group I XP bond (Dentsply), in Group II Adper Single Bond II (3M ESPE), in Group III Adper Easy One (3M ESPE), and in Group IV Xeno V (Dentsply) were applied. Teeth were restored with resin composite, subjected to thermocycling, and sectioned in Buccolingual plane. The samples were demineralized using 6N HCl, for 30 sec, and deproteinized with 2.5% NaOCl for 10 min, gold sputtered, and viewed using a scanning electron microscope. Results: Among the total-etch systems used, the XP Bond showed a clear, thick hybrid layer, with long resin tags and few voids. Among the self-etch adhesive systems, the Xeno V did not show a clearly recognizable hybrid layer, but there were no voids and continuous adaptation was seen with the dentin. Conclusion: The adaptation of self-etch adhesives to the resin-dentin interface was good without voids or separation of phases; showing a thin, continuous hybrid layer. PMID:22557814

  13. Charging of silver bromide aqueous interface: evaluation of interfacial equilibrium constants from surface potential data.

    PubMed

    Preočanin, Tajana; Supljika, Filip; Kallay, Nikola

    2010-06-01

    A single crystal silver bromide electrode (SCr-AgBr) was used to measure the inner surface potential (Ψ(0)) at the silver bromide aqueous electrolyte interface as a function of the activities of Br(-) and Ag(+). Absolute values of the surface potential were calculated from electrode potentials of SCr-AgBr using the value of point of zero charge (pBr(pzc)=6.9 [H.A. Hoyen, R.M. Cole, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 41 (1972) 93.]) as the value of point of zero potential. Measurements were performed in potassium nitrate aqueous solutions. The Ψ(0)(pBr) function was linear and slightly dependent on the ionic strength. The reduction values of the slope with respect to the Nernst equation, expressed by the α coefficient, were 0.880,0.935, and 0.950 at ionic strengths of 10(-4), 10(-3), and 10(-2) mol dm(-3), respectively. The results were successfully interpreted by employing the surface complexation model, developed originally for metal oxides and adapted for silver halides. The thermodynamic ("intrinsic") equilibrium constants for binding of bromide (K(n)(∘)) and silver (K(p)(∘)) ions on the corresponding sites at the silver bromide surface were evaluated as lgK(n)(∘)=3.98; lgK(p)(∘)=2.48. Symmetrical counterion surface association was assumed and equilibrium constants were obtained as lgK(NO(3)(-))(∘)=lgK(K(+))(∘)=4.30.

  14. Technological evaluation of gesture and speech interfaces for enabling dismounted soldier-robot dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattoju, Ravi Kiran; Barber, Daniel J.; Abich, Julian; Harris, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    With increasing necessity for intuitive Soldier-robot communication in military operations and advancements in interactive technologies, autonomous robots have transitioned from assistance tools to functional and operational teammates able to service an array of military operations. Despite improvements in gesture and speech recognition technologies, their effectiveness in supporting Soldier-robot communication is still uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of gesture and speech interface technologies to facilitate Soldier-robot communication during a spatial-navigation task with an autonomous robot. Gesture and speech semantically based spatial-navigation commands leveraged existing lexicons for visual and verbal communication from the U.S Army field manual for visual signaling and a previously established Squad Level Vocabulary (SLV). Speech commands were recorded by a Lapel microphone and Microsoft Kinect, and classified by commercial off-the-shelf automatic speech recognition (ASR) software. Visual signals were captured and classified using a custom wireless gesture glove and software. Participants in the experiment commanded a robot to complete a simulated ISR mission in a scaled down urban scenario by delivering a sequence of gesture and speech commands, both individually and simultaneously, to the robot. Performance and reliability of gesture and speech hardware interfaces and recognition tools were analyzed and reported. Analysis of experimental results demonstrated the employed gesture technology has significant potential for enabling bidirectional Soldier-robot team dialogue based on the high classification accuracy and minimal training required to perform gesture commands.

  15. Design of an Adaptive Human-Machine System Based on Dynamical Pattern Recognition of Cognitive Task-Load

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Wang, Rubin

    2017-01-01

    This paper developed a cognitive task-load (CTL) classification algorithm and allocation strategy to sustain the optimal operator CTL levels over time in safety-critical human-machine integrated systems. An adaptive human-machine system is designed based on a non-linear dynamic CTL classifier, which maps a set of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) related features to a few CTL classes. The least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as dynamic pattern classifier. A series of electrophysiological and performance data acquisition experiments were performed on seven volunteer participants under a simulated process control task environment. The participant-specific dynamic LSSVM model is constructed to classify the instantaneous CTL into five classes at each time instant. The initial feature set, comprising 56 EEG and ECG related features, is reduced to a set of 12 salient features (including 11 EEG-related features) by using the locality preserving projection (LPP) technique. An overall correct classification rate of about 80% is achieved for the 5-class CTL classification problem. Then the predicted CTL is used to adaptively allocate the number of process control tasks between operator and computer-based controller. Simulation results showed that the overall performance of the human-machine system can be improved by using the adaptive automation strategy proposed. PMID:28367110

  16. Design of an Adaptive Human-Machine System Based on Dynamical Pattern Recognition of Cognitive Task-Load.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Wang, Rubin

    2017-01-01

    This paper developed a cognitive task-load (CTL) classification algorithm and allocation strategy to sustain the optimal operator CTL levels over time in safety-critical human-machine integrated systems. An adaptive human-machine system is designed based on a non-linear dynamic CTL classifier, which maps a set of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) related features to a few CTL classes. The least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as dynamic pattern classifier. A series of electrophysiological and performance data acquisition experiments were performed on seven volunteer participants under a simulated process control task environment. The participant-specific dynamic LSSVM model is constructed to classify the instantaneous CTL into five classes at each time instant. The initial feature set, comprising 56 EEG and ECG related features, is reduced to a set of 12 salient features (including 11 EEG-related features) by using the locality preserving projection (LPP) technique. An overall correct classification rate of about 80% is achieved for the 5-class CTL classification problem. Then the predicted CTL is used to adaptively allocate the number of process control tasks between operator and computer-based controller. Simulation results showed that the overall performance of the human-machine system can be improved by using the adaptive automation strategy proposed.

  17. Investigation of human-robot interface performance in household environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Sven; Mirza, Fahad; Tuladhar, Yathartha; Alonzo, Rommel; Hingeley, Anthony; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Today, assistive robots are being introduced into human environments at an increasing rate. Human environments are highly cluttered and dynamic, making it difficult to foresee all necessary capabilities and pre-program all desirable future skills of the robot. One approach to increase robot performance is semi-autonomous operation, allowing users to intervene and guide the robot through difficult tasks. To this end, robots need intuitive Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) that support fine motion control without overwhelming the operator. In this study we evaluate the performance of several interfaces that balance autonomy and teleoperation of a mobile manipulator for accomplishing several household tasks. Our proposed HMI framework includes teleoperation devices such as a tablet, as well as physical interfaces in the form of piezoresistive pressure sensor arrays. Mobile manipulation experiments were performed with a sensorized KUKA youBot, an omnidirectional platform with a 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) arm. The pick and place tasks involved navigation and manipulation of objects in household environments. Performance metrics included time for task completion and position accuracy.

  18. Neural mechanisms underlying catastrophic failure in human-machine interaction during aerial navigation.

    PubMed

    Saproo, Sameer; Shih, Victor; Jangraw, David C; Sajda, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the neural correlates of workload buildup in a fine visuomotor task called the boundary avoidance task (BAT). The BAT has been known to induce naturally occurring failures of human-machine coupling in high performance aircraft that can potentially lead to a crash-these failures are termed pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). We recorded EEG and pupillometry data from human subjects engaged in a flight BAT simulated within a virtual 3D environment. We find that workload buildup in a BAT can be successfully decoded from oscillatory features in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Information in delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma spectral bands of the EEG all contribute to successful decoding, however gamma band activity with a lateralized somatosensory topography has the highest contribution, while theta band activity with a fronto-central topography has the most robust contribution in terms of real-world usability. We show that the output of the spectral decoder can be used to predict PIO susceptibility. We also find that workload buildup in the task induces pupil dilation, the magnitude of which is significantly correlated with the magnitude of the decoded EEG signals. These results suggest that PIOs may result from the dysregulation of cortical networks such as the locus coeruleus (LC)-anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) circuit. Our findings may generalize to similar control failures in other cases of tight man-machine coupling where gains and latencies in the control system must be inferred and compensated for by the human operators. A closed-loop intervention using neurophysiological decoding of workload buildup that targets the LC-ACC circuit may positively impact operator performance in such situations.

  19. Neural mechanisms underlying catastrophic failure in human-machine interaction during aerial navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saproo, Sameer; Shih, Victor; Jangraw, David C.; Sajda, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Objective. We investigated the neural correlates of workload buildup in a fine visuomotor task called the boundary avoidance task (BAT). The BAT has been known to induce naturally occurring failures of human-machine coupling in high performance aircraft that can potentially lead to a crash—these failures are termed pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). Approach. We recorded EEG and pupillometry data from human subjects engaged in a flight BAT simulated within a virtual 3D environment. Main results. We find that workload buildup in a BAT can be successfully decoded from oscillatory features in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Information in delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma spectral bands of the EEG all contribute to successful decoding, however gamma band activity with a lateralized somatosensory topography has the highest contribution, while theta band activity with a fronto-central topography has the most robust contribution in terms of real-world usability. We show that the output of the spectral decoder can be used to predict PIO susceptibility. We also find that workload buildup in the task induces pupil dilation, the magnitude of which is significantly correlated with the magnitude of the decoded EEG signals. These results suggest that PIOs may result from the dysregulation of cortical networks such as the locus coeruleus (LC)—anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) circuit. Significance. Our findings may generalize to similar control failures in other cases of tight man-machine coupling where gains and latencies in the control system must be inferred and compensated for by the human operators. A closed-loop intervention using neurophysiological decoding of workload buildup that targets the LC-ACC circuit may positively impact operator performance in such situations.

  20. An overview of the evaluation plan for PC/MISI: PC-based Multiple Information System Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Lim, Bee Lee; Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    An initial evaluation plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intend to be used as a blueprint for the evaluation of this system. Each objective of the design project is discussed along with the evaluation parameters and methodology to be used in the evaluation of the implementation's achievement of those objectives. The potential of the system for research activities related to more general aspects of information retrieval is also discussed.

  1. State transition storyboards: A tool for designing the Goldstone solar system radar data acquisition system user interface software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, S. D.

    1987-01-01

    Effective user interface design in software systems is a complex task that takes place without adequate modeling tools. By combining state transition diagrams and the storyboard technique of filmmakers, State Transition Storyboards were developed to provide a detailed modeling technique for the Goldstone Solar System Radar Data Acquisition System human-machine interface. Illustrations are included with a description of the modeling technique.

  2. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect

    B.Mi; X. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-05-26

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with different surface preparation conditions before applying the coating, e.g., grit-blasted surface, wire-brush cleaned surface, and a dirty surface. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that the three surface preparation conditions can be successfully differentiated by looking into the impedance difference observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. More specimens are also prepared with variations of process parameters, such as spray angle, stand-off distance, and application of corrosion protective sealant, etc. They are blindly tested to evaluate the reliability of the eddy current system. Quantitative relations between the coating bond strength and the eddy current response are also established with the support of destructive testing. This non-contact, non-destructive, easy to use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  3. Autostereoscopic three-dimensional viewer evaluation through comparison with conventional interfaces in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Michele; Simi, Massimiliano; Cavallotti, Carmela; Vatteroni, Monica; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Freschi, Cinzia; Valdastri, Pietro; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    In the near future, it is likely that 3-dimensional (3D) surgical endoscopes will replace current 2D imaging systems given the rapid spreading of stereoscopy in the consumer market. In this evaluation study, an emerging technology, the autostereoscopic monitor, is compared with the visualization systems mainly used in laparoscopic surgery: a binocular visor, technically equivalent from the viewer's point of view to the da Vinci 3D console, and a standard 2D monitor. A total of 16 physicians with no experience in 3D interfaces performed 5 different tasks, and the execution time and accuracy of the tasks were evaluated. Moreover, subjective preferences were recorded to qualitatively evaluate the different technologies at the end of each trial. This study demonstrated that the autostereoscopic display is equally effective as the binocular visor for both low- and high-complexity tasks and that it guarantees better performance in terms of execution time than the standard 2D monitor. Moreover, an unconventional task, included to provide the same conditions to the surgeons regardless of their experience, was performed 22% faster when using the autostereoscopic monitor than the binocular visor. However, the final questionnaires demonstrated that 60% of participants preferred the user-friendliness of the binocular visor. These results are greatly heartening because autostereoscopic technology is still in its early stages and offers potential improvement. As a consequence, the authors expect that the increasing interest in autostereoscopy could improve its friendliness in the future and allow the technology to be widely accepted in surgery.

  4. Usability evaluation of an experimental text summarization system and three search engines: implications for the reengineering of health care interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Kan, Min-Yem; McKeown, Kathleen; Klavans, Judith; Jordan, Desmond; LaFlamme, Mark; Patel, Vimia L

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the comparative evaluation of an experimental automated text summarization system, Centrifuser and three conventional search engines - Google, Yahoo and About.com. Centrifuser provides information to patients and families relevant to their questions about specific health conditions. It then produces a multidocument summary of articles retrieved by a standard search engine, tailored to the user's question. Subjects, consisting of friends or family of hospitalized patients, were asked to "think aloud" as they interacted with the four systems. The evaluation involved audio- and video recording of subject interactions with the interfaces in situ at a hospital. Results of the evaluation show that subjects found Centrifuser's summarization capability useful and easy to understand. In comparing Centrifuser to the three search engines, subjects' ratings varied; however, specific interface features were deemed useful across interfaces. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for engineering Web-based retrieval systems.

  5. Usability evaluation of an experimental text summarization system and three search engines: implications for the reengineering of health care interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, Andre W.; Kan, Min-Yem; McKeown, Kathleen; Klavans, Judith; Jordan, Desmond; LaFlamme, Mark; Patel, Vimia L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the comparative evaluation of an experimental automated text summarization system, Centrifuser and three conventional search engines - Google, Yahoo and About.com. Centrifuser provides information to patients and families relevant to their questions about specific health conditions. It then produces a multidocument summary of articles retrieved by a standard search engine, tailored to the user's question. Subjects, consisting of friends or family of hospitalized patients, were asked to "think aloud" as they interacted with the four systems. The evaluation involved audio- and video recording of subject interactions with the interfaces in situ at a hospital. Results of the evaluation show that subjects found Centrifuser's summarization capability useful and easy to understand. In comparing Centrifuser to the three search engines, subjects' ratings varied; however, specific interface features were deemed useful across interfaces. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for engineering Web-based retrieval systems. PMID:12463858

  6. Evaluation of using ferrofluid as an interface material for a field-reversible thermal connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Ahmed S.

    conduction heat transfer path. Having started as a student design competition named RevCon Challenge, work was performed to evaluate the use of new field-reversible thermal connectors. The new design proposed by the University of Missouri utilized oil based iron nanoparticles, commonly known as a ferrofluid, as a thermal interface material. By using a liquid type of interface material the channel gap can be reduced to a few micrometers, within machining tolerances, and heat can be dissipated off both sides of the card. The addition of nanoparticles improves the effective thermal conductivity of base fluid. The use of iron nanoparticles allows magnets to be used to hold the fluid in place, so the electronic cards may be easily inserted and removed while keeping the ferrofluid in the cold block channel. The ferrofluid-based design which was investigated has shown lower thermal resistance than the current wedgelock design. These results open the door for further development of electronic cards by using higher heat emitting components without compromising the simplicity of attaching/detaching cards from cooling plates.

  7. SEM evaluation of the interface between filling and root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Rosa, R A; Santini, M F; Heiden, K; Só, B B; Kuga, M C; Pereira, J R; Só, M V R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the presence of gaps at the interface between filling material and three root-end filling materials. Thirty human upper molars disto-buccal roots were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha and eugenol-based sealer. The apicoectomy was performed 2 mm from the apex and retrograde cavities were prepared with ultrasonic points (3 mm in deep). The samples were divided into three experimental groups (n = 10): Group I-white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); Group II-Super EBA; and Group III-Portland cement. The root-end filling materials were inserted into the retocavities using a MTA carrier. After 48 h, the roots were transversally sectioned in order to obtain the apical 5 mm. Next, each specimen was prepared longitudinally with crescent granulation of abrasives water-wet sandpapers in order to expose the filling and root-end filling materials. Then, the specimens were subjected to slow dehydration with silica gel, mounted onto specific stubs and coated with paladium coverage for SEM analysis of the interface between filling and root-end filling materials. The percentage of gaps at the interfacial area was calculated by using Image Tool 3.0 software. Super EBA presented the higher percentage of gaps (1.5 ± 0.67%), whereas MTA presented the lowest values (0.33 ± 0.20%; p = 0.0004). Despite the statistical differences observed between Super EBA and MTA, all the root-end filling materials presented great adaptation to the filling material, presenting small amount of gaps. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comparing and evaluating terminology services application programming interfaces: RxNav, UMLSKS and LexBIG

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Lee; Chute, Christopher G; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate the integration of terminologies into applications, various terminology services application programming interfaces (API) have been developed in the recent past. In this study, three publicly available terminology services API, RxNav, UMLSKS and LexBIG, are compared and functionally evaluated with respect to the retrieval of information from one biomedical terminology, RxNorm, to which all three services provide access. A list of queries is established covering a wide spectrum of terminology services functionalities such as finding RxNorm concepts by their name, or navigating different types of relationships. Test data were generated from the RxNorm dataset to evaluate the implementation of the functionalities in the three API. The results revealed issues with various aspects of the API implementation (eg, handling of obsolete terms by LexBIG) and documentation (eg, navigational paths used in RxNav) that were subsequently addressed by the development teams of the three API investigated. Knowledge about such discrepancies helps inform the choice of an API for a given use case. PMID:20962136

  9. Man-machine interface system for neuromuscular training and evaluation based on EMG and MMG signals.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Ramon; Alonso, Alonso; Carrera, Albano; Durán, Ramon; Fernández, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES) and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS). In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals.

  10. ESEM evaluations of muscle/nanoparticles interface in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Antonietta M; Kirkpatrick, James; Gambarelli, Andrea; Capitani, Federico; Hansen, Torsten; Eloy, Rosy; Clermont, Gaelle

    2008-04-01

    In order to examine the influence that shape and chemistry of different materials have on the incitement of a tissue reaction, we implanted five materials (the two metals Ni and Co, the two ceramics TiO2 and SiO2, and the polymer poly vinyl-chloride) as nanoparticles or bulk, in the dorsal muscles of 50 rats. After 6 or 12 months, rats were euthanized and the implanted materials were excised together with the surrounding tissue. After a first histological evaluation, the specimens were prepared for environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and for energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), in order to analyse the chemical composition of the implanted material after the biological interaction had occurred, and to evaluate the possible corrosion and diffusion of the materials at tissue interface. The results indicate that the metals at nanoscale size have a carcinogenic effect, while the bulk materials only induce a foreign-body reaction. The ESEM observations show a chemical transformation of the materials. Corrosion of the metals and subsequent recombination of the released ions in a sort of organic-inorganic crystals is showed and verified by the EDS analyses. Finally, our hypotheses of the involved pathological mechanism are suggested.

  11. Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa, Ramon; Alonso, Alonso; Carrera, Albano; Durán, Ramon; Fernández, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES) and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS). In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals. PMID:22163515

  12. An implementation and evaluation of the MPI 3.0 one-sided communication interface

    DOE PAGES

    Dinan, James S.; Balaji, Pavan; Buntinas, Darius T.; ...

    2016-01-09

    The Q1 Message Passing Interface (MPI) 3.0 standard includes a significant revision to MPI’s remote memory access (RMA) interface, which provides support for one-sided communication. MPI-3 RMA is expected to greatly enhance the usability and performance ofMPI RMA.We present the first complete implementation of MPI-3 RMA and document implementation techniques and performance optimization opportunities enabled by the new interface. Our implementation targets messaging-based networks and is publicly available in the latest release of the MPICH MPI implementation. Here using this implementation, we explore the performance impact of new MPI-3 functionality and semantics. Results indicate that the MPI-3 RMA interface providesmore » significant advantages over the MPI-2 interface by enabling increased communication concurrency through relaxed semantics in the interface and additional routines that provide new window types, synchronization modes, and atomic operations.« less

  13. An implementation and evaluation of the MPI 3.0 one-sided communication interface

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James S.; Balaji, Pavan; Buntinas, Darius T.; Goodell, David J.; Gropp, William D.; Thakur, Rajeev

    2016-01-09

    The Q1 Message Passing Interface (MPI) 3.0 standard includes a significant revision to MPI’s remote memory access (RMA) interface, which provides support for one-sided communication. MPI-3 RMA is expected to greatly enhance the usability and performance ofMPI RMA.We present the first complete implementation of MPI-3 RMA and document implementation techniques and performance optimization opportunities enabled by the new interface. Our implementation targets messaging-based networks and is publicly available in the latest release of the MPICH MPI implementation. Here using this implementation, we explore the performance impact of new MPI-3 functionality and semantics. Results indicate that the MPI-3 RMA interface provides significant advantages over the MPI-2 interface by enabling increased communication concurrency through relaxed semantics in the interface and additional routines that provide new window types, synchronization modes, and atomic operations.

  14. Applying Spatial Audio to Human Interfaces: 25 Years of NASA Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfrey, Martine; Miller, Joel D.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of human factors engineering, the inclusion of spatial audio within a human-machine interface is advantageous from several perspectives. Demonstrated benefits include the ability to monitor multiple streams of speech and non-speech warning tones using a cocktail party advantage, and for aurally-guided visual search. Other potential benefits include the spatial coordination and interaction of multimodal events, and evaluation of new communication technologies and alerting systems using virtual simulation. Many of these technologies were developed at NASA Ames Research Center, beginning in 1985. This paper reviews examples and describes the advantages of spatial sound in NASA-related technologies, including space operations, aeronautics, and search and rescue. The work has involved hardware and software development as well as basic and applied research.

  15. Evaluation of intermediate phases formed on the bonding interface of hot pressed Cu/Al clad materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Sangmok; Lee, Jong-Sup; Kim, Yong-Bae; Lee, Geun-An; Lee, Sang-Pill; Bae, Dong-Su

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the properties of intermediate phases formed on the bonding interface of hot pressed Cu/Al clad materials by transmission electron microscopy and nano-indentation analyses. Cu/Al clad materials were fabricated by hot pressing under 200 MPa at 250 °C for 1 h and then heat treated at 400 °C for 1 h. Nano-indentation measurement was conducted to evaluate the nanohardness and modulus of the intermediate phases formed between the Cu/Al interfaces. A 3-tier diffusion layer was observed at the Cu/Al interfaces. Knoop microhardness values at the bonding interface were 7 to 11 times that of the Cu and Al matrix metals. The intermediate phases formed at the bonding interface were Al4Cu9, AlCu, and Al2Cu. A mapping analysis confirmed that the Al and Cu particles moved via mutual diffusion toward the intermediate phases formed at the bonding interface. The nanohardness values of η2-AlCu and γ1-Al4Cu9 were 4 to 7 times that of the Cu and Al matrix metals. Nanohardness and Knoop microhardness measurement curves exhibited similar tendencies. The rigidity values of the respective intermediate phases can be arranged in descending order as follows: γ1-Al4Cu9 > η2-AlCu > θ-Al2Cu.

  16. Correlation of mechanical properties with nondestructive evaluation of babbitt metal/bronze composite interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijiri, Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Taszarek, B. J.; Frohlich, S.; Gungor, M. N.

    1988-09-01

    Interfaces of the babbitt metal-bronze composite were examined ultrasonically and were fractured using the Chalmers test method. It was found that the ultrasonic results correlated with the bond strength, the ductility, and the degree of bonding at the tested interface. Specifically, high ultrasonic reflection percentages were associated with low bond strength, low ductility, and low percentages of bonded regions. The fracture mechanism in the bonded area of the babbitt-bronze interface is related to the presence of the intermetallic compound, Cu6Sn5, at the interface. It is suggested that the non-destructive ultrasonic technique can detect the bond integrity of babbitted metals.

  17. Fatigue of the Resin-Dentin Interface: A New Approach for Evaluating the Durability of Dentin Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Mutluay, Mustafa Murat; Yahyazadefar, Mobin; Ryou, Heonjune; Majd, Hessam; Do, Dominic; Arola, Dwayne

    2013-01-01

    There are concerns regarding the longevity of resin composite restorations and the clinical relevance of in vitro bond strength testing to the durability of dentin bonds in vivo. Objective The objectives of this investigation were to: 1) develop a new method of experimental evaluation for quantifying the durability of dentin bonds, 2) apply this method to characterize the interfacial strength of a selected commercial system under both monotonic and cyclic loading, and 3) distinguish mechanisms contributing to the interface degradation and failure. Methods A new method for fatigue testing the resin-dentin interface was developed based on a four-point flexure arrangement that includes two identical bonded interfaces. Cyclic loading of specimens comprised of coronal dentin bonded to a commercial resin composite and controls of resin composite was performed to failure within a hydrated environment. Scanning electron microscopy and nanoscopic dynamic mechanical analysis were used to evaluate failure mechanisms. Results The fatigue strength of the resin-dentin interface was significantly lower (p≤0.0001) than that of the resin composite and reported for dentin over the entire finite life regime. Defined at 1×107 cycles, the apparent endurance limit of the resin-dentin interface was 13 MPa, in comparison to 48 MPa and 44 MPa for the resin composite and dentin, respectively. The ratio of fully reversed endurance limit to ultimate strength of the interface (0.26) was the lowest of the three materials. Significance The proposed approach for characterizing the fatigue strength of resin-dentin bonds may offer new insights concerning durability of the bonded interface. PMID:23434232

  18. The evaluation and extension of TAE in the development of a user interface management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, Brenda; Sugar, Ross

    1986-01-01

    The development of a user interface management system (UIMS) for an information gathering and display system is discussed. The system interface requirements are outlined along with the UIMS functional characteristics. Those systems requirements which are supported by the current Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) are listed and necessary modifications to the TAE are described.

