Science.gov

Sample records for humanitarian logistics issues

  1. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.

  2. Supply Chain Management in Humanitarian Relief Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    supply chain management techniques to overcome...academic, organizational, and contemporary literature. Possible solutions to these barriers were selected from available supply chain management literature...can build upon the concept. The result of the study is a simple framework of supply chain management solutions for overcoming logistics difficulties during humanitarian relief operations. (3 tables, 66

  3. Investigating the strategic antecedents of agility in humanitarian logistics.

    PubMed

    L'Hermitte, Cécile; Brooks, Benjamin; Bowles, Marcus; Tatham, Peter H

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the strategic antecedents of operational agility in humanitarian logistics. It began by identifying the particular actions to be taken at the strategic level of a humanitarian organisation to support field-level agility. Next, quantitative data (n=59) were collected on four strategic-level capabilities (being purposeful, action-focused, collaborative, and learning-oriented) and on operational agility (field responsiveness and flexibility). Using a quantitative analysis, the study tested the relationship between organisational capacity building and operational agility and found that the four strategic-level capabilities are fundamental building blocks of agility. Collectively they account for 52 per cent of the ability of humanitarian logisticians to deal with ongoing changes and disruptions in the field. This study emphasises the need for researchers and practitioners to embrace a broader perspective of agility in humanitarian logistics. In addition, it highlights the inherently strategic nature of agility, the development of which involves focusing simultaneously on multiple drivers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  4. On the use of evidence in humanitarian logistics research.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Martinez, Alfonso J; Stapleton, Orla; Van Wassenhove, Luk N

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the reflections of the authors on the differences between the language and the approach of practitioners and academics to humanitarian logistics problems. Based on a long-term project on fleet management in the humanitarian sector, involving both large international humanitarian organisations and academics, it discusses how differences in language and approach to such problems may create a lacuna that impedes trust. In addition, the paper provides insights into how academic research evidence adapted to practitioner language can be used to bridge the gap. When it is communicated appropriately, evidence strengthens trust between practitioners and academics, which is critical for long-term projects. Once practitioners understand the main trade-offs included in academic research, they can supply valuable feedback to motivate new academic research. Novel research problems promote innovation in the use of traditional academic methods, which should result in a win-win situation: relevant solutions for practice and advances in academic knowledge. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  5. The humanitarian common logistic operating picture: a solution to the inter-agency coordination challenge.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen; Kovács, Gyöngyi

    2017-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in developing the practice of humanitarian logistics, further improvements in efficiency and effectiveness have the potential to save lives and reduce suffering. This paper explores how the military/emergency services' concept of a common operating picture (COP) can be adapted to the humanitarian logistics context, and analyses a practical and proven approach to addressing the key challenge of inter-agency coordination and decision-making. Successful adaptation could provide the mechanism through which predicted and actual demands, together with the location and status of material in transit, are captured, evaluated, and presented in real time as the basis for enhanced decision-making between actors in the humanitarian supply network. Through the introduction of a humanitarian logistics COP and its linkages to national disaster management systems, local communities and countries affected by disasters and emergencies will be better placed to oversee and manage their response activities.

  6. Using Contests to Provide Business Students Project-Based Learning in Humanitarian Logistics: PSAid Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Koray; Chen, Yuwen; Hales, Doug; Yu, Degan; Yalcin, Mehmet G.

    2014-01-01

    Business students appreciate working on classroom projects that are both enjoyable and useful in preparing them for future careers. Promoting competition among project teams is also used as a method to motivate students. The Humanitarian Logistics Project (HLP) teaches undergraduate students the logistical implications of unsolicited material…

  7. Using Contests to Provide Business Students Project-Based Learning in Humanitarian Logistics: PSAid Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Koray; Chen, Yuwen; Hales, Doug; Yu, Degan; Yalcin, Mehmet G.

    2014-01-01

    Business students appreciate working on classroom projects that are both enjoyable and useful in preparing them for future careers. Promoting competition among project teams is also used as a method to motivate students. The Humanitarian Logistics Project (HLP) teaches undergraduate students the logistical implications of unsolicited material…

  8. From disaster to development: a systematic review of community-driven humanitarian logistics.

    PubMed

    Bealt, Jennifer; Mansouri, S Afshin

    2017-04-28

    A plethora of untapped resources exist within disaster-affected communities that can be used to address relief and development concerns. A systematic review of the literature relating to community participation in humanitarian logistics activities revealed that communities are able to form ad hoc networks that have the ability to meet a wide range of disaster management needs. These structures, characterised as Collaborative Aid Networks (CANs), have demonstrated efficient logistical capabilities exclusive of humanitarian organisations. This study proposes that CANs, as a result of their unique characteristics, present alternatives to established humanitarian approaches to logistics, while also mitigating the challenges commonly faced by traditional humanitarian organisations. Furthermore, CANs offer a more holistic, long-term approach to disaster management, owing to their impact on development through their involvement in humanitarian logistics. This research provides the foundation for further theoretical analysis of effective and efficient disaster management, and details opportunities for policy and practice. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  9. Cracking the humanitarian logistic coordination challenge: lessons from the urban search and rescue community.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen

    2016-04-01

    The challenges of achieving successful inter-agency logistic coordination in preparing for and responding to natural disasters and complex emergencies are both well understood and well documented. However, although many of these challenges remain unresolved, the literature reveals that the organisations that form the urban search and rescue (USAR) community have attained a high level of coherence and interoperability that results in a highly efficient and effective response. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of 'borrowing' from other fields as it explores how the processes and procedures used by the USAR community might be applied to improve humanitarian logistic operations. The paper analyses the USAR model and explores how the resultant challenges might be addressed in a humanitarian logistic context. The paper recommends that further research be undertaken in order to develop a modified USAR model that could be operationalised by the international community of humanitarian logisticians.

  10. Issues and Experiences in Logistics Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehoux, Nadia; Audy, Jean-François; D‘Amours, Sophie; Rönnqvist, Mikael

    Collaborative logistics is becoming more important in today’s industry. This is driven by increased environmental concerns, improved efficiency through collaborative planning supporting resources sharing and new business models implementation. This paper explores collaborative logistics and reports on business applications within the forest products industry in Sweden and Canada. It first describes current opportunities in collaborative planning. It then discusses issues related to building the coalition as well as sharing resources and benefits. Three business cases are described and used to support the discussion around these main issues. Finally, different challenges are detailed, opening new paths for researchers in the field.

  11. Best practice guidelines on surgical response in disasters and humanitarian emergencies: report of the 2011 Humanitarian Action Summit Working Group on Surgical Issues within the Humanitarian Space.

    PubMed

    Chackungal, Smita; Nickerson, Jason W; Knowlton, Lisa M; Black, Lynn; Burkle, Frederick M; Casey, Kathleen; Crandell, David; Demey, Didier; Di Giacomo, Lillian; Dohlman, Lena; Goldstein, Joshua; Gosney, James E; Ikeda, Keita; Linden, Allison; Mullaly, Catherine M; O'Connell, Colleen; Redmond, Anthony D; Richards, Adam; Rufsvold, Robert; Santos, Ana L R; Skelton, Terri; McQueen, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    The provision of surgery within humanitarian crises is complex, requiring coordination and cooperation among all stakeholders. During the 2011 Humanitarian Action Summit best practice guidelines were proposed to provide greater accountability and standardization in surgical humanitarian relief efforts. Surgical humanitarian relief planning should occur early and include team selection and preparation, appropriate disaster-specific anticipatory planning, needs assessment, and an awareness of local resources and limitations of cross-cultural project management. Accurate medical record keeping and timely follow-up is important for a transient surgical population. Integration with local health systems is essential and will help facilitate longer term surgical health system strengthening.

  12. Emerging issues and future needs in humanitarian assistance.

    PubMed

    VanRooyen, M J; Hansch, S; Curtis, D; Burnham, G

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been tremendous investment in the ability to intervene in disaster settings, and significant barriers remain to providing appropriate services to populations affected by natural and man-made calamities. Many of the barriers to providing effective assistance exist within the NGO community, and illustrate emerging needs for international agencies. These emerging needs include improving methods of recipient participation to promote the local health system, developing improved methods for quality assurance, enhancing options for personnel development, and addressing long-term needs of reconstruction and rehabilitation. Relief agencies face challenges on all levels to develop sound practices in providing humanitarian assistance that can lead to long-term benefits to populations affected by disaster.

  13. The Ability of the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force (TTDF) Logistics Infrastructure to Support Requirements in Response to Humanitarian and Disaster Relief (HADR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    exacerbated by local conditions. Disasters can have debilitating economic and social impacts on small island nations. Civilian disaster response is quickly...conditions. Disasters can have debilitating economic and social impacts on small island nations. Civilian disaster response is quickly overwhelmed in...THE ABILITY OF THE TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO DEFENCE FORCE (TTDF) LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE TO SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS IN RESPONSE TO HUMANITARIAN

  14. A Simulation to Evaluate Joint Military Logistics in a Humanitarian Assistance Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Science Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...Science in Logistics and Supply Chain Management Ryan S. Fisher, BS Captain, USAF March 2012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: APPROVED...Group CRN Common Random Numbers DOE Design Of Experiments ETMSC Enhanced Traffic Management System Counts EXPO Exponential FAA Federal Aviation

  15. Use of Informal Networks to Resolve Logistics-related Issues in Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Grounded Theory, was used to discover the categories to be analyzed in Content Analysis . Content Analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in...Coordination, Cooperation or Partnership • Evidence of Informal Coordination, Cooperation or Partnership Content Analysis Content Analysis is a research

  16. Legal issues of humanitarian assistance after the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bambarén, Celso

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the central coast of Peru on 15 August 2007 was a disaster that mobilized international humanitarian assistance to address the needs of the affected people in the regions of Huancavelica, Ica, and Lima. It also was an opportunity to prove the effectiveness of regulations and procedures to facilitate the entry and distribution of donations and medical goods during a major emergency. In the first month after the earthquake, the national government approved new regulations that aimed to reduce waiting time while reducing the number of requisites required by customs. More than 5,500 tons of international donations arrived in Peru in a short period of time. Many donated medicines arrived unsorted, without an international non-proprietary (generic) name on the label, and some medicines did not have any relationship with the diseases that would appear in the aftermath of the event.

  17. Establishing moral bearings: ethics and expatriate health care professionals in humanitarian work.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R

    2011-07-01

    Expatriate health care professionals frequently participate in international responses to natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies. This field of practice presents important clinical, logistical and ethical challenges for clinicians. This paper considers the ethics of health care practice in humanitarian contexts. It examines features that contribute to forming the moral landscape of humanitarian work, and discusses normative guidelines and approaches that are relevant for this work. These tools and frameworks provide important ethics resources for humanitarian settings. Finally, it elaborates a set of questions that can aid health care professionals as they analyse ethical issues that they experience in the field. The proposed process can assist clinicians as they seek to establish their moral bearings in situations of ethical complexity and uncertainty. Identifying and developing ethics resources and vocabulary for clinical practice in humanitarian work will help health care professionals provide ethically sound care to patients and communities. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  18. Applying simulation and logistics modeling to tansportation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Funkhouser, B.R.; Ballweg, E.L.; Mackoy, R.D.

    1995-08-15

    This paper describes an application where transportation logistics and simulation tools are integrated to create a modeling environment for transportation planning. The Transportation Planning Model (TPM) is a tool developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to aid in the long-term planning of their transportation resources. The focus of the tool is to aid DOE and Sandia National Laboratory analysts in the planning of future fleet sizes, driver and support personnel sizes, base site locations, and resource balancing among the base sites. The design approach is to develop a rapid modeling environment which integrates graphical user interfaces, logistics optimizing tools, and simulation modeling. Using the TPM an analyst can easily set up a shipment scenario and perform multiple ``What If`` evaluations. The TPM has been developed on personal computers using commercial off-the-shelf software tools under the WINDOW{reg_sign} operating environment.

  19. Comprehensive Australasian multicentre dosimetric intercomparison: issues, logistics and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ebert, M A; Harrison, K M; Cornes, D; Howlett, S J; Joseph, D J; Kron, T; Hamilton, C S; Denham, J W

    2009-02-01

    The present paper describes the logistics of the 2004-2008 Australasian Level III Dosimetry Intercomparison. Dosimetric intercomparisons (or 'audits') can be used in radiotherapy to evaluate the accuracy and quality of radiation delivery. An intercomparison was undertaken in New Zealand and Australia to evaluate the feasibility and logistics of ongoing dosimetric intercomparisons that evaluate all steps in the radiotherapy treatment process, known as a 'Level III' intercomparison. The study commenced in 2002 with the establishment of a study team, definition of the study protocol, acquisition of appropriate equipment and recruitment of participating radiotherapy centres. Measurements were undertaken between October 2004 and March 2008, and included collation of data on time, costs and logistics of the study. Forty independent Australian and New Zealand radiotherapy centres agreed to participate. Measurement visits were made to 37 of these centres. Data is presented on the costs of the study and the level of support required. The study involved the participation of 16 staff at the study centre who invested over 4000 hours in the study, and of over 200 professionals at participating centres. Recommendations are provided for future phantom-based intercomparisons. It is hoped that the present paper will be of benefit to any centres or groups contemplating similar activities by identifying the processes involved in establishing the study, the potential hazards and pitfalls, and expected resource requirements.

  20. Educating the humanitarian engineer.

    PubMed

    Passino, Kevin M

    2009-12-01

    The creation of new technologies that serve humanity holds the potential to help end global poverty. Unfortunately, relatively little is done in engineering education to support engineers' humanitarian efforts. Here, various strategies are introduced to augment the teaching of engineering ethics with the goal of encouraging engineers to serve as effective volunteers for community service. First, codes of ethics, moral frameworks, and comparative analysis of professional service standards lay the foundation for expectations for voluntary service in the engineering profession. Second, standard coverage of global issues in engineering ethics educates humanitarian engineers about aspects of the community that influence technical design constraints encountered in practice. Sample assignments on volunteerism are provided, including a prototypical design problem that integrates community constraints into a technical design problem in a novel way. Third, it is shown how extracurricular engineering organizations can provide a theory-practice approach to education in volunteerism. Sample completed projects are described for both undergraduates and graduate students. The student organization approach is contrasted with the service-learning approach. Finally, long-term goals for establishing better infrastructure are identified for educating the humanitarian engineer in the university, and supporting life-long activities of humanitarian engineers.

  1. Humanitarian Politics. Headline Series No. 304.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minear, Larry; Weiss, Thomas G.

    This booklet examines the issue of humanitarian aid in times of crises and how the political and military conditions that generate the need for humanitarian action have changed in the post-cold-war era. There are different faces of civil war, changes in international assistance, and complex emergencies that demand new world responses to help those…

  2. Development of Performance Assessments in Science: Conceptual, Practical, and Logistical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Shavelson, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    Conceptual, practical, and logistical issues in the development of science performance assessments (SPAs) are discussed. The conceptual framework identifies task, response format, and scoring system as components, and conceives of SPAs as tasks that attempt to recreate conditions in which scientists work. Developing SPAs is a sophisticated effort…

  3. Humanitarian Surgical Missions: Planning for Success.

    PubMed

    Boston, Mark; Horlbeck, Drew

    2015-09-01

    Humanitarian surgical missions can provide much needed care for those who are otherwise unable to receive such care because of limited local health care resources and cost. These missions also offer excellent training opportunities and can be life-changing experiences for those who participate in them. A successful humanitarian surgical mission requires careful planning and coordination and can be challenging for those tasked with the responsibilities to organize and lead these missions. This article addresses many of the issues and challenges encountered when planning and leading humanitarian surgical missions and offers a template to be used by those who take on these challenges.

  4. Sargent Beach, Texas: A Study of Logistical Constructability Issues on a Large Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Falls, Texas ). There are numerous quarries which produce granite from a Precambrian formation of rocks known as the Llano Uplift . Stone from this...REPRODUCE LEGIBLY ON BLACK AND WHITE MICROFICHE. SARGENT BEACH, TEXAS : A STUDY OF LOGISTICAL CONSTRUCTABILITY ISSUES ON A LARGE PROJECT Accesion For NTIS...Finally, I would like to thank my family for the support they have provided me throughout my attendance at the University of Texas and my entire

  5. Analysis of Humanitarian Assistance Cargo Transportation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    are located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Norfolk, Virginia; Mayport, Florida; Singapore; and Yokosuka, Japan. At its core, PH is a Navy program, funded...Thomas, A., & Kopczak, L. (2005). From logistics to supply chain management: The path forward in the humanitarian sector. Fritz Institute, 15, 1

  6. The military physician and contested medical humanitarianism: a dueling identity?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart

    2014-11-01

    A critical issue in the study of humanitarianism is who counts as a medical humanitarian. Military physicians are often characterized as caught between the potentially incompatible roles of physician and military professional. Medical NGOs, such as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), have also vociferously rejected military medical humanitarianism: questioning the mandate, skills, and appropriateness of military involvement in humanitarian medicine as well as the potential impact on 'humanitarian space'. Yet many military doctors contest this. Consequently this study examines the ways in which primarily British military physicians identify and manage their identities as both medical humanitarians and soldiers. The research utilized a mixed method, grounded theory approach involving systematic document searches/expert identification of a core literature of 300 policy and peer reviewed documents, plus grey literature and 53 formal medical post operational reports from units serving in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2004 and 2012. Semi structured interviews involved purposive sampling (34 respondents) ranging from a former Surgeon General to more junior staff. Methods also included an analysis of the original data and literature from the 2003 Medical Services Delphi study (involving an additional 40 experts and an extensive literature review) on military medical identity/future roles as well as direct observation of military doctors in Iraq and Afghanistan (two, 2 month research trips). The research concluded that military physicians conceived of themselves as autonomous medical humanitarians with an individual morality rooted in civilian medical ethics that facilitated resistance to the potentially hegemonic military identity. Nevertheless military physicians were part of a medical organization with fundamentally different priorities from those of civilian humanitarian physicians. Furthermore, the perceived emergence of multiple civilian 'humanitarianisms' has

  7. In defence of humanitarianism.

    PubMed

    Stockton, N

    1998-12-01

    The humanitarian crisis which followed in the wake of the genocidal regime in Rwanda in 1994 generated massive media attention and an unprecedented outpouring of international public and private assistance. In late 1997, the Rwanda refugee population in Zaire was subjected to a disaster of similarly epic proportions as a result of military action. Yet this crisis went relatively under-reported and failed to attract substantial aid funds, particularly from official donors. This paper seeks to document and account for the demise of the humanitarian imperative. It confronts a number of the criticisms of humanitarian action, concluding that, rather than being flawed, traditional humanitarian values remain valid and should be defended wherever there are situations of conflict.

  8. A Survey of Coalition Logistics Issues, Options, and Opportunities for Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    from its present organizational location into the mainstream of NATO operational logistics, to function in tandem with SHAPE’s Logistic Co -ordination...Center (AFLC) ILS Integrated logistics support JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff JSP Joint Support Plan _CC Logistic Co -ordination Centre (NATO) LOC Line of...sources for equipment, supplies and support. The use of concepts such as Host Nation Support Agreements, joint ventures, and co - production will

  9. Geoengineering: A humanitarian concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Pablo; van Aalst, Maarten K.

    2017-02-01

    The humanitarian sector is active at the global frontline of climate impacts, and has a track record in influencing the climate change policy agenda. Geoengineering is a humanitarian concern: the potential for deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system has major implications in terms of impacts on the most vulnerable. Yet, so far the humanitarian community has largely been absent from geoengineering deliberations. Geoengineering may be perceived as too theoretical, too complex, and not imminent enough to merit attention. However, early engagement by the sector is imperative to ensure that humanitarian considerations are integrated into policy decisions. Those who can suffer the worst outcomes need to be involved; especially given the plausibility of "predatory geoengineering" where recklessly self-concerned actions may result in harmful consequences to others. This paper explores the humanitarian dimensions of geoengineering, specifically relating to solar radiation management (SRM). Drawing from the engagement of the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre in SRM discussions, we discuss how to improve linkages between science, policy and humanitarian practice. We further propose the creation of a geoengineering risk management framework to ensure that the interests of the most vulnerable are considered and addressed - including the voices of all stakeholders.

  10. The 2016 World Humanitarian Summit Report Card: Both Failing Marks and Substantive Gains for an Increasingly Globalized Humanitarian Landscape

    PubMed Central

    V. Canyon, Deon; Burkle, Frederick M.

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit’s ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN’s failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body. This agency needs to employ a decentralized model to manage aid funds, assume coordination of international responses, resolve civil-military coordination, cater for people affected by both conflict and disasters, and professionalize the humanitarian career.  PMID:27679738

  11. Lessons on humanitarian assistance.

    PubMed Central

    Gracia Antequera, M.; Morales Suárez-Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Conflict almost completely destroyed Rwanda's infrastructure in 1994. Natural disasters, as well as disasters caused by humans, have severely challenged humanitarian aid available within the country. In this study, we have analysed the experiences of nongovernmental organizations since the summer of 1994 to evaluate how these difficulties may be overcome. One of the problems identified has been restrictions on the ability to introduce effective health planning due to the poor quality of available local information. The implementation of effective plans that show due consideration to the environment and society is clearly necessary. Effective monitoring and detailed observation are identified as being essential to the continuity of existing humanitarian assistance. PMID:10444885

  12. Status of women and infants in complex humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Al Gasseer, Naeema; Dresden, Elissa; Keeney, Gwen Brumbaugh; Warren, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Women and children bear the greatest burden in the midst of war and long-term disasters. Complex humanitarian emergencies are characterized by social disruption, armed conflict, population displacement, collapse of public health infrastructure, and food shortages. Humanitarian assistance for refugees and internally displaced populations requires particular attention to the common issues affecting morbidity and mortality in women and infants. Gender-based violence and reproductive health concerns are discussed within the context of populations affected by conflict and forced migration. Recommendations for midwives and women's health care providers engaging in care for women and children in complex humanitarian emergencies are discussed.

  13. Global Cancer Humanitarian Award

    Cancer.gov

    Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.

  14. Analysis of Historical Materiel Return Program (MRP) Credits at the 1st Marine Logistics Group Reparable Issue Point (RIP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Logistics Agency DLR Depot-Level Reparables DoD Department of Defense DRMO Defense Reutilization Marketing Office DSSC Direct Support Stock Control... DSSC ,12 Set Assembly System (SAS),13 and SASSY.14 MRP also interfaces with the Standard Accounting, Budgeting and Reporting System (SABRS) financial...source of supply; • Provide output to the SASSY, DSSC , and SAS systems causing the reduction of inventory and generation of issue transactions and

  15. Air Mobility Issues 2002. Air Force Jounral of Logistics. Volume 26, Number 1, Spring 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    logistics flights at overseas en route units—which maintain a forward supply location stocked with C-17, C-141, and C-5 parts and in some cases spare...aircraft cargo. Roll-on/roll-off capability implies the ability not only to drive rolling stock cargo—such as high-mobility multipurpose wheeled...identification system intended to exchange surveillance and command and control (C2) information among various C2 platforms and weapons platforms to enhance

  16. [Psychiatry and humanitarianism].

    PubMed

    Heimann, H

    1976-01-01

    Opposing positions on mental disorder in current psychiatry, their origins and therapy are presented through a few extreme viewpoints. Considering the foundations of the 'medical model' of psychiatric disorder (Griesinger), it is evident that this model is not a closed system, but rather an open approach which still has validity today. The humanitarian roots of psychiatry prevented Griesinger from treating various positions in an absolute or ideological manner. Finally, the concept of 'illness' is discussed in relation to psychophysiological activation research. Pathology changes in each different situation and is therefore not a static phenomenon. Mental disturbance is not determined by absolute measures, but rather by a reduction in variability of reactions to the particular situation. This concept of illness can determine somato-, psycho-, and sociotherapeutic measures. Psychiatry can only remain based on humanitarian concepts as long as the sciences upon which it is founded are kept in appropriate relation to one another.

  17. China’s Military Modernization; An Analysis of the PLA Improved Logistic Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    involvement in any crisis, be it humanitarian , domestic or foreign, allows PLA logisticians to build knowledge, especially in time distance factors ...training support (military exercises, non-military exercises, and humanitarian operations). Although these categories are somewhat board, analysis of... humanitarian operations) is critical for the PLA to learn and develop the requirements for sustainment (logistics) of combat operations. The PLA has not been

  18. International Humanitarian Award.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The International Humanitarian Award recognizes extraordinary humanitarian services and activism by psychologists, including professional and volunteer work conducted primarily in the field with underserved populations. Award recipients are psychologists who, by their extraordinary service at a difficult time, improve the lives and contribute to the well-being of people in a large or small geographic area anywhere in the world. The 2016 recipient of the APA International Humanitarian Award was selected by the 2015 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2015 CIRP were Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD (Chair); Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Silvia S. Canetto, PhD; Amanda Clinton, PhD; Melissa L. Morgan Consoli, PhD; Chryse G. Hatzichristou, PhD; Arpana G. Inman, PhD; Lori Foster Thompson, PhD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Abdulrehman, Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Thompson, and Dr. Wedding were members of the subcommittee for the 2016 award. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. [Humanitarian action threatened by standardization].

    PubMed

    Mamou, J

    2002-01-01

    The author analyses the new international context in which humanitarian action is being undertaken. He raises the problem caused by the diverging objectives of impartial, neutral humanitarianism and politically motivated actions that implement strategies of prevention and conflict resolution. He reviews the criticism that humanitarian has come under in recent years and that has resulted in establishment of codes of conduct. However he points out the threat that the concepts of control and "jurisdiction" over humanitarian action represent and analyzes discrepancies between minimal standards and universal principles. The article concludes with a presentation of an alternative solution based on the "Quality" platform being developed by several French NGOs.

  20. A Case Study Using Modeling and Simulation to Predict Logistics Supply Chain Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of critical supply chains to deliver thousands of parts, materials, sub-assemblies, and vehicle structures as needed is vital to the success of the Constellation Program. Thorough analysis needs to be performed on the integrated supply chain processes to plan, source, make, deliver, and return critical items efficiently. Process modeling provides simulation technology-based, predictive solutions for supply chain problems which enable decision makers to reduce costs, accelerate cycle time and improve business performance. For example, United Space Alliance, LLC utilized this approach in late 2006 to build simulation models that recreated shuttle orbiter thruster failures and predicted the potential impact of thruster removals on logistics spare assets. The main objective was the early identification of possible problems in providing thruster spares for the remainder of the Shuttle Flight Manifest. After extensive analysis the model results were used to quantify potential problems and led to improvement actions in the supply chain. Similarly the proper modeling and analysis of Constellation parts, materials, operations, and information flows will help ensure the efficiency of the critical logistics supply chains and the overall success of the program.

  1. The development of a gender identity psychosocial clinic: treatment issues, logistical considerations, interdisciplinary cooperation, and future initiatives.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Scott F; Spack, Norman P

    2011-10-01

    Few interdisciplinary treatment programs that tend to the needs of youth with gender nonconforming behaviors, expressions, and identities exist in academic medical centers with formal residency training programs. Despite this, the literature provides evidence that these youth have higher rates of poor psychosocial adjustment and suicide attempts. This article explores the logistical considerations involved in developing a specialized interdisciplinary service to these gender minority youth in accordance with the existing treatment guidelines.Demographic data will be presented and treatment issues will be explored. The impact that a specialized interdisciplinary treatment program has on clinical expansion, research development, education and training, and community outreach initiatives is discussed.

  2. Food and Shelter Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    PubMed

    Pothiawala, Sohil

    2015-10-01

    The number of disasters, both natural as well as man-made, has been increasing in frequency in the recent years. This leads to short as well as long-term effects on food security and shelter, requiring humanitarian assistance. This article aims to identify the principles and standards that are applicable to food and shelter related aid that needs to be provided by the co-operation of the local government as well as the relevant supporting organizations. Also, food and shelter security during a disaster response is achieved through better preparedness. The level of preparedness must include risk assessment, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, emergency services and stand-by arrangements, communications, information management and coordination arrangements between various agencies involved. Discussing these issues would contribute to a better understanding of the implications of the right to adequate food and shelter, which in complex humanitarian emergencies, is one of the key necessities of the affected population.

  3. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  4. An Investigation of Joint Service Acquisition Logistics Issues/Problems and Automated Joint Program Support.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Management Information System (ALMIS) to address them. Literature was surveyed and problems were summarized and developed into a questionnaire. Structured interviews were then conducted with over 100 different Air Force and civilian upper and middle JSAP managers. Many general and specific problems and issues were identified and validated using statistical and qualitative methods. General use of ALMIS to address certain joint service problem areas was confirmed. Potential use and desirable capabilities for ALMIS were also determined. Recommendations for ALMIS

  5. Integration of Surgical Residency Training With US Military Humanitarian Missions.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Shane; Tadlock, Matthew D; Douglas, Trent; Provencher, Matthew; Ignacio, Romeo C

    2015-01-01

    To describe how the US Navy integrates surgical resident training during hospital ship-based humanitarian activities and discuss the potential operative and educational benefits during these missions. Retrospective review of predeployment surgical plans, operative case logs, and after-action reports from United States Naval Ship (USNS) Mercy humanitarian deployments from 2006 to 2012. The USNS Mercy hospital ship. We enrolled 24 surgical residents from different surgical specialties including general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, urology, otolaryngology, and ophthalmology. During 4 planned deployments (2006-2012), 2887 surgical procedures were performed during 20 humanitarian missions conducted by the USNS Mercy in 9 different Southeast Asian countries. Of all the general surgery eligible procedures performed, 1483 (79%) were defined categories under the current general surgery Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines, including abdominal (31%); skin, soft tissue, and breast (21%); ear, nose, and throat (20.5%); plastic surgery (15.5%); and pediatric (12%) cases. The number of surgical cases completed by each resident ranged from 30 to 67 cases over a period of 4 to 6 weeks during the overseas humanitarian rotation. The US Navy's humanitarian experience provides a unique educational opportunity for young military surgeons to experience various global health systems, diverse cultures, and complex logistical planning without sacrificing the breadth and depth of surgical training. This model may provide a framework to develop future international electives for other general surgery training programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Virtues and humanitarian ethics.

    PubMed

    Löfquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional.

  7. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  8. Introduction (to Special Issue on Refugees: Issues and Directions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Examines current trends in mass international immigration and refugee resettlement and discusses related legal and humanitarian concerns. Briefly reviews the articles which follow in this special issue. (GC)

  9. 31 CFR 575.330 - Humanitarian activities, humanitarian purposes, and humanitarian support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Council Resolutions on Iraq, humanitarian relief, educational, cultural, recreational, and human rights-related activities, and activities to ameliorate the effects of or to investigate war crimes. Such...

  10. Challenging Operations: An Ethical Framework to Assist Humanitarian Aid Workers in their Decision-making Processes.

    PubMed

    Clarinval, Caroline; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2014-06-23

    This paper aims to raise awareness regarding ethical issues in the context of humanitarian action, and to offer a framework for systematically and effectively addressing such issues. Several cases highlight ethical issues that humanitarian aid workers are confronted with at different levels over the course of their deployments. The first case discusses a situation at a macro-level concerning decisions being made at the headquarters of a humanitarian organization. The second case looks at meso-level issues that need to be solved at a country or regional level. The third case proposes an ethical dilemma at the micro-level of the individual patient-provider relationship. These real-life cases have been selected to illustrate the ethical dimension of conflicts within the context of humanitarian action that might remain unrecognized in everyday practice. In addition, we propose an ethical framework to assist humanitarian aid workers in their decision-making process. The framework draws on the principles and values that guide humanitarian action and public health ethics more generally. Beyond identifying substantive core values, the framework also includes a ten-step process modelled on tools used in the clinical setting that promotes a transparent and clear decision-making process and improves the monitoring and evaluation of aid interventions. Finally, we recommend organizational measures to implement the framework effectively. This paper uses a combination of public health/clinical ethics concepts and practices and applies them to the decision-making challenges encountered in relief operations in the humanitarian aid context.

  11. Refugees, humanitarian aid and the right to decline vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Caplan, A L; Curry, David R

    2015-03-01

    Recent instances of governments and others refusing humanitarian assistance to refugees and IDPs (internally-displaced persons) unless they agreed to polio immunization for their children raise difficult ethical challenges. The authors argue that states have the right and a responsibility to require such vaccinations in instances where the serious vaccine-preventable disease(s) at issue threaten others, including local populations, humanitarian workers, and others in camps or support settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The challenges and recommendations of accessing to affected population for humanitarian assistance: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Fatemi, Farin; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Mozafarsaadati, Hossein; Karami, Shirzad

    2014-11-17

    Access to affected people pays an important role in United Nation Organization for Coordination and Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The aim of this article is to identify the main obstacles of humanitarian access and the humanitarian organization responses to these obstacles and finally suggest some recommendations and strategies. In this narrative study the researchers searched in different databases. This study focused on the data from five countries in the following areas: access challenges and constraints to affected population and response strategies selected for operations in the affected countries by humanitarian organizations. Three main issues were studied: security threats, bureaucratic restrictions and indirect constraint, which each of them divided to three subcategories. Finally, nine related subcategories emerged from this analysis. Most of these constraints relate to political issues. Changes in policy structures, negotiations and advocacy can be recommended to solve most of the problems in access issues.

  13. Humanitarian Assistance in Syria Analysis Technical Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    TRAC-M-TM-15-012 December 2014 Humanitarian Assistance in Syria Analysis Technical Review TRADOC Analysis...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK TRAC-M-TM-14- December 2014 Humanitarian Assistance in Syria Analysis Technical Review Author Mr...2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Technical Memorandum, July 2014 to October 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Humanitarian Assistance in Syria Analysis

  14. Estimating prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: cultural, geographic, logistic and philosophical issues of methodology.

    PubMed

    Risal, Ajay; Manandhar, Kedar; Steiner, Timothy J; Holen, Are; Koju, Rajendra; Linde, Mattias

    2014-08-15

    Headache, anxiety and depression are major disorders of the brain in terms of their prevalence and the burdens and costs they impose on society. Nationwide population-based studies of these disorders are necessary to inform health policy but, in research-naïve and resource-poor countries such as Nepal, a host of methodological problems are encountered: cultural, geographic, logistic and philosophical. Expert consensus was sought among researchers from different professional and cultural backgrounds in planning and conceptualizing an epidemiological study and adapting established methods to the special situation and circumstances of Nepal. The methodological problems were sorted into different themes: study design; climate; geography, access and transport; sociocultural issues; safety of interviewers. Each of these was dealt with separately, and their inter-relationships explored, in finding solutions that were sometimes pragmatic. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study, with teams of interviewers visiting households across the three physiographic divisions (with extremes in altitude) in each of the five development regions of the country, would enable national sampling with sociocultural representativeness. However, the study instruments and interviews would be in Nepali only. Transport and access challenges were considerable, and their solutions combined travel by air, bus, river and foot, with allowances for rain-damaged roads, collapsed bridges and cancelled scheduled flights. The monsoon would render many routes impassable, and therefore set an absolute time limitation. Engaging participants willingly in the enquiry would be the key to success, and several tactics would be employed to enhance the success of this, most importantly enlisting the support of local community volunteers in each study site. Anticipating problems in advance of investing substantial resources in a large nationwide epidemiological study in Nepal was a sensible precaution. The

  15. Sexual violence interventions: Considerations for humanitarian settings.

    PubMed

    Wells, David

    2017-07-01

    Sexual and gender based violence may result in a range of destructive consequences to the individual, their family and the wider community. Addressing such violence and its immediate aftermath in circumstances of civil turmoil requires a timely, planned and coordinated multidisciplinary response. Such interventions need to be cognisant of, and address a range of challenges which might include economic barriers, religious and cultural divides, a dearth of respect for human rights and limited access or capacity of medical, policing and legal services. In addition to addressing the immediate humanitarian prerogatives of health and safety issues, further objectives include the provision of support and justice for victims and the goal of ending impunity for perpetrators of sexual violence. Forensic medicine and its practitioners have the potential to make significant contributions in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Syria: Overview of the Humanitarian Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-04

    law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control...all sides to fully comply with international humanitarian law . On August 2, 2013, Valerie Amos, U.N. Under Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs...violence, allow access for aid organizations, and “respect their obligations under international human rights and humanitarian law .”5 The United

  17. Norm Emergence and Humanitarian Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Harold A. Trinkunas, Ph.D. Chairman, Department of National Security Affairs iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Despite efforts by...Suffering,” in The Politics of Humanitarian Intervention, ed. J. Harriss (London, UK: Pinter Publishers, 1995), 45. 34 areas, the consequences of...Mogadishu, Congressman Harold Rogers remarked: Even as the President this minute is trying to justify to American parents why their sons and daughters are

  18. Data collection tools for maternal and child health in humanitarian emergencies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Fiona; Kerr, Robbie; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Mathai, Matthews; van den Broek, Nynke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe tools used for the assessment of maternal and child health issues in humanitarian emergency settings. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and POPLINE databases for studies published between January 2000 and June 2014. We also searched the websites of organizations active in humanitarian emergencies. We included studies reporting the development or use of data collection tools concerning the health of women and children in humanitarian emergencies. We used narrative synthesis to summarize the studies. Findings We identified 100 studies: 80 reported on conflict situations and 20 followed natural disasters. Most studies (76/100) focused on the health status of the affected population while 24 focused on the availability and coverage of health services. Of 17 different data collection tools identified, 14 focused on sexual and reproductive health, nine concerned maternal, newborn and child health and four were used to collect information on sexual or gender-based violence. Sixty-nine studies were done for monitoring and evaluation purposes, 18 for advocacy, seven for operational research and six for needs assessment. Conclusion Practical and effective means of data collection are needed to inform life-saving actions in humanitarian emergencies. There are a wide variety of tools available, not all of which have been used in the field. A simplified, standardized tool should be developed for assessment of health issues in the early stages of humanitarian emergencies. A cluster approach is recommended, in partnership with operational researchers and humanitarian agencies, coordinated by the World Health Organization. PMID:26478629

  19. Investigating the Naval Logistics Role in Humanitarian Assistance Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    5 D . CONTRIBUTIONS AND OUTLINE ..........................................................10 III. MODEL...14 d . Commodity Data ......................................................................14 e. Transportation...Decision Variables ...................................................18 c. Ramp Space Decision Variables .............................................18 d

  20. Logistics and Engineering Requirements for Humanitarian Assistance Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    Vigil, Eastern Exit, the Los Angeles Riots, the San Francisco Earthquake, and the Hurricane Andrew relief effort. In addition, we incorporated lessons...significant pre- deployment planning and training. Maps and imagery products need to be collected, coordination with local sources and other human...the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- neers, Engineer Topographic Center, the Marine Corps has a limited capability for identifying alternative water-supply

  1. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  2. When Disaster Strikes Is Logistics and Contracting Support Ready?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-27

    When Disaster Strikes Is Logistics and Contracting Support Ready? 27 September 2011 by Dr. Aruna Apte, Assistant Professor, and CDR (Ret...the Authors Dr. Aruna Apte has successfully completed various research projects, involving application of mathematical models and optimization...She has recently published a monograph on Humanitarian Logistics. Aruna received her PhD in Operations Research from Southern Methodist University

  3. Ethical considerations for vaccination programmes in acute humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Keymanthri; Hardie, Kate; Selgelid, Michael J; Waldman, Ronald J; Strebel, Peter; Rees, Helen; Durrheim, David N

    2013-04-01

    Humanitarian emergencies result in a breakdown of critical health-care services and often make vulnerable communities dependent on external agencies for care. In resource-constrained settings, this may occur against a backdrop of extreme poverty, malnutrition, insecurity, low literacy and poor infrastructure. Under these circumstances, providing food, water and shelter and limiting communicable disease outbreaks become primary concerns. Where effective and safe vaccines are available to mitigate the risk of disease outbreaks, their potential deployment is a key consideration in meeting emergency health needs. Ethical considerations are crucial when deciding on vaccine deployment. Allocation of vaccines in short supply, target groups, delivery strategies, surveillance and research during acute humanitarian emergencies all involve ethical considerations that often arise from the tension between individual and common good. The authors lay out the ethical issues that policy-makers need to bear in mind when considering the deployment of mass vaccination during humanitarian emergencies, including beneficence (duty of care and the rule of rescue), non-maleficence, autonomy and consent, and distributive and procedural justice.

