Science.gov

Sample records for humid region site

  1. Multiple-methods investigation of recharge at a humid-region fractured rock site, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heppner, C.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Folmar, G.J.; Gburek, W.J.; Risser, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Lysimeter-percolate and well-hydrograph analyses were combined to evaluate recharge for the Masser Recharge Site (central Pennsylvania, USA). In humid regions, aquifer recharge through an unconfined low-porosity fractured-rock aquifer can cause large magnitude water-table fluctuations over short time scales. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface porous media control the magnitude and timing of these fluctuations. Data from multiple sets of lysimeters at the site show a highly seasonal pattern of percolate and exhibit variability due to both installation factors and hydraulic property heterogeneity. Individual event analysis of well hydrograph data reveals the primary influences on water-table response, namely rainfall depth, rainfall intensity, and initial water-table depth. Spatial and seasonal variability in well response is also evident. A new approach for calculating recharge from continuous water-table elevation records using a master recession curve (MRC) is demonstrated. The recharge estimated by the MRC approach when assuming a constant specific yield is seasonal to a lesser degree than the recharge estimate resulting from the lysimeter analysis. Partial reconciliation of the two recharge estimates is achieved by considering a conceptual model of flow processes in the highly-heterogeneous underlying fractured porous medium. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  2. Humid site stabilization and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the work described here is to identify and evaluate the importance of factors that are expected to dictate the nature of site stabilization and closure requirements. Subsequent efforts will plan for implementation of such requirements. Two principal areas of site stabilization and closure effort will be pursued initially - geological management and vegetation management. The geological effort will focus on chemical weathering and surficial erosion. Such catastrophic geologic events as landslides, flooding, earthquakes, volcanos, etc. are already considered in site selection and operation and these factors will not be emphasized initially. Vegetation management will be designed to control erosion, to minimize nuclide mobilization by roots and to be compatible with natural successional pressures. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be important both to site selection and operation as well as the actual stabilization and closure procedure.

  3. Control of water infiltration into near surface low-level waste disposal units. Final report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O`Donnell, E.

    1997-09-01

    This study`s objective was to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work was carried out in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration were investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management.

  4. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units. Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland: Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O`Donnell, E.

    1995-04-01

    This study`s objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (75 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care.

  5. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units: Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O`Donnell, E.

    1996-08-01

    This study`s objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care.

  6. Diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Isaac; Arkin, Philip; Ferraro, Ralph; Eriksson, Patrick; Fetzer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of water vapor especially in the tropical region, the diurnal variations of water vapor have not been completely investigated in the past due to the lack of adequate observations. Measurements from Sondeur Atmosphérique du Profil d'Humidité Intertropicale par Radiométrie (SAPHIR) onboard the low inclination Megha-Tropiques satellite with frequent daily revisits provide a valuable dataset for investigating the diurnal and spatial variation of tropospheric relative humidity in the tropical region. In this study, we first transformed SAPHIR observations into layer-averaged relative humidity, then partitioned the data based on local observation time into 24 bins with a grid resolution of one degree. Afterwards, we fitted Fourier series to the binned data. Finally, the mean, amplitude, and diurnal peak time of relative humidity in tropical regions were calculated for each grid point using either the measurements or Fourier series. The results were separately investigated for different SAPHIR channels as well as for relative humidity with respect to both liquid and ice phases. The results showed that the wet and dry regions are, respectively, associated with convective and subsidence regions which is consistent with the previous studies. The mean tropospheric humidity values reported in this study are generally 10 to 15 % higher than those reported using infrared observations which is because of strict cloud screening for infrared measurements. The results showed a large inhomogeneity in diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical region. The diurnal amplitude was larger over land than over ocean and the oceanic amplitude was larger over convective regions than over subsidence regions. The results showed that the diurnal amplitude is less than 10 % in middle and upper troposphere, but it is up to 30 % in lower troposphere over land. Although the peak of RH generally occurs over night or in early morning, there are several

  7. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces.

  8. Proximate humid and dry regions in Jupiter's atmosphere indicate complex local meteorology.

    PubMed

    Roos-Serote, M; Vasavada, A R; Kamp, L; Drossart, P; Irwin, P; Nixon, C; Carlson, R W

    2000-05-11

    Models of Jupiter's formation and structure predict that its atmosphere is enriched in oxygen, relative to the Sun, and that consequently water clouds should be present globally near the 5-bar pressure level. Past attempts to confirm these predictions have led to contradictory results; in particular, the Galileo probe revealed a very dry atmosphere at the entry site, with no significant clouds at depths exceeding the 2-bar level. Although the entry site was known to be relatively cloud-free, the contrast between the observed local dryness and the expected global wetness was surprising. Here we analyse near-infrared (around 5 microm) observations of Jupiter, a spectral region that can reveal the water vapour abundance and vertical cloud structure in the troposphere. We find that humid and extremely dry regions exist in close proximity, and that some humid regions are spatially correlated with bright convective clouds extending from the deep water clouds to the visible atmosphere.

  9. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  10. Direct radiative effect modeled for regional aerosols in central Europe including the effect of relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorga, G.; Hitzenberger, R.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Puxbaum, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In view of both the climatic relevance of aerosols and the fact that aerosol burdens in central Europe are heavily impacted by anthropogenic sources, this study is focused on estimating the regional-scale direct radiative effect of aerosols in Austria. The aerosol data (over 80 samples in total) were collected during measurement campaigns at five sampling sites: the urban areas of Vienna, Linz, and Graz and on Mt. Rax (1644 m, regional background aerosol) and Mt. Sonnblick (3106 m, background aerosol). Aerosol mass size distributions were obtained with eight-stage (size range: 0.06-16 μm diameter) and six-stage (size range 0.1-10 μm) low-pressure cascade impactors. The size-segregated samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and inorganic ions. The aerosol at these five locations is compared in terms of size distributions, optical properties, and direct forcing. Mie calculations are performed for the dry aerosol at 60 wavelengths in the range 0.3-40 μm. Using mass growth factors determined earlier, the optical properties are also estimated for higher relative humidities (60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). A box model was used to estimate direct radiative forcing (DRF). The presence of absorbing species (BC) was found to reduce the cooling effect of the aerosols. The water-soluble substances dominate radiative forcing at the urban sites, while on Rax and Sonnblick BC plays the most important role. This result can be explained by the effect of the surface albedo, which is much lower in the urban regions (0.16) than at the ice and snow-covered mountain sites. Shortwave (below 4 μm) and longwave surface albedo values for ice were 0.35 and 0.5, while for snow surface albedo, values of 0.8 (shortwave) and 0.5 (longwave) were used. In the case of dry aerosol, especially for urban sites, the unidentified material may contribute a large part to the forcing. Depending on the sampling site the estimated forcing gets more negative with increasing humidity

  11. Some Techniques for the Objective Analysis of Humidity for Regional Scale Numerical Weather Prediction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Robert Gary

    Several topics relating to the objective analysis of humidity for regional scale numerical weather prediction are investigated. These include: (1) sampling the humidity field; (2) choosing an analysis scheme; (3) choosing an analysis variable; (4) using surface data to diagnose upper -air humidity (SFC-DIAG); (5) using cloud analysis data to diagnose surface and upper-air humidities (3DNEPH-DIAG); and (6) modeling the humidity lateral autocorrelation function. Regression equations for the diagnosed humidities and several correlation models are developed and validated. Four types of data are used in a preliminary demonstration: observations (radiosonde and surface), SFC-DIAG data, 3DNEPH-DIAG data, and forecast data from the Drexel/NCAR Limited-Area and Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS). The major conclusions are: (1) independent samples of relative humidity can be obtained by sampling at intervals of two days and 1750 km, on the average; (2) Gandin's optimum interpolation (OI) is preferable to Cressman's successive correction and Panofsky's surface fitting schemes; (3) relative humidity (RH) is a better analysis variable than dew-point depression; (4) RH*, the square root of (1-RH), is better than RH; (5) both surface and cloud analysis data can be used to diagnose the upper-air humidity; (6) pooling dense data prior to OI analysis can improve the quality of the analysis and reduce its computational burden; (7) iteratively pooling data is economical; (8) for the types of data considered, use of more than about eight data in an OI point analysis cannot be justified by expectations of further reducing the analysis error variance; and (9) the statistical model in OI is faulty in that an analyzed humidity can be biased too much toward the first guess.

  12. A Regional Training Course in Natural Resources Management and Environmental Monitoring in Humid-Tropical Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ffolliott, Peter F.

    Presented are the basic concepts, methods, and considerations relevant to formulating watershed resources goals, policies, and management practices. Intended primarily for resource managers and land use planners concerned with water resources, this regional training course manual emphasizes material which applies to humid and tropical ecosystems.…

  13. The inner region of the unstable boundary layer over hilly prairie for temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried; Sugita, Michiaki

    1990-01-01

    The analytical treatment of wind-speed, temperature, and humidity data above nonuniform surfaces is utilized to test the Monin-Obukhov similarity at the inner region of the atmospheric boundary layer. The data profiles are analyzed, and independent measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible heat and water vapor are incorporated into the analysis. It is shown that the mean profiles of the potential temperature and specific humidity can be described using the Monin-Obukhov similarity functions in an area with unstable conditions.

  14. Storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals in hot and humid regions.

    PubMed

    Bott, Rubiana F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2007-04-01

    A review of the methodology for determination of the storage conditions for stability testing according to Schumacher/Grimm is presented in this paper. The purpose is to provide scientific information useful for the definition of storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals suitable to the region where the product will be dispensed. Special attention is given to stability testing in the new markets located in developing countries with very hot and humid climates. Finally, storage conditions for stability testing in the Brazilian regions were derived and examined comparatively with the guidelines of the world health organization (WHO) and regulatory bodies. The storage conditions were derived from the calculated values of the mean kinetic temperature and the relative humidity (RH). These parameters were estimated from daily values of dry and dew point temperatures of all Brazilian capitals from 1998 to 2002; collected in the morning (9 a.m.), in the afternoon (3 p.m.), and at night (9 p.m.). The Brazilian Center of Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies of the National Institute of Spatial Research (CPTEC/INPE) kindly furnished these data. Significant differences of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) and relative humidity (RH) for Brazilian regions were observed. These results indicate the existence of a high climatic diversity between the Brazilian regions, making challenging the definition of a single storage condition for the stability testing. Some regions present RH values higher than 80%, giving support to the concerns of the WHO, indicating the necessity of revision of existing guidelines for stability testing mainly for very hot and humid regions.

  15. Storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals in hot and humid regions.

    PubMed

    Bott, Rubiana F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2007-04-01

    A review of the methodology for determination of the storage conditions for stability testing according to Schumacher/Grimm is presented in this paper. The purpose is to provide scientific information useful for the definition of storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals suitable to the region where the product will be dispensed. Special attention is given to stability testing in the new markets located in developing countries with very hot and humid climates. Finally, storage conditions for stability testing in the Brazilian regions were derived and examined comparatively with the guidelines of the world health organization (WHO) and regulatory bodies. The storage conditions were derived from the calculated values of the mean kinetic temperature and the relative humidity (RH). These parameters were estimated from daily values of dry and dew point temperatures of all Brazilian capitals from 1998 to 2002; collected in the morning (9 a.m.), in the afternoon (3 p.m.), and at night (9 p.m.). The Brazilian Center of Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies of the National Institute of Spatial Research (CPTEC/INPE) kindly furnished these data. Significant differences of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) and relative humidity (RH) for Brazilian regions were observed. These results indicate the existence of a high climatic diversity between the Brazilian regions, making challenging the definition of a single storage condition for the stability testing. Some regions present RH values higher than 80%, giving support to the concerns of the WHO, indicating the necessity of revision of existing guidelines for stability testing mainly for very hot and humid regions. PMID:17523004

  16. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  17. Carbon dioxide and methane supersaturation in lakes of semi-humid/semi-arid region, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhidan; Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Jin, Xiuliang

    2016-08-01

    Understanding concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in lakes is an important part of a comprehensive global carbon budget. We estimated data on the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) from sampling with 95 lakes in semi-humid/semi-arid region of Northeastern China during ice-free period. Both pCO2 and pCH4 varied greatly among the study sites. p(CO2) values in these lakes ranged from 21.9 to 30,152.3 μatm (n = 403), and 91% of lakes in this survey were supersaturated with CO2. p(CH4) values ranged from 12.6 to 139,630.7 μatm with all sites in this study of CH4 sources to the atmosphere during the ice-free period. The collected urban lakes samples exhibited higher pCO2 and pCH4 than wild lakes samples. Either the mean value of p(CO2) or p(CH4) in saline waters is higher than in fresh waters. Correlation analysis implied that the partial pressure of the GHGs (CO2 and CH4) showed statistically correlations with water environment indicators like pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a (Chla). However, the most of the relationships showed a high degree of scatter, only pH might be used as the predictor of the gas partial pressure based on the result of this study (rpCO2 = -0.437, p < 0.01, n = 382; rpCH4 = -0.265, p < 0.01, n = 400). Furthermore, salinity could be a good predictor for p(CO2) and p(CH4) in 83 freshwater lakes in our study (rpCO2 = 0.365, rpCH4 = 0.323, p < 0.01, n = 348). The mean CO2 flux increased with the decreasing lake area size. The calculated annual areal carbon emission rate is 560.2 g C m-2 from 95 lakes in Northeastern China. We could not extrapolate carbon emission from these lakes to the boreal region or a wider scale because of the change of environmental conditions.