  19. Human, Machine, Nature and Safety Factors in the Design and Architecture of Spaceflight Terminal at Spaceport Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Abd Aziz, Noor Azizee; Mohd Ariffin, Ati Rosemary

    2013-09-01

    Spaceport Malaysia has been approved by the local authorities in Malaysia and now is at the final stage of its planning. The most significant and iconic facility at the proposed Spaceport Malaysia will be the spaceflight terminal which will serve suborbital flights for carrying experiments, passengers and satellites.As such, the design of the spaceport signifies a place that welcomes visitors, user friendly, supports, services and integrates vehicles, blends with natures and uses green technology and also ensure safe both for people and machines. This paper describes how human, machine, nature and safety factors were incorporated in the design approach of the spaceflight terminal.

  20. [Statistics and evaluation of a graphic SQL user interface in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS)].

    PubMed

    Benson, M; Junger, A; Quinzio, L; Jost, A; Hempelmann, G

    1999-01-01

    Since 1997, the Anaesthesia Information Management Systems (AIMS) in our department has produced extensive data material (DGAI core data, vital sign parameters, respiratory parameters, material consumed, etc.) which is stored in a relational data bank. The processing of this data by means of SQL queries was restricted to a few persons with special knowledge only. It was the objective of the project to create an evaluation tool which enables each member of the department to enter queries concerning topics such as efficiency records, quality management, training and research at any time. The tool was also intended to present results in an adequate form. Since 1997, the data of the performed anaesthesia procedures have been recorded using the online anaesthesia documentation software NarkoData Version 4 (ProLogic GmbH, Erkrath) within the AIMS. The recorded data sets have been imported into a relational Oracle data bank (Oracle Corporation). The commercial programme Voyant (Brossco Systems, Espoo, Finland) enables for the user to formulate SQL-requests (Structured Query Language) with the help of a graphic user interface and to present the results in a variety of graphics and tables. Repetition of the evaluation using the current data is possible at any time. During 1997 and the first quarter of 1998, the data of 26,030 anaesthesia procedures have been registered and stored in the anaesthesiological data base. 235 queries could be formulated with the SQL-capable graphic tool Voyant. They are available to each member of the department by the application of NarkoStatistik (IMS GmbH, Giessen) within the AIMS, together with the corresponding documentation (HTML pages). The query catalogue covers the main topics of efficiency, quality management, organisation, diagnoses and surgery, pre-, intra- and postoperative data and day-care unit. Even without much previous experience with the system it is possible to carry out evaluations with the current data at selected AIMS

  1. Evaluation and comparison of classical interatomic potentials through a user-friendly interactive web-interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Kamal; Congo, Faical Yannick P.; Liang, Tao; Becker, Chandler; Hennig, Richard G.; Tavazza, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Classical empirical potentials/force-fields (FF) provide atomistic insights into material phenomena through molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Despite their wide applicability, a systematic evaluation of materials properties using such potentials and, especially, an easy-to-use user-interface for their comparison is still lacking. To address this deficiency, we computed energetics and elastic properties of variety of materials such as metals and ceramics using a wide range of empirical potentials and compared them to density functional theory (DFT) as well as to experimental data, where available. The database currently consists of 3248 entries including energetics and elastic property calculations, and it is still increasing. We also include computational tools for convex-hull plots for DFT and FF calculations. The data covers 1471 materials and 116 force-fields. In addition, both the complete database and the software coding used in the process have been released for public use online (presently at http://www.ctcms.nist.gov/∼knc6/periodic.html) in a user-friendly way designed to enable further material design and discovery.

  2. Evaluation of computer-aided instruction techniques for the crew interface coordination position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    1993-01-01

    The Crew Interface Coordinator (CIC) is responsible for real-time voice and procedural communication between the payload crew on the orbiter and the payload operations team on the ground. This function is dedicated to science activities and operations, and may also include some responsibilities for crew training. CIC training at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) consists of mission-independent training, mission simulations, and line-organization training. As identified by Schneider, the program provides very good generic training; however position-specific training may be obtained in a very unstructured way. A computer-based training system, identified as Mac CIC, is currently under development to address this issue. Mac CIC is intended to provide an intermediate level of training in order to prepare the CIC for the more intensive mission simulations. Although originally intended as an intelligent tutoring system, Mac CIC currently exists as a hypertext-based application. The objectives of this research is to evaluate the current system and to provide both recommendations and a detailed plan for Mac CIC's evolution into an intelligent tutoring system.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of classical interatomic potentials through a user-friendly interactive web-interface.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Kamal; Congo, Faical Yannick P; Liang, Tao; Becker, Chandler; Hennig, Richard G; Tavazza, Francesca

    2017-01-31

    Classical empirical potentials/force-fields (FF) provide atomistic insights into material phenomena through molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Despite their wide applicability, a systematic evaluation of materials properties using such potentials and, especially, an easy-to-use user-interface for their comparison is still lacking. To address this deficiency, we computed energetics and elastic properties of variety of materials such as metals and ceramics using a wide range of empirical potentials and compared them to density functional theory (DFT) as well as to experimental data, where available. The database currently consists of 3248 entries including energetics and elastic property calculations, and it is still increasing. We also include computational tools for convex-hull plots for DFT and FF calculations. The data covers 1471 materials and 116 force-fields. In addition, both the complete database and the software coding used in the process have been released for public use online (presently at http://www.ctcms.nist.gov/∼knc6/periodic.html) in a user-friendly way designed to enable further material design and discovery.

  4. Evaluating brain-computer interface performance using color in the P300 checkerboard speller.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D B; Townsend, G; Gates, N A; Colwell, K; Sellers, E W

    2017-10-01

    Current Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems typically flash an array of items from grey to white (GW). The objective of this study was to evaluate BCI performance using uniquely colored stimuli. In addition to the GW stimuli, the current study tested two types of color stimuli (grey to color [GC] and color intensification [CI]). The main hypotheses were that in a checkboard paradigm, unique color stimuli will: (1) increase BCI performance over the standard GW paradigm; (2) elicit larger event-related potentials (ERPs); and, (3) improve offline performance with an electrode selection algorithm (i.e., Jumpwise). Online results (n=36) showed that GC provides higher accuracy and information transfer rate than the CI and GW conditions. Waveform analysis showed that GC produced higher amplitude ERPs than CI and GW. Information transfer rate was improved by the Jumpwise-selected channel locations in all conditions. Unique color stimuli (GC) improved BCI performance and enhanced ERPs. Jumpwise-selected electrode locations improved offline performance. These results show that in a checkerboard paradigm, unique color stimuli increase BCI performance, are preferred by participants, and are important to the design of end-user applications; thus, could lead to an increase in end-user performance and acceptance of BCI technology. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain-computer interface (BCI) evaluation in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    McCane, Lynn M; Sellers, Eric W; McFarland, Dennis J; Mak, Joseph N; Carmack, C Steve; Zeitlin, Debra; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Vaughan, Theresa M

    2014-06-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) might restore communication to people severely disabled by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or other disorders. We sought to: 1) define a protocol for determining whether a person with ALS can use a visual P300-based BCI; 2) determine what proportion of this population can use the BCI; and 3) identify factors affecting BCI performance. Twenty-five individuals with ALS completed an evaluation protocol using a standard 6 × 6 matrix and parameters selected by stepwise linear discrimination. With an 8-channel EEG montage, the subjects fell into two groups in BCI accuracy (chance accuracy 3%). Seventeen averaged 92 (± 3)% (range 71-100%), which is adequate for communication (G70 group). Eight averaged 12 (± 6)% (range 0-36%), inadequate for communication (L40 subject group). Performance did not correlate with disability: 11/17 (65%) of G70 subjects were severely disabled (i.e. ALSFRS-R < 5). All L40 subjects had visual impairments (e.g. nystagmus, diplopia, ptosis). P300 was larger and more anterior in G70 subjects. A 16-channel montage did not significantly improve accuracy. In conclusion, most people severely disabled by ALS could use a visual P300-based BCI for communication. In those who could not, visual impairment was the principal obstacle. For these individuals, auditory P300-based BCIs might be effective.

  6. Usability testing in medical informatics: cognitive approaches to evaluation of information systems and user interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, A. W.; Patel, V. L.; Cimino, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the evaluation of health care information technologies based on usability engineering and a methodological framework from the study of medical cognition. The approach involves collection of a rich set of data including video recording of health care workers as they interact with systems, such as computerized patient records and decision support tools. The methodology can be applied in the laboratory setting, typically involving subjects "thinking aloud" as they interact with a system. A similar approach to data collection and analysis can also be extended to study of computer systems in the "live" environment of hospital clinics. Our approach is also influenced from work in the area of cognitive task analysis, which aims to characterize the decision making and reasoning of subjects of varied levels of expertise as they interact with information technology in carrying out representative tasks. The stages involved in conducting cognitively-based usability analyses are detailed and the application of such analysis in the iterative process of system and interface development is discussed. PMID:9357620

  7. Evaluation and comparison of classical interatomic potentials through a user-friendly interactive web-interface

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Kamal; Congo, Faical Yannick P.; Liang, Tao; Becker, Chandler; Hennig, Richard G.; Tavazza, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Classical empirical potentials/force-fields (FF) provide atomistic insights into material phenomena through molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Despite their wide applicability, a systematic evaluation of materials properties using such potentials and, especially, an easy-to-use user-interface for their comparison is still lacking. To address this deficiency, we computed energetics and elastic properties of variety of materials such as metals and ceramics using a wide range of empirical potentials and compared them to density functional theory (DFT) as well as to experimental data, where available. The database currently consists of 3248 entries including energetics and elastic property calculations, and it is still increasing. We also include computational tools for convex-hull plots for DFT and FF calculations. The data covers 1471 materials and 116 force-fields. In addition, both the complete database and the software coding used in the process have been released for public use online (presently at http://www.ctcms.nist.gov/∼knc6/periodic.html) in a user-friendly way designed to enable further material design and discovery. PMID:28140407

  8. Brain-computer interface controlled gaming: evaluation of usability by severely motor restricted end-users.

    PubMed

    Holz, Elisa Mira; Höhne, Johannes; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Tangermann, Michael; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Connect-Four, a new sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) based brain-computer interface (BCI) gaming application, was evaluated by four severely motor restricted end-users; two were in the locked-in state and had unreliable eye-movement. Following the user-centred approach, usability of the BCI prototype was evaluated in terms of effectiveness (accuracy), efficiency (information transfer rate (ITR) and subjective workload) and users' satisfaction. Online performance varied strongly across users and sessions (median accuracy (%) of end-users: A=.65; B=.60; C=.47; D=.77). Our results thus yielded low to medium effectiveness in three end-users and high effectiveness in one end-user. Consequently, ITR was low (0.05-1.44bits/min). Only two end-users were able to play the game in free-mode. Total workload was moderate but varied strongly across sessions. Main sources of workload were mental and temporal demand. Furthermore, frustration contributed to the subjective workload of two end-users. Nevertheless, most end-users accepted the BCI application well and rated satisfaction medium to high. Sources for dissatisfaction were (1) electrode gel and cap, (2) low effectiveness, (3) time-consuming adjustment and (4) not easy-to-use BCI equipment. All four end-users indicated ease of use as being one of the most important aspect of BCI. Effectiveness and efficiency are lower as compared to applications using the event-related potential as input channel. Nevertheless, the SMR-BCI application was satisfactorily accepted by the end-users and two of four could imagine using the BCI application in their daily life. Thus, despite moderate effectiveness and efficiency BCIs might be an option when controlling an application for entertainment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical Evaluation of Fluid Mixing Phenomena in Boiling Water Reactor Using Advanced Interface Tracking Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takase, Kazuyuki

    Thermal-hydraulic design of the current boiling water reactor (BWR) is performed with the subchannel analysis codes which incorporated the correlations based on empirical results including actual-size tests. Then, for the Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) core, an actual size test of an embodiment of its design is required to confirm or modify such correlations. In this situation, development of a method that enables the thermal-hydraulic design of nuclear reactors without these actual size tests is desired, because these tests take a long time and entail great cost. For this reason, we developed an advanced thermal-hydraulic design method for FLWRs using innovative two-phase flow simulation technology. In this study, a detailed Two-Phase Flow simulation code using advanced Interface Tracking method: TPFIT is developed to calculate the detailed information of the two-phase flow. In this paper, firstly, we tried to verify the TPFIT code by comparing it with the existing 2-channel air-water mixing experimental results. Secondary, the TPFIT code was applied to simulation of steam-water two-phase flow in a model of two subchannels of a current BWRs and FLWRs rod bundle. The fluid mixing was observed at a gap between the subchannels. The existing two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing is evaluated using detailed numerical simulation data. This data indicates that pressure difference between fluid channels is responsible for the fluid mixing, and thus the effects of the time average pressure difference and fluctuations must be incorporated in the two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing. When inlet quality ratio of subchannels is relatively large, it is understood that evaluation precision of the existing two-phase flow correlations for fluid mixing are relatively low.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Micro-Electrocorticography Arrays for Neural Interfacing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schendel, Amelia Ann

    Neural interfaces have great promise for both electrophysiological research and therapeutic applications. Whether for the study of neural circuitry or for neural prosthetic or other therapeutic applications, micro-electrocorticography (micro-ECoG) arrays have proven extremely useful as neural interfacing devices. These devices strike a balance between invasiveness and signal resolution, an important step towards eventual human application. The objective of this research was to make design improvements to micro-ECoG devices to enhance both biocompatibility and device functionality. To best evaluate the effectiveness of these improvements, a cranial window imaging method for in vivo monitoring of the longitudinal tissue response post device implant was developed. Employment of this method provided valuable insight into the way tissue grows around micro-ECoG arrays after epidural implantation, spurring a study of the effects of substrate geometry on the meningeal tissue response. The results of the substrate footprint comparison suggest that a more open substrate geometry provides an easy path for the tissue to grow around to the top side of the device, whereas a solid device substrate encourages the tissue to thicken beneath the device, between the electrode sites and the brain. The formation of thick scar tissue between the recording electrode sites and the neural tissue is disadvantageous for long-term recorded signal quality, and thus future micro-ECoG device designs should incorporate open-architecture substrates for enhanced longitudinal in vivo function. In addition to investigating improvements for long-term device reliability, it was also desired to enhance the functionality of micro-ECoG devices for neural electrophysiology research applications. To achieve this goal, a completely transparent graphene-based device was fabricated for use with the cranial window imaging method and optogenetic techniques. The use of graphene as the conductive material provided

  11. Accurate VoF based curvature evaluation method for low-resolution interface geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owkes, Mark; Herrmann, Marcus; Desjardins, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    The height function method is a common approach to compute the curvature of a gas-liquid interface in the context of the volume-of-fluid method. While the approach has been shown to produce second-order curvature estimates for many interfaces, the height function method deteriorates when the curvature becomes large and the interface becomes under-resolved by the computational mesh. In this work, we propose a modification to the height function method that improves the curvature calculation for under-resolved structures. The proposed scheme computes heights within columns that are not aligned with the underlying computational mesh but rather the interface normal vector which are found to be more robust for under-resolved interfaces. A computational geometry toolbox is used to compute the heights in the complex geometry that is formed at the intersection of the computational mesh and the columns. The resulting scheme has significantly reduced curvature errors for under-resolved interfaces and recovers the second-order convergence of the standard height function method for well-resolved interfaces.

  12. Evaluating interface strength of calcium phosphate sol-gel-derived thin films to Ti6Al4V substrate.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Wang, Jian; Pilliar, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    The interface shear strength of Ca-P thin films applied to Ti6Al4V substrates have been evaluated in this study using a substrate straining method--a shear lag model. The Ca-P films were synthesized using sol-gel methods from either an inorganic or organic precursor solution. Strong interface bonding was demonstrated for both film types. The films were identified as non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite but with different Ca/P ratios. The Ca-P films were 1-1.5 microm thick and testing and analysis using the shear lag approach revealed a shear strength of approximately 347 and 280 MPa for Inorganic and Organic Route-formed films, respectively. Overall, the exceptional mechanical properties of Ca-P/Ti6Al4V system along with the inherent advantages of sol-gel processing support continued studies to utilize this technology for bone-interfacing implant surface modification.

  13. Cognition-based development and evaluation of ergonomic user interfaces for medical image processing and archiving systems.

    PubMed

    Demiris, A M; Meinzer, H P

    1997-01-01

    Whether or not a computerized system enhances the conditions of work in the application domain, very much demands on the user interface. Graphical user interfaces seem to attract the interest of the users but mostly ignore some basic rules of visual information processing thus leading to systems which are difficult to use, lowering productivity and increasing working stress (cognitive and work load). In this work we present some fundamental ergonomic considerations and their application to the medical image processing and archiving domain. We introduce the extensions to an existing concept needed to control and guide the development of GUIs with respect to domain specific ergonomics. The suggested concept, called Model-View-Controller Constraints (MVCC), can be used to programmatically implement ergonomic constraints, and thus has some advantages over written style guides. We conclude with the presentation of existing norms and methods to evaluate user interfaces.

  14. Battery electric vehicles - implications for the driver interface.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Isabel; Krems, Josef F

    2016-03-01

    The current study examines the human-machine interface of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) from a user-perspective, focussing on the evaluation of BEV-specific displays, the relevance of provided information and challenges for drivers due to the concept of electricity in a road vehicle. A sample of 40 users drove a BEV for 6 months. Data were gathered at three points of data collection. Participants perceived the BEV-specific displays as only moderately reliable and helpful for estimating the displayed parameters. This was even less the case after driving the BEV for 3 months. A taxonomy of user requirements was compiled revealing the need for improved and additional information, especially regarding energy consumption and efficiency. Drivers had difficulty understanding electrical units and the energy consumption of the BEV. On the background of general principles for display design, results provide implications how to display relevant information and how to facilitate drivers' understanding of energy consumption in BEVs. Practitioner Summary: Battery electric vehicle (BEV) displays need to incorporate new information. A taxonomy of user requirements was compiled revealing the need for improved and additional information in the BEV interface. Furthermore, drivers had trouble understanding electrical units and energy consumption; therefore, appropriate assistance is required. Design principles which are specifically important in the BEV context are discussed.

  15. A method for evaluating aerosol leakage through the interface between protective suits and full-face respirators.

    PubMed

    Arnoldsson, Kristina; Danielsson, Signar; Thunéll, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Military personnel and first responders use a range of personal equipment including protective suits, gloves, boots, and respirators to prevent exposure of their skin and airways to hazardous chemical, biological, radiological, and/or nuclear substances. Although each individual item of personal protective equipment is well tested against existing standards, it is also necessary to consider the performance of the interfaces between items in terms of prevention from exposure, and the protection system as a whole. This article presents an aerosol challenge method for assessing the performance of the interface between a respirator and the hood of a protective suit. The interface is formed between the sealing strip of the hood and the surface of the respirator's outer sealing area and is affected by how well the sealing strip can cover and adapt to the sealing area. The method evaluates the leakage of particles of different sizes into the hood via the interface by particle counting at sampling points around the respirator's perimeter. Three different respirators were tested together with a single hood having a tight-fitting seal. The method variation between measurements was low but increased appreciably when the protective ensemble was re-dressed between measurements. This demonstrates the difficulty of achieving a reliable and reproducible seal between respirator and hood under normal conditions. Different leakage patterns were observed for the three respirators and were linked to some specific design features, namely the respirator's sealing area at the chin and its width at cheek level. Induced leak experiments showed that to detect substantial particle leakage, channels at the hood-respirator interface must be quite large. The method outlined herein provides a straightforward way of evaluating hood-respirator interfaces and could be useful in the further development of personal protective equipment.

  16. Development and Evaluation of Nursing User Interface Screens Using Multiple Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Sookyung; Johnson, Stephen B.; Stetson, Peter D.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Building upon the foundation of the Structured Narrative electronic health record (EHR) model, we applied theory-based (combined Technology Acceptance Model and Task-Technology Fit Model) and user-centered methods to explore nurses’ perceptions of functional requirements for an electronic nursing documentation system, design user interface screens reflective of the nurses’ perspectives, and assess nurses’ perceptions of the usability of the prototype user interface screens. The methods resulted in user interface screens that were perceived to be easy to use, potentially useful, and well-matched to nursing documentation tasks associated with Nursing Admission Assessment, Blood Administration, and Nursing Discharge Summary. The methods applied in this research may serve as a guide for others wishing to implement user-centered processes to develop or extend EHR systems. In addition, some of the insights obtained in this study may be informative to the development of safe and efficient user interface screens for nursing document templates in EHRs. PMID:19460464

  17. The design and evaluation of an activity monitoring user interface for people with stroke.

    PubMed

    Hart, Phil; Bierwirth, Rebekah; Fulk, George; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Usability is an important topic in the field of telerehabilitation research. Older users with disabilities in particular, present age-related and disability-related challenges that should be accommodated for in the design of a user interface for a telerehabilitation system. This paper describes the design, implementation, and assessment of a telerehabilitation system user interface that tries to maximize usability for an elderly user who has experienced a stroke. An Internet-connected Nintendo(®) Wii™ gaming system is selected as a hardware platform, and a server and website are implemented to process and display the feedback information. The usability of the interface is assessed with a trial consisting of 18 subjects: 10 healthy Doctor of Physical Therapy students and 8 people with a stroke. Results show similar levels of usability and high satisfaction with the gaming system interface from both groups of subjects.

  18. Evaluation of fracture strength of metal/epoxy joint by interface mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Yoshikazu

    1995-11-01

    Tension tests of metal/epoxy joints with or without interface cracks were conducted and fracture criteria of the joints were discussed based on interface mechanics. The variation of the fracture strength of each specimen was large, and the strength showed Gaussian distribution. The fracture strength of smooth specimens was lower for wider specimens, but the cumulative probability of fracture of smooth specimens was not controlled by the stress singularity parameter. In interface cracked specimens, the cracks were propagated either along the interface or in epoxy resin, depending on crack length. When cracks propagated along the interface, the cumulative probability of the fracture of the specimen was controlled by the real part of the complex stress intensity factor along the interface, K{sub 1}. When cracks kinked to epoxy resin, the angle was almost identical to that of the maximum tangential stress, {sigma}{sub {theta}max}. In this case, the cumulative probability of fracture was controlled by the value of K{sub {theta}max}.

  19. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  20. Evaluation of interfacial equilibrium constants from surface potential data: silver chloride aqueous interface.

    PubMed

    Preocanin, Tajana; Supljika, Filip; Kallay, Nikola

    2009-09-15

    A single crystal silver chloride electrode (SCr-AgCl) was used to measure the inner surface potential (Psi(0)) at the silver chloride aqueous electrolyte interface as a function of activity of Cl(-) ions as determined by the Ag/AgCl electrode. Absolute values of the surface potential were calculated from electrode potentials of SCr-AgCl using the value of point of zero charge (pCl(pzc)=5.2) as the value of point of zero potential. Measurements were performed in potassium nitrate aqueous solutions, as well as in the presence of Li, Na, Cs, Mg, and La nitrates. The Psi(0) (pCl) function was found to be linear within the experimental error and practically the same for all the examined electrolytes and almost independent of ionic strength. The reduction of the slope with respect to the Nernst equation, expressed by the alpha coefficient, was (0.88+/-0.01) at I(c)=10(-1) mol dm(-3), (0.87+/-0.01) at I(c)=10(-2) mol dm(-3), and (0.84+/-0.01) at I(c)=10(-3) mol dm(-3). The results were successfully interpreted by employing the surface complexation model developed originally for metal oxides and adapted for silver chloride. The standard ("intrinsic") equilibrium constants for the binding of chloride (K(o)(n)) and silver ions (K(o)(p)) on the corresponding sites at the silver chloride surface were evaluated as lg K(o)(n)=2.67+/-0.05; lg K(o)(p)=2.07+/-0.05. Counterion surface association equilibrium constants were also obtained as lg K(o)(NO3(-))=lg K(o)(K+)=274+/-0.05.

  1. Beyond p-values in the evaluation of brain-computer interfaces: A Bayesian estimation approach.

    PubMed

    Melinscak, Filip; Montesano, Luis

    2016-09-01

    To statistically evaluate the performance of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), researchers usually rely on null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), i.e. p-values. However, over-reliance on NHST is often identified as one of the causes of the recent reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience. In this paper we propose Bayesian estimation as an alternative to NHST in the analysis of BCI performance data. For the three most common experimental designs in BCI research - which would usually be analyzed using a t-test, a linear regression, or an ANOVA - we develop hierarchical models and estimate their parameters using Bayesian inference. Furthermore, we show that the described models are special cases of the hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM), which we propose as a general framework for the analysis of BCI performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed models on three real datasets and show how the results obtained with Bayesian estimation can give a nuanced insight into BCI performance data. Additionally, we provide all the data and code necessary to reproduce the presented results. Compared to NHST, Bayesian estimation with the HGLM allows more flexibility in the analysis of BCI performance data from nested experimental designs, and the obtained results have a more straightforward interpretation. Besides gains in flexibility and interpretability, a wider adoption of the Bayesian estimation approach in BCI studies could bring about greater transparency in data analysis, allow accumulation of knowledge across studies, and reduce questionable practices such as "p-hacking". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of stability of interface between CCM (Co-Cr-Mo) UCLA abutment and external hex implant.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ki-Joon; Park, Young-Bum; Choi, Hyunmin; Cho, Youngsung; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Keun-Woo

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of interface between Co-Cr-Mo (CCM) UCLA abutment and external hex implant. Sixteen external hex implant fixtures were assigned to two groups (CCM and Gold group) and were embedded in molds using clear acrylic resin. Screw-retained prostheses were constructed using CCM UCLA abutment and Gold UCLA abutment. The external implant fixture and screw-retained prostheses were connected using abutment screws. After the abutments were tightened to 30 Ncm torque, 5 kg thermocyclic functional loading was applied by chewing simulator. A target of 1.0 × 10(6) cycles was applied. After cyclic loading, removal torque values were recorded using a driving torque tester, and the interface between implant fixture and abutment was evaluated by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The means and standard deviations (SD) between the CCM and Gold groups were analyzed with independent t-test at the significance level of 0.05. Fractures of crowns, abutments, abutment screws, and fixtures and loosening of abutment screws were not observed after thermocyclic loading. There were no statistically significant differences at the recorded removal torque values between CCM and Gold groups (P>.05). SEM analysis revealed that remarkable wear patterns were observed at the abutment interface only for Gold UCLA abutments. Those patterns were not observed for other specimens. Within the limit of this study, CCM UCLA abutment has no statistically significant difference in the stability of interface with external hex implant, compared with Gold UCLA abutment.