  4. Introduction: evidence-based action in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Dijkzeul, Dennis; Hilhorst, Dorothea; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    This introductory paper sets the stage for this special issue of Disasters on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises. It reviews definition(s) of evidence and it examines the different disciplinary and methodological approaches to collecting and analysing evidence. In humanitarian action, the need for evidence-based approaches sometimes is viewed in tension with a principled approach, often unnecessarily. Choosing appropriate research methods depends on the objectives of the researcher, in particular whether the research focuses on the intervention and/or the context and the length and complexity of the causal chains involved. The paper concludes by defining some trends in evidence-based approaches in crises: the move away from inputs and outputs of humanitarian action towards outcomes and impacts; the shift towards a higher degree of partnerships in research, and the participation of users and target groups; and the acceptance of a broad array of approaches to establish evidence. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  5. Ethical considerations for vaccination programmes in acute humanitarian emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Kate; Selgelid, Michael J; Waldman, Ronald J; Strebel, Peter; Rees, Helen; Durrheim, David N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Humanitarian emergencies result in a breakdown of critical health-care services and often make vulnerable communities dependent on external agencies for care. In resource-constrained settings, this may occur against a backdrop of extreme poverty, malnutrition, insecurity, low literacy and poor infrastructure. Under these circumstances, providing food, water and shelter and limiting communicable disease outbreaks become primary concerns. Where effective and safe vaccines are available to mitigate the risk of disease outbreaks, their potential deployment is a key consideration in meeting emergency health needs. Ethical considerations are crucial when deciding on vaccine deployment. Allocation of vaccines in short supply, target groups, delivery strategies, surveillance and research during acute humanitarian emergencies all involve ethical considerations that often arise from the tension between individual and common good. The authors lay out the ethical issues that policy-makers need to bear in mind when considering the deployment of mass vaccination during humanitarian emergencies, including beneficence (duty of care and the rule of rescue), non-maleficence, autonomy and consent, and distributive and procedural justice. PMID:23599553

  6. Country logistics performance and disaster impact.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  7. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  8. Emergency Response and Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr I Support food distribution with U.S. ARMY / WFP - 03 to 18Fev2010 15 Dias 637,5 Ton de alimentos ...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 – 21 a 28Mar2010 1.723 Ton de Alimentos em 30 Dias Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr II Supporting food...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 8 Dias 420 Ton de alimentos Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr III Supporting food distribution by

  9. Humanitarian forensic action - Its origins and future.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Stephen; Tidball-Binz, Morris

    2017-10-01

    Humanitarian forensic action is the application of the knowledge and skills of forensic medicine and science to humanitarian action, especially following conflicts or disasters. It has its early roots in the experience of the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team and that of the Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo in Argentina, is moulded by International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law and was developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross. Having demonstrated its worth, this new field of application of forensic medicine and science needs further development, integration and research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tackling the Global Challenge: Humanitarian Catastrophes

    PubMed Central

    Iserson, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    Humanitarian catastrophes,” conflicts and calamities generating both widespread human suffering and destructive events, require a wide range of emergency resources. This paper answers a number of questions that humanitarian catastrophes generate: Why and how do the most-developed countries—those with the resources, capabilities, and willingness to help—intervene in specific types of disasters? What ethical and legal guidelines shape our interventions? How well do we achieve our goals? It then suggests a number of changes to improve humanitarian responses, including better NGO-government cooperation, increased research on the best disaster response methods, clarification of the criteria and roles for humanitarian (military) interventions, and development of post-2015 Millennium Development Goals with more accurate progress measures. PMID:24672618

  11. Humanitarian Assistance: An Opportunity Is Lost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    1 Ibid., 2. 2 Eugene Bonventre, ― Monitoring and Evaluation of the Department of Defense: Humanitarian Assistance Programs,‖ Military Review... and Evaluation of the Department of Defense: Humanitarian Assistance Programs.‖ Military Review 88, no 1 (January/February 2008): 66-73. Garcia...Blechman, Barry M et al. ―Grading Theater Engagement Planning.‖ Joint Forces Quarterly, Spring 2000, 98-103. Bonventre, Eugene V. ― Monitoring

  12. Medical humanitarianism: anthropologists speak out on policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon; Marten, Meredith; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, anthropologists have become increasingly present in medical humanitarian situations as scholars, consultants, and humanitarian practitioners and have acquired insight into medical humanitarian policy and practice. In 2012, we implemented a poll on anthropology, health, and humanitarian practice in which 75 anthropologists discussed their experiences in medical humanitarianism. Our goal was to move beyond the existing anarchy of individual voices in anthropological writing and gain an aggregate view of the perspective of anthropologists working in medical humanitarian contexts. Responses lead to six inductively derived thematic priorities. The findings illustrate how anthropologists perceive medical humanitarian practice; which aspects of medical humanitarianism should be seen as priorities for anthropological research; and how anthropologists use ethnography in humanitarian contexts. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  13. Requirements for independent community-based quality assessment and accountability practices in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Perrin, Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Canny, William; Purdin, Susan; Lin, William; Sauer, Lauren

    2012-06-01

    During responses to disasters, the credibility of humanitarian agencies can be threatened by perceptions of poor quality of the responses. Many initiatives have been introduced over the last two decades to help address these issues and enhance the overall quality of humanitarian response, often with limited success. There remain important gaps and deficiencies in quality assurance efforts, including potential conflicts of interest. While many definitions for quality exist, a common component is that meeting the needs of the "beneficiary" or "client" is the ultimate determinant of quality. This paper examines the current status of assessment and accountability practices in the humanitarian response community, identifies gaps, and recommends timely, concise, and population-based assessments to elicit the perspective of quality performance and accountability to the affected populations. Direct and independent surveys of the disaster-affected population will help to redirect ongoing aid efforts, and generate more effective and comparable methods for assessing the quality of humanitarian practices and assistance activities.

  14. Training Humanitarian Professionals at a Distance: Testing the Feasibility of Distance Learning with Humanitarian Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollettino, Vincenzo; Bruderlein, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Training is an essential part of the professional development of staff working for international humanitarian organizations. While humanitarian workers are being deployed around the world to provide life-saving relief assistance in often-hazardous missions, it is imperative for organizations to ensure that staff members understand the mission and…

  15. An Analysis of U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    The Fritz Institute uses Haas, Kates, and Bowden’s model of emergency recovery to create its own illustration of the different phases a supply chain...Humanitarian logistics: Enabling disaster response. San Francisco, CA: The Fritz Institute. Tomasini, R., & Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2009...ar^qb p`elli  Outsourcing the Pearl Harbor MK-48 Intermediate Maintenance Activity  Pallet Management System  PBL (4)  Privatization-NOSL

  16. Effectiveness of DoD Humanitarian Relief Efforts in Response to Hurricanes Georges and Mitch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    Southern Command, After Action Report for Hurricane Georges, Memorandum from SCJ4/LRC for Director of Logistics, 10 February 1999 43. Dr. John Pitts , U.S...Humanitarian Assistance Operations, CAB 95-84.10/April 1996, (4/1/96) 518. Kenney, Kristie , Department of State, Executive Secretariat Operations Center...Memorandum: Task Force Formation to Deal with the Threat of Hurricane Mitch to Central American Posts, (10/26/98) 519. Kenney, Kristie A., Department

  17. Gnawing Pains, Festering Ulcers, and Nightmare Suffering: Selling Leprosy as a Humanitarian Cause in the British Empire, c. 1890-1960

    PubMed Central

    Vongsathorn, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    When British attention was drawn to the issue of leprosy in the Empire, humanitarian organisations rose to take on responsibility for the ‘fight against leprosy’. In an effort to fundraise for a distant cause at a time when hundreds of charities competed for the financial support of British citizens, fundraisers developed propaganda to set leprosy apart from all other humanitarian causes. They drew on leprosy’s relationship with Christianity, its debilitating symptoms, and the supposed vulnerability of leprosy sufferers in order to mobilise Britain’s sense of humanitarian, Christian, and patriotic duty. This article traces the emergence of leprosy as a popular imperial humanitarian cause in modern Britain and analyses the narratives of religion, suffering, and disease that they created and employed in order to fuel their growth and sell leprosy as a British humanitarian cause. PMID:24932060

  18. Health information systems in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Thieren, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) in emergencies face a double dilemma: the information necessary to understand and respond to humanitarian crises must be timely and detailed, whereas the circumstances of these crises makes it challenging to collect it. Building on the technical work of the Health Metrics Network on HIS and starting with a systemic definition of HIS in emergencies, this paper reviews the various data-collection platforms in these contexts, looking at their respective contributions to providing what humanitarian actors need to know to target their intervention to where the needs really are. Although reporting or sampling errors are unavoidable, it is important to identify them and acknowledge the limitations inherent in generalizing data that were collected in highly heterogeneous environments. To perform well in emergencies, HIS require integration and participation. In spite of notable efforts to coordinate data collection and dissemination practices among humanitarian agencies, it is noted that coordination on the ground depends on the strengths and presence of a lead agency, often WHO, and on the commitment of humanitarian agencies to investing resources in data production. Poorly integrated HIS generate fragmented, incomplete and often contradictory statistics, a situation that leads to a misuse of numbers with negative consequences on humanitarian interventions. As a means to avoid confusion regarding humanitarian health statistics, this paper stresses the importance of submitting statistics to a rigorous and coordinated auditing process prior to their publication. The audit trail should describe the various steps of the data production chains both technically and operationally, and indicate the limits and assumptions under which each number can be used. Finally emphasis is placed on the ethical obligation for humanitarian agencies to ensure that the necessary safeguards on data are in place to protect the confidentiality of victims and

  19. Health information systems in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Thieren, Michel

    2005-08-01

    Health information systems (HIS) in emergencies face a double dilemma: the information necessary to understand and respond to humanitarian crises must be timely and detailed, whereas the circumstances of these crises makes it challenging to collect it. Building on the technical work of the Health Metrics Network on HIS and starting with a systemic definition of HIS in emergencies, this paper reviews the various data-collection platforms in these contexts, looking at their respective contributions to providing what humanitarian actors need to know to target their intervention to where the needs really are. Although reporting or sampling errors are unavoidable, it is important to identify them and acknowledge the limitations inherent in generalizing data that were collected in highly heterogeneous environments. To perform well in emergencies, HIS require integration and participation. In spite of notable efforts to coordinate data collection and dissemination practices among humanitarian agencies, it is noted that coordination on the ground depends on the strengths and presence of a lead agency, often WHO, and on the commitment of humanitarian agencies to investing resources in data production. Poorly integrated HIS generate fragmented, incomplete and often contradictory statistics, a situation that leads to a misuse of numbers with negative consequences on humanitarian interventions. As a means to avoid confusion regarding humanitarian health statistics, this paper stresses the importance of submitting statistics to a rigorous and coordinated auditing process prior to their publication. The audit trail should describe the various steps of the data production chains both technically and operationally, and indicate the limits and assumptions under which each number can be used. Finally emphasis is placed on the ethical obligation for humanitarian agencies to ensure that the necessary safeguards on data are in place to protect the confidentiality of victims and

  20. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country.

  1. Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief: changing the face of defense.

    PubMed

    Laraby, Patrick R; Bourdeaux, Margaret; Casscells, S Ward; Smith, David J; Lawry, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century. Today's challenges result from growing political, environmental, and economic instability in important areas of the globe that threaten national and global security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security and stability both for the affected country and for the United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses conflict prevention, conflict, postconflict, and natural disasters. With DOD's extensive global medical resources, it is often uniquely qualified to execute a critical role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the American military will act in FHA and disaster relief is a still evolving doctrine with three issues deserving particular attention: aligning operations with host government leadership, preserving humanitarian space, and tailoring the US military's unique resources to the specific political and medical situation at hand. The DOD's response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic decisions and operational capabilities that need further development to establish the FHA mission firmly within DOD's repertoire of security engagement activities.

  2. [The law, an indispensable instrument for humanitarian action].

    PubMed

    Domestici-Met, M J

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes, in layman's terms, the legal framework for international humanitarian operations. He explains a number of complex and intricate principles used in these situations. He acknowledges the burden that legal considerations place on humanitarian organizations but also demonstrates that legal expertise is an indispensable tool in the provision of humanitarian services.

  3. The impact of digital technology on health of populations affected by humanitarian crises: Recent innovations and current gaps.

    PubMed

    Mesmar, Sandra; Talhouk, Reem; Akik, Chaza; Olivier, Patrick; Elhajj, Imad H; Elbassuoni, Shady; Armoush, Sarah; Kalot, Joumana; Balaam, Madeline; Germani, Aline; Ghattas, Hala

    2016-11-01

    Digital technology is increasingly used in humanitarian action and promises to improve the health and social well-being of populations affected by both acute and protracted crises. We set out to (1) review the current landscape of digital technologies used by humanitarian actors and affected populations, (2) examine their impact on health and well-being of affected populations, and (3) consider the opportunities for and challenges faced by users of these technologies. Through a systematic search of academic databases and reports, we identified 50 digital technologies used by humanitarian actors, and/or populations affected by crises. We organized them according to the stage of the humanitarian cycle that they were used in, and the health outcomes or determinants of health they affected. Digital technologies were found to facilitate communication, coordination, and collection and analysis of data, enabling timely responses in humanitarian contexts. A lack of evaluation of these technologies, a paternalistic approach to their development, and issues of privacy and equity constituted major challenges. We highlight the need to create a space for dialogue between technology designers and populations affected by humanitarian crises.

  4. Humanitarian aid is never a crime”: humanitarianism and illegality in migrant advocacy.

    PubMed

    Cook, Maria Lorena

    2011-01-01

    I analyze the case of humanitarian pro-migrant activists in southern Arizona between 2000 and 2010 to explore how contending groups wield law and legality claims in a dynamic policy environment. Humanitarian activists both evade and engage the law. They appeal to a higher law to elude charges that they are acting illegally, while seeking assurances that their actions are within the law. Law enforcement agents rely on the authority and technical neutrality of the law in redefining humanitarian aid as illegal, while expanding their own claims to carry out humanitarian work. This case study of advocacy on behalf of “illegal” migrants highlights how both activists and those who enforce the law redefine legality in strategic ways.

  5. The humanitarian system is not just broke, but broken: recommendations for future humanitarian action.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Paul B

    2017-06-07

    An unprecedented number of humanitarian emergencies of large magnitude and duration is causing the largest number of people in a generation to be forcibly displaced. Yet the existing humanitarian system was created for a different time and is no longer fit for purpose. On the basis of lessons learned from recent crises, particularly the Syrian conflict and the Ebola epidemic, I recommend four sets of actions that would make the humanitarian system relevant for future public health responses: (1) operationalise the concept of centrality of protection; (2) integrate affected persons into national health systems by addressing the humanitarian-development nexus; (3) remake, do not simply revise, leadership and coordination; and (4) make interventions efficient, effective, and sustainable. For these recommendations to be implemented, governments, UN agencies, multilateral organisations, and international non-governmental organisations will need to put aside differences and relinquish authority, influence, and funding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Erosion of trust in humanitarian agencies: what strategies might help?

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2011-01-01

    Aid agencies (AAs) provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a) Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly), principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b) Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work), and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs.

  7. Erosion of trust in humanitarian agencies: what strategies might help?

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2011-01-01

    Aid agencies (AAs) provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a) Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly), principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b) Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work), and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs. PMID:22110413

  8. Future humanitarian crises: challenges for practice, policy, and public health.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2010-01-01

    After more than three decades of preoccupation with wars and internal political conflicts, the humanitarian community has the opportunity to reevaluate what humanitarian crises will dominate both policy and practice in the future. In reality, these crises are already active and some are over the tipping point of recovery. These crises share the common thread of being major public health emergencies which, with a preponderance of excess or indirect mortality and morbidity dominating the consequences, requires new approaches, including unprecedented improvements and alterations in education, training, research, strategic planning, and policy and treaty agendas. Unfortunately, political solutions offered up to date are nation-state centric and miss opportunities to provide what must be global solutions. Public health, redefined as the infrastructure and systems necessary to allow communities, urban settings, and nation-states to provide physical and social protections to their populations has become an essential element of all disciplines from medicine, engineering, law, social sciences, and economics. Public health, which must be recognized as a strategic and security issue should take precedence over politics at every level, not be driven by political motives, and be globally monitored.

  9. Humanism and Humanitarianism before the Renaissance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Allen S.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of the humanism and humanitarianism of the developed Renaissance are revival of classicism, delight in life, experimentalism, individualism, realism, love of beauty, increased secularism, and versatility of gifted individuals. An examination of artistic works created from 1260 to 1310 suggests that these qualities were evident…

  10. John W. Thoburn: International Humanitarian Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's International Humanitarian Award. The 2012 winner, John W. Thoburn, is an extraordinary psychologist who devotes himself consistently to service to underserved populations, especially in the aftermath of natural or human-induced disasters. He exemplifies a genuine…

  11. The Development and Maturation of Humanitarian Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gerard A.

    2007-01-01

    Humanitarian psychological support as an organized field is relatively young. Pioneers in the field were involved primarily in providing psychological support to refugees and internally displaced persons in conflict and nonconflict situations. This article describes basic principles for the design of psychological support programs and…

  12. John W. Thoburn: International Humanitarian Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's International Humanitarian Award. The 2012 winner, John W. Thoburn, is an extraordinary psychologist who devotes himself consistently to service to underserved populations, especially in the aftermath of natural or human-induced disasters. He exemplifies a genuine…

  13. International Humanitarian Award: Michael G. Wessells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Michael G. Wessells, recipient of the International Humanitarian Award, is cited for his pioneering and sustained contributions to the protection of children affected by armed conflict and to the development of international guidelines for the provision of community-based, culturally responsive psychosocial support in emergencies. Wessells has…

  14. Humanism and Humanitarianism before the Renaissance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Allen S.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of the humanism and humanitarianism of the developed Renaissance are revival of classicism, delight in life, experimentalism, individualism, realism, love of beauty, increased secularism, and versatility of gifted individuals. An examination of artistic works created from 1260 to 1310 suggests that these qualities were evident…

  15. International Humanitarian Award: Michael G. Wessells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Michael G. Wessells, recipient of the International Humanitarian Award, is cited for his pioneering and sustained contributions to the protection of children affected by armed conflict and to the development of international guidelines for the provision of community-based, culturally responsive psychosocial support in emergencies. Wessells has…

  16. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. PMID:27347963

  17. Management of complex pediatric burn scars in a humanitarian collaboration.

    PubMed

    Bassetto, F; Staffieri, A; Reho, F; Facchin, F; Shehata, J; Maged, D; Tiengo, C

    2015-03-31

    Burn scars still represent a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Their management requires a specific expertise and set up involving the possibility of long term rehabilitation and follow up. Cases encountered in humanitarian missions present additional issues. Often the local environment is not suitable for an appropriate treatment plan, requiring the case to be transferred to a foreign country for surgical care as part of an integrated international and multidisciplinary management. We present the case of a three year-old patient injured in a bomb explosion during the Arab Spring and suffering from severe scar contracture limiting thoracic and upper limb movement. After initial consultation at distance, transfer to our country was organized and an intensive surgical and rehabilitative program was carried out over three months. After five months, the patient returned to his home country where a supportive network had been set up for continued rehabilitation, ensuring follow up for over a year and ultimate success.

  18. Management of complex pediatric burn scars in a humanitarian collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Bassetto, F.; Staffieri, A.; Reho, F.; Facchin, F.; Shehata, J.; Maged, D.; Tiengo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Burn scars still represent a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Their management requires a specific expertise and set up involving the possibility of long term rehabilitation and follow up. Cases encountered in humanitarian missions present additional issues. Often the local environment is not suitable for an appropriate treatment plan, requiring the case to be transferred to a foreign country for surgical care as part of an integrated international and multidisciplinary management. We present the case of a three year-old patient injured in a bomb explosion during the Arab Spring and suffering from severe scar contracture limiting thoracic and upper limb movement. After initial consultation at distance, transfer to our country was organized and an intensive surgical and rehabilitative program was carried out over three months. After five months, the patient returned to his home country where a supportive network had been set up for continued rehabilitation, ensuring follow up for over a year and ultimate success. PMID:26668562

  19. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-06-24

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool.

  20. Preventing corruption in humanitarian assistance: perceptions, gaps and challenges.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice.

  1. Understanding the security management practices of humanitarian organizations.

    PubMed

    Bollettino, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    Humanitarian organisations operate in increasingly hostile environments. Although authoritative statistics are scarce, anecdotal evidence suggests that aid workers face life-threatening risks that are exacerbated by the growing number of humanitarian organisations operating in the field, the diversity of their mandates, the lack of common professional security standards, and limited success in inter-agency security coordination. Despite broad acceptance of the need for better security management and coordination, many humanitarian organisations remain ambivalent about devoting increased resources to security management and security coordination. A critical lack of basic empirical knowledge of the field security environment hampers efforts to enhance security management practices. The absence of a systematic means of sharing incident data undermines the capacity of the humanitarian community to address proactively security threats. In discussions about humanitarian staff safety and security, the least common denominator remains cumulative anecdotal evidence provided by the many security personnel working for humanitarian organisations in the feld.

  2. Effective monitoring and evaluation of military humanitarian medical operations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Stephen G; Powell, Clydette; Ward, Jane B; Riley, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Non-military government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have made great strides in the evaluation of humanitarian medical work, and have learned valuable lessons regarding monitoring and evaluation (M&E) that may be equally as valuable to military medical personnel. We reviewed the recent literature by the worldwide humanitarian community regarding the art and science of M&E, with focus toward military applications. The successes and failures of past humanitarian efforts have resulted in prolific analyses. Alliances of NGOs set the standard for humanitarian quality and M&E standards. Military medical personnel can apply some of these standards to military humanitarian M&E in complex and stability operations. The authors believe that the NGO community?s M&E standards should be applied to improve evaluation of U.S. military medical humanitarian operations.

  3. Logistic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    The logistic regression originally is intended to explain the relationship between the probability of an event and a set of covariables. The model's coefficients can be interpreted via the odds and odds ratio, which are presented in introduction of the chapter. The observations are possibly got individually, then we speak of binary logistic regression. When they are grouped, the logistic regression is said binomial. In our presentation we mainly focus on the binary case. For statistical inference the main tool is the maximum likelihood methodology: we present the Wald, Rao and likelihoods ratio results and their use to compare nested models. The problems we intend to deal with are essentially the same as in multiple linear regression: testing global effect, individual effect, selection of variables to build a model, measure of the fitness of the model, prediction of new values… . The methods are demonstrated on data sets using R. Finally we briefly consider the binomial case and the situation where we are interested in several events, that is the polytomous (multinomial) logistic regression and the particular case of ordinal logistic regression.

  4. Neonatal survival in complex humanitarian emergencies: setting an evidence-based research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 40% of all deaths among children under 5 are neonatal deaths (0–28 days), and this proportion is increasing. In 2012, 2.9 million newborns died, with 99% occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Many of the countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally are currently or have recently been affected by complex humanitarian emergencies. Despite the global burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality and risks inherent in complex emergency situations, research investments are not commensurate to burden and little is known about the epidemiology or best practices for neonatal survival in these settings. Methods We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology to prioritize research questions on neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. Experts evaluated 35 questions using four criteria (answerability, feasibility, relevance, equity) with three subcomponents per criterion. Using SAS 9.2, a research prioritization score (RPS) and average expert agreement score (AEA) were calculated for each question. Results Twenty-eight experts evaluated all 35 questions. RPS ranged from 0.846 to 0.679 and the AEA ranged from 0.667 to 0.411. The top ten research priorities covered a range of issues but generally fell into two categories– epidemiologic and programmatic components of neonatal health. The highest ranked question in this survey was “What strategies are effective in increasing demand for, and use of skilled attendance?” Conclusions In this study, a diverse group of experts used the CHRNI methodology to systematically identify and determine research priorities for neonatal health and survival in complex humanitarian emergencies. The priorities included the need to better understand the magnitude of the disease burden and interventions to improve neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. The findings from this study will provide guidance to researchers and program implementers in

  5. Women's oral and dental health aspects in humanitarian missions and disasters: Jordanian experience.

    PubMed

    Smadi, Leena; Sumadi, Aiman Al

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to review oral and dental health aspects in female patients presented to Jordanian Royal Medical Services (RMS) international humanitarian missions over a 3-year period. Analysis of humanitarian missions of RMS data and records over a 3-year period (2011-2013) in regard to women's oral and dental health issues was done. The data were analyzed in regard to the number of women seen, the presenting conditions, and the prevalence of oral and dental diseases and procedures in these cases. During the 3-year period, 72 missions were deployed in four locations (Gaza, Ram Allah-West Bank, Jeneen-West Bank, and Iraq). The total number of females seen in this period was 86,436 women, accounting for 56 percent of adult patients seen by RMS humanitarian missions. Dental Clinics were deployed to only two missions (Iraq and Gaza), during which they received 13,629 visits; of these, 41 percent were females (5,588 patients), 29 percent were males, and 30 percent were in the pediatric age group. Trauma accounts for only 7 percent of the cases, while nonacute dental problems (caries and gingivitis) were responsible for the majority of cases (31.6 and 28.7 percent, respectively). RMS dental services during humanitarian mission deployment are a vital part of comprehensive healthcare. Women usually seek more dental care than men, with the majority of treatments for nonacute conditions. RMS experiences demonstrate the tremendous need for a well-defined preparedness plan for deployment of humanitarian missions that considers the contributions of all types of health professionals, the appropriate mobile technology to respond to emergent health risks, and a competent workforce ready and able to respond. Such preparation will require our dental education programs to develop disaster preparedness competencies to achieve the desired level of understanding.

  6. Humanitarian engineering placements in our own communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderSteen, J. D. J.; Hall, K. R.; Baillie, C. A.

    2010-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in the humanitarian engineering curriculum, and a service-learning placement could be an important component of such a curriculum. International placements offer some important pedagogical advantages, but also have some practical and ethical limitations. Local community-based placements have the potential to be transformative for both the student and the community, although this potential is not always seen. In order to investigate the role of local placements, qualitative research interviews were conducted. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted and analysed, resulting in a distinct outcome space. It is concluded that local humanitarian engineering placements greatly complement international placements and are strongly recommended if international placements are conducted. More importantly it is seen that we are better suited to address the marginalised in our own community, although it is often easier to see the needs of an outside populace.

  7. Neurological disorders in complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2010-09-01

    Complex humanitarian emergencies include the relatively acute, severe, and overwhelming health consequences of armed conflict, food scarcity, mass displacement, and political strife. Neurological manifestations of complex humanitarian emergencies are important and underappreciated consequences of emergencies in populations worldwide. This review critically assesses the existing knowledge of the range of neurological disorders that accompany complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters in both the acute phase of crisis and the "long shadow" that follows.

  8. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...equipped for combat. "The skills needed to feed hungry people in Africa or build tent cities for hurricane victims are different from the skills needed...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the

  9. Facing the challenges in human resources for humanitarian health.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani; Nowak, Kristin; Hein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The human resources crisis in humanitarian health care parallels that seen in the broader area of health care. This crisis is exacerbated by the lack of resources in areas in which humanitarian action is needed--difficult environments that often are remote and insecure--and the requirement of specific skill sets is not routinely gained during traditional medical training. While there is ample data to suggest that health outcomes improve when worker density is increased, this remains an area of critical under-investment in humanitarian health care. In addition to under-investment, other factors limit the availability of human resources for health (HRH) in humanitarian work including: (1) over-reliance on degrees as surrogates for specific competencies; (2) under-development and under-utilization of national staff and beneficiaries as humanitarian health workers; (3) lack of standardized training modules to ensure adequate preparation for work in complex emergencies; (4) and the draining of limited available HRH from countries with low prevalence and high need to wealthier, developed nations also facing HRH shortages. A working group of humanitarian health experts from implementing agencies, United Nations agencies, private and governmental financiers, and members of academia gathered at Hanover, New Hampshire for a conference to discuss elements of the HRH problem in humanitarian health care and how to solve them. Several key elements of successful solutions were highlighted, including: (1) the need to develop a set of standards of what would constitute "adequate training" for humanitarian health work; (2) increasing the utilization and professional development of national staff; (3) "training with a purpose" specific to humanitarian health work (not simply relying on professional degrees as surrogates); (4) and developing specific health task-based competencies thereby increasing the pool of potential workers. Such steps would accomplish several key goals, such as

  10. Yemen's Unprecedented Humanitarian Crisis: Implications for International Humanitarian Law, the Geneva Convention, and the Future of Global Health Security.

    PubMed

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Burkle, Frederick M; Ragazzoni, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The current humanitarian crisis in Yemen is unprecedented in many ways. The Yemeni War tragedy is symptomatic of gross failures to recognize, by combatants, existing humanitarian law and the Geneva Convention that have become the new norm in unconventional armed conflicts and are increasingly replicated in Africa, Afghanistan, and other areas of the Middle East with dire consequences on aid workers and the noncombatant population. The health and humanitarian professions must take collective responsibility in calling for all belligerent parties to cease the massacre and commit to guaranteed medical assistance, humanitarian aid, and the free flow of information and respect for the humanitarian principles that protect the neutrality and impartiality of the humanitarian workforce. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 3).

  11. The role of humanitarian missions in modern surgical training.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alex; Sherman, Randy; Magee, William P

    2010-07-01

    Surgical trainees have participated in international missions for decades and are now seeking out these experiences in record numbers. Resident participation in humanitarian service has been highly controversial in the academic plastic surgery community, and little evidence exists elucidating the value of these experiences. This report examines the impact of international volunteerism on surgical training. Twenty-one resident physicians who participated in the inaugural Operation Smile Regan Fellowship were surveyed 1 year after their experiences. One hundred percent responded that participation in an international surgical mission had an overall positive impact on their lives, and 94.7 percent reported that they had achieved marked personal growth. Results demonstrate significant education in each of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies and insights into global health and cultural competency. One hundred percent "strongly agreed" that the Regan Fellowship was a quality educational experience, and 94.7 percent deemed the experience a valuable part of their residency training. Resident physicians are calling for more international health opportunities, and they should be generously supported. A properly structured and proctored experience for surgical residents in international volunteerism is an effective instruction tool in the modern competency-based residency curriculum. These endeavors provide a unique understanding of the global burden of surgical disease, a deeper appreciation for global public health issues, and increased cultural sensitivity. Plastic surgery training programs can contribute mightily to global health and improved resident education by embracing and fostering the development of international humanitarian opportunities. A surgical mission experience should be widely available to plastic surgery residents.

  12. The role of a dermatologist on military humanitarian missions.

    PubMed

    Satter, Elizabeth K

    2010-02-01

    The US military in conjunction with allied military services and nongovernmental organizations have embarked on various humanitarian missions to underserved areas worldwide. These missions illustrate what interoperability between nations can accomplish. Dermatologists involved with humanitarian missions encounter many conditions rarely seen in developed countries and learn to practice general dermatology with limited resources in austere environments.

  13. Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: evidence from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Altay, Nezih; Labonte, Melissa

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the critical role information management can play in shaping effective humanitarian response, coordination and decision-making. Quality information, reaching more humanitarian actors, will result in better coordination and better decision-making, thus improving the response to beneficiaries as well as accountability to donors. The humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake marked a watershed moment for humanitarian information management. Yet the fragmented nature of the response and the use of hierarchical models of information management, along with other factors, have led some observers to label the Haiti response a failure. Using an analytical framework often found in humanitarian emergencies, this study analyses challenges to information flow in the Haiti case and the implications for effective humanitarian response. It concludes by offering possible paths for overcoming such challenges, and for restoring the value and utility of humanitarian information management and exchange in humanitarian relief settings. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  14. The Development of a Humanitarian Health Ethics Analysis Tool.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Veronique; Hunt, Matthew R; de Laat, Sonya; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Introduction Health care workers (HCWs) who participate in humanitarian aid work experience a range of ethical challenges in providing care and assistance to communities affected by war, disaster, or extreme poverty. Although there is increasing discussion of ethics in humanitarian health care practice and policy, there are very few resources available for humanitarian workers seeking ethical guidance in the field. To address this knowledge gap, a Humanitarian Health Ethics Analysis Tool (HHEAT) was developed and tested as an action-oriented resource to support humanitarian workers in ethical decision making. While ethical analysis tools increasingly have become prevalent in a variety of practice contexts over the past two decades, very few of these tools have undergone a process of empirical validation to assess their usefulness for practitioners. A qualitative study consisting of a series of six case-analysis sessions with 16 humanitarian HCWs was conducted to evaluate and refine the HHEAT. Participant feedback inspired the creation of a simplified and shortened version of the tool and prompted the development of an accompanying handbook. The study generated preliminary insight into the ethical deliberation processes of humanitarian health workers and highlighted different types of ethics support that humanitarian workers might find helpful in supporting the decision-making process.

  15. 31 CFR 500.572 - Humanitarian projects authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organization, and the officer charged with supervision of the project in Vietnam; and (2) The nature, scope... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian projects authorized. 500..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.572 Humanitarian projects authorized. (a)...

  16. Tragic choices in humanitarian health work.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R; Sinding, Christina; Schwartz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Humanitarian healthcare work presents a range of ethical challenges for expatriate healthcare professionals, including tragic choices requiring the selection of a least-worst option. In this paper we examine a particular set of tragic choices related to the prioritization of care and allocation of scarce resources between individuals in situations of widespread and urgent health needs. Drawing on qualitative interviews with clinicians, we examine the nature of these choices. We offer recommendations to clinical teams and aid organizations for preparing and supporting frontline clinicians in their efforts to determine the least-worst option, and in their responsibility for making such choices.

  17. Moral experience of Canadian healthcare professionals in humanitarian work.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R

    2009-01-01

    Expatriate healthcare professionals frequently participate in international relief operations that are initiated in response to disasters due to natural hazards or humanitarian emergencies in low resource settings. This practice environment is significantly different from the healthcare delivery environment in the home countries of expatriate healthcare professionals. Human rights, public health, medicine, and ethics intersect in distinct ways as healthcare professionals provide care and services in communities affected by crisis. The purpose of this study was to explore the moral experience of Canadian healthcare professionals during humanitarian relief work. This is a qualitative study with 18 semi-structured individual interviews based on Interpretive Description methodology. There are two groups of participants: (1) 15 healthcare professionals (nine doctors, five nurses, and one midwife) with more than three months experience in humanitarian work; and (2) three individuals who have experience as human resource or field coordination officers for humanitarian, non-governmental organizations. Participants were recruited by contacting non-governmental organizations, advertisement at the global health interest group of a national medical society, word of mouth, and a snowball sampling approach in which participants identified healthcare professionals with experience practicing in humanitarian settings who might be interested in the research. Five central themes were identified during the analysis: (1) examination of motivations and expectations; (2) the relational nature of humanitarian work; (3) attending to steep power imbalances; (4) acknowledging and confronting the limits of what is possible in a particular setting; and (5) recognition of how organizational forms and structures shape everyday moral experience. Humanitarian relief work is a morally complex activity. Healthcare professionals who participate in humanitarian relief activities, or who are

  18. Needs for new tools in humanitarian Demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Alois J.

    2000-12-01

    Humanitarian demining is interdisciplinary, encompassing subjects that span from Engineering, Chemistry, and Physics to the Social Sciences. Partners in this field are not only the suffering community and the deminers, but also researchers, industrial developers, Non Governmental Organisations, policymakers, etc. There is common agreement, that the present approach in demining, means by making use of dogs, prodders, metal detectors and mechanical devices will not allow the global scourge of landmines to be overcome within the next 10 to 15 years, as requested by the Ottawa convention. New tools are needed. Especially in the domains of minefield survey, of close-in mine detection, of quality assurance after finishing clearance and last but not least for the verification of the adherence with the Ottawa Convention. The aim of the talk is to introduce experts in remote sensing sensor systems of different kinds, make them aware about the need for advanced tools for humanitarian demining, and to invite an active brainstorming in order to find new solutions. Furthermore, the presentation will focus on the assessment of the potential of air- and space-borne systems for mine field survey.

  19. Globalisation, complex humanitarian emergencies and health.

    PubMed

    O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B

    2006-01-01

    A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored.

  20. Rape in war: the humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Shanks, L; Schull, M J

    2000-10-31

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting.

  1. Logistics Assessment Guidebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    significant. Another case involved the integration of an aircraft and ground vehicle system. Integration issues were identified early in the design...for height and width; insufficient power requirements to support maintenance actions; and insufficient design of the autonomic logistics system...evaluation at IOT &E and thus on track for Initial Operational Capability (IOC). If not, a plan is in place to ensure they are met (ref DoDI 5000; CJCSM

  2. [The Humanitarian Charter and minimum standards in humanitarian response are applicable in German refugee facilities].

    PubMed

    Gardemann, Joachim; Wilp, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    In recent refugee migration into Germany the responsibilities and reactions of health authorities are still lacking general co-ordination. Can the ethical and technical standards of international humanitarian assistance serve as an appropriate and even a compulsory guideline for relief agencies, public health and regulatory authorities in Germany? Documents from the field of medical ethics, medical law, international humanitarian law and disaster medicine will be examined and checked for practicability by consulting experiences during the 1990s Balkan wars refugee movement and international missions of relief agencies. Ethical and technical standards of international humanitarian assistance have been developed, improved and evaluated for 20 years, and are valuable tools for emergency management. Victims of disaster or conflict have a right to live in dignity and therefore have a right to receive health care according to international standards. International ethical and technical standards for refugees should be considered in the Federal Republic of Germany like in any other country.

  3. Surveillance beyond camp settings in humanitarian emergencies: findings from the Humanitarian Health Information Management Working Group.

    PubMed

    Purdin, Susan; Spiegel, Paul; Mack, Katelyn P; Millen, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Surveillance is an essential component of health and nutrition information management during humanitarian situations. Changes in the nature and scope of humanitarian assistance activities have created new challenges in health surveillance, particularly outside of camp-based settings. The primary aim of the Humanitarian Health Information Management Working Group was to identify challenges and areas that need further elucidation in a range of non-camp settings, including urban and rural as well as low- and middle-income countries. Three major themes emerged: (1) standardization of measures and methodologies; (2) context in data collection and management; and (3) hidden populations and the purpose of surveillance in urban settings. Innovative examples of data collection and management in community-based surveillance were discussed, including task-shifting, health worker to community member ratio, and literacy needs. Surveillance in non-camp settings can be informed by surveillance activities in camp-based settings, but requires additional consideration of new methods and population needs to achieve its objectives.

  4. Biomass Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Ian Bonner; David J. Muth

    2015-04-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  5. Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response : Patrick Meier, 2015, CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL, 978-1-4822-4839-5, 259 pp.).

    PubMed

    Dave, Anushree

    2017-10-05

    This is a review of Patrick Meier's 2015 book, Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective.

  6. Humanitarian engineering: democratizing science and technology.

    PubMed

    Natero, Rodrigo N; Flores, Facundo; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended to mention some organizations detailing the type of activities being carried out and the action strategies; to analyze the situation in our country and, finally, to publicize our proposal to this problem. Capitalizing the experience gained in other parts of the world by different entities in order to promote the engineering humanitarian in our country, democratizing access to health, technology and the resources necessary to all the community, we will intend to promote that engineers and engineering students can take a part of the problem both domestically and worldwide, because we are part of the solution and we fit to take charge of the obligations as professionals and human beings.

  7. [Child care management in maxillofacial humanitarian mission].

    PubMed

    Bénateau, H; Traoré, H; Chatellier, A; Caillot, A; Ambroise, B; Veyssière, A

    2015-09-01

    Our practice in a humanitarian (or crisis) context differs from what we experience in daily practice. There are several reasons for this. First, the diseases encountered are sometimes unfamiliar, such as sequelae of noma, or the presentation of familiar diseases may be unusual, such as facial malformations seen at a late stage. Secondly, these missions take place in developing countries, and consequently, evaluation and anticipation of possible malnutrition should be considered, especially because facial diseases themselves may be responsible for nutritional problems. Lastly, conditions are often difficult, occurring in an unusual environment, and we sometimes have to face communication and equipment problems. The goal of our work, based on a 15-year experience (in Bamako and Mopti with the Association "Santé et Développement", and in Ouagadougou with the organization "Les enfants du noma") and the analysis of literature, is to point out these features and maybe to be helpful to others.

  8. Humanitarian mine detection by acoustic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The JASON Committee at MITRE Corp. was tasked by DARPA to inquire into suitable technologies for humanitarian mine detection. Acoustic resonance was one of the very few technologies that the JASONs determined might be promising for the task, but was as yet unexplored at the time that they conducted their inquiry. The objective of this Seed Money investigation into acoustic resonance was to determine if it would be feasible to use acoustic resonance to provide an improvement to present methods for humanitarian mine detection. As detailed in this report, acoustic resonance methods do not appear to be feasible for this task. Although acoustic resonant responses are relatively easy to detect when they exist, they are very difficult to excite by the non-contact means that must be used for buried objects. Despite many different attempts, this research did not discover any practical means of using sound to excite resonant responses in objects known to have strong resonances. The shaker table experiments did see an effect that might be attributable to the resonance of the object under test, but the effect was weak, and exploited the a priori knowledge of the resonant frequency of the object under test to distinguish it from the background. If experiments that used objects known to have strong acoustic resonances produced such marginal results, this does not seem to be a practical method to detect objects with weak resonances or non-existent resonances. The results of this work contribute to the ORNL countermine initiative. ORNL is exploring several unconventional mine detection technologies, and is proposed to explore others. Since this research has discovered some major pitfalls in non-metallic mine detection, this experience will add realism to other strategies proposed for mine detection technologies. The experiment provided hands-on experience with inert plastic mines under field conditions, and gives ORNL additional insight into the problems of developing practical

  9. Forecasting Workload for Defense Logistics Agency Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT FORECASTING WORKLOAD FOR DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY...DATE December 2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORECASTING WORKLOAD FOR DEFENSE LOGISTICS ...maximum 200 words) The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) predicts issue and receipt workload for its distribution agency in order to maintain

  10. Logistics hardware and services control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koromilas, A.; Miller, K.; Lamb, T.