  18. Water resources and land use and cover in a humid region: the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Lockaby, B Graeme; Helms, Brian; Kalin, Latif; Stoeckel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that forest and water resources are intricately linked. Globally, changes in forest cover to accommodate agriculture and urban development introduce additional challenges for water management. The U.S. Southeast typifies this global trend as predictions of land-use change and population growth suggest increased pressure on water resources in coming years. Close attention has long been paid to interactions between people and water in arid regions; however, based on information from regions such as the Southeast, it is evident that much greater focus is required to sustain a high-quality water supply in humid areas as well. To that end, we review hydrological, physicochemical, biological, and human and environmental health responses to conversion of forests to agriculture and urban land uses in the Southeast. Commonly, forest removal leads to increased stream sediment and nutrients, more variable flow, altered habitat and stream and riparian communities, and increased risk of human health effects. Although indicators such as the percentage of impervious cover signify overall watershed alteration, the threshold to disturbance, or the point at which effects can been observed in stream and riparian parameters, can be quite low and often varies with physiographic conditions. In addition to current land use, historical practices can greatly influence current water quality. General inferences of this study may extend to many humid regions concerning climate, environmental thresholds, and the causes and nature of effects. PMID:21546673

  19. Water resources and land use and cover in a humid region: the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Lockaby, B Graeme; Helms, Brian; Kalin, Latif; Stoeckel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that forest and water resources are intricately linked. Globally, changes in forest cover to accommodate agriculture and urban development introduce additional challenges for water management. The U.S. Southeast typifies this global trend as predictions of land-use change and population growth suggest increased pressure on water resources in coming years. Close attention has long been paid to interactions between people and water in arid regions; however, based on information from regions such as the Southeast, it is evident that much greater focus is required to sustain a high-quality water supply in humid areas as well. To that end, we review hydrological, physicochemical, biological, and human and environmental health responses to conversion of forests to agriculture and urban land uses in the Southeast. Commonly, forest removal leads to increased stream sediment and nutrients, more variable flow, altered habitat and stream and riparian communities, and increased risk of human health effects. Although indicators such as the percentage of impervious cover signify overall watershed alteration, the threshold to disturbance, or the point at which effects can been observed in stream and riparian parameters, can be quite low and often varies with physiographic conditions. In addition to current land use, historical practices can greatly influence current water quality. General inferences of this study may extend to many humid regions concerning climate, environmental thresholds, and the causes and nature of effects.

  20. Land use change effects on runoff generation in a humid tropical montane cloud forest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Villers, L. E.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2013-04-01

    While tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) provide critical hydrological services to downstream regions throughout much of the humid tropics, catchment hydrology and impacts associated with forest conversion in these ecosystems remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the annual, seasonal and event-scale streamflow patterns and runoff generation processes of three neighbouring headwater catchments in central Veracruz (eastern Mexico) with similar pedological and geological characteristics, but different land cover: old-growth TMCF (MAT), 20 yr-old naturally regenerating TMCF (SEC) and a heavily grazed pasture (PAS). We used a 2 yr record of high resolution rainfall and stream flow data (2008-2010) in combination with stable isotope and chemical tracer data collected for a series of storms during a 6-week period of increasing antecedent wetness (wetting-up cycle). Our results showed that annual and seasonal streamflow patterns of the MAT and SEC were similar. In contrast, the PAS showed a 10% higher mean annual streamflow, most likely because of a lower rainfall interception. During the wetting-up cycle, storm runoff ratios increased at all three catchments (from 11 to 54% for the MAT, 7 to 52% for the SEC and 3 to 59% for the PAS). With the increasing antecedent wetness, hydrograph separation analysis showed progressive increases of pre-event water contributions to total stormflow (from 35 to 99% in the MAT, 26 to 92% in the SEC and 64 to 97% in the PAS). At all three sites, rainfall-runoff responses were dominated by subsurface flow generation processes for the majority of storms. However, for the largest and most intense storm (typically occurring once every 2 yr), sampled under wet antecedent conditions, the event water contribution in the PAS (34% on average) was much higher than in the forests (5% on average), indicating that rainfall infiltration capacity of the PAS was exceeded. This result suggests that despite the high permeability of the volcanic soils

  1. Land use change effects on runoff generation in a humid tropical montane cloud forest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Villers, L. E.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2013-09-01

    While tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) provide critical hydrological services to downstream regions throughout much of the humid tropics, catchment hydrology and impacts associated with forest conversion in these ecosystems remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the annual, seasonal and event-scale streamflow patterns and runoff generation processes of three neighbouring headwater catchments in central Veracruz (eastern Mexico) with similar pedological and geological characteristics, but different land cover: old-growth TMCF, 20 yr-old naturally regenerating TMCF and a heavily grazed pasture. We used a 2 yr record of high resolution rainfall and stream flow data (2008-2010) in combination with stable isotope and chemical tracer data collected for a series of storms during a 6-week period of increasing antecedent wetness (wetting-up cycle). Our results showed that annual and seasonal streamflow patterns in the mature and secondary forest were similar. In contrast, the pasture showed a 10% higher mean annual streamflow, most likely because of a lower rainfall interception. During the wetting-up cycle, storm runoff ratios increased at all three catchments (from 11 to 54% for the mature forest, 7 to 52% for the secondary forest and 3 to 59% for the pasture). With the increasing antecedent wetness, hydrograph separation analysis showed progressive increases of pre-event water contributions to total stormflow (from 35 to 99% in the mature forest, 26 to 92% in the secondary forest and 64 to 97% in the pasture). At all three sites, rainfall-runoff responses were dominated by subsurface flow generation processes for the majority of storms. However, for the largest and most intense storm (typically occurring once every 2 yr), sampled under wet antecedent conditions, the event water contribution in the pasture (34% on average) was much higher than in the forests (5% on average), indicating that rainfall infiltration capacity of the pasture was exceeded. This result

  2. Effective crop evapotranspiration measurement using time-domain reflectometry technique in a sub-humid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.; Panda, R. K.; Halder, Debjani

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for daily evapotranspiration estimation of peanut and maize crop in a sub-humid region. Four independent methods were used to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc), namely, soil water balance budgeting approach, energy balance approach—(Bowen ratio), empirical methods approach, and Pan evaporation method. The soil water balance budgeting approach utilized the soil moisture measurement by gravimetric and TDR method. The empirical evapotranspiration methods such as combination approach (FAO-56 Penman-Monteith and Penman), temperature-based approach (Hargreaves-Samani), and radiation-based approach (Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Abetw) were used to estimate the reference evapotranspiration (ET0). The daily ETc determined by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Pan evaporation, and Bowen ratio were found to be at par with the ET values derived from the soil water balance budget; while the methods Abetw, Penman, and Hargreaves-Samani were not found to be ideal for the determination of ETc. The study illustrates the in situ applicability of the TDR method in order to make it possible for a user to choose the best way for the optimum water consumption for a given crop in a sub-humid region. The study suggests that the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Turc, and Priestley-Taylor can be used for the determination of crop ETc using TDR in comparison to soil water balance budget.

  3. Sustainable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological cycle in the warm humid country, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, J.; Crest Kumamoto Groundwater Team

    2011-12-01

    The increase of precipitation variability with the global warming and the rapid population growth lead to the shortage of water resources on a global scale. Groundwater bocome attracted as a relatively stable water resource because of its larger reservoir and a longer residence time. As our country belongs to a warm humid climate with much precipitation and a steep topography, the regional hydrological cycle is extremely active. Surface water could be taken easily and was often used to a water supply until now, but recently groundwater is taking the place of surface water because of the stability of water supply. While in our hydro-climatic condition, the sustainable use of groundwater is possible under the appropriative management, that is, groundwater pumping rate does not exceed the recharge rate in a basin. For the sustainable use of groundwater resources, this project aims to develop new technologies relating to the quantity and quality aspects of groundwater resources. For the precise understanding of groundwater flow system, new technologies will be developed, like frequency changeable electric resistivity exploration method to evaluate an aquifer structure. There are many problems about groundwater quality including nitrate-nitrogen contamination and toxic substances from the domestic and industrial waste disposals. It is necessary to understand the production mechanism to prevent groundwater contamination and the degradation process of nitrate-nitrogen contamination to improve the water quality. Therefore this project will develop new technologies including the reduction of NO3=N and natural toxic substances loads before groundwater recharge, the on-site removal of contaminants from aquifers, and simple and effective equipment to improve groundwater quality after pumping. Furthermore, this project will also develop a new biological monitoring technique for local groundwater users to notice the contamination at a glance; change colar fish by specific ion

  4. Comparison of long-term stability of containment systems for residues and wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides at an arid site and two humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, M.; Merry-Libby, P.; Hinchman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term stability of near-surface containment systems designed for the management of radioactive wastes and residues contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides are compared at the three different sites. The containment designs are: (1) a diked 8.9-m high mound, including a 3.2-m layered cap at a site (humid) near Lewiston, New York, (2) a 6.8-m-high mound, including a similar 3.2-m cap at a site (humid) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and (3) 4.8-m deep trenches with 3.0-m backfilled caps at a site (arid) near Hanford, Washington. Geological, hydrological, and biological factors affecting the long-term (1000-year) integrity of the containment systems at each site are examined, including: erosion, flooding, drought, wildfire, slope and cover failure, plant root penetration, burrowing animals, other soil-forming processes, and land-use changes. For the containment designs evaluated, releases of radon-222 at the arid site are predicted to be several orders of magnitude higher than at the two humid sites - upon initial burial and at 1000 years (after severe erosion). Transfer of wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides from a humid to an arid environment offers little or no advantage relative to long-term stability of the containment system and has a definite disadvantage in terms of gaseous radioactive releases. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Uncertainties in downscaled relative humidity for a semi-arid region in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandhi, Aavudai

    2011-06-01

    Monthly scenarios of relative humidity ( R H) were obtained for the Malaprabha river basin in India using a statistical downscaling technique. Large-scale atmospheric variables (air temperature and specific humidity at 925 mb, surface air temperature and latent heat flux) were chosen as predictors. The predictor variables are extracted from the (1) National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis dataset for the period 1978-2000, and (2) simulations of the third generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model for the period 1978-2100. The objective of this study was to investigate the uncertainties in regional scenarios developed for R H due to the choice of emission scenarios (A1B, A2, B1 and COMMIT) and the predictors selected. Multi-linear regression with stepwise screening is the downscaling technique used in this study. To study the uncertainty in the regional scenarios of R H, due to the selected predictors, eight sets of predictors were chosen and a downscaling model was developed for each set. Performance of the downscaling models in the baseline period (1978-2000) was studied using three measures (1) Nash-Sutcliffe error estimate ( E f), (2) mean absolute error (MAE), and (3) product moment correlation ( P). Results show that the performances vary between 0.59 and 0.68, 0.42 and 0.50 and 0.77 and 0.82 for E f, MAE and P. Cumulative distribution functions were prepared from the regional scenarios of R H developed for combinations of predictors and emission scenarios. Results show a variation of 1 to 6% R H in the scenarios developed for combination of predictor sets for baseline period. For a future period (2001-2100), a variation of 6 to 15% R H was observed for the combination of emission scenarios and predictors. The variation was highest for A2 scenario and least for COMMIT and B1 scenario.