  3. Safety Evaluation of Dry Powder Formulations by Direct Dispersion onto Air-Liquid Interface Cultured Cell Layer.

    PubMed

    Asai, Ayumu; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Yamauchi, Tomoyo; Sugiura, Yuka; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Most safety evaluations of dry powder inhalers (DPIs) using cultured cells have been performed with dry powder formulations dissolved in a medium. However, this method is not considered to be suitable to evaluate the safety of inhaled dry powder formulations correctly since it cannot reflect the actual phenomenon on the respiratory epithelial surface. In this study, we established a novel in-vitro safety evaluation system suitable for DPIs by combining an air-liquid interface cultured cell layer and a device for dispersing dry powders, and evaluated the safety of candidate excipients of dry powders for inhalation. The safety of excipients (sugars, amino acids, cyclodextrins, and positive controls) in solutions was compared using submerged cell culture systems with a conventional 96-well plate and Transwell(®). The sensitivity of the cells grown in Transwell(®) was lower than that of those grown in the 96-well plate. Dry powders were prepared by spray-drying and we evaluated their safety with a novel in-vitro safety evaluation system using an air-liquid interface cultured cell layer. Dry powders decreased the cell viability with doses more than solutions. On the other hand, dissolving the dry powders attenuated their cytotoxicity. This suggested that the novel in-vitro safety evaluation system would be suitable to evaluate the safety of DPIs with high sensitivity.

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Predicting Error in Complex Human-Machine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present a Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection Rules-Model Human Processor (GOMS-MHP) style model-based approach to the problem of predicting human habit capture errors. Habit captures occur when the model fails to allocate limited cognitive resources to retrieve task-relevant information from memory. Lacking the unretrieved information, decision mechanisms act in accordance with implicit default assumptions, resulting in error when relied upon assumptions prove incorrect. The model helps interface designers identify situations in which such failures are especially likely.

  5. Evaluation of the Next-Gen Exercise Software Interface in the NEEMO Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Andrea; Kalogera, Kent; Sandor, Aniko; Hardy, Marc; Frank, Andrew; English, Kirk; Williams, Thomas; Perera, Jeevan; Amonette, William

    2017-01-01

    NSBRI (National Space Biomedical Research Institute) funded research grant to develop the 'NextGen' exercise software for the NEEMO (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) analog. Develop a software architecture to integrate instructional, motivational and socialization techniques into a common portal to enhance exercise countermeasures in remote environments. Increase user efficiency and satisfaction, and institute commonality across multiple exercise systems. Utilized GUI (Graphical User Interface) design principals focused on intuitive ease of use to minimize training time and realize early user efficiency. Project requirement to test the software in an analog environment. Top Level Project Aims: 1) Improve the usability of crew interface software to exercise CMS (Crew Management System) through common app-like interfaces. 2) Introduce virtual instructional motion training. 3) Use virtual environment to provide remote socialization with family and friends, improve exercise technique, adherence, motivation and ultimately performance outcomes.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of frozen soil target materials with a fused interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the performance of artificial frozen soil materials with a fused interface, split tension (or 'Brazilian') tests and unconfined uniaxial compression tests were carried out in a low temperature environmental chamber. Intact and fused specimens were fabricated from four different soil mixtures (962: clay-rich soil with bentonite; DNA1: clay-poor soil; DNA2: clay-poor soil with vermiculite; and DNA3: clay-poor soil with perlite). Based on the 'Brazilian' test results and density measurements, the DNA3 mixture was selected to closely represent the mechanical properties of the Alaskan frozen soil. The healed-interface by the same soil layer sandwiched between two blocks of the same material yielded the highest 'Brazilian' tensile strength of the interface. Based on unconfined uniaxial compression tests, the frictional strength of the fused DNA3 specimens with the same soil appears to exceed the shear strength of the intact specimen.

  7. An Evaluation of OpenSHMEM Interfaces for the Variable-length Alltoallv() Collective Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Matthew Graham; Shamis, Pavel; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath

    2015-01-01

    Alltoallv() is a collective operation which allows all pro- cesses to exchange variable amounts of data with all other processes in the communication group. This means that Alltoallv() requires not only O(N2) communications, but typically also additional exchanges of the data lengths that will be transmitted in the eventual Alltoallv() call. This pre-exchange is used to calculate the proper offsets for the re- ceiving buffers on the target processes. However, we propose two new can- didate interfaces for Alltoallv() that would mitigate the need for the user to set up this extra exchange of information at the possible cost of memory efficiency. We explain the new interface variants and show how a single call can be used in place of the traditional Alltoall()/Alltoallv() pair. We then discuss the performance tradeoffs for overall communica- tion and memory costs, as well as both software and hardware-based optimizations and their applicability to the various proposed interfaces.

  8. Evaluation of analytic solutions for steady interface flow where the aquifer extends below the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Mark; Miller, Anthony D.; Morgan, Leanne K.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-08-01

    A computational approach is presented for steady Dupuit interface flow where the aquifer extends below the sea. A detailed approach is outlined to determine the head at the coastline so that the solution below the leaky seabed may be combined with any type of steady Dupuit interface flow in the aquifer below the land. The method allows for any inland boundary condition including specified head and specified flux; cases of freshwater lenses caused by infiltration are also considered. The approach is implemented in a Python script and a Jupyter Notebook.

  9. Design and Evaluation of a Cable-Driven fMRI-Compatible Haptic Interface to Investigate Precision Grip Control

    PubMed Central

    Vigaru, Bogdan; Sulzer, James; Gassert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Our hands and fingers are involved in almost all activities of daily living and, as such, have a disproportionately large neural representation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigations into the neural control of the hand have revealed great advances, but the harsh MRI environment has proven to be a challenge to devices capable of delivering a large variety of stimuli necessary for well-controlled studies. This paper presents a fMRI-compatible haptic interface to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying precision grasp control. The interface, located at the scanner bore, is controlled remotely through a shielded electromagnetic actuation system positioned at the end of the scanner bed and then through a high stiffness, low inertia cable transmission. We present the system design, taking into account requirements defined by the biomechanics and dynamics of the human hand, as well as the fMRI environment. Performance evaluation revealed a structural stiffness of 3.3 N/mm, renderable forces up to 94 N, and a position control bandwidth of at least 19 Hz. MRI-compatibility tests showed no degradation in the operation of the haptic interface or the image quality. A preliminary fMRI experiment during a pilot study validated the usability of the haptic interface, illustrating the possibilities offered by this device. PMID:26441454

  10. Design and Evaluation of a Cable-Driven fMRI-Compatible Haptic Interface to Investigate Precision Grip Control.

    PubMed

    Vigaru, Bogdan; Sulzer, James; Gassert, Roger

    2015-10-01

    Our hands and fingers are involved in almost all activities of daily living and, as such, have a disproportionately large neural representation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigations into the neural control of the hand have revealed great advances, but the harsh MRI environment has proven to be a challenge to devices capable of delivering a large variety of stimuli necessary for well-controlled studies. This paper presents a fMRI-compatible haptic interface to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying precision grasp control. The interface, located at the scanner bore, is controlled remotely through a shielded electromagnetic actuation system positioned at the end of the scanner bed and then through a high stiffness, low inertia cable transmission. We present the system design, taking into account requirements defined by the biomechanics and dynamics of the human hand, as well as the fMRI environment. Performance evaluation revealed a structural stiffness of 3.3 N/mm, renderable forces up to 94 N, and a position control bandwidth of at least 19 Hz. MRI-compatibility tests showed no degradation in the operation of the haptic interface or the image quality. A preliminary fMRI experiment during a pilot study validated the usability of the haptic interface, illustrating the possibilities offered by this device.

  11. Evaluating the interfacial reaction kinetics of the bipolar membrane interface in the bipolar membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sikan; Lu, Shanfu; Zhang, Jin; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Xiang, Yan

    2013-07-21

    A reaction kinetic model of the bipolar membrane interface in the bipolar membrane fuel cell (BPMFC) was proposed based on the p-n junction theory and chemical reaction kinetics. It verified the self-humidification feasibility of the BPMFC successfully.

  12. A robust and flexible Geospatial Modeling Interface (GMI) for environmental model deployment and evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper provides an overview of the GMI (Geospatial Modeling Interface) simulation framework for environmental model deployment and assessment. GMI currently provides access to multiple environmental models including AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W), Nitrate Leaching and Economic Analysis 2 (NLEA...

  13. Evaluation of air-liquid interface exposure systems for in vitro assessment of airborne pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cells to airborne pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of submerged cells. The published literature, however, describes irreproducible and/or unrealistic experimental conditions using ALI systems. We have compared fi...

  14. Self-Regulated Mobile Learning and Assessment: An Evaluation of Assessment Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koorsse, Melisa; Olivier, Werner; Greyling, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Assessment for learning has an important role to play in self-regulated learning but the assessment interface can impact learner motivation and performance. Learners are able to assess their knowledge of learning content and, through repeated assessment and high-quality feedback, close the gap between their current performance and the performance…

  15. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Exposure Devices for In Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cells to atmospheric pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of attached cells submerged in liquid medium. However, there is still limited understanding of the ideal ALI device design features that permit reproducible a...

  16. Developing and Evaluating a Flexible Wireless Microcoil Array Based Integrated Interface for Epidural Cortical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Chaudhry, Sharjeel A.; Hou, Wensheng; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Stroke leads to serious long-term disability. Electrical epidural cortical stimulation has made significant improvements in stroke rehabilitation therapy. We developed a preliminary wireless implantable passive interface, which consists of a stimulating surface electrode, receiving coil, and single flexible passive demodulated circuit printed by flexible printed circuit (FPC) technique and output pulse voltage stimulus by inductively coupling an external circuit. The wireless implantable board was implanted in cats’ unilateral epidural space for electrical stimulation of the primary visual cortex (V1) while the evoked responses were recorded on the contralateral V1 using a needle electrode. The wireless implantable board output stable monophasic voltage stimuli. The amplitude of the monophasic voltage output could be adjusted by controlling the voltage of the transmitter circuit within a range of 5–20 V. In acute experiment, cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) response was recorded on the contralateral V1. The amplitude of N2 in CCEP was modulated by adjusting the stimulation intensity of the wireless interface. These results demonstrated that a wireless interface based on a microcoil array can offer a valuable tool for researchers to explore electrical stimulation in research and the dura mater-electrode interface can effectively transmit electrical stimulation. PMID:28165427

  17. A NEW APPROACH FOR BI-MATERIAL INTERFACE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wright, Ian G; Lance, Michael J; Liu, Ken C

    2008-01-01

    A material configuration of central importance in composite materials or in protective coating technology is a thin film of one material deposited onto a substrate of a different material. Fabrication of such a structure inevitably gives rise to stress in the film due to lattice mismatch, differing coefficient of thermal expansion, chemical reactions, or other physical effects. Therefore, in general, the weakest link in this composite system often resides at the interface between the thin film and the substrate. In order to make multi-layered electronic devices and structural composites with long-term reliability, the fracture behavior of the material interfaces must be known. This project offers an innovative testing procedure of using spiral notch torsion bar method for the determination of interface fracture toughness that is applicable to thin coating materials in general. The feasibility study indicated that this approach for studying thin film interface fracture is repeatable and reliable and the demonstrated test method closely adheres to and is consistent with classical fracture mechanics theory.

  18. Experimental setup for evaluating an adaptive user interface for teleoperation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Peetha, Srikanth; Abubakar, Shamsudeen; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Cremer, Sven; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    A vital part of human interactions with a machine is the control interface, which single-handedly could define the user satisfaction and the efficiency of performing a task. This paper elaborates the implementation of an experimental setup to study an adaptive algorithm that can help the user better tele-operate the robot. The formulation of the adaptive interface and associate learning algorithms are general enough to apply when the mapping between the user controls and the robot actuators is complex and/or ambiguous. The method uses a genetic algorithm to find the optimal parameters that produce the input-output mapping for teleoperation control. In this paper, we describe the experimental setup and associated results that was used to validate the adaptive interface to a differential drive robot from two different input devices; a joystick, and a Myo gesture control armband. Results show that after the learning phase, the interface converges to an intuitive mapping that can help even inexperienced users drive the system to a goal location.

  19. Evaluating carbon stores at the earth-atmosphere interface: moss and lichen mats of subarctic Alaska

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Smith; Sarah Jovan; Bruce. McCune

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental goal of the forest inventory in interior Alaska is to accurately estimate carbon pools in a way that sheds light on the feedbacks between forests and climate. In boreal forests, moss and lichen mats often serve as the interface between soils and the atmosphere, therefore characterizing the biomass and composition of mats is essential for understanding how...

  20. Developing and Evaluating a Flexible Wireless Microcoil Array Based Integrated Interface for Epidural Cortical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Chaudhry, Sharjeel A; Hou, Wensheng; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-05

    Stroke leads to serious long-term disability. Electrical epidural cortical stimulation has made significant improvements in stroke rehabilitation therapy. We developed a preliminary wireless implantable passive interface, which consists of a stimulating surface electrode, receiving coil, and single flexible passive demodulated circuit printed by flexible printed circuit (FPC) technique and output pulse voltage stimulus by inductively coupling an external circuit. The wireless implantable board was implanted in cats' unilateral epidural space for electrical stimulation of the primary visual cortex (V1) while the evoked responses were recorded on the contralateral V1 using a needle electrode. The wireless implantable board output stable monophasic voltage stimuli. The amplitude of the monophasic voltage output could be adjusted by controlling the voltage of the transmitter circuit within a range of 5-20 V. In acute experiment, cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) response was recorded on the contralateral V1. The amplitude of N2 in CCEP was modulated by adjusting the stimulation intensity of the wireless interface. These results demonstrated that a wireless interface based on a microcoil array can offer a valuable tool for researchers to explore electrical stimulation in research and the dura mater-electrode interface can effectively transmit electrical stimulation.

  1. Evaluating Gaze-Based Interface Tools to Facilitate Point-and-Select Tasks with Small Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovsgaard, Henrik; Mateo, Julio C.; Hansen, John Paulin

    2011-01-01

    Gaze interaction affords hands-free control of computers. Pointing to and selecting small targets using gaze alone is difficult because of the limited accuracy of gaze pointing. This is the first experimental comparison of gaze-based interface tools for small-target (e.g. less than 12 x 12 pixels) point-and-select tasks. We conducted two…

  2. Design and Evaluation of a User Interface Supporting Multiple Image Query Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostafa, Javed; Dillon, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Describes the ViewFinder interface, designed at Indiana University as a client to a database server; it supports querying based on both visual and verbal clues. Presents results of usability analysis performed on ViewFinder with 18 users. High search success rates were achieved through both types of querying means; verbal clues were used more than…

  3. Evaluating Gaze-Based Interface Tools to Facilitate Point-and-Select Tasks with Small Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovsgaard, Henrik; Mateo, Julio C.; Hansen, John Paulin

    2011-01-01

    Gaze interaction affords hands-free control of computers. Pointing to and selecting small targets using gaze alone is difficult because of the limited accuracy of gaze pointing. This is the first experimental comparison of gaze-based interface tools for small-target (e.g. less than 12 x 12 pixels) point-and-select tasks. We conducted two…

  4. Self-Regulated Mobile Learning and Assessment: An Evaluation of Assessment Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koorsse, Melisa; Olivier, Werner; Greyling, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Assessment for learning has an important role to play in self-regulated learning but the assessment interface can impact learner motivation and performance. Learners are able to assess their knowledge of learning content and, through repeated assessment and high-quality feedback, close the gap between their current performance and the performance…

  5. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Exposure Devices for In Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cells to atmospheric pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of attached cells submerged in liquid medium. However, there is still limited understanding of the ideal ALI device design features that permit reproducible a...

  6. Evaluation of air-liquid interface exposure systems for in vitro assessment of airborne pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cells to airborne pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of submerged cells. The published literature, however, describes irreproducible and/or unrealistic experimental conditions using ALI systems. We have compared fi...

  7. Supporting effective health and biomedical information retrieval and navigation: a novel facet view interface evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiangming; Ryu, Hohyon; Lu, Kun

    2011-08-01

    There is a need to provide a more effective user interface to facilitate non-domain experts' health information seeking in authoritative online databases such as MEDLINE. We developed a new topic cluster based information navigation system called SimMed. Instead of offering a list of documents, SimMed presents users with a list of ranked clusters. Topically similar documents are grouped together to provide users with a better overview of the search results and to support exploration of similar literature within a cluster. We conducted an empirical user study to compare SimMed to a traditional document list based search interface. A total of 42 study participants were recruited to use both interfaces for health information exploration search tasks. The results showed that SimMed is more effective in terms of users' perceived topic knowledge changes and their engagement in user-system interactions. We also developed a new metric to assess users' efforts to find relevant citations. On average, users need significantly fewer clicks to find relevant information in SimMed than in the baseline system. Comments from study participants indicated that SimMed is more helpful in finding similar citations, providing related medical terms, and presenting better organized search results, particularly when the initial search is unsatisfactory. Findings from the study shed light on future health and biomedical information retrieval system and interface designs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Importance of Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing in the User Interface Design for a Family Health History Web Site

    PubMed Central

    Kinzie, Mable; Cohn, Wendy; Knaus, William

    2001-01-01

    In order to develop the most effective health information web sites or instructional materials for physicians and consumers, designers frequently use a suite of best design practices, including Needs Assessment, Goal Analysis, User Interface Principles, and Rapid Prototyping. These best practices are not enough, however. If designers want to ensure the best possible product, they must also subject their products to Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing. A Web site designed to collect and evaluate family health history will be used to illustrate these principles.

  9. Methodological issues in the validation of complex human-machine systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Wachtel, J.

    1995-05-01

    Integrated system validation is one aspect of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s design review process for human-system interfaces. This paper will consider three methodological issues that must be addressed in validation and their implications for drawing conclusions about the acceptability of the integrated system. They are: representing the integrated system, representing the operational events it must handle, and representing system performance. A logical basis for generalizability from validation tests to predicted performance of the integrated system emerges from the comparability of the psychological and physical processes of the test and actual situations. Generalizability of results is supported when the integrated system, operating conditions and performance are representative of their real-world counterparts. The methodological considerations for establishing representativeness are discussed.

  10. Cryo DualBeam Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy to Evaluate the Interface Between Cells and Nanopatterned Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Edwin; Walboomers, X Frank; Domanski, Maciej; McKerr, George; O'Hagan, Barry M; Barnes, Clifford A; Peto, Lloyd; Luttge, Regina; Winnubst, Louis A J A; Gardeniers, Han J G E; Jansen, John A

    2011-01-01

    With the advance of nanotechnology in biomaterials science and tissue engineering, it is essential that new techniques become available to observe processes that take place at the direct interface between tissue and scaffold materials. Here, Cryo DualBeam focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) was used as a novel approach to observe the interactions between frozen hydrated cells and nanometric structures in high detail. Through a comparison of images acquired with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conventional FIB-SEM operated at ambient temperature, and Cryo DualBeam FIB-SEM, the advantages and disadvantages of each technique were evaluated. Ultrastructural details of both (extra)cellular components and cell organelles were best observe with TEM. However, processing artifacts such as shrinkage of cells at the substrate interface were introduced in both TEM and conventional FIB-SEM. In addition, the cellular contrast in conventional FIB-SEM was low; consequently, cells were difficult to distinguish from the adjoining substrate. Cryo DualBeam FIB-SEM did preserve (extra)cellular details like the contour, cell membrane, and mineralized matrix. The three described techniques have proven to be complementary for the evaluation of processes that take place at the interface between tissue and substrate.

  11. Evaluation of a Smartphone Platform as a Wireless Interface Between Tongue Drive System and Electric-Powered Wheelchairs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang; Minocha, Julia; Holbrook, Jaimee; Laumann, Anne; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a new wireless assistive technology (AT) for the mobility impaired population. It provides users with the ability to drive powered wheelchairs (PWC) and access computers using their unconstrained tongue motion. Migration of the TDS processing unit and user interface platform from a bulky personal computer to a smartphone (iPhone) has significantly facilitated its usage by turning it into a true wireless and wearable AT. After implementation of the necessary interfacing hardware and software to allow the smartphone to act as a bridge between the TDS and PWC, the wheelchair navigation performance and associated learning was evaluated in nine able-bodied subjects in five sessions over a 5-week period. Subjects wore magnetic tongue studs over the duration of the study and drove the PWC in an obstacle course with their tongue using three different navigation strategies; namely unlatched, latched, and semiproportional. Qualitative aspects of using the TDS–iPhone–PWC interface were also evaluated via a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. Subjects showed more than 20% improvement in the overall completion time between the first and second sessions, and maintained a modest improvement of ~9% per session over the following three sessions. PMID:22531737

  12. Evaluation of a smartphone platform as a wireless interface between tongue drive system and electric-powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang; Minocha, Julia; Holbrook, Jaimee; Laumann, Anne; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-06-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a new wireless assistive technology (AT) for the mobility impaired population. It provides users with the ability to drive powered wheelchairs (PWC) and access computers using their unconstrained tongue motion. Migration of the TDS processing unit and user interface platform from a bulky personal computer to a smartphone (iPhone) has significantly facilitated its usage by turning it into a true wireless and wearable AT. After implementation of the necessary interfacing hardware and software to allow the smartphone to act as a bridge between the TDS and PWC, the wheelchair navigation performance and associated learning was evaluated in nine able-bodied subjects in five sessions over a 5-week period. Subjects wore magnetic tongue studs over the duration of the study and drove the PWC in an obstacle course with their tongue using three different navigation strategies; namely unlatched, latched, and semiproportional. Qualitative aspects of using the TDS-iPhone-PWC interface were also evaluated via a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. Subjects showed more than 20% improvement in the overall completion time between the first and second sessions, and maintained a modest improvement of ∼9% per session over the following three sessions.

  13. Evaluating long-term annual sediment yield estimating potential of GIS interfaced MUSLE model on two micro-watersheds.

    PubMed

    Arekhi, Saleh

    2008-01-15

    Use of an event scale MUSLE model for obtaining accurate long-term annual sediment yield estimates from micro-watersheds was evaluated. Such estimates are extremely important for designing appropriate soil/water conserving measures. For easy extraction and inputting of model input parameters, the proposed model was interfaced to an Arc-View/Spatial Analyst geographic information system. Application of this GIS interfaced MUSLE model on two gauged (pine and oak forest) hilly micro-watersheds viz., Salla Rautella (0.47 km2) and Naula (0.42 km2), in Almora district of Uttaranchal, India showed that it could estimate annual sediment yields with absolute mean relative errors ranging between 12-14%. Even long-term average sediment yields for Salla Rautella (observed: 9.58 tons and estimated: 10.92 tons) and Naula: (Observed: 23.89 tons and estimated: 26.61 tons) micro-watersheds could be quite realistically simulated by the proposed model.

  14. Interface trap density evaluation on bare silicon-on-insulator wafers using the quasi-static capacitance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirro, L.; Ionica, I.; Ghibaudo, G.; Mescot, X.; Faraone, L.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the quasi-static capacitance-voltage (QSCV) technique in pseudo-metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (pseudo-MOSFET) configuration for evaluating the interface quality of bare silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, without processing dedicated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) test devices. A physical model is developed that is capable of explaining the experimental results. In addition, frequency effects are used to validate the equations by a systematic comparison between experimental and calculated characteristics, as well as by a direct comparison with the standard high-low frequency approach. An extraction procedure for interface trap density based solely on QSCV experimental results is proposed, and limits of the procedure are discussed. The proposed experimental and analytical procedure is demonstrated by characterizing SOI structures with different geometries and with different qualities of surface passivation of the top silicon film.

  15. Evaluation of stability of interface between CCM (Co-Cr-Mo) UCLA abutment and external hex implant

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki-Joon; Park, Young-Bum; Choi, Hyunmin; Cho, Youngsung; Lee, Jae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of interface between Co-Cr-Mo (CCM) UCLA abutment and external hex implant. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixteen external hex implant fixtures were assigned to two groups (CCM and Gold group) and were embedded in molds using clear acrylic resin. Screw-retained prostheses were constructed using CCM UCLA abutment and Gold UCLA abutment. The external implant fixture and screw-retained prostheses were connected using abutment screws. After the abutments were tightened to 30 Ncm torque, 5 kg thermocyclic functional loading was applied by chewing simulator. A target of 1.0 × 106 cycles was applied. After cyclic loading, removal torque values were recorded using a driving torque tester, and the interface between implant fixture and abutment was evaluated by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The means and standard deviations (SD) between the CCM and Gold groups were analyzed with independent t-test at the significance level of 0.05. RESULTS Fractures of crowns, abutments, abutment screws, and fixtures and loosening of abutment screws were not observed after thermocyclic loading. There were no statistically significant differences at the recorded removal torque values between CCM and Gold groups (P>.05). SEM analysis revealed that remarkable wear patterns were observed at the abutment interface only for Gold UCLA abutments. Those patterns were not observed for other specimens. CONCLUSION Within the limit of this study, CCM UCLA abutment has no statistically significant difference in the stability of interface with external hex implant, compared with Gold UCLA abutment. PMID:28018564

  16. Open-Box Muscle-Computer Interface: Introduction to Human-Computer Interactions in Bioengineering, Physiology, and Neuroscience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa-Jiménez, M. A.; González-Gaspar, P.; Pérez-Estudillo, C.; López-Meraz, M. L.; Morgado-Valle, C.; Beltran-Parrazal, L.