    1973-01-01

    Software system permits onsite direct control of logistics operations, which include spare parts, initial installation, tool control, and repairable parts status and control, through all facets of operations. System integrates logistics actions and controls receipts, issues, loans, repairs, fabrications, and modifications and assets in predicting and allocating logistics parts and services effectively.

  11. Overview of overseas humanitarian, disaster, and civic aid programs.

    PubMed

    Drifmeyer, Jeff; Llewellyn, Craig

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) conducts humanitarian assistance missions under the Overseas Humanitarian Disaster and Civic Aid program for the statutory purposes of training military personnel, serving the political interests of the host nation and United States, and providing humanitarian relief to foreign civilians. These purposes are undertaken via the humanitarian assistance (HA), humanitarian and civic assistance, and excess property donation programs. DoD conducts over 200 such projects annually at a direct cost of approximately 27 million dollars in fiscal year 2001. Although varying by year and command, as many as one-half of these projects involve aspects of health care. These range from short-term patient care to donation of medical supplies and equipment excess to the needs of the DoD. Despite the considerable resources invested and importance of international actions, there is presently no formal evaluation system for these HA projects. Current administrative staffing of these programs by military personnel is often by individuals with many other duties and responsibilities. As a result, humanitarian projects are often inadequately coordinated with nongovernmental organizations, private volunteer organizations, or host-nation officials. Nonmedical military personnel sometimes plan health-related projects with little or no coordination with medical experts, military or civilian. After action reports (AARs) on these humanitarian projects are often subjective, lack quantitative details, and are devoid of measures of effectiveness. AARs are sometimes inconsistently completed, and there is no central repository of information for analysis of lessons learned. (The approximate 100 AARs used in the conduct of these studies are available for official use in the Learning Resources Center, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences.) Feedback from past humanitarian projects is rare and with few exceptions; DoD-centric projects of a similar design are

  12. Focused Logistics, Joint Vision 2010: A Joint Logistics Roadmap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    least one will arrive when needed will become a thing of the past. The logistics footprint of the future will be a more precise bal- Conceptualization...level strategy. Fo- cused Logistics programs have become high-profile issues within the Chairman’s Pro- gram Recommendations and the Chairman’s...Technology Plan (JWSTP). OSD, Di- rector for Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E), publishes this plan an- nually, and it becomes part of the

  13. Biafra Still Matters: Contested Humanitarian Airlift and American Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    behind the scenes , while remaining neutral (or even pro-federal government) publicly. The ICRC and United Nations were failing to make headway with...Government of Nigeria. The United States decided to remain neutral while later supporting the humanitarian operation. Such shades of gray...affect the theory, practice, and doctrine of humanitarian relief? Since risk to personnel, risk of escalation, and perceptions of neutrality or use

  14. Humanitarian Assistance and ’Soft’ Power Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-04

    challenge the current dogma that U.S. military humanitarian support must maintain the ‘status quo’ and remain reactionary. The decoupling will occur in...future challenges that go beyond humanitarian assistance. These were not an all inclusive list of similarities between Peace Operations and...Civil Authorities  Intergovernmental organizations (United Nations)  Local population This is not an all inclusive list, but it helps set the

  15. Analyzing Resources of United States Marine Corps for Humanitarian Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-26

    the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR), the capabilities of the USMC will need to be...matched to the demand created by future disasters . In this research, we study the USMC resources that are primarily responsible for the response, the...effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR), the capabilities of the USMC

  16. Ethics in humanitarian services: report on the earthquake in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Aacharya, Ramesh P; Tiwari, Sanjeeb; Shrestha, Tirtha M

    2017-01-01

    The Nepal earthquake was one of the biggest natural calamities of the year 2015. This paper attempts to explore the ethical issues involved in the humanitarian services rendered during the crisis and thereafter. The four principles of biomedical ethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice - are discussed in relation to the relief activities immediately following the disaster and the subsequent long-term activities, such as rehabilitation, wherever applicable. The discussion touches upon public health components such as vulnerable populations, environmental ethics and justice for the future. Incorporating ethical principles into the response to disasters is of vital importance to ensure that healthcare complies with professional norms and ethical standards, and is in tune with the medical needs of the local culture. Beneficence is prioritised, while non-maleficence and autonomy tend to be ignored. Justice, particularly distributive justice, deserves due attention in the context of limited resources, not only during the emergency phase but also during the phases of rehabilitation and planning for the future.

  17. The far side: the meta functions of humanitarianism in a globalised world.

    PubMed

    Donini, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the meta functions of humanitarianism--that is, the functions that, as an ideology, a movement and a profession, it performs, wittingly or unwittingly, in the early twenty-first century. The term humanitarianism is used as shorthand to encompass a complex set of currents of thought, actions and institutions of which the boundaries are unclear. The focus is on mainstream humanitarianism, the dominant Northern/Western enterprise. The paper first discusses the relationship between humanitarianism and globalised power. It goes on to examine three types of functions that humanitarianism and humanitarian action perform: 'macro' functions--the deep undercurrents, power relations and values that humanitarianism articulates and transmits; 'meso' functions--those that relate to the political economy of humanitarian action and to the mechanics (rather than to the ideology) of globalisation; and 'micro' functions that relate to the motivations of the individuals who devote their energies to humanitarianism.

  18. Methodologic and Logistic Issues in Conducting Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Gladstone, Eleanor A.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Drew, Christina H.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Holland, Nina T.; Lanphear, Bruce; Meisel, Stefanie J.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Sweeney, Anne; Whyatt, Robin M.; Yolton, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    In anticipation of the National Children’s Study, lessons can be learned from the smaller birth cohort studies conducted by five Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The populations studied are diverse in ethnicity and social class and reside in urban and rural environments. Although almost all of the centers chose to enroll participants through medical care facilities, they had to develop independent staffs and structures because of the overburdened medical care system. Some of the lessons learned by the centers include the importance of continuous funding, building community partnerships to conduct culturally appropriate research, hiring bilingual and bicultural staff from the community, prioritizing research goals, developing biorepositories to ensure future utility of samples, instituting quality control procedures for all aspects of specimen and data collection, maintaining frequent contact with study participants, ensuring ethical conduct of the research in a changing medical-legal climate, and communicating results in a timely and appropriate manner to participants and the wider community. All centers underestimated the necessary start-up time, staff, and costs in conducting these birth cohort studies. Despite the logistical complexity and added expenses, all centers emphasize the importance of studying the impact of environmental exposures on those children most at risk, those living in minority and low-income communities. These centers present barriers encountered, solutions found, and considerations for future research, with the hope that the lessons learned can help inform the planning and conduct of the National Children’s Study. PMID:16203258

  19. Logistics, electronic commerce, and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkis, Joseph; Meade, Laura; Talluri, Srinivas

    2002-02-01

    Organizations realize that a strong supporting logistics or electronic logistics (e-logistics) function is important from both commercial and consumer perspectives. The implications of e-logistics models and practices cover the forward and reverse logistics functions of organizations. They also have direct and profound impact on the natural environment. This paper will focus on a discussion of forward and reverse e-logistics and their relationship to the natural environment. After discussion of the many pertinent issues in these areas, directions of practice and implications for study and research are then described.

  20. A United States Civil Affairs Response to the Pending Humanitarian Crisis Following the Collapse of the North Korean Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    North Korean migrants. The two main issues are acute malnutrition and a drug resistant outbreak of tuberculosis . The resource this study uses to...determine the internationally recognized standards for providing aid to dislocated civilians (DCs) is The Sphere Project Handbook . The United Nations...approved the Sphere Project Handbook as its official standard for providing humanitarian assistance. United Nations OCHA used the Sphere Project

  1. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  2. [Daily risks in the devaluation of the image of humanitarian action].

    PubMed

    Biquet, J M

    2002-01-01

    After restating the definition, purpose, and role of humanitarian assistance, the author emphasizes the dangers that misuse for political considerations represents for the image of humanitarian action. While recognizing that technical expertise is important for effective provision of aid, the author stresses that humanitarianism requires more than technology. He also warns that collecting the funds necessary for relief operations must not lead to commercial-style marketing of humanitarian assistance. Similarly he cautions that the targets for humanitarian action should not be determined by television pictures. In conclusion the author advocates responsible administration of humanitarian programs.

  3. The impact of humanitarian context conditions and individual characteristics on aid worker retention.

    PubMed

    Korff, Valeska P; Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    High employee turnover rates constitute a major challenge to effective aid provision. This study examines how features of humanitarian work and aid workers' individual characteristics affect retention within one humanitarian organisation, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Holland. The study extends existing research by providing new theoretical explanations of employment opportunities and constraints and by engaging in the first large-scale quantitative analysis of aid worker retention. Using a database of field staff (N=1,955), a logistic regression is performed of the likelihood of reenlistment after a first mission. The findings demonstrate that only 40 per cent of employees reenlist for a second mission with MSF Holland, and that workplace location and security situation, age, and gender have no significant effect. Individuals are less likely to reenlist if they returned early from the first mission for a personal reason, are in a relationship, are medical doctors, or if they come from highly developed countries. The paper reflects on the findings in the light of policy. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  4. The development and maturation of humanitarian psychology.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gerard A

    2007-11-01

    Humanitarian psychological support as an organized field is relatively young. Pioneers in the field were involved primarily in providing psychological support to refugees and internally displaced persons in conflict and nonconflict situations. This article describes basic principles for the design of psychological support programs and interventions. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) began a psychological support program in 1991. The IFRC chose psychological first aid as its model for implementation in developing countries. Psychological first aid fits all the principles for psychological support program design and is adapted to individual communities. The first generation of psychological support programs differed dramatically depending on the countries in which they were developed. A second generation of psychological support programs evolved in response to the earthquake/tsunami of December 26, 2004. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee international guidelines consolidated the advances of second-generation programs and provided a clear indication of the wide acceptance of the importance of psychological support. A glimpse is provided of the third generation of psychological support programs, and an admonition is made for a more empirical evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Innovation in Graduate Education for Health Professionals in Humanitarian Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dabney P; Anderson, Mark; Shahpar, Cyrus; Del Rio, Carlos; Curran, James W

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this report was to show how the Center for Humanitarian Emergencies (the Center) at Emory University (Atlanta, Georgia USA) has trained graduate students to respond to complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs) through innovative educational programs, with the goal of increasing the number of trained humanitarian workers. Natural disasters are on the rise with more than twice as many occurring from 2000-2009 as there were from 1980-1989. In 2012 alone, 144 million people were affected by a natural disaster or displaced by conflict worldwide. This has created an immense need for trained humanitarian workers to respond effectively to such disasters. The Center has developed a model for educational programming that targets learners along an educational continuum ranging from the undergraduate level through continuing professional education. These programs, based in the Rollins School of Public Health (RSPH) of Emory University, include: a competency-based graduate certificate program (the Certificate) in humanitarian emergencies; a fellowship program for mid-career professionals; and funded field practica. The competency-based Certificate program began in 2010 with a cohort of 14 students. Since then, 101 students have received the Certificate with 50 more due for completion in 2016 and 2017 combined. The fellowship program for mid-career professionals has hosted four fellows from conflict-affected or resource-poor countries, who have then gone on to assume leadership positions with humanitarian organizations. From 2009-2015, the field practicum program supported 34 students in international summer practicum experiences related to emergency response or preparedness. Students have participated in summer field experiences on every continent but Australia. Together the Certificate, funded field practicum opportunities, and the fellowship comprise current efforts in providing innovative education and training for graduate and post-graduate students of public

  6. Between war and peace: humanitarian assistance in violent urban settings.

    PubMed

    Lucchi, Elena

    2010-10-01

    Cities are fast becoming new territories of violence. The humanitarian consequences of many criminally violent urban settings are comparable to those of more traditional wars, yet despite the intensity of the needs, humanitarian aid to such settings is limited. The way in which humanitarian needs are typically defined, fails to address the problems of these contexts, the suffering they produce and the populations affected. Distinctions between formal armed conflicts, regulated by international humanitarian law, and other violent settings, as well as those between emergency and developmental assistance, can lead to the neglect of populations in distress. It can take a lot of time and effort to access vulnerable communities and implement programmes in urban settings, but experience shows that it is possible to provide humanitarian assistance with a significant focus on the direct and indirect health consequences of violence outside a traditional conflict setting. This paper considers the situation of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Guatemala City (Guatemala). © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  7. Surgical Outreach for Children by International Humanitarian Organizations: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler, Laura; McQueen, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery for children in these settings have included humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, short-term surgical missions, and long-term projects such as building pediatric specialty hospitals and provider networks. Each of these efforts may also include educational initiatives designed to increase local capacity. This article will provide an overview of pediatric humanitarian surgical outreach including reference to available evidence-based analyses of these platforms and make recommendations for surgical outreach initiatives for children. PMID:28657589

  8. Privatisation and outsourcing in wartime: the humanitarian challenges.

    PubMed

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    2006-12-01

    The tendency today to privatise many activities hitherto considered the exclusive preserve of the state has given rise to sharp debate. The specific nature of humanitarian emergencies elucidates in particularly stark contrast some of the main challenges connected to the privatisation and outsourcing of essential public services, such as the provision of drinking water and health care. Privatising the realms of defence and security, which are at the very core of state prerogative, raises several legal and humanitarian concerns. This article focuses on the roles and responsibilities of the various parties involved in armed conflicts, especially those of private companies engaged in security, intelligence and interrogation work, and in the provision of water supply and health services. It highlights the need for humanitarian and development actors to grasp better the potential risks and opportunities related to privatisation and outsourcing with a view to supplying effective protection and assistance to communities affected by war.

  9. Health equity in humanitarian emergencies: a role for evidence aid.

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Humanitarian emergencies require a range of planned and coordinated actions: security, healthcare, and, as this article highlights, health equity responses. Health equity is an evidence-based science that aims to address unfair and unjust health inequality outcomes. New approaches are using health equity to guide the development of community programs, equity methods are being used to identify disadvantaged groups that may face health inequities in a humanitarian emergency, and equity is being used to prevent unintended harms and consequences in interventions. Limitations to health equity approaches include acquiring sufficient data to make equity interpretations, integrating disadvantage populations in to the equity approach, and ensuring buy-in from decision-makers. This article uses examples from World Health Organization, Refugee Health Guidelines and Health Impact Assessment to demonstrate the emerging role for health equity in humanitarian emergencies. It is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium, on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India.

  10. Innovations in research ethics governance in humanitarian settings.

    PubMed

    Schopper, Doris; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross; Ahmad, Aasim; Jesani, Amar; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Segelid, Michael J; Sheel, Sunita; Singh, Jerome

    2015-02-26

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is one of the world's leading humanitarian medical organizations. The increased emphasis in MSF on research led to the creation of an ethics review board (ERB) in 2001. The ERB has encouraged innovation in the review of proposals and the interaction between the ERB and the organization. This has led to some of the advances in ethics governance described in this paper. We first update our previous work from 2009 describing ERB performance and then highlight five innovative practices: • A new framework to guide ethics review • The introduction of a policy exempting a posteriori analysis of routinely collected data • The preapproval of "emergency" protocols • General ethical approval of "routine surveys" • Evaluating the impact of approved studies. The new framework encourages a conversation about ethical issues, rather than imposing quasi-legalistic rules, is more engaged with the specific MSF research context and gives greater prominence to certain values and principles. Some of the innovations implemented by the ERB, such as review exemption or approval of generic protocols, may run counter to many standard operating procedures. We argue that much standard practice in research ethics review ought to be open to challenge and revision. Continued interaction between MSF researchers and independent ERB members has allowed for progressive innovations based on a trustful and respectful partnership between the ERB and the researchers. In the future, three areas merit particular attention. First, the impact of the new framework should be assessed. Second, the impact of research needs to be defined more precisely as a first step towards being meaningfully assessed, including changes of impact over time. Finally, the dialogue between the MSF ERB and the ethics committees in the study countries should be enhanced. We hope that the innovations in research ethics governance described may be relevant for other organisations carrying out

  11. Multicriteria Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Aerial Delivery Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    proportion of historical (over the last 20 years) disaster frequency for each iteration b, which equals the quotient of the average number of disaster...The world factbook 2013-14. Washington (DC): Central Intelligence Agency; 2013. 27. Hendricks K, Singhal VR. The effect of supply chain disruptions on

  12. Collaboration in Humanitarian Logistics: Comparative Analysis of Disaster Response in Chile and Haiti 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    land totals 28 percent of available land area with agriculture composed of coffee, mangoes , sugar cane, 33 rice, corn, sorghum, and wood...hydropower. Exports total $554.8 million (2007 est.) with manufactured items, coffee, oils, cocoa, and mangoes being the main exports. Imports total

  13. The Military Logistics Support of Humanitarian Relief Efforts during Low-Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Vol 1, 183). The Hari River waters the fertile Herat region and flows northward into the Soviet Union. The Helmand River originates in the southwestern...butter, soda crackers and multiple vitamins . Other excess food items which were favorites of the Afghans included applesauce and beans in tomato sauce

  14. International humanitarian nursing work: facing difference and embracing sameness.

    PubMed

    Zinsli, Graham; Smythe, Elizabeth A

    2009-04-01

    This article explores the experience of humanitarian disaster and emergency nursing, asking the question, "How is difference (and sameness) in being a nurse revealed when working in a disaster/relief context?" The articles discusses interviews with seven nurses, plus the primary researcher, who tell their stories of humanitarian nursing. Stark differences are revealed: extent of injuries, limits of treatment, and overwhelmingness of need. Alongside this is the huge difference of personal danger. Sameness shows itself in the human-to-human call and response to need that holds nurses in such work. Difference and sameness are not fixed; one readily becomes the other.

  15. Measles vaccination in humanitarian emergencies: a review of recent practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF) occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred beyond 5 years of age

  16. [The human, humanistic, humanist and humanitarian in medicine].

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, A

    1997-01-01

    The Spanish use of words like human, humane, humanitarian, humanist and humanistic (humano, humanista, humanístico y humanitario) as synonyms has created some confusion. Human (humano) is related with man's nature, its goodness and evil; humane and humanitarian (humanitario) with kindness and benevolence; humanistic (humanístico) with the cultural and artistic movement that began in renaissance and with anthropocentric philosophy, while humanist (humanista) is identified with the fields of learning (humanities) including the arts, history, literature, and philosophy, excluding the sciences. Medicine and physicians must have all these attributes.

  17. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  18. Increase urban resilience by planning the public spaces uses for humanitarian interventions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaitre, Maxime; Barroca, Bruno; Vargas, Jorge; Cornejo, Christian; Sierra, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    Challenges in post-disaster crisis of natural origin seem to have a strong relation with territory characteristics (location, habitat, propagation, etc.). Moreover, they determine those requirements needed for humanitarian interventions. Decision-making at response and recuperation stages are supported or limited depending on the availability of public spaces to be used for victims' accommodation, field hospitals and rubble deposits. In the case of Lima and Callao (Peru), the presence and superposition of multiple governmental levels - national, regional (1), provincial (2) and district (50) - result in a highly-complex local Disaster Risk Management system for response coordination. The diversity of actors, their responsibilities and individual initiative suggest competition for the resources available in an emergency situation. Resource location determines if humanitarian operations can be run in an effective and efficient way. In this context, public space is a fundamental resource; if it is well-selected, it will provide access to accumulated resources such as water, electricity and telecommunications for the affected population. To increase urban resilience, it requires previous planning and coordination for emergency response, where institutional and territorial configurations are decisive factors for the recuperation and rehabilitation processes performance. This communication will present the institutional and territorial dimensions of the Peruvian capital which condition emergency management performances to consider the crisis management opportunities, offered by territorial analysis and estimations of actors' needs. It would be a starting point for decision-making on emergence activities locations and for establishing coordination frameworks concerning territorial issues and challenges.

  19. Satisfaction with the humanitarian response to the 2010 Pakistan floods: a call for increased accountability to beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Thomas; Siddiqui, Muhammad Ahmed; Perrin, Paul Clayton; Robinson, W Courtland; Sauer, Lauren M; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-07-01

    Ascertain recipients' level of satisfaction with humanitarian response efforts. A multi-stage, 80×20 cluster sample randomized survey (1800 households) with probability proportional to size of households affected by the 2010 Indus river floods in Pakistan. The floods affected over 18 million households and led to more than 8 billion USD in response dollars. Less than 20% of respondents reported being satisfied with response, though a small increase in satisfaction levels was observed over the three time periods of interest. Within the first month, receipt of hygiene items, food and household items was most strongly predictive of overall satisfaction. At 6 months, positive receipt of medicines was also highly predictive of satisfaction. The proportion of households reporting unmet needs remained elevated throughout the 6-month period following the floods and varied from 50% to 80%. Needs were best met between 1 and 3 months postflood, when response was at its peak. Unmet needs were the greatest at 6 months, when response was being phased down. Access-limiting issues were rarely captured during routine monitoring and evaluation efforts and seem to be a significant predictor in dissatisfaction with relief efforts, at least in the case of Pakistan, another argument in favor of independent, population-based surveys of this kind. There is also need to better identify and serve those not residing in camps. Direct surveys of the affected population can be used operationally to assess ongoing needs, more appropriately redirect humanitarian resources, and ultimately, judge the overall quality of a humanitarian response.

  20. Integration of Humanitarian Knowledge in Art and Design Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamzina, Nadezhda Enovna; Mazina, Julia Ilyinichna; Turganbayeva, Shakhizada Sainbekovna

    2016-01-01

    The process of integration of humanitarian knowledge is being examined in the article and the development of the project activities and a special outlook on the examples of famous artists, designers and architects are investigated. The forms of creative thinking are systematized and the factors modifying the borders of design knowledge are formed…

  1. Humanitarian Curriculum and Psychosocial Interventions: An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retamal, Gonzalo; Low, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical description of the impact of violence and natural disasters on schoolchildren. It attempts to explore the present state of the art in psychosocial aspects of education and the curriculum in humanitarian settings. This is carried out through a compilation and a brief annotated bibliography of existing literature…

  2. Optimizing Resources of United States Navy for Humanitarian Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-26

    6  A Notional Scenario ...Humanitarian Operations The vessels that the USN deployed for HADR in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami were the entire Abraham Lincoln Carrier Strike...officers. We studied every ship that was deployed to respond to certain disasters. Apte et al. (2013) studied the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami , the 2005

  3. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  4. Immigration removal order stayed on humanitarian and compassionate grounds.

    PubMed

    2003-08-01

    The Immigration Appeal Division of the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) has stayed a removal order against a man living with HIV and HCV on humanitarian and compassionate grounds. Taking an enlightened approach, the IRB found that Gurbinder Randhawa's efforts at rehabilitation for his drug dependence was a positive factor in staying the removal order.

  5. Protective Environments and Quality Education in Humanitarian Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Pilar; Retamal, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    This paper reflects the experience of the authors working in the field of humanitarian education during the last two decades. Important changes have been witnessed since the Central American crises of the seventies, the refugee focus of the eighties and the new UN vision of the complex emergency crisis of the nineties resulting from the post Cold…

  6. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground.

  7. The professional humanitarian and the downsides of professionalisation.

    PubMed

    James, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Criticisms lodged at humanitarian relief often include the belief that professionalisation is needed. The problems associated with humanitarianism would end, it is assumed, if the delivery of aid, and relief workers themselves, were more professional and 'business like'. To explore this further, the paper asks what comprises a profession, and offers four criteria: (1) specialisation of knowledge; (2) establishment of the profession as a livelihood; (3) organisation and institutionalisation; and (4) legitimacy and authority. A model for understanding professionalisation, as developed by the author, is then presented. The analysis compares six other professions against the same criteria to argue that the humanitarian community already constitutes a profession. Finally, three potential downsides of professionalisation are offered: the distance of the relief worker from the beneficiary, barriers to entry into the humanitarian sector, and adding to risk aversion and a decline in innovation. Based on these findings, professionalisation should be approached with some caution. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  8. Humanitarian aid operations in Republica Srpska during Operation Resolute 2.

    PubMed

    Thornton, R; Cordell, R F; Edmonds, K E

    1997-10-01

    The humanitarian aid experience of a unit in Bosnia is described. Data are presented for primary care clinics undertaken, showing the range of conditions and age of patients seen. The role of the civilian aid agencies involved is described, together with recommendations for future training requirements for similar operations.

  9. Protective Environments and Quality Education in Humanitarian Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Pilar; Retamal, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    This paper reflects the experience of the authors working in the field of humanitarian education during the last two decades. Important changes have been witnessed since the Central American crises of the seventies, the refugee focus of the eighties and the new UN vision of the complex emergency crisis of the nineties resulting from the post Cold…

  10. Humanitarian Interventions: Western Imperialism or a Responsibility to Protect?--An Analysis of the Humanitarian Interventions in Darfur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damboeck, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…

  11. Humanitarian Interventions: Western Imperialism or a Responsibility to Protect?--An Analysis of the Humanitarian Interventions in Darfur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damboeck, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…

  12. Logistics Officer Career Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    Logistics and the Failure of the British Army in America , 1775-1783, Bowler , R . Arthur Logistics in World War II: Final... Logistics Centers (ALCs). The Air ’# " 26 Force currently has five ALCs including Warner Robins ALC ( W R - A L C ) , Oklahoma...throughout the world. The command also performs a wide variety of logistical services and serves as a combat support partner with the

  13. The Netted Humanitarian: Improving the Information and Communications Technology Assessment Process for Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    70  1.  Field Testing Netted Humanitarian FLAK .....................................70  2...and Coordination Team FLAK Fly Away Kit FOG Field Operations Guide GEO Geostationary Earth Orbit GPS Global Positioning System HA/DR Humanitarian...utilizes Ethernet protocol. 6 G. THESIS STRUCTURE This thesis is organized in the following fashion : Chapter I provides for the introduction and

  14. Humanitarian assistance and accountability: what are we really talking about?

    PubMed

    Tan, Y S Andrew; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-06-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a worldwide increase in the number of disasters, as well as the number of people affected, along with the number of foreign medical teams (FMTs) deployed to provide assistance. However, in the wake of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, multiple reports and anecdotes questioned the actual, positive contribution of such FMTs and even the intentions behind these aid efforts. This brought on a renewed interest in the humanitarian community towards accountability. Between 2000 and 2012, the number of "Quality and Accountability" initiatives and instruments more than tripled from 42 to 147. Yet, to date, there is no single accepted definition of accountability in the humanitarian context. The aim of this report was to explore and assess how accountability in the humanitarian context is used and/or defined in the literature. The electronic database PubMed and a predefined list of grey literature comprising 46 organizations were searched for articles that discussed or provided a definition of accountability in the humanitarian context. The definitions found in these articles were analyzed qualitatively using a framework analysis method based on principles of grounded theory as well as using a summative content analysis method. A total of 85 articles were reviewed in-depth. Fifteen organizations had formal definitions of accountability or explained what it meant to them. Accountability was generally seen in two paradigms: as a "process" or as a "goal." A total of 16 different concepts were identified amongst the definitions. Accountability to aid recipients had four main themes: empowering aid recipients, being in an optimal position to do the greatest good, meeting expectations, and being liable. The concepts of "enforcement/enforceability" under the last theme of "being liable" received the least mention. The concept of accountability is defined poorly in many humanitarian organizations. Humanitarian providers often refer to different

  15. One health and force health protection during foreign humanitarian assistance operations: 2010 Pakistan flood relief.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Restrictions on the number of troops that could enter Pakistan in support of the 2010 flood relief efforts limited the type and number of deployed medical personnel. Although this created the potential for mission gaps, the assigned personnel were able to perform additional functions beyond those normally associated with their particular health specialty to help close these gaps, which was largely made possible due to prior cross-training and predeployment refresher training. Given the rapid and unpredictable nature of disaster response, future foreign humanitarian assistance operations may face similar issues with assigned personnel. Promotion of the One Health concept through instruction and training will help to increase awareness among US Army Medical Department personnel about the roles and functions of health specialties, facilitate the identification of critical gaps during deployments, and provide personnel with the knowledge and skills needed to address them.

  16. New trends of short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism: professional and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Junck, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism has grown significantly among both clinicians and trainees over the past several years. Increasingly, both volunteers and their respective institutions have faced important challenges in regard to medical ethics and professional codes that should not be overlooked. We explore these potential concerns and their risk factors in three categories: ethical responsibilities in patient care, professional responsibility to communities and populations, and institutional responsibilities towards trainees. We discuss factors increasing the risk of harm to patients and communities, including inadequate preparation, the use of advanced technology and the translation of Western medicine, issues with clinical epidemiology and test utility, difficulties with the principles of justice and clinical justice, the lack of population-based medicine, sociopolitical effects of foreign aid, volunteer stress management, and need for sufficient trainee supervision. We review existing resources and offer suggestions for future skill-based training, organisational responsibilities, and ethical preparation.

  17. KSC ISS Logistics Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellado, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The presentation contains a status of KSC ISS Logistics Operations. It basically presents current top level ISS Logistics tasks being conducted at KSC, current International Partner activities, hardware processing flow focussing on late Stow operations, list of KSC Logistics POC's, and a backup list of Logistics launch site services. This presentation is being given at the annual International Space Station (ISS) Multi-lateral Logistics Maintenance Control Panel meeting to be held in Turin, Italy during the week of May 13-16. The presentatiuon content doesn't contain any potential lessons learned.

  18. I’m from the Government and I’m Here to Help: Humanitarian Assistance in West Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    Two such sources that will provide valuable insight are Maya Kandel’s study –U.S. Strategy in Africa, which concludes that the U.S. is concentrating...to future researchers: should any future researchers decide to study humanitarian assistance and social change as part of U.S. strategy affecting West...War College Guide to National Security Issues, Volume I: Theory of War and Strategy , 4th ed. Edited by. J. Boone Bartholomees Jr, 45-52. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.

  19. A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

    2014-05-01

    A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number

  20. Stabilisation and humanitarian access in a collapsed state: the Somali case.

    PubMed

    Menkhaus, Ken

    2010-10-01

    Somalia today is the site of three major threats: the world's worst humanitarian crisis; the longest-running instance of complete state collapse; and a robust jihadist movement with links to Al-Qa'ida. External state-building, counter-terrorism and humanitarian policies responding to these threats have worked at cross-purposes. State-building efforts that insist humanitarian relief be channelled through the nascent state in order to build its legitimacy and capacity undermine humanitarian neutrality when the state is a party to a civil war. Counter-terrorism policies that seek to ensure that no aid benefits terrorist groups have the net effect of criminalising relief operations in countries where poor security precludes effective accountability. This paper argues that tensions between stabilisation and humanitarian goals in contemporary Somalia reflect a long history of politicisation of humanitarian operations in the country.

  1. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    PubMed

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own.

  3. Shelter strategies, humanitarian praxis and critical urban theory in post-crisis reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lilianne

    2012-07-01

    The paper seeks to link contemporary thinking on urban shelter in the humanitarian sector to debates in the field of 'critical urban theory'. It argues that current humanitarian thinking on urban shelter shares many common concerns with critical urban theory, but that these concerns are rarely translated effectively into humanitarian practice. It attributes this disconnect not only to weaknesses in implementation capacity, but also to the need to reorient humanitarian action to address more definitively questions of power and justice. Humanitarian actors need to step back from product-delivery approaches and find ways of integrating into their analytical, planning, implementation and monitoring tools questions about access, exclusion and the historically specific ways in which these aspects converge in particular urban spaces. By doing so, the humanitarian community would benefit from a more explicit, systematic and sustained engagement with the catalytic theoretical resources that critical urban theory has to offer.

  4. Research review of nongovernmental organizations' security policies for humanitarian programs in war, conflict, and postconflict environments.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Elizabeth; Burns, Lauren; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-06-01

    To identify the most and least commonly cited security management messages that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are communicating to their field staff, to determine the types of documentation that NGOs most often use to communicate key security messages, and to distinguish the points of commonality and divergence across organizations in the content of key security messages. The authors undertook a systematic review of available security policies, manuals, and training materials from 20 international humanitarian NGOs using the InterAction Minimum Operating Security Standards as the basis for a review framework. The most commonly cited standards include analytical security issues such as threat and risk assessment processes and guidance on acceptance, protection, and deterrence approaches. Among the least commonly cited standards were considering security threats to national staff during staffing decision processes, incorporating security awareness into job descriptions, and ensuring that national staff security issues are addressed in trainings. NGO staff receive security-related messages through multiple document types, but only 12 of the 20 organizations have a distinct security policy document. Points of convergence across organizations in the content of commonly cited standards were found in many areas, but differences in security risk and threat assessment guidance may undermine communication between aid workers about changes in local security environments. Although the humanitarian community has experienced significant progress in the development of practical staff security guidance during the past 10 years, gaps remain that can hinder efforts to garner needed resources, clarify security responsibilities, and ensure that the distinct needs of national staff are recognized and addressed.

  5. Lightweighting Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-27

    Lightweighting Issues "Need to be faster, more agile, less bureaucratic - Need to Fight this everyday" Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lightweighting Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas Mathes 5d...practices • Designed for force-on-force engagement • Cumbersome logistics tail • Basic situational awareness • Lightweight armor • Structure plus armor (A

  6. Strengthening the evidence base for health programming in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P

    2014-09-12

    Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Mental health considerations for military humanitarian aid personnel.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Julie; Everly, George S

    2010-01-01

    Mental health services for veterans of humanitarian assistance (HA) missions is a critical and growing need within the United States military. The mental health impacts of such missions are both similar to and different from those experienced on combat missions, and may have an equally significant impact on the health and wellness of our troops. As the US military increasingly deploys humanitarian teams on both peacetime and contingency missions, this need can be expected to grow and must be addressed with more research and more attention to prevention, screening, and treatment. In this paper we will present a brief summary of the possible mental health effects of military HA missions, and propose remedies to address the adverse conditions that may arise in the pre-deployment, deployment, and redeployment settings.

  8. Challenges and opportunities for humanitarian relief in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Trueman W; Burkle, Frederick M; Vaughn, Andrew F; Chotani, Rashid; Brennan, Richard J

    2002-06-15

    Afghanistan is in the midst of a profound humanitarian crisis resulting primarily from long-standing armed conflict, a devastating drought, and massive population migration. The economy, government, and health care system are in shambles. Currently, as many as 5 million Afghans are in camps either as refugees in neighboring countries or as internally displaced persons within Afghanistan. Much of the rest of the population is in dire need of basic essentials such as food, water, shelter, and basic medical care. Those attempting to carry out humanitarian relief face many daunting challenges, such as reaching remote locations, coping with a dangerous security situation, and working with limited resources. However, there are opportunities in the short run to save many lives and substantially improve the plight of Afghans by carrying out appropriate and effective emergency relief programs. Over the long term, effective medical and public health relief efforts will be an essential part of rehabilitating and rebuilding this devastated country.

  9. Israeli Defense Forces Medical Corps humanitarian mission for Kosovo's refugees.

    PubMed

    Amital, Howard; Alkan, Michael L; Adler, Jakov; Kriess, Iyzhak; Levi, Yehezkel

    2003-01-01

    In April 1999, during the crisis in Kosovo, the Israeli government launched a medical, field hospital in order to provide humanitarian aid to the Albanian refugees that fled from their homes in Kosovo. This facility was set up by the Medical Corps of the Israeli Defense Forces, in a refugee camp located in Northern Macedonia. During the 16 days during which the hospital functioned, the medical staff treated 1,560 patients and hospitalized >100. The field hospital served as a referral center for all of the other primary clinics that were hastily erected in the camp and its surroundings. This communication elaborates on the various aspects of the humanitarian medical aid that were provided by this medical facility and the conclusions that learned from such a mission.

  10. Drivers of Complexity in Humanitarian Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-04

    a man-made component, because deforestation resulted in the flooding disaster. Many disasters defy a clear-cut categorization. This issue is one of...pÅÜççä= benefit further analysis. It is imperative to also understand the context of those disasters that were identified as outliers in this

  11. War Games and Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    manifestation of war--or portrayal of Its physical essence--is logistics" (4:9) then clearly our war plans (and war games) should reflect an active and ongoing... active training and testing program for logistics? The next chapter will address that question. 21 CHAPTER IV THEATER WAR EXERCISE (TWX) The TWX Is a ten...War Exercise (TWX) as the model. The report concludes by suggesting several logistics simulation models now in use by the military that could be

  12. Focused Logistics: Putting Agility in Agile Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    list, ahead of companies like American Express, DuPont and Coca Cola; Supports nearly 1,900 weapon systems; DLA manages eight supply chains and...maneuver units and cumbersome logistics tail that executed and supported operations during the 1st Gulf War. The initial sustainment concept in

  13. The Role of Prepositioned Stocks: Sustaining and Responding to Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    THE ROLE OF PREPOSITIONED STOCKS: SUSTAINING AND RESPONDING TO FOREIGN HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF (HADR) OPERATIONS...SUBTITLE The Role of Prepositioned Stocks: Sustaining and Responding to Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Operations...

  14. Just-In-Time Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-07

    Logistics modernization, end-to-end logistics, logistics transformation, and just - in - time logistics -- whichever name it is being called today, it is...demonstrations as to what these systems will do for the end user, consumer confidence will increase and " just - in - time " logistics will lead to a lighter and leaner combat logistics support.

  15. Sustainment and Logistics in Better Buying Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    37 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Sustainment and Logistics in Better Buying Power David J. Berteau Berteau is Assistant Secretary of Defense...Better Buying Power (BBP) in 2010, its key sustain - ment initiative has focused on Per- formance-Based Logistics (PBL). With the updated guid- ance...for BBP 3.0 issued April 9, it is worth expanding the view of these updated initiatives through the sustainment prism. This article finds that

  16. 78 FR 5185 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... the industry and FDA staff entitled ``Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) Designations.'' Devices are... HUD designations may be eligible for marketing approval under the Humanitarian Device Exemption...

  17. Humanitarian Information Management Network Effectiveness: An Analysis at the Organizational and Network Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…

  18. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  19. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  20. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  1. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  2. The Relationship between Perceived School Climate and the Adolescents' Adherence to Humanitarian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turhan, Muhammed; Akgül, Tülin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between students' perception of school climate and their adherence to humanitarian values. To this end, the study group consisted of 1094 students in 21 secondary schools in Elazig province of Turkey. The "School Climate Scale," developed by Çalik and Kurt, and the "Humanitarian Values…

  3. Humanitarian Information Management Network Effectiveness: An Analysis at the Organizational and Network Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…

  4. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in…

  5. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in…

  6. The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful.

  7. Humanitarian ventures or 'fistula tourism?': the ethical perils of pelvic surgery in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Wall, L Lewis; Arrowsmith, Steven D; Lassey, Anyetei T; Danso, Kwabena

    2006-11-01

    The vesico-vaginal fistula from prolonged obstructed labor has become a rarity in the industrialized West but still continues to afflict millions of women in impoverished Third World countries. As awareness of this problem has grown more widespread, increasing numbers of American and European surgeons are volunteering to go on short-term medical mission trips to perform fistula repair operations in African and Asian countries. Although motivated by genuine humanitarian concerns, such projects may serve to promote 'fistula tourism' rather than significant improvements in the medical infrastructure of the countries where these problems exist. This article raises practical and ethical questions that ought to be asked about 'fistula trips' of this kind, and suggests strategies to help insure that unintended harm does not result from such projects. The importance of accurate data collection, thoughtful study design, critical ethical oversight, logistical and financial support systems, and the importance of nurturing local capacity are stressed. The most critical elements in the development of successful programs for treating obstetric vesico-vaginal fistulas are a commitment to developing holistic approaches that meet the multifaceted needs of the fistula victim and identifying and supporting a 'fistula champion' who can provide passionate advocacy for these women at the local level to sustain the momentum necessary to make long-term success a reality for such programs.

  8. Humanitarian presence and urban development: new opportunities and contrasts in Goma, DRC.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level.

  9. Internally displaced women as knowledge producers and users in humanitarian action: the view from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Lemaitre, Julieta

    2013-07-01

    The literature on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises commonly focuses on how inter-and non-governmental organisations can produce better knowledge and how this can be translated into improved programming. Yet, there is little recorded experience of, or concern about, how the beneficiaries of humanitarian relief can produce and use knowledge of their predicament. This paper is based on a case study of how the Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas, an internally displaced women's organisation in northern Colombia, employs proactively research-generated data to advance its own agenda in its interactions with donor bodies and the government. The paper finds that beneficiaries of humanitarian aid can, and do, use participatory research to advance their own ends in the legal and political spaces created around humanitarian crisis. However, their agency is limited by poverty, violence, and local balances of power. The paper concludes that beneficiaries' priorities in the production of data about humanitarian crises warrant further study.

  10. Save the Children, the humanitarian project, and the politics of solidarity: reviving Dorothy Buxton's vision.

    PubMed

    Baughan, Emily; Fiori, Juliano

    2015-10-01

    This paper reflects on the foundational years of Save the Children, one of the oldest and largest Western humanitarian agencies and a mainstay of the humanitarian project. In doing so, it considers how and why, at an early stage, the organisation depoliticised its activities, centring its narrative on the innocent, pre-political child-the image of unsullied humanity. In addition, it seeks to recover the internationalist vision of Save the Children's 'forgotten founder', Dorothy Buxton. Save the Children's turn to non-politics is indicative of the broader depoliticisation of Western humanitarian action. Given the intensely contested spaces in which Western humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operate, these entities cannot escape politics. This paper argues that Buxton's efforts to build an international solidarity network through humanitarian action after the end of the First World War in 1918 provide an instructive basis on which these NGOs can pursue a politics of solidarity in the present day.