  6. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (REGION 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  7. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  8. Remote sensing and deforestation in humid tropical region: case of Bambouto mountain in West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël Leumbe Leumbe, Olivier; Bitom, Dieudonné; Joly Assako Assako, René

    2015-04-01

    A diachronic study of landscapes base on remote sensing data, has been realized on mount Bambouto in the humid tropical mountain region, through soil occupation analyses. It is a volcanic massif situated in the western part of Cameroon. It has an altitude of 2740 m. The objective is to evaluate the anthropic preasure on deforestation within this zone in order to predie the consequences on the area within a short period. The successive ways in which people occupy the soil within a period of about 30 years have thus been evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively on the bases of MSS images of 1978, Tm images of 1988, ETM+ of 2001 and 2007 of Landsat. In these images, the successive application of the index of vegetation and of a supervised classification couple with field observations, digital terrain model and with population data which display serious soils degradation of the volcanic massif from the 1980s, due to continous growing anthropic preasures. In all, between 1978 and 2007, the density of population became 17 times more important more than 43 000 ha of the massif soils has been deforested, this correspond to 1 483 ha/year. IF this velocity of deforestation is maintain, most of the natural vegetation in the Bambouto massif will disappear in 2029

  9. Enhancement effect of relative humidity on the formation and regional respiratory deposition of secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lin, Chi-Chi; Yang, Shang-Chun; Zhao, Ping

    2011-07-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of d-limonene in an environmental chamber. The mass yield and the number concentration of SOA increased seven and eight times, respectively, when the RH increased from 18% to 82%. The measured total loss rates (apparent loss rates) of the number and mass concentration of SOA in the chamber ranged from 1.70 to 1.77 h(-1) and from 2.51 to 2.61 h(-1), respectively, at a controlled ventilation rate of 0.72±0.04 h(-1). The wall-deposition-loss-rate coefficient observed (1.00±0.02 h(-1)) was approximate to the estimated value based on Zhao and Wu's model which includes the factors of turbulence, Brownian diffusion, turbophoresis and surface roughness. According to the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) model, the inhaled SOA particles are deposited primarily in the alveoli of the lung. The integrated alveolar deposited dose of the mass (surface area) of SOA over 3h accounted for 74.0-74.8% (74.3-74.9%) of the total deposited dose at the investigated RH. Raising the RH resulted in the growth of SOA particle sizes and increment of the deposition dose but did not cause significant changes in the ratio of regional to the total respiratory deposition of SOA. PMID:21570180

  10. [Distribution and transferring of carbon in kast soil system of peak forest depression in humid subtropical region].

    PubMed

    Pan, G; Sun, Y; Teng, Y; Tao, Y; Han, F

    2000-02-01

    Taking Guilin Yaji Karst Experiment Site as an exemple and with the methods of field monitoring and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the distribution and transferring of carbon in the karst soil system of peak forest depression in the humid subtropical region of China. The carbon pools in biomass, litters and soil organic matter(SOM) and their mobility as expressed by oxidizability and decomposition rate of SOM, the concentration of soil CO2 and the emission rate of CO2 from soil were investigated. The mobile carbon pool in the system supplied a rich source of CO2, which drived the karst process. When active karst process happened in Spring and Summer, over 60% of carbon in the output water was derived from soil CO2, as traced by delta 13 C distribution in the system. Therefore, owing to the carbon transfer in the pathway of air-plant-soil-water, karst process took place rather under soil-rock-water interface than under air-rock-water interface. Thus, the epigenetic karst process was driven and accelerated by soil as an interface of carbon environmental geochemistry. PMID:11766593

  11. Transport of multiple tracers in variably saturated humid region structured soils and semi-arid region laminated sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. A.; Jardine, P. M.; Mehlhorn, T. L.; Bjornstad, B. N.; Ladd, J. L.; Zachara, J. M.

    2003-05-01

    The processes governing physical nonequilibrium (PNE)—coupled preferential flow and matrix diffusion—are diverse between humid and semi-arid regions, and are directly related to climate and rock/sediment type, and indirectly related to subsequent soil profile development. The fate and transport of contaminants in these variably saturated undisturbed media is largely a function of the influence of PNE processes. Large cores of laminated silts and sands were collected from the US Department of Energy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in semi-arid south central Washington. Additional cores of weathered, fractured interbedded limestone and shale saprolite were collected from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in humid eastern Tennessee. PNNL cores were collected parallel (FBP) and perpendicular (FXB) to bedding, and the ORNL core was 30° to bedding. Saturated and unsaturated transport experiments were performed using multiple nonreactive tracers that had different diffusion coefficients (Br -, PFBA, and PIPES), in order to identify the influence of PNE on the fate and transport of solutes. In the ORNL structured saprolite, solute transport was governed by coupled preferential flow and matrix diffusion, as evidenced by tracer separation and highly asymmetric breakthrough curves (BTC). BTCs became more symmetric as preferential flowpaths became inactive during drainage. Tracer separation persisted during unsaturated flow suggesting the continued importance of nonequilibrium mass transfer between flowpaths and the immobile water that was held in the soil matrix. No evidence of PNE was observed under near-saturated conditions in the semi-arid region (PNNL) laminated silts and sands. Unsaturated flow in cores with discontinuous layering resulted in preferential flow and the development of perched, immobile water as evidenced by early breakthrough and separation of tracers. Conversely, transport parallel to laterally continuous beds did not result in

  12. Humidity's influence on visible region refractive index structure parameter C(n)(2).

    PubMed

    Chang, Mark P J L; Font, Carlos O; Gilbreath, G Charmaine; Oh, Eun

    2007-05-01

    In the near-infrared and visible bandpasses optical propagation theory conventionally assumes that humidity does not contribute to the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical beams. While this assumption may be reasonable for dry locations, we demonstrate that there is an unequivocal effect owing to the presence of humidity upon the strength of turbulence parameter, C(n)(2), from data collected in the Chesapeake Bay area over 100 m length horizontal propagation paths. We describe and apply a novel technique, Hilbert phase analysis, to the relative humidity, temperature, and C(n)(2) data to show the contribution of the relevant climate variable to C(n)(2) as a function of time.

  13. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia’s Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Hsieh, Yen-Fen; Ou, Sheng-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis—Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)—were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung’s Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia. PMID:26516881

  14. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia's Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Hsieh, Yen-Fen; Ou, Sheng-Jung

    2015-10-27

    Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis--Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)--were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung's Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia.

  15. Surface temperatures in the polar regions from Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly surface temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic regions have been derived from the 11.5 micrometer thermal infrared channel of the Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for a whole year in 1979 and for a winter and a summer month from 1980 through 1985. The data set shows interannual variability and provides spatial details that allow identification of temperature patterns over sea ice and ice sheet surfaces. For example, the coldest spot in the southern hemisphere is observed to be consistently in the Antarctic plateau in the southern hemisphere, while that in the northern hemisphere is usually located in Greenland, or one of three other general areas: Siberia, the central Arctic, or the Canadian Archipelago. Also, in the southern hemisphere, the amplitude of the seasonal fluctuation of ice sheet temperatures is about 3 times that of sea ice, while in the northern hemisphere, the corresponding fluctuations for the two surfaces are about the same. The main sources of error in the retrieval are cloud and other atmospheric effects. These were minimized by first choosing the highest radiance value from the set of measurements during the day taken within a 30 km by 30 km grid of each daily map. Then the difference of daily maps was taken and where the difference is greater than a certain threshold (which in this case is 12 C), the data element is deleted. Overall, the monthly maps derived from the resulting daily maps are spatially and temporally consistent, are coherent with the topograph y of the Antarctic continent and the location of the sea ice edge, and are in qualitative agreement with climatological data. Quantitatively, THIR data are in good agreement with Antarctic ice sheet surface air temperature station data with a correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a standard deviation of 2.0 C. The absolute values are not as good over the sea ice edges, but a comparison with Russian 2-m drift station temperatures shows very high correlation

  16. Effects of leachate accumulation on landfill stability in humid regions of China

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Jianguo; Yang Yong; Yang Shihui; Ye Bin; Zhang Chang

    2010-05-15

    Leachate levels are important to landfill stability and safety. High leachate or water levels often lead to landfill instability, which can cause accidents. Here a case study of a landfill located in a humid region of southern China is presented. Leachate distribution and quality were systematically analyzed, and the effect of leachate level on waste-mass stability was assessed. Boreholes were drilled in the field, samples were analyzed in the laboratory, and a simulation was performed. In addition, the safety and stability of the landfill was evaluated. The leachate level in the landfill was 9-19 m, which was higher than the top of the dam crest (8-20 m). Leachate accounted for more than 1/4 of the total landfill storage capacity. The contaminant concentration of the leachate samples collected directly from the waste body was very high, with large variation among the samples. The mean concentrations of NH{sub 3}-N, BOD, and COD from the waste body were 5404, 14,136, and 22,691 mg/L, nearly 2.7, 2.4, and 1.8 times the mean concentrations in the leachate pond, respectively. Three series of shear strength parameters were used in a slope stability analysis, and a limit equilibrium method was used to calculate the factor of safety (Fs). The analysis showed that Fs could be affected by potential anisotropy in the shear strength of the waste. The minimum values of Fs corresponding to series I were 1.84 and 1.17 for units I and II, respectively. The Fs value of unit II was significantly lower than the safe design value (1.25). In addition, Fs decreased with increase in the normalized height of the leachate level, h/H, where h is the height of the leachate mound and H is the maximum thickness of the landfill. If the h/H values of units I and II are kept below 50% and 40%, respectively, a safe design value of 1.25 for Fs can be guaranteed. Therefore, some measures to prevent risk should be considered.

  17. Quantifying wetland-aquifer interactions in a humid subtropical climate region: An integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Niu, Jie; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; McGuire, Jennifer T.

    2013-08-01

    Wetlands are widely recognized as sentinels of global climate change. Long-term monitoring data combined with process-based modeling has the potential to shed light on key processes and how they change over time. This paper reports the development and application of a simple water balance model based on long-term climate, soil, vegetation and hydrological dynamics to quantify groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions at the Norman landfill research site in Oklahoma, USA. Our integrated approach involved model evaluation by means of the following independent measurements: (a) groundwater inflow calculation using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (16O, 18O, 1H, 2H); (b) seepage flux measurements in the wetland hyporheic sediment; and (c) pan evaporation measurements on land and in the wetland. The integrated approach was useful for identifying the dominant hydrological processes at the site, including recharge and subsurface flows. Simulated recharge compared well with estimates obtained using isotope methods from previous studies and allowed us to identify specific annual signatures of this important process during the period of study (1997-2007). Similarly, observations of groundwater inflow and outflow rates to and from the wetland using seepage meters and isotope methods were found to be in good agreement with simulation results. Results indicate that subsurface flow components in the system are seasonal and readily respond to rainfall events. The wetland water balance is dominated by local groundwater inputs and regional groundwater flow contributes little to the overall water balance.

  18. Quantifying wetland–aquifer interactions in a humid subtropical climate region: An integrated approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Niu, Jie; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; McGuire, Jennifer T.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are widely recognized as sentinels of global climate change. Long-term monitoring data combined with process-based modeling has the potential to shed light on key processes and how they change over time. This paper reports the development and application of a simple water balance model based on long-term climate, soil, vegetation and hydrological dynamics to quantify groundwater–surface water (GW–SW) interactions at the Norman landfill research site in Oklahoma, USA. Our integrated approach involved model evaluation by means of the following independent measurements: (a) groundwater inflow calculation using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (16O, 18O, 1H, 2H); (b) seepage flux measurements in the wetland hyporheic sediment; and (c) pan evaporation measurements on land and in the wetland. The integrated approach was useful for identifying the dominant hydrological processes at the site, including recharge and subsurface flows. Simulated recharge compared well with estimates obtained using isotope methods from previous studies and allowed us to identify specific annual signatures of this important process during the period of study (1997–2007). Similarly, observations of groundwater inflow and outflow rates to and from the wetland using seepage meters and isotope methods were found to be in good agreement with simulation results. Results indicate that subsurface flow components in the system are seasonal and readily respond to rainfall events. The wetland water balance is dominated by local groundwater inputs and regional groundwater flow contributes little to the overall water balance.

  19. Colluvium supply in humid regions limits the frequency of storm-triggered landslides

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Robert N.; Hales, Tristram C.; Mudd, Simon M.; Grieve, Stuart W. D.; Constantine, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow landslides, triggered by extreme rainfall, are a significant hazard in mountainous landscapes. The hazard posed by shallow landslides depends on the availability and strength of colluvial material in landslide source areas and the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events. Here we investigate how the time taken to accumulate colluvium affects landslide triggering rate in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA and how this may affect future landslide hazards. We calculated the failure potential of 283 hollows by comparing colluvium depths to the minimum (critical) soil depth required for landslide initiation in each hollow. Our data show that most hollow soil depths are close to their critical depth, with 62% of hollows having soils that are too thin to fail. Our results, supported by numerical modeling, reveal that landslide frequency in many humid landscapes may be insensitive to projected changes in the frequency of intense rainfall events. PMID:27688039

  20. Colluvium supply in humid regions limits the frequency of storm-triggered landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Robert N.; Hales, Tristram C.; Mudd, Simon M.; Grieve, Stuart W. D.; Constantine, José A.

    2016-09-01

    Shallow landslides, triggered by extreme rainfall, are a significant hazard in mountainous landscapes. The hazard posed by shallow landslides depends on the availability and strength of colluvial material in landslide source areas and the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events. Here we investigate how the time taken to accumulate colluvium affects landslide triggering rate in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA and how this may affect future landslide hazards. We calculated the failure potential of 283 hollows by comparing colluvium depths to the minimum (critical) soil depth required for landslide initiation in each hollow. Our data show that most hollow soil depths are close to their critical depth, with 62% of hollows having soils that are too thin to fail. Our results, supported by numerical modeling, reveal that landslide frequency in many humid landscapes may be insensitive to projected changes in the frequency of intense rainfall events.