    2016-01-01

    A Muscle-Computer Interface (muCI) is a human-machine system that uses electromyographic (EMG) signals to communicate with a computer. Surface EMG (sEMG) signals are currently used to command robotic devices, such as robotic arms and hands, and mobile robots, such as wheelchairs. These signals reflect the motor intention of a user before the…

  17. Open-Box Muscle-Computer Interface: Introduction to Human-Computer Interactions in Bioengineering, Physiology, and Neuroscience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa-Jiménez, M. A.; González-Gaspar, P.; Pérez-Estudillo, C.; López-Meraz, M. L.; Morgado-Valle, C.; Beltran-Parrazal, L.

    2016-01-01

    A Muscle-Computer Interface (muCI) is a human-machine system that uses electromyographic (EMG) signals to communicate with a computer. Surface EMG (sEMG) signals are currently used to command robotic devices, such as robotic arms and hands, and mobile robots, such as wheelchairs. These signals reflect the motor intention of a user before the…

  18. Evaluating the Effects of Interface Disruption Using fNIR Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    Error Potentials in Brain- Computer Interfaces. ADVANCES IN COGNITIVE NEURODYNAMICS , 2008: p. 777-782. 21. Nieuwenhuis S, et al., Psychophysiology...introduced until the 1990‟s and holds great potential for extremely non-invasive cognitive state measurement. It is significantly easier and faster to...As a reminder, the general protocol is as follows: 1) Researchers gather benchmark tasks from cognitive psychology that elicit high and low

  19. Evaluating user interfaces in context: the ecological value of time-and-motion studies.

    PubMed

    Lindgaard, G

    1992-04-01

    Findings are summarized from a study which set out to identify cognitive stumbling blocks in the user interface of a large computer system used by telephone operators in Australia. Intermittent observations were made of operators' actions in the workplace over a period of eight months before, during and after system implementation. Numerous weaknesses were identified in the user interface, but the most interesting aspect of the study turned out to be the analysis of the overall jobs operators are required to do, as a by-product of the intended study. The insight into operator job demands led to changes in job selection criteria and training, which were found to match actual job demands quite poorly at the time the study was conducted. The paper describes the process by which the usability assessment of the user-system interface led to a comprehensive job analysis. Supporting quantitative data are presented, together with anecdotal examples which demonstrate the importance of conducting systems analysis in the working context, thereby maximizing the ecological value of the resulting research data.

  20. A simulation evaluation of a pilot interface with an automatic terminal approach system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The pilot-machine interface with cockpit automation is a critical factor in achieving the benefits of automation and reducing pilot blunders. To improve this interface, an automatic terminal approach system (ATAS) was conceived that can automatically fly a published instrument approach by using stored instrument approach data to automatically tune airplane radios and control an airplane autopilot and autothrottle. The emphasis in the ATAS concept is a reduction in pilot blunders and work load by improving the pilot-automation interface. A research prototype of an ATAS was developed and installed in the Langley General Aviation Simulator. A piloted simulation study of the ATAS concept showed fewer pilot blunders, but no significant change in work load, when compared with a baseline heading-select autopilot mode. With the baseline autopilot, pilot blunders tended to involve loss of navigational situational awareness or instrument misinterpretation. With the ATAS, pilot blunders tended to involve a lack of awareness of the current ATAS mode state or deficiencies in the pilots' mental model of how the system operated. The ATAS display provided adequate approach status data to maintain situational awareness.

  1. Design and Evaluation of a Novel Haptic Interface for Endoscopic Simulation.

    PubMed

    Samur, E; Flaction, L; Bleuler, H

    2012-01-01

    Inspection of the colon with an endoscope for early signs of cancer (colonoscopy) has become an extremely widespread procedure, since early treatment radically improves the outlook of patients. The procedure requires a close coordination between the sense of touch and vision to navigate the endoscope along the colon. This raises the need to develop efficient training methods for physicians. Training simulators based on virtual reality, where realistic graphics are combined with a mechatronic system providing haptic feedback, are alternative to traditional training methods. To provide physicians with realistic haptic sensations of an endoscopic procedure, we have designed a haptic interface, instrumented a clinical endoscope and combined them with a simulation software for colonoscopy. In this contribution, we present the mechatronic components of the simulator. The haptic interface is able to generate high forces using the combination of electrical motors and brakes in a compact design. Experiments were performed to determine the characteristics of the device. A model-based control has been implemented and the results show that the control successfully compensates for the device nonlinearities, such as friction. The proposed haptic interface, together with the virtual reality, form a highly realistic training simulator for endoscopic surgeons, applicable not only to colonoscopy, but also to similar interventions.

  2. Evaluation of a wireless wearable tongue-computer interface by individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2010-04-01

    The tongue drive system (TDS) is an unobtrusive, minimally invasive, wearable and wireless tongue-computer interface (TCI), which can infer its users' intentions, represented in their volitional tongue movements, by detecting the position of a small permanent magnetic tracer attached to the users' tongues. Any specific tongue movements can be translated into user-defined commands and used to access and control various devices in the users' environments. The latest external TDS (eTDS) prototype is built on a wireless headphone and interfaced to a laptop PC and a powered wheelchair. Using customized sensor signal processing algorithms and graphical user interface, the eTDS performance was evaluated by 13 naive subjects with high-level spinal cord injuries (C2-C5) at the Shepherd Center in Atlanta, GA. Results of the human trial show that an average information transfer rate of 95 bits/min was achieved for computer access with 82% accuracy. This information transfer rate is about two times higher than the EEG-based BCIs that are tested on human subjects. It was also demonstrated that the subjects had immediate and full control over the powered wheelchair to the extent that they were able to perform complex wheelchair navigation tasks, such as driving through an obstacle course.

  3. Evaluation of a wireless wearable tongue–computer interface by individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2010-01-01

    The tongue drive system (TDS) is an unobtrusive, minimally invasive, wearable and wireless tongue–computer interface (TCI), which can infer its users' intentions, represented in their volitional tongue movements, by detecting the position of a small permanent magnetic tracer attached to the users' tongues. Any specific tongue movements can be translated into user-defined commands and used to access and control various devices in the users' environments. The latest external TDS (eTDS) prototype is built on a wireless headphone and interfaced to a laptop PC and a powered wheelchair. Using customized sensor signal processing algorithms and graphical user interface, the eTDS performance was evaluated by 13 naive subjects with high-level spinal cord injuries (C2–C5) at the Shepherd Center in Atlanta, GA. Results of the human trial show that an average information transfer rate of 95 bits/min was achieved for computer access with 82% accuracy. This information transfer rate is about two times higher than the EEG-based BCIs that are tested on human subjects. It was also demonstrated that the subjects had immediate and full control over the powered wheelchair to the extent that they were able to perform complex wheelchair navigation tasks, such as driving through an obstacle course. PMID:20332552

  4. An Evaluation and Redesign of the Conflict Prediction and Trial Planning Planview Graphical User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudeman, Irene V.; Brasil, Connie L.; Stassart, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    The Planview Graphical User Interface (PGUI) is the primary display of air traffic for the Conflict Prediction and Trial Planning, function of the Center TRACON Automation System. The PGUI displays air traffic information that assists the user in making decisions related to conflict detection, conflict resolution, and traffic flow management. The intent of this document is to outline the human factors issues related to the design of the conflict prediction and trial planning portions of the PGUI, document all human factors related design changes made to the PGUI from December 1996 to September 1997, and outline future plans for the ongoing PGUI design.

  5. Microscopic evaluation of dentin interface obtained with 10 contemporary self-etching systems: correlation with their pH.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Geneviéve; Millas, Arlette

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated micromorphological differences in the hybridized complex formed using 10 commercially available self-etch bonding systems. In addition, the influence of the pH of the primer of these adhesives was evaluated. The self-etching systems tested were AdheSE, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Clearfil SE Bond, Etch&Prime 3.0 (Degussa, Germany), Prime & Bond NT Non Rinse Conditioner (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), One-Up Bond F, OptiBond Solo Plus Self Etch, Prompt L-Pop and Xeno III. One hundred non-carious human third molars were used. The teeth were divided into two groups of 50 and prepared for evaluation by optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The specimens in each group were further divided into 10 subgroups of five specimens each to evaluate the 10 bonding systems. The pH of the primers of the bonding systems was measured. The results demonstrated morphological differences at the interface, depending on adhesive composition. The differences mainly concerned thickness of the hybrid layer, the absence or presence of microscopic voids at the adhesive-composite interface and whether the dentinal tubuli were completely sealed. The pH was not the determining factor conditioning the action of the self-etching adhesives.

  6. Cognitive Cooperation for the Sake of the Human-Machine Team Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Computer Interaction (HCI 95), Tokyo, 1995. [Hoc et al, 95] Hoc, J.-M., Cacciabue, P.C. and Hollnagel, E. (Eds.): Expertise and Technology: Cognition and...Assistant System CASSY – Design and In-Flight Evaluation. In: Anzai & Ogawa (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human

  7. An extremely lightweight fingernail worn prosthetic interface device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetkin, Oguz; Ahluwalia, Simranjit; Silva, Dinithi; Kasi-Okonye, Isioma; Volker, Rachael; Baptist, Joshua R.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Upper limb prosthetics are currently operated using several electromyography sensors mounted on an amputee's residual limb. In order for any prosthetic driving interface to be widely adopted, it needs to be responsive, lightweight, and out of the way when not being used. In this paper we discuss the possibility of replacing such electrodes with fingernail optical sensor systems mounted on the sound limb. We present a prototype device that can detect pinch gestures and communicate with the prosthetic system. The device detects the relative position of fingers to each other by measuring light transmitted via tissue. Applications are not limited to prosthetic control, but can be extended to other human-machine interfaces.

  8. Evaluation of an augmented virtual reality and haptic control interface for psychomotor training.

    PubMed

    Kaber, David; Tupler, Larry A; Clamann, Michael; Gil, Guk-Ho; Zhu, Biwen; Swangnetr, Manida; Jeon, Wooram; Zhang, Yu; Qin, Xiaofeng; Ma, Wenqi; Lee, Yuan-Shin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the design of a virtual reality (VR) simulation integrating a haptic control interface for motor skill training. Twenty-four healthy participants were tested and trained in standardized psychomotor control tasks using native and VR forms with their nondominant hands in order to identify VR design features that might serve to accelerate motor learning. The study was also intended to make preliminary observations on the degree of specific motor skill development that can be achieved with a VR-based haptic simulation. Results revealed significant improvements in test performance following training for the VR with augmented haptic features with insignificant findings for the native task and VR with basic haptic features. Although performance during training was consistently better with the native task, a correspondence between the VR training and test task interfaces led to greater improvement in test performance as reported by a difference between baseline and post-test scores. These findings support use of VR-based haptic simulations of standardized psychomotor tests for motor skill training, including visual and haptic enhancements for effective pattern recognition and discrete movement of objects. The results may serve as an applicable guide for design of future haptic VR features.

  9. Design and Evaluation of Shape-Changing Haptic Interfaces for Pedestrian Navigation Assistance.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Adam J; Dollar, Aaron M

    2017-01-01

    Shape-changing interfaces are a category of device capable of altering their form in order to facilitate communication of information. In this work, we present a shape-changing device that has been designed for navigation assistance. 'The Animotus' (previously, 'The Haptic Sandwich' ), resembles a cube with an articulated upper half that is able to rotate and extend (translate) relative to the bottom half, which is fixed in the user's grasp. This rotation and extension, generally felt via the user's fingers, is used to represent heading and proximity to navigational targets. The device is intended to provide an alternative to screen or audio based interfaces for visually impaired, hearing impaired, deafblind, and sighted pedestrians. The motivation and design of the haptic device is presented, followed by the results of a navigation experiment that aimed to determine the role of each device DOF, in terms of facilitating guidance. An additional device, 'The Haptic Taco', which modulated its volume in response to target proximity (negating directional feedback), was also compared. Results indicate that while the heading (rotational) DOF benefited motion efficiency, the proximity (translational) DOF benefited velocity. Combination of the two DOF improved overall performance. The volumetric Taco performed comparably to the Animotus' extension DOF.

  10. Evaluation of Maltose-Induced Chemical Degradation at the Interface of Bilayer Tablets.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Yousuke; Murayama, Daisuke; Katakawa, Yoshifumi; Mimura, Hisashi; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Fixed dose combination tablets consisting of mirabegron (MB) and solifenacin succinate (SS) were developed and formulated into bilayer tablets in the current study. The results of a chemical stability study showed that the original formulation for the tablets led to a significant increase of unknown degradants in the SS layer. Two compatibility studies were conducted to simulate the interface between the MB and SS layers, and the results revealed that the degradants only formed in the presence of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and that the presence of maltose in the SS layer was critical to inducing degradation. High resolution mass spectroscopy coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the chemical structures of the degradants, which were identified to MB derivatives bearing one or two sugar units. These findings therefore suggested that the degradation of the API could be attributed to the addition of sugar units from maltose to MB under the acidic conditions caused by SS. With this in mind, we developed a new formulation by replacing maltose with hydroxypropyl cellulose as a polymer-type binder. The results showed that this formulation suppressed the formation of the degradants. The results of this study have shown that chemical degradation can occur at the interface of bilayer tablets and that an alternative strategy is available to formulate more stable MB/SS bilayer tablets.

  11. Evaluation of tangible user interfaces for command and control in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, Paul; McIntire, John; Compton, Andrew; Heft, Eric

    2008-04-01

    One of the difficulties that arise in trying to navigate through or interact with a 3D virtual environment is the fact that the standard 2D mouse with only two degrees of freedom does not lend itself to being used effectively where six degrees of motion are possible. Through the use of both a mouse and keyboard, one is able to interact in three degrees but never in all six at the same time, thus making interaction cumbersome at best. We test out a series of both commercial-off-the-shelf and in-house prototype tangible user interfaces (TUIs) to characterize multiple interaction methods within a virtual environment for command and control applications. Various aspects of navigation, including moving through the virtual world, as well as directly manipulating the world itself, are compared. We attempt to determine which interfaces are most appropriate for specific types of command and control tasks. We conclude with recommendations for the use of TUIs as well as ideas for future research.

  12. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the interface of three adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Macari, Soraia; Gonçalves, Mariane; Nonaka, Tomio; Santos, Jaime Maia dos

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the resin-dentin interface of three adhesive systems, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Optibond and Denthesive Bond II by scanning electron microscopy. The adhesives and their respective composite resins were applied inside the cervical root canal of human incisors and canines according to manufacturer recommendations. The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and sliced transversally to the root canal and perpendicularly to the resin-dentin interface. The adhesive systems Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Optibond had a homogenous hybrid layer and similar characteristics, involving resin penetration of peritubular and intertubular dentin matrix. Morphological differences of resin tags were seen; Scotchbond Multi-Purpose had more and longer tags than Optibond. Denthesive Bond II did not have the same consistency of bonding. Tubular orifices were not opened and the smear layer was not removed. This was due to the absence of previous acid conditioning of dentin that damages hybrid layer formation. Analysis of the hybrid layer revealed different patterns, suggesting that the attachment was influenced by many factors and a standardization of dentinal substrate was impossible.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of bone cement and bone cement/metal interface failure.

    PubMed

    Browne, M; Jeffers, J R T; Saffari, N

    2010-02-01

    To quantify the failure mechanisms related to the loosening of cemented hip joint replacements, novel techniques, capable of monitoring, nondestructively, the initiation and progression of failure during in vitro fatigue tests, were employed. Fatigue testing of model cement and cement-stem test pieces was monitored using acoustic emission (AE) sensors. Once damage was detected, an ultrasonic imaging system was used to obtain an image of the damage site and to measure the stiffness of the affected region. This method of examination provided a detailed insight into the internal crack propagation and delamination patterns. Initial work was conducted on bulk cement specimens subjected to bending and tension. The second stage of the work examined a model stem-cement interface under tensile opening loading conditions. A novel ultrasonic technique was used to measure the bond quality at the cement-metal interface. Progressive delamination was identified over time, and the AE technique was able to identify critical areas of delamination before they could be identified conclusively by ultrasonic imaging. The work has demonstrated the potential of the AE technique as a tool for the preclinical assessment of total hip replacements.

  14. Code System for Evaluating Routine Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants with Windows Interface.

    SciTech Connect

    MALAFEEW, VAL

    2012-12-12

    Version 14 NRCDose is a user-friendly 32-bit PC-based software interface for the LADTAP II, GASPAR II, and XOQDOQ programs which operates under all Microsoft WindowsTM platforms. LADTAP II, GASPAR II, and XOQDOQ are industry standards, originally created for mainframe computers and written using the Fortran programming language. While still utilizing the proven Fortran code modules, NRCDose allows the user to enter and retrieve data through a series of windows dialogs, making the use of the program much more user-friendly and efficient than its original design. This graphical interface also allows the user to create sets of data that can be named and retrieved at a later date for review or modification. The NRCDose program is equipped to perform calculations with up to 169 radionuclides, seven organs (bone, liver, total body, thyroid, kidney, lung, and GI-LLI) and four age ranges (infant, child, teenager, and adult). The source of the DCFs (dose conversion factors) in NRCDose is Regulatory Guide 1.109, supplemented with additional dose factors from NUREG-0172. See Abstract for recent modifications.

  15. Transfer of control system interface solutions from other domains to the thermal power industry.

    PubMed

    Bligård, L-O; Andersson, J; Osvalder, A-L

    2012-01-01

    In a thermal power plant the operators' roles are to control and monitor the process to achieve efficient and safe production. To achieve this, the human-machine interfaces have a central part. The interfaces need to be updated and upgraded together with the technical functionality to maintain optimal operation. One way of achieving relevant updates is to study other domains and see how they have solved similar issues in their design solutions. The purpose of this paper is to present how interface design solution ideas can be transferred from domains with operator control to thermal power plants. In the study 15 domains were compared using a model for categorisation of human-machine systems. The result from the domain comparison showed that nuclear power, refinery and ship engine control were most similar to thermal power control. From the findings a basic interface structure and three specific display solutions were proposed for thermal power control: process parameter overview, plant overview, and feed water view. The systematic comparison of the properties of a human-machine system allowed interface designers to find suitable objects, structures and navigation logics in a range of domains that could be transferred to the thermal power domain.

  16. Use of medical simulation to explore equipment failures and human-machine interactions in anesthesia machine pipeline supply crossover.

    PubMed

    Mudumbai, Seshadri C; Fanning, Ruth; Howard, Steven K; Davies, M Frances; Gaba, David M

    2010-05-01

    High-fidelity medical simulation can be used to explore failure modes of technology and equipment and human-machine interactions. We present the use of an equipment malfunction simulation scenario, oxygen (O(2))/nitrous oxide (N(2)O) pipeline crossover, to probe residents' knowledge and their use of anesthetic equipment in a rapidly escalating crisis. In this descriptive study, 20 third-year anesthesia residents were paired into 10 two-member teams. The scenario involved an Ohmeda Modulus SE 7500 anesthetic machine with a Datex AS/3 monitor that provided vital signs and gas monitoring. Before the scenario started, we switched pipeline connections so that N(2)O entered through the O(2) pipeline and vice versa. Because of the switched pipeline, the auxiliary O(2) flowmeter delivered N(2)O instead of O(2). Two expert, independent raters reviewed videotaped scenarios and recorded the alarms explicitly noted by participants and methods of ventilation. Nine pairs became aware of the low fraction of inspired O(2) (Fio(2)) alarm. Only 3 pairs recognized the high fraction of inspired N(2)O (Fin(2)o) alarm. One group failed to recognize both the low Fio(2) and the high Fin(2)o alarms. Nine groups took 3 or more steps before instigating a definitive route of oxygenation. Seven groups used the auxiliary O(2) flowmeter at some point during the management steps. The fact that so many participants used the auxiliary O(2) flowmeter may expose machine factors and related human-machine interactions during an equipment crisis. Use of the auxiliary O(2) flowmeter as a presumed external source of O(2) contributed to delays in definitive treatment. Many participants also failed to notice the presence of high N(2)O. This may have been, in part, attributable to 2 facts that we uncovered during our video review: (a) the transitory nature of the "high N(2)O" alert, and (b) the dominance of the low Fio(2) alarm, which many chose to mute. We suggest that the use of high-fidelity simulations

  17. Evaluating continuum solvation models for the electrode-electrolyte interface: Challenges and strategies for improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Schwarz, Kathleen

    2017-02-01

    Ab initio modeling of electrochemical systems is becoming a key tool for understanding and predicting electrochemical behavior. Development and careful benchmarking of computational electrochemical methods are essential to ensure their accuracy. Here, using charging curves for an electrode in the presence of an inert aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that most continuum models, which are parameterized and benchmarked for molecules, anions, and cations in solution, undersolvate metal surfaces, and underestimate the surface charge as a function of applied potential. We examine features of the electrolyte and interface that are captured by these models and identify improvements necessary for realistic electrochemical calculations of metal surfaces. Finally, we reparameterize popular solvation models using the surface charge of Ag(100) as a function of voltage to find improved accuracy for metal surfaces without significant change in utility for molecular and ionic solvation.

  18. Comparison Of Digital Workstations And Conventional Reading For Evaluation Of User Interfaces In Digital Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Seeley, George W.; Maloney, Kris; Fajardo, Laurie; Kozik, Mark

    1988-06-01

    The User Interface Study Group at the University of Arizona is investigating the interaction of Radiologists with digital workstations. Using the Arizona Viewing Console we have conducted an experiment to compare a digital workstation with a particular conventional reading process used for cases from a local Health Maintenance Organization. A model consisting of three distinct phases of activity was developed to describe conventional reading process. From this model software was developed for the Arizona Viewing Console to approximate the process. Radiologists were then video taped reading similar sets of cases at each workstation and the tapes were analyzed for frequency of hand movements and time required for each phase of the process. This study provides a comparison between conventional reading and a digital workstation. This paper describes the reading process, the model and its approximation on the digital workstation, as well as the analysis of the video tapes.

  19. Paraspinal interfaces in the lower thoracic area in children: evaluation by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gaisie, G.; Oh, K.S.

    1983-10-01

    Computed tomography was used to examine the three paraspinal interfaces (lines), consisting of the right and left paraspinal areas and the prespinal area in the lower thorax in 20 children. The abnormal CT findings were correlated with plain radiographic findings. The various diseases contributing to paraspinal abnormality included malignant and benign neoplasm and inflammatory disease. Neuroblastoma was the most common entity. Fourteen of 20 patients had paraspinal masses representing either metastasis or lymphoma. Four had small pleural effusions and two had a combination of small pleural effusion and masses. Plain radiographs also showed the paraspinal masses, except in the prespinal area, where four of seven abnormalities seen with CT were not detected with plain radiographs. CT also better demonstrated the extent of involvement than did plain radiography.