  11. Building a geospatial data model for humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Nuala M

    2014-01-01

    An effectual emergency response effort is contingent upon the quality and timeliness of information provided to both the decision making and coordinating functions; conditions that are hard to guarantee in the urgent climate of the response effort. The purpose of this paper is to present a validated Humanitarian Data Model (HDM) that can assist in the rapid assessment of disaster needs and subsequent decision making. Substandard, inconsistent information can lead to poorly informed decisions, and subsequently, inappropriate response activities. Here we present a novel, organized, and fluid information management workflow to be applied during the rapid assessment phase of an emergency response. A comprehensive, peer-reviewed geospatial data model not only directs the design of data collection tools but also allows for more systematic data collection and management, leading to improved analysis and response outcomes. This research involved the development of a comprehensive geospatial data model to guide the collection, management and analysis of geographically referenced assessment information, for implementation at the rapid response phase of a disaster using a mobile data collection app based on key outcome parameters. A systematic review of literature and best practices was used to identify and prioritize the minimum essential data variables. The data model was critiqued for variable content, structure, and usability by a group of subject matter experts in the fields of humanitarian information management and geographical information systems. Consensus found that the adoption of a standardized system of data collection, management, and processing, such as the data model presented here, could facilitate the collection and sharing of information between agencies with similar goals, facilitate the better coordination of efforts by unleashing the power of geographic information for humanitarian decision support.

  12. Humanitarian intervention after the Iraq crisis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Defining the criteria for intervening in the affairs of sovereign states has become a pressing issue for the international community. Pre-emptive actions, based on a unilateral view of evil or risk, have caused divisions and questions of legitimacy, whilst the failures to take collective actions against extreme suffering reflect a lack of coherence in international decision making. The current concerns about terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and failed states lack clear definition of these and of how risks might be estimated, to whom the risks apply and the responsibilities of the various players. The primacy of the United States is without question, but opinion within and without is divided, many feeling the US should use its power to do what is best for the world as a whole and not just act out of self-interest. There is a need to engage with the US and its institutions at all levels. There is also a need to develop more robust conflict prevention strategies with adequate resources, personnel and management, such as suggested in the BASIC conflict prevention service.

  13. Mental health in humanitarian settings: shifting focus to care systems.

    PubMed

    Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A

    2013-03-01

    Mental health in low- and middle income countries has received increasing attention. This attention has shifted focus, roughly moving from demonstrating the burden of mental health problems, to establishing an evidence base for interventions, to thinking about care delivery frameworks. This paper reviews these trends specifically for humanitarian settings and discusses lessons learned. Notably, that mental health assessments need to go beyond measuring the impact of traumatic events on circumscribed psychiatric disorders; that evidence for effectiveness of interventions is still too weak and its focus too limited; and that development of service delivery in the context of instable community and health systems should be an area of key priority.

  14. Stability Operations and Explosive Ordnance Including Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-18

    assumption of long term assistance through the Bureau of Humanitarian Response, Office of Transition Initiatives.41 The U.S . Department of State Arms...October 11, 2009). 33 U.S . Department of State , Diplomacy in Action, “U.S. Landmine Policy,” http://www.state. gov/t/pm/wra/c11735.htm (accessed...September 29, 2009). 34 U.S . Department of State , Diplomacy in Action, “U.S. Landmine Policy,” http://www.state. gov/t/pm/wra/c11735.htm (accessed

  15. Security in Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cempírek, Václav; Nachtigall, Petr; Široký, Jaromír

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with security of logistic chains according to incorrect declaration of transported goods, fraudulent transport and forwarding companies and possible threats caused by political influences. The main goal of this paper is to highlight possible logistic costs increase due to these fraudulent threats. An analysis of technological processes will beis provided, and an increase of these transport times considering the possible threatswhich will beis evaluated economic costs-wise. In the conclusion, possible threat of companies'` efficiency in logistics due to the costs`, means of transport and increase in human resources` increase will beare pointed out.

  16. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  17. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  18. Tracking humanitarian funding for reproductive health: a systematic analysis of health and protection proposals from 2002-2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises conducted a ten-year global evaluation of reproductive health in humanitarian settings. This paper examines proposals for reproductive health activities under humanitarian health and protection funding mechanisms for 2002-2013, and the level at which these reproductive health proposals were funded. Methods The study used English and French health and protection proposal data for 2002-2013, extracted from the Financial Tracking Service (FTS) database managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Every project was reviewed for relevance against pre-determined reproductive health definitions for 2002-2008. An in-depth analysis was additionally conducted for 2009-2013 through systematically reviewing proposals via a key word search and subsequently classifying them under designated reproductive health categories. Among the relevant reproductive health proposals, counts and proportions were calculated in Excel based on their reproductive health components, primarily by year. Contributions, requests, and unfunded requests were calculated based on the data provided by FTS. Results Among the 11,347 health and protection proposals issued from 345 emergencies between 2002 and 2013, 3,912 were relevant to reproductive health (34.5%). The number of proposals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 21.9% per year, while the proportion of health and protection sector appeals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 10.1% per year. The total funding request over the 12 years amounted to $4.720 billion USD, of which $2.031 billion USD was received. Among reproductive health components for 2009-2013 proposals, maternal newborn health comprised the largest proportion (56.4%), followed by reproductive health-related gender-based violence (45.9%), HIV/sexually transmitted infections (37.5%), general reproductive health

  19. Tracking humanitarian funding for reproductive health: a systematic analysis of health and protection proposals from 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Mihoko; Schaus, Kristen; Rastogi, Sonia; Krause, Sandra K; Patel, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    The Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises conducted a ten-year global evaluation of reproductive health in humanitarian settings. This paper examines proposals for reproductive health activities under humanitarian health and protection funding mechanisms for 2002-2013, and the level at which these reproductive health proposals were funded. The study used English and French health and protection proposal data for 2002-2013, extracted from the Financial Tracking Service (FTS) database managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Every project was reviewed for relevance against pre-determined reproductive health definitions for 2002-2008. An in-depth analysis was additionally conducted for 2009-2013 through systematically reviewing proposals via a key word search and subsequently classifying them under designated reproductive health categories. Among the relevant reproductive health proposals, counts and proportions were calculated in Excel based on their reproductive health components, primarily by year. Contributions, requests, and unfunded requests were calculated based on the data provided by FTS. Among the 11,347 health and protection proposals issued from 345 emergencies between 2002 and 2013, 3,912 were relevant to reproductive health (34.5%). The number of proposals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 21.9% per year, while the proportion of health and protection sector appeals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 10.1% per year. The total funding request over the 12 years amounted to $4.720 billion USD, of which $2.031 billion USD was received. Among reproductive health components for 2009-2013 proposals, maternal newborn health comprised the largest proportion (56.4%), followed by reproductive health-related gender-based violence (45.9%), HIV/sexually transmitted infections (37.5%), general reproductive health (26.2%), and lastly

  20. Multisource information fusion for logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Petrov, Plamen; Noll, Warren

    2011-05-01

    Current Army logistical systems and databases contain massive amounts of data that need an effective method to extract actionable information. The databases do not contain root cause and case-based analysis needed to diagnose or predict breakdowns. A system is needed to find data from as many sources as possible, process it in an integrated fashion, and disseminate information products on the readiness of the fleet vehicles. 21st Century Systems, Inc. introduces the Agent- Enabled Logistics Enterprise Intelligence System (AELEIS) tool, designed to assist logistics analysts with assessing the availability and prognostics of assets in the logistics pipeline. AELEIS extracts data from multiple, heterogeneous data sets. This data is then aggregated and mined for data trends. Finally, data reasoning tools and prognostics tools evaluate the data for relevance and potential issues. Multiple types of data mining tools may be employed to extract the data and an information reasoning capability determines what tools are needed to apply them to extract information. This can be visualized as a push-pull system where data trends fire a reasoning engine to search for corroborating evidence and then integrate the data into actionable information. The architecture decides on what reasoning engine to use (i.e., it may start with a rule-based method, but, if needed, go to condition based reasoning, and even a model-based reasoning engine for certain types of equipment). Initial results show that AELEIS is able to indicate to the user of potential fault conditions and root-cause information mined from a database.

  1. From war on terror to war on weather? Rethinking humanitarianism in a new era of chronic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Third World Quarterly makes a case for redirecting attention and resources away from the 'war on terror' and focussing as a matter of urgency on the causes and consequences of global climate change. Global climate change must be recognised as an issue of national and international security. Increased competition for scarce resources and migration are key factors in the propagation of many of today's chronic complex humanitarian emergencies. The relentless growth of megacities in natural disaster hotspots places unprecedented numbers of vulnerable people at risk of disease and death. The Earth's fragile ecosystem has reached a critical tipping point. Today's most urgent need is for a collective endeavour on the part of the international community to redirect resources, enterprise and creativity away from the war on terror and to earnestly redeploy these in seeking solutions to the far greater and increasingly imminent threats that confront us as a consequence of global climate change.

  2. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  3. Cleft and Craniofacial Care During Military Pediatric Plastic Surgery Humanitarian Missions.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christopher; Lough, Denver; Lim, Alan; Harshbarger, Raymond J; Kumar, Anand R

    2015-06-01

    -surgical (Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Score) speech score was 12 (range, 6-24). The average postsurgical speech score was 6 (range, 0-21). Average hospital stay was 3 days for cleft surgery. There were no major complications or mortality, 1 reoperation for bleeding or infection, and 12 patients required secondary operations for palatal fistula, unsatisfactory aesthetic result, malocclusion, or velopharygeal dysfunction. Military pediatric plastic surgery humanitarian missions can be executed with similar home institution results after the initiation and evolution of a standardized approach to humanitarian missions. The incorporation of a dedicated logistics support unit, a dedicated operational specialist (senior noncommissioned officer), a speech language pathologist, remote internet follow up, an liaison officer (host nation liaison physician participation), host nation surgical resident participation, and support from the embassy, Military Advisory Attachment Group, and United States Aid and International Development facilitated patient accurate patient evaluation and posttreatment follow-up. Movement of the mission site from a remote more austere environment to a centralized better equipped facility with host nation support to transport patients to the site facilitated improved patient safety and outcomes despite increasing the complexity of surgery performed.

  4. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  5. Complex Logistics Strategy for Industrial Companies in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horňáková, Natália; Hudák, Ján; Vidová, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Presented paper is a part of the dissertation thesis titled as "A proposal to develop Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies. The result of the thesis will be a methodology for developing a Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies in Slovakia. The main aim of the paper is to present some trends and strategies in Logistics and clarify the need of resolving the issue of Logistics Strategy based on the theoretical knowledge, case studies and analysis of current state of Logistics Strategies in industrial companies in Slovakia and other European countries.

  6. Logistics planning for phased programs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that the proper and early integration of logistics planning into the phased program planning process will drastically reduce these logistics costs. Phased project planning is a phased approach to the planning, approval, and conduct of major research and development activity. A progressive build-up of knowledge of all aspects of the program is provided. Elements of logistics are discussed together with aspects of integrated logistics support, logistics program planning, and logistics activities for phased programs. Continuing logistics support can only be assured if there is a comprehensive sequential listing of all logistics activities tied to the program schedule and a real-time inventory of assets.

  7. Practical Session: Logistic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    An exercise is proposed to illustrate the logistic regression. One investigates the different risk factors in the apparition of coronary heart disease. It has been proposed in Chapter 5 of the book of D.G. Kleinbaum and M. Klein, "Logistic Regression", Statistics for Biology and Health, Springer Science Business Media, LLC (2010) and also by D. Chessel and A.B. Dufour in Lyon 1 (see Sect. 6 of http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/R/pdf/tdr341.pdf). This example is based on data given in the file evans.txt coming from http://www.sph.emory.edu/dkleinb/logreg3.htm#data.

  8. Nurses' contribution to short-term humanitarian care in low- to middle-income countries: An integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Sonja; Elliott, Doug; Jackson, Debra

    2017-03-23

    To appraise the literature related to voluntary humanitarian work provided by international nurses in low- to middle-income countries. Nurses and other health professionals are engaged with both governmental and nongovernmental organisations to provide care within international humanitarian relief and development contexts. Current literature describes accounts of charitable health professional activity within short-term health-focused humanitarian trips; however, there is minimal research describing the care that nurses provide and the professional roles and tasks they fulfil whilst participating in international volunteer healthcare service. Integrative review. A search of articles published between 1995-2015 was conducted using seven bibliographic databases. Inclusion criteria incorporated nurses and allied health professionals' involvement in a volunteer short-term medical team capacity. Papers describing military and/or disaster response with a service-learning focus were excluded. Nineteen papers were selected for review, description and discussion of findings. Findings revealed limited data describing the care nurses provide and the professional roles and tasks they fulfil within the context of international humanitarian short-term medical trips. Issues raised included a description of demographic data regarding participants and sending agencies, motivation for volunteer participation, perceptions of effectiveness of particular programmes and sustainability issues related to cultural, ethical or moral obligations of foreign health professionals working in a low- to middle-income countries. Study findings highlighted that although nurses are recruited and participate in health-focused humanitarian activities in low- to middle-income countries, there is extremely limited documented research about the amount and type of care that nurses specifically provide in this context. Furthermore, when identified, it is most often hidden within studies outlining services

  9. Integrated disaster relief logistics: a stepping stone towards viable civil-military networks?

    PubMed

    Tatham, Peter; Rietjens, Sebastiaan Bas

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen a significant rise in all forms of disasters and this has resulted in military and humanitarian organisations becoming more frequently engaged in the provision of support to those affected. Achieving an efficient and effective logistic preparation and response is one of the key elements in mitigating the impact of such events, but the establishment of mechanisms to deliver an appropriately integrated civil-military approach remains elusive. Not least because of the high percentage of assistance budgets spent on logistics, this area is considered to represent fertile ground for developing improved processes and understanding. In practice, the demands placed on civilian and military logisticians are broadly similar, as is the solution space. Speaking a common language and using common concepts, it is argued, therefore, that the logistic profession should be in the vanguard of the development of an improved civil-military interface. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  10. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  11. Logistics and Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    and supplies.9 Over time, the concept of logistics evolved from the simple task of providing housing into multifunctional capabilities utilized...economic sanctions against an oil rich country may raise prices in other regions of the world. Strategy mitigates the effects of complexity by...Landmark Battle (New York: Random House , 1990), 32-36. 69 Miller, Guadalcanal: The First Offensive, 37. 28

  12. Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a PMID:7580643

  13. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  14. Mortality rate and confidence interval estimation in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kevin; Hossain, S M Moazzem; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2010-01-01

    Surveys are conducted frequently in humanitarian emergencies to assess the health status of the population. Most often, they employ complex sample designs, such as cluster sampling. Mortality is an indicator commonly estimated in such surveys. Confidence limits provide information on the precision of the estimate and it is important to ensure that confidence limits for a mortality rate account for the survey design and utilise an acceptable methodology. This paper describes the calculation of confidence limits for mortality rates from surveys using complex sampling designs and a variety of software programmes and methods. It contains an example that makes use of the SAS, SPSS, and Epi Info software programmes. Of the three confidence interval methods examined--the ratio command approach, the modified rate approach, and the modified proportion approach--the paper recommends the ratio command approach to estimate mortality rates with confidence limits.

  15. Development of a thermal neutron sensor for Humanitarian Demining.

    PubMed

    Cinausero, M; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Viesti, G; Filippini, V

    2004-07-01

    A thermal neutron sensor prototype for Humanitarian Demining has been developed, trying to minimize cost and complexity of the system as required in such application. A (252)Cf source or a sealed-tube neutron generator is employed to produce primary fast neutrons that are thermalized in a moderator designed to optimize the neutron capture reaction yield in buried samples. A description of the sensor, including the performances of the acquisition system based on a Flash ADC card and final tests with explosive simulants are reported. A comparison of the sensor performance when using a radioactive source to that when employing a sealed-tube neutron generator is presented. Limitations and possible applications of this technique are discussed.

  16. Characteristics of an Effective International Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Ardalan, Ali; Waugh, William; Tirone, Daniel C.; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is to identify the effectiveness characteristics, review the definition of them, and develop a conceptual mapping of existing domains in the field of International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and searched the major databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Springer and Pubmed) and grey literature, including references of potentially eligible articles and conference proceedings through March 2015. Articles were included if they focused on IHA effectiveness. Reviewers independently identified the eligible studies and extracted data. Results: 10 studies were included and 48 characteristics were identified. There is a lack of scientific studies and agreement on the characteristics of IHA effectiveness.  Conclusion: This study could be the step toward an understanding of IHA effectiveness characteristics and its definitions with the findings making a base line for more research in this area.  PMID:26981325

  17. Humanitarian relief workers and trauma-related mental illness.

    PubMed

    Connorton, Ellen; Perry, Melissa J; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Humanitarian relief work is a growing field characterized by ongoing exposure to primary and secondary trauma, which has implications for workers' occupational mental health. This paper reviews and summarizes research to date on mental health effects of relief work. Twelve studies on relief workers and 5 studies on organizations that employ relief workers are examined to determine whether relief work is a risk factor for trauma-related mental illness. Although studies are inconsistent regarding methods and outcomes documenting trauma-related mental illness among relief workers, it appears that relief workers, compared with the general population, experience elevated trauma rates and suffer from more posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Organizations that employ relief workers have varying approaches to train for these risks, and more support in the field is needed.

  18. Determining medical staffing requirements for humanitarian assistance missions.

    PubMed

    Negus, Tracy L; Brown, Carrie J; Konoske, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission of hospital ships is to provide acute medical and surgical services to U.S. forces during military operations. Hospital ships also provide a hospital asset in support of disaster relief and humanitarian assistance (HA) operations. HA missions afford medical care to populations with vastly different sets of medical conditions from combat casualty care, which affects staffing requirements. Information from a variety of sources was reviewed to better understand hospital ship HA missions. Factors such as time on-site and location shape the mission and underlying goals. Patient encounter data from previous HA missions were used to determine expected patient conditions encountered in various HA operations. These data points were used to project the medical staffing required for future missions. Further data collection, along with goal setting, must be performed to accomplish successful future HA missions. Refining staffing requirements allows deployments to accomplish needed HA and effectively reach underserved areas.

  19. The practice of humanitarianism: a village birthing clinic in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Wick, Livia

    2011-01-01

    Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation.

  20. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations.

  1. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by such... technology to Sudan and the transfer of funds to and from Sudan for the purpose of relieving human...

  2. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by such... technology to Sudan and the transfer of funds to and from Sudan for the purpose of relieving human...

  3. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by such... technology to Sudan and the transfer of funds to and from Sudan for the purpose of relieving human...

  4. 31 CFR 538.521 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in Sudan, authorizing transactions by such... technology to Sudan and the transfer of funds to and from Sudan for the purpose of relieving human...

  5. Reason, emotion, compassion: can altruism survive professionalisation in the humanitarian sector?

    PubMed

    Carbonnier, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  6. The United Nations' humanitarian pillar: refocusing the UN's disaster and emergency roles and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Kent, Randolph C

    2004-06-01

    Changes in the nature of humanitarian crises and in the ways that the international community responds to such crises demand a radically overhauled role for the United Nations system. At a time when the UN and its member states are pursuing reform of some of that institution's most fundamental peace and security functions, this paper suggests that reform, too, is required to meet humanitarian crises of the future. This paper proposes a new type of operational role for the UN, while at the same time arguing that the UN has to place itself in the vanguard of humanitarian assistance as "the standard-bearer". The article draws many of its conclusions and recommendations from a recently completed study, requested by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee, concerning the effect for the UN system of changes in humanitarian financing.

  7. 31 CFR 545.511 - Registration of nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian or religious activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing... nongovernmental organizations involved in humanitarian or religious activities in the territory of Afghanistan..., including the exportation of goods, software, technology or services to the territory of...

  8. 76 FR 34639 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office... the Office of Food for Peace, U.S. Agency for International Development, RRB 7.06- 085, 1300...

  9. 75 FR 74678 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office... Office of Food for Peace, U.S. Agency for International Development, RRB 7.06- 152, 1300 Pennsylvania...

  10. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization?s guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations.

  11. 77 FR 52713 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 17, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics... Iberville Parish, Louisiana, under PetroLogistics' blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP07-427-000, et...

  12. An Electronic Competency-Based Evaluation Tool for Assessing Humanitarian Competencies in a Simulated Exercise.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrea B; Hulme, Jennifer M; Nugus, Peter; Cranmer, Hilarie H; Coutu, Melanie; Johnson, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies' (CBHA; United Kingdom), now "Start Network's," Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx). All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators' assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member. This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of

  13. Professionalization of anesthesiologists and critical care specialists in humanitarian action: a nationwide poll among italian residents.

    PubMed

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Carenzo, Luca; Burkle, Frederick M; Della Corte, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Over the last decades, humanitarian crises have seen a sharp upward trend. Regrettably, physicians involved in humanitarian action have often demonstrated incomplete preparation for these compelling events which have proved to be quite different from their daily work. Responders to these crises have included an unpredictable mix of beginner-level, mid-level, and expert-level providers. The quality of care has varied considerably. The international humanitarian community, in responding to international calls for improved accountability, transparency, coordination, and a registry of professionalized international responders, has recently launched a call for further professionalization within the humanitarian assistance sector, especially among academic-affiliated education and training programs. As anesthetists have been involved traditionally in medical relief operations, and recent disasters have seen a massive engagement of young physicians, the authors conducted, as a first step, a poll among residents in Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine in Italy to evaluate their interest in participating in competency-based humanitarian assistance education and in training incorporated early in residencies. The Directors of all the 39 accredited anesthesia/critical care training programs in Italy were contacted and asked to submit a questionnaire to their residents regarding the objectives of the poll study. After acceptance to participate, residents were enrolled and asked to complete a web-based poll. A total of 29 (74%) of the initial training programs participated in the poll. Out of the 1,362 questionnaires mailed to residents, 924 (68%) were fully completed and returned. Only 63(6.8%) of the respondents voiced prior participation in humanitarian missions, but up to 690 (74.7%) stated they were interested in participating in future humanitarian deployments during their residency that carried over into their professional careers. Countrywide, 896 (97%) favored prior

  14. The International Space Station: New Capabilities for Disaster Response and Humanitarian Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William

    2012-01-01

    products) and operational (notification and engagement of sensor support teams, international partner agency sanction of astronaut support activities). To better collaborate on common issues and strengthen applications, including using the data to support disaster response, we established an ISS Program Science Forum Working Group for Earth Observations comprised of representatives from the international partner agencies. This international forum welcomes input and support from relevant United Nations task groups regarding our disaster response and humanitarian aid to enable development of the ISS capabilities in this area for greatest value to the international community.

  15. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. Design We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. Setting International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). Results 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Conclusions Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals’ and organisations’ growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate

  16. Making the Case for Humanitarian Intervention: National Interest and Moral Imperative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    FOR HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION: NATIONAL INTEREST AND MORAL IMPERATIVE by Ryan L. Benitez March 2015 Thesis Advisor: Daniel Moran Second... MORAL IMPERATIVE 6. AUTHOR(S) Ryan L. Benitez 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NA1\\tiE (S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate...makers are constrained or compelled by circumstances of nat ional interest and moral imperat ive . This examination of humanitarian intervention rev iews

  17. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-12-08

    To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals' and organisations' growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate, reflection and reform. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  18. Relevance or Excellence? Setting Research Priorities for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between

  19. [European Center for Humanitarian Health (CESH). Providing operational know-how directly applicable in crisis situations].

    PubMed

    Baudon, D; Beaulaton, A; Petit, P; Delmont, J; Petit, C

    2002-01-01

    Founded in 1997 at the initiative of Charles Mérieux, the European Center for Humanitarian Health Care (French acronym, CESH) is a Public Interest Organization comprising 7 members, i.e., Lyon 1 Claude Bernard University, Aix-Marseille II University of the Mediterranean, the Public Hospital System of Lyon, the Public Hospital System of Marseille, the French Army Health Corps, the Mérieux Foundation, and the National School of Veterinary Medicine in Lyon. The CESH is a multifunctional resource dedicated to providing education, information, and research in the field of humanitarian action. The objectives of the CESH's Educational Program are to increase awareness of the complexity of humanitarian action and teach the principles and methods necessary to integrate experienced teams already in the field. Courses including a three-week study program sanctioned by an Interuniversity Degree in Public Health and several 2-to-3-day training modules are open to all humanitarian actors including field workers and decision-makers, health-care professionals, and governmental or other administrative agents. Thanks to a diverse faculty with academic, humanitarian, training, civilian and military backgrounds and to a wide-ranging curriculum, the CESH helps to promote communication and to open up closed pathways of cooperation between the different groups involved in humanitarian action. The module entitled "Humanitarian Assistance and Civilian and Military Cooperation" exemplifies the effort of the CESH to generate collaborative behavior among civilian and military actors. The CESH's Research Program is aimed at providing practical tools for decision-making in the field. The web site of the CESH [http://cesh.univ-lyon1.fr] presents the mission and activities of the Center as well as information on course enrolment and humanitarian action.

  20. Applied technologies in humanitarian assistance: report of the 2009 Applied Technology Working Group.

    PubMed

    Greenough, P G; Chan, J L; Meier, P; Bateman, L; Dutta, S

    2009-01-01

    Information and communication technologies, especially in the forms of mobile telecommunications, satellite imaging, and geographical information systems, promise to significantly improve the practice of humanitarian relief. A working group convened at the Humanitarian Action Summit 2009, has begun investigating the challenges to implementing these technologies in field operations, keeping in mind the ethical considerations of linking people to place, and pledging to build a community of practice among academics, practitioners, and developers.

  1. Cross Roads or Cross Purposes? Tensions Between Military and Humanitarian Providers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    interest however. The Departments of State and Defense are arms of the United States government and are thus responsible to the nation and its people ...from policy practitioners is genuine, they believe their common cause with their humanitarian NGO coun- terparts should serve as a basis for a...efficiently through such coopera- tion. But these organizations fear that doing so risks the ideal of a humanitarian space and threatens to overwhelm it with

  2. Relevance or excellence? Setting research priorities for mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings.

    PubMed

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and U.N. agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between the goals of "relevance" and "excellence

  3. The Syrian public health and humanitarian crisis: A 'displacement' in global governance?

    PubMed

    Akbarzada, Sumaira; Mackey, Tim K

    2017-02-04

    Ongoing failure by the international community to resolve the Syrian conflict has led to destruction of critical infrastructure. This includes the collapse of the Syrian health system, leaving millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in urgent need of healthcare services. As the conflict intensifies, IDP populations are suffering from infectious and non-communicable disease risks, poor maternal and child health outcomes, trauma, and mental health issues, while healthcare workers continually exit the country. Healthcare workers who remain face significant challenges, including systematic attacks on healthcare facilities and conditions that severely inhibit healthcare delivery and assistance. Within this conflict-driven public health crisis, the most susceptible population is arguably the IDP. Though the fundamental 'right to health' is a recognised international legal principle, its application is inadequate due to limited recognition by the UN Security Council and stymied global governance by the broader international community. These factors have also negatively impacted other vulnerable groups other than IDPs, such as refugees and ethnic minorities, who may or may not be displaced. Hence, this article reviews the current Syrian conflict, assesses challenges with local and global governance for IDPs, and explores potential governance solutions needed to address this health and humanitarian crisis.

  4. Factors Associated with Nursing Activities in Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Norihito; Inoue, Satoshi; Shimanoe, Chisato; Shibayama, Kaoru; Shinchi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Although nurses play an important role in humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HA/DR), little is known about the nursing activities that are performed in HA/DR. We aimed to clarify the nursing activities performed by Japanese nurses in HA/DR and to examine the factors associated with the frequency of nursing activities. A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 147 nurses with HA/DR experience. The survey extracted information on demographic characteristics, past experience (e.g., disaster medical training experience, HA/DR experience), circumstances surrounding their dispatched to HA/DR (e.g., team size, disaster type, post-disaster phase, mission term), and the frequency of nursing activities performed under HA/DR. The frequency of nursing activities was rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Evaluation of nursing activities was conducted based on the "nursing activity score", which represents the frequency of each nursing activity. Factors related to the nursing activity score were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Nurses were involved in 27 nursing activities in HA/DR, 10 of which were performed frequently. On analysis, factors significantly associated with nursing activity score were nursing license as a registered nurse (OR 7.79, 95% CI 2.95-20.57), two or more experiences with disaster medical training (OR 2.90 95%, CI 1.12-7.49) and a post-disaster phase of three weeks or longer (OR 8.77, 95% CI 2.59-29.67). These results will contribute to the design of evidence-based disaster medical training that improves the quality of nursing activities.

  5. Factors Associated with Nursing Activities in Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Norihito; Inoue, Satoshi; Shimanoe, Chisato; Shibayama, Kaoru; Shinchi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Although nurses play an important role in humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HA/DR), little is known about the nursing activities that are performed in HA/DR. We aimed to clarify the nursing activities performed by Japanese nurses in HA/DR and to examine the factors associated with the frequency of nursing activities. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 147 nurses with HA/DR experience. The survey extracted information on demographic characteristics, past experience (e.g., disaster medical training experience, HA/DR experience), circumstances surrounding their dispatched to HA/DR (e.g., team size, disaster type, post-disaster phase, mission term), and the frequency of nursing activities performed under HA/DR. The frequency of nursing activities was rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Evaluation of nursing activities was conducted based on the “nursing activity score”, which represents the frequency of each nursing activity. Factors related to the nursing activity score were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Nurses were involved in 27 nursing activities in HA/DR, 10 of which were performed frequently. On analysis, factors significantly associated with nursing activity score were nursing license as a registered nurse (OR 7.79, 95% CI 2.95–20.57), two or more experiences with disaster medical training (OR 2.90 95%, CI 1.12–7.49) and a post-disaster phase of three weeks or longer (OR 8.77, 95% CI 2.59–29.67). Conclusions These results will contribute to the design of evidence-based disaster medical training that improves the quality of nursing activities. PMID:26959351

  6. Scaling up short-term humanitarian surgery: a global surgery elective for senior medical students.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Lee A; McCullough, Chelsea M; Quinn, Megan E; Kapadia, Sameer M; Pettitt, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of US medical students participating in global health has increased by 24%. These experiences are generally self-directed and lack a formal educational component. This article describes a structured, comprehensive, community-driven global surgery elective for senior-year students. "Surgery and Global Health" is a monthlong elective during which students shadow in the university hospital, lead discussions of an assigned text, attend lectures, and participate in a clinical rotation in rural Haiti. The first week is didactic and takes place in Atlanta, GA. Weeks 2 through 4 are clinical and are conducted in Haiti. Urological and general surgery procedures are performed during weeks 2 and 3, while the final week is reserved for follow-up care. This experience was institutionally supported. Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA; L'Hôpital St. Thérèse, Hinche, Centre, Haiti. Emory University School of Medicine students, years 2 through 4, supervised by faculty from the departments of Urology, General Surgery, and Anesthesiology. Senior-year students spent 21 days in central Haiti working in a rural clinical setting. Students participated in all facets of surgical care including preoperative clearance, postanesthesia care, discharge planning, and follow-up. Students felt a level of supervised responsibility that was not afforded at their home institution and were able to take on more advanced clinical roles. Students planned and executed this innovative experience with multidisciplinary, departmental, and institutional support. Stateside components introduced students to Haitian culture, global surgery ethics, and humanitarian surgical trip logistics. Structured global health experiences such as this give students practical skills and incentive to pursue careers involving global surgery. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Antonio de Saldanha da Gama's proposals to improve the slave trade "for humanitarian and economic reasons," Rio de Janeiro, 1810].

    PubMed

    Viotti, Ana Carolina de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    In 1808, Dom João VI issued an edict which regulated the shipping and treatment of slaves on the transatlantic crossing from Africa. Two years later, Antonio de Saldanha da Gama, a member of the Treasury Council, drafted a letter discussing some points of the resolution. This key figure in the Portuguese administration of Brazil argued that his respectful considerations concerning the determinations of His Royal Highness were designed to improve them "for humanitarian and economic reasons." Safeguarded in the archives of Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino, this letter is transcribed, annotated, and contextualized here, supplying an interesting perspective on the prevailing concerns and justifications about the trafficking of African slaves to Brazil.

  8. Direct Killing of Patients in Humanitarian Situations and Armed Conflicts: The Profession of Medicine Is Losing Its Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    During armed conflicts over the past several years, attacks on humanitarian workers and patients have increased, including the most recent overt killing of patients in their hospital beds in South Sudan and Central African Republic, and bombardments of hospitals in Iraq, Syria, and other countries. Direct attacks on patients inside hospitals, as well as social structural dynamics that undermine patient safety and security, are met with apparent indifference by international and medical communities. How can the medical profession remain silent and stand by while these factors render its core mission futile? In this article, I aim to shed light on this issue, and its implications for the future of the neutral and impartial provision of medical care; provide an analysis of underlying and contributing factors; discuss current international strategies; reflect on the responsibility of health providers; explore ways to strengthen our roles as physician advocates; and call for the medical profession to do more to protect medicine's core values. PMID:25646255

  9. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations. PMID:26406333

  10. Neonatal survival interventions in humanitarian emergencies: a survey of current practices and programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neonatal deaths account for over 40% of all deaths in children younger than five years of age and neonatal mortality rates are highest in areas affected by humanitarian emergencies. Of the ten countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally, six are currently or recently affected by a humanitarian emergency. Yet, little is known about newborn care in crisis settings. Understanding current policies and practices for the care of newborns used by humanitarian aid organizations will inform efforts to improve care in these challenging settings. Methods Between August 18 and September 25, 2009, 56 respondents that work in humanitarian emergencies completed a web-based survey either in English or French. A snow ball sampling technique was used to identify organizations that provide health services during humanitarian emergencies to gather information on current practices for maternal and newborn care in these settings. Information was collected about continuum-of-care services for maternal, newborn and child health, referral services, training and capacity development, health information systems, policies and guidelines, and organizational priorities. Data were entered into MS Excel and frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results The majority of responding organizations reported implementing components of neonatal and maternal health interventions. However, multiple barriers exist in providing comprehensive care, including: funding shortages (63.3%), gaps in training (51.0%) and staff shortages and turnover (44.9%). Conclusions Neonatal care is provided by most of the responding humanitarian organizations; however, the quality, breadth and consistency of this care are limited. PMID:22824461

  11. Using Cultural Algorithms to Improve Intelligent Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Alberto; García, Yazmani; Yañez, Javier; Teymanoglu, Yaddik

    Today the issue of logistics is a very important within companies to the extent that some have departments devoted exclusively to it. This has evolved over time and today is a fundamental aspect in the fight business seeking to consolidate or remain leaders in their field. With the above we know that logistics can be divided into different classes, however, in this regard, our study is based on the timely distribution to the customer with a lower cost, higher sales and better utilization of space resulting in excellent service. Finally, prepare a comparative analysis of the results with respect to another method of optimization solution space.

  12. [Understanding logistic regression].

    PubMed

    El Sanharawi, M; Naudet, F

    2013-10-01

    Logistic regression is one of the most common multivariate analysis models utilized in epidemiology. It allows the measurement of the association between the occurrence of an event (qualitative dependent variable) and factors susceptible to influence it (explicative variables). The choice of explicative variables that should be included in the logistic regression model is based on prior knowledge of the disease physiopathology and the statistical association between the variable and the event, as measured by the odds ratio. The main steps for the procedure, the conditions of application, and the essential tools for its interpretation are discussed concisely. We also discuss the importance of the choice of variables that must be included and retained in the regression model in order to avoid the omission of important confounding factors. Finally, by way of illustration, we provide an example from the literature, which should help the reader test his or her knowledge.

  13. Logistics Software Implementation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-28

    to obtain benchmark performance results. The list presented in Appendix A is not final and should be considered only as the initial worksheet . d...has been used in more applications and its imple-... mentation is better understood. All of the preliminary tests have indi- cated excellent ...environment. The fifth-generation languages, such as PROLOG, also provide excellent dynamic data base support. The proposed approach for the Logistics

  14. Building Partner Logistics Capacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    51 The United States should strive to give logistics support a larger role in FMS, and encourage foreign governments to leverage FMS to build their...are the GCC headquarters, the component commands, and the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS). Each of these elements has a role in...Construction Sales, and Other Security Cooperation Historical Facts, 25, 47, 49, 51, 152. 40 Richard Sokolsky, et al., The Role of Southeast Asia in U.S

  15. Failing to protect humanitarian workers: lessons from Britain and Voluntary Aid Detachments in the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amol A

    2017-03-19

    This paper draws on official records of international and British organizations, newspaper reports, and volunteer memoirs to study the failure to protect humanitarian workers in the Second World War. The Second World War saw a significant expansion in the use of air warfare and flying missiles and these technological advances posed a grave threat to civilians and humanitarian workers. In this context, the International Committee of the Red Cross advocated unsuccessfully to restrict air warfare and create safe hospital zones. The British Government grappled with the tension between military and humanitarian objectives in setting its bombardment policy. Ultimately, humanitarian principles were neglected in pursuit of strategic aims, which endangered civilians and left humanitarian workers particularly vulnerable. British Voluntary Aid Detachment nurses experienced more than six-fold greater fatality rates than civil defence workers and the general population. The lessons from failures to protect humanitarian workers in the face of evolutions in warfare remain profoundly relevant.

  16. Identification of current priorities for research in humanitarian action: proceedings of the First Annual UN OCHA Policy and Research Conference.

    PubMed

    Foran, Mark P; Greenough, Paul G; Thow, Andrew; Gilman, Daniel; Schütz, Andreas; Chandran, Rahul; Baiocchi, Allegra

    2012-06-01

    On December 12-13, 2011, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) hosted a humanitarian policy and research conference on the theme of "Risk, Adaptation and Innovation in Humanitarian Action." The four sessions of the conference covered humanitarian action in a changing world, adaptation and innovation in humanitarian action, humanitarian action in protracted and violent conflict, and effective humanitarian action. This special report contains summaries of presentations in each session and the conclusions resulting from the discussions throughout. Through a process of open discussion, debate, and a closing survey, the conference participants identified four top priorities in humanitarian research for the coming years: evidence-driven humanitarian decision-making; accountability and transparency; risk and agility; and partnership. In addition to plans for a 2nd Annual Research and Policy conference in December of 2012, specific outcomes of the conference include a series of regional workshops in 2012 and 2013, launching with Asia, Africa and the Middle East; creation of Policy Working Groups (PWG) for each research priority identified; and a new flagship OCHA publication, to be launched in late 2012 or early 2013, which will share the progress made on the research priorities identified.

  17. Academic affiliated training centers in humanitarian health, Part I: program characteristics and professionalization preferences of centers in North America.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M; Walls, Alexa E; Heck, Joan P; Sorensen, Brian S; Cranmer, Hilarie H; Johnson, Kirsten; Levine, Adam C; Kayden, Stephanie; Cahill, Brendan; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    The collaborative London based non-governmental organization network ELRHA (Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance) supports partnerships between higher education institutions and humanitarian organizations worldwide with the objective to enhance the professionalization of the humanitarian sector. While coordination and control of the humanitarian sector has plagued the response to every major crisis, concerns highlighted by the 2010 Haitian earthquake response further catalyzed and accelerated the need to ensure competency-based professionalization of the humanitarian health care work force. The Harvard Humanitarian Initiative sponsored an independent survey of established academically affiliated training centers in North America that train humanitarian health care workers to determine their individual training center characteristics and preferences in the potential professionalization process. The survey revealed that a common thread of profession-specific skills and core humanitarian competencies were being offered in both residential and online programs with additional programs offering opportunities for field simulation experiences and more advanced degree programs. This study supports the potential for the development of like-minded academic affiliated and competency-based humanitarian health programs to organize themselves under ELRHA's regional "consultation hubs" worldwide that can assist and advocate for improved education and training opportunities in less served developing countries.