  1. Four-year long-path monitoring of ambient aerosol extinction at a central European urban site: dependence on relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skupin, A.; Ansmann, A.; Engelmann, R.; Seifert, P.; Müller, T.

    2016-02-01

    The ambient aerosol particle extinction coefficient is measured with the Spectral Aerosol Extinction Monitoring System (SÆMS) along a 2.84 km horizontal path at 30-50 m height above ground in the urban environment of Leipzig (51.3° N, 12.4° E), Germany, since 2009. The dependence of the particle extinction coefficient (wavelength range from 300 to 1000 nm) on relative humidity up to almost 100 % was investigated. The main results are presented. For the wavelength of 550 nm, the mean extinction enhancement factor was found to be 1.75 ± 0.4 for an increase of relative humidity from 40 to 80 %. The respective 4-year mean extinction enhancement factor is 2.8 ± 0.6 for a relative-humidity increase from 40 to 95 %. A parameterization of the dependency of the urban particle extinction coefficient on relative humidity is presented. A mean hygroscopic exponent of 0.46 for the 2009-2012 period was determined. Based on a backward trajectory cluster analysis, the dependence of several aerosol optical properties for eight air flow regimes was investigated. Large differences were not found, indicating that local pollution sources widely control the aerosol conditions over the urban site. The comparison of the SÆMS extinction coefficient statistics with respective statistics from ambient AERONET sun photometer observations yields good agreement. Also, time series of the particle extinction coefficient computed from in situ-measured dry particle size distributions and humidity-corrected SÆMS extinction values (for 40 % relative humidity) were found in good overall consistency, which verifies the applicability of the developed humidity parameterization scheme. The analysis of the spectral dependence of particle extinction (Ångström exponent) revealed an increase of the 390-881 nm Ångström exponent from, on average, 0.3 (at 30 % relative humidity) to 1.3 (at 95 % relative humidity) for the 4-year period.

  2. Estimation of daytime downward longwave radiation under clear and cloudy skies conditions over a sub-humid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Facundo; Rivas, Raúl; Caselles, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Downward longwave radiation ( LW ↓ ) is a relevant variable for meteorological and climatic studies. Good estimates of this term are vitally important in correct determining of the net radiation, which, in turn, modulates the magnitude of the terms in the surface energy budget (e.g., evaporation). In remote sensing applications, the determination of daytime LW↓ is required for estimation of the net radiation using satellite data. LW↓ is not directly measured in weather stations and then is estimated using models with surface air temperature and humidity as input. In this paper, we identify the best models to estimate daytime downward longwave radiation from meteorological data in the sub-humid Pampean region. Several well-known models to estimate LW↓ under clear and cloudy skies were tested. We use downward radiation components and meteorological data registered at Tandil (Argentina) from 2006 to 2010 (840 days). In addition, we propose two multiple linear regression models (MLRM-1 and MLRM-2) to estimate LW↓ at the surface for all sky conditions. The new equations show better performance than the others models tested with root mean square errors between 12 and 16 W m-2, bias close to zero and best agreements with measured data ( r 2 ≥ 0.85).

  3. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  4. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  5. Influence of relative humidity on aerosol composition: Impacts on light extinction and visibility impairment at two sites in coastal area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W. J.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, D.; Sheng, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    Investigation on the aerosol characteristics, surface visibility (Vis) and meteorology at BGS (Baguanshan, Qingdao) and LNA (Lin'an, Zhejiang) shows that the ambient aerosol chemical composition and light extinction are relative humidity (RH) dependent. At higher RH, both the strengthened hygroscopic growth and the more efficient oxidization (of the precursor gases and formation of the secondary sulfate and nitrate) contribute to the increase of the mass fraction of the hygroscopic species, which consequently results in the increase of the aerosol mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and Vis reduction at the two Chinese coastal sites. MEE and chemical composition of the aerosol vary significantly under different regional transport ways; the airmasses from the ocean directions are associated with higher RH, higher sulfate mass fraction and greater MEE at BGS, while MEEs are smaller and associated with lower RH and lower sulfate fraction for the airmasses from the continent directions. Vis shows better correlation with PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations when RH effect on aerosol hygroscopic growth is considered. At BGS, the sulfate mass fraction in PM2.5 and PM10 (in average 32.4% and 27.4%) can explain about 60.7% and 74.3% of the variance of the aerosol MEE, respectively; sulfate and nitrate contribute to about 61% of the light extinction. RH plays a key role in aerosol extinction and visibility variation over this coastal area of China. Formation of the secondary aerosol (especially sulfate and nitrate) as well as hygroscopic growth under favorable (more stable and humid) meteorological conditions should be paid adequate attention in regulation of air quality and Vis improvement over eastern China in addition to the routine emission control measurements.

  6. Dependence of aerosol scattering coefficients on relative humidity observed at two coastal sites on the East China Sea: Comparison to remote observations and influence of chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Y.; Taketani, F.; Irie, H.; Komazaki, Y.; Takashima, H.; Xiaole, P.; Takami, A.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    We employed an integrating nephelometer equipped with a humidifier (where the relative humidity (RH) was scanned between 40 and 90%) to measure the aerosol scattering coefficients and their dependence on RH at Fukue Island (32.75N, 128.68E), west of Japan, in May 2009 and at Rudong, Jiangsu, China (32.26N, 121.37E) in May/June 2010, aiming at better characterization of optical properties of the regional-scale aerosol pollution over East Asia. The two coastal sites are located east and west of the East China Sea and are separated by about 700 km. The observed scattering coefficients are normalized by the concurrently measured PM2.5 mass concentrations and thereby behaviors of the mass scattering coefficients are discussed. At Fukue, the mass scattering coefficients under the ambient RH conditions were >1.5 times higher than those observed under the dry condition (RH = 40%), suggesting that the RH effect was crucial in determining optical properties under ambient conditions. The coefficients under the ambient RH conditions, rather than the dry values, agreed better with the extinction coefficients determined by MAX-DOAS (Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique based on remote measurements of O4 optical depths. The single-scattering albedo (SSA), estimated in combination to the absorption coefficients determined by a MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer) instrument, had similar average values (~0.95) at the two sites. The SSA values at the two sites were commonly lowered (to below 0.90) when the air traveled from the North China Plain region. At Fukue, the RH dependence was found to be weakened when the organics/sulfate ratio increased (as observed by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer), while such influence of chemical composition was less clear at Rudong, possibly masked by large temporal variations in the particle size distributions.

  7. Aerosol light scattering measurements as a function of relative humidity: a comparison between measurements made at three different sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Derek E.; Malm, William C.

    The water uptake by fine aerosol particles in the atmosphere has been investigated at three rural National Parks in the United States (Great Smoky Mountains, Grand Canyon and Big Bend National Parks). The relative humidity (RH) of sample aerosols was varied from less than 20% to greater than 90% using Perma Pure drying tubes as the scattering coefficient of the aerosol was measured with a Radiance Research M903 nephelometer. Data from these studies show that growth curves at all the three sites are similar in shape but the magnitude of growth can vary considerably from day to day. The growth curves from Great Smoky Mountains show smooth continuous growth over the entire range of RH, while the growth curves from the Grand Canyon and Big Bend show smooth and continuous growth on some days and deliquescence on other days. Comparing 12-h filter samples of chemical composition data with the aerosol growth curves, we find that higher fractions of soluble inorganic compounds (sulfate and nitrate) produce growth curves of greater magnitude than do higher concentrations of either organic carbon or soil material.

  8. Evaluation of near-surface temperature, humidity, and equivalent temperature from regional climate models applied in type II downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, S. C.; Schoof, J. T.

    2016-04-01

    Atmosphere-surface interactions are important components of local and regional climates due to their key roles in dictating the surface energy balance and partitioning of energy transfer between sensible and latent heat. The degree to which regional climate models (RCMs) represent these processes with veracity is incompletely characterized, as is their ability to capture the drivers of, and magnitude of, equivalent temperature (Te). This leads to uncertainty in the simulation of near-surface temperature and humidity regimes and the extreme heat events of relevance to human health, in both the contemporary and possible future climate states. Reanalysis-nested RCM simulations are evaluated to determine the degree to which they represent the probability distributions of temperature (T), dew point temperature (Td), specific humidity (q) and Te over the central U.S., the conditional probabilities of Td|T, and the coupling of T, q, and Te to soil moisture and meridional moisture advection within the boundary layer (adv(Te)). Output from all RCMs exhibits discrepancies relative to observationally derived time series of near-surface T, q, Td, and Te, and use of a single layer for soil moisture by one of the RCMs does not appear to substantially degrade the simulations of near-surface T and q relative to RCMs that employ a four-layer soil model. Output from MM5I exhibits highest fidelity for the majority of skill metrics applied herein, and importantly most realistically simulates both the coupling of T and Td, and the expected relationships of boundary layer adv(Te) and soil moisture with near-surface T and q.

  9. Land Use Change Effects on Catchment Runoff Response in a Humid Tropical Montane Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Villers, L. E.; McDonnell, J.; Geissert Kientz, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The provision and regulation of water flows in catchments is probably the most important ecosystem functioning of tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF), however its hydrological dynamics and impacts associated with forest conversion remain very poorly understood. The present study aimed to compare the annual, seasonal and event-scale streamflow patterns and runoff generation processes of three neighbouring headwater catchments in eastern Mexico with similar pedological and geological characteristics, but different land cover: old-growth TMCF, 20 yr-old naturally regenerating TMCF and a heavily grazed pasture. We used a 2 yr record of rainfall and stream flow data in combination with isotope and chemical tracer data collected for a series of storms during a 6-week period of increasing antecedent wetness (wetting-up cycle). Our results showed that annual and seasonal streamflow patterns in the mature and secondary forest were similar. Conversely, the pasture showed higher annual streamflow (10%), however 50% on average lower baseflow at the end of the dry season, associated probably to more gentle slopes in combination with lower soil infiltration capacity, and thus reduced recharge of subsurface water storages. During the wetting-up cycle, storm runoff ratios increased at all three catchments (from 11 to 54% for the mature forest, 7 to 52% for the secondary forest and 3 to 59% for the pasture). With the increasing antecedent wetness, the analysis showed progressive increases of pre-event water contributions to total stormflow (from 35 to 99% in the mature forest, 26 to 92% in the secondary forest and 64 to 97% in the pasture). At all sites, rainfall-runoff responses were dominated by subsurface flow processes. However, for the largest and most intense storm sampled (typically occurring once every 2 yr), the event water contribution in the pasture (34%) was much higher than in the forests (5% on average), indicating that rainfall infiltration capacity of the pasture

  10. Impacts of climate change on erosion in humid and dry Mediterranean regions of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Sampaio, Elsa; Corte-Real, João; Moreira, Madalena; Jacinto, Rita; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard

    2014-05-01

    Soils in the Mediterranean regions of Europe are often vulnerable to soil erosion, due to a combination of annual plant cover cycles, centuries of human use, the concentration of rainstorms in a short period of the year, and other factors. Climate change could bring about a warmer and drier climate, limiting vegetation growth while bringing heavier storms during winter. This could eventually lead to higher risks of soil losses and the consequential problems of land degradation and desertification. Project ERLAND, which began in 2009, is assessing these risks for two Mediterranean research catchments in Portugal, with four main goals: (i) collect data to understand hydrological and erosion processes in representative catchments; (ii) use this data to parameterize the SWAT eco-hydrological and erosion model as accurately as possible; (iii) use future socio-economic scenarios to estimate both impacts on climate change and on future land-use practices; and (iv) apply the SWAT model for these scenarios and estimate the consequences for soil erosion rates. The Macieira catchment is in a wet Mediterranean climate region, with high rainfall (c. 1300 mm.y-1) but a distinct summer dry season; erosion processes are associated with periods of sparse cover in autumn in fields with a pasture-corn rotation, but also with forest plantations after clear-cutting and especially after forest fires. The occurrence of a forest fire inside the catchment in 2011 allowed an analysis of the role played by this kind of disturbances on soil erosion. Climate change could bring less erosive rainfall events, but an increase in fire frequency, and therefore a potential shift of erosion from agriculture to forest land-uses. The Guadalupe catchment has a dry Mediterranean climate (rainfall of c. 550 mm.y-1); erosion processes occur mostly in permanent crops (olive trees) and winter cereal fields. Climate change could bring a concentration of rainfall in winter, as well as an increase in the area

  11. Comparing the impacts of land-use management and climate change on soil erosion: a modeling exercise for humid and dry Mediterranean regions in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia

    2015-04-01

    Climate change could impact soil erosion rates in the Mediterranean, either directly via the concentration of rainfall in a smaller number of winter events, or indirectly through changes in vegetation cover. In particular, climate-induced changes in land-use management and associated agro-forestry practices could lead to much greater impacts than the ones expected from climate change alone. This work compares how future climate and land-use changes could impact soil erosion. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to two contrasting watersheds in Portugal. The Vez has a humid Mediterranean climate (1500 mm/yr average rainfall) and is presently covered by plantation forests and shrublands. The Xarrama has a dry Mediterranean climate (600 mm/yr annual rainfall) and is presently occupied mostly by an agroforestry system consisting of pasture and evergreen oaks. Both watersheds currently experience very low erosion rates due to the landcover type. In both cases, climate scenarios presuppose a small decrease in rainfall (-4% in the Vez, -9% in the Xarrama) but more concentrated in winter, where an increase is expected. Possible future land-use scenarios could lead to an intensification of agriculture, due to the expansion of vineyard areas in the humid region and the plantation of sunflowers for biofuel production in the dry region (up to c. 45% of the watershed in both cases). The results for both study sites were similar. The impacts of climate change itself were an increase in erosion, of 28% in the Vez and 18% in the Xarrama, which still resulted in low erosion rates. However, the impacts of land-use change were much higher: an erosion increase of 529% in the Vez and 120% in the Xarrama, leading to important erosion rates in the new agricultural areas. Despite the different changes, which could be to a large degree attributed to the higher erosion rates usually found in vineyards, the conclusions in both sites point to the much higher impact of

  12. Hanford Site Regional Population - 2010 Census

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Erin L.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Population dose estimates must be performed to provide a measure of the impact from site radiological releases. Results of the U.S. 2010 Census were used to determine counts and distributions for the residential population located within 50-miles of several operating areas of the Hanford Site. Year 2010 was the first census year that a 50-mile population of a Hanford Site operational area exceeded the half-million mark.