  20. The Hyperspectral Operational Support Tool (HOST) User Interface Evaluation: Preliminary Heuristic Analysis Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    prédéterminé d’heuristiques d’utilisabilité dérivé d’une analyse factorielle de nombreux problèmes d’utilisabilité. Les 10 heuristiques inclues sont...plus bénéficier de multiples évaluations indépendantes, d’une évaluation d’utilisabilité à plus grande échelle et d’une analyse formelle des tâches...d’analyse interactive pour les analystes de l’imagerie hyperspectrale. Une analyse heuristique préliminaire de l’interface de HOST v3.0a en utilisant

  1. Human factors approach to evaluate the user interface of physiologic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Richard; Bond, Raymond; Finlay, Dewar; Guldenring, Daniel; Gallagher, Anthony; Pelter, Michele; Drew, Barbara; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    As technology infiltrates more of our personal and professional lives, user expectations for intuitive design have driven many consumer products, while medical equipment continues to have high training requirements. Not much is known about the usability and user experience associated with hospital monitoring equipment. This pilot project aimed to better understand and describe the user interface interaction and user experience with physiologic monitoring technology. This was a prospective, descriptive, mixed-methods quality improvement project to analyze perceptions and task analyses of physiologic monitors. Following a survey of practice patterns and perceived abilities to accomplish key tasks, 10 voluntary experienced physician and nurse subjects were asked to perform a series of tasks in 7 domains of monitor operations on GE Monitoring equipment in a single institution. For each task analysis, data were collected on time to complete the task, the number of button pushes or clicks required to accomplish the task, economy of motion, and observed errors. Although 60% of the participants reported incorporating monitoring data into patient care, 80% of participants preferred to receive monitoring data at the point of care (bedside). Average perceived central station usability is 5.3 out of 10 (ten is easiest). High variability exists in monitoring station interaction performance among those participating in this project. Alarms were almost universally silenced without cognitive recognition of the alarm state. Education related to monitoring operations appeared largely absent in this sample. Most users perceived the interface to not be intuitive, complaining of multiple layers and steps for data retrieval. These clinicians report real-time monitoring helpful for abrupt changes in condition like arrhythmias; however, reviewing alarms is not prioritized as valuable due to frequent false alarms. Participants requested exporting monitoring data to electronic medical

  2. SEM evaluation of resin-carious dentin interfaces formed by two dentin adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kuang-Wei; Marshall, Sally J.; Pinzon, Lilliam M.; Watanabe, Larry; Saiz, Eduardo; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the influence of dentin tubule direction and identifiable zone of carious dentin on the microstructure and the thickness of the hybrid-like layer (HL) formed by self-etch and etch-rinse adhesive systems. Methods An etch-rinse and a self-etching adhesive were bonded to dentin carious zones divided into groups with parallel or perpendicular orientation relative to the dentin tubules at the resin-carious dentin interface (N = 5/variable). Bonds were prepared to each of the four zones of carious dentin apparent after staining with Caries Detector: pink, light pink, transparent and apparently normal Six non-carious third molars were controls. The microstructure and thickness of the HL were determined by SEM.and compared using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (p<0.05). Results Etch-rinse controls gave thicker HLs than self-etching systems; ; orientation did not affect thickness for the self-etch system. Perpendicular orientations gave thicker HLs than parallel for the pink zone bonded with the etch-rinse system. For both adhesives, HL thickness in the pink zone were significantly greater than in light pink for the perpendicular group, but no significant differences were found among other variables. HL microstructure was more granular and rougher for the etch rinse than for the self etching system. Pores and cracks were obvious in the more demineralized zones, Resin tags were shorter and irregular in the transparent zone and often were completely absent in the outer demineralized zones (pink, light pink). Significance Microstructure of bonded interfaces varies markedly depending on adhesive system, tubule orientation and carious zone. PMID:18155289

  3. Evaluating the Quality of Colorectal Cancer Care across the Interface of Healthcare Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Ludt, Sabine; Urban, Elisabeth; Eckardt, Jörg; Wache, Stefanie; Broge, Björn; Kaufmann-Kolle, Petra; Heller, Günther; Miksch, Antje; Glassen, Katharina; Hermann, Katja; Bölter, Regine; Ose, Dominik; Campbell, Stephen M.; Wensing, Michel; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high prevalence in western countries. Diagnosis and treatment of CRC is complex and requires multidisciplinary collaboration across the interface of health care sectors. In Germany, a new nationwide established program aims to provide quality information of healthcare delivery across different sectors. Within this context, this study describes the development of a set of quality indicators charting the whole pathway of CRC-care including data specifications that are necessary to operationalize these indicators before practice testing. Methods Indicators were developed following a systematic 10 step modified ‘RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method’ which involved a multidisciplinary panel of thirteen participants. For each indicator in the final set, data specifications relating to sources of quality information, data collection procedures, analysis and feedback were described. Results The final indicator set included 52 indicators covering diagnostic procedures (11 indicators), therapeutic management (28 indicators) and follow-up (6 indicators). In addition, 7 indicators represented patient perspectives. Primary surgical tumor resection and pre-operative radiation (rectum carcinoma only) were perceived as most useful tracer procedures initiating quality data collection. To assess the quality of CRC care across sectors, various data sources were identified: medical records, administrative inpatient and outpatient data, sickness-funds billing code systems and patient survey. Conclusion In Germany, a set of 52 quality indicators, covering necessary aspects across the interfaces and pathways relevant to CRC-care has been developed. Combining different sectors and sources of health care in quality assessment is an innovative and challenging approach but reflects better the reality of the patient pathway and experience of CRC-care. PMID:23658684

  4. Improving Human-Machine Cooperative Classification Via Cognitive Theories of Similarity.

    PubMed

    Roads, Brett D; Mozer, Michael C

    2016-07-22

    Acquiring perceptual expertise is slow and effortful. However, untrained novices can accurately make difficult classification decisions (e.g., skin-lesion diagnosis) by reformulating the task as similarity judgment. Given a query image and a set of reference images, individuals are asked to select the best matching reference. When references are suitably chosen, the procedure yields an implicit classification of the query image. To optimize reference selection, we develop and evaluate a predictive model of similarity-based choice. The model builds on existing psychological literature and accommodates stochastic, dynamic shifts of attention among visual feature dimensions. We perform a series of human experiments with two stimulus types (rectangles, faces) and nine classification tasks to validate the model and to demonstrate the model's potential to boost performance. Our system achieves high accuracy for participants who are naive as to the classification task, even when the classification task switches from trial to trial.

  5. User Interface Problems of a Nationwide Inpatient Information System: A Heuristic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Atashi, Alireza; Khajouei, Reza; Azizi, Amirabbas; Dadashi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    While studies have shown that usability evaluation could uncover many design problems of health information systems, the usability of health information systems in developing countries using their native language is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usability of a nationwide inpatient information system used in many academic hospitals in Iran. Three trained usability evaluators independently evaluated the system using Nielsen's 10 usability heuristics. The evaluators combined identified problems in a single list and independently rated the severity of the problems. We statistically compared the number and severity of problems identified by HIS experienced and non-experienced evaluators. A total of 158 usability problems were identified. After removing duplications 99 unique problems were left. The highest mismatch with usability principles was related to "Consistency and standards" heuristic (25%) and the lowest related to "Flexibility and efficiency of use" (4%). The average severity of problems ranged from 2.4 (Major problem) to 3.3 (Catastrophe problem). The experienced evaluator with HIS identified significantly more problems and gave higher severities to problems (p<0.02). Heuristic Evaluation identified a high number of usability problems in a widely used inpatient information system in many academic hospitals. These problems, if remain unsolved, may waste users' and patients' time, increase errors and finally threaten patient's safety. Many of them can be fixed with simple redesign solutions such as using clear labels and better layouts. This study suggests conducting further studies to confirm the findings concerning effect of evaluator experience on the results of Heuristic Evaluation.

  6. User Interface Problems of a Nationwide Inpatient Information System: A Heuristic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Atashi, Alireza; Azizi, Amirabbas; Dadashi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction While studies have shown that usability evaluation could uncover many design problems of health information systems, the usability of health information systems in developing countries using their native language is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usability of a nationwide inpatient information system used in many academic hospitals in Iran. Material and Methods Three trained usability evaluators independently evaluated the system using Nielsen’s 10 usability heuristics. The evaluators combined identified problems in a single list and independently rated the severity of the problems. We statistically compared the number and severity of problems identified by HIS experienced and non-experienced evaluators. Results A total of 158 usability problems were identified. After removing duplications 99 unique problems were left. The highest mismatch with usability principles was related to “Consistency and standards” heuristic (25%) and the lowest related to “Flexibility and efficiency of use” (4%). The average severity of problems ranged from 2.4 (Major problem) to 3.3 (Catastrophe problem). The experienced evaluator with HIS identified significantly more problems and gave higher severities to problems (p<0.02). Discussion Heuristic Evaluation identified a high number of usability problems in a widely used inpatient information system in many academic hospitals. These problems, if remain unsolved, may waste users’ and patients’ time, increase errors and finally threaten patient’s safety. Many of them can be fixed with simple redesign solutions such as using clear labels and better layouts. This study suggests conducting further studies to confirm the findings concerning effect of evaluator experience on the results of Heuristic Evaluation. PMID:27081409

  7. A methodology for the design and evaluation of user interfaces for interactive information systems. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Farooq, Mohammad U.

    1986-01-01

    The definition of proposed research addressing the development and validation of a methodology for the design and evaluation of user interfaces for interactive information systems is given. The major objectives of this research are: the development of a comprehensive, objective, and generalizable methodology for the design and evaluation of user interfaces for information systems; the development of equations and/or analytical models to characterize user behavior and the performance of a designed interface; the design of a prototype system for the development and administration of user interfaces; and the design and use of controlled experiments to support the research and test/validate the proposed methodology. The proposed design methodology views the user interface as a virtual machine composed of three layers: an interactive layer, a dialogue manager layer, and an application interface layer. A command language model of user system interactions is presented because of its inherent simplicity and structured approach based on interaction events. All interaction events have a common structure based on common generic elements necessary for a successful dialogue. It is shown that, using this model, various types of interfaces could be designed and implemented to accommodate various categories of users. The implementation methodology is discussed in terms of how to store and organize the information.

  8. Effect of the core/shell interface on auger recombination evaluated by single-quantum-dot spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Shin; Bae, Wan Ki; Padilha, Lazaro A; Pietryga, Jeffrey M; Klimov, Victor I

    2014-02-12

    Previous single-particle spectroscopic studies of colloidal quantum dots have indicated a significant spread in biexciton lifetimes across an ensemble of nominally identical nanocrystals. It has been speculated that in addition to dot-to-dot variation in physical dimensions, this spread is contributed to by variations in the structure of the quantum dot interface, which controls the shape of the confinement potential. Here, we directly evaluate the effect of the composition of the core-shell interface on single- and multiexciton dynamics via side-by-side measurements of individual core-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals with a sharp versus smooth (graded) interface. To realize the latter type of structures we incorporate a CdSexS1-x alloy layer of controlled composition and thickness between the CdSe core and the CdS shell. We observe that while having essentially no effect on single-exciton decay, the interfacial alloy layer leads to a systematic increase in biexciton lifetimes, which correlates with the increase in the biexciton emission efficiency, as inferred from two-photon correlation measurements. These observations provide direct experimental evidence that in addition to the size of the quantum dot, its interfacial properties also significantly affect the rate of Auger recombination, which governs biexciton decay. These findings help rationalize previous observations of a significant heterogeneity in the biexciton lifetimes across similarly sized quantum dots and should facilitate the development of "Auger-recombination-free" colloidal nanostructures for a range of applications from lasers and light-emitting diodes to photodetectors and solar cells.

  9. Clinical evaluation of wireless inductive tongue computer interface for control of computers and assistive devices.

    PubMed

    Lontis, Eugen R; Lund, Morten E; Christensen, Henrik V; Bentsen, Bo; Gaihede, Michael; Caltenco, Hector A; Andreasen Struijk, Lotte N S

    2010-01-01

    Typing performance of a full alphabet keyboard and a joystick type of mouse (with on-screen keyboard) provided by a wireless integrated tongue control system (TCS) has been investigated. The speed and accuracy have been measured in a form of a throughput defining the true correct words per minute [cwpm]. Training character sequences were typed in a dedicated interface that provided visual feedback of activated sensors, a map of the alphabet associated, and the task character. Testing sentences were typed in Word, with limited visual feedback, using non-predictive typing (map of characters in alphabetic order associated to sensors) and predictive typing (LetterWise) for TCS keyboard, and non-predictive typing for TCS mouse. Two subjects participated for four and three consecutive days, respectively, two sessions per day. Maximal throughput of 2.94, 2.46, and 2.06, 1.68 [cwpm] were obtained with TCS keyboard by subject 1 and 2 with predictive and non-predictive typing respectively. Maximal throughput of 2.09 and 1.71 [cwpm] was obtained with TCS mouse by subject 1 and 2, respectively. Same experimental protocol has been planned for a larger number of subjects.

  10. Evaluation of air-liquid interface exposure systems for in vitro ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exposure of cells to airborne pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of submerged cells. The published literature, however, describes irreproducible and/or unrealistic experimental conditions using ALI systems. We have compared five ALI systems for their ability to deliver both particulate matter (PM) and gases to cells cultured on porous membrane inserts. The ALI systems use different mechanisms to deliver pollutants to the inserts: diffusion, sedimentation, electrostatic precipitation (ESP), and thermophoresis (THP). We used fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres (PSLs) as a surrogate for PM to assess the efficacy of particle deposition in each system. PM loading in each insert was determined by dissolving the PSLs in ethyl acetate and measuring the fluorescence. Results show that using ESP as an external force enhances deposition of 50-nm PSLs by 5.5-fold and 11-fold for 1-µm PSLs when compared to diffusion alone. Similarly, THP enhances deposition of 50-nm and 1-µm PSLs by 4.5-fold and 2.7-fold, respectively. The interaction of ozone with an indigo dye on the surface of the insert showed that diffusion alone permitted gas-cell interaction. For each system there were various design and operational factors, such as the flow rate, surface materials and flow path geometry that adversely affected performance. Increased flow rates correlated with increased efficacy of the systems to deliver the gas to the inserts.

  11. Tribological evaluation of piston skirt/cylinder liner contact interfaces under boundary lubrication conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Demas, N. G.; Erck, R. A.; Fenske, G. R.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-01

    The friction and wear between the piston and cylinder liner significantly affects the performance of internal combustion engines. In this paper, segments from a commercial piston/cylinder system were tribologically tested using reciprocating motion. The tribological contact consisted of aluminium alloy piston segments, either uncoated, coated with a graphite/resin coating, or an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C : H) coating, in contact with gray cast iron liner segments. Tests were conducted in commercial synthetic motor oils and base stocks at temperatures up to 120 C with a 2 cm stroke length at reciprocating speeds up to 0.15 m s{sup -1}. The friction dependence of these piston skirt and cylinder liner materials was studied as a function of load, sliding speed and temperature. Specifically, an increase in the sliding speed led to a decrease in the friction coefficient below approximately 70 C, while above this temperature, an increase in sliding speed led to an increase in the friction coefficient. The presence of a coating played an important role. It was found that the graphite/resin coating wore quickly, preventing the formation of a beneficial tribochemical film, while the a-C : H coating exhibited a low friction coefficient and provided significant improvement over the uncoated samples. The effect of additives in the oils was also studied. The tribological behaviour of the interface was explained based on viscosity effects and subsequent changes in the lubrication regime, formation of chemical and tribochemical films.

  12. A method to evaluate human spatial coordination interfaces for computer-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Cardin, M A; Wang, J X; Plewes, D B

    2005-01-01

    Computer assistance for breast conserving surgery requires a guidance method to assist a surgeon in locating tumor margin accurately. A wide array of guidance methods can be considered ranging from various pictorial representations, symbolic graphical interfaces as well as those based on other sensory cues such as sound. In this study, we present an experimental framework for testing candidate guidance methods in isolation or in combination. A total of 22 guidance approaches, based on stereographic, non-stereographic, symbolic and auditory cues were tested in a simulation of breast conserving surgery. Observers were asked to circumscribe a virtual tumor with a magnetically tracked scalpel while measuring the spatial accuracy, time and the frequency with which the tumor margin was intersected. A total of 110 studies were performed with 5 volunteers. Based on these findings, we demonstrated that a single view of the tumor with a stereo presentation in conjunction with an auditory guidance cue provided the best balance of accuracy, speed and surgical integrity. This study demonstrates a practical and helpful framework for testing guidance methods in a context dependent manner.

  13. Evaluation of direct push probes: Sensor interface analysis of DC resistivity probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Daniel; Bumberger, Jan; Paasche, Hendrik

    2015-11-01

    In near surface sedimentary exploration direct push technology has become popular for geophysical logging. The method is thought to have great potential to offer accurate information about the variability of physical parameters since the region of disturbed sedimentary formation due to probe injection is considered to be smaller compared to disturbances by classical borehole measurements. Technical and experimental design of direct push probes follow often those of established borehole probes. A systematic appraisal of the suitability of such tools for direct push logging procedure exposing the probes to a very high mechanical stress and rapid aging process has been missing in the past. Following a recently developed general framework for direct push system decomposition we analyze two different DC resistivity direct push probes with regard to their sensor interface. Simple laboratory experiments validate the setup of a numerical simulation of both probes revealing significant differences on the suitability of the chosen electrode arrangement. Differences in robustness with regard to surface abrasion result in changing probe responses which could, depending on the experimental design of the probe, cause resistivity value changes of almost 25% within approximately 15 operational hours, which leaves severe doubts about the suitability of established direct push logging probes for quantitative geophysical probing.

  14. Code System for Evaluating Routine Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants with Windows Interface.

    SciTech Connect

    MALAFEEW, VAL

    2012-12-13

    Version 03 NRCDose72 is a software program developed by Chesapeake Nuclear Services that integrates the NRC’s Fortran programs LADTAP II, GASPAR II, and XOQDOQ and provides a user-friendly interface for running the codes on a PC. These codes provide an accepted regulatory basis for assessing doses to the public as required for the licensing assessments for both license renewal and new build nuclear plants. Chesapeake Nuclear Services undertook an effort to update the dose conversion factors (DCFs) used in NRCDose72 to the factors reported in ICRP-72, naming the new program NRCDose72. The original NRCDose72 program is equipped to perform calculations with up to 169 radionuclides, seven organs (bone, liver, total body, thyroid, kidney, lung, and GI-LLI) and four age ranges (infant, child, teenager, and adult). The ICRP-72 methodology contains additional parameters, including dose factors for 25 discrete organs, plus a remainder organ and effective DCF. Also, there are a total of six different age ranges (newborn, 1‑yr. old, 5-yr. old, 10-yr. old, 15-yr. old, and adult). Finally, ICRP-72 contains DCFs for a variety of chemical forms (H-3 as vapor or Organically Bound Tritium, for example) or inhalation classes (F, M or S for nearly all radionuclides). See Abstract for recent modifications.

  15. Evaluation of the Rotational Throttle Interface for Converting Aircraft Utilizing the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozovski, David; Theodore, Colin R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a conventional helicopter Thrust Control Lever (TCL) to the Rotational Throttle Interface (RTI) for tiltrotor aircraft. The RTI is designed to adjust its orientation to match the angle of the tiltrotor s nacelles. The underlying principle behind the design is to increase pilot awareness of the vehicle s configuration state (i.e. nacelle angle). Four test pilots flew multiple runs on seven different experimental courses. Three predominant effects were discovered in the testing of the RTI: 1. Unintentional binding along the control axis resulted in difficulties with precision power setting, 2. Confusion in which way to move the throttle grip was present during RTI transition modes, and 3. Pilots were not able to distinguish small angle differences during RTI transition. In this experiment the pilots were able to successfully perform all of the required tasks with both inceptors although the handling qualities ratings were slightly worse for the RTI partly due to unforeseen deficiencies in the design. Pilots did however report improved understanding of nacelle movement during transitions with the RTI.

  16. Surface speciation models of calcite and dolomite/aqueous solution interfaces and their spectroscopic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrovsky, O.S.; Mielczarski, J.A.; Barres, O.; Schott, J.

    2000-03-21

    The composition and density of surface hydroxyl and carbonate groups on calcite and dolomite after contact at 25 C with solutions of different pH (3 to 12) and carbonate concentration (10{sup {minus}4} {le}{Sigma}CO{sub 2}{le} 0.1 M) were monitored by means of diffuse reflectance infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Both for calcite and dolomite, broad high-intensity absorbance bands at about 3,400 and 1,600 cm{sup {minus}1} were observed at pH below 6 and carbonate concentration below 10{sub {minus}3} M. These bands are assigned to hydroxyl groups present at the mineral surfaces. At higher pH and {Sigma}CO{sub 2}, the intensity of these bands significantly decreases. On the contrary the intensity of the broad double band at about 1,400 cm{sup {minus}1} due to carbonate species (surface and bulk) for both minerals was found to increase significantly with increasing solution pH and carbonate concentration, being the lowest at pH {le} 5 and {Sigma}CO{sub 2} {le} 10{sup {minus}3} M. These observations correlate well with the surface speciation for calcite or dolomite/aqueous solution interface predicted based on surface complexation models (SCM).

  17. “Methods to promote Notch signaling at the biomaterial interface and evaluation in a rafted organ culture model”

    PubMed Central

    Beckstead, Benjamin L.; Tung, Jason C.; Liang, Katharine J.; Tavakkol, Zarry; Usui, Marcia L.; Olerud, John E.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2013-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a promising target for controlling cell fate choices at the biomaterial-tissue interface. Building on our previous work in developing Notch-signaling biomaterials, we evaluated various immobilization schemes for Notch ligands and their effect on human foreskin keratinocytes. A peptide sequence derived from the Jagged-1 DSL-region and immobilized to poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (polyHEMA) showed no bioactivity in relation to the Notch-CSL pathway. The full-length Jagged-1 protein immobilized directly to the polyHEMA surface showed activity in signaling the Notch-CSL pathway. However, an indirect affinity immobilization approach yielded a stronger signal. Human keratinocytes plated on bound Jagged-1 showed upregulated involucrin, keratin 10, and loricrin protein expression, with this expression being cell density-dependent. Utilizing a human foreskin rafted organ culture model as a bridge between in vitro and in vivo studies, Jagged-1-modified or control polyHEMA rods were implanted in human foreskin and cultured at the air-medium interface. Keratinocyte proliferation was suppressed and intermediate-stage differentiation promoted in Jagged-1-modified rods compared to control rods. Thus, Notch-signaling biomaterials provide a robust approach to control keratinocyte differentiation and may find application to other progenitor and stem cells. PMID:18985776

  18. The biological seal of the implant–soft tissue interface evaluated in a tissue-engineered oral mucosal model

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Wen L.; Brook, Ian M.; Palmquist, Anders; van Noort, Richard; Moharamzadeh, Keyvan

    2012-01-01

    For dental implants, it is vital that an initial soft tissue seal is achieved as this helps to stabilize and preserve the peri-implant tissues during the restorative stages following placement. The study of the implant–soft tissue interface is usually undertaken in animal models. We have developed an in vitro three-dimensional tissue-engineered oral mucosal model (3D OMM), which lends itself to the study of the implant–soft tissue interface as it has been shown that cells from the three-dimensional OMM attach onto titanium (Ti) surfaces forming a biological seal (BS). This study compares the quality of the BS achieved using the three-dimensional OMM for four types of Ti surfaces: polished, machined, sandblasted and anodized (TiUnite). The BS was evaluated quantitatively by permeability and cell attachment tests. Tritiated water (HTO) was used as the tracing agent for the permeability test. At the end of the permeability test, the Ti discs were removed from the three-dimensional OMM and an Alamar Blue assay was used for the measurement of residual cells attached to the Ti discs. The penetration of the HTO through the BS for the four types of Ti surfaces was not significantly different, and there was no significant difference in the viability of residual cells that attached to the Ti surfaces. The BS of the tissue-engineered oral mucosa around the four types of Ti surface topographies was not significantly different. PMID:22915635

  19. Computational evaluation of the theoretical image fitting analysis—axisymmetric interfaces (TIFA-AI) method of measuring interfacial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, M. G.; Montanero, J. M.; Ferrera, C.

    2007-05-01

    A new method, theoretical image fitting analysis for axisymmetric interfaces (TIFA-AI), has recently been presented for measuring the interfacial properties of liquids, such as the interfacial tension and contact angles, by analysing the shape of an axisymmetric liquid-fluid interface without the use of apex coordinates. The versatility and accuracy of TIFA-AI have been shown by conducting experiments with various configurations: liquid bridges, sessile and pendant drops, and liquid lenses. In this paper, the performance of TIFA-AI is evaluated in detail by using 'synthetic' images of pendant drops and liquid bridges, which allows one to study separately the influence of different factors in the experiment. A simple method for generating such synthetic images of pendant drops and liquid bridges is described. The synthetic images are processed by TIFA-AI and the resulting interfacial tensions are compared with the (known) true values. The influence of errors associated with the calibration process and the effects of reducing the quality of the image on the results provided by TIFA-AI is analysed. As a general conclusion, one can assert that TIFA-AI provides accurate values of the interfacial tension for pendant drops and liquid bridges for a wide range of experimental conditions.

  20. The surface tension of a solid at the solid-vacuum interface, an evaluation from adsorption and wall potential calculations.

    PubMed

    Jakubov, Tim S; Mainwaring, David E

    2007-03-15

    A method for the evaluation of quantities that are experimentally inaccessible such as the surface tension at the solid-vacuum interface and the superficial tension of the fluid in contact with the solid is presented. The approach is based on consideration of an equilibrium of a fluid in solid capillary wherein a balance between surface and capillary forces has been replaced by conceptual alternative interfacial and centrifugal forces. This approach involves the simultaneous numerical solution one the special forms of the Gibbs equation for solid-fluid interface and a generalized Kelvin equation derived earlier. The latter equation takes into account interactions between the solid thick cylindrical wall and confined fluid, this body-body interaction potential has been primarily calculated using the Lennard-Jones (6-12) expression for the atom-atom pair potentials and expressed by hypergeometrical functions having good convergences. All numerical calculations shown here have been performed for the model graphite-argon system at 90 K. Finally, an analysis of the accuracy of the proposed method is considered.

  1. Developing the VirtualwindoW into a General Purpose Telepresence Interface

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M D; Anderson, M O; Kinoshita, R A; Willis, W D

    1999-04-01

    An important need while using robots or remotely operated equipment is the ability for the operator or an observer to easily and accurately perceive the operating environment. A classic problem in providing a complete representation of a work area is sensory overload or excessive complexity in the human-machine interface. In addition, remote operations often benefit from depth perception capability while viewing or manipulating objects. Thus, there is an on going effort within the robotic field to develop simplified telepresence interfaces. The Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been researching methods to generalize a human-machine interface for telepresence applications. Initial telepresence research conducted at the INEEL developed and implemented a concept called the VirtualwindoW. This system minimized the complexity of remote stereo viewing controls and provided the operator the "feel" of viewing the environment, including depth perception, in a natural setting. The VirtualwindoW has shown that the human-machine interface can be simplified while increasing operator performance. This paper deals with the continuing research and development of the VirtualwindoW to provide a generalized, reconfigurable system that easily utilizes commercially available components. The original system has now been expanded to include support for zoom lenses, camera blocks, wireless links, and even vehicle control.

  2. Evaluation of the stability of Boston type I keratoprosthesis-donor cornea interface using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Julian P S; Ritterband, David C; Buxton, Douglas F; De la Cruz, Jose

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the anatomic stability of an implanted Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro)-donor cornea interface and assess the presence or absence of a potential space (gap) between the KPro front plate and donor cornea using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The presence of a gap would raise concerns of a possible pathway for the exchange of extraocular fluid with the anterior chamber. Fifteen eyes implanted with a Boston type I KPro were studied by the noncontact technique of AS-OCT (AC Cornea OCT prototype; OTI, Canada). All the KPro devices had been implanted at least 4 weeks before the study (mean: 7 months, range: 1-22 months). Eight eyes had aphakic Kpros, and the other 7 had pseudophakic implants. Anesthetized eyes were imaged before and during pressure application using sterile cotton-tip applicators. Pressure was applied for 10 seconds on the nasal or temporal side of the eye. Images were analyzed for any possible changes in the KPro-donor cornea interface during the application of pressure. Of 15 eyes, 10 had the threaded front plate model with a T-shaped silhouette and corrugated sides, whereas 5 had the threadless type with a T-shaped silhouette and smooth sides on cross-sectional optical coherence tomography. Of the 15 eyes, 2 revealed a gap between the front plate and the surface of the donor cornea. The rest revealed no gaps. With pressure, none of the eyes, including the 2 with gaps, demonstrated any change in the KPro-donor cornea interface during dynamic imaging (eg, gaping or evidence of fluid escape along the KPro-donor cornea borders). In all eyes, the position of the titanium locking ring was visible and verified to be in an adequate position. The implanted KPro-donor cornea interface seems to be stable dynamically using AS-OCT. A gap that has been documented with this imaging tool showed neither gaping nor escape of anterior chamber fluid during dynamic cross-sectional imaging. Further studies will be needed to assess

  3. Design Specification for Test and Evaluation of the NATO Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS) Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-23

    testing (i.e., testing of individual interfaces) for a critical subset of the SWG CAIS interfaces. The second category of testing activities includes...for correctness in the functionality of critical interfaces. These critical interfaces are defined in Section 2.2. The second category, usability...QUEUE-MANAGEMENT CAM-.STANDARD None CAM- DEFENITIONS CAMSJO..DEINITJONS CAI IST-MANAGEMENT CAIS.ACCESS-.CONTROL- MANAGEMENT CAIS-SCROLL-TERMNAL-10 CA1S

  4. Issues for resolving adverse effects on the safety culture of human work underload and workload transitions in complex human-machine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.