  18. Alternative approaches for studying humanitarian interventions: propensity score methods to evaluate reintegration packages impact on depression, PTSD, and function impairment among child soldiers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, B A; Burkey, M; Stuart, E A; Koirala, S

    2015-01-01

    Ethical, logistical, and funding approaches preclude conducting randomized control trials (RCTs) in some humanitarian crises. A lack of RCTs and other intervention research has contributed to a limited evidence-base for mental health and psychosocial support (MHPS) programs after disasters, war, and disease outbreaks. Propensity score methods (PSMs) are an alternative analysis technique with potential application for evaluating MHPS programs in humanitarian emergencies. PSMs were used to evaluate impacts of education reintegration packages (ERPs) and other (vocational or economic) reintegration packages (ORPs) v. no reintegration programs on mental health of child soldiers. Propensity scores were used to determine weighting of child soldiers in each of the three treatment arms. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate adjusted changes in symptom score severity on culturally validated measures of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and functional impairment from baseline to 1-year follow-up. Among 258 Nepali child soldiers participating in reintegration programs, 54.7% completed ERP and 22.9% completed ORP. There was a non-significant reduction in depression by 0.59 (95% CI -1.97 to 0.70) for ERP and by 0.60 (95% CI -2.16 to 0.96) for ORP compared with no treatment. There were non-significant increases in PTSD (1.15, 95% CI -1.55 to 3.86) and functional impairment (0.91, 95% CI -0.31 to 2.14) associated with ERP and similar findings for ORP (PTSD: 0.66, 95% CI -2.24 to 3.57; functional impairment (1.05, 95% CI -0.71 to 2.80). In a humanitarian crisis in which a non-randomized intervention assignment protocol was employed, the statistical technique of PSMs addressed differences in covariate distribution between child soldiers who received different integration packages. Our analysis did not demonstrate significant changes in psychosocial outcomes for ERPs and ORPs. We suggest the use of PSMs in evaluating non-randomized interventions in

  19. Squared sine logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, R. Egydio; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-12-01

    A periodic time perturbation is introduced in the logistic map as an attempt to investigate new scenarios of bifurcations and new mechanisms toward the chaos. With a squared sine perturbation we observe that a point attractor reaches the chaotic attractor without following a cascade of bifurcations. One fixed point of the system presents a new scenario of bifurcations through an infinite sequence of alternating changes of stability. At the bifurcations, the perturbation does not modify the scaling features observed in the convergence toward the stationary state.

  20. Steganalysis using logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubenko, Ivans; Ker, Andrew D.

    2011-02-01

    We advocate Logistic Regression (LR) as an alternative to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers commonly used in steganalysis. LR offers more information than traditional SVM methods - it estimates class probabilities as well as providing a simple classification - and can be adapted more easily and efficiently for multiclass problems. Like SVM, LR can be kernelised for nonlinear classification, and it shows comparable classification accuracy to SVM methods. This work is a case study, comparing accuracy and speed of SVM and LR classifiers in detection of LSB Matching and other related spatial-domain image steganography, through the state-of-art 686-dimensional SPAM feature set, in three image sets.

  1. Saturated logistic avalanche model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Liberti, B.; Paoloni, A.; Santonico, R.

    2003-08-01

    The search for an adequate avalanche RPC working model evidenced that the simple exponential growth can describe the electron multiplication phenomena in the gas with acceptable accuracy until the external electric field is not perturbed by the growing avalanche. We present here a model in which the saturated growth induced by the space charge effects is explained in a natural way by a constant coefficient non-linear differential equation, the Logistic equation, which was originally introduced to describe the evolution of a biological population in a limited resources environment. The RPCs, due to the uniform and intense field, proved to be an ideal device to test experimentally the presented model.

  2. Development of a Course on Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: Preparation for the Impact of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Williams, Holly; Downes, Elizabeth

    2017-09-28

    The effects of climate change are far-reaching and multifactorial, with potential impacts on food security and conflict. Large population movements, whether from the aftermath of natural disasters or resulting from conflict, can precipitate the need for humanitarian response in what can become complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs). Nurses need to be prepared to respond to affected communities in need, whether the emergency is domestic or global. The purpose of the article is to describe a novel course for nursing students interested in practice within the confines of CHEs and natural disasters. The authors used the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards as a practical framework to inform the course development. They completed a review of the literature on the interaction on climate change, conflict and health, and competencies related to working CHEs. Resettled refugees, as well as experts in the area of humanitarian response, recovery, and mitigation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and nongovernmental organizations further informed the development of the course. This course prepares the nursing workforce to respond appropriately to large population movements that may arise from the aftermath of natural disasters or conflict, both of which can comprise a complex humanitarian disaster. Using The Sphere Project e-learning course, students learn about the Sphere Project, which works to ensure accountability and quality in humanitarian response and offers core minimal standards for technical assistance. These guidelines are seen globally as the gold standard for humanitarian response and address many of the competencies for disaster nursing (http://www.sphereproject.org/learning/e-learning-course/). © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. The Co-Creation of a Video to Inspire Humanitarianism: How an Educational Entrepreneurial Approach Inspired Humanitarian Workers to Be Mindfully Innovative Whilst Working with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotty, Yvonne; Kilboy, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the value of embracing digital technology in order to effect positive change in a non-governmental (NGO) charity organisation, in this case the Irish Charity Crosscause. The outcome of the research was the creation of a charity video, Crosscause: Making a Difference, to showcase humanitarian work in Ireland and Romania with…

  4. The Co-Creation of a Video to Inspire Humanitarianism: How an Educational Entrepreneurial Approach Inspired Humanitarian Workers to Be Mindfully Innovative Whilst Working with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotty, Yvonne; Kilboy, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the value of embracing digital technology in order to effect positive change in a non-governmental (NGO) charity organisation, in this case the Irish Charity Crosscause. The outcome of the research was the creation of a charity video, Crosscause: Making a Difference, to showcase humanitarian work in Ireland and Romania with…

  5. NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

  6. Humanitarian agencies and authoritarian states: a symbiotic relationship?

    PubMed

    del Valle, Hernan; Healy, Sean

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between humanitarian agencies and authoritarian states is of growing concern to Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), given the recurring difficulties experienced in negotiating access and implementing operations in such contexts. The effort to negotiate and gain approval from states to operate on their territory prompts reflection on the sources of legitimacy for action. Drawing on direct field examples in two countries only very rarely examined--Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan--this paper explores MSF's attempts to offer live-saving medical care there. It shows that successful access negotiations hinged heavily on demonstrating added value (medical relevance) while simultaneously building relationships with authorities, identifying possible allies within health ministries, and hoping that such measures could promote a level of acceptance or trust needed to operate. It is clear that the operational space achieved is bound to remain limited and fragile, and that many compromises have to be considered and judged against ethical principles and the overall impact of the intervention.

  7. Neurosurgery in Tanzania: a discussion of culture, socioeconomics, and humanitarians.

    PubMed

    Kinasha, Abednego; Kucia, Elisa J; Vargas, Jan; Kavolus, Joseph; Magarik, Jordan; Ellegala, Dilantha B; Nicholas, Joyce

    2012-07-01

    To elucidate the progress of neurosurgical practices in Tanzania, taking into account humanitarian, socioeconomic, and geographic influences. Articles, records, and historical texts were consulted to establish a timeline and history of neurosurgery in Tanzania. Reulen, a German neurosurgeon, was integral to the development of sustainable neurosurgical services in Tanzania. By training Tanzanians who returned to their country to practice, Reulen helped to establish a continuity of care and legacy on which future Tanzanian surgeons could build. Subsequently, as neurosurgical services were integrated into the Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute, surgeons found a hospital to call home and a place to focus their efforts. Neurosurgical services have now been offered to the Tanzanian people for >40 years, a direct consequence of international influences coupled with certain extraordinary Tanzanian physicians. Neurosurgery in Tanzania and Africa more generally has a long history; however, it was not until more recent efforts of certain local pioneers and educational advisors abroad that modernization occurred. The progress of the past 50 years is substantial and with continued efforts advances will continue to be made. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic sensing techniques for humanitarian ordnance detection and discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, Joe; Billings, Steve; Schultz, Gregory; Miller, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in areas of prior conflict is of high importance to the international community and the United States government. For humanitarian applications, sensors and processing methods need to be robust, reliable, and easy to train and implement using indigenous UXO removal personnel. This paper focuses on magnetometer sensing techniques, processing, and operation for UXO detection and discrimination applications. Specifically, we discuss the collection, processing, and discrimination of data collected using the PACMAG man-portable system consisting of arrays of sensitive total-field magnetometers, global positioning (GPS) combined with digital odometers, and a data acquisition system. We outline preliminary standard operating procedures for optimal collection of UXO-induced magnetic fields and associated position data using either a GPS, or odometer when surveying in GPS-denied areas. Processing techniques such as gridding and filtering, target picking, and discrimination lead to estimates of target size and location. Emphasis is placed on simplifying the production of magnetometer hardware and software for use by minimally-trained personnel with no advanced knowledge of magnetic sensing and geophysics.

  9. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client’s status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients’ status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors’ rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  10. Geoengineering: re-making climate for profit or humanitarian intervention?

    PubMed

    Buck, Holly Jean

    2012-01-01

    Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now.

  11. Research ethics in the context of humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal

    2015-02-01

    Research is needed to make responses to disasters and humanitarian emergencies more evidence-based. Such research must also adhere to the generally accepted principles of research ethics. While research into health interventions used in disasters raises distinctive ethical concerns, seven ethical principles developed for clinical research are applied here to disaster research. Practical examples from disaster settings are used to demonstrate how these ethical principles can be applied. This reveals that research ethics needs to be seen as much more than a mechanism to obtain ethical approval for research. Research ethics involves ethical principles and governance frameworks, but must also consider the role of ethical virtues in research. Virtues are essential to ensure that researchers do what they believe is ethically right and resist what is unethical. Research ethics that truly protects participants and promotes respect needs to include training in ethical virtues to ensure disaster research is carried out to the highest ethical standards. This article is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium on 20 September 2014, in Hyderabad, India.

  12. Enforcement costs: some humanitarian alternatives to stronger patent rights.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Diseases that cause comparatively few problems in developed countries kill millions of people in the Third World each year. In many cases, people die because they cannot afford the medication needed to save their lives. In others, there are simply no drugs available because there are no wealthy western patients to justify pharmaceutical companies investing in a cure. This reveals a deep-seated problem within the patent system and the pharmaceutical industry that emphasises markets and profits at the expense of health and global welfare. Global efforts have seen substantial improvements in access to medicines in isolated areas, but with international agreements driving towards stronger patent protection and the expiry date for the TRIPS grace period fast approaching, it is time to consider alternatives which will allow the patent system to work for the humanitarian cause rather than against it. This paper considers two such problems in the patent system and pharmaceutical industry - prohibitive pricing and misdirected incentives - to offer a mode of regulation and enforcement that will support both a viable pharmaceutical industry and the human right to health and medication.

  13. Evaluation of Performance Based Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    logistics warehouse provider (see Figure 11 below). NAVICP-P 3PL Warehouse Provider Lockheed Martin Michelin Government Prime Contractor Subcontractor...Evaluation of Performance Based Logistics by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn August...REPORT DATE AUG 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Performance Based Logistics

  14. 'The deserving': Moral reasoning and ideological dilemmas in public responses to humanitarian communications.

    PubMed

    Seu, Irene Bruna

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in a humanitarian context. The discursive analysis focuses on the principles of deservingness which members of the public use to decide who to help and under what conditions. The study discusses three repertoires of deservingness - 'seeing a difference', 'waiting in queues', and 'something for nothing' - to illustrate participants' dilemmatic reasoning and to examine how the position of 'being deserving' is negotiated in humanitarian crises. Discursive analyses of these dilemmatic repertoires of deservingness identify the cultural and ideological resources behind these constructions and show how humanitarianism intersects and clashes with other ideologies and value systems. The data suggest that a neoliberal ideology, which endorses self-gratification, materialistic and individualistic ethics, and cultural assimilation of helper and receiver play important roles in decisions about humanitarian helping. The study argues for the need for psychological research to engage more actively with the dilemmas involved in the moral reasoning related to humanitarianism and to contextualize decisions about giving and helping within the sociocultural and ideological landscape in which the helper operates. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Earth Science Data and Models for Improved Targeting of Humanitarian Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Humanitarian assistance to developing countries has long focused on countries that have political, economic and strategic interest to the United States. Recent changes in global security concerns have heightened the perception that humanitarian action is becoming increasingly politicized. This is seen to be largely driven by the 'global war on terror' along with a push by donors and the United Nations for closer integration between humanitarian action and diplomatic, military and other spheres of engagement in conflict and crisis-affected states (HPG 2010). As we enter an era of rising commodity prices and increasing uncertainty in global food production due to a changing climate, scientific data and analysis will be increasingly important to improve the targeting of humanitarian assistance. Earth science data enables appropriate humanitarian response to complex food emergencies that arise in regions outside the areas of current strategic and security focus. As the climate changes, new places will become vulnerable to food insecurity and will need emergency assistance. Earth science data and multidisciplinary models will enable an information-based comparison of need that goes beyond strategic and political considerations to identify new hotspots of food insecurity as they emerge. These analyses will improve aid targeting and timeliness while reducing strategic risk by highlighting new regions at risk of crisis in a rapidly changing world. Improved targeting with respect to timing and location could reduce cost while increasing the likelihood that those who need aid get it.

  16. Dividing disasters in Aceh, Indonesia: separatist conflict and tsunami, human rights and humanitarianism.

    PubMed

    Zeccola, Paul

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the interface between human rights and humanitarian action in the context of the conflict and tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia, between 1998 and 2007. It looks at the challenges international humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) faced as they engaged in human rights work in the conflict period and in conflict-related activities in the post-tsunami period. The paper argues that many large NGOs may have compromised what some would hold to be essential principles for humanitarian action because of domestic political concerns, donor restrictions and resistance among certain NGO chiefs. In contrast with the pre-tsunami period, in which NGOs worked for years amid military operations, in the post-tsunami period NGOs were decidedly apolitical, neglecting the conflict in their tsunami response--despite significant developments that permitted greater political engagement in Aceh's post-conflict transformation. The evidence suggests that NGOs are challenged in contextualising humanitarian responses and that there is a need to underscore donor flexibility and independence in humanitarian action. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  17. The army goes rolling along.... Maximizing care through dental assistant expanded functions in a humanitarian mission.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Jeffrey; Spadaro, Stephen; Pirofsky, Tina

    2003-01-01

    Dental Readiness Training Exercises (DENRETEs) are the military form of dental humanitarian missions. Most dental humanitarian missions focus on extractions and the provision of oral hygiene instructions. This paper describes a dental humanitarian mission, sponsored by the US Army Dental Command (DENCOM), to Honduras in 2003 and how expanded function dental assistants can increase the provision of dental care. The US Army Southern Command requested a DENRETE for fiscal year 2003. A site visit revealed the absence of water fluoridation, high levels of dental disease, and a desire to have an American dental team perform the mission at the Escuela Lempira, a low-income elementary school in the Honduran capital city of Tegucigalpa. DENCOM in conjunction with dental personnel performing a 6-month rotation with Joint Task Force Bravo performed a Pediatric Humanitarian mission in Tegucigalpa from 1 to 9 April 2003. During 6.5 treatment days, there were 416 patient encounters totaling 1490 treatment procedures. Over $90,000 in dental services were provided. The 2003 Honduran DENRETE represented a changing paradigm from extraction-based dental missions toward providing comprehensive care aided by maximizing the use of dental assistants trained in expanded functions. With this philosophical shift in focused care, dental humanitarian missions have the ability to enhance the oral health of more children.

  18. Impact of Humanitarian Experiences on Otolaryngology Trainees: A Follow-up Study of Travel Grant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Aria; Tringale, Kathryn R; Campbell, Bruce H; Husseman, Jacob W; Cordes, Susan R

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we seek (1) to determine the impact of humanitarian experiences on otolaryngology trainee recipients of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation humanitarian travel grant (2001-2015); (2) to better understand trainee and trip characteristics, as well as motivations and attitudes toward future volunteerism; and (3) and to identify potential barriers to participation. An anonymous 30-question survey was distributed to 207 individuals, and 52 (25.1%) responded. Respondents viewed the trip as very worthwhile (score = 98 of 100), expressed improved cultural understanding (75.0%), and continued participation in humanitarian activities (75.0%). Competency-based evaluation results suggest a positive impact on systems-based practice and professionalism. Respondents commented on the trip's positive value and shared concerns regarding expense. Despite potential barriers, Foundation-supported humanitarian trips during training are perceived as worthwhile; they may enhance cultural understanding and interest in future humanitarian efforts; and they may positively affect competency-based metrics. Based on the potential benefits, continued support and formalization of these experiences should be considered.

  19. Social dimensions of science-humanitarian collaboration: lessons from Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  20. International humanitarian actors and governments in areas of conflict: challenges, obligations, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Paul

    2013-10-01

    For too long international humanitarian aid has neglected the primary responsibility of the state to assist and protect its citizens in times of disaster. A focus on the role of the state in contexts where governments are active parties to a conflict and are failing to live up to these responsibilities is difficult and underpins many of the recurring dilemmas of humanitarian action. The fundamental principles of humanitarian action should offer a framework for principled engagement with governments in situations of conflict but too often they are still interpreted as shorthand for ignoring governments. Using principles to inform engagement with both states and other international actors engaged in crises could provide a way forward. However, this would need to be a humanitarian agenda that engages with developing country governments, with non-OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) donors, and with the stabilisation and security agendas of Western governments, and not one that attempts to ring-fence an ever-shrinking isolationist humanitarian space. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  1. Halal Logistics Implementation in Malaysia: A Practical View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sham, Rohana; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Abdamia, Noranita; Mohamed, Suhana; Thahira Bibi, TKM

    2017-08-01

    Concept of halal is not only acceptable world wide by the Muslim society but also to the non Muslim. However, the implementing of halal logistics in daily operation experience a few difficulties especially on the implementation part. Although there are many academic research paper that highlight the issue of halal logistics and the critical success factor, until today, halal logistics in Malaysia is still experiencing a hiccup. This paper try to highlight a few simple ways of implementation of halal logistics that could enhance the total implementation concept at the very least cost to create benefit to all society. The Paper deals with a few aspect of possible implementation and practice to facilitate the halal logistics approach in daily operation. The main objective is to look at the possible method of implementation and critical success factors towards the implementation of halal logistics operation in daily goods movement in Malaysia.

  2. Humanitarian Intervention in Kosovo: The Importance of Legal and Moral Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    categorize and impersonalize facts that detract from the particulars and make Americans comfortable with their decisions. An example of this is the...nations. This inquiry, was carried through to recent history, with the writings of Immanel Kant , who called for a “League of Nations, an organization...camps were built, meals prepared for 129,000, and essential food, medical supplies and other materials were shipped to the region.37 In another

  3. The logistics of choice.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Peter R

    2015-07-01

    The generalized matching law (GML) is reconstructed as a logistic regression equation that privileges no particular value of the sensitivity parameter, a. That value will often approach 1 due to the feedback that drives switching that is intrinsic to most concurrent schedules. A model of that feedback reproduced some features of concurrent data. The GML is a law only in the strained sense that any equation that maps data is a law. The machine under the hood of matching is in all likelihood the very law that was displaced by the Matching Law. It is now time to return the Law of Effect to centrality in our science. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Humanitarian military medical mission in a postconflict environment: lessons from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hubner, M E; Ditzler, Thomas F

    2004-09-01

    In the aftermath of a genocidal civil war, the Government of Cambodia is left with major deficiencies in its healthcare system. This article recounts a military medical mission to Cambodia; the authors describe the objectives of the mission and provide a summary of the lessons learned. Specific areas of concern include healthcare infrastructure, logistics, standards of care, social traditions, organizational issues and potential problems in civil-military collaboration. This report is offered as a heuristic device to illuminate some of the issues that can mediate the success of military medical missions in postconflict environments.

  5. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    PubMed

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 26344 - Temporary Exclusion of the Assessment of Overflight Fees for Humanitarian Flights Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Humanitarian Flights Related to the January 12, 2010, Earthquake in Haiti AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Fees for humanitarian flights in response to the earthquake in Haiti. SUMMARY: On January 12, 2010, the nation of Haiti was hit by a devastating earthquake near the heaviest populated part of the country, its...

  7. 76 FR 77542 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... guidance for industry and FDA staff entitled ``Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) Designations.'' Devices are... HUD designation may be eligible for marketing approval under the Humanitarian Device Exemption...

  8. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.

  9. Humanitarian accountability, bureaucracy, and self-regulation: the view from the archive.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Sarah; Strange, Julie-Marie; Taithe, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This paper contains a systematic exploration of local and national archives and sources relevant to charities and humanitarian fund appeals of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras (1870-1912) in Great Britain. It shows that the charitable world and humanitarian work share the same matrix and originate from the same roots, with considerable overlap between fundraising for domestic charity and overseas relief. These campaigns engaged in crucial self-regulatory processes very early on that involved concepts such as formal accountability and the close monitoring of delivery. Far from lagging behind in terms of formal practices of auditing and accounts, charities and humanitarian funds often were in the pioneering group as compared with mainstream businesses of the period. The charitable sector, notably through the Charity Organisation Society in cooperation with the press, developed and delivered accountability and monitoring, while the state and the Charity Commission played a negligible role in this process.

  10. Development of an evaluation framework suitable for assessing humanitarian workforce competencies during crisis simulation exercises.

    PubMed

    Cranmer, Hilarie; Chan, Jennifer L; Kayden, Stephanie; Musani, Altaf; Gasquet, Philippe E; Walker, Peter; Burkle, Frederick M; Johnson, Kirsten

    2014-02-01

    The need to provide a professionalization process for the humanitarian workforce is well established. Current competency-based curricula provided by existing academically affiliated training centers in North America, the United Kingdom, and the European Union provide a route toward certification. Simulation exercises followed by timely evaluation is one way to mimic the field deployment process, test knowledge of core competences, and ensure that a competent workforce can manage the inevitable emergencies and crises they will face. Through a 2011 field-based exercise that simulated a humanitarian crisis, delivered under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO), a competency-based framework and evaluation tool is demonstrated as a model for future training and evaluation of humanitarian providers.

  11. Disaster relief in post-earthquake Haiti: unintended consequences of humanitarian volunteerism.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of US humanitarian relief efforts in Haiti following the earthquake on January 12, 2010. Humanitarian aid arrived rapidly from many sources and was largely provided by organized and skilled humanitarian volunteers. There are however multiple impacts on the existing health care systems, as well as the pharmaceutical and medical supply chain created by massive relief efforts involving personnel, medicines, supplies and equipment that should be considered even in the immediate post-disaster period. Additionally the consequences of short-term medical missions by secular and non-secular NGOs should be considered carefully both in the post-disaster period and as ongoing support to underserved populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Humanitarian Outreach in Cardiothoracic Surgery: From Setup to Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dearani, Joseph A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Bolman, R Morton; Swain, JaBaris D; Vricella, Luca A; Weinstein, Samuel; Farkas, Emily A; Calhoon, John H

    2016-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases account for 38 million deaths each year, and approximately 75% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The most common causes include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Many adults with acquired cardiothoracic disease around the world have limited access to health care. In addition, congenital heart disease is present in approximately 1% of live births and is therefore the most common congenital abnormality. More than one million children in the world are born with congenital heart disease each year, and approximately 90% of these children receive suboptimal care or have no access to care. Furthermore, many children affected by noncongenital cardiac conditions also require prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Medical and surgical volunteerism can help facilitate improvement in cardiothoracic health care in developing countries. As we move into the future, it is essential for physicians and surgeons to be actively involved in political, economic, and social aspects of society to serve health care interests of the underprivileged around the world. Consequently, in developing countries, a critical need exists to establish an increased number of reputable cardiothoracic programs and to enhance many of the programs that already exist. The optimal strategy is usually based on a long-term educational and technical model of support so that as case volumes increase, quality improves and mortality and morbidity decrease. Humanitarian outreach activities should focus on education and sustainability, and surgical tourism should be limited to those countries that will never have the capability to have free-standing cardiothoracic programs. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) and the Humanitarian Industry in Britain, 1963-85.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history of modern British humanitarianism. Specifically, it charts the rise of an extensive humanitarian aid 'industry' in Britain, between 1963 and 1985. It does so through a focus on the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC), an umbrella body for joint emergency fundraising established in 1963. The DEC is an enduring and important presence in the British humanitarian landscape, as it brings together leading aid agencies to make fundraising campaigns on television after major disasters. This article represents the first systematic historical analysis of the DEC, which it uses to illuminate larger questions about the politics of non-state humanitarianism, state-voluntary sector relations, the political impact of television, and the end of empire. It is shown that while DEC appeals fuelled the growth of its members, this was also a problematic process. Many principal aid agencies wished to shift their focus away from short-term disaster relief work to tackling the long-term structural causes of global poverty instead. It is argued that, despite an increasing political focus, humanitarian organizations were constrained from doing so by the power of television; a perceived lack of public support; the interventions of the British government; and competition between aid agencies in a crowded marketplace. Consequently, continued involvement in short-term, apolitical emergency assistance remained a requirement even for agencies sceptical about its value and impact. This analysis complicates linear narratives of a transition from emergency relief to development aid in post-war British humanitarianism, instead presenting the period as characterized by competing and even contradictory trajectories.

  14. Violence against children in humanitarian settings: A literature review of population-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Landis, Debbie

    2016-03-01

    Children in humanitarian settings are thought to experience increased exposure to violence, which can impair their physical, emotional, and social development. Violence against children has important economic and social consequences for nations as a whole. The purpose of this review is to examine population-based approaches measuring violence against children in humanitarian settings. The authors reviewed prevalence studies of violence against children in humanitarian contexts appearing in peer-reviewed journals within the past twenty years. A Boolean search procedure was conducted in October 2014 of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and PsychInfo. If abstracts contained evidence of the study's four primary themes--violence, children, humanitarian contexts and population-based measurement--a full document review was undertaken to confirm relevance. Out of 2634 identified articles, 22 met the final inclusion criteria. Across studies, there was varying quality and no standardization in measurement approach. Nine out of 22 studies demonstrated a relationship between conflict exposure and adverse health or mental health outcomes. Among studies that compared rates of violence between boys and girls, boys reported higher rates of physical violence, while girls reported higher rates of sexual violence. Children in infancy and early childhood were found to be among the most under-researched. Ultimately, the body of evidence in this review offers an incomplete picture regarding the prevalence, nature and impact of violence against children in emergencies, demonstrating a weak evidence base for some of the basic assumptions underpinning humanitarian practice. The development of standardized approaches to more rigorously measure violence against children is urgently needed in order to understand trends of violence against children in humanitarian contexts, and to promote children's healthy development and well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear Lunar Logistics Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This document has been prepared to incorporate all presentation aid material, together with some explanatory text, used during an oral briefing on the Nuclear Lunar Logistics System given at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, on 18 July 1963. The briefing and this document are intended to present the general status of the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) nuclear rocket development, the characteristics of certain operational NERVA-class engines, and appropriate technical and schedule information. Some of the information presented herein is preliminary in nature and will be subject to further verification, checking and analysis during the remainder of the study program. In addition, more detailed information will be prepared in many areas for inclusion in a final summary report. This work has been performed by REON, a division of Aerojet-General Corporation under Subcontract 74-10039 from the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The presentation and this document have been prepared in partial fulfillment of the provisions of the subcontract. From the inception of the NERVA program in July 1961, the stated emphasis has centered around the demonstration of the ability of a nuclear rocket to perform safely and reliably in the space environment, with the understanding that the assignment of a mission (or missions) would place undue emphasis on performance and operational flexibility. However, all were aware that the ultimate justification for the development program must lie in the application of the nuclear propulsion system to the national space objectives.

  16. Examples of tropical disease control in the humanitarian medical programmes of MSF and Merlin.

    PubMed

    Balasegaram, Manica; Dejene, Seyoum; Tinnemann, Peter; Perkins, Samantha; Davidson, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Humanitarian medical programmes in the tropics have the opportunity to provide beacons of good practice. The use of modern drugs and diagnostics, a lack of bureaucracy, adequate budgets, motivated staff and well-functioning supply lines all contribute to the success of this approach. At a joint meeting of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Médecins Sans Frontières and Merlin, new data were presented on the outcomes of recent humanitarian programmes to control malaria (Ethiopia), human African trypanosomiasis (south Sudan), Lassa fever (Sierra Leone) and tuberculosis (Tomsk, former USSR).

  17. Developing Future Strategic Logistics Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    and our focus on tactical level lessons learned has 12 skewed our emphasis in PME to a very narrow band of excellence. As such our current...A partnership between senior logistics leaders, PME developers, and personnel managers is essential to constructing and maintaining strategic...short term and inconsistent PME system that does not produce strategic logistic leaders. The Logistics Corps, sustainment branches, LOO lead for leader

  18. Space Shuttle operational logistics plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center plan for logistics to support Space Shuttle Operations and to establish the related policies, requirements, and responsibilities are described. The Directorate of Shuttle Management and Operations logistics responsibilities required by the Kennedy Organizational Manual, and the self-sufficiency contracting concept are implemented. The Space Shuttle Program Level 1 and Level 2 logistics policies and requirements applicable to KSC that are presented in HQ NASA and Johnson Space Center directives are also implemented.

  19. Counselling in humanitarian settings: a retrospective analysis of 18 individual-focused non-specialised counselling programmes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) provides individual counselling interventions in medical humanitarian programmes in contexts affected by conflict and violence. Although mental health and psychosocial interventions are a common part of the humanitarian response, little is known about how the profile and outcomes for individuals seeking care differs across contexts. We did a retrospective analysis of routine programme data to determine who accessed MSF counselling services and why, and the individual and programmatic risk factors for poor outcomes. Methods We analysed data from 18 mental health projects run by MSF in 2009 in eight countries. Outcome measures were client-rating scores (1–10 scale; 1 worst) for complaint severity and functioning and counsellor assessment. The effect of client and programme factors on outcomes was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess binary outcome variables. Results 48704 counselling sessions were held with 14963 individuals. Excluding women-focused projects, 66.8% of patients were women. Mean (SD) age was 33.3 (14.1) years. Anxiety-related complaints were the most common (35.0%), followed by family-related problems (15.7%), mood-related problems (14.1%) and physical complaints (13.7%). Only 2.0% presented with a serious mental health condition. 27.2% did not identify a traumatic precipitating event. 24.6% identified domestic discord or violence and 17.5% psychological violence as the precipitating event. 6244 (43.9%) had only one session. For 91% of 7837 who returned, the counsellor reported the problem had decreased or resolved. The mean (SD) complaint rating improved by 4.7 (2.4) points (p < 0.001) and by 4.2 (2.3, p < 0.001) for functional rating. Risk factors for poorer outcomes were few sessions, non-conflict setting (stable or societal violence settings), serious mental health condition, or attending a large, recently opened project. Conclusions The majority of

  20. Assessing change with the extended logistic model.

    PubMed

    Cristante, Francesca; Robusto, Egidio

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to define a method for the assessment of change. A reinterpretation of the extended logistic model is proposed. The extended logistic model for the assessment of change (ELMAC) allows the definition of a time parameter which is supposed to identify whether change occurs during a period of time, given a specific event or phenomenon. The assessment of a trend of change through time, on the basis of the time parameter which is estimated at different successive occasions during a period of time, is also considered. In addition, a dispersion parameter is calculated which identifies whether change is consistent at each time point. The issue of independence is taken into account both in relation to the time parameter and the dispersion parameter. An application of the ELMAC in a learning process is presented. The interpretation of the model parameters and the model fit statistics is consistent with expectations.

  1. The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Nancy; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Molinaro, Elizabeth; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Jafarpour, Morteza; Robinson, Susan

    2005-01-12

    BACKGROUND: In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. METHODS: A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. RESULTS: Six themes emerged: (1) A sense of being overwhelmed, (2) A multitude of health issues, (3) critical challenges in providing health care, (4) access to health and settlement services, (5) overall successes and (6) need for a coordinated approach to migration health. CONCLUSIONS: For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems.

  2. Internal Logistics System Selection with Total Cost of Ownership Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Inês; Pimentel, Carina; Godina, Radu; Matias, João C. O.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a methodology was followed in order to support the decision-making of one industrial unit regarding its internal logistics system. The addressed factory was facing issues with their internal logistics approach. Some alternatives were pointed out and a proper total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis was developed. This analysis was taken in order to demonstrate the more cost-effective solution for the internal logistics system. This tool is more and more valued by the companies, due to their willing to reduce the costs that are associated with the way of doing business. Despite the proposal of the best choice for the internal logistics system of the enterprise, this study also intends to present some conclusions about the match between the nature of the industrial unit and the logistics systems that best fit the requirements of those.

  3. Logistic Regression: Concept and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokluk, Omay

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of logistic regression analysis is classification of individuals in different groups. The aim of the present study is to explain basic concepts and processes of binary logistic regression analysis intended to determine the combination of independent variables which best explain the membership in certain groups called dichotomous…

  4. Selected Logistics Models and Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Programmable Calculator LCC...Program 27 TI-59 Programmable Calculator LCC Model 30 Unmanned Spacecraft Cost Model 31 iv I: TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT’D) (Subject Index) LOGISTICS...34"" - % - "° > - " ° .° - " .’ > -% > ]*° - LOGISTICS ANALYSIS MODEL/TECHNIQUE DATA MODEL/TECHNIQUE NAME: TI-59 Programmable Calculator LCC Model TYPE MODEL: Cost Estimating DEVELOPED BY:

  5. Classifying hospitals as mortality outliers: logistic versus hierarchical logistic models.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, Roxana; Bottle, Alex; Jarman, Brian; Aylin, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The use of hierarchical logistic regression for provider profiling has been recommended due to the clustering of patients within hospitals, but has some associated difficulties. We assess changes in hospital outlier status based on standard logistic versus hierarchical logistic modelling of mortality. The study population consisted of all patients admitted to acute, non-specialist hospitals in England between 2007 and 2011 with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, acute cerebrovascular disease or fracture of neck of femur or a primary procedure of coronary artery bypass graft or repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. We compared standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) from non-hierarchical models with SMRs from hierarchical models, without and with shrinkage estimates of the predicted probabilities (Model 1 and Model 2). The SMRs from standard logistic and hierarchical models were highly statistically significantly correlated (r > 0.91, p = 0.01). More outliers were recorded in the standard logistic regression than hierarchical modelling only when using shrinkage estimates (Model 2): 21 hospitals (out of a cumulative number of 565 pairs of hospitals under study) changed from a low outlier and 8 hospitals changed from a high outlier based on the logistic regression to a not-an-outlier based on shrinkage estimates. Both standard logistic and hierarchical modelling have identified nearly the same hospitals as mortality outliers. The choice of methodological approach should, however, also consider whether the modelling aim is judgment or improvement, as shrinkage may be more appropriate for the former than the latter.

  6. 77 FR 49782 - Extension of the Application Deadline for Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... Pilot Program, which recognizes patent holders who use their technology for humanitarian purposes. In... Awards Pilot Program by two months until October 31, 2012, to allow potential applicants more time to...

  7. Information Sharing for Medical Triage Tasking During Mass Casualty/Humanitarian Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Mobile file sharing, Humanitarian response, Mass Casualty, WiFi network cloud 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18... WiFi Cloud ........................60 2. Setup of the Portal ..........................60 3. Command Post Setup ...........................61 4...56 Figure 11. Cisco Aironet Wireless Access Point.............59 Figure 12. Pelican Case w/Customizing Padding..............60 Figure 13. WiFi

  8. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F

    2015-01-01

    Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic.

  9. Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the Greater Horn of Africa: logical components and logical linkages.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Daniel; Watkins, Ben

    2003-03-01

    Natural and man-made emergencies are regular occurrences in the Greater Horn of Africa region. The underlying impoverishment of whole populations is increasing, making it more difficult to distinguish between humanitarian crises triggered by shocks and those resulting from chronic poverty. Shocks and hazards can no longer be seen as one-off events that trigger a one-time response. In countries that are both poor and exposed to frequent episodes of debilitating drought or chronic conflict, information needs tend to be different from the straightforward early warning/commodity accounting models of information systems that have proven reliable in past emergencies. This paper describes the interdependent components of a humanitarian information system appropriate for this kind of complex environment, noting the analytical links between the components and operational links to programme and policy. By examining a series of case studies from the Greater Horn region, the paper demonstrates that systems lacking one or more of these components will fail to provide adequate information--and thus incur humanitarian costs. While information always comes with a cost, the price of poor information--or none--is higher. And in situations of chronic vulnerability, in which development interventions are likely to be interspersed with both safety nets and emergency interventions on a recurrent basis, investment in improved information is a good investment from both a humanitarian and a financial viewpoint.

  10. Challenges and Psychosocial Growth for Older Volunteers Giving Intensive Humanitarian Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Cheek, Cheryl; Teemant, Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: We conducted a qualitative study of 38 mid-late life volunteers in intensive humanitarian service to ascertain the challenges, personal changes, and benefits they experienced from their volunteer activities. Intensive volunteering was defined as service done on a 24-hr a day basis at a location away from home. Design and…

  11. 'A tradition of forgetting': stabilisation and humanitarian action in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Sultan; Deely, Seán; Zyck, Steven A

    2010-10-01

    While subject to increasing articulation and institutionalisation, stabilisation is a long-standing concept and practice that has consistently engaged with and, at times, conflicted with varied understandings of humanitarianism and humanitarian action. Reviewing selected historical experiences, including the Philippines (1898-1902), Algeria (1956-62), Vietnam (1967-75) and El Salvador (1980-92), this paper argues that contemporary models of stabilisation build on and repeat mistakes of the past, particularly the overt securitisation of aid and the perception that humanitarian and development actors are able to purchase security effectively. Where current stabilisation differs from its earlier incarnations, as in the introduction of the private sector and incorporation of humanitarian action into war-fighting strategies, the implications are shown to be troubling if not outright disastrous. T his examination of historical experience, which includes many failures and few, if any, successes, raises the likelihood that it is not solely the design or implementation of individual stability operations that require modification but perhaps the entire concept of stabilisation itself.

  12. Medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy: the case of the Israeli Open Clinic.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Nora; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2012-03-01

    In the context of neo-liberal retrenchments humanitarian NGOs have become alternative healthcare providers that partially fill the vacuum left by the welfare state's withdrawal from the provision of services to migrants and other marginalized populations. In many cases they thus help to build legitimacy for the state's retreat from social responsibilities. Human rights organizations play an important role in advocating for migrants' rights, but in many cases they represent a legalistic and individualized conceptualization of the right to health that limits their claims for social justice. This paper analyzes the interactions and tensions between the discourses of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy using the example of an "Open Clinic" run by an Israeli human rights organization as a case-study: In 2007 dramatically increasing patient numbers provoked an intense internal debate concerning the proposal to temporarily close the "Open Clinic" in order to press the government to take action. Based on protocols from internal meetings and parliamentary hearings and in-depth interviews, we have analyzed divergent contextualizations of the Clinic's closure. These reflect conflicting notions regarding the Clinic's variegated spectrum of roles--humanitarian, political, legitimizing, symbolic, empowering and organizational--and underlying conceptualizations of migrants' "deservingness". Our case-study thus helps to illuminate NGOs' role in the realm of migrant healthcare and points out options for a possible fruitful relationship between the divergent paradigms of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy.

  13. The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs (HESPER) Scale

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Maya; van Ommeren, Mark; Blagescu, Monica; Griekspoor, Andre; Howard, Louise M.; Jordans, Mark; Lempp, Heidi; Marini, Anita; Pedersen, Jon; Pilotte, Isabelle; Slade, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We developed the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs (HESPER) Scale, a valid and reliable scale to rapidly assess perceived needs of populations in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries. Methods. We generated items through a literature review; reduced the number of items on the basis of a survey with humanitarian experts; pilot-tested the scale in Gaza, Jordan, Sudan, and the United Kingdom; and field-tested it in Haiti, Jordan, and Nepal. Results. During field-testing, intraclass correlation coefficients (absolute agreement) for the total number of unmet needs were 0.998 in Jordan, 0.986 in Haiti, and 0.995 in Nepal (interrater reliability), and 0.961 in Jordan and 0.773 in Nepal (test–retest reliability). Cohen’s κ for the 26 individual HESPER items ranged between 0.66 and 1.0 (interrater reliability) and between 0.07 and 1.0 (test–retest reliability) across sites. Most HESPER items correlated as predicted with related questions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 (WHOQOL-100), and participants found items comprehensive and relevant, suggesting criterion (concurrent) validity and content validity. Conclusions. The HESPER Scale rapidly provides valid and reliable population-based data on perceived needs in humanitarian settings. PMID:22897533

  14. Childhood disability in Turkana, Kenya: Understanding how carers cope in a complex humanitarian setting

    PubMed Central

    Nyapera, Velma; Mwenda, Victoria; Kisia, James; Rono, Hilary; Palmer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the consequences of disability are magnified in humanitarian contexts, research into the difficulties of caring for children with a disability in such settings has received limited attention. Methods Based on in-depth interviews with 31 families, key informants and focus group discussions in Turkana, Kenya, this article explores the lives of families caring for children with a range of impairments (hearing, vision, physical and intellectual) in a complex humanitarian context characterised by drought, flooding, armed conflict, poverty and historical marginalisation. Results The challenging environmental and social conditions of Turkana magnified not only the impact of impairment on children, but also the burden of caregiving. The remoteness of Turkana, along with the paucity and fragmentation of health, rehabilitation and social services, posed major challenges and created opportunity costs for families. Disability-related stigma isolated mothers of children with disabilities, especially, increasing their burden of care and further limiting their access to services and humanitarian programmes. In a context where social systems are already stressed, the combination of these factors compounded the vulnerabilities faced by children with disabilities and their families. Conclusion The needs of children with disabilities and their carers in Turkana are not being met by either community social support systems or humanitarian aid programmes. There is an urgent need to mainstream disability into Turkana services and programmes. PMID:28730061

  15. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for...