  13. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (REGION 8 WORKSHOP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  14. Characterizing Site Hydrology (Region 10, Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  15. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    All matter is more or less hygroscopic. The moisture content varies with vapour concentration of the surrounding air and, as a consequence, most material properties change with humidity. Mechanical and thermal properties of many materials, such as the tensile strength of adhesives, stiffness of plastics, stoutness of building and packaging materials or the thermal resistivity of isolation materials, all decrease with increasing environmental humidity or cyclic humidity changes. The presence of water vapour may have a detrimental influence on many electrical constructions and systems exposed to humid air, from high-power systems to microcircuits. Water vapour penetrates through coatings, cable insulations and integrated-circuit packages, exerting a fatal influence on the performance of the enclosed systems. For these and many other applications, knowledge of the relationship between moisture content or humidity and material properties or system behaviour is indispensable. This requires hygrometers for process control or test and calibration chambers with high accuracy in the appropriate temperature and humidity range. Humidity measurement methods can roughly be categorized into four groups: water vapour removal (the mass before and after removal is measured); saturation (the air is brought to saturation and the `effort' to reach that state is measured); humidity-dependent parameters (measurement of properties of humid air with a known relation between a specific property and the vapour content, for instance the refractive index, electromagnetic spectrum and acoustic velocity); and absorption (based on the known relation between characteristic properties of non-hydrophobic materials and the amount of absorbed water from the gas to which these materials are exposed). The many basic principles to measure air humidity are described in, for instance, the extensive compilations by Wexler [1] and Sonntag [2]. Absorption-type hygrometers have small dimensions and can be

  16. Some early astronomical sites in the Kashmir region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Naseer; Vahia, M. N.; Masood, Tabasum; Ahmad, Aijaz

    2009-03-01

    We discuss a number of early rock art sites in the Kashmir Valley in northern India and neighbouring Pakistan, and suggest that some of these contain depictions of astronomical objects or events. The sites are in the Srinagar and Sopore regions and in or near the Ladakh region, and date to Neolithic or Upper Paleolithic times. Our studies suggest that during this period some of the ancient astronomers recorded supernovae, meteorite impacts, the Sun, the Moon and the seasons in their rock art.

  17. Transepidermal water loss in newborn infants. I. Relation to ambient humidity and site of measurement and estimation of total transepidermal water loss.

    PubMed

    Hammarl-nd, K; Nilsson, G E; Oberg, P A; Sedin, G

    1977-09-01

    Insensible water loss (IWL) is an important factor in the thermoregulation and water balance of the newborn infant. A method for direct measurement of the rate of evaporation from the skin surface has been developed. The method, which is based on determination of the vapour pressure gradient close to the skin surface, allows free evaporation. From measurements performed on 19 newborns placed in incubators, a linear relation was found between the evaporation rate (ER) and the humidity of the environment at a constant ambient temperature. A 40% lower ER was recorded at a high relative humidity (60%) than at a low one (20%) in the incubator. At measurements on different sites of the body, a high ER was observed on the face and peripheral parts of the extremities, while ER at other sites was relatively low. By determining ER from different parts of the body and calculating the areas of the corresponding surfaces, the total cutaneous insensible water loss for the infant in question could be obtained. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) for the whole body surface area was calculated to be 8.1 g/m2h. On the basis of measurements performed it was found that the total cutaneous insensible water loss can be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy by recording ER from only three easily accessible measurement points.

  18. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Topical report on reference eastern humid low-level sites

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order-of-magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a humid reference low-level waste site in the eastern US. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communites. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 500 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Doses to man are calculated for the biological transport of radionucludes at the reference site after loss of institutional control. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates we calculated for the intruder-agricultural scenarios reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of cumulative biotic transport are calculated to be of the same order-of-magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by findings presented in this report. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

  19. Application of a regional model to astronomical site testing in western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvey, Mark; Rojo, Patricio M.

    2016-08-01

    The quality of ground-based astronomical observations is significantly affected by local atmospheric conditions, and the search for the best sites has led to the construction of observatories at increasingly remote locations, including recent initiatives on the high plateaus of East Antarctica where the calm, dry, and cloud-free conditions during winter are recognized as amongst the best in the world. Site selection is an important phase of any observatory development project, and candidate sites must be tested in the field with specialized equipment, a process both time consuming and costly. A potential means of screening site locations before embarking on field testing is through the use of regional climate models (RCMs). In this study, we describe the application of the Polar version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the preliminary site suitability assessment of a hitherto unstudied region in West Antarctica. Numerical simulations with WRF were carried out for the winter (MJJA) of 2011 at 3- and 1-km spatial resolution over a region centered on the Ellsworth mountain range. Comparison with observations of surface wind speed and direction, temperature, and specific humidity at nine automatic weather stations indicates that the model performed well in capturing the mean values and time variability of these variables. Credible features revealed by the model includes zones of high winds over the southernmost part of the Ellsworth Mountains, a deep thermal inversion over the Ronne-Fincher Ice Shelf, and strong west to east moisture gradient across the entire study area. Comparison of simulated cloud fraction with a CALIPSO spacebourne Lidar climatology indicates that the model may underestimate cloud occurrence, a problem that has been noted in previous studies. A simple scoring system was applied to reveal the most promising locations. The results of this study indicate that the WRF model is capable of providing useful guidance during the

  20. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  1. Overheating risk assessment of naturally ventilated classroom under the influence of climate change in hot and humid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Tsang

    2013-04-01

    Natural ventilation (NV) is considered one of the passive building strategies used for reducing cooling energy demand. The utilization of nature wind for cooling down indoor thermal environment to reach thermal comfort requires knowledge of adequately positioning the building fenestrations, designing inlet-outlet related opening ratios, planning unobstructed cross ventilation paths, and, the most important, assessing the utilization feasibility base on local climatic variables. Furthermore, factors that influence the indoor thermal condition include building envelope heat gain, indoor air velocity, indoor heat gain (e.g. heat discharges from occupant's body, lighting fixture, electrical appliances), and outdoor climate. Among the above, the indoor thermal performance of NV building is significantly dependent to outdoor climate conditions. In hot and humid Taiwan, under college school classrooms are usually operated in natural ventilation mode and are more vulnerable to climate change in regard to maintain indoor thermal comfort. As climate changes in progress, NV classrooms would expect to encounter more events of overheating in the near future, which result in more severe heat stress, and would risk the utilization of natural ventilation. To evaluate the overheating risk under the influence of recent climate change, an actual top floor elementary school classroom with 30 students located at north Taiwan was modeled. Long-term local hourly meteorological data were gathered and further constructed into EnergyPlus Weather Files (EPWs) format for building thermal dynamic simulation to discuss the indoor thermal environmental variation during the period of 1998 to 2012 by retrospective simulation. As indoor thermal environment is an overall condition resulting from a series combination of various factors, sub-hourly building simulation tool, EnergyPlus, coupled with the above fifteen years' EPWs was adopted to predict hourly indoor parameters of mean radiant

  2. Comparison of ELM, GANN, WNN and empirical models for estimating reference evapotranspiration in humid region of Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Cui, Ningbo; Zhao, Lu; Hu, Xiaotao; Gong, Daozhi

    2016-05-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an essential component in hydrological ecological processes and agricultural water management. Accurate estimation of ET0 is of importance in improving irrigation efficiency, water reuse and irrigation scheduling. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (P-M) model is recommended as the standard model to estimate ET0. Nevertheless, its application is limited due to the lack of required meteorological data. In this study, trained extreme learning machine (ELM), backpropagation neural networks optimized by genetic algorithm (GANN) and wavelet neural networks (WNN) models were developed to estimate ET0, and the performances of ELM, GANN, WNN, two temperature-based (Hargreaves and modified Hargreaves) and three radiation-based (Makkink, Priestley-Taylor and Ritchie) ET0 models in estimating ET0 were evaluated in a humid area of Southwest China. Results indicated that among the new proposed models, ELM and GANN models were much better than WNN model, and the temperature-based ELM and GANN models had better performance than Hargreaves and modified Hargreaves models, radiation-based ELM and GANN models had higher precision than Makkink, Priestley-Taylor and Ritchie models. Both of radiation-based ELM (RMSE ranging 0.312-0.332 mm d-1, Ens ranging 0.918-0.931, MAE ranging 0.260-0.300 mm d-1) and GANN models (RMSE ranging 0.300-0.333 mm d-1, Ens ranging 0.916-0.941, MAE ranging 0.2580-0.303 mm d-1) could estimate ET0 at an acceptable accuracy level, and are highly recommended for estimating ET0 without adequate meteorological data.

  3. Evidence for humid and arboreal environment in the Middle Lisan Basin, 45-39 ka (the Mughr el-Hamamah site, Jordan): Implications for Anatomically Modern Human Dispersal into Western Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmaker, M.; Stutz, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The period between 50-30 kya in western Eurasia witnessed Neanderthal extinction, anatomically modern human (AMH) expansion, and a transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic material culture. The prevailing hypothesis suggests a replacement of the Neanderthal populations by incoming AMH population, perhaps involving climatic fluctuations that favored AMH biology and habitat preferences. Yet, new evidence questions the role of climate as a forcing factor in AMH dispersal from Africa, raising the possibility that AMH populations in southern Arabia were responsible for the <50 ka expansion into western Eurasia. New excavations at Mughr el-Hamamah (MHM), Ajlun District, Jordan, uncovered a single well preserved occupational horizon. This horizon is dated by acid-base-wet oxidation/stepped combustion (ABOX-SC) AMS 14C assays to 45-39,000 cal BP and is associated with abundant diagnostic Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) artifacts. The age of the site, combined with its excellent organic preservation, suggests that MHM can play a key role in testing hypotheses about the southern Levantine Rift Valley environment and EUP human adaptations to it. This paper presents a paleoecological reconstruction derived from micromammal remains associated with in situ archaeological deposits in MHM. The assemblage is highly dominated by the Syrian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus), typical of cool and humid climate. It is common in Late Glacial fauna of the Mediterranean of the Levant, in sites such as Kebara UP and Amud. Yet, today it is known only from high elevation in Turkey, Syria and Jordan. Other taxa include several genera of murids, further supporting the reconstruction of woodland habitats within a 1-3 km radius around the site. Additional archaeological data confirm that MHM was situated along an ecotone between the forested, temperate plateau and the Jordan Valley bottom grassland. Dead Sea speleothems and stromatolites in Dead Sea escarpment caves, indicating a high stand of Lake