    1996-08-01

    A workshop was conducted whose specific purpose was to build on earlier work of the US National Research Council, US federal government agencies, and the larger human factors community to: (1) clarify human factors issues pertaining to degraded safety performance in advanced human-machine systems(e.g., nuclear production, transportation, aerospace) due to human work underload and workload transition, and (2) develop strategies for resolving these issues. The workshop affirmed that: (1) work underload and workload transition are issues that will have to be addressed by designers of advanced human-machine systems, especially those relying on automation, if cost, performance, safety, and operator acceptability are to be optimized, (2) human machine allocation models, standards and guidelines which go beyond simple capability approaches will be needed to preclude or seriously diminish the work underload and workload transition problems, and (3) the 16 workload definition, measurement, situational awareness, and trust issues identified during the workshop, need resolution if these models, standards, and guidelines are to be achieved.

  5. Identifying Engineering, Clinical and Patient's Metrics for Evaluating and Quantifying Performance of Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2015-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) devices have unparalleled potential to restore functional movement capabilities to stroke, paralyzed and amputee patients. Although BMI systems have achieved success in a handful of investigative studies, translation of closed-loop neuroprosthetic devices from the laboratory to the market is challenged by gaps in the scientific data regarding long-term device reliability and safety, uncertainty in the regulatory, market and reimbursement pathways, lack of metrics for evaluating and quantifying performance in BMI systems, as well as patient-acceptance challenges that impede their fast and effective translation to the end user. This review focuses on the identification of engineering, clinical and user's BMI metrics for new and existing BMI applications. PMID:26330746

  6. Identifying Engineering, Clinical and Patient's Metrics for Evaluating and Quantifying Performance of Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) Systems.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2014-10-05

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) devices have unparalleled potential to restore functional movement capabilities to stroke, paralyzed and amputee patients. Although BMI systems have achieved success in a handful of investigative studies, translation of closed-loop neuroprosthetic devices from the laboratory to the market is challenged by gaps in the scientific data regarding long-term device reliability and safety, uncertainty in the regulatory, market and reimbursement pathways, lack of metrics for evaluating and quantifying performance in BMI systems, as well as patient-acceptance challenges that impede their fast and effective translation to the end user. This review focuses on the identification of engineering, clinical and user's BMI metrics for new and existing BMI applications.

  7. Human-machine analytics for closed-loop sense-making in time-dominant cyber defense problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Matthew H.

    2017-05-01

    Many defense problems are time-dominant: attacks progress at speeds that outpace human-centric systems designed for monitoring and response. Despite this shortcoming, these well-honed and ostensibly reliable systems pervade most domains, including cyberspace. The argument that often prevails when considering the automation of defense is that while technological systems are suitable for simple, well-defined tasks, only humans possess sufficiently nuanced understanding of problems to act appropriately under complicated circumstances. While this perspective is founded in verifiable truths, it does not account for a middle ground in which human-managed technological capabilities extend well into the territory of complex reasoning, thereby automating more nuanced sense-making and dramatically increasing the speed at which it can be applied. Snort1 and platforms like it enable humans to build, refine, and deploy sense-making tools for network defense. Shortcomings of these platforms include a reliance on rule-based logic, which confounds analyst knowledge of how bad actors behave with the means by which bad behaviors can be detected, and a lack of feedback-informed automation of sensor deployment. We propose an approach in which human-specified computational models hypothesize bad behaviors independent of indicators and then allocate sensors to estimate and forecast the state of an intrusion. State estimates and forecasts inform the proactive deployment of additional sensors and detection logic, thereby closing the sense-making loop. All the while, humans are on the loop, rather than in it, permitting nuanced management of fast-acting automated measurement, detection, and inference engines. This paper motivates and conceptualizes analytics to facilitate this human-machine partnership.

  8. The Interface of Opinion, Understanding and Evaluation While Learning about a Socioscientific Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Halverson, Kristy L.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literacy is an important goal for science education, especially within controversial socioscientific issues. In this study, we analysed 143 students' research reports about stem cell research (SCR) for how they addressed specific source evaluation criteria provided within the assignment. We investigated students' opinions about SCR, how…

  9. The Interface of Opinion, Understanding and Evaluation While Learning about a Socioscientific Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Halverson, Kristy L.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literacy is an important goal for science education, especially within controversial socioscientific issues. In this study, we analysed 143 students' research reports about stem cell research (SCR) for how they addressed specific source evaluation criteria provided within the assignment. We investigated students' opinions about SCR, how…

  10. Pilot Study and Evaluation of Postgraduate Course on "The Interface Between Spirituality, Religion and Psychiatry"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabovac, Andrea; Clark, Nancy; McKenna, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding the role of religion and spirituality is significant for psychiatric practice. Implementation of formal education and training on religious and spiritual issues, however, is lacking. Few psychiatric residencies offer mandatory courses or evaluation of course utility. The authors present findings from a pilot study of a…

  11. Evaluating the effects of pinyon thinning treatments at a wildland urban interface

    Treesearch

    J. R. Matchett; Matthew Brooks; Anne Halford; Dale Johnson; Helen Smith

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the short-term effects of thinning methods for pinyon pine woodlands at two sites in the southwestern Great Basin. Both cut/pile/burn and mastication treatments were equally effective at reducing the target fuels which were mature, live pinyon trees. Application costs though differed substantially, with the cut/pile/burn technique being less...

  12. Pilot Study and Evaluation of Postgraduate Course on "The Interface Between Spirituality, Religion and Psychiatry"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabovac, Andrea; Clark, Nancy; McKenna, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding the role of religion and spirituality is significant for psychiatric practice. Implementation of formal education and training on religious and spiritual issues, however, is lacking. Few psychiatric residencies offer mandatory courses or evaluation of course utility. The authors present findings from a pilot study of a…

  13. A comparative evaluation plan for the Maintenance, Inventory, and Logistics Planning (MILP) System Human-Computer Interface (HCI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overmyer, Scott P.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to develop a tailored and effective approach to the design and evaluation of the human-computer interface (HCI) to the Maintenance, Inventory and Logistics Planning (MILP) System in support of the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). An additional task that was undertaken was to assist in the review of Ground Displays for Space Station Freedom (SSF) by attending the Ground Displays Interface Group (GDIG), and commenting on the preliminary design for these displays. Based upon data gathered over the 10 week period, this project has hypothesized that the proper HCI concept for navigating through maintenance databases for large space vehicles is one based upon a spatial, direct manipulation approach. This dialogue style can be then coupled with a traditional text-based DBMS, after the user has determined the general nature and location of the information needed. This conclusion is in contrast with the currently planned HCI for MILP which uses a traditional form-fill-in dialogue style for all data access and retrieval. In order to resolve this difference in HCI and dialogue styles, it is recommended that comparative evaluation be performed which combines the use of both subjective and objective metrics to determine the optimal (performance-wise) and preferred approach for end users. The proposed plan has been outlined in the previous paragraphs and is available in its entirety in the Technical Report associated with this project. Further, it is suggested that several of the more useful features of the Maintenance Operations Management System (MOMS), especially those developed by the end-users, be incorporated into MILP to save development time and money.

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of plant and hydrological controls on arsenic transport across the water sediment interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Paull, J.

    2009-12-01

    Plants and hydrology influence the transport of arsenic in wetlands by changing the dominant redox chemistry in the subsurface, and different plant and hydrological regimes can serve as effective barriers or promoters of metal transport. Inorganic arsenic, especially arsenate, binds to iron oxides in wetlands. In flooded wetland sediments, organic carbon from plants consumes oxygen and promotes reductive iron dissolution, which leads to arsenic release, while plants simultaneously create microoxic regimes around root hairs that oxidize and precipitate iron, promoting arsenic capture. Hydrology influences arsenic mobility by promoting wetting and drying cycles. Such cycles can lead to rapid shifts from anaerobic to aerobic conditions, and vice versa, with lasting impact on the oxidation state of iron and, by extension, the mobility of arsenic. Remediation strategies should take these competing conditions into account, and to help inform these strategies this study examines the chemistry of an industrially contaminated wetland when the above mechanisms aggregate. The study tests whether, in bulk, plants promote iron reduction or oxidation in intermittently flooded or consistently flooded sediments, and how this impacts arsenic mobility. This research uses a novel dialysis-based monitoring technique to examine the macro-properties of arsenic transport at the sediment water interface and at depth. Dialysis-based monitoring allows long-term seasonal trends in anaerobic porewater and allows active hypothesis testing on the influence of plants on redox chemistry. This study finds that plants promote iron reduction and that iron-reducing zones tend to correlate with zones with mobile arsenic. However, one newly reported and important finding of this study is that a brief summer drought that dried and oxidized sediments with a long history of iron-reduction zone served to effectively halt iron reduction for many months, and this corresponded to a lasting decline in

  15. Evaluation of an Airborne Spacing Concept, On-Board Spacing Tool, and Pilot Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Baxley, Brian; Hubbs, Clay

    2011-01-01

    The number of commercial aircraft operations is predicted to increase in the next ten years, creating a need for improved operational efficiency. Two areas believed to offer significant increases in efficiency are optimized profile descents and dependent parallel runway operations. It is envisioned that during both of these types of operations, flight crews will precisely space their aircraft behind preceding aircraft at air traffic control assigned intervals to increase runway throughput and maximize the use of existing infrastructure. This paper describes a human-in-the-loop experiment designed to study the performance of an onboard spacing algorithm and pilots ratings of the usability and acceptability of an airborne spacing concept that supports dependent parallel arrivals. Pilot participants flew arrivals into the Dallas Fort-Worth terminal environment using one of three different simulators located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Langley Research Center. Scenarios were flown using Interval Management with Spacing (IM-S) and Required Time of Arrival (RTA) control methods during conditions of no error, error in the forecast wind, and offset (disturbance) to the arrival flow. Results indicate that pilots delivered their aircraft to the runway threshold within +/- 3.5 seconds of their assigned arrival time and reported that both the IM-S and RTA procedures were associated with low workload levels. In general, pilots found the IM-S concept, procedures, speeds, and interface acceptable; with 92% of pilots rating the procedures as complete and logical, 218 out of 240 responses agreeing that the IM-S speeds were acceptable, and 63% of pilots reporting that the displays were easy to understand and displayed in appropriate locations. The 22 (out of 240) responses, indicating that the commanded speeds were not acceptable and appropriate occurred during scenarios containing wind error and offset error. Concerns cited included the occurrence

  16. Nondestructive evaluation of the interface between ceramic coating and stainless steel by electromagnetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, A.; Steigmann, R.; Iftimie, N.; Novy, F.; Vizureanu, P.; Craus, M. L.; Fintova, S.

    2016-08-01

    Protecting coatings as thermal barrier coating (TBC) are used for yield improvement of equipment working at high temperature. Zirconia doped with yttria ceramics are considered a good TBC material due of its low thermal conductivity, refractory, chemical inertness and compatible thermal expansion coefficient with metallic support. The paper proposes the use of an electromagnetic method for evaluation of coatings on stainless steel using a sensor with metamaterial lens and comparison of the results with those obtained by complementary methods.

  17. Gate-control efficiency and interface state density evaluated from capacitance-frequency-temperature mapping for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hong-An; Kudo, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2014-11-14

    We present an analysis method for GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices by using capacitance-frequency-temperature (C-f-T) mapping to evaluate the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density, both exhibiting correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance. The effectiveness of the method was exemplified by application to AlN/AlGaN/GaN MIS devices to elucidate the properties of AlN-AlGaN interfaces depending on their formation processes. Using the C-f-T mapping, we extract the gate-bias-dependent activation energy with its derivative giving the gate-control efficiency, from which we evaluate the AlN-AlGaN interface state density through the Lehovec equivalent circuit in the DC limit. It is shown that the gate-control efficiency and the interface state density have correlations with the linear-region intrinsic transconductance, all depending on the interface formation processes. In addition, we give characterization of the AlN-AlGaN interfaces by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in relation with the results of the analysis.

  18. A continuous-speech interface to a decision support system: II. An evaluation using a Wizard-of-Oz experimental paradigm.

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, W M; Shiffman, S; Wyatt, J C; Friedman, C P; Lane, C D; Fagan, L M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the performance of a continuous-speech interface to a decision support system. DESIGN: The authors performed a prospective evaluation of a speech interface that matches unconstrained utterances of physicians with controlled-vocabulary terms from Quick Medical Reference (QMR). The performance of the speech interface was assessed in two stages: in the real-time experiment, physician subjects viewed audiovisual stimuli intended to evoke clinical findings, spoke a description of each finding into the speech interface, and then chose from a list generated by the interface the QMR term that most closely matched the finding. Subjects believed that the speech recognizer decoded their utterances; in reality, a hidden experimenter typed utterances into the interface (Wizard-of-Oz experimental design). Later, the authors replayed the same utterances through the speech recognizer and measured how accurately utterances matched with appropriate QMR terms using the results of the real-time experiment as the "gold standard." MEASUREMENTS: The authors measured how accurately the speech-recognition system converted input utterances to text strings (recognition accuracy) and how accurately the speech interface matched input utterances to appropriate QMR terms (semantic accuracy). RESULTS: Overall recognition accuracy was less than 50%. However, using language-processing techniques that match keywords in recognized utterances to keywords in QMR terms, the semantic accuracy of the system was 81%. CONCLUSIONS: Reasonable semantic accuracy was attained when language-processing techniques were used to accommodate for speech misrecognition. In addition, the Wizard-of-Oz experimental design offered many advantages for this evaluation. The authors believe that this technique may be useful to future evaluators of speech-input systems. PMID:7895136

  19. Evaluation of Incoherent Interface Strength of Solid-State-Bonded Ti64/Stainless Steel Under Dynamic Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Devendra; Singh, Jogender; Varma, Amit H.; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-08-01

    Ti/steel interfaces are produced using field-assisted sintering technology, a technique known to bring about full consolidation of materials using much lower sintering temperatures and durations. The interface thickness is verified using the energy-dispersive x-ray analysis exhibiting the extent of diffusion in interface regions. The interface mechanical strength is characterized using dynamic indentation experiments at strain rates approaching 400 s-1. The experiments were conducted on the interfaces within the spatial error tolerance of less than 3 µm. The measurements of dynamic hardness values, strain rates, and plastic-residual depths were correlated to show the relation of interface mechanical strength with the bulk-phase mechanical strength properties of Ti and steel. The Johnson-Cook model is fitted to the obtained interface normal stress-normal strain data based on the nanoimpact experiments. The coefficient of restitution in the mechanical loading and its dependence on the interface dynamic hardness and interface impact velocity validate the experimental results. The results show that interfacial properties are affected by the rate of loading and are largely dependent upon the interface structural inhomogeneity.

  20. CBP for Field Workers – Results and Insights from Three Usability and Interface Design Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Bly, Aaron Douglas; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Wyatt Orcutt

    2015-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Even though the paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety, improving procedure use could yield significant savings in increased efficiency as well as improved nuclear safety through human performance gains. The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use and adherence, researchers in the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, together with the nuclear industry, have been investigating the possibility and feasibility of replacing the current paper-based procedure process with a computer-based procedure (CBP) system. This report describes a field evaluation of new design concepts of a prototype computer-based procedure system.

  1. Development and Evaluation of the Method with an Affective Interface for Promoting Employees' Morale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Hidenori; Ishii, Hirotake; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    For the sustainable society, organization management not based on the mass production and mass consumption but having the flexibility to meet to various social needs precisely is required. For realizing such management, the emploees' work morale is required. Recently, however, the emploees' work morale is tend to decrease. Therefore, in this study, the authors developed the model of the method for promoting and keeping employees' work morale effectively and efficiently. Especially the authors thought “work morale” of “attitude to the work”. Based on this idea, it could be considered that the theory of the persuasion psychology and various persuasion techniques. Therefore, the model of the method applying the character agent was developed based on the forced compliance which is one of persuasion techniques based on the theory of the cognitive dissonance. By the evaluation experiment using human subjects, it was confirmed that developed method could improve workers' work morle effectively.

  2. Task-analytic evaluations of Space Station Freedom workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1991-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will be a permanently manned multipurpose facility in low Earth orbit by the late 1990's. Integral to Space Station Freedom will be Data Management System workstations. These workstations will provide the human-machine interface for controlling such systems as Guidance, Navigation and Control, Propulsion, and Environmental Control and Life Support. In addition, they will be used by crewmembers in the space station's pressurized shirt-sleeve environment to control remote manipulator systems and free-flyer devices. This paper presents an overview of proposed workstations and current task-analytic evaluations being used to assess their adequacy in supporting Space Station Freedom operations. Particular emphasis is placed on the results and conclusions of the analysis.

  3. Characterizing the interface between wild ducks and poultry to evaluate the potential of transmission of avian pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cappelle, Julien; Gaidet, Nicolas; Iverson, Samuel A; Takekawa, John Y; Newman, Scott H; Fofana, Bouba; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-11-15

    Characterizing the interface between wild and domestic animal populations is increasingly recognized as essential in the context of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) that are transmitted by wildlife. More specifically, the spatial and temporal distribution of contact rates between wild and domestic hosts is a key parameter for modeling EIDs transmission dynamics. We integrated satellite telemetry, remote sensing and ground-based surveys to evaluate the spatio-temporal dynamics of indirect contacts between wild and domestic birds to estimate the risk that avian pathogens such as avian influenza and Newcastle viruses will be transmitted between wildlife to poultry. We monitored comb ducks (Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos) with satellite transmitters for seven months in an extensive Afro-tropical wetland (the Inner Niger Delta) in Mali and characterise the spatial distribution of backyard poultry in villages. We modelled the spatial distribution of wild ducks using 250-meter spatial resolution and 8-days temporal resolution remotely-sensed environmental indicators based on a Maxent niche modelling method. Our results show a strong seasonal variation in potential contact rate between wild ducks and poultry. We found that the exposure of poultry to wild birds was greatest at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season, when comb ducks disperse from natural water bodies to irrigated areas near villages. Our study provides at a local scale a quantitative evidence of the seasonal variability of contact rate between wild and domestic bird populations. It illustrates a GIS-based methodology for estimating epidemiological contact rates at the wildlife and livestock interface integrating high-resolution satellite telemetry and remote sensing data.

  4. Immunohistological Evaluation of the Healing Response at the Flap Interface in Patients With LASIK Ectasia Requiring Penetrating Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Esquenazi, Salomon; Esquenazi, Isi; Grunstein, Lev; He, Juicheng; Bazan, Haydee

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the healing response at the flap interface in corneas with LASIK ectasia that required penetrating keratoplasty (PK). METHODS Corneas of five patients who developed corneal ectasia after LASIK (range: 2.5 to 5 years postoperative) were collected after corneal transplant surgery. The corneas were bisected and processed for conventional histologic analysis and immunofluorescence. RESULTS Light microscopy showed a hypocellular fibrotic scar at the wound margin compared with the adjacent corneal stroma in all eyes. All corneas had positive staining for alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), a myofibroblast marker. In one eye, alpha-SMA cells were located in the fibrotic scar region in the area of the semicircular ring of haze along the margin of the LASIK flap corresponding to an area of epithelial ingrowth. In all other eyes, alpha-SMA positive cells were fewer and mainly located in the superficial stroma under the epithelial wound margin surface. Type III collagen was minimal or absent in the central zone and wound margin of all corneas except for the cornea with epithelial ingrowth present in the hypercellular fibrotic scar region. Chondroitin sulfate was stronger in the periphery of the flap wound coinciding with a higher presence of alpha-SMA–positive cells in that region. Positive staining for matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in the paracentral wound margin scar was seen. CONCLUSIONS A wound-healing process characterized by absence of significant fibrosis and myofibroblasts at the wound edge in the flap interface was noted in all keratectatic eyes. However, changes in the composition of collagen and the presence of MMP-9 at the wound edge several years after LASIK indicates active wound remodeling that may explain the ongoing loss of tissue and tendency of the cornea to bulge. PMID:19714799

  5. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 μm Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention.

  6. Evaluation of sulfate reduction at experimentally induced mixing interfaces using small-scale push-pull tests in an aquifer-wetland system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kneeshaw, T.A.; McGuire, J.T.; Smith, E.W.; Cozzarelli, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents small-scale push-pull tests designed to evaluate the kinetic controls on SO42 - reduction in situ at mixing interfaces between a wetland and aquifer impacted by landfill leachate at the Norman Landfill research site, Norman, OK. Quantifying the rates of redox reactions initiated at interfaces is of great interest because interfaces have been shown to be zones of increased biogeochemical transformations and thus may play an important role in natural attenuation. To mimic the aquifer-wetland interface and evaluate reaction rates, SO42 --rich anaerobic aquifer water (??? 100 mg / L SO42 -) was introduced into SO42 --depleted wetland porewater via push-pull tests. Results showed SO42 - reduction was stimulated by the mixing of these waters and first-order rate coefficients were comparable to those measured in other push-pull studies. However, rate data were complex involving either multiple first-order rate coefficients or a more complex rate order. In addition, a lag phase was observed prior to SO42 - reduction that persisted until the mixing interface between test solution and native water was recovered, irrespective of temporal and spatial constraints. The lag phase was not eliminated by the addition of electron donor (acetate) to the injected test solution. Subsequent push-pull tests designed to elucidate the nature of the lag phase support the importance of the mixing interface in controlling terminal electron accepting processes. These data suggest redox reactions may occur rapidly at the mixing interface between injected and native waters but not in the injected bulk water mass. Under these circumstances, push-pull test data should be evaluated to ensure the apparent rate is actually a function of time and that complexities in rate data be considered. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental and theoretical vibrational spectroscopic evaluation of arsenate coordination in aqueous solutions, solids, and at mineral-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myneni, Satish C. B.; Traina, Samuel J.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Logan, Terry J.

    1998-10-01

    Arsenate (AsO 43-) is a common species in oxidizing aquatic systems and hydrothermal fluids, and its solubility and partitioning into different mineral phases are determined by the nature of AsO 43- coordination, solution pH, type of soluble cations, and H 2O structure at the mineral-fluid interfaces. While the vibrational spectroscopy has been widely used in examining the AsO 43- coordination chemistry, insufficient knowledge on the correlation of AsO 43- molecular structure and its vibrational spectra impeded the complete spectral interpretation. In this paper, we evaluated the vibrational spectroscopy of AsO 43- in solutions, crystals, and sorbed on mineral surfaces using theoretical (semiempirical, for aqueous species) and experimental studies, with emphasis on the protonation, hydration, and metal complexation influence on the As-O symmetric stretching vibrations. Theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimental studies and helped in the evaluation of vibrational modes of several arsenate-complexes and in the interpretation of experimental spectra. These vibrational spectroscopic studies (IR, Raman) suggest that the symmetry of AsO 43- polyhedron is strongly distorted, and its As-O vibrations are affected by protonation and the relative influence on AsO 43- structure decreases in the order: H + ≫ cation ≥ H 2O. For all AsO 43- complexes, the As-OX symmetric stretching (X = metal, H +, H 2O; ≤820 cm -1) shifted to lower wavenumbers when compared to that of uncomplexed AsO 43-. In addition, the As-OH symmetric stretching of protonated arsenates in aqueous solutions shift to higher energies with increasing protonation (<720, <770, <790 cm -1 for HAsO 42-, H 2AsO 4-, and H 3AsO 40, respectively). The protonated arsenates in crystalline solids show the same trend with little variation in As-OH symmetric stretching vibrations. Since metal complexation of protonated AsO 43- does not influence the As-OH vibrations significantly, deducing

  8. Evaluation of Different EEG Acquisition Systems Concerning Their Suitability for Building a Brain–Computer Interface: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Faller, Josef; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2016-01-01

    One important aspect in non-invasive brain–computer interface (BCI) research is to acquire the electroencephalogram (EEG) in a proper way. From an end-user perspective, it means with maximum comfort and without any extra inconveniences (e.g., washing the hair), whereas from a technical perspective, the signal quality has to be optimal to make the BCI work effectively and efficiently. In this work, we evaluated three different commercially available EEG acquisition systems that differ in the type of electrodes (gel-, water-, and dry-based), the amplifier technique, and the data transmission method. Every system was tested regarding three different aspects, namely, technical, BCI effectiveness and efficiency (P300 communication and control), and user satisfaction (comfort). We found that water-based system had the lowest short circuit noise level, the hydrogel-based system had the highest P300 spelling accuracies, and the dry electrode-based system caused the least inconveniences. Therefore, building a reliable BCI is possible with all the evaluated systems, and it is on the user to decide which system meets the given requirements best. PMID:27746714

  9. Evaluation of Different EEG Acquisition Systems Concerning Their Suitability for Building a Brain-Computer Interface: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Faller, Josef; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2016-01-01

    One important aspect in non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research is to acquire the electroencephalogram (EEG) in a proper way. From an end-user perspective, it means with maximum comfort and without any extra inconveniences (e.g., washing the hair), whereas from a technical perspective, the signal quality has to be optimal to make the BCI work effectively and efficiently. In this work, we evaluated three different commercially available EEG acquisition systems that differ in the type of electrodes (gel-, water-, and dry-based), the amplifier technique, and the data transmission method. Every system was tested regarding three different aspects, namely, technical, BCI effectiveness and efficiency (P300 communication and control), and user satisfaction (comfort). We found that water-based system had the lowest short circuit noise level, the hydrogel-based system had the highest P300 spelling accuracies, and the dry electrode-based system caused the least inconveniences. Therefore, building a reliable BCI is possible with all the evaluated systems, and it is on the user to decide which system meets the given requirements best.