  16. Measuring the benefits of using market based approaches to provide water and sanitation in humanitarian contexts.

    PubMed

    Martin-Simpson, S; Parkinson, J; Katsou, E

    2017-03-16

    The use of cash transfers and market based programming (CT/MBP) to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency responses is gaining prominence in the humanitarian sector. However, there is a lack of existing indicators and methodologies to monitor activities designed to strengthen water and sanitation (WaSH) markets. Gender and vulnerability markers to measure the impact of such activities on different stakeholders is also missing. This study identifies parameters to monitor, evaluate and determine the added value of utilising CT/MBP to achieve WaSH objectives in humanitarian response. The results of the work revealed that CT/MBP can be used to support household, community and market level interventions to effectively reduce transmission of faeco-oral diseases. Efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability, appropriateness and equity were identified as useful parameters which correlated to widely accepted frameworks against which to evaluate humanitarian action. The parameters were found to be directly applicable to the case of increasing demand and supply of point of use water treatment technology for a) disaster resilience activities, and b) post-crisis response. The need for peer review of the parameters and indicators and pilot measurement in humanitarian contexts was recognised.

  17. Engendering care: HIV, humanitarian assistance in Africa, and the reproduction of gender stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mindry, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes as starting point research conducted in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes humanitarian aid in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in Africa constructing an image of “virile” and “violent” African masculinity. Humanitarian organizations construct imagined relations of caring invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are gendered. Humanitarian interventions which invoke universalizing conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising, feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably invoke women (and children) as victims in need of care and, at best, ignore the lived experiences of men, and at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder. PMID:20432080

  18. Helping Hands: A Cost-Effectiveness Study of a Humanitarian Hand Surgery Mission

    PubMed Central

    Tadisina, Kashyap K.; Chopra, Karan; Tangredi, John; Thomson, J. Grant; Singh, Devinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Congenital anomalies and injuries of the hand are often undertreated in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Humanitarian missions to LMICs are commonplace, but few exclusively hand surgery missions have been reported and none have attempted to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. We present the first study evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a humanitarian hand surgery mission to Honduras as a method of reducing the global burden of surgically treatable disease. Methods. Data were collected from a hand surgery mission to San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Costs were estimated for local and volunteer services. The total burden of disease averted from patients receiving surgical reconstruction was derived using the previously described disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) system. Results. After adjusting for likelihood of disability associated with the diagnosis and likelihood of the surgery's success, DALYs averted totaled 104.6. The total cost for the mission was $45,779 (USD). The cost per DALY averted was calculated to be $437.80 (USD), which is significantly below the accepted threshold of two times the per capita gross national income of Honduras. Conclusions. This hand surgery humanitarian mission trip to Honduras was found to be cost-effective. This model and analysis should help in guiding healthcare professionals to organize future plastic surgery humanitarian missions. PMID:25225616

  19. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized to conduct activities in Iran that are directly incidental and essential to its authorized... authorize the actual provision of humanitarian support in Iran. (b) No exportations or re-exportations of goods or technology, whether U.S. or foreign origin, to Iran are permitted pursuant to this section...

  20. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized to conduct activities in Iran that are directly incidental and essential to its authorized... authorize the actual provision of humanitarian support in Iran. (b) No exportations or re-exportations of goods or technology, whether U.S. or foreign origin, to Iran are permitted pursuant to this section...

  1. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized to conduct activities in Iran that are directly incidental and essential to its authorized... authorize the actual provision of humanitarian support in Iran. (b) No exportations or re-exportations of goods or technology, whether U.S. or foreign origin, to Iran are permitted pursuant to this section...

  2. Medical resource preparation and allocation for humanitarian assistance based on module organization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Ruxue; Zhong, Shaobo; Qian, Yangming; Huang, Quanyi

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to associate the allocation of medical resources with the function of the modular organization and the possible needs for humanitarian assistance missions. The overseas humanitarian medical assistance mission, which was sent after a disaster on the hospital ship Peace Ark, part of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy, was considered as study model. The cases used for clustering and matching sample formation were randomly selected from the existing information related to Peace Ark's mission. Categories of the reusable resources clustered by this research met the requirement of the actual consumption almost completely (more than 95%) and the categories of non-reusable resources met the requirement by more than 80%. In the mission's original resource preparing plan, more than 30% of the non-reusable resource categories remained unused during the mission. In the original resource preparing plan, some key non-reusable resources inventories were completely exhausted at the end of the mission, while 5% to 30% of non-reusable resources remained in the resource allocation plan generated by this research at the end of the mission. The medical resource allocation plan generated here can enhance the supporting level for the humanitarian assistance mission. This research could lay the foundation for an assistant decision-making system for humanitarian assistance mission.

  3. 75 FR 39263 - Guidance for Humanitarian Device Exemption Holders, Institutional Review Boards, Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ..., Institutional Review Boards, Clinical Investigators, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Device... requirements set forth in the Pediatric Medical Device Safety and Improvement Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-85). The Pediatric Medical Device Safety and Improvement Act of 2007 includes a provision requiring...

  4. Helping hands: a cost-effectiveness study of a humanitarian hand surgery mission.

    PubMed

    Tadisina, Kashyap K; Chopra, Karan; Tangredi, John; Thomson, J Grant; Singh, Devinder P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Congenital anomalies and injuries of the hand are often undertreated in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Humanitarian missions to LMICs are commonplace, but few exclusively hand surgery missions have been reported and none have attempted to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. We present the first study evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a humanitarian hand surgery mission to Honduras as a method of reducing the global burden of surgically treatable disease. Methods. Data were collected from a hand surgery mission to San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Costs were estimated for local and volunteer services. The total burden of disease averted from patients receiving surgical reconstruction was derived using the previously described disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) system. Results. After adjusting for likelihood of disability associated with the diagnosis and likelihood of the surgery's success, DALYs averted totaled 104.6. The total cost for the mission was $45,779 (USD). The cost per DALY averted was calculated to be $437.80 (USD), which is significantly below the accepted threshold of two times the per capita gross national income of Honduras. Conclusions. This hand surgery humanitarian mission trip to Honduras was found to be cost-effective. This model and analysis should help in guiding healthcare professionals to organize future plastic surgery humanitarian missions.

  5. Childhood disability in Turkana, Kenya: Understanding how carers cope in a complex humanitarian setting.

    PubMed

    Zuurmond, Maria; Nyapera, Velma; Mwenda, Victoria; Kisia, James; Rono, Hilary; Palmer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although the consequences of disability are magnified in humanitarian contexts, research into the difficulties of caring for children with a disability in such settings has received limited attention. Based on in-depth interviews with 31 families, key informants and focus group discussions in Turkana, Kenya, this article explores the lives of families caring for children with a range of impairments (hearing, vision, physical and intellectual) in a complex humanitarian context characterised by drought, flooding, armed conflict, poverty and historical marginalisation. The challenging environmental and social conditions of Turkana magnified not only the impact of impairment on children, but also the burden of caregiving. The remoteness of Turkana, along with the paucity and fragmentation of health, rehabilitation and social services, posed major challenges and created opportunity costs for families. Disability-related stigma isolated mothers of children with disabilities, especially, increasing their burden of care and further limiting their access to services and humanitarian programmes. In a context where social systems are already stressed, the combination of these factors compounded the vulnerabilities faced by children with disabilities and their families. The needs of children with disabilities and their carers in Turkana are not being met by either community social support systems or humanitarian aid programmes. There is an urgent need to mainstream disability into Turkana services and programmes.

  6. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  7. 75 FR 4526 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement... International Development, RRB 7.06-152, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20523-7600. Juli Majernik...

  8. 75 FR 4526 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement... Development, RRB 7.06-152, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20523-7600. Juli Majernik, Grants...

  9. Interns at an International, Humanitarian Organization: Career Pathways and Meaning Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career shaping experiences and related meaning making processes of 12 interns at The Carter Center, an international, humanitarian organization. Experiences shaping participants' careers were grouped into the following themes--academics and intellectual curiosity; travel abroad; religion; relationships--family,…

  10. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  11. Motivations, concerns, and expectations of Scandinavian health professionals volunteering for humanitarian assignments.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good.

  12. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  13. A solution from hell: the United States and the rise of humanitarian interventionism, 1991-2003.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the rise of humanitarian interventionist ideas in the US from 1991 to 2003. Until 1997, humanitarian intervention was a relatively limited affair, conceived ad hoc more than systematically, prioritized below multilateralism, aiming to relieve suffering without transforming foreign polities. For this reason, US leaders and citizens scarcely contemplated armed intervention in the Rwandan genocide of 1994: the US 'duty to stop genocide' was a norm still under development. It flourished only in the late 1990s, when humanitarian interventionism, like neoconservatism, became popular in the US establishment and enthusiastic in urging military invasion to remake societies. Now inaction in Rwanda looked outrageous. Stopping the genocide seemed, in retrospect, easily achieved by 5,000 troops, a projection that ignored serious obstacles. On the whole, humanitarian interventionists tended to understate difficulties of halting ethnic conflict, ignore challenges of postconflict reconstruction, discount constraints imposed by public opinion, and override multilateral procedures. These assumptions primed politicians and the public to regard the Iraq war of 2003 as virtuous at best and unworthy of strenuous dissent at worst. The normative commitment to stop mass killing outstripped US or international capabilities—a formula for dashed hopes and dangerous deployments that lives on in the 'responsibility to protect'.

  14. 'The Ethiopian famine' revisited: band aid and the antipolitics of celebrity humanitarian action.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tanja R

    2013-01-01

    In many ways the Ethiopian famine of 1983-85 has served as a watershed with respect to humanitarian action. One of its lasting legacies has been the emergence of Band Aid and the subsequent increase in celebrity humanitarianism. A revisiting of the events of 1983-85 occurred in 2010 during a dispute in which it was alleged that a portion of the donations of Band Aid were spent on arms purchases. This paper takes this controversy as its starting point. It goes on to use the theoretical reflections of Giorgio Agamben to consider the dynamics that unfolded during the Ethiopian famine of 1983-85 and to analyse the underlying conceptualisation behind the emergence of Band Aid-type celebrity humanitarianism. The paper concludes with some wider thoughts on how the in essence antipolitical agenda of celebrity humanitarian action is transported into the everyday understanding of 'African disaster', resulting ultimately in the perpetuation of hegemonic control by the global North. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  15. Transitions: Issues, Challenges and Solutions in International Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    and division of labor among humanitarian stakeholders (Binder and Grunewald 2010)” – ALNAP Report , “ Haiti Earthquake Response: Context Analysis ...Transitions: Issues, Challenges and Solutions in International Assistance Edited by Harry R. Yarger, Ph.D. Report Documentation Page Form...ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  16. Strategies for Logistics in Case of a Natural Disaster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations (MBA Student Report) LT Cullen Greenfield and LT Cameron Ingram, USN Financing ...accreditation in Acquisition, Financial and Supply Chain Management and Joint Professional Military Education. Dussault is certified in production...of the analysis of alternatives for capital purchases under conditions of resource scarcity, supply chain management, risk analysis, humanitarian

  17. Research and application of genetic algorithm in path planning of logistics distribution vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Zhou, Heng; Wang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The core of the logistics distribution system is the vehicle routing planning, research path planning problem, provide a better solution has become an important issue. In order to provide the decision support for logistics and distribution operations, this paper studies the problem of vehicle routing with capacity constraints (CVRP). By establishing a mathematical model, the genetic algorithm is used to plan the path of the logistics vehicle to meet the minimum logistics and transportation costs.

  18. The Effectiveness of Interventions for Non-Communicable Diseases in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Alexander; Knight, Abigail; Perel, Pablo; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected humanitarian crises. Humanitarian agencies and governments are increasingly challenged with how to effectively tackle NCDs. Reviewing the evidence of interventions for NCDs in humanitarian crises can help guide future policies and research by identifying effective interventions and evidence gaps. The aim of this paper is to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of interventions targeting NCDs during humanitarian crises in LMICs. A systematic review methodology was followed using PRISMA standards. Studies were selected on NCD interventions with civilian populations affected by humanitarian crises in low- and middle-income countries. Five bibliographic databases and a range of grey literature sources were searched. Descriptive analysis was applied and a quality assessment conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for observational studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for experimental studies. The search yielded 4919 references of which 8 studies met inclusion criteria. Seven of the 8 studies were observational, and one study was a non-blinded randomised-controlled trial. Diseases examined included hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, thalassaemia, and arthritis. Study settings included locations in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South Asia. Interventions featuring disease-management protocols and/or cohort monitoring demonstrated the strongest evidence of effectiveness. No studies examined intervention costs. The quality of studies was limited, with a reliance on observational study designs, limited use of control groups, biases associated with missing data and inadequate patient-follow-up, and confounding was poorly addressed. The review highlights the extremely limited quantity and quality of evidence on this topic. Interventions that incorporate standardisation and

  19. Exploring the Role of Ad Hoc Grassroots Organizations Providing Humanitarian Aid on Lesvos, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kitching, George Tjensvoll; J. Haavik, Hanne; Tandstad, Birgit J.; Zaman, Muhammad; Darj, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Syrian refugees displaced into Turkey have attempted high-risk sea migrations to reach safer destinations in Europe, most often initially arriving on the Greek island of Lesvos. These refugees were often in need of basic humanitarian assistance that has been provided in part by a new category of ad hoc grassroots organizations (AHGOs). The aim of this study was to understand the internal and external operations of these AHGOs and their role on Lesvos. Methods: The experiences of AHGOs were investigated through a qualitative research design utilizing semi-structured interviews with organization leaders and spokespersons. AHGOs identified through media and social media sources as new Lesvos-specific organizations were purposively invited to complete an interview over phone, Skype or email. Data analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed by Systematic Text Condensation. Results: Forty-one organizations were contacted and 13 interviews were conducted. Most organizations were formed in autumn 2015 responding to the greater influx of refugees and migrants at that time and reported an absence of professional humanitarian agencies providing aid on Lesvos. Three categories emerged from the material. Features of organizations; Features of volunteers and; Evolution of AHGOs. The organizations perceived themselves capable of evaluating needs, mobilizing resources, funding and providing quick response. The volunteers came with limited humanitarian experience and from a wide variety of nationalities and professional backgrounds, and the organizations developed while on Lesvos. Discussion: Knowledge from our findings of AHGOs response to this complex disaster on Lesvos could be utilized in future catastrophes. We conclude that AHGOs may prove effective at providing humanitarian aid in a surge response when international non-governmental organizations are unable to respond quickly. In future complex disasters AHGOs should be recognized as new humanitarian

  20. Logistics in smallpox: the legacy.

    PubMed

    Wickett, John; Carrasco, Peter

    2011-12-30

    Logistics, defined as "the time-related positioning of resources" was critical to the implementation of the smallpox eradication strategy of surveillance and containment. Logistical challenges in the smallpox programme included vaccine delivery, supplies, staffing, vehicle maintenance, and financing. Ensuring mobility was essential as health workers had to travel to outbreaks to contain them. Three examples illustrate a range of logistic challenges which required imagination and innovation. Standard price lists were developed to expedite vehicle maintenance and repair in Bihar, India. Innovative staffing ensured an adequate infrastructure for vehicle maintenance in Bangladesh. The use of disaster relief mechanisms in Somalia provided airlifts, vehicles and funding within 27 days of their initiation. In contrast the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) faces more complex logistical challenges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated Logistics Guide. Second Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-14

    15-8 Chapter 16 - Nonmajor Defense Aquisition Programs 16.1 H ighlights...the student an opportunity to address weapon-system logistics problems and devise both theoretical and pragmatic solutions. School Navy Acquisition

  2. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Logistics Transformation: The Paradigm Shift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-14

    NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Derrick A. Corbett 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT U.S. Army Command and General Staff College School of Advanced Military Studies 250 Gibbon...logistics transformation be defined. In the 18th Century, the French invented “a third military science which they called Logistique , or Logistics

  4. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them.

  5. Reuse and recycling - reverse logistics opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Kopicki, R.; Berg, M.J.; Legg, L.

    1993-12-31

    This book is intended to serve as a managerial guide for planning and implementing waste reduction programs. It is based on the premise that proactive management of environmental issues is becoming vital to corporate success, and that these issues are creating new roles and opportunities for logistic professionals. Examined in detail are nonhazardous waste reduction activities; reuse and recycling activities; and source reduction. The book is based on in-depth interviews with seventeen firms and several trade associations acknowledged to be leaders in waste reduction efforts. Topics discussed include adapting inbound supply chains to use more recycled goods; minimizing packaging waste; reverse distribution capabilities for taking back products and packaging; and the use of third party services for recycling, reuse, and source reduction activities. Included are two case analyses of progressive firms like E.I. Dupont Nemours and Home Depot and their waste reduction efforts.

  6. Refugee flow or brain-drain? The humanitarian policy and post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f

    1997-03-01

    "The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations." excerpt

  7. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  8. Afghanistan: Key Oversight Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    of Defense Drug Interdiction and Counter-Drug Activities DOJ Department of Justice ERMA Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance ESF...cHumanitarian assistance includes Migration and Refugee Assistance (MRA); Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance ( ERMA ); International Disaster

  9. The co-construction of medical humanitarianism: analysis of personal, organizationally condoned narratives from an agency website.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a

  10. Perspectives from Ethiopia regarding U.S. military humanitarian assistance: how to build a better medical civil action project (MEDCAP).

    PubMed

    Miles, Shana; Malone, Joseph L

    2013-12-01

    Assuming that budgetary constraints continue over the next several years, the U.S. military's overseas medical activities including medical civic action projects (MEDCAPs) and humanitarian assistance projects could comprise an increasing proportion of the contributions of U.S. government (USG) to improving global health. We have identified several issues with MEDCAPs in Ethiopia since 2009 that resulted in delays or project cancellations. These were mostly related to lack of a plan to develop sustainable capacities. Although there are many obvious medical needs for civilian populations in Ethiopia, the provision of sustainable development assistance involving these Ethiopian populations on behalf of the USG is a complex undertaking involving coordination with many partners and coordination with several other USG agencies. Military medical professionals planning MEDCAPs and other cooperative global health projects would benefit from consultation and close coordination with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Agency of International Development (USAID) experts who are involved in supporting medium- and long-term health projects in Ethiopia. The establishment of durable military medical academic relationships and involvement of overseas military medical research units could also help promote sustainable projects and build robust professional relationships in global health.

  11. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics

    PubMed Central

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131

  12. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics.

    PubMed

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain.

  13. Logistics Management: New trends in the Reverse Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyová, A.; Antony, P.; Soewito, B.

    2016-04-01

    Present level and quality of the environment are directly dependent on our access to natural resources, as well as their sustainability. In particular production activities and phenomena associated with it have a direct impact on the future of our planet. Recycling process, which in large enterprises often becomes an important and integral part of the production program, is usually in small and medium-sized enterprises problematic. We can specify a few factors, which have direct impact on the development and successful application of the effective reverse logistics system. Find the ways to economically acceptable model of reverse logistics, focusing on converting waste materials for renewable energy, is the task in progress.

  14. The humanitarian situation in syria: a snapshot in the third year of the crisis.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Delbiso, Tefera D; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-03-03

    Between April and June 2014, International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC), an International NGO, and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East (GOPA) conducted a needs assessment of Syrians affected by the crisis with the objective of gaining a better understanding of humanitarian needs and assistance priorities. Findings suggest that interventions that increase access to non-food items, food, medication and education should be prioritized where cost was the primary barrier to accessing goods and services. Cash transfer programs and direct provision of material assistance should be considered, though the most appropriate assistance modality is likely to vary by sector, location and the preferences and prior experience of donors and implementing organizations. Renewed international commitment to funding humanitarian assistance efforts in Syria and neighboring countries where the burden of refugees is greatest is essential from both a human rights perspective and in terms of maintaining stability in the region.

  15. The Humanitarian Situation in Syria: A Snapshot in the Third Year of the Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Delbiso, Tefera D.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Between April and June 2014, International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC), an International NGO, and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East (GOPA) conducted a needs assessment of Syrians affected by the crisis with the objective of gaining a better understanding of humanitarian needs and assistance priorities. Findings suggest that interventions that increase access to non-food items, food, medication and education should be prioritized where cost was the primary barrier to accessing goods and services. Cash transfer programs and direct provision of material assistance should be considered, though the most appropriate assistance modality is likely to vary by sector, location and the preferences and prior experience of donors and implementing organizations. Renewed international commitment to funding humanitarian assistance efforts in Syria and neighboring countries where the burden of refugees is greatest is essential from both a human rights perspective and in terms of maintaining stability in the region. PMID:25821647

  16. Misuse of the FDA's humanitarian device exemption in deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Fins, Joseph J; Mayberg, Helen S; Nuttin, Bart; Kubu, Cynthia S; Galert, Thorsten; Sturm, Volker; Stoppenbrink, Katja; Merkel, Reinhard; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2011-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation-a novel surgical procedure-is emerging as a treatment of last resort for people diagnosed with neuropsychiatric disorders such as severe obsessive-compulsive disorder. The US Food and Drug Administration granted a so-called humanitarian device exemption to allow patients to access this intervention, thereby removing the requirement for a clinical trial of the appropriate size and statistical power. Bypassing the rigors of such trials puts patients at risk, limits opportunities for scientific discovery, and gives device manufacturers unique marketing opportunities. We argue that Congress and federal regulators should revisit the humanitarian device exemption to ensure that it is not used to sidestep careful research that can offer valuable data with appropriate patient safeguards.

  17. Books vs bombs? Humanitarian development and the narrative of terror in Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nosheen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of humanitarian discourse and development in reconfiguring the contemporary culture of empire and its war on terror. It takes as its point of entry the immensely popular biographical tale, Three Cups of Tea, which details how the American mountaineer Greg Mortenson has struggled to counter terrorism in Northern Pakistan through the creation of schools. Even as this text appears to provide a self-critical and humane perspective on terrorism, the article argues that it constructs a misleading narrative of terror in which the realities of Northern Pakistan and Muslim life-worlds are distorted through simplistic tropes of ignorance, backwardness and extremism, while histories of US geopolitics and violence are erased. The text has further facilitated the emergence of a participatory militarism, whereby humanitarian work helps to reinvent the military as a culturally sensitive and caring institution in order to justify and service the project of empire.

  18. Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and State Violence: Medical Documentation of Torture in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Başak

    2016-09-01

    State authorities invested in developing official expert discourses and practices to deny torture in post-1980 coup d'état Turkey. Documentation of torture was therefore crucial for the incipient human rights movement there in the 1980s. Human rights physicians used their expertise not only to treat torture victims but also to document torture and eventually found the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) in 1990. Drawing on an ethnographic and archival research at the HRFT, this article examines the genealogy of anti-torture struggles in Turkey and argues that locally mediated intimacies and/or hostilities between victims of state violence, human rights physicians, and official forensics reveal the limitations of certain universal humanitarian and human rights principles. It also shows that locally mediated long-term humanitarian encounters around the question of political violence challenge forensic denial of violence and remake the legitimate levels of state violence. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  19. A climate-compatible approach to development practice by international humanitarian NGOs.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Matthew; de Cruz, Ian

    2015-01-01

    If current climate-change predictions prove accurate, non-linear change, including potentially catastrophic change, is possible and the environments in which international humanitarian NGOs operate will change figuratively and literally. This paper proposes that a new approach to development is required that takes changing climate into account. This 'climate-compatible approach' to development is a bleak shift from some of the current orthodox positions and will be a major challenge to international humanitarian NGOs working with the most vulnerable. However, it is necessary to address the challenges and context such NGOs face, and the need to be resilient and adaptive to these changes. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  20. Palatal fistula risk after primary palatoplasty: a retrospective comparison of humanitarian operations and tertiary hospitals.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kimberly M; Yu, Emily Yang; Maine, Rebecca G; Corlew, Scott; Bing, Shi; Hoffman, William Y; Gregory, George A

    2015-04-27

    Humanitarian surgical organisations provide cleft palate repair for patients without access to surgical care. Despite decades of experience, very little research has assessed the outcomes of these trips. This study investigates the fistula rate in patients from two cohorts in rural China and one in the USA. This retrospective study compared the odds of fistula presentation among three cohorts whose palates were repaired between April, 2005, and November, 2009. The primary cohort included 97 Chinese patients operated on in China by surgeons from ReSurge International. A second Chinese cohort of 250 patients was operated on at Huaxi University Hospital by Chinese surgeons. The third cohort of 120 patients from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) was included for comparison over the same time period; data was taken from medical records. Age, fistula presentation, and Veau Class were compared between the three cohorts with χ(2) tests. Logistic regression was used to analyse predictors of fistula presentation among the three cohorts. This study received institutional review board approval from the UCSF, the Harvard School of Public Health, and physicians at Huaxi University Hospital, and written consent was obtained from study participants in China. The fistula risk was 35·4% in ReSurge patients, 12·8% for patients at Huaxi University Hospital, and 2·5% for patients at UCSF (p<0·001). At the time of surgery 15·5% of the ReSurge patients were younger than 2 years old, whereas 90·8% of the UCSF children and 41·6% of the Huaxi children were (p<0·001). In the ReSurge cohort, 20·6% of patients had a Veau class of I or II, wheras 40·8% and 58·9% of UCSF and Huaxi patients, respectively, were in class I or II (p<0·001). Age and Veau Class were associated with fistula formation in a univariate analysis. (Veau Class III or IV vs I or II, odds ratio [OR] 6·399 [95% CI 3·182-12·871]; age, OR 1·071 [95% CI 1·024-1·122]). A multivariate model

  1. Training for Success: Intelligence Training in Support of Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    provided support to West African nations during the 2014 - 2015 Ebola crisis, or Operation Sahayogi Haat, which provided humanitarian support to Nepal...10; Feikert 2011, 5). Operation United Assistance Starting in December 2013, the Ebola virus spread throughout the Western African nations of...Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. By the late summer of 2014, the Ebola virus had killed thousands and was threatening to spread further. In September

  2. The Role of Ethics in U.S. Military Humanitarian Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    of force protection; a desirable political end- state in contrast to an expedient military exit strategy; respect for the Westphalian concept of...attention in this succinct treatment of humanitarian intervention. They are: (1) rules-based ethics; (2) ends-based ethics; and (3) virtues-based or...threat or use of force; (7) Fulfillment in good faith of international obligations; (8) Cooperation with other states; and (9) Respect for human

  3. The Process of Providing Humanitarian Assistance: A Department of Defense Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    humanitarian assistance. A model was compiled to portray the current process and given to key personnel identified in the research as subject matter experts...Subsequently, their opinion was used to determine the validity of the model and gather additional points of contact for future research. Once the...examined and analyzed by answering the investigative questions. A model was subsequently compiled and used as a baseline to further define the

  4. Operation PATWIN: HMS DARING's experience of providing humanitarian disaster relief following super-Typhoon Haiyan.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, S J

    2014-01-01

    Super-Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines on 7 November 2013. The initial reports estimated 10 000 fatalities and four million displaced persons. As the United Kingdom's initial response to this disaster, HMS DARING was diverted from her deployment to take part in humanitarian aid, named Operation PATWIN. This article will outline the medical aspects of the relief effort undertaken and aim to identify any lessons that may inform future operations.

  5. Burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following humanitarian emergencies: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Kaitlin G.; Sharma, Davina; Wardlow, Robert D.; Singh, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    Background The global burden of cardiovascular mortality is increasing, as is the number of large-scale humanitarian emergencies. The interaction between these phenomena is not well understood. This review aims to clarify the relationship between humanitarian emergencies and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods With assistance from a research librarian, electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Health) were searched in January 2014. Findings were supplemented by reviewing citations of included trials. Observational studies reporting the effect of natural disasters and conflict events on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults since 1997 were included. Studies without a comparison group were not included. Double-data extraction was utilized to abstract information on acute coronary syndrome (ACS), acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and cardiac death (SCD). Review Manager 5.0 was used to create figures for qualitative synthesis (Version 5.2, Copenhagen Denmark, The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Results The search retrieved 1697 unique records; 24 studies were included (17 studies of natural disasters, 7 studies of conflict). These studies involved 14,583 cardiac events. All studies utilized retrospective designs: 4 were population-based, 15 were single-center, and 5 were multicenter studies. 23 studies utilized historical controls in the primary analysis, and 1 utilized primarily geographical controls. Conflicts are associated with an increase in long-term morbidity from ACS; the short-term effects of conflict vary by study. Natural disasters exhibit heterogeneous effects including increased occurrence of ACS, ADHF, and SCD. Conclusions In certain settings, humanitarian emergencies are associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality that may persist for years following the event. Humanitarian aid organizations should consider morbidity from non-communicable disease when planning relief and recuperation projects. PMID

  6. Primary care in an unstable security, humanitarian, economic and political context: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Kringos, Dionne S

    2017-08-23

    This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and political crises. The descriptive analysis used a framework operationalizing Starfield's classic primary care model for health services research. A scoping review was performed using relevant sources, and expert consultations were conducted for completing and validating data. The descriptive analysis presents a complex narrative of a primary care system undergoing classical developmental processes of transitioning middle-income countries. The system is simultaneously under tremendous pressure to adapt to the continuously changing, complex and resource-intensive needs of sub-populations exhibiting varying morbidity patterns, within the context of protracted security, humanitarian, economic, and political crises. Despite exhibiting significant resilience in the face of the ongoing crises, the continued influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees, coupled with extremely limited resources and weak governance at policy, organizational and clinical levels threaten the sustainability of KRI's public primary care system. Diverse trajectories to the strengthening and development of primary care are underway by local and international actors, notably the World Bank, RAND Corporation, UN organizations and USAID, focusing on varying imperatives related to the protracted humanitarian and economic crises. The convergence, interaction and outcomes of the diverse initiatives and policy approaches in relation to the development of KRI's primary care system are complex and highly uncertain. A common vision of primary care is required to align resources, initiatives and policies, and to enable synergy between all local and international actors involved in the developmental and humanitarian response. Further

  7. Burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following humanitarian emergencies: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Kaitlin G; Sharma, Davina; Wardlow, Robert D; Singh, Sonal

    2015-02-01

    The global burden of cardiovascular mortality is increasing, as is the number of large-scale humanitarian emergencies. The interaction between these phenomena is not well understood. This review aims to clarify the relationship between humanitarian emergencies and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. With assistance from a research librarian, electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Global Health) were searched in January 2014. Findings were supplemented by reviewing citations of included trials. Observational studies reporting the effect of natural disasters and conflict events on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults since 1997 were included. Studies without a comparison group were not included. Double-data extraction was utilized to abstract information on acute coronary syndrome (ACS), acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Review Manager 5.0 (Version 5.2, The Nordic Cochrane Centre; Copenhagen Denmark,) was used to create figures for qualitative synthesis. The search retrieved 1,697 unique records; 24 studies were included (17 studies of natural disasters and seven studies of conflict). These studies involved 14,583 cardiac events. All studies utilized retrospective designs: four were population-based, 15 were single-center, and five were multicenter studies. Twenty-three studies utilized historical controls in the primary analysis, and one utilized primarily geographical controls. Conflicts are associated with an increase in long-term morbidity from ACS; the short-term effects of conflict vary by study. Natural disasters exhibit heterogeneous effects, including increased occurrence of ACS, ADHF, and SCD. In certain settings, humanitarian emergencies are associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality that may persist for years following the event. Humanitarian aid organizations should consider morbidity from noncommunicable disease when planning relief and recuperation projects.

  8. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  9. Core Competencies in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Gotz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fisher, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Stal, Marc; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    Disaster response demands a large workforce covering diverse professional sectors. Throughout this article, we illustrate the results of a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to identify existing competency sets for disaster management and humanitarian assistance that would serve as guidance for the development of a common disaster curriculum. A systematic review of English-language articles was performed on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, ERIC, and Cochrane Library. Studies were included if reporting competency domains, abilities, knowledge, skills, or attitudes for professionals involved disaster relief or humanitarian assistance. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, case studies, and studies not dealing with disasters or humanitarian assistance. Thirty-eight papers were analyzed. Target audience was defined in all articles. Five references (13%) reported cross-sectorial competencies. Most of the articles (81.6%) were specific to health care. Eighteen (47%) papers included competencies for at least 2 different disciplines and 18 (47%) for different professional groups. Nursing was the most widely represented cadre. Eighteen papers (47%) defined competency domains and 36 (94%) reported list of competencies. Nineteen articles (50%) adopted consensus-building to define competencies, and 12 (31%) included competencies adapted to different professional responsibility levels. This systematic review revealed that the largest number of papers were mainly focused on the health care sector and presented a lack of agreement on the terminology used for competency-based definition.

  10. Experiences from the field: maternal, reproductive and child health data collection in humanitarian and emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Fiona M; Pyone, Thidar; van den Broek, Nynke

    2016-03-01

    Humanitarian emergencies can disproportionately affect women of reproductive age, and children. Good data on reproductive maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) are vital to plan and deliver programmes to address RMNCH needs. There is currently a lack of information regarding the availability, use and applicability of data collection tools. Key informant interviews (KII) were conducted with participants with experience of data collection in humanitarian settings, identified from relevant publications. Data were analysed using the thematic framework approach. All participants reported challenges, especially in the acute phase of an emergency and when there is insufficient security. Four common themes were identified: the importance of a mixed methods approach, language both with regard to development of data collection tools and data collection, the need to modify existing tools and build local capacity for data collection. Qualitative data collection was noted to be time consuming but considered to be important to understand the local context. Both those who have experienced trauma (including sexual violence) and data collectors require debriefing after documenting these experiences. There were numerous challenges associated with data collection assessing the health status of, and services available, to women and children in humanitarian settings, and researchers should be well prepared. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Engendering care: HIV, humanitarian assistance in Africa and the reproduction of gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Mindry, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    This paper draws upon recent research in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes the provision of aid in the context of the HIV in Africa constructing an image of 'virile' and 'violent' African masculinity. Humanitarian organisations construct imagined relations of caring, invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are strongly gendered. Humanitarian interventions that invoke universalising conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably construct women (and children) as victims in need of care, which at best ignore the lived experiences of men and, at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder.

  12. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today.

  13. Physicians for Peace and Interplast Turkiye: combined humanitarian surgical activities and conferences.

    PubMed

    Baran, Cihat Nazmi; Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer

    2007-03-01

    Plastic surgery is the newest frontier of modern surgery, where the latest scientific advances, the most refined surgical technique, and an artistic approach meet. During the past century, this rather young field of surgery successfully filled an important gap in modern medicine. However, it is still unavailable to billions of people living in developing regions of the world. Nonprofit charity organizations such as Physicians for Peace and Interplast have played a very important role as providers of aid to these people. Interplast Turkiye was founded by Dr. Namik K. Baran together with a group of plastic surgeons and distinguished doctors from Cukurova University in Adana, Turkey, on April 23, 1988. : Detailed data about the joint and solo activities of Interplast Turkiye and three cooperating humanitarian organizations (i.e., Interplast Germany; Physicians for Peace; and Interplast Inc., USA) were collected and reviewed. Detailed history of the humanitarian activities held by Turkish plastic surgeons, the foundation of the Turkish Interplast, and its humanitarian activities are discussed. Years of experience are summarized, and the essentials of planning an international mission are described. Providing help to the people who cannot readily benefit from plastic surgery is a duty for plastic surgeons worldwide. Nevertheless, plastic surgeons should also train the native surgeons and support the plastic surgery foundations in these countries, so that the people may provide themselves with uninterrupted health care.

  14. Educational, personal, and cultural attributes of dental students' humanitarian trips to Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bimstein, Enrique; Gardner, Quinton W; Riley, Joseph L; Gibson, Robert W

    2008-12-01

    This article evaluates the educational, personal, and cultural attributes that motivate or inhibit dental students' participation in humanitarian and educational trips to underserved communities in Latin America. Interviews, concentrating on students' expectations and experiences, were conducted with students who participated in the trips and with those who did not. A survey of a larger group of students (including those interviewed) was also conducted; the survey included demographic data, ethnic affiliation, cultural competence, motivators and inhibitors to attend trips, and trip attributes. One hundred and seventy-four students at one dental school completed the survey; the group interviews were conducted with twenty-three students who attended humanitarian and educational trips and nine students who did not. This research found that skill development, educational opportunity, and philanthropy were the most important motivators for trip participation. Cost and time commitments were the strongest inhibitors to participate. Exposure to infectious diseases, substandard working and living conditions, threat of crime, and language barriers were mostly considered as "not important." However, female dental students were more concerned than males about crime, living conditions, and infectious diseases during the trips. Cultural education, increased knowledge, cross-cultural professional relationships, increased self-confidence, and public health awareness were the most important attributes of the trips. This study indicates that the undergraduate humanitarian educational trips to underserved Latin American communities have a most significant personal, professional, and social impact on dental students.

  15. Continual Improvement in Shuttle Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Jean; Schafer, Loraine

    1995-01-01

    It has been said that Continual Improvement (CI) is difficult to apply to service oriented functions, especially in a government agency such as NASA. However, a constrained budget and increasing requirements are a way of life at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), making it a natural environment for the application of CI tools and techniques. This paper describes how KSC, and specifically the Space Shuttle Logistics Project, a key contributor to KSC's mission, has embraced the CI management approach as a means of achieving its strategic goals and objectives. An overview of how the KSC Space Shuttle Logistics Project has structured its CI effort and examples of some of the initiatives are provided.

  16. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  17. Surgery for children in low-income countries affected by humanitarian emergencies from 2008 to 2014: The Médecins Sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels experience.

    PubMed

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Trelles, Miguel; Dominguez, Lynette; Hassani, Ghulam Hiadar; Akemani, Clemence; Naseer, Aamer; Ntawukiruwabo, Innocent Bagura; Kushner, Adam L; Rothstein, David H; Stewart, Barclay T

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric surgical care is deficient in developing countries disrupted by crisis. We aimed to describe pediatric surgical care at Médecins Sans Frontières-Brussels (MSF-OCB) projects to inform resource allocation and define the pediatric-specific skillset necessary for humanitarian surgical teams. Procedures performed by MSF-OCB from July 2008 to December 2014 were reviewed. Project characteristics, patient demographics and clinical data were described. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of perioperative death. Of 109,828 procedures, 26,284 were performed for 24,576 children (22% of all procedures). The most common pediatric operative indication was trauma (13,984; 57%). Nine percent of all surgical indications were due to violence (e.g., land mines, firearms, gender-based violence, etc.). The majority of procedures (19,582; 75%) were general surgical, followed by orthopedic (4350; 17%), and obstetric/gynecologic/urologic (2135; 8%). Perioperative death was low (42; 0.17%); independent predictors of death included age <1year, use of general anesthesia with a definitive airway, and operation during conflict. Surgical care for children comprised nearly a quarter of all procedures performed by MSF-OCB between 2008 and 2014. Attention to trauma surgery and infant perioperative care is particularly needed. These findings are important when resourcing projects and training surgical staff for humanitarian missions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bounded agency in humanitarian settings: a qualitative study of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among refugees situated in Kenya and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Rhodes, Tim; Spiegel, Paul; Schilperoord, Marian; Burton, John Wagacha; Balasundaram, Susheela; Wong, Chunting; Ross, David A

    2014-11-01

    HIV-positive refugees confront a variety of challenges in accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and attaining durable viral suppression; however, there is little understanding of what these challenges are, how they are navigated, or how they may differ across humanitarian settings. We sought to document and examine accounts of the threats, barriers and facilitators experienced in relation to HIV treatment and care and to conduct comparisons across settings. We conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of 14 refugees attending a public, urban HIV clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (July-September 2010), and 12 refugees attending a camp-based HIV clinic in Kakuma, Kenya (February-March 2011). We used framework methods and between-case comparison to analyze and interpret the data, identifying social and environmental factors that influenced adherence. The multiple issues that threatened adherence to antiretroviral therapy or precipitated actual adherence lapses clustered into three themes: "migration", "insecurity", and "resilience". The migration theme included issues related to crossing borders and integrating into treatment systems upon arrival in a host country. Challenges related to crossing borders were reported in both settings, but threats pertaining to integration into, and navigation of, a new health system were exclusive to the Malaysian setting. The insecurity theme included food insecurity, which was most commonly reported in the Kenyan setting; health systems insecurity, reported in both settings; and emotional insecurity, which was most common in the Kenyan setting. Resilient processes were reported in both settings. We drew on the concept of "bounded agency" to argue that, despite evidence of personal and community resilience, these processes were sometimes insufficient for overcoming social and environmental barriers to adherence. In general, interventions might aim to bolster individuals' range of action with

  19. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bramon, Chris; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle in development and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. This presentation will address the SLS challenges, along with the analysis and decisions to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  20. Equivalent Linear Logistic Test Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Verstralen, Huub H. F. M.; Verhelst, Norma D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Linear Logistic Test Model (LLTM) and demonstrates that there are many equivalent ways to specify a model. Analyzed a real data set (300 responses to 5 analogies) using a Lagrange multiplier test for the specification of the model, and demonstrated that there may be many ways to change the specification of an LLTM and achieve the…

  1. Woody biomass logistics [Chapter 14

    Treesearch

    Robert Keefe; Nathaniel Anderson; John Hogland; Ken Muhlenfeld

    2014-01-01

    The economics of using woody biomass as a fuel or feedstock for bioenergy applications is often driven by logistical considerations. Depending on the source of the woody biomass, the acquisition cost of the material is often quite low, sometimes near zero. However, the cost of harvesting, collection, processing, storage, and transportation from the harvest site to end...