  4. Long-term, High Resolution Records of Rock Cracking, Weather and Climate from Mid-Latitude, Desert and Humid-Temperate Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppes, M. C.; Magi, B. I.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical breakdown of rock by physical weathering represents a significant rate limiting step for erosion, sediment supply, chemical weathering, and atmospheric- and landscape- evolution across the globe. Yet, the primary drivers of physical weathering are poorly quantified. Recent work highlights the importance of solar-induced thermal stress as a key driver in physical weathering, particularly in mid-latitudes, but to date the role of climate in thermal stress cracking has not been extensively explored. Here we examine two long-term acoustic emission (AE) records of rock cracking in both a humid-temperate (North Carolina - 1 year of data ) and a semi-arid (New Mexico - 3 years of data) location. We use AE energy as a proxy for rock cracking. We compare on-site average ambient daily temperature for days in which cracking occurs to the average temperatures for those dates derived from climate records from the nearest weather stations. The range of temperatures for days on which cracking occurs is similar for both stations (-10 C to +30 C). The majority of cracking in both locations occurs on warm days (> 15 C). In the semi-arid climate, 73% of cracking occurs on hot days (> 20 C) while only 0.1% occurs on very cold days (-8 C to -3 C). In the humid-temperate climate, 21% of cracking occurs on hot days, while 17% occurs on cold days. When days during which cracking occurs are compared to climate averages, 81% (NC) and 51% (NM) of all cracking occurs on days with absolute temperature anomalies >1, regardless of the temperature. The proportion of cracking that occurs on anomalously hot or cold days rises to 92% and 77% when the data is normalized to account for uneven sampling of the days with extreme temperatures. We examine these results in the context of prior analyses of this dataset which indicates that the majority of cracking, even that occurring in freezing temperatures, is caused by thermal-stress processes. Here we attribute a majority of observed

  5. Investigating the performance and energy saving potential of Chinese commercial building benchmark models for the hot humid and severe cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Lesley Anne

    2011-12-01

    The demand for energy in China is growing at an alarming rate. Buildings have become a significant component of the energy-demand mix accounting for nearly one-quarter of the country's total primary energy consumption. This study compares the building code standards for office and hotel buildings in the hot humid and severe cold climate regions of China and the United States. Benchmark office and hotel building models have been developed for Guangzhou and Harbin, China that meets China's minimum national and regional building energy codes with the integration of common design and construction practices for each region. These models are compared to the ASHRAE standard based US reference building models for Houston, Texas and Duluth, Minnesota which have similar climate conditions. The research further uses a building energy optimization tool to optimize the Chinese benchmarks using existing US products to identify the primary areas for potential energy savings. In the case of the Harbin models, an economic analysis has also been performed to determine the economic feasibility of alternative building designs. The most significant energy-saving options are then presented as recommendations for potential improvements to current China building energy codes.

  6. Characteristics of particulate matter pollution in the Pearl River Delta region, China: an observational-based analysis of two monitoring sites.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guliang; Wang, Xuemei; Wu, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhiming; Yang, Liulin; Zhong, Liuju; Chen, Duohong

    2011-07-01

    Two-year monitoring data (2006 and 2009), collected at the sub-urban site (WQS) and the background site (TH), were used to study the characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) pollution in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Similar levels of PM(2.5) concentration measured at both sites seem to confirm that the fine particles have emerged as a major regional pollution issue. The seasonal variation of PM(2.5) concentration is associated with the regional monsoon circulations while the diurnal variation is related to land-sea breeze, traffic emissions and boundary layer development. Negative correlation was found in PM(2.5)-wind speed and PM(2.5)-humidity. Analysis of radiation, temperature and ozone suggests the existence of secondary aerosol formation. Transport effect may be another contributing factor to high PM pollution in the region, such as occasional long-distance dust intrusion and trans-boundary effects from upwind areas.

  7. Genotypic and symbiotic diversity of Rhizobium populations associated with cultivated lentil and pea in sub-humid and semi-arid regions of Eastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Riah, Nassira; Béna, Gilles; Djekoun, Abdelhamid; Heulin, Karine; de Lajudie, Philippe; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2014-07-01

    The genetic structure of rhizobia nodulating pea and lentil in Algeria, Northern Africa was determined. A total of 237 isolates were obtained from root nodules collected on lentil (Lens culinaris), proteaginous and forage pea (Pisum sativum) growing in two eco-climatic zones, sub-humid and semi-arid, in Eastern Algeria. They were characterised by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region (IGS), and the nodD-F symbiotic region. The combination of these haplotypes allowed the isolates to be clustered into 26 distinct genotypes, and all isolates were classified as Rhizobium leguminosarum. Symbiotic marker variation (nodD-F) was low but with the predominance of one nod haplotype (g), which had been recovered previously at a high frequency in Europe. Sequence analysis of the IGS further confirmed its high variability in the studied strains. An AMOVA analysis showed highly significant differentiation in the IGS haplotype distribution between populations from both eco-climatic zones. This differentiation was reflected by differences in dominant genotype frequencies. Conversely, no host plant effect was detected. The nodD gene sequence-based phylogeny suggested that symbiotic gene diversity in pea and lentil nodulating rhizobial populations in Algeria was low compared to that reported elsewhere in the world.

  8. Biogeochemical Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Changes in a Humid Region of Amazonia (Lagoa da Pata, Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Mendes, L. G.; Azeredo, J. B.; Moura, M. S.; de Oliveira, A. R.; Monteiro, F.; Santelli, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of four sediment core collected in Lagoa da Pata lake show significant changes in the environmental history of Amazonia during the last 40,000 years. The Lagoa da Pata Lake (0°17'S, 66°40'W) is located on the top of the Morro dos Seis Lagos, an isolated hill in the extensive forested plane surface of high Rio Negro basin. The climate in the region presents mean annual precipitation around 3000 mm without dry season. Three distinct sections are clearly identified in the LPT III, LPT IV and LPT V cores. They consist of upper and lower organic-rich layers, separated by a clastic layer which represents a short period of rapid accumulation around 18 ka BP. Analysis of the organic matter composition by d13C and d15N, total Carbon and Nitrogen, sedimentary chlorophyll concentration and organic matter petrography show three different phases related to organic matter deposition. Between, at least 46,000 and 31,000 14C yr B.P., the lake presented a high water level attested by high accumulation rates of organic carbon. Values of d13C (around -32%) associated to high C/N ratio demonstrate a lignocellulosic material contribution in this phase; the second phase between the 31000 yr 14C B.P. and 18000 14C B.P. is characterised by a lower productivity attested by low sedimentary chlorophyll and total organic carbon values. The d13C values increase with medium values around -28% that may correspond to an input of organic matter rich in C4 plants (grasses). The sedimentation rate decreases significantly. High charcoal fluxes were observed in this period. At around 18000 14C yr BP, there appears to have been a sudden input of clastic material. This is represented by a sandy facies, which exhibits lower carbon contents. From 18000 14C yr B.P. to the present time occurred an increase in lacustrine productivity marked by an increase in carbon and chlorophyll derivate accumulation rates. The C/N values dropped indicting an algae organic matter contribution. It probably

  9. Lunar heat flow: Regional prospective of the Apollo landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegler, M. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    reexamine the Apollo Heat Flow Experiment in light of new orbital data. Using three-dimensional thermal conduction models, we examine effects of crustal thickness, density, and radiogenic abundance on measured heat flow values at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites. These models show the importance of regional context on heat flux measurements. We find that measured heat flux can be greatly altered by deep subsurface radiogenic content and crustal density. However, total crustal thickness and the presence of a near-surface radiogenic-rich ejecta provide less leverage, representing only minor (<1.5 mW m-2) perturbations on surface heat flux. Using models of the crust implied by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory results, we found that a roughly 9-13 mW m-2 mantle heat flux best approximate the observed heat flux. This equates to a total mantle heat production of 2.8-4.1 × 1011 W. These heat flow values could imply that the lunar interior is slightly less radiogenic than the Earth's mantle, perhaps implying that a considerable fraction of terrestrial mantle material was incorporated at the time of formation. These results may also imply that heat flux at the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Procellarum potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus (KREEP) Terrane (PKT) is anomalously elevated compared to the rest of the Moon. These results also suggest that a limited KREEP-rich layer exists beneath the PKT crust. If a subcrustal KREEP-rich layer extends below the Apollo 17 landing site, required mantle heat flux can drop to roughly 7 mW m-2, underlining the need for future heat flux measurements outside of the radiogenic-rich PKT region.

  10. Doing hydrology backwards in tropical humid catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real Rangel, R.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches in hydrology offer the possibility to predict water fluxes at the catchment scale based on the interpretation of the observed hydrological response at the catchment itself. Doing hydrology backwards (inferring precipitation and evapotranspiration rates at the catchment scale from streamflow measurements, see Kirchner (2009)) can be a useful methodology for estimating water fluxes at the catchment and regional scales. Previous studies using this inverse modeling approach have been performed in regions (UK, Switzerland, France, Eastern US) where energy-limited (in winter and early spring) and water-limited conditions (in summer) prevail during a large period of the year. However, such approach has not been tested in regions characterized by a quasi-constant supply of water and energy (e.g. humid tropics). The objective of this work is to infer annual rates of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the last decade in 10 catchments located in Mexico's tropical humid regions. Hourly discharge measurements during recession periods were analyzed and parameters for the nonlinear storage-discharge relationship of each catchment were derived. Results showed large variability in both catchment-scale precipitation and evapotranspiration rates among the selected study sites. Finally, a comparison was done between such estimates and those obtained from remotely-sensed data (TRMM for precipitation and MOD16 for evapotranspiration).

  11. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  12. Central Atlantic regional ecological test site: A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comparison of photomorphic regions from an uncontrolled ERTS-1 mosaic of CARETS to land use areas on a map published in the National Atlas revealed close correlations in non-urban regions. Such regional scale analysis of ERTS-1 data has the potential for providing an economical sampling strategy for selecting sites for more detailed field measurements if other environmental variables can be correlated with patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. ERTS-1 imagery has also revealed for the first time the appearance of CARETS during the winter months. Investigators have identified extensive areas of conifers, which have previously been indistinguishable from deciduous vegetation. Imagery has also shown very clearly the extent of snow cover at a particular time over the region. The evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery used for the land use mapping of the shore zone of CARETS, has shown that the presence or absence of elements of an hierarchal system of shoreline landforms can help identify areas of potential rapid change. Changes in land use class distributions on the Barrier Islands signify the environmental response to natural and man-caused processes. Both environmental vulnerability and sensitivity can be estimated from the repetitive ERTS-1 coverage of long reaches of the CARETS coast. Results indicate potential applications to land use planning, management, and regional environmental quality analysis.

  13. Effects of air temperature, humidity, and air movement on thermal comfort under hot and humid conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Shinichi; Kimura, Kenichi

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize the effects of air temperature, humidity, and air movement on thermal comfort under hot and humid conditions with a view toward energy conservation. Recently, ASHRAE published a new comfort envelope in Standard 55-1992. In that standard, the upper limit of relative humidity (RH) was wet at 60%. In hot and humid regions, humidity levels higher than 60% may often be observed. This upper limit of humidity is discussed based on their subjective data. In addition, the results show that under hot and humid conditions, air movement may be one of the least expensive methods of providing thermal comfort. The effect of air movement is also described in this paper.

  14. An autoregulatory region in protein kinase C: the pseudoanchoring site.

    PubMed Central

    Ron, D; Mochly-Rosen, D

    1995-01-01

    We have previously identified receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs) as components of protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. RACK1, a recently cloned 36-kDa RACK, has short sequences of homology to PKC. A possible explanation for the homologous sequences between the ligand (PKC) and its intracellular receptor (RACK1) may be that, similar to the pseudosubstrate autoregulatory sequence on PKC, there is also a pseudo-RACK1 binding site on the enzyme. If this is the case, peptides with these sequences (derived from either RACK1 or PKC) are expected to affect PKC binding to RACK1 in vitro and PKC-mediated functions in vivo. Here, we show that the PKC-derived peptide (pseudo-RACK1 peptide), but not its RACK1 homologue, modulated PKC function both in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that the pseudo-RACK1 peptide binds and activates PKC in the absence of PKC activators and thereby acts as an agonist of PKC function in vivo. Therefore, the pseudo-RACK1 sequence in PKC appears to be another autoregulatory site; when PKC is in an inactive conformation, the pseudo-RACK1 site interacts with the RACK-binding site. Activation of PKC exposes the RACK-binding site, enabling the association of the enzyme with its anchoring RACK. Similar pseudoanchoring sites may regulate the function of other protein kinases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7831317

  15. Interpretation at Wetland Sites in the Sydney Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadhokar, Yojana; McLoughlin, Lynette C.