  10. Evaluation of a Dry EEG System for Application of Passive Brain-Computer Interfaces in Autonomous Driving

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Thorsten O.; Andreessen, Lena M.; Berg, Angela; Bleuel, Maurice; Pawlitzki, Juliane; Zawallich, Lars; Krol, Laurens R.; Gramann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    We tested the applicability and signal quality of a 16 channel dry electroencephalography (EEG) system in a laboratory environment and in a car under controlled, realistic conditions. The aim of our investigation was an estimation how well a passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) can work in an autonomous driving scenario. The evaluation considered speed and accuracy of self-applicability by an untrained person, quality of recorded EEG data, shifts of electrode positions on the head after driving-related movements, usability, and complexity of the system as such and wearing comfort over time. An experiment was conducted inside and outside of a stationary vehicle with running engine, air-conditioning, and muted radio. Signal quality was sufficient for standard EEG analysis in the time and frequency domain as well as for the use in pBCIs. While the influence of vehicle-induced interferences to data quality was insignificant, driving-related movements led to strong shifts in electrode positions. In general, the EEG system used allowed for a fast self-applicability of cap and electrodes. The assessed usability of the system was still acceptable while the wearing comfort decreased strongly over time due to friction and pressure to the head. From these results we conclude that the evaluated system should provide the essential requirements for an application in an autonomous driving context. Nevertheless, further refinement is suggested to reduce shifts of the system due to body movements and increase the headset's usability and wearing comfort. PMID:28293184

  11. Evaluation of a Dry EEG System for Application of Passive Brain-Computer Interfaces in Autonomous Driving.

    PubMed

    Zander, Thorsten O; Andreessen, Lena M; Berg, Angela; Bleuel, Maurice; Pawlitzki, Juliane; Zawallich, Lars; Krol, Laurens R; Gramann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    We tested the applicability and signal quality of a 16 channel dry electroencephalography (EEG) system in a laboratory environment and in a car under controlled, realistic conditions. The aim of our investigation was an estimation how well a passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) can work in an autonomous driving scenario. The evaluation considered speed and accuracy of self-applicability by an untrained person, quality of recorded EEG data, shifts of electrode positions on the head after driving-related movements, usability, and complexity of the system as such and wearing comfort over time. An experiment was conducted inside and outside of a stationary vehicle with running engine, air-conditioning, and muted radio. Signal quality was sufficient for standard EEG analysis in the time and frequency domain as well as for the use in pBCIs. While the influence of vehicle-induced interferences to data quality was insignificant, driving-related movements led to strong shifts in electrode positions. In general, the EEG system used allowed for a fast self-applicability of cap and electrodes. The assessed usability of the system was still acceptable while the wearing comfort decreased strongly over time due to friction and pressure to the head. From these results we conclude that the evaluated system should provide the essential requirements for an application in an autonomous driving context. Nevertheless, further refinement is suggested to reduce shifts of the system due to body movements and increase the headset's usability and wearing comfort.

  12. Evaluation of a modified Fitts law brain-computer interface target acquisition task in able and motor disabled individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, E. A.; Radwin, R. G.; Wilson, J. A.; Williams, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that takes recorded brain signals and translates them into real-time actions, in this case movement of a cursor on a computer screen. This work applied Fitts' law to the evaluation of performance on a target acquisition task during sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI training. Fitts' law, which has been used as a predictor of movement time in studies of human movement, was used here to determine the information transfer rate, which was based on target acquisition time and target difficulty. The information transfer rate was used to make comparisons between control modalities and subject groups on the same task. Data were analyzed from eight able-bodied and five motor disabled participants who wore an electrode cap that recorded and translated their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals into computer cursor movements. Direct comparisons were made between able-bodied and disabled subjects, and between EEG and joystick cursor control in able-bodied subjects. Fitts' law aptly described the relationship between movement time and index of difficulty for each task movement direction when evaluated separately and averaged together. This study showed that Fitts' law can be successfully applied to computer cursor movement controlled by neural signals.

  13. Defining brain-machine interface applications by matching interface performance with device requirements.

    PubMed

    Tonet, Oliver; Marinelli, Martina; Citi, Luca; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Rossini, Luca; Megali, Giuseppe; Dario, Paolo

    2008-01-15

    Interaction with machines is mediated by human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a particular class of HMIs and have so far been studied as a communication means for people who have little or no voluntary control of muscle activity. In this context, low-performing interfaces can be considered as prosthetic applications. On the other hand, for able-bodied users, a BMI would only be practical if conceived as an augmenting interface. In this paper, a method is introduced for pointing out effective combinations of interfaces and devices for creating real-world applications. First, devices for domotics, rehabilitation and assistive robotics, and their requirements, in terms of throughput and latency, are described. Second, HMIs are classified and their performance described, still in terms of throughput and latency. Then device requirements are matched with performance of available interfaces. Simple rehabilitation and domotics devices can be easily controlled by means of BMI technology. Prosthetic hands and wheelchairs are suitable applications but do not attain optimal interactivity. Regarding humanoid robotics, the head and the trunk can be controlled by means of BMIs, while other parts require too much throughput. Robotic arms, which have been controlled by means of cortical invasive interfaces in animal studies, could be the next frontier for non-invasive BMIs. Combining smart controllers with BMIs could improve interactivity and boost BMI applications.

  14. Interface Between MTA and Dental Bonding Agents: Scanning Electron Microscope Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cervino, Gabriele; Fiorillo, Luca; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Bramanti, Ennio; Laino, Luigi; Lauritano, Floriana; Cicciù, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the material that offers the best sealing characteristic in the field of endodontic treatment is the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), nevertheless, this material necessities an adhesive bonding agent to perfectly join to the dental surface. The aim of this study was to analyze using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) the possible microgap between the adhesive, MTA, and the dental surface. Fourteen extracted molars were divided into two groups - group A was prepared with MTA-component adhesive and group B was prepared with MTA and composite dual etching. The observations were carried out with a SEM Phenom G2 Pro mode S.E.I. JMP® software was used for statistical analysis, and a t-test was used for evaluating the difference between the two groups. The gap of the areas at higher magnification (1000×) with a size greater than 5 microns in width and 20 microns in length were considered significant, and only group A recorded significant data. The SEM analysis performed in the group A with interposition of adhesive and flow between the dental pulp chamber and MTA demonstrates the presence of a marginal gap of considerable amplitude in the all of the samples investigated.

  15. Interface Between MTA and Dental Bonding Agents: Scanning Electron Microscope Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cervino, Gabriele; Fiorillo, Luca; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Bramanti, Ennio; Laino, Luigi; Lauritano, Floriana; Cicciù, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Nowadays, the material that offers the best sealing characteristic in the field of endodontic treatment is the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), nevertheless, this material necessities an adhesive bonding agent to perfectly join to the dental surface. The aim of this study was to analyze using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) the possible microgap between the adhesive, MTA, and the dental surface. Material and Methods: Fourteen extracted molars were divided into two groups – group A was prepared with MTA-component adhesive and group B was prepared with MTA and composite dual etching. The observations were carried out with a SEM Phenom G2 Pro mode S.E.I. JMP® software was used for statistical analysis, and a t-test was used for evaluating the difference between the two groups. Results: The gap of the areas at higher magnification (1000×) with a size greater than 5 microns in width and 20 microns in length were considered significant, and only group A recorded significant data. Conclusions: The SEM analysis performed in the group A with interposition of adhesive and flow between the dental pulp chamber and MTA demonstrates the presence of a marginal gap of considerable amplitude in the all of the samples investigated. PMID:28316952

  16. Evaluation of Interface Boundaries in 9Cr-1Mo Steel After Thermal and Thermomechanical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, T.; Dash, Manmath Kumar; Saroja, S.; Vijayalakshmi, M.

    2013-04-01

    The grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) and microstructure in 9Cr-1Mo ferritic/martensitic steel subjected to different heat treatments and thermomechanical treatments (TMTs) have been evaluated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Microstructures obtained through displacive transformation of high-temperature austenite yielded higher amounts of Σ1-29 coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries (from 29 to 38 pct) compared with the ferrite grains obtained by diffusional transformation (~16 pct) or by recrystallization process (~14 pct). Specifically, the low-angle (Σ1), Σ3, Σ11, and Σ25b boundaries were enhanced in the tempered martensite substructure, whereas the prior austenite grain boundaries were largely of random type. Misorientation between the product ferrite variants for ideal orientation relationships during austenite transformation was calculated and compared with CSL misorientation to find its proximity based on Brandon's criteria. The observed enhancements in Σ1, Σ3, and Σ11 could be interpreted based on Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) relation, but Nishiyama-Wassermann (N-W) relation was needed to understand Σ25b formation. The amounts of CSL boundaries in the tempered martensite structure were not significantly influenced by austenite grain size or the kinetics of martensitic transformation. In mixed microstructures of "polygonal ferrite + tempered martensite", the frequencies of CSL boundaries were found to systematically decrease with increasing amounts of diffusional/recrystallized ferrite.

  17. Evaluation of the micro-mechanical strength of resin bonded-dentin interfaces submitted to short-term degradation strategies.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Victor P; Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy F; Correr, Américo B; Osorio, Raquel; Toledano, Manuel; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and confocal micropermeability of resin bonded-dentin specimens created using two representative two-step/self-etch adhesives submitted to short-term period degradation strategies such as simulated pulpal pressure, thermo- or mechanical-cycling challenges. Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) and Silorane adhesive (SIL) were bonded to flat deep dentin from seventy extracted human molars and light-cured for 10 s. Composite build-ups were constructed using with Filtek Z350 XT and Filtek P90 respectively. The specimens of each adhesive group were subjected to three different accelerated aging methods: (1) thermo-cycling challenge (5000 cycles); (2) mechanical-cycling load (200,000 cycles); (3) experiment and (4) conventional method for simulated pulpal pressure (20 cm H₂O). Control resin-bonded specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h. μTBS and confocal microscopy (CLSM) micropermeability evaluation were performed and the results were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). The CLSM evaluation revealed micro-cracks within the Silorane-bonded dentin subsequent to mechanical-cycling load, whereas, the simulated pulpal pressure induced evident micropermeability in both bonding agents. Mechanical loading provides discernible bonding degradation in a short-term period in resin-bonded dentin created using two-step/self-etch adhesives. However, simulated pulpal pressure may reduce the sealing ability of self-etch adhesives causing greater water uptake within the resin-dentin interface.

  18. The Development of the CONDUIT Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbourne, Jason

    1999-01-01

    This report details the development and use of CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface). CONDUIT is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of CONDUIT to helicopter control system design.

  19. Evaluation of various mental task combinations for near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Do-Won; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have demonstrated that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a promisingneuroimaging modality for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). So far, most NIRS-based BCI studies have focusedon enhancing the accuracy of the classification of different mental tasks. In the present study, we evaluated theperformances of a variety of mental task combinations in order to determine the mental task pairs that are bestsuited for customized NIRS-based BCIs. To this end, we recorded event-related hemodynamic responses whileseven participants performed eight different mental tasks. Classification accuracies were then estimated for allpossible pairs of the eight mental tasks (8C2 = 28). Based on this analysis, mental task combinations with relatively high classification accuracies frequently included the following three mental tasks: “mental multiplication,” “mental rotation,” and “right-hand motor imagery.” Specifically, mental task combinations consisting of two of these three mental tasks showed the highest mean classification accuracies. It is expected that our results will be a useful reference to reduce the time needed for preliminary tests when discovering individual-specific mental task combinations.

  20. Cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluations of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Sunil; Esau, Luke; Hikmawan, Tyas; Antunes, Andre; Holtermann, Karie; Stingl, Ulrich; Bajic, Vladimir B; Kaur, Mandeep

    2013-02-06

    High salinity and temperature combined with presence of heavy metals and low oxygen renders deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea as one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The ability to adapt and survive in these extreme environments makes inhabiting bacteria interesting candidates for the search of novel bioactive molecules. Total 20 i.e. lipophilic (chloroform) and hydrophilic (70% ethanol) extracts of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea were tested for cytotoxic and apoptotic activity against three human cancer cell lines, i.e. HeLa (cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (Breast Adenocarcinoma) and DU145 (Prostate carcinoma). Among these, twelve extracts were found to be very active after 24 hours of treatment, which were further evaluated for their cytotoxic and apoptotic effects at 48 hr. The extracts from the isolates P1-37B and P3-37A (Halomonas) and P1-17B (Sulfitobacter) have been found to be the most potent against tested cancer cell lines. Overall, bacterial isolates from the Red Sea displayed promising results and can be explored further to find novel drug-like molecules. The cell line specific activity of the extracts may be attributed to the presence of different polarity compounds or the cancer type i.e. biological differences in cell lines and different mechanisms of action of programmed cell death prevalent in different cancer cell lines.

  1. Cytotoxic and apoptotic evaluations of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High salinity and temperature combined with presence of heavy metals and low oxygen renders deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea as one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The ability to adapt and survive in these extreme environments makes inhabiting bacteria interesting candidates for the search of novel bioactive molecules. Methods Total 20 i.e. lipophilic (chloroform) and hydrophilic (70% ethanol) extracts of marine bacteria isolated from brine-seawater interface of the Red Sea were tested for cytotoxic and apoptotic activity against three human cancer cell lines, i.e. HeLa (cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (Breast Adenocarcinoma) and DU145 (Prostate carcinoma). Results Among these, twelve extracts were found to be very active after 24 hours of treatment, which were further evaluated for their cytotoxic and apoptotic effects at 48 hr. The extracts from the isolates P1-37B and P3-37A (Halomonas) and P1-17B (Sulfitobacter) have been found to be the most potent against tested cancer cell lines. Conclusion Overall, bacterial isolates from the Red Sea displayed promising results and can be explored further to find novel drug-like molecules. The cell line specific activity of the extracts may be attributed to the presence of different polarity compounds or the cancer type i.e. biological differences in cell lines and different mechanisms of action of programmed cell death prevalent in different cancer cell lines. PMID:23388148

  2. Evaluation of various mental task combinations for near-infrared spectroscopy-based brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Do-Won; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2014-07-01

    A number of recent studies have demonstrated that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a promising neuroimaging modality for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). So far, most NIRS-based BCI studies have focused on enhancing the accuracy of the classification of different mental tasks. In the present study, we evaluated the performances of a variety of mental task combinations in order to determine the mental task pairs that are best suited for customized NIRS-based BCIs. To this end, we recorded event-related hemodynamic responses while seven participants performed eight different mental tasks. Classification accuracies were then estimated for all possible pairs of the eight mental tasks (C=28). Based on this analysis, mental task combinations with relatively high classification accuracies frequently included the following three mental tasks: "mental multiplication," "mental rotation," and "right-hand motor imagery." Specifically, mental task combinations consisting of two of these three mental tasks showed the highest mean classification accuracies. It is expected that our results will be a useful reference to reduce the time needed for preliminary tests when discovering individual-specific mental task combinations.

  3. Soft, conformal bioelectronics for a wireless human-wheelchair interface.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saswat; Norton, James J S; Lee, Yongkuk; Lee, Dong Sup; Agee, Nicolas; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-05-15

    There are more than 3 million people in the world whose mobility relies on wheelchairs. Recent advancement on engineering technology enables more intuitive, easy-to-use rehabilitation systems. A human-machine interface that uses non-invasive, electrophysiological signals can allow a systematic interaction between human and devices; for example, eye movement-based wheelchair control. However, the existing machine-interface platforms are obtrusive, uncomfortable, and often cause skin irritations as they require a metal electrode affixed to the skin with a gel and acrylic pad. Here, we introduce a bioelectronic system that makes dry, conformal contact to the skin. The mechanically comfortable sensor records high-fidelity electrooculograms, comparable to the conventional gel electrode. Quantitative signal analysis and infrared thermographs show the advantages of the soft biosensor for an ergonomic human-machine interface. A classification algorithm with an optimized set of features shows the accuracy of 94% with five eye movements. A Bluetooth-enabled system incorporating the soft bioelectronics demonstrates a precise, hands-free control of a robotic wheelchair via electrooculograms.

  4. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 μm Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Conclusions: Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. PMID:25713491

  5. Skills based evaluation of alternative input methods to command a semi-autonomous electric wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Mario; Ponce, Pedro; Molina, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the evaluation, under standardized metrics, of alternative input methods to steer and maneuver a semi-autonomous electric wheelchair. The Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which includes a virtual joystick, head movements and speech recognition controls, was designed to facilitate mobility skills for severely disabled people. Thirteen tasks, which are common to all the wheelchair users, were attempted five times by controlling it with the virtual joystick and the hands-free interfaces in different areas for disabled and non-disabled people. Even though the prototype has an intelligent navigation control, based on fuzzy logic and ultrasonic sensors, the evaluation was done without assistance. The scored values showed that both controls, the head movements and the virtual joystick have similar capabilities, 92.3% and 100%, respectively. However, the 54.6% capacity score obtained for the speech control interface indicates the needs of the navigation assistance to accomplish some of the goals. Furthermore, the evaluation time indicates those skills which require more user's training with the interface and specifications to improve the total performance of the wheelchair.

  6. Morphological Evaluation of the Adhesive/Enamel interfaces of Two-step Self-etching Adhesives and Multimode One-bottle Self-etching Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Matsui, Naoko; Hamba, Hidenori; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    To evaluate the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) at the adhesive/enamel interface of self-etching adhesives with or without prior phosphoric acid etching. Four adhesives were used in 8 groups: Clearfil SE Bond (SEB), Optibond XTR (XTR), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU), and Clearfil BOND SE ONE (ONE) without prior phosphoric-acid etching, and each adhesive with phosphoric acid etching for 10 s (P-SEB, P-XTR, P-SBU and P-ONE, respectively). After application of self-etching adhesives on ground enamel surfaces of human teeth, a flowable composite was placed. For observation of the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ), the bonded interface was exposed to demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) for 4.5 h, followed by 5% NaOCl with ultrasonication for 20 min. After the acid-base challenge, morphological attributes of the interface were observed using SEM. ABRZ formation was confirmed in all groups. The funnel-shaped erosion beneath the interface was present in SBU and ONE, where nearly 10 to 15 μm of enamel was dissolved. With phosphoric acid etching, the ABRZs were obviously thicker compared with no phosphoric acid etching. Enamel beneath the bonding interface was more susceptible to acid dissolution in SBU and ONE. In the case of the one-bottle self-etching adhesives and universal adhesives that intrinsically have higher pH values, enamel etching should be recommended to improve the interfacial quality.

  7. Performance Assessment of a Humidity Measurement System and Its Use to Evaluate Moisture Characteristics of Wheelchair Cushions at the User-Seat Interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuofu; Cheng, Haifeng; Luo, Zhongming; Cascioli, Vincenzo; Heusch, Andrew I; Nair, Nadia R; McCarthy, Peter W

    2017-04-05

    Little is known about the changes in moisture that occur at the body-seat interface during sitting. However, as increased moisture can add to the risk of skin damage, we have developed an array of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) humidity sensors to measure at this interface. Sensors were first evaluated against traceable standards, followed by use in a cross-over field test (n = 11; 20 min duration) using different wheelchair cushions (foam and gel). Relative humidity (RH) was measured at the left mid-thigh, right mid-thigh and coccyx. Sensors were shown to be unaffected by loading and showed highly reliable responses to measured changes in humidity, varying little from the traceable standard (<5%). Field-test data, smoothed through a moving average filter, revealed significant differences between the three chosen locations and between the gel and foam cushions. Maximum RH was attained in less than five minutes regardless of cushion material (foam or gel). Importantly, RH does not appear to distribute uniformly over the body-seat interface; suggesting multiple sensor positions would appear essential for effectively monitoring moisture in this interface. Material properties of the cushions appear to have a significant effect on RH characteristics (profile) at the body-seat interface, but not necessarily the time to peak moisture.

  8. A study of a steering system algorithm for pleasure boats based on stability analysis of a human-machine system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Fujio; Toyama, Shigehiro; Ishiduki, Souta; Seta, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Maritime accidents of small ships continue to increase in number. One of the major factors is poor manoeuvrability of the Manual Hydraulic Steering Mechanism (MHSM) in common use. The manoeuvrability can be improved by using the Electronic Control Steering Mechanism (ECSM). This paper conducts stability analyses of a pleasure boat controlled by human models in view of path following on a target course, in order to establish design guidelines for the ECSM. First, to analyse the stability region, the research derives the linear approximated model in a planar global coordinate system. Then, several human models are assumed to develop closed-loop human-machine controlled systems. These human models include basic proportional, derivative, integral and time-delay actions. The stability analysis simulations for those human-machine systems are carried out. The results show that the stability region tends to spread as a ship's velocity increases in the case of the basic proportional human model. The derivative action and time-delay action of human models are effective in spreading the stability region in their respective ranges of frontal gazing points.

  9. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  10. Separate Evaluation of the Kinetics of Carbide Precipitation Occurring at the Interface of Preexisting Particles and Within the Austenitic Matrix in a Microalloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Gil; Shin, Eunjoo; Lee, Young-Kook

    2017-01-01

    The isothermal kinetics of carbide precipitation occurring at the interface of preexisting (Ti,Nb)(N,C) particles and within the deformed γ-austenite matrix were separately evaluated using a Nb-Ti-V microalloyed steel through small-angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. While the specimen was isothermally held after deformation at 1223 K (950 °C), (Nb,Ti)(C,N) particles were precipitated at the interface of coarse (Ti,Nb)(N,C) particles preexisting in the recrystallized γ matrix. This resulted in a single size distribution curve, which was converted from the measured magnetic scattering cross section. However, during isothermal holding after deformation at 1123 K (850 °C), fine (Nb,Ti,V)(C,N) particles formed mainly within the deformed γ matrix, although some of them were precipitated at the interface of preexisting coarse (Ti,Nb)(N,C) particles. Accordingly, the specimens held at 1123 K (850 °C) exhibited double size distribution curves. The separate evaluation between matrix and interface precipitation kinetics was successfully performed using the size distribution curves due to the difference in particle size according to the nucleation site. The reliability of carbide precipitation kinetics was confirmed by comparing the measured ratio between magnetic and nuclear scattering cross sections with the ratio calculated based on the measured chemical composition of precipitates.

  11. Biomechanical design considerations for transradial prosthetic interface: A review.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yuanjun; Li, Xiang; Luo, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Traditional function and comfort assessment of transradial prostheses pay scant attention to prosthetic interface. With better understanding of the biomechanics of prosthetic interface comes better efficiency and safety for interface design; in this way, amputees are more likely to accept prosthetic usage. This review attempts to provide design and selection criteria of transradial interface for prosthetists and clinicians. Various transradial socket types in the literature were chronologically reviewed. Biomechanical discussion of transradial prosthetic interface design from an engineering point of view was also done. Suspension control, range of motion, stability, as well as comfort and safety of socket designs have been considered in varying degrees in the literature. The human-machine interface design should change from traditional "socket design" to new "interface design." From anatomy and physiology to biomechanics of the transradial residual limb, the force and motion transfer, together with comfort and safety, are the two main aspects in prosthetic interface design. Load distribution and transmission should mainly rely on achieving additional skeletal control through targeted soft tissue relief. Biomechanics of the residual limb soft tissues should be studied to find the relationship between mechanical properties and the comfort and safety of soft tissues.

  12. Skill acquisition while operating in-vehicle information systems: interface design determines the level of safety-relevant distractions.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Georg; Krems, Josef F; Gelau, Christhard

    2009-04-01

    This study tested whether the ease of learning to use human-machine interfaces of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) can be assessed at standstill. Assessing the attentional demand of IVIS should include an evaluation of ease of learning, because the use of IVIS at low skill levels may create safety-relevant distractions. Skill acquisition in operating IVIS was quantified by fitting the power law of practice to training data sets collected in a driving study and at standstill. Participants practiced manual destination entry with two route guidance systems differing in cognitive demand. In Experiment 1, a sample of middle-aged participants was trained while steering routes of varying driving demands. In Experiment 2, another sample of middle-aged participants was trained at standstill. In Experiment 1, display glance times were less affected by driving demands than by total task times and decreased at slightly higher speed-up rates (0.02 higher on average) than task times collected at standstill in Experiment 2. The system interface that minimized cognitive demand was operated more quickly and was easier to learn. Its system delays increased static task times, which still predicted 58% of variance in display glance times compared with even 76% for the second system. The ease of learning to use an IVIS interface and the decrease in attentional demand with training can be assessed at standstill. Fitting the power law of practice to static task times yields parameters that predict display glance times while driving, which makes it possible to compare interfaces with regard to ease of learning.

  13. JUPITER: Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability - An Application Programming Interface (API) for Model Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, Edward R.; Poeter, Eileen P.; Doherty, John E.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability Application Programming Interface (JUPITER API) improves the computer programming resources available to those developing applications (computer programs) for model analysis. The JUPITER API consists of eleven Fortran-90 modules that provide for encapsulation of data and operations on that data. Each module contains one or more entities: data, data types, subroutines, functions, and generic interfaces. The modules do not constitute computer programs themselves; instead, they are used to construct computer programs. Such computer programs are called applications of the API. The API provides common modeling operations for use by a variety of computer applications. The models being analyzed are referred to here as process models, and may, for example, represent the physics, chemistry, and(or) biology of a field or laboratory system. Process models commonly are constructed using published models such as MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000; Harbaugh, 2005), MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1996), HSPF (Bicknell et al., 1997), PRMS (Leavesley and Stannard, 1995), and many others. The process model may be accessed by a JUPITER API application as an external program, or it may be implemented as a subroutine within a JUPITER API application . In either case, execution of the model takes place in a framework designed by the application programmer. This framework can be designed to take advantage of any parallel processing capabilities possessed by the process model, as well as the parallel-processing capabilities of the JUPITER API. Model analyses for which the JUPITER API could be useful include, for example: * Compare model results to observed values to determine how well the model reproduces system processes and characteristics. * Use sensitivity analysis to determine the information provided by observations to parameters and predictions of interest. * Determine the additional data needed to improve selected

  14. Evaluation of a new approach for modelling the screw-bone interface in a locking plate fixation: a corroboration study.