  2. Availability and Diversity of Training Programs for Responders to International Disasters and Complex Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Gabrielle A.; Obi, Chioma C.; Chang, Mary P.; Bayram, Jamil D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Volunteers and members of relief organizations increasingly seek formal training prior to international field deployment. This paper identifies training programs for personnel responding to international disasters and complex humanitarian emergencies, and provides concise information – if available- regarding the founding organization, year established, location, cost, duration of training, participants targeted, and the content of each program. Methods: An environmental scan was conducted through a combination of a peer-reviewed literature search and an open Internet search for the training programs. Literature search engines included EMBASE, Cochrane, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science databases using the search terms “international,” “disaster,” “complex humanitarian emergencies,” “training,” and “humanitarian response”. Both searches were conducted between January 2, 2013 and September 12, 2013. Results: 14 peer-reviewed articles mentioned or described eight training programs, while open Internet search revealed 13 additional programs. In total, twenty-one training programs were identified as currently available for responders to international disasters and CHE. Each of the programs identified has different goals and objectives, duration, expenses, targeted trainees and modules. Each of the programs identified has different goals and objectives, duration, expenses, targeted trainees and modules. Seven programs (33%) are free of charge and four programs (19%) focus on the mental aspects of disasters. The mean duration for each training program is 5 to 7 days. Fourteen of the trainings are conducted in multiple locations (66%), two in Cuba (9%) and two in Australia (9%). The cost-reported in US dollars- ranges from $100 to $2,400 with a mean cost of $480 and a median cost of $135. Most of the programs are open to the public, but some are only available by invitation only, such as the International Mobilization Preparation for

  3. Logistic regression for risk factor modelling in stuttering research.

    PubMed

    Reed, Phil; Wu, Yaqionq

    2013-06-01

    To outline the uses of logistic regression and other statistical methods for risk factor analysis in the context of research on stuttering. The principles underlying the application of a logistic regression are illustrated, and the types of questions to which such a technique has been applied in the stuttering field are outlined. The assumptions and limitations of the technique are discussed with respect to existing stuttering research, and with respect to formulating appropriate research strategies to accommodate these considerations. Finally, some alternatives to the approach are briefly discussed. The way the statistical procedures are employed are demonstrated with some hypothetical data. Research into several practical issues concerning stuttering could benefit if risk factor modelling were used. Important examples are early diagnosis, prognosis (whether a child will recover or persist) and assessment of treatment outcome. After reading this article you will: (a) Summarize the situations in which logistic regression can be applied to a range of issues about stuttering; (b) Follow the steps in performing a logistic regression analysis; (c) Describe the assumptions of the logistic regression technique and the precautions that need to be checked when it is employed; (d) Be able to summarize its advantages over other techniques like estimation of group differences and simple regression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Logistics engineering education from the point of view environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányai, Ágota

    2010-05-01

    A new field of MSc programme offered by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Informatics of the University of Miskolc is represented by the programme in logistics engineering. The Faculty has always laid great emphasis on assigning processes connected with environment protection and globalisation issues the appropriate weight in its programmes. This is based on the fact that the Faculty has initiated and been involved in a great number of research and development projects with a substantial emphasis on the fundamental principles of sustainable development. The objective of the programme of logistics engineering is to train engineers who, in possession of the science, engineering, economic, informatics and industrial, transportation technological knowledge related to the professional field of logistics, are able to analyse, design, organise, and control logistics processes and systems (freight transportation, materials handling, storage, commissioning, loading, purchasing, distribution and waste management) as well as to design and develop machinery and equipment as the elements of logistic systems and also to be involved in their manufacture and quality control and are able to control their operation. The programme prepares its students for performing the logistics management tasks in a company, for creative participation in solving research and development problems in logistics and for pursuing logistics studies in doctoral programmes. There are several laboratories available for practice-oriented training. The 'Integrated Logistics Laboratory' consists of various fixed and mobile, real industrial, i.e. not model-level equipment, the integration of which in one system facilitates not only the presentation, examination and development of the individual self-standing facilities, but the study of their interaction as well in terms of mechatronics, engineering, control engineering, informatics, identification technology and logistics. The state

  5. Operational Logistics: Lessons from the Inchon Landing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    logistics at the strategic, operational, or tactical levels. An analysis of Operation Chromite , the amphibious landing at Inchon, reveals that logistical...commander’s intent, and define the logistics focus of effort demonstrate that operational logistics was a key enabler in Operation Chromite . This analysis

  6. Grid multi-category response logistic models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Wenchao; Li, Pinghao; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-02-18

    Multi-category response models are very important complements to binary logistic models in medical decision-making. Decomposing model construction by aggregating computation developed at different sites is necessary when data cannot be moved outside institutions due to privacy or other concerns. Such decomposition makes it possible to conduct grid computing to protect the privacy of individual observations. This paper proposes two grid multi-category response models for ordinal and multinomial logistic regressions. Grid computation to test model assumptions is also developed for these two types of models. In addition, we present grid methods for goodness-of-fit assessment and for classification performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the grid models produce the same results as those obtained from corresponding centralized models, demonstrating that it is possible to build models using multi-center data without losing accuracy or transmitting observation-level data. Two real data sets are used to evaluate the performance of our proposed grid models. The grid fitting method offers a practical solution for resolving privacy and other issues caused by pooling all data in a central site. The proposed method is applicable for various likelihood estimation problems, including other generalized linear models.

  7. The impact of humanitarian emergencies on the prevalence of violence against children: an evidence-based ecological framework.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Beth L; Stark, Lindsay

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the patterns and mechanisms by which humanitarian emergencies may exacerbate violence against children. In this article, we propose using the ecological framework to examine the impact of humanitarian emergencies on interpersonal violence against children. We consider the literature that supports this framework and suggest future directions for research to fill identified gaps in the framework. The relationship between humanitarian emergencies and violence against children depends on risk factors at multiple levels, including a breakdown of child protection systems, displacement, threats to livelihoods, changing gender roles, changing household composition, overcrowded living conditions, early marriage, exposure to conflict or other emergency events, and alcohol abuse. The empirical evidence supporting the proposed emergency/violence framework is limited by cross-sectional study designs and a propensity to predominantly examine individual-level determinants of violence, especially exposure to conflict or emergency events. Thus, there is a pressing need to contextualize the relationship between conflict or emergency events and violence against children within the wider ecological and household dynamics that occur during humanitarian emergencies. Ultimately, this will require longitudinal observations of children, families and communities from before the emergency through recovery and improvements to ongoing global surveillance systems. More complete data will enable the humanitarian community to design effective, appropriate and well-targeted interventions.

  8. The application of geographic information systems and global positioning systems in humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned, programme implications and future research.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Reinhard; Spiegel, Paul B; Henderson, Alden K; Gerber, Michael L

    2003-06-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems and remote sensing have been increasingly used in public health settings since the 1990s, but application of these methods in humanitarian emergencies has been less documented. Recent areas of application of GIS methods in humanitarian emergencies include hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessments; rapid assessment and survey methods; disease distribution and outbreak investigations; planning and implementation of health information systems; data and programme integration; and programme monitoring and evaluation. The main use of GIS in these areas is to provide maps for decision-making and advocacy, which allow overlaying types of information that may not normally be linked. GIS is also used to improve data collection in the field (for example, for rapid health assessments or mortality surveys). Development of GIS methods requires further research. Although GIS methods may save resources and reduce error, initial investment in equipment and capacity building may be substantial. Especially in humanitarian emergencies, equipment and methodologies must be practical and appropriate for field use. Add-on software to process GIS data needs to be developed and modified. As equipment becomes more user-friendly and costs decrease, GIS will become more of a routine tool for humanitarian aid organisations in humanitarian emergencies, and new and innovative uses will evolve.

  9. The League of Nations' rescue of Armenian genocide survivors and the making of modern humanitarianism, 1920-1927.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, Keith David

    2010-01-01

    The essay centers of the efforts by the League of Nations to rescue women and children survivors of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. This rescue -- a seemingly unambiguous good -- was at once a constitutive act in drawing the boundaries of the international community, a key moment in the definition of humanitarianism, and a site of resistance to the colonial presence in the post-Ottoman Eastern Mediterranean. Drawing from a wide range of source materials in a number of languages, including Turkish, Armenian, and Arabic, the essay brings the intellectual and social context of humanitarianism in initiating societies together with the lived experience of humanitarianism in the places where the act took form. In so doing, it draws our attention to the proper place of the Eastern mediterranean, and its women and children, in the global history of humanitarianism. The prevailing narrative of the history of human rights places much of its emphasis on the post-World War II era, the international reaction to the Holocaust, and the founding of the United Nations. yet contemporary human rights thinking also took place within practices of humanitarianism in the interwar period, and is necessarily inseparable from the histories of refugees, colonialism, and the non-West.

  10. Primary health care in complex humanitarian emergencies: Rwanda and Kosovo experiences and their implications for public health training.

    PubMed

    Gardemann, Joachim

    2002-04-01

    In a complex humanitarian emergency, a catastrophic breakdown of political, economic, and social systems, often accompanied by violence, contributes to a long-lasting dependency of the affected communities on external service. Relief systems, such as the Emergency Response Units of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, have served as a sound foundation for fieldwork in humanitarian emergencies. The experience in emergencies gained in Rwanda in 1994 and Kosovo in 1999 clearly points to the need for individual adjustments of therapeutic standards to preexisting morbidity and health care levels within the affected population. In complex emergencies, public health activities have been shown to promote peace, prevent violence, and reconcile enemies. A truly democratic and multi-professional approach in all public health training for domestic or foreign service serves as good pattern for fieldwork. Beyond the technical and scientific skills required in the profession, political, ethical, and communicative competencies are critical in humanitarian assistance. Because of the manifold imperatives of further public health education for emergency assistance, a humanitarian assistance competence training center should be established. Competence training centers focus on the core competencies required to meet future needs, are client-oriented, connect regional and international networks, rely on their own system of quality control, and maintain a cooperative management of knowledge. Public health focusing on complex humanitarian emergencies will have to act in prevention not only of diseases and impairments but also of political tension and hatred.

  11. Performance-Based Logistics, Contractor Logistics Support, and Stryker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    New Supply Chain ” Engineering Management; Vol. 15 Issue 1, (Feb/March 2005): 24-27 10General Eric Shinseki, AUSA Speech, Washington D.C (October 1999...Keating, Scott “Managing Risk in the New Supply Chain ” Engineering Management; Vol. 15 Issue 1, (Feb/March 2005): 24-27 Kobren, Bill. “Mitigating

  12. Logistics: An integral part of cost efficient space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Ann D.

    1996-01-01

    The logistics of space programs and its history within NASA are discussed, with emphasis on manned space flight and the Space Shuttle program. The lessons learned and the experience gained during these programs are reported on. Key elements of logistics are highlighted, and the problems and issues that can be expected to arise in relation to the support of long-term space operations and future space programs, are discussed. Such missions include the International Space Station program and the reusable launch vehicle. Possible solutions to the problems identified are outlined.

  13. Logistics support of lunar bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    Concepts for lunar base design and operations have been studied for over twenty years. A brief summary of past concepts is presented, with reference to new ideas on design, uses and logistics schemes. Transportation systems and mission modes are reviewed, showing the significant cost benefits of reusable transportation at the higher traffic rates representative of lunar base buildup and logistics operations. Parametric studies are presented over the range of base size from 6 crew to 1000 crew, and the "choke points", or barriers to growth are identified and means for their resolution presented. The leverages of food growth on the Moon, crew stay time, use of lunar oxygen, indigenous resources for construction of facilities, and transportation systems size and operations modes are presented. It is concluded that bases as large as 1000 people are affordable at less than twice the cost of an initial base of six people if these leverages of advanced basing technologies are exploited.

  14. Logistical teamwork tames Madagascar wildcats

    SciTech Connect

    Twa, W.

    1986-03-01

    Amoco Production Company's exploration program in western Madagascar's Sakalaya coastal plain exemplifies the unique logistical challenges both operator and drilling contractor must undergo to reach the few remaining onshore frontier areas. Sakalava is characterized by deep rivers, flood prone tributaries, and a lone 40 km hard-surface road. Problems caused by a lack of port facilities and oil field services are complicated by thousands of square miles of unimproved wooded plains. Rainwater from the nearby mountains of central Madagascar frequently floods rivers in the Sakalava coastal plain leaving impassable marshes in their wake. Prior to this project, about 45 wells had been drilled in Madagascar. Most recently, state oil company Omnis contracted Bawden Drilling International Inc. to drill nine wells for its heavy oil project on the Tsimioro oil prospect. Bawden provided both logistical and drilling services for that program.

  15. Logistic analysis of algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Slegers, P M; Leduc, S; Wijffels, R H; van Straten, G; van Boxtel, A J B

    2015-03-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model 'BeWhere' for the regions Benelux (Northwest Europe), southern France and Sahara. For photobioreactors, the energy consumed for transport of water and CO2 turns out to be a small percentage of the energy contained in the algae biomass (0.1-3.6%). For raceway ponds the share for transport is higher (0.7-38.5%). The energy consumption for transport is the lowest in the Benelux due to good availability of both water and CO2. Analysing transport logistics is still important, despite the low energy consumption for transport. The results demonstrate that resource requirements, resource distribution and availability and transport networks have a profound effect on the location choices for algae cultivation.

  16. Campaign Planning for Logistics Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Washington, DC: US Army, 2007. Kaplan , Robert S. and Norton , David P., The Balanced Scorecard . Boston: Harvard Business School Press,1996. Mintzberg...Planning Process (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, March 2006), 5-4. 94 FM 4-0, 1-1. 49 process, the Balanced Scorecard areas of internal...commander as the sole basis for planning processes. In effect, the commander of the logistics organization now must balance direction from the higher

  17. Fleet Logistics Center, Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Supply Systems Command,Fleet Logistics Center, Puget Sound,467 W Street , Bremerton ,WA,98314-5100 8... Bremerton , WA Established: October 1967 Name Changes: Naval Supply Center Puget Sound, Fleet and Industrial Supply Center Puget...or Sasebo) deployed Ships in the Western Pacific (WestPac) Naval Base Kitsap at Bremerton and Bangor (NBK at Bremerton or Bangor) Navy Region

  18. Logistics of companion animal rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Danoff, Kim; Taylor, Robert; Adamson, Caroline

    2005-11-01

    Setting up rehabilitation services presents several challenges to the veterinary practitioner. Members of the rehabilitation team need to have a solid knowledge base of acute and chronic orthopedic and neurologic disorders and a knowledge of rehabilitation principles and applications. The working environment has to be adapted to patients with limited mobility, specific equipment and supplies are to be used, and a fee structure should be implemented. This article reviews these logistic aspects of companion animal rehabilitation.

  19. Integrated Logistics For Reconnaissance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vintheden, Erik A.

    1985-12-01

    Development of reconnaissance systems in the information age involving new trends in C3I fifth generation of computers, artificial intelligence and expert systems etc is a challenge. However the result depends on the ability to balance all the factors involved whereas the logistics community contribution to mission success becomes more and more important especially in certain airborne systems with encreasing complex techniques. The very simple fact that the development and quality of complex system does not proceed faster than the custumers ability to absorbe, select, specify, coordinate and decide from the explorative development is well known but still a great problem. This paper will describe some baselines for a logistics management program with emphasis on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) used to solve the main problems under the must severe conditions. Development of fixed priced LCC guaranteed multirole a/c for the year 2000 integrated with automated very short "early warning", and a mix of personnel in the field with conscript whereas the necessary "culture of reconnaissance" has to be restored are some of the features that creates the background. The integrated logistics support controls all activities affecting AVAILABILTY and LCC.

  20. Operational Use of the US Army Reserve in Foreign Disaster Relief to Support the United States Government’s Strategic Use of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    FDR). Global climate change, urbanization, growing natural resources scarcity , and other factors will increase the need for humanitarian assistance...natural resources scarcity , and other factors will increase the need for humanitarian assistance (HA) and disaster relief. At the same time, the...22, 60. 2 conditions caused by climate change. Climate change is a major contributor to emerging natural resource scarcity , the increase in

  1. Where There Is a (Collective) Will, There Are (Effective) Ways: Integrating Individual- and Group-Level Factors in Explaining Humanitarian Collective Action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig; Reese, Gerhard; Berndsen, Mariette; Bliuc, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The 21st century has borne witness to catastrophic natural and human-induced tragedies. These disasters necessitate humanitarian responses; however, the individual and collective bases of support are not well understood. Drawing on Duncan's motivational model of collective action, we focus on how individual differences position a person to adopt group memberships and develop a "group consciousness" that provides the basis for humanitarian action. Longitudinal mediation analyses involving supporters of international humanitarian action (N = 384) sampled annually for 3 years provided support for the hypothesized model, with some twists. The results revealed that within time point, a set of individual differences (together, the "pro-social orientation") promoted a humanitarian group consciousness that, in turn, facilitated collective action. However, longitudinally, there was evidence that a more general pro-social orientation undermined subsequent identification with, and engagement in, the humanitarian cause. Results are discussed in terms of understanding the interplay between individual and group in collective actions.

  2. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute

  4. Of special humanitarian concern: U.S. refugee admissions since passage of the Refugee Act.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D; Forbes, S; Fagan, P W

    1986-01-01

    The Refugee Act of 1980 is the 1st comprehensive legislation on the admission of refugees to the US; in the 5+ years since its enactment, over 500,000 refugees from more than 25 countries have been admitted to the US. This report assesses the effectiveness of the law in achieving its objectives in making and implementing decisions about the admission of refugees. The objectives of the Act include 1) a desire for a humanitarian response to refugee emergencies and a desire for control over that response, 2) a concern that ideological and geographic restrictions on refugee admissions be removed, and 3) a desire to balance international concerns and domestic impacts in making decisions on refugee admissions. The authors conclude that the refugee program does not serve the broad humanitarian purposes of previous parole programs, due to its stringent review requirements. The formal Congressional Consultations on refugee numbers should be rescheduled to allow regular Congressional input. The program needs a contingency budget for changing situations. The program needs more input from nongovernmental agencies and information sources. Recommendations on refugee admission numbers and allocations have not been well substantiated. Determinations as to which refugees are of "special humanitarian concern" are made solely on the basis of nationality; these decisions should also incorporate other factors. Admissions priorities are generally based on ties to this country, but this makes the refugee program a surrogate immigration program. Although the application of the refugee definition is difficult in practice, it forms the essence of the admission process. US staff must be trained to make these decisions; indecisiveness must not be allowed to jeopardize refugees.

  5. Child protection assessment in humanitarian emergencies: case studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-12-01

    The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of assessments that effectively identify, and suggest means of response to, threats to children's rights and well-being in emergency settings. In the context of a field evaluation of an inter-agency resource kit, crisis settings where an inter-agency assessment of child protection had been considered in the period August 2008 to July 2010 were identified. Email correspondence, telephone-based structured interviews and documentary review collated information from child protection coordinating agencies from a total of twenty sites, the minority of which had proceeded to complete an assessment. This paper presents case studies of the experience in Georgia (following the conflict between Russian and Georgian forces in August 2008), Gaza (following the Israeli military incursion beginning in December 2008), Haiti (following the earthquake of January 2010), and Yemen (following the ceasefire agreement between the government and rebel forces in early 2010). CASE STUDY FINDINGS: In each setting the context of the humanitarian emergency is outlined. The processes of the planning (and, where appropriate, implementation) of the child protection assessment is described. Where available, the findings of the child protection assessment and their use in shaping interventions are summarized. Case studies document experience across humanitarian settings widely divergent in terms of the nature of the emergency, social-political context, and institutional capacity. Despite such differences, analysis suggests securing inter-agency coordination, preparation and capacity building, and means of ensuring timeliness of findings to be recurrent themes in the effective

  6. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian

  7. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. Aim To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980–2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Results Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. Conclusion The current evidence base on the impact of WASH

  8. Progress and gaps in reproductive health services in three humanitarian settings: mixed-methods case studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Reproductive health (RH) care is an essential component of humanitarian response. Women and girls living in humanitarian settings often face high maternal mortality and are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual violence. This study explored the availability and quality of, and access barriers to RH services in three humanitarian settings in Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and South Sudan. Methods Data collection was conducted between July and October 2013. In total, 63 purposively selected health facilities were assessed: 28 in Burkina Faso, 25 in DRC, and nine in South Sudan, and 42 providers completed a questionnaire to assess RH knowledge and attitudes. Thirty-four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 members of the host communities and 273 displaced married and unmarried women and men to understand access barriers. Results All facilities reported providing some RH services in the prior three months. Five health facilities in Burkina Faso, six in DRC, and none in South Sudan met the criteria as a family planning service delivery point. Two health facilities in Burkina Faso, one in DRC, and two in South Sudan met the criteria as an emergency obstetric and newborn care service delivery point. Across settings, three facilities in DRC adequately provided selected elements of clinical management of rape. Safe abortion was unavailable. Many providers lacked essential knowledge and skills. Focus groups revealed limited knowledge of available RH services and socio-cultural barriers to accessing them, although participants reported a remarkable increase in use of facility-based delivery services. Conclusion Although RH services are being provided, the availability of good quality RH services was inconsistent across settings. Commodity management and security must be prioritized to ensure consistent availability of essential supplies. It is critical to improve the attitudes, managerial and technical

  9. Access to healthcare for the most vulnerable migrants: a humanitarian crisis.

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Martin, Jorge Pedro; Cornish, Stephen; Biorklund, Linn Maria; Gayton, Ivan; Doerner, Frank; Schneider, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    A series of Médecins Sans Frontières projects for irregular migrants over the past decade have consistently documented high rates of 14 physical and sexual trauma, extortion and mental illness amidst severe healthcare, food, and housing limitations. Complex interventions were needed to begin to address illness and barriers to healthcare and to help restore dignity to the most vulnerable women, children and men. Promising interventions included mobile clinics, use of cultural mediators, coordination with migrant-friendly entities and NGOs and integrating advocacy programs and mental health care with medical services. Ongoing interventions, research and coordination are needed to address this neglected humanitarian crisis.

  10. Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Haile, Menghestab

    2005-11-29

    Although considerable achievements in the global reduction of hunger and poverty have been made, progress in Africa so far has been very limited. At present, a third of the African population faces widespread hunger and chronic malnutrition and is exposed to a constant threat of acute food crisis and famine. The most affected are rural households whose livelihood is heavily dependent on traditional rainfed agriculture. Rainfall plays a major role in determining agricultural production and hence the economic and social well being of rural communities. The rainfall pattern in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by large-scale intra-seasonal and inter-annual climate variability including occasional El Niño events in the tropical Pacific resulting in frequent extreme weather event such as droughts and floods that reduce agricultural outputs resulting in severe food shortages. Households and communities facing acute food shortages are forced to adopt coping strategies to meet the immediate food requirements of their families. These extreme responses may have adverse long-term, impacts on households' ability to have sustainable access to food as well as the environment. The HIV/AIDS crisis has also had adverse impacts on food production activities on the continent. In the absence of safety nets and appropriate financial support mechanisms, humanitarian aid is required to enable households effectively cope with emergencies and manage their limited resources more efficiently. Timely and appropriate humanitarian aid will provide households with opportunities to engage in productive and sustainable livelihood strategies. Investments in poverty reduction efforts would have better impact if complemented with timely and predictable response mechanisms that would ensure the protection of livelihoods during crisis periods whether weather or conflict-related. With an improved understanding of climate variability including El Niño, the implications of weather patterns for the food

  11. Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Menghestab

    2005-01-01

    Although considerable achievements in the global reduction of hunger and poverty have been made, progress in Africa so far has been very limited. At present, a third of the African population faces widespread hunger and chronic malnutrition and is exposed to a constant threat of acute food crisis and famine. The most affected are rural households whose livelihood is heavily dependent on traditional rainfed agriculture. Rainfall plays a major role in determining agricultural production and hence the economic and social well being of rural communities. The rainfall pattern in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by large-scale intra-seasonal and inter-annual climate variability including occasional El Niño events in the tropical Pacific resulting in frequent extreme weather event such as droughts and floods that reduce agricultural outputs resulting in severe food shortages. Households and communities facing acute food shortages are forced to adopt coping strategies to meet the immediate food requirements of their families. These extreme responses may have adverse long-term impacts on households' ability to have sustainable access to food as well as the environment. The HIV/AIDS crisis has also had adverse impacts on food production activities on the continent. In the absence of safety nets and appropriate financial support mechanisms, humanitarian aid is required to enable households effectively cope with emergencies and manage their limited resources more efficiently. Timely and appropriate humanitarian aid will provide households with opportunities to engage in productive and sustainable livelihood strategies. Investments in poverty reduction efforts would have better impact if complemented with timely and predictable response mechanisms that would ensure the protection of livelihoods during crisis periods whether weather or conflict-related. With an improved understanding of climate variability including El Niño, the implications of weather patterns for the food

  12. Progress and gaps in reproductive health services in three humanitarian settings: mixed-methods case studies.

    PubMed

    Casey, Sara E; Chynoweth, Sarah K; Cornier, Nadine; Gallagher, Meghan C; Wheeler, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health (RH) care is an essential component of humanitarian response. Women and girls living in humanitarian settings often face high maternal mortality and are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual violence. This study explored the availability and quality of, and access barriers to RH services in three humanitarian settings in Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and South Sudan. Data collection was conducted between July and October 2013. In total, 63 purposively selected health facilities were assessed: 28 in Burkina Faso, 25 in DRC, and nine in South Sudan, and 42 providers completed a questionnaire to assess RH knowledge and attitudes. Thirty-four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 members of the host communities and 273 displaced married and unmarried women and men to understand access barriers. All facilities reported providing some RH services in the prior three months. Five health facilities in Burkina Faso, six in DRC, and none in South Sudan met the criteria as a family planning service delivery point. Two health facilities in Burkina Faso, one in DRC, and two in South Sudan met the criteria as an emergency obstetric and newborn care service delivery point. Across settings, three facilities in DRC adequately provided selected elements of clinical management of rape. Safe abortion was unavailable. Many providers lacked essential knowledge and skills. Focus groups revealed limited knowledge of available RH services and socio-cultural barriers to accessing them, although participants reported a remarkable increase in use of facility-based delivery services. Although RH services are being provided, the availability of good quality RH services was inconsistent across settings. Commodity management and security must be prioritized to ensure consistent availability of essential supplies. It is critical to improve the attitudes, managerial and technical capacity of providers to ensure that RH

  13. Developing Institutional Capacity for Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings: A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Dawson, Angela; Meyers, Janet; Krause, Sandra; Hickling, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Institutions play a central role in advancing the field of reproductive health in humanitarian settings (RHHS), yet little is known about organizational capacity to deliver RHHS and how this has developed over the past decade. This study aimed to document the current institutional experiences and capacities related to RHHS. Descriptive study using an online questionnaire tool. Respondents represented 82 institutions from 48 countries, of which two-thirds originated from low-and middle-income countries. RHHS work was found not to be restricted to humanitarian agencies (25%), but was also embraced by development organizations (25%) and institutions with dual humanitarian and development mandates (50%). Agencies reported working with refugees (81%), internally-displaced (87%) and stateless persons (20%), in camp-based settings (78%), and in urban (83%) and rural settings (78%). Sixty-eight percent of represented institutions indicated having an RHHS-related policy, 79% an accountability mechanism including humanitarian work, and 90% formal partnerships with other institutions. Seventy-three percent reported routinely appointing RH focal points to ensure coordination of RHHS implementation. There was reported progress in RHHS-related disaster risk reduction (DRR), emergency management and coordination, delivery of the Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for RH, comprehensive RH services in post-crisis/recovery situations, gender mainstreaming, and community-based programming. Other reported institutional areas of work included capacity development, program delivery, advocacy/policy work, followed by research and donor activities. Except for abortion-related services, respondents cited improved efforts in advocacy, capacity development and technical support in their institutions for RHHS to address clinical services, including maternal and newborn health, sexual violence prevention and response, HIV prevention, management of sexually-transmitted infections

  14. Microsurgery "without borders": new limits for reconstruction of post-burn sequelae in the humanitarian setting.

    PubMed

    Tocco-Tussardi, I; Presman, B; Cherubino, M; Garusi, C; Bassetto, F

    2016-03-31

    Post-burn contractures account for up to 50% of the workload of a plastic surgery team volunteering in developing nations. Best possible outcome most likely requires extensive surgery. However, extensive approaches such as microsurgery are generally discouraged in these settings. We report two successful cases of severe hand contractures reconstructed with free flaps on a surgical mission in Kenya. Microsurgery can be safely performed in the humanitarian setting by an integration of: personal skills; technical means; education of local personnel; follow-up services; and an effective network for communication.

  15. Select clinical recommendations for military medical practitioners conducting humanitarian and civic assistance activities.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Justin R; Hickey, Patrick W

    2010-09-01

    Training and planning for stability, security, transition, and reconstruction, to include humanitarian and civic assistance activities, has taken on new importance for today's military forces. Deployed medical forces providing medical care to local populations are presented with the challenge of limited resources, complex public health needs, and complex cultural and linguistic barriers to care. In this article, we review some of the clinical situations commonly encountered during these operations and provide an evidence-based rationale for proposed courses of action. This report is timely given expanding operations in Afghanistan and the stand-up of the U.S. African Command (AFRICOM).

  16. Evaluations of reproductive health programs in humanitarian settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Provision of reproductive health (RH) services is a minimum standard of health care in humanitarian settings; however access to these services is often limited. This systematic review, one component of a global evaluation of RH in humanitarian settings, sought to explore the evidence regarding RH services provided in humanitarian settings and to determine if programs are being evaluated. In addition, the review explored which RH services receive more attention based on program evaluations and descriptive data. Peer-reviewed papers published between 2004 and 2013 were identified via the Ovid MEDLINE database, followed by a PubMed search. Papers on quantitative evaluations of RH programs, including experimental and non-experimental designs that reported outcome data, implemented in conflict and natural disaster settings, were included. Of 5,669 papers identified in the initial search, 36 papers describing 30 programs met inclusion criteria. Twenty-five papers described programs in sub-Saharan Africa, six in Asia, two in Haiti and three reported data from multiple countries. Some RH technical areas were better represented than others: seven papers reported on maternal and newborn health (including two that also covered family planning), six on family planning, three on sexual violence, 20 on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and two on general RH topics. In comparison to the program evaluation papers identified, three times as many papers were found that reported RH descriptive or prevalence data in humanitarian settings. While data demonstrating the magnitude of the problem are crucial and were previously lacking, the need for RH services and for evaluations to measure their effectiveness is clear. Program evaluation and implementation science should be incorporated into more programs to determine the best ways to serve the RH needs of people affected by conflict or natural disaster. Standard program design should include rigorous program evaluation, and

  17. Continuing promise 2009--assessment of a recent pediatric surgical humanitarian mission.

    PubMed

    Walk, Ryan M; Glaser, Jacob; Marmon, Louis M; Donahue, Timothy F; Bastien, John; Safford, Shawn D

    2012-04-01

    Surgical organizations have begun to focus their efforts on providing humanitarian assistance in international communities. Most surgeons do not have previous international experience and lack an understanding of what is expected and what care they can provide. The unknown factors include case types, patient volume, postoperative care, and equipment. This abstract presents humanitarian assistance mission and highlights the importance of preparation, host nation involvement, and understanding the local politics of each country. In April to July 2009, the USNS (United States Naval Ship) Comfort deployed to provide humanitarian assistance to 7 countries through Central and South America. Data collected included numbers and types of procedures, rate of rejection of patients for operation, patient age, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score, and length of procedure. These data represent the total mission of Continuing Promise 2009 including a total of 1137 surgical procedures of which 340 were pediatric (<18 years old). The average number of pediatric cases for each country in 7 days was 48.3 ± 21.4, with a range of 24 to 84. The average age was 7.5 years (range, 1 month to 18 years). In partnership with host physicians, preoperative screening occurred over 2 to 3 days for every 7 operative days. We maintained a low threshold for rejection (rate of 43%; range, 21%-62%) and average ASA score of 1.3. Including all pediatric subspecialties, the most frequent procedures were inguinal (23%) and umbilical (14%) hernias. Although these were the most frequent procedure, the range and variety of cases varied widely. We had a very low early complication rate (1.2%), including 3 wound infections and 1 early hernia recurrence. Our data represent the largest collection to date on the pediatric surgical care of children in a humanitarian effort. Our experience can be used to identify the most likely types of cases in South and Central America and as a model for the safe and

  18. Developing Institutional Capacity for Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Dawson, Angela; Meyers, Janet; Krause, Sandra; Hickling, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Institutions play a central role in advancing the field of reproductive health in humanitarian settings (RHHS), yet little is known about organizational capacity to deliver RHHS and how this has developed over the past decade. This study aimed to document the current institutional experiences and capacities related to RHHS. Materials and Methods Descriptive study using an online questionnaire tool. Results Respondents represented 82 institutions from 48 countries, of which two-thirds originated from low-and middle-income countries. RHHS work was found not to be restricted to humanitarian agencies (25%), but was also embraced by development organizations (25%) and institutions with dual humanitarian and development mandates (50%). Agencies reported working with refugees (81%), internally-displaced (87%) and stateless persons (20%), in camp-based settings (78%), and in urban (83%) and rural settings (78%). Sixty-eight percent of represented institutions indicated having an RHHS-related policy, 79% an accountability mechanism including humanitarian work, and 90% formal partnerships with other institutions. Seventy-three percent reported routinely appointing RH focal points to ensure coordination of RHHS implementation. There was reported progress in RHHS-related disaster risk reduction (DRR), emergency management and coordination, delivery of the Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for RH, comprehensive RH services in post-crisis/recovery situations, gender mainstreaming, and community-based programming. Other reported institutional areas of work included capacity development, program delivery, advocacy/policy work, followed by research and donor activities. Except for abortion-related services, respondents cited improved efforts in advocacy, capacity development and technical support in their institutions for RHHS to address clinical services, including maternal and newborn health, sexual violence prevention and response, HIV prevention, management

  19. Ethical considerations for forensic scientists participating in humanitarian action: A personal reflection.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2017-09-01

    Humanitarian Forensic Action is aimed at relieving suffering by comforting and informing the relatives of disaster victims. It is not a priority to report human rights abuses to the authorities. It is thereby different from forensic human rights work with an inquisitive way of demonstrating culpability. The following tasks are relevant. The forensic scientist as an interviewer of the next of kin and witnesses. Emphasizing independency in armed conflicts. Assisting in man-made and natural disasters Assisting in the prevention and of the spread of epidemics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Basic humanitarian principles applicable to non-nationals.

    PubMed

    Goodwin-gill, G S; Jenny, R K; Perruchoud, R

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the general status in international law of certain fundamental human rights to determine the minimum "no derogation" standards, and then surveys a number of formal agreements between stages governing migration matters, while examining some of the standard-setting work undertaken by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and other institutions. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaims the right of everyone to leave any country, including his or her own. The anti-discrimination provision is widely drawn and includes national or social origin, birth, or other status. Non-discrimination is frequently the core issue in migration matters; it offers the basis for a principles approach to questions involving non-nationals and their methodological analysis, as well as a standard for the progressive elaboration of institutions and practices. As a general rule, ILO conventions give particular importance to the principle of choice of methods by states for the implementation of standards, as well as to the principle of progressive implementation. Non-discrimination implies equality of opportunity in the work field, inremuneration, job opportunity, trade union rights and benefits, social security, taxation, medical treatment, and accommodation; basic legal guarantees are also matters of concern to migrant workers, including termination of employment, non-renewal of work permits, and expulsion. The generality of human rights is due not because the individual is or is not a member of a partucular group, and claims to such rights are not determinable according to membership, but according to the character of the right in question. The individualized aspect of fundamental human rights requires a case-by-case consideration of claims, and the recognition that to all persons now certain special duties are owed.

  1. Mini pressurized logistics module (MPLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerani, E.; Brondolo, D.; Basile, L.

    1996-06-01

    The MPLM Program was initiated through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Italy's ASI, the Italian Space Agency, that was signed on 6 December 1991. The MPLM is a pressurized logistics module that will be used to transport supplies and materials (up to 20,000 lb), including user experiments, between Earth and International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) using the Shuttle, to support active and passive storage, and to provide a habitable environment for two people when docked to the Station. The Italian Space Agency has selected Alenia Spazio to develop MPLM modules that have always been considered a key element for the new International Space Station taking benefit from its design flexibility and consequent possible cost saving based on the maximum utilization of the Shuttle launch capability for any mission. In the frame of the very recent agreement between the U.S. and Russia for cooperation in space, that foresees the utilization of MIR 1 hardware, the Italian MPLM will remain an important element of the logistics system, being the only pressurized module designed for re-entry. Within the new scenario of anticipated Shuttle flights to MIR 1 during Space Station phase 1, MPLM remains a candidate for one or more missions to provide MIR 1 resupply capabilities and advanced ISSA hardware/procedures verification. Based on the concept of Flexible Carriers, Alenia Spazio is providing NASA with three MPLM flight units that can be configured according to the requirements of the Human-Tended Capability (HTC) and Permanent Human Capability (PHC) of the Space Station. Configurability will allow transportation of passive cargo only, or a combination of passive and cold cargo accommodated in R/F racks. Having developed and qualified the baseline configuration with respect to the worst enveloping condition, each unit could be easily configured to the passive or active version depending upon the

  2. Logistic regression for circular data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Daffaie, Kadhem; Khan, Shahjahan

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers the relationship between a binary response and a circular predictor. It develops the logistic regression model by employing the linear-circular regression approach. The maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters. The Newton-Raphson numerical method is used to find the estimated values of the parameters. A data set from weather records of Toowoomba city is analysed by the proposed methods. Moreover, a simulation study is considered. The R software is used for all computations and simulations.

  3. Incidence, Etiology and Risk Factors for Travelers' Diarrhea during a Hospital Ship-Based Military Humanitarian Mission: Continuing Promise 2011.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Jessica M; McCaffrey, Ramona L; McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Martin, Gregory J; Scouten, William T; Brooks, Krista; Putnam, Shannon D; Riddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR) military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits), active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires), and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20%) and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%), though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002), feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005), and being a food handler (p = 0.017) were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001). Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03), though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01). Etiology was bacterial (48%), with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%). Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6

  4. The Association Between Service Members' Participation in Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief and Mental Health Symptoms and Treatments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong; Patel, Nilam; Diehl, Glen; Richard, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    There is a scarcity of research establishing a relationship between mental illness and the U.S. military service members who participate in the field of military humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR). One of the few studies in this area showed that participation in military HA/DR was not associated with depressive symptoms, however, the study was limited by sample size. This study examined (1) the relationship between participation in military HA/DR and mental health symptoms and military stress and (2) the relationship between HA/DR and mental health treatment and therapy. Data from the 2011 Health Related Behaviors Survey was used. The analytic sample consisted of U.S. military service members who participated in HA/DR (the Haiti earthquake and Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf) (n = 573) compared to those who participated in non-HA/DR deployments from 2007 to 2011 (n = 986). Multivariate models were used to examine the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variables while controlling for a set of variables that may confound the relationship between the two. The logistic regression model found that participating in HA/DR deployments decreased the likelihood of service members reporting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms by 3% (p < 0.1) and depressive symptoms by 1% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, participation decreased the likelihood of having a prescription for antidepressants during and/or 3 months after deployment by 1% (p < 0.05). Additional results showed that junior enlisted and senior enlisted members were more likely to report symptoms of PTSD than senior officers (p < 0.05). Marines were more likely to seek treatment and therapy for depression than U.S. Coastguard members (p < 0.1). Results showed that participation in HA/DR was associated with significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and the use of antidepressants by service members. Further research needs to understand the mechanism of

  5. Incidence, Etiology and Risk Factors for Travelers’ Diarrhea during a Hospital Ship-Based Military Humanitarian Mission: Continuing Promise 2011

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Martin, Gregory J.; Scouten, William T.; Brooks, Krista; Putnam, Shannon D.; Riddle, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Travelers’ diarrhea (TD) is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR) military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits), active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires), and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20%) and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%), though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002), feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005), and being a food handler (p = 0.017) were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001). Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03), though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01). Etiology was bacterial (48%), with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%). Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6

  6. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrell, J.; Stehly, T.; Johnson, J.; Roberts, J. O.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Heimiller, D.

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little literature that characterizes transportation and logistics challenges and the associated effects on U.S. wind markets. The objectives of this study were to identify the transportation and logistics challenges, assess the associated impacts, and provide recommendations for strategies and specific actions to address the challenges. The authors primarily relied on interviews with wind industry project developers, original equipment manufacturers, and transportation and logistics companies to obtain the information and industry perspectives needed for this study. They also reviewed published literature on trends and developments in increasing wind turbine size, logistics, and transportation issues.