    1999-01-01

    Interpretive and educational facilities at five wetland sites near Sydney (Australia) were studied to determine their goals, range of facilities and activities, and themes related to wetlands and their conservation covered in informal visitor programs and formal education programs for school groups. Program objectives and activities were generally…

  16. Regional State Committees Can Help Provide a Regional Perspective to Planning and Siting Decisions, Reducing the Need for Federal Preemption

    SciTech Connect

    Basheda, Gregory

    2006-03-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 gave FERC the authority to preempt state and local transmission siting authorities under certain conditions, creating the potential for federal/state disputes. Such disputes are less likely to occur where there are open, regional planning processes. Multi-state advisory bodies known as regional state committees, working with RTOs, can provide a forum to evaluate transmission needs from a regional perspective, reducing the need for FERC involvement. (author)

  17. Humidity without Mystification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, Allen E.

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates how a simple graph can be effectively used in teaching the concept, measurement, and use of humidity. Science activities for upper elementary, secondary, and higher education students are suggested and definitions of terms are presented. (Author/DB)

  18. Lexington and Kentucky's Inner Bluegrass Region. Pathways in Geography Series, Site Guide Title No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulack, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This meeting site guide for Lexington, Kentucky and the Bluegrass region around Lexington illustrates why the state of Kentucky and this region are excellent examples of how geography plays out on the land, how regions emerge, and how human events and processes, in the context of the physical environment, lead to differentiation and distinction,…

  19. Observation of biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere of a mountain site in central China: temperature and relative humidity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, X. M.; Zhang, R. J.

    2013-11-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) derived from isoprene, pinene and caryophyllene were determined for PM10 and size-segregated (9-stages) aerosols collected at the summit (2060 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Hua, central China during the summer of 2009. Estimated concentrations of isoprene, α-/β-pinene and β-caryophyllene derived secondary organic carbon (SOC) are 81 ± 53, 29 ± 14 and 98 ± 53 ng m-3, accounting for 2.7 ± 1.0%, 0.8 ± 0.2% and 2.1 ± 1.0% of OC, respectively. Concentrations of biogenic (BSOA, the isoprene/pinene/caryophyllene oxidation products) and anthropogenic (ASOA, mainly aromatic acids) SOA positively correlated with temperature (R=0.57-0.90). However, a decreasing trend of BSOA concentration with an increase in relative humidity (RH) was observed during the sampling period, although a clear trend between ASOA and RH was not found. Based on the AIM Model calculation, we found that during the sampling period an increase in RH resulted in a decrease in the aerosol acidity and thus reduced the effect of acid-catalysis on BSOA formation. There was no significant correlation observed for the BSOA products and anthropogenic parameters (e.g. EC, SO42- and NO4-). Size distribution measurements showed that most of the determined BSOA are formed in the aerosol phase and enriched in the fine mode (<2.1 μm) except for cis-pinonic acid, which is formed in the gas phase and subsequently partitioned into aerosol phase and thus presents a bimodal pattern with a small peak in the fine mode and a large peak in the coarse mode (>2.1 μm).

  20. Observation of biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere of a mountain site in central China: temperature and relative humidity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, X. M.; Zhang, R. J.

    2013-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) derived from isoprene, pinene and caryophyllene were determined for PM10 and size-segregated (9-stage) aerosols collected at the summit (2060 m, a.s.l.) of Mt. Hua, central China during the summer of 2009. Concentrations of estimated isoprene, α-/β-pinene and β-caryophyllene derived SOC are 81± 53, 29 ± 14 and 98 ± 53 ng m-3, accounting for 2.7± 1.0%, 0.8 ± 0.2% and 2.1 ± 1.0% of OC, respectively. Concentrations of biogenic (BSOA, the isoprene/pinene/caryophyllene oxidation products) and anthropogenic (ASOA, mainly aromatic acids) SOA positively correlated with temperature (R=0.57-0.90). However, a decreasing trend of BSOA concentration with an increase in relative humidity (RH) was observed during the sampling period, although a clear trend between ASOA and RH was not found. Based on the AIM Model calculation, we found that during the sampling period an increase in RH resulted in a decrease in the aerosol acidity and thus reduced the effect of acid-catalysis on BSOA formation. Size distribution measurement showed that most of the determined isoprene derived SOA may form in aerosol phase and enriched in the fine mode (<2.1μm). 3-Hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid and β-caryophyllinic acid are only presented in fine particles. However, cis-pinonic acid presents a large peak in the coarse mode (>2.1 μm) due to its highly volatile nature.

  1. Automated Texture Classification of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bayley, L.; Hunkins, L.; McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Supervised classification techniques have been developed to discriminate geomorphologic units in HiRISE images of Mawrth Vallis on Mars, one of the MSL candidate landing sites. A variety of clay minerals that indicate water was once present have been identified in the ancient bedrock at Mawrth Vallis [1-7]. These clay-rich rocks exhibit distinct surface textures in HiRISE images, where the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two primary textures: 2-5 m irregular inverted polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets ([8,13], Fig. b-c). In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons ([8,13], Fig. e). We also characterized dunes (Fig. d), and the spectrally unremarkable caprock unit (Fig. a). Classification of these textures was performed by extracting discriminatory features from gray-level run length matrices (GLRLMs) [9], gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCMs) [10], and semivariograms [11] calculated for small blocks of data in HiRISE images. Preliminary results using an algorithm containing eight of these classification features produced a texture classification technique that is 85 percent accurate. The discriminant analysis (e.g. [12]) classifier we used modeled a linear discriminant function for each class based on the training feature vectors for that class. The test vector with the largest value for its discriminant function was then assigned to each class. We assumed linear functions were acceptable for small training sets and we performed automated selection in order to identify the most discriminative features for the textures in Mawrth Vallis. Continued efforts are underway to test and refine this procedure in order to optimize texture recognition on a broader collection of textures, representing additional surface components from Mawrth Vallis and other landing sites on Mars. [1] Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F., et al. (2005) Nature, 438, 632-627. [3] Bishop, J. L., et al

  2. Rock Morphologies of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Silver, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The major clay units at Mawrth Vallis have been well-characterized by OMEGA and CRISM [1-6]. Here we extend this to HiRISE data, demonstrating that these units can be mapped in photographic data as well as through imaging spectroscopy. In HiRISE data the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two main textures: 2-5 m irregular polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets. In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons (see figure below from HiRISE RED image PSP_007612_2045). These morphologies are consistent with previous outcrop-scale observations [1, 7]. Possibly, these polygons are due to freeze-thaw cycles, desiccation, loss of interlayer water, or a combination of these processes. In any case, the same processes must have occurred throughout the Mawrth Vallis region in order to produce such consistency. On the plains surrounding Mawrth Vallis, clear bed divisions are visible in the montmorillonite unit on both gradual and steep slopes (e.g. crater walls) but none are visible in the nontronite unit except in steep crater walls, implying that the beds in the montmorillonite unit may be better lithified than those in the older nontronite unit. Kaolinite, where identified by CRISM, appears bright and fractured in HiRISE imagery with no visible polygons. These morphologies are consistent across the entire 300 x 300 km central Mawrth Vallis region. Therefore, these units can be mapped in areas with some dust/sand cover that masks the CRISM spectrum or where there are no CRISM data available (see companion abstract by Parente et al. for details on automatic texture mapping). This discovery will provide future rover missions (such as MSL) with a more complete map of the major lithologic units, which will enhance and streamline mission planning. [1]Bishop, J. L., et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [2]Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [3]Loizeau, D., et al. (2009) Icarus, (in press). [4]McKeown, N. K., et al

  3. Parameter estimation method and updating of regional prediction equations for ungaged sites in the desert region of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently updating at-site flood frequency estimates for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in the desert region of California. The at-site flood-frequency analysis is complicated by short record lengths (less than 20 years is common) and numerous zero flows/low outliers at many sites. Estimates of the three parameters (mean, standard deviation, and skew) required for fitting the log Pearson Type 3 (LP3) distribution are likely to be highly unreliable based on the limited and heavily censored at-site data. In a generalization of the recommendations in Bulletin 17B, a regional analysis was used to develop regional estimates of all three parameters (mean, standard deviation, and skew) of the LP3 distribution. A regional skew value of zero from a previously published report was used with a new estimated mean squared error (MSE) of 0.20. A weighted least squares (WLS) regression method was used to develop both a regional standard deviation and a mean model based on annual peak-discharge data for 33 USGS stations throughout California’s desert region. At-site standard deviation and mean values were determined by using an expected moments algorithm (EMA) method for fitting the LP3 distribution to the logarithms of annual peak-discharge data. Additionally, a multiple Grubbs-Beck (MGB) test, a generalization of the test recommended in Bulletin 17B, was used for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in a flood series. The WLS regression found that no basin characteristics could explain the variability of standard deviation. Consequently, a constant regional standard deviation model was selected, resulting in a log-space value of 0.91 with a MSE of 0.03 log units. Yet drainage area was found to be statistically significant at explaining the site-to-site variability in mean. The linear WLS regional mean model based on drainage area had a Pseudo- 2 R of 51 percent and a MSE of 0.32 log units. The regional parameter

  4. The Holocene warm-humid phases in the North China Plain as recorded by multi-proxy records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jianxin; Zhou, Shangzhe; Chang, Hong

    2009-02-01

    The grain size and palinology of sediment and the frequency of 14C dada provide an integrated reconstruction of the Holocene warm-humid phases of the North China Plain. Two clear intense and long-lasting warm-humid phases were identified by comprehensive research in this region. The first phase was dated back to the early Holocene (9 000-7 000 a BP), and the second was centered at 5 000-3 000 a BP. The warm-humid episode between 9 000 and 7 000 a BP was also recognized at other sites showing global climatic trends rather than local events. Compared with the concern to the warm-humid phase of the early Holocene, the second one was not paid enough attention in the last few decades. The compilation of the Holocene paleoclimate data suggests that perhaps the second warm-humid phase was pervasive in monsoon region of China. In perspective of environmental archaeology, much attention should be devoted to it, because the flourish and adaptation of the Neolithic cultures and the building up of the first state seem to corresponding to the general warm-humid climatic conditions of this period. In addition, a warm-humid interval at 7 200-6 500 a BP was recognized by the grain size data from three sites. However, this warm-humid event was not shown in pollen assemblage and temporal distribution of 14C data. Perhaps, the resolution for climatic reconstruction from pollen and temporal distribution of 14C data cited here is relatively low and small-amplitude and short-period climatic events cannot be well reflected by the data. Due to the difference in locality and elevation of sampling site, as well as in resolution of proxy records, it is difficult to make precise correlation. Further work is needed in the future.

  5. Development of a target-site based regional frequency model using historical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear power facilities in France were designed to withstand extreme environmental conditions with a very low probability of failure. Nevertheless, some exceptional surges considered as outliers are not properly addressed by classical frequency analysis models. If available data at the site of interest (target-site) is sufficiently complete on a long period and not characterized by the presence of an outlier, at-site frequency analysis can be used to estimate quantiles with acceptable uncertainties. Otherwise, regional and historical information (HI) may be used to mitigate the lack of data and the influence of the outlier by increasing its representativeness in the sample. several models have been proposed over the last years for regional extreme surges frequency analysis in France to take into account these outliers in the frequency analysis. However, these models do not give a specific weight to the target site and cannot take into account HI. The objective of the present work is to develop a regional frequency model (RFM) centered on a target-site and using HI. The neighborhood between sites is measured by a degree of physical and statistical dependence between observations (with a prior confidence level). Unlike existing models, the obtained region around the target site (and constituting the neighboring sites) is sliding from a target-site to another. In other words, the developed model assigns a region for each target site. The idea behind the construction of a frequency model favoring target sites and the principle of moving regions around these target-sites is the original key point of the developed model. A related issue regards the estimation of missed and/or ungauged surges at target-sites from those of gauged potential neighboring sites, a multiple linear regression (MLR) is used and it can be extended to other reconstitutions models. MLR analysis can be considered conclusive only if available observations at neighboring sites are informative enough

  6. Evaluating the adequacy of a reference site pool for ecological assessments in environmentally complex regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ode, Peter R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Mazor, Raphael D.; Schiff, Kenneth C.; Stein, Eric D.; May, Jason; Brown, Larry R.; Herbst, David B.; Gillette, D.D.; Lunde, Kevin; Hawkins, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Many advances in the field of bioassessment have focused on approaches for objectively selecting the pool of reference sites used to establish expectations for healthy waterbodies, but little emphasis has been placed on ways to evaluate the suitability of the reference-site pool for its intended applications (e.g., compliance assessment vs ambient monitoring). These evaluations are critical because an inadequately evaluated reference pool may bias assessments in some settings. We present an approach for evaluating the adequacy of a reference-site pool for supporting biotic-index development in environmentally heterogeneous and pervasively altered regions. We followed common approaches for selecting sites with low levels of anthropogenic stress to screen 1985 candidate stream reaches to create a pool of 590 reference sites for assessing the biological integrity of streams in California, USA. We assessed the resulting pool of reference sites against 2 performance criteria. First, we evaluated how well the reference-site pool represented the range of natural gradients present in the entire population of streams as estimated by sites sampled through probabilistic surveys. Second, we evaluated the degree to which we were successful in rejecting sites influenced by anthropogenic stress by comparing biological metric scores at reference sites with the most vs fewest potential sources of stress. Using this approach, we established a reference-site pool with low levels of human-associated stress and broad coverage of environmental heterogeneity. This approach should be widely applicable and customizable to particular regional or programmatic needs.

  7. Identification of clustered YY1 binding sites in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J D; Hinz, A; Bergmann, A; Huang, J; Ovcharenko, I; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-04-19

    Mammalian genomic imprinting is regulated by Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) that are usually associated with tandem arrays of transcription factor binding sites. In the current study, the sequence features derived from a tandem array of YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR (differentially methylated region) led us to identify three additional clustered YY1 binding sites, which are also localized within the DMRs of Xist, Tsix, and Nespas. These regions have been shown to play a critical role as ICRs for the regulation of surrounding genes. These ICRs have maintained a tandem array of YY1 binding sites during mammalian evolution. The in vivo binding of YY1 to these regions is allele-specific and only to the unmethylated active alleles. Promoter/enhancer assays suggest that a tandem array of YY1 binding sites function as a potential orientation-dependent enhancer. Insulator assays revealed that the enhancer-blocking activity is detected only in the YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR but not in the YY1 binding sites of other DMRs. Overall, our identification of three additional clustered YY1 binding sites in imprinted domains suggests a significant role for YY1 in mammalian genomic imprinting.

  8. Optical humidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  9. Optical humidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  10. Rainfall-runoff response from urban catchments in humid tropical regions: A case study of Kayu Ara catchment in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, A.; Venneker, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Wong, C.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of rainfall-runoff response for urban engineering practices is of pivotal importance, especially for humid tropic areas such as Malaysia where the information is rather limited. In view of this, a rainfall-runoff analysis study was conducted for the 25 km2 urban catchment of Kayu Ara, Kuala Lumpur. Five-minute rainfall and runoff data from 1996 - 2005 were used, from which 146 events were selected for detailed analysis. The relationship between direct runoff and mean areal rainfall provided information on the catchment response. The derived event-based runoff coefficients are useful for catchment comparison, and in particular to understand how different landscapes affect transformation of rainfall into event runoff and to explain the runoff generation mechanism. However, the lack of a standard method for hydrograph separation is a disadvantage, which introduces uncertainty into the analysis and the results and may also complicate comparison with results from other areas. Nevertheless, it is shown that event-based runoff coefficients could improve our understanding of rainfall-runoff response, especially for urban conditions.

  11. Mitochondrial control region structure and single site heteroplasmy in the razorbill (Alca torda; Aves).

    PubMed

    Moum, T; Bakke, I

    2001-05-01

    The primary structure of the Alca torda mitochondrial control region was determined and conserved structural features were identified based on sequence comparisons to other bird species. In a population survey using control region analysis, five individuals were found to possess heteroplasmic point mutations at the variable 5' end of the control region. The pattern of variable nucleotide positions among individuals was compared to the distribution of heteroplasmic sites and the heteroplasmic condition was further characterised by a cloning procedure applied to two individuals which harboured one and two heteroplasmic point mutations, respectively. These results are in support of recent evidence that single site heteroplasmy may be more common than previously thought.

  12. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  13. Representing a Large Region with Few Sites: A New Approach for Studies on Small Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosamond, Madeline; Kaltenecker, Georgina; Mohamed, Mohamed; Taylor, William

    2015-04-01

    Many environmental studies attempt to characterize a large geographical region but financial and logistical constraints limit the number of field sites used. A systematic approach to site selection can ensure that an adequate range in the variables of interest is captured. We present a novel method to select small watersheds for a study examining relationships between agricultural land use, landscape characteristics and stream phosphorus export. This method reduces subjectivity and uses commonly-available geospatial datasets while considering practical constraints on site selections. We selected several variables representing agricultural P inputs or intensity and landscape susceptibility to P loss. We ordinated regional-scale data on cross plots and then superimposed potential field sites, picking those that covered the range shown, and over-representing areas with high P inputs losses. We represent an 110,000 km2 geographic area with 10 sites, with good coverage of four variables, using six sites from a previous study and four new sites. The site selection method can easily be adapted to studies with a variety of goals and settings. Additionally, ordinating watersheds or regions along axes (here, "agricultural" and "landscape") can provide insight into relationships among variables and help identify areas of particular concern, thus guiding stewardship and management programs. The largest challenge is resolution: small study watersheds (20 - 70 km2) may not be well represented by spatially and temporally coarse data.

  14. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  15. Roles of humidity and temperature in shaping influenza seasonality.

    PubMed

    Lowen, Anice C; Steel, John

    2014-07-01

    Experimental studies in guinea pigs demonstrated that influenza virus transmission is strongly modulated by temperature and humidity. A number of epidemiological studies have followed up on these findings and revealed robust associations between influenza incidence in temperate regions and local conditions of humidity and temperature, offering a long-awaited explanation for the wintertime seasonality of influenza in these locales. Despite recent progress, important questions remain as to the mechanism(s) by which humidity and/or temperature affects transmission.

  16. Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS): A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments have included: (1) completion of the research design for the USGS/CARETS demonstration project; (2) preparation of photomossics and land use maps at a scale of 1:100,000 for entire area; (3) demonstration of the feasibility of extracting several categories of land use information from ERTS-1 MSS data for a portion of the CARETS region; (4) demonstration of the feasibility of detecting some significant land use changes on ERTS-1 imagery; (5) demonstration of the feasibility of attaching environmental impact significance to the remote sensor-derived land use data; (6) delivery of land use information derived from high altitude aircraft data to the Maryland state planning agency for use in its statewide land use inventory; (7) demonstration of high interest by other use groups in the test region in products and services provided by investigation; and (8) determination of the viability of setting up a computerized geographic information system as part of the CARETS investigation, to facilitate handling of sensor-derived land use data in a variety of formats to suit user requirements.

  17. Nuclear event time histories and computed site transfer functions for locations in the Los Angeles region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, A.M.; Covington, P.A.; Park, R.B.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Perkins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosion recordings obtained at sites in the greater Los Angeles, Calif., region. The report includes ground velocity time histories, as well as, derived site transfer functions. These data have been collected as part of a study to evaluate the validity of using low-level ground motions to predict the frequency-dependent response of a site during an earthquake. For this study 19 nuclear events were recorded at 98 separate locations. Some of these sites have recorded more than one of the nuclear explosions, and, consequently, there are a total of 159, three-component station records. The location of all the recording sites are shown in figures 1–5, the station coordinates and abbreviations are given in table 1. The station addresses are listed in table 2, and the nuclear explosions that were recorded are listed in table 3. The recording sites were chosen on the basis of three criteria: (1) that the underlying geological conditions were representative of conditions over significant areas of the region, (2) that the site was the location of a strong-motion recording of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, or (3) that more complete geographical coverage was required in that location.

  18. From regional to site specific SPTHA through inundation simulations: a case study for three test sites in Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Brizuela, Beatriz; Piatanesi, Alessio; Basili, Roberto; Lorito, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We propose a procedure that enables the quantification of tsunami hazard at specific target sites through numerical simulations, accounting for the full variability of potential seismic sources. To this end, we developed a method that reduces the computational effort required by a very large number of detailed inundation simulations by adopting the offshore tsunami propagation patterns used for regional Seismic PTHA (SPTHA) as a proxy for the subsequent hazard estimate. The reduction of the computational effort is based on a two steps filtering procedure of the offshore SPTHA, through which a reduced number of scenarios to be modelled for inundation is selected. Each scenario represents a larger set of sources that form a cluster of potential tsunamis with similar impact on the target area. This filtering procedure is completely based on the tsunami profiles offshore, and it represents a generalization of the method proposed in Lorito et al. (2015) allowing i) to consider a much larger set of input linear simulations, and ii) to control the within-cluster variance of each selected cluster of seismic sources (thence, indirectly the artificial uncertainty introduced in probabilistic inundation maps by this filtering process). Here we present the preliminary results obtained for three test sites in central Mediterranean (Milazzo and Siracusa, Southern Italy, and Thessaloniki, Northern Greece). We preliminary perform a regional SPTHA covering the whole Mediterranean, in which the aleatory variability is quantified considering about 2 × 107 different seismic sources, and epistemic uncertainty is explored through an ensemble model based on more than ×105 alternative model implementations. For each site, separately, few hundreds of "representative scenarios" are filtered out of all the potential seismic sources. Then, the inundations caused by such scenarios is explicitly modelled and the site-specific SPTHA obtained, allowing a complete characterization of the tsunami

  19. Bias corrections of precipitation measurements across experimental sites in different ecoclimatic regions of western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xicai; Yang, Daqing; Li, Yanping; Barr, Alan; Helgason, Warren; Hayashi, Masaki; Marsh, Philip; Pomeroy, John; Janowicz, Richard J.

    2016-10-01

    This study assesses a filtering procedure on accumulating precipitation gauge measurements and quantifies the effects of bias corrections for wind-induced undercatch across four ecoclimatic regions in western Canada, including the permafrost regions of the subarctic, the Western Cordillera, the boreal forest, and the prairies. The bias corrections increased monthly precipitation by up to 163 % at windy sites with short vegetation and sometimes modified the seasonal precipitation regime, whereas the increases were less than 13 % at sites shielded by forest. On a yearly basis, the increase of total precipitation ranged from 8 to 20 mm (3-4 %) at sites shielded by vegetation and 60 to 384 mm (about 15-34 %) at open sites. In addition, the bias corrections altered the seasonal precipitation patterns at some windy sites with high snow percentage ( > 50 %). This study highlights the need for and importance of precipitation bias corrections at both research sites and operational networks for water balance assessment and the validation of global/regional climate-hydrology models.

  20. Site-directed ELISA identifies a highly antigenic region of the simian immunodeficiency virus transmembrane glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P R; Parks, D E; Norrby, E; Lerner, R A; Purcell, R H; Chanock, R M

    1988-06-01

    The transmembrane glycoprotein (gp32) of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) contains a highly antigenic region that includes amino acid residues 606-628. A synthetic peptide representing this region was highly immunoreactive with sera from SIV-infected primates in a site-directed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This reactivity extended across four primate species from three genera and identified infection with at least two distinct isolates of SIV. This site-directed ELISA represents a simple, accessible method with broad specificity for screening large numbers of primates for antibodies against SIV.

  1. Assessment of Natural Stream Sites for Hydroelectric Dams in the Pacific Northwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall; Kristin L. Verdin; Randy D. Lee

    2012-03-01

    This pilot study presents a methodology for modeling project characteristics using a development model of a stream obstructing dam. The model is applied to all individual stream reaches in hydrologic region 17, which encompasses nearly all of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Project site characteristics produced by the modeling technique include: capacity potential, principal dam dimensions, number of required auxiliary dams, total extent of the constructed impoundment boundary, and the surface area of the resulting reservoir. Aggregated capacity potential values for the region are presented in capacity categories including total, that at existing dams, within federal and environmentally sensitive exclusion zones, and the balance which is consider available for greenfield development within the limits of the study. Distributions of site characteristics for small hydropower sites are presented and discussed. These sites are screened to identify candidate small hydropower sites and distributions of the site characteristics of this site population are presented and discussed. Recommendations are made for upgrading the methodology and extensions to make the results more accessible and available on a larger scale.

  2. Indoor humidity and human health. Part 1: Literature review of health effects of humidity-influenced indoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, A.V.; Arens, E.A.

    1996-11-01

    Standards for indoor thermal conditions and ventilation include upper limits for relative humidity (RH) that typically are in the range of 60% to 80% RH. Although the reasons for the limits are often not explicitly stated, it is generally known that they were set out of concern for the health effects that might occur should the humidity become too high. The primary health effects of high humidity are caused by the growth and spread of biotic agents, although humidity interactions with nonbiotic pollutants, such as formaldehyde, may also cause adverse effects. This literature review identifies the most important health issues associated with high humidities and presents humidity requirements, typical contamination sites within buildings, and remediation measures for each pollutant. Part two of the paper addresses the physical causes of moisture-related problems in buildings.

  3. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  4. Corn grain, stover yield and nutrient removal validations at regional partnership sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays, L.) stover has been identified as a major feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy. This report summarizes grain and stover yield as well as N, P, and K removal at several Sun Grant Regional Partnership (SGRP) sites. National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) grain yields were used t...

  5. CAN SITE-SPECIFIC TRENDS BE EXTRAPOLATED TO A REGION? AN ACIDIFICATION EXAMPLE FOR THE NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the absence of true regional data on changes in the acid/base status of lakes in the northeastern United States, we explore the possibility of using site-specific trends information from a judgment sample of lakes to assess the efficacy of the Clean Air Act Amendments. A meta-...

  6. 10 CFR 72.98 - Identifying regions around an ISFSI or MRS site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identifying regions around an ISFSI or MRS site. 72.98 Section 72.98 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT... as appropriate with respect to: (1) The present and future character and the distribution...