    PubMed

    Moazen, Mehran; Mak, Jonathan H; Jones, Alison C; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth K; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2013-07-01

    Computational modelling of the screw-bone interface in fracture fixation constructs is challenging. While incorporating screw threads would be a more realistic representation of the physics, this approach can be computationally expensive. Several studies have instead suppressed the threads and modelled the screw shaft with fixed conditions assumed at the screw-bone interface. This study assessed the sensitivity of the computational results to modelling approaches at the screw-bone interface. A new approach for modelling this interface was proposed, and it was tested on two locking screw designs in a diaphyseal bridge plating configuration. Computational models of locked plating and far cortical locking constructs were generated and compared to in vitro models described in prior literature to corroborate the outcomes. The new approach led to closer agreement between the computational and the experimental stiffness data, while the fixed approach led to overestimation of the stiffness predictions. Using the new approach, the pattern of load distribution and the magnitude of the axial forces, experienced by each screw, were compared between the locked plating and far cortical locking constructs. The computational models suggested that under more severe loading conditions, far cortical locking screws might be under higher risk of screw pull-out than the locking screws. The proposed approach for modelling the screw-bone interface can be applied to any fixation involved application of screws.

  15. Standardizing Interfaces for External Access to Data and Processing for the NASA Ozone Product Evaluation and Test Element (PEATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt A.; Fleig, Albert J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's traditional science data processing systems have focused on specific missions, and providing data access, processing and services to the funded science teams of those specific missions. Recently NASA has been modifying this stance, changing the focus from Missions to Measurements. Where a specific Mission has a discrete beginning and end, the Measurement considers long term data continuity across multiple missions. Total Column Ozone, a critical measurement of atmospheric composition, has been monitored for'decades on a series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments. Some important European missions also monitor ozone, including the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and SCIAMACHY. With the U.S.IEuropean cooperative launch of the Dutch Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite, and the GOME-2 instrumental on MetOp, the ozone monitoring record has been further extended. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA is now preparing to evaluate data and algorithms for the next generation Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) which will launch on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) in 2010. NASA is constructing the Science Data Segment (SDS) which is comprised of several elements to evaluate the various NPP data products and algorithms. The NPP SDS Ozone Product Evaluation and Test Element (PEATE) will build on the heritage of the TOMS and OM1 mission based processing systems. The overall measurement based system that will encompass these efforts is the Atmospheric Composition Processing System (ACPS). We have extended the system to include access to publically available data sets from other instruments where feasible, including non-NASA missions as appropriate. The heritage system was largely monolithic providing a very controlled processing flow from data.ingest of

  16. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  17. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  18. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  19. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  20. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  1. Are we there yet? Evaluating commercial grade brain-computer interface for control of computer applications by individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Taherian, Sarvnaz; Selitskiy, Dmitry; Pau, James; Claire Davies, T

    2017-02-01

    Using a commercial electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI), the training and testing protocol for six individuals with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (GMFCS and MACS IV and V) was evaluated. A customised, gamified training paradigm was employed. Over three weeks, the participants spent two sessions exploring the system, and up to six sessions playing the game which focussed on EEG feedback of left and right arm motor imagery. The participants showed variable inconclusive results in the ability to produce two distinct EEG patterns. Participant performance was influenced by physical illness, motivation, fatigue and concentration. The results from this case study highlight the infancy of BCIs as a form of assistive technology for people with cerebral palsy. Existing commercial BCIs are not designed according to the needs of end-users. Implications for Rehabilitation Mood, fatigue, physical illness and motivation influence the usability of a brain-computer interface. Commercial brain-computer interfaces are not designed for practical assistive technology use for people with cerebral palsy. Practical brain-computer interface assistive technologies may need to be flexible to suit individual needs.

  2. Collection and analysis of wind data for the evaluation of Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Dynamics Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espina, Chad Edward Obedoza

    The Wildland Urban-Interface Fire Dynamics Simulator (WFDS) is a computer code that is currently being developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). WFDS has the capability of simulating wildland fire behavior with prescribed elements such vegetative and structural fuel, topography, and weather conditions. In this initial stage of the research, support for the development of WFDS focuses on the evaluation of a wind flow simulation on a very complex, outdoor terrain. This effort is preceded by the fabrication, installation and testing of wind-sensing equipment. Foremost, wind data gathered from different sites using various instruments are compared and evaluated. The data gathered in the Trails community of Rancho Bernardo is then presented and compared to select WFDS simulations. Systems consisting of a wind vane and anemometer are currently installed in the Trails community of Rancho Bernardo. They were installed by Professor Fletcher J. Miller and me using a lift that is attached to a telescoping crane. These instruments will gather the wind data needed to show the behavioral patterns of winds influenced by the topography and obstructions such as trees and houses. They are currently installed on top of light posts. These light posts were picked based on the path of the fire influenced by the Santa Ana winds that ravaged the community in 2007. The data from these instruments were graphically represented using a Matlab code that was developed specifically for the data sets. The Matlab graphing utility plots wind speed and wind direction along with matching polar plots. Other main features also include the ability to set a time range and compare two sites in one plot. There are other wind instruments currently being tested and being analyzed to ensure correct data is being recorded. These instruments will also expand to a wider range the wind data-gathering capabilities vertically. A Sound Detecting and Ranging (SoDAR) unit gathers wind

  3. Evaluating Land-Atmosphere-Ocean-Sea Ice Interface Processes in the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, M.; Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) have problems simulating climate in the Arctic region. For instance, there continues to be a wide spread in the simulations of the interannual variability and long-term trends of sea ice in the 20th century in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. Thus, there is also a wide spread in the trends in sea ice decline projected for the 21st century in the CMIP5 models. Recently, the Regional Arctic System Model version 1.0 (RASM1.0) has been developed to provide improved high-resolution simulations of the Arctic atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-land system. A major baseline for the performance of RASM is its comparison with reanalysis (that provides the lateral boundary condition to drive RASM) and with the coarser-resolution ESMs. In this presentation, we will provide such a baseline with respect to the land-atmosphere-ocean-sea ice interface processes by comparing RASM with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and three reanalysis products. First, 2-m air temperature, surface radiative and turbulent fluxes, and precipitation are compared to global datasets to assess the representation of these quantities in the models and reanalyses regionally. It is found that these quantities are generally better represented over land than over the oceans and sea ice. Then, we will further compare RASM, CESM, and reanalysis products with surface observations made at land flux towers, during northern high-latitude ship cruises over the oceans, and during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment over sea ice. In these comparisons, we will focus on both the annual and diurnal cycles. For instance, the snow versus snow-free period over land will be emphasized, because the land-atmosphere coupling mechanism differs between the two periods. The impact of radiative fluxes on the diurnal temperature errors will also be emphasized. Furthermore, our newly-developed snow depth and snow water equivalent data over several 2deg X 2

  4. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  5. An urban energy performance evaluation system and its computer implementation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yuan, Guan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2017-12-15

    To improve the urban environment and effectively reflect and promote urban energy performance, an urban energy performance evaluation system was constructed, thereby strengthening urban environmental management capabilities. From the perspectives of internalization and externalization, a framework of evaluation indicators and key factors that determine urban energy performance and explore the reasons for differences in performance was proposed according to established theory and previous studies. Using the improved stochastic frontier analysis method, an urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model was built that brings performance evaluation and factor analysis into the same stage for study. According to data obtained for the Chinese provincial capitals from 2004 to 2013, the coefficients of the evaluation indicators and key factors were calculated by the urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model. These coefficients were then used to compile the program file. The urban energy performance evaluation system developed in this study was designed in three parts: a database, a distributed component server, and a human-machine interface. Its functions were designed as login, addition, edit, input, calculation, analysis, comparison, inquiry, and export. On the basis of these contents, an urban energy performance evaluation system was developed using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2015. The system can effectively reflect the status of and any changes in urban energy performance. Beijing was considered as an example to conduct an empirical study, which further verified the applicability and convenience of this evaluation system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential Brain-Computer Interface System Evaluation as an In-Vehicle Warning Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyahi, Pouria

    This thesis is part of current research at Center for Intelligence Systems Research (CISR) at The George Washington University for developing new in-vehicle warning systems via Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The purpose of conducting this research is to contribute to the current gap between BCI and in-vehicle safety studies. It is based on the premise that accurate and timely monitoring of human (driver) brain's signal to external stimuli could significantly aide in detection of driver's intentions and development of effective warning systems. The thesis starts with introducing the concept of BCI and its development history while it provides a literature review on the nature of brain signals. The current advancement and increasing demand for commercial and non-medical BCI products are described. In addition, the recent research attempts in transportation safety to study drivers' behavior or responses through brain signals are reviewed. The safety studies, which are focused on employing a reliable and practical BCI system as an in-vehicle assistive device, are also introduced. A major focus of this thesis research has been on the evaluation and development of the signal processing algorithms which can effectively filter and process brain signals when the human subject is subjected to Visual LED (Light Emitting Diodes) stimuli at different frequencies. The stimulated brain generates a voltage potential, referred to as Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). Therefore, a newly modified analysis algorithm for detecting the brain visual signals is proposed. These algorithms are designed to reach a satisfactory accuracy rate without preliminary trainings, hence focusing on eliminating the need for lengthy training of human subjects. Another important concern is the ability of the algorithms to find correlation of brain signals with external visual stimuli in real-time. The developed analysis models are based on algorithms which are capable of generating results

  7. Evaluation and use of a diffusion-controlled sampler for determining chemical and dissolved oxygen gradients at the sediment-water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Kennedy, M.M.; Massoni, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Field and laboratory evaluations were made of a simple, inexpensive diffusion-controlled sampler with ports on two sides at each interval which incorporates 0.2-??m polycarbonate membrane to filter samples in situ. Monovalent and divalent ions reached 90% of equilibrium between sampler contents and the external solution within 3 and 6 hours, respectively. Sediment interstitial water chemical gradients to depths of tens of centimeters were obtained within several days after placement. Gradients were consistent with those determined from interstitial water obtained by centrifugation of adjacent sediment. Ten milliliter sample volumes were collected at 1-cm intervals to determine chemical gradients and dissolved oxygen profiles at depth and at the interface between the sediment and water column. The flux of dissolved species, including oxygen, across the sediment-water interface can be assessed more accurately using this sampler than by using data collected from benthic cores. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite-to-metal bond interface of a wind turbine blade using an acousto-ultrasonic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, J.H.; Rumsey, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    An acousto-ultrasonic inspection technique was developed to evaluate the structural integrity of the epoxy bond interface between a metal insert and the fiber glass epoxy composite of a wind turbine blade. Data was generated manually as well as with a PC based data acquisition and display system. C-scan imaging using a portable ultrasonic scanning system provided an area mapping of the delamination or disbond due to fatigue testing and normal field operation conditions of the turbine blade. Comparison of the inspection data with a destructive visual examination of the bond interface to determine the extent of the disbond showed good agreement between the acousto-ultrasonic inspection data and the visual data.

  9. Evaluation of silicon- and carbon-face SiO2/SiC MOS interface quality based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, Norimichi; Nayak, Alpana; Kosugi, Ryoji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Harada, Shinsuke; Okumura, Hajime; Cho, Yasuo

    2017-08-01

    A strong positive correlation was found between the trap density (Dit) at the SiO2/SiC interface and signal variation in a scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) image. Si-face and C-face SiC wafers with a 45-nm-thick oxide layer were examined by the conventional high-low method and SNDM, which is a type of scanning probe microscopy. The Dit value measured by the high-low method and the standard deviation of normalized SNDM images exhibited a strong positive correlation, which means that the standard deviation of the normalized SNDM image can be used as a universal measure of the SiO2/SiC interface quality. Using this measure, a quick evaluation of Dit using SNDM is possible.

  10. Evaluation of Heat Transfer to the Implant-Bone Interface During Removal of Metal Copings Cemented onto Titanium Abutments.

    PubMed

    Cakan, Umut; Cakan, Murat; Delilbasi, Cagri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the temperature increase due to heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when the abutment screw channel is accessed or a metal-ceramic crown is sectioned buccally with diamond or tungsten carbide bur using an air rotor, with or without irrigation. Cobalt-chromium copings were cemented onto straight titanium abutments. The temperature changes during removal of the copings were recorded over a period of 1 minute. The sectioning of coping with diamond bur and without water irrigation generated the highest temperature change at the cervical part of the implant. Both crown removal methods resulted in an increase in temperature at the implant-bone interface. However, this temperature change did not exceed 47°C, the potentially damaging threshold for bone reported in the literature.

  11. The dog as a preclinical model to evaluate interface morphology and micro-motion in cemented total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Mann, K A; Miller, M A; Khorasani, M; Townsend, K L; Allen, M J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated cemented fixation of the tibial component from a canine total knee replacement preclinical model. The objective was to determine the local morphology at the material interfaces (implant, cement, bone) and the local relative micro- motion due to functional loading following in vivo service. Five skeletally mature research dogs underwent unilateral total knee replacement using a cemented implant system with a polyethylene (PE) monobloc tibial component. Use of the implanted limb was assessed by pressure-sensitive walkway analysis. At 60 weeks post-surgery, the animals were euthanatized and the tibia sectioned en bloc in the sagittal plane to create medial and lateral specimens. High resolution imaging was used to quantify the morphology under the tray and along the keel. Specimens were loaded to 50% body weight and micro- motions at the PE-cement and cement-bone interfaces were quantified. There was significantly (p = 0.002) more cement-bone apposition and interdigitation along the central keel compared to the regions under the tray. Cavitary defects were associated with the perimeters of the implant (60 ± 25%). Interdigitation fraction was negatively correlated with cavitary defect fraction, cement crack fraction, and total micro-motion. Achieving good interdigitation of cement into subchondral bone beneath the tibial tray is associated with improved interface morphology and reduced micro-motion; features that could result in a reduced incidence of aseptic loosening. Multiple drill holes distributed over the cut tibial surface and adequate pressurization of the cement into the subchondral bone should improve fixation and reduce interface micromotion and cavitary defects.

  12. Evaluation of band offset at amorphous-Si/BaSi{sub 2} interfaces by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Ryota; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Du, Weijie; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi; Ito, Keita; Ueda, Shigenori; Kimura, Akio

    2016-04-28

    The 730 nm-thick undoped BaSi{sub 2} films capped with 5 nm-thick amorphous Si (a-Si) intended for solar cell applications were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. The valence band (VB) offset at the interface between the BaSi{sub 2} and the a-Si was measured by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to understand the carrier transport properties by the determination of the band offset at this heterointerface. We performed the depth-analysis by varying the take-off angle of photoelectrons as 15°, 30°, and 90° with respect to the sample surface to obtain the VB spectra of the BaSi{sub 2} and the a-Si separately. It was found that the barrier height of the a-Si for holes in the BaSi{sub 2} is approximately −0.2 eV, whereas the barrier height for electrons is approximately 0.6 eV. This result means that the holes generated in the BaSi{sub 2} layer under solar radiation could be selectively extracted through the a-Si/BaSi{sub 2} interface, promoting the carrier separation in the BaSi{sub 2} layer. We therefore conclude that the a-Si/BaSi{sub 2} interface is beneficial for BaSi{sub 2} solar cells.

  13. Light on! Real world evaluation of a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) for environment control in a smart home.

    PubMed

    Carabalona, Roberta; Grossi, Ferdinando; Tessadri, Adam; Castiglioni, Paolo; Caracciolo, Antonio; de Munari, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems aim to enable interaction with other people and the environment without muscular activation by the exploitation of changes in brain signals due to the execution of cognitive tasks. In this context, the visual P300 potential appears suited to control smart homes through BCI spellers. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the widely used character-speller is more sustainable than an icon-based one, designed to operate smart home environment or to communicate moods and needs. Nine subjects with neurodegenerative diseases and no BCI experience used both speller types in a real smart home environment. User experience during BCI tasks was evaluated recording concurrent physiological signals. Usability was assessed for each speller type immediately after use. Classification accuracy was lower for the icon-speller, which was also more attention demanding. However, in subjective evaluations, the effect of a real feedback partially counterbalanced the difficulty in BCI use. Since inclusive BCIs require to consider interface sustainability, we evaluated different ergonomic aspects of the interaction of disabled users with a character-speller (goal: word spelling) and an icon-speller (goal: operating a real smart home). We found the first one as more sustainable in terms of accuracy and cognitive effort.

  14. Lock-in thermography, penetrant inspection, and scanning electron microscopy for quantitative evaluation of open micro-cracks at the tooth-restoration interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streza, M.; Hodisan, I.; Prejmerean, C.; Boue, C.; Tessier, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    The evaluation of a dental restoration in a non-invasive way is of paramount importance in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the minimum detectable open crack at the cavity-restorative material interface by the lock-in thermography technique, at laser intensities which are safe for living teeth. For the analysis of the interface, 18 box-type class V standardized cavities were prepared on the facial and oral surfaces of each tooth, with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in dentine. The preparations were restored with the Giomer Beautifil (Shofu) in combination with three different adhesive systems. Three specimens were randomly selected from each experimental group and each slice has been analysed by visible, infrared (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lock-in thermography showed the most promising results in detecting both marginal and internal defects. The proposed procedure leads to a diagnosis of micro-leakages having openings of 1 µm, which is close to the diffraction limit of the IR camera. Clinical use of a thermographic camera in assessing the marginal integrity of a restoration becomes possible. The method overcomes some drawbacks of standard SEM or dye penetration testing. The results support the use of an IR camera in dentistry, for the diagnosis of micro-gaps at bio-interfaces.

  15. Evaluation of Intrinsic Charge Carrier Transport at Insulator-Semiconductor Interfaces Probed by a Non-Contact Microwave-Based Technique

    PubMed Central

    Honsho, Yoshihito; Miyakai, Tomoyo; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully designed the geometry of the microwave cavity and the thin metal electrode, achieving resonance of the microwave cavity with the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) device structure. This very simple MIS device operates in the cavity, where charge carriers are injected quantitatively by an applied bias at the insulator-semiconductor interface. The local motion of the charge carriers was clearly probed through the applied external microwave field, also giving the quantitative responses to the injected charge carrier density and charge/discharge characteristics. By means of the present measurement system named field-induced time-resolved microwave conductivity (FI-TRMC), the pentacene thin film in the MIS device allowed the evaluation of the hole and electron mobility at the insulator-semiconductor interface of 6.3 and 0.34 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. This is the first report on the direct, intrinsic, non-contact measurement of charge carrier mobility at interfaces that has been fully experimentally verified. PMID:24212382

  16. Developing the VirtualwindoW into a General Purpose Telepresence Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Anderson, Matthew Oley; Mckay, Mark D; Willis, Walter David

    1999-04-01

    An important need while using robots or remotely operated equipment is the ability for the operator or an observer to easily and accurately perceive the operating environment. A classic problem in providing a complete representation of a work area is sensory overload or excessive complexity in the human–machine interface. In addition, remote operations often benefit from depth perception capability while viewing or manipulating objects. Thus, there is an on going effort within the robotic field to develop simplified telepresence interfaces. The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been researching methods to generalize a human-machine interface for telepresence applications. Initial telepresence research conducted at the INEEL developed and implemented a concept called the VirtualwindoW. This system minimized the complexity of remote stereo viewing controls and provided the operator the “feel” of viewing the environment, including depth perception, in a natural setting. The VirtualwindoW has shown that the human-machine interface can be simplified while increasing operator performance. This paper deals with the continuing research and development of the VirtualwindoW to provide a generalized, reconfigurable system that easily utilizes commercially available components. The original system has now been expanded to include support for zoom lenses, camera blocks, wireless links, and even vehicle control.

  17. Adsorption of β-casein-surfactant mixed layers at the air-water interface evaluated by interfacial rheology.

    PubMed

    Maestro, Armando; Kotsmar, Csaba; Javadi, Aliyar; Miller, Reinhard; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2012-04-26

    This work presents a detailed study of the dilational viscoelastic moduli of the adsorption layers of the milk protein β-casein (BCS) and a surfactant at the liquid/air interface, over a broad frequency range. Two complementary techniques have been used: a drop profile tensiometry technique and an excited capillary wave method, ECW. Two different surfactants were studied: the nonionic dodecyldimethylphosphine oxide (C12DMPO) and the cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DoTAB). The interfacial dilational elasticity and viscosity are very sensitive to the composition of protein-surfactant mixed adsorption layers at the air/water interface. Two different dynamic processes have been observed for the two systems studied, whose characteristic frequencies are close to 0.01 and 100 Hz. In both systems, the surface elasticity was found to show a maximum when plotted versus the surfactant concentration. However, at frequencies above 50 Hz the surface elasticity of BCS + C12DMPO is higher than the one of the aqueous BCS solution over most of the surfactant concentration range, whereas for the BCS + DoTAB it is smaller for high surfactant concentrations and higher at low concentrations. The BCS-surfactant interaction modifies the BCS random coil structure via electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interactions, leading to a competitive adsorption of the BCS-surfactant complexes with the free, unbound surfactant molecules. Increasing the surfactant concentration decreases the adsorbed proteins. However, the BCS molecules are rather strongly bound to the interface due to their large adsorption energy. The results have been fitted to the model proposed by C. Kotsmar et al. ( J. Phys. Chem. B 2009 , 113 , 103 ). Even though the model describes well the concentration dependence of the limiting elasticity, it does not properly describe its frequency dependence.

  18. Protein displacement by monoglyceride at the air-water interface evaluated by surface shear rheology combined with Brewster angle microscopy.

    PubMed

    Patino, Juan M Rodríguez; Sánchez, Cecilio Carrera; Fernández, Marta Cejudo; Niño, M Rosario Rodríguez

    2007-07-19

    In this work we have used different and complementary interfacial techniques (surface film balance, Brewster angle microscopy, and interfacial shear rheology), to analyze the static (structure, topography, reflectivity, miscibility, and interactions) and flow characteristics (surface shear characteristics) of milk protein (beta-casein, caseinate, and beta-lactoglobulin) and monoglyceride (monopalmitin and monoolein) mixed films spread and adsorbed on the air-water interface. The structural, topographical, and shear characteristics of the mixed films depend on the surface pressure and on the composition of the mixed film. The surface shear viscosity (eta(s)) varies greatly with the surface pressure (pi). In general, the greater the pi values, the greater were the values of eta(s). Moreover, the eta(s) value is also sensitive to the miscibility and/or displacement of film-forming components at the interface. At surface pressures lower than that for protein collapse, protein and monoglyceride coexist at the air-water interface. At surface pressures higher than that for the protein collapse, a squeezing of collapsed protein domains by monoglycerides was deduced. Near to the collapse point, the mixed film is dominated by the presence of the monoglyceride. Different proteins and monoglycerides show different interfacial structure, topography, and shear viscosity values, confirming the importance of protein and monoglyceride structure in determining the interfacial characteristics (interactions) of mixed films. The values of eta(s) are lower for disordered (beta-casein or caseinate) than for globular (beta-lactoglobulin) proteins and for unsaturated (monoolein) than for saturated (monopalmitin) monoglycerides in the mixed film. The displacement of the protein by the monoglycerides is facilitated under shear conditions.

  19. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray dispersive spectrometry evaluation of direct laser metal sintering surface and human bone interface: a case series.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; Raspanti, Mario; Mangano, Francesco; Cassoni, Alessandra; Iezzi, Giovanna; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) produces structures with complex geometry and consequently that allow better osteoconductive properties. The aim of this patient report was to evaluate the early bone response to DLMS implant surface retrieved from human jaws. Four experimental DLMS implants were inserted in the posterior mandible of four patients during conventional dental implant surgery. After 8 weeks, the micro-implants and the surrounding tissue were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histomorphometric analysis to evaluate the bone-implant interface. The SEM and EDX evaluations showed a newly formed tissue composed of calcium and phosphorus. The bone-to-implant contact presented a mean of 60.5 ± 11.6%. Within the limits of this patient report, data suggest that the DLMS surfaces presented a close contact with the human bone after a healing period of 8 weeks.

  20. A tablet-interfaced high-resolution microendoscope with automated image interpretation for real-time evaluation of esophageal squamous cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Quang, Timothy; Schwarz, Richard A; Dawsey, Sanford M; Tan, Mimi C; Patel, Kalpesh; Yu, Xinying; Wang, Guiqi; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Hong; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    In recent years high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) has shown potential to improve screening for esophageal squamous cell neoplasia. Furthering its utility in a clinical setting, especially in lower-resource settings, could be accomplished by reducing the size and cost of the system as well as incorporating the ability of real-time, objective feedback. This article describes a tablet-interfaced HRME with fully automated, real-time image analysis. The performance of the tablet-interfaced HRME was assessed by acquiring images from the oral mucosa in a normal volunteer. An automated, real-time analysis algorithm was developed and evaluated using training, test, and validation images from a previous in vivo study of 177 patients referred for screening or surveillance endoscopy in China. The algorithm was then implemented in a tablet HRME that was used to obtain and analyze images from esophageal tissue in 3 patients. Images were displayed alongside the probability that the imaged region was neoplastic. The tablet-interfaced HRME demonstrated comparable imaging performance at a lower cost compared with first-generation laptop-interfaced HRME systems. In a post-hoc quantitative analysis, the algorithm identified neoplasia with a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 91%, respectively, in the validation set compared with 84% and 95% achieved in the original study. The tablet-based HRME is a low-cost tool that provides quantitative diagnostic information to the endoscopist in real time. This could be especially beneficial in lower-resource settings for operators with less experience interpreting HRME images. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. All rights reserved.