  7. EMS incident management: emergency medical logistics.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M; Christen, H T

    1999-01-01

    If you had to get x amount of supplies to point A or point B, or both, in 10 minutes, how would you do it? The answer lies in the following steps: 1. Develop a logistics plan. 2. Use emergency management as a partner agency for developing your logistics plan. 3. Implement a push logistics system by determining what supplies/medications and equipment are important. 4. Place mass casualty/disaster caches at key locations for rapid deployment. Have medication/fluid caches available at local hospitals. 5. Develop and implement command caches for key supervisors and managers. 6. Anticipate the logistics requirements of a terrorism/tactical violence event based on a community threat assessment. 7. Educate the public about preparing a BLS family disaster kit. 8. Test logistics capabilities at disaster exercises. 9. Budget for logistics needs. 10. Never underestimate the importance of logistics. When logistics support fails, the EMS system fails.

  8. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C S; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis is a statistical technique to evaluate the relationship between various predictor variables (either categorical or continuous) and an outcome which is binary (dichotomous). In this article, we discuss logistic regression analysis and the limitations of this technique.

  9. Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)

  10. Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)

  11. Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

  12. Crisis Management- Operational Logistics & Asset Visibility Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    greatly increase the effectiveness of future crisis response operations. The proposed logistics framework serves as a viable solution for common...increase the effectiveness of future crisis response operations. The proposed logistics framework serves as a viable solution for common logistical...FRAMEWORK............................................................29 A. INTEGRATED COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK MODEL ................29 B. INTEGRATED

  13. Logistics Handbook, 1976. Colorado Outward Bound School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Outward Bound School, Denver.

    Logistics, a support mission, is vital to the successful operation of the Colorado Outward Bound School (COBS) courses. Logistics is responsible for purchasing, maintaining, transporting, and replenishing a wide variety of items, i.e., food, mountaineering and camping equipment, medical and other supplies, and vehicles. The Logistics coordinator…

  14. Jockeying for position in the humanitarian field: Iraqi refugees and faith-based organisations in Damascus.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Tahir

    2012-07-01

    The rise in the number of interventions by faith-based organisations in the humanitarian field has reignited debate about the role of religion in the public sphere. This paper presents a nuanced examination of the part played by religious institutions and networks in the strategies of forced migrants in urban contexts. Furthermore, it considers how such organisations work to integrate displaced populations into their new surroundings. Drawing on two case studies and ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with Iraqi refugees and refugee service providers in Damascus, Syria, carried out between March 2010 and March 2011, it evaluates how Iraqi refugees, as active social agents, utilise religious institutions and networks in conjunction with established international humanitarian organisations to produce a distinctive geography of exile. In addition, it draws attention to how the Syrian state exerts influence over religious actors and how ultimately this affects the decision-making of forced migrants. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  15. The for-profit sector in humanitarian response: integrating ethical considerations in public policy decision making.

    PubMed

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.

  16. Challenges and psychosocial growth for older volunteers giving intensive humanitarian service.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Kathleen W; Cheek, Cheryl; Teemant, Boyd

    2011-08-01

    We conducted a qualitative study of 38 mid-late life volunteers in intensive humanitarian service to ascertain the challenges, personal changes, and benefits they experienced from their volunteer activities. Intensive volunteering was defined as service done on a 24-hr a day basis at a location away from home. In-depth interviews were conducted by phone or in person with each participant. Couples serving together were interviewed conjointly. Data were analyzed using McCracken's 5-step process for long interviews. Participants described and resolved many challenges including adjustment to new situations and cultures, work-related challenges, and readjustment to home. Consistent with Erikson's descriptions of care, volunteers described benefits of expanded social networks, increased closeness to spouses, and increased compassion and empathy for others. In terms of wisdom, they described altered personal perspectives, with lessened materialism and self-focus, greater appreciation of cultural differences, and finding existential meaning in service. Because of population aging and social service organizational contraction, humanitarian service organizations may rely more on older volunteers to fulfill their goals. A deeper understanding of the challenges, ways in which they were met, and perceived benefits of later life intensive volunteering can inform organizational efforts to recruit older adults and support them in diverse settings.

  17. [Intervention priorities in the acute stage of complex emergencies drafted by nine humanitarian aid agencies].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Jaimes, Carmen Sofía; Arcos González, Pedro Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    Complex Emergencies are an international Public Health problem currently becoming increasingly more frequent and of growing proportions which lead to major death and disease rates, especially during the acute stage thereof. This study is aimed at identifying and analyzing the top-priority areas of intervention in the acute stage of a complex emergency drafted in the operating manuals of the main aid agencies, as well as the degree of development and structuring of the activities proposed in each area on which priority has been placed. The intervention manuals drafted by nine major aid agencies were used as study material. A quantitative analysis was then made of the 16 intervention priorities set out, as well as of the degree to which each priority was defined based on the development of 73 variables of aspects of the proposals set out in the manuals. The ACNUR manual includes 90% of the 73 variables for further expansion upon the priorities, the UN Humanitarian Affaire Coordination Office manual including 35% of the 73 variables. ACNUR better expands upon the non-healthcare variables, followed by MSF and USAID. Doctors without borders shows a 97.3% degree of expansion of the healthcare variables) followed by ACNUR (94.7%), USAID (92.1%). ACNUR has been found to have the most integral proposal, the UN Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Office having the most discreet. There is a general trend towad further expanding upon and unifying the health indicators, whilst other aspects are not further expanded upon.

  18. Secondary harm mitigation: A more humanitarian framework for international drug law enforcement.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Jarrett; McLay, Miki; McCulloch, Jude

    2017-08-01

    This article introduces the concept of 'secondary harm mitigation' as a framework for improving the humanitarian credentials of international drug law enforcement agencies. The concept is rooted in a critical analysis of the compatibility of the harm reduction philosophy with Australia's international drug law enforcement practices. On a utilitarian level, the net benefits of international drug law enforcement are determined to be, at best inconclusive, arguably counterproductive and in most cases, incalculable. On a humanitarian level, international drug law enforcement is also determined to be problematic from a criminological standpoint because it generates secondary harms and it is indifferent to the vulnerability of individuals who participate in illicit drug trafficking. Accordingly, the article concludes that a philosophy of harm reduction grounded in the public health perspective is inadequate for mitigating secondary harms arising from Australia's efforts to combat international illicit drug trafficking. A tentative list of secondary harm mitigation principles is presented and the article argues that secondary harm mitigation should replace supply reduction as a core tenet of Australia's National Drug Strategy. The article also concludes that secondary harm mitigation may provide a viable framework for stimulating a productive dialogue between those who advocate prohibition and those who call for decriminalisation at the global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pacific partnership 2010: Anesthesia support aboard the USNS Mercy humanitarian civic assistance.

    PubMed

    Lagrew, Joseph; Lujan, Eugenio; Nelson, Sara C; Hauff, Niels M; Kaesberg, Julie L; Lambert, Mark E; Riffenburgh, Robert; Provencher, Matthew T; Douglas, Trent D

    2012-08-01

    The USNS Mercy has been integral in providing humanitarian and civic assistance as part of the Department of Defense's ongoing Combatant Commander Theater Security Cooperation Plans. The purpose of this study was to critically assess patient demographics and procedures performed to provide guidance for future missions. A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 825 surgical patients who underwent surgery during a 4-month period during Pacific Partnership 2010. Patient demographics, anesthesia exam findings, comorbidities, and surgical data were compared among the mission sites. Of the 825 patients, the mean age ranged from 39.7 to 24.7 with a statistical difference between Vietnam (39.7, p < 0.0087 for all tests) and the remaining sites. Poorer health by American Society of Anesthesiologist grading was noted in Vietnam (1.61) as compared to patients in Cambodia (1.21, p < 0.001) and Timor-Leste (1.40, p = 0.001). No difference in complication rates was noted. The reason for apparent differences in age or health status by site weren't clearly explained, but these differences had no bearing on surgical outcome. Analysis of anesthesia data compiled during Pacific Partnership 2010 provided meaningful data for future humanitarian efforts at these sites.

  20. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: the politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, abolitionist feminist and evangelical Christian activists have directed increasing attention toward the “traffic in women” as a dangerous manifestation of global gender inequalities. Despite renowned disagreements around the politics of sex and gender, these groups have come together to advocate for harsher penalties against traffickers, prostitutes’ customers, and nations deemed to be taking insufficient steps to stem the flow of trafficked women. In this essay, I argue that what has served to unite this coalition of "strange bedfellows" is not simply an underlying commitment to conservative ideals of sexuality, as previous commentators have offered, but an equally significant commitment to carceral paradigms of justice and to militarized humanitarianism as the preeminent mode of engagement by the state. I draw upon my ongoing ethnographic research with feminist and evangelical antitrafficking movement leaders to argue that the alliance that has been so efficacious in framing contemporary antitrafficking politics is the product of two historically unique and intersecting trends: a rightward shift on the part of many mainstream feminists and other secular liberals away from a redistributive model of justice and toward a politics of incarceration, coincident with a leftward sweep on the part of many younger evangelicals toward a globally oriented social justice theology. In the final section of this essay, I consider the resilience of these trends given a newly installed and more progressive Obama administration, positing that they are likely to continue even as the terrain of militarized humanitarian action shifts in accordance with new sets of geopolitical interests.

  1. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work.

  2. Aviation Logistics Officers: Combining Supply and Maintenance Responsibilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-05

    aircraft or at the IMA within a Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron ( MALS ) to manage the intermediate maintenance of a specific type of equipment...provider of components to be issued. Supply officers, on the other hand, rarely leave the confines of the MALS , despite providing support to both the...AAMO). At the MALS maintenance officers serve as division heads for airframe repair, engine repair, etc. or the AAMO. They can also serve as

  3. Humanitarian and Development Assistance: Project Evaluations and Better Information Sharing Needed to Manage the Military’s Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    coalition partners during times of conflict. Security cooperation programs provide financial and technical assistance, ensure transfer of defense...officials said that the Overseas Humanitarian Assistance Shared Information System database is not used for financial management purposes,26 DOD’s...pulled in from DOD’s financial management systems

  4. Designing for Multiple Stakeholder Interests within the Humanitarian Market: The Case of Off-Grid Energy Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Brita Fladvad; Rodrigues Santos, Ana Laura

    2013-01-01

    A "humanitarian market" for off-grid renewable energy technologies for displaced populations in remote areas has emerged. Within this market, there are multiple stakeholder agendas. End-user needs and sustainable development goals are currently not considered through the customer-enterprise relationship and the applied product and…

  5. Radiology on Board the PLA(N) Peace Ark Hospital Ship During a Humanitarian Medical Relief Mission to the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ai-Jun; Sun, Tao; Wang, Hai-Wei; Ge, He-Quan; Ye, Hong-Jun

    2016-02-01

    From November 24 to December 10, 2013, the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy [PLA(N)] hospital ship Peace Ark was deployed to the Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to provide humanitarian medical relief in Tacloban after Typhoon Haiyan. The purpose of this study was to assess the radiological services aboard the ship to provide guidance for future missions. A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 109 patients who underwent digital radiography (DR) and 59 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) scans during a 16-day period during a humanitarian medical relief mission to the Philippines. Patient demographics, DR findings, and CT findings were analyzed. The mean age of the 109 DR patients was 39.7 years for the 64 males and 43.7 years for the 45 females. A total of 148 DR examinations were performed of the chest (n=109), extremities (n=35), and spine (n=4). The mean age of the 59 CT patients was 43.8 years for the 32 males and 49.1 years for the 27 females. A total of 72 CT scans were performed of the head and neck (n=36), thorax (n=24), abdomen (n=5), spine (n=4), and extremities (n=3). The imaging findings mainly included disaster-related and non-disaster-related fractures, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary infection, acute brain infarction, intracranial hematoma, and occupying lesions. Analysis of radiological services during a humanitarian medical relief mission to the Philippines provided meaningful information for future humanitarian medical relief missions.

  6. Designing for Multiple Stakeholder Interests within the Humanitarian Market: The Case of Off-Grid Energy Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Brita Fladvad; Rodrigues Santos, Ana Laura

    2013-01-01

    A "humanitarian market" for off-grid renewable energy technologies for displaced populations in remote areas has emerged. Within this market, there are multiple stakeholder agendas. End-user needs and sustainable development goals are currently not considered through the customer-enterprise relationship and the applied product and…

  7. The Epidemiology of Operation Stress during Continuing Promise 2011: A Humanitarian Response and Disaster Relief Mission aboard a US Navy Hospital Ship.

    PubMed

    Scouten, William T; Mehalick, Melissa L; Yoder, Elizabeth; McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Riddle, Mark S

    2017-03-20

    Introduction Operational stress describes individual behavior in response to the occupational demands and tempo of a mission. The stress response of military personnel involved in combat and peace-keeping missions has been well-described. The spectrum of effect on medical professionals and support staff providing humanitarian assistance, however, is less well delineated. Research to date concentrates mainly on shore-based humanitarian missions. Problem The goal of the current study was to document the pattern of operational stress, describe factors responsible for it, and the extent to which these factors impact job performance in military and civilian participants of Continuing Promise 2011 (CP11), a ship-based humanitarian medical mission.

  8. Improving the performance of community health workers in humanitarian emergencies: a realist evaluation protocol for the PIECES programme

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Brynne; Adams, Ben Jack; Bartoloni, Alex; Alhaydar, Bana; McAuliffe, Eilish; Raven, Joanna; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Vallières, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding what enhances the motivation and performance of community health workers (CHWs) in humanitarian emergencies represents a key research gap within the field of human resources for health. This paper presents the research protocol for the Performance ImprovEment of CHWs in Emergency Settings (PIECES) research programme. Enhancing Learning and Research in Humanitarian Action (ELRHA) funded the development of this protocol as part of their Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) call (No.19839). PIECES aims to understand what factors improve the performance of CHWs in level III humanitarian emergencies. Methods and analysis The suggested protocol uses a realist evaluation with multiple cases across the 3 country sites: Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon. Working with International Medical Corps (IMC), an initial programme theory was elicited through literature and document reviews, semistructured interviews and focus groups with IMC programme managers and CHWs. Based on this initial theory, this protocol proposes a combination of semistructured interviews, life histories and critical incident narratives, surveys and latent variable modelling of key constructs to explain how contextual factors work to trigger mechanisms for specific outcomes relating to IMC's 300+ CHWs' performance. Participants will also include programme staff, CHWs and programme beneficiaries. Realist approaches will be used to better understand ‘what works, for whom and under what conditions’ for improving CHW performance within humanitarian contexts. Ethics and dissemination Trinity College Dublin's Health Policy and Management/Centre for Global Health Research Ethics Committee gave ethical approval for the protocol development phase. For the full research project, additional ethical approval will be sought from: Université St. Joseph (Lebanon), the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health in Baghdad (Iraq) and the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). Dissemination

  9. Improving the performance of community health workers in humanitarian emergencies: a realist evaluation protocol for the PIECES programme.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Brynne; Adams, Ben Jack; Bartoloni, Alex; Alhaydar, Bana; McAuliffe, Eilish; Raven, Joanna; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Vallières, Frédérique

    2016-08-16

    Understanding what enhances the motivation and performance of community health workers (CHWs) in humanitarian emergencies represents a key research gap within the field of human resources for health. This paper presents the research protocol for the Performance ImprovEment of CHWs in Emergency Settings (PIECES) research programme. Enhancing Learning and Research in Humanitarian Action (ELRHA) funded the development of this protocol as part of their Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) call (No.19839). PIECES aims to understand what factors improve the performance of CHWs in level III humanitarian emergencies. The suggested protocol uses a realist evaluation with multiple cases across the 3 country sites: Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon. Working with International Medical Corps (IMC), an initial programme theory was elicited through literature and document reviews, semistructured interviews and focus groups with IMC programme managers and CHWs. Based on this initial theory, this protocol proposes a combination of semistructured interviews, life histories and critical incident narratives, surveys and latent variable modelling of key constructs to explain how contextual factors work to trigger mechanisms for specific outcomes relating to IMC's 300+ CHWs' performance. Participants will also include programme staff, CHWs and programme beneficiaries. Realist approaches will be used to better understand 'what works, for whom and under what conditions' for improving CHW performance within humanitarian contexts. Trinity College Dublin's Health Policy and Management/Centre for Global Health Research Ethics Committee gave ethical approval for the protocol development phase. For the full research project, additional ethical approval will be sought from: Université St. Joseph (Lebanon), the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health in Baghdad (Iraq) and the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). Dissemination activities will involve a mixture of research feedback, policy briefs

  10. El Niño-Flood Predictability for Early Humanitarian Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerton, Rebecca; Stephens, Liz; Cloke, Hannah; Woolnough, Steve; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a mode of variability which sees anomalously high or low sea surface temperatures in the Pacific, is known to have a significant impact on both hydrology and meteorology across the globe. One significant influence is that of El Niño, the warm phase of ENSO, on flooding in the Piura region of Peru. The anticipation and forecasting of floods is crucial for flood preparedness, and the link between El Niño and flooding in Peru, alongside the predictive skill of El Niño up to seasons ahead, may provide an early indication of upcoming severe flood events. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been used to create the first 110-year global reanalysis dataset of river discharge, using the ECMWF ERA-20C atmospheric reanalysis. These datasets are being used to analyse the predictability of flood events in Peru in relation to ENSO, using both hydrological and meteorological approaches; with the aim of providing early indicators of potential flood events and thresholds for early humanitarian action in the region. In particular, this research also aims to determine the causes of the most extreme flood events, such as those observed in 1982/83 and 1997/98, through investigation of the changes in atmospheric circulation during these events. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) is an initiative of the German Red Cross, for disbursing humanitarian funding as soon as a forecast threshold is crossed, prior to a severe event. Collaboration with the Peruvian Red Cross and SENAHMI during 2015 led to the use of such research to define thresholds for action in Piura during an El Niño, as part of an FbF pilot study. We will present here the link between El Niño and flooding, with a focus on the Piura region of Peru, and how this El Niño-flood predictability may be used for flood preparedness and early humanitarian action in regions across the globe.

  11. Biomass supply logistics and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Hess, J Richard

    2009-01-01

    Feedstock supply system encompasses numerous unit operations necessary to move lignocellulosic feedstock from the place where it is produced (in the field or on the stump) to the start of the conversion process (reactor throat) of the biorefinery. These unit operations, which include collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation, represent one of the largest technical and logistics challenges to the emerging lignocellulosic biorefining industry. This chapter briefly reviews the methods of estimating the quantities of biomass, followed by harvesting and collection processes based on current practices on handling wet and dry forage materials. Storage and queuing are used to deal with seasonal harvest times, variable yields, and delivery schedules. Preprocessing can be as simple as grinding and formatting the biomass for increased bulk density or improved conversion efficiency, or it can be as complex as improving feedstock quality through fractionation, tissue separation, drying, blending, and densification. Handling and transportation consists of using a variety of transport equipment (truck, train, ship) for moving the biomass from one point to another. The chapter also provides typical cost figures for harvest and processing of biomass.

  12. Biomass Supply Logistics and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-04-01

    Feedstock supply system encompasses numerous unit operations necessary to move lignocellulosic feedstock from the place where it is produced (in the field or on the stump) to the start of the conversion process (reactor throat) of the Biorefinery. These unit operations, which include collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation, represent one of the largest technical and logistics challenges to the emerging lignocellulosic biorefining industry. This chapter briefly reviews methods of estimating the quantities of biomass followed by harvesting and collection processes based on current practices on handling wet and dry forage materials. Storage and queuing are used to deal with seasonal harvest times, variable yields, and delivery schedules. Preprocessing can be as simple as grinding and formatting the biomass for increased bulk density or improved conversion efficiency, or it can be as complex as improving feedstock quality through fractionation, tissue separation, drying, blending, and densification. Handling and Transportation consists of using a variety of transport equipment (truck, train, ship) for moving the biomass from one point to another. The chapter also provides typical cost figures for harvest and processing of biomass.

  13. FUTURE LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONAL ADAPTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, Roger P.

    2009-10-01

    While we cannot predict the future, we can ascertain trends and examine them through the use of alternative futures methodologies and tools. From a logistics perspective, we know that many different futures are possible, all of which are obviously dependent on decisions we make in the present. As professional logisticians we are obligated to provide the field - our Soldiers - with our best professional opinion of what will result in success on the battlefield. Our view of the future should take history and contemporary conflict into account, but it must also consider that continuity with the past cannot be taken for granted. If we are too focused on past and current experience, then our vision of the future will be limited indeed. On the one hand, the future must be explained in language that does not defy common sense. On the other hand, the pace of change is such that we must conduct qualitative and quantitative trend analyses, forecasting, and explorative scenario development in ways that allow for significant breaks - or "shocks" - that may "change the game". We will need capabilities and solutions that are constantly evolving - and improving - to match the operational tempo of a radically changing threat environment. For those who provide quartermaster services, this article will briefly examine what this means from the perspective of creating what might be termed a preferred future.

  14. Information and logistics for homecare.

    PubMed

    Bricon-Souf, N; Beuscart-Zéphir, M C; Watbled, L; Anceaux, F; Beuscart, R

    2002-01-01

    TELECOS is a regional project whose ambition is to use new cooperation tools, in the context of homecare, in order to facilitate the coordinated cooperative work of health actors. Homecare can improve the quality of life for the patient and reduce costs but it also induces a lot of difficulties during organisation and care. We aim at knowing more about the activity of cooperation in the homecare context and proposing a cooperation platform which answers to the specific needs generated during homecare and which integrates new applications. In this paper, we present the results of our study of homecare. The activity analysis leads us to determine two specific processes: one concerns the implementation of human and material resources and design of the homecare protocol (the logistics process) and the other concerns the coordination of the healthcare actors during effective homecare (the care process). The first process is composed of five main phases during which an healthcare professional is required as coordinator. We then present the Worklow model used to represent the cooperation activity in homecare. We describe the activity: the tasks and subtasks are represented in a declarative way. We then briefly present our prototype, devoted to homecare management, implementing the different phases of the information process, developed in JAVA.

  15. Biomass Supply Logistics and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Hess, J. Richard

    Feedstock supply system encompasses numerous unit operations necessary to move lignocellulosic feedstock from the place where it is produced (in the field or on the stump) to the start of the conversion process (reactor throat) of the biorefinery. These unit operations, which include collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation, represent one of the largest technical and logistics challenges to the emerging lignocellulosic biorefining industry. This chapter briefly reviews the methods of estimating the quantities of biomass, followed by harvesting and collection processes based on current practices on handling wet and dry forage materials. Storage and queuing are used to deal with seasonal harvest times, variable yields, and delivery schedules. Preprocessing can be as simple as grinding and formatting the biomass for increased bulk density or improved conversion efficiency, or it can be as complex as improving feedstock quality through fractionation, tissue separation, drying, blending, and densification. Handling and transportation consists of using a variety of transport equipment (truck, train, ship) for moving the biomass from one point to another. The chapter also provides typical cost figures for harvest and processing of biomass.

  16. The imperative for stronger vaccine supply and logistics systems.

    PubMed

    Zaffran, Michel; Vandelaer, Jos; Kristensen, Debra; Melgaard, Bjørn; Yadav, Prashant; Antwi-Agyei, K O; Lasher, Heidi

    2013-04-18

    With the introduction of new vaccines, developing countries are facing serious challenges in their vaccine supply and logistics systems. Storage capacity bottlenecks occur at national, regional, and district levels and system inefficiencies threaten vaccine access, availability, and quality. As countries adopt newer and more expensive vaccines and attempt to reach people at different ages and in new settings, their logistics systems must be strengthened and optimized. As a first step, national governments, donors, and international agencies have crafted a global vision for 2020 vaccine supply and logistics systems with detailed plans of action to achieve five priority objectives. Vaccine products and packaging are designed to meet the needs of developing countries. Immunization supply systems support efficient and effective vaccine delivery. The environmental impact of energy, materials, and processes used in immunization systems is minimized. Immunization information systems enable better and more timely decision-making. Competent and motivated personnel are empowered to handle immunization supply chain issues. Over the next decade, vaccine supply and logistics systems in nearly all developing countries will require significant investments of time and resources from global and national partners, donors, and governments. These investments are critical if we are to reach more people with current and newer vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vehicle scheduling schemes for commercial and emergency logistics integration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models.

  18. Vehicle Scheduling Schemes for Commercial and Emergency Logistics Integration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models. PMID:24391724

  19. Multivariate emulation of computer simulators: model selection and diagnostics with application to a humanitarian relief model.

    PubMed

    Overstall, Antony M; Woods, David C

    2016-08-01

    We present a common framework for Bayesian emulation methodologies for multivariate output simulators, or computer models, that employ either parametric linear models or non-parametric Gaussian processes. Novel diagnostics suitable for multivariate covariance separable emulators are developed and techniques to improve the adequacy of an emulator are discussed and implemented. A variety of emulators are compared for a humanitarian relief simulator, modelling aid missions to Sicily after a volcanic eruption and earthquake, and a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the sensitivity of the simulator output to changes in the input variables. The results from parametric and non-parametric emulators are compared in terms of prediction accuracy, uncertainty quantification and scientific interpretability.

  20. Success in Kashmir: a positive trend in civil-military integration during humanitarian assistance operations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Wiley C

    2010-01-01

    The modern cast of disaster relief actors includes host nations, non-governmental organisations, private volunteer organisations, military organisations and others. Each group, civilian or military, has valuable skills and experiences critical to disaster relief work. The goal of this paper is to supplement the study of civil-military relief efforts with contemporary anecdotal experience. The paper examines the interaction between US military forces and other disaster relief actors during the 2005 Kashmir earthquake relief effort. The author uses direct observations made while working in Pakistan to contrast the relationships and activities from that effort with other accounts in prevailing scholarly disaster literature and military doctrine. Finally, this paper suggests that the Kashmir model of integration, coordination and transparency of intent creates a framework in which future humanitarian assistance operations could be successfully executed. Recommendations to improve civil-military interaction in future relief efforts will also be addressed.

  1. Post-earthquake Haiti: the critical role for rehabilitation services following a humanitarian crisis.

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; O'Connell, Colleen; Tardif, Gaetan; Burns, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 resulted in massive infrastructure damage, and created one of the largest single-day loss of life events in modern history. Despite the tragic mortality rates, many people with catastrophic injuries including spinal cord injuries and amputations survived due to swift emergency responses by local and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The outcome however is that Haiti now has a considerable cohort of people who live with important disabilities. In this 'perspectives in rehabilitation' we share our experiences of working in post-earthquake Haiti, and highlight that this event has raised awareness of the critical importance of providing rehabilitation services during and after a humanitarian crisis of this magnitude.

  2. How economic, humanitarian, and religious concerns shape European attitudes toward asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Bansak, Kirk; Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik

    2016-10-14

    What types of asylum seekers are Europeans willing to accept? We conducted a conjoint experiment asking 18,000 eligible voters in 15 European countries to evaluate 180,000 profiles of asylum seekers that randomly varied on nine attributes. Asylum seekers who have higher employability, have more consistent asylum testimonies and severe vulnerabilities, and are Christian rather than Muslim received the greatest public support. These results suggest that public preferences over asylum seekers are shaped by sociotropic evaluations of their potential economic contributions, humanitarian concerns about the deservingness of their claims, and anti-Muslim bias. These preferences are similar across respondents of different ages, education levels, incomes, and political ideologies, as well as across the surveyed countries. This public consensus on what types of asylum seekers to accept has important implications for theory and policy. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. When "humanitarianism" becomes "development": the politics of international aid in Syria's Palestinian refugee camps.

    PubMed

    Gabiam, Nell

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has attempted to go beyond its role as a provider of relief and basic services in Palestinian refugee camps and emphasize its role as a development agency. In this article, I focus on the Neirab Rehabilitation Project, an UNRWA-sponsored development project taking place in the Palestinian refugee camps of Ein el Tal and Neirab in northern Syria. I argue that UNRWA's role as a relief-centered humanitarian organization highlights the everyday suffering of Palestinian refugees, suffering that has become embedded in refugees’ political claims. I show that UNRWA's emphasis on “development” in the refugee camps is forcing Palestinian refugees in Ein el Tal and Neirab to reassess the political narrative through which they have understood their relationship with UNRWA.

  4. Optimal distributions for multiplex logistic networks.

    PubMed

    Solá Conde, Luis E; Used, Javier; Romance, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents some mathematical models for distribution of goods in logistic networks based on spectral analysis of complex networks. Given a steady distribution of a finished product, some numerical algorithms are presented for computing the weights in a multiplex logistic network that reach the equilibrium dynamics with high convergence rate. As an application, the logistic networks of Germany and Spain are analyzed in terms of their convergence rates.

  5. Integrated Computer System of Management in Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwesiuk, Krzysztof

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims at presenting a concept of an integrated computer system of management in logistics, particularly in supply and distribution chains. Consequently, the paper includes the basic idea of the concept of computer-based management in logistics and components of the system, such as CAM and CIM systems in production processes, and management systems for storage, materials flow, and for managing transport, forwarding and logistics companies. The platform which integrates computer-aided management systems is that of electronic data interchange.

  6. Interoperable Logistics - A Focused Military Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-18

    One can largely attribute the defeat of Erwin Rommel in World War II to logistical failure. In Rommel’s case, he maintained an ultra- aggressive...approach to tactics with no conscientious concern for logistics. He based his North Africa campaign on the realization that attrition could only result...gains at the expense of logistical safeguards. It is likely that Hitler only wanted Rommel to occupy and hold the North African landscape, in

  7. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  8. Long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services: experience, performance and scientific output

    PubMed Central

    Geissbuhler, Antoine; Jethwani, Kamal; Kovarik, Carrie; Person, Donald A; Vladzymyrskyy, Anton; Zanaboni, Paolo; Zolfo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the experience, performance and scientific output of long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services. Methods Nine long-running networks – those operating for five years or more– were identified and seven provided detailed information about their activities, including performance and scientific output. Information was extracted from peer-reviewed papers describing the networks’ study design, effectiveness, quality, economics, provision of access to care and sustainability. The strength of the evidence was scored as none, poor, average or good. Findings The seven networks had been operating for a median of 11 years (range: 5–15). All networks provided clinical tele-consultations for humanitarian purposes using store-and-forward methods and five were also involved in some form of education. The smallest network had 15 experts and the largest had more than 500. The clinical caseload was 50 to 500 cases a year. A total of 59 papers had been published by the networks, and 44 were listed in Medline. Based on study design, the strength of the evidence was generally poor by conventional standards (e.g. 29 papers described non-controlled clinical series). Over half of the papers provided evidence of sustainability and improved access to care. Uncertain funding was a common risk factor. Conclusion Improved collaboration between networks could help attenuate the lack of resources reported by some networks and improve sustainability. Although the evidence base is weak, the networks appear to offer sustainable and clinically useful services. These findings may interest decision-makers in developing countries considering starting, supporting or joining similar telemedicine networks. PMID:22589567

  9. A psychosocial approach in humanitarian forensic action: The Latin American perspective.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Ute; Navarro, Susana

    2017-09-01

    Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories. In this framework, forensics and psychosocial sciences need to work in complementary and coordinated interaction for the benefit of the families and communities. For forensic investigations to be restorative - their ultimate humanitarian objective - there are certain additional conditions apart from those of scientific quality and ethics: respect, information and coordination are among the main pillars for forensic action with a psychosocial approach, taking into account the need to treat on an individual and collective level the continuous psychological affectations caused by the disappearance of a loved one. On this basis, psychological and psychosocial accompaniment of the victims can contribute to the victims' healing process and also improve the forensic investigations themselves. This article, which is based on the experience of two decades of practical forensic and psychosocial work in the field, explains the main psychological effects of disappearances and the resulting needs. It gives a short historical overview of the origins and developments in psychosocial support and a perspective in relation to the search for missing persons and forensic interventions in Latin America. It goes on to demonstrate how coordinated interaction among the forensic and psychosocial fields strengthens both of them to the benefit of the affected families, groups and communities. Finally, it takes up some of the international recommendations

  10. Pediatric inpatient humanitarian care in combat: Iraq and Afghanistan 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mary J; Lustik, Michael; Burnett, Mark W; Eichelberger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the scope of combat- and noncombat-related inpatient pediatric humanitarian care provided from 2002 to 2012 by the United States (US) Military in Iraq and Afghanistan. A review of the Patient Administration Systems and Biostatistics Activity (PASBA) database for all admissions from 2002 to 2012 by US military hospitals in Afghanistan and Iraq for children 14 years of age and younger provided data to analyze the use of medical care. North Atlantic Treaty Organization Standardization Agreement (STANAG) injury codes provided injury cause and the ICD-codes provided diagnosis. In-hospital mortality, blood usage, number of invasive procedures, and hospital stay were analyzed by country and injury category. There were 6,273 admissions that met inclusion criteria. In Afghanistan, there were more than twice as many pediatric noncombat-related admissions (2,197) as pediatric combat-related admissions (1,095). In Iraq, the difference was minimal (1,391 noncombat vs 1,590 combat). The most common cause of noncombat-related admission in both countries was injury: primarily motor vehicle related and burns, which varied significantly by age. Older patients (older than 8 years in Afghanistan and older than 4 years in Iraq) were more likely combat victims. Mortality was highest for combat trauma in Iraq (11%) and noncombat trauma in Afghanistan (8%). The in-hospital mortality in both countries was 5% for admissions unrelated to trauma. Resource use was highest for combat trauma in both countries. Noncombat-related medical care was the primary reason for pediatric humanitarian admissions to United States military combat hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2002 to 2012. Combat-related injuries have a higher mortality than noncombat injuries or other admissions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The humanitarian emergency in Burundi: evaluation of the operational strategy for management of nutritional crisis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Laura; Verna, Daniel; Villeneuve, Susie L

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the impact and appropriateness of programmes for the management and treatment of severe malnutrition in emergency situations. A central unified database was set up with all data and statistics provided by nutritional centres (NC) active in Burundi. The paper describes the case of Burundi as an example of the response of the humanitarian community to nutritional crisis. Since 1999, more than one million (1,054,210) severely malnourished patients were treated in NC established in Burundi. Peaks of beneficiaries were registered in 2000 and 2001; the admission rate started to decrease in 2002. In 2004, twenty therapeutic feeding centres (TFC) and 224 supplementary feeding centres (SFC) were active for the treatment of 127,420 beneficiaries. Nutritional programmes were present in every province with a coverage rate of 55%. The most convincing impact of the nutritional programme in Burundi was the reduction of mortality rate in children under 5 years of age; an impact on the prevalence of acute malnutrition could not be demonstrated. Children under 5 years old accounted for 62% of beneficiaries in TFC and 76% in SFC. TFC performance indicators fulfilled the minimum standards in disaster response; the performance of SFC was not so optimal with a low recovery rate (69% v. >80%) and a high non-respondent rate (16% v. <5%). With the combination of coverage and cure rate, the programme met 44% of the assessed needs in 2004. In Burundi the stabilisation of security conditions permitted a combination of humanitarian responses ranging from emergency activities to strengthening of community-based initiatives that could correct the coverage and impact limitations.

  12. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. Methods: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Results: Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the “Cluster Approach” (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws “Who is Where, When, doing What” mapping tool (with four case studies), the “Sphere Project” (with two case studies), the “5x5” model (with one case study), and the “model of information coordination” (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. Conclusion: This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services. PMID:27617167

  13. Long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services: experience, performance and scientific output.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Richard; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Jethwani, Kamal; Kovarik, Carrie; Person, Donald A; Vladzymyrskyy, Anton; Zanaboni, Paolo; Zolfo, Maria

    2012-05-01

    To summarize the experience, performance and scientific output of long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services. Nine long-running networks--those operating for five years or more--were identified and seven provided detailed information about their activities, including performance and scientific output. Information was extracted from peer-reviewed papers describing the networks' study design, effectiveness, quality, economics, provision of access to care and sustainability. The strength of the evidence was scored as none, poor, average or good. The seven networks had been operating for a median of 11 years (range: 5-15). All networks provided clinical tele-consultations for humanitarian purposes using store-and-forward methods and five were also involved in some form of education. The smallest network had 15 experts and the largest had more than 500. The clinical caseload was 50 to 500 cases a year. A total of 59 papers had been published by the networks, and 44 were listed in Medline. Based on study design, the strength of the evidence was generally poor by conventional standards (e.g. 29 papers described non-controlled clinical series). Over half of the papers provided evidence of sustainability and improved access to care. Uncertain funding was a common risk factor. Improved collaboration between networks could help attenuate the lack of resources reported by some networks and improve sustainability. Although the evidence base is weak, the networks appear to offer sustainable and clinically useful services. These findings may interest decision-makers in developing countries considering starting, supporting or joining similar telemedicine networks.

  14. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  15. Analysis of Jingdong Mall Logistics Distribution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Kang; Cheng, Feng

    In recent years, the development of electronic commerce in our country to speed up the pace. The role of logistics has been highlighted, more and more electronic commerce enterprise are beginning to realize the importance of logistics in the success or failure of the enterprise. In this paper, the author take Jingdong Mall for example, performing a SWOT analysis of their current situation of self-built logistics system, find out the problems existing in the current Jingdong Mall logistics distribution and give appropriate recommendations.

  16. Funding Based on Needs? A Study on the Use of Needs Assessment Data by a Major Humanitarian Health Assistance Donor in its Decisions to Allocate Funds

    PubMed Central

    Olin, Emma; von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background: International humanitarian assistance is essential for disaster-affected populations, particularly in resource scarce settings. To target such assistance, needs assessments are required. According to internationally endorsed principles, donor governments should provide funding for humanitarian assistance based on need. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore a major donor’s use of needs assessment data in decision-making for allocations of funds for health-related humanitarian assistance contributions. Setting: This is a case study of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), a major and respected international donor of humanitarian assistance. Methods: To explore Sida’s use of needs assessment data in practice for needs-based allocations, we reviewed all decision documents and assessment memoranda for humanitarian assistance contributions for 2012 using content analysis; this was followed by interviews with key personnel at Sida. Results: Our document analysis found that needs assessment data was not systematically included in Sida’s assessment memoranda and decision documents. In the interviews, we observed various descriptions of the concept of needs assessments, the importance of contextual influences as well as previous collaborations with implementing humanitarian assistance organizations. Our findings indicate that policies guiding funding decisions on humanitarian assistance need to be matched with available needs assessment data and that terminologies and concepts have to be clearly defined. Conclusion: Based on the document analysis and the interviews, it is unclear how well Sida used needs assessment data for decisions to allocate funds. However, although our observations show that needs assessments are seldom used in decision making, Sida’s use of needs assessments has improved compared to a previous study. To improve project funds allocations based on needs assessment data, it will be critical to develop

  17. In-space propellant logistics. Volume 4: Project planning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The prephase A conceptual project planning data as it pertains to the development of the selected logistics module configuration transported into earth orbit by the space shuttle orbiter. The data represents the test, implementation, and supporting research and technology requirements for attaining the propellant transfer operational capability for early 1985. The plan is based on a propellant module designed to support the space-based tug with cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen propellants. A logical sequence of activities that is required to define, design, develop, fabricate, test, launch, and flight test the propellant logistics module is described. Included are the facility and ground support equipment requirements. The schedule of activities are based on the evolution and relationship between the R and T, the development issues, and the resultant test program.

  18. Antibiotic lock therapy: review of technique and logistical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections is a simple strategy in theory, yet its real-world application may be delayed or avoided due to technical questions and/or logistical challenges. This review focuses on these latter aspects of ALT, including preparation information for a variety of antibiotic lock solutions (ie, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, folate antagonists, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, lipopeptides, oxazolidinones, polymyxins, and tetracyclines) and common clinical issues surrounding ALT administration. Detailed data regarding concentrations, additives, stability/compatibility, and dwell times are summarized. Logistical challenges such as lock preparation procedures, use of additives (eg, heparin, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), timing of initiation and therapy duration, optimal dwell time and catheter accessibility, and risks of ALT are also described. Development of local protocols is recommended in order to avoid these potential barriers and encourage utilization of ALT where appropriate. PMID:25548523

  19. Logistics measurement and performance for United States-Mexican operations under NAFTA

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, S.E.; Smith, S.R.

    1995-12-01

    An empirical study utilizing a survey methodology was undertaken to explore the issues surrounding logistics performance under the recently enacted North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The study surveyed 524 senior level managers directly responsible for their strategic business units` operations involving Mexican production sharing. The study focused on what role Mexican production facilities take in the production process, relative technology level, planning activities, final destination of products, and what level of logistics performance was required to successfully operate. Some of the findings suggest a need to reevaluate current strategies to incorporate logistics support systems. Many benefits of true integration may have been overlooked since logistics was given a secondary position when strategies were formulated. Excessive tranportation and distribution costs may be lowered if logistics is given a higher emphasis in corporate decision making.

  20. Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Land logistics, the reader is invited to consider the broad applicability of similar frameworks to other military domains. 2. Conceptual ...UNCLASSIFIED 2 Figure 1: Conceptual breakdown that underpins the Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land logistics The first question...several judgement- based elements. In particular, refinement, verification and validation of many of the framework elements were conducted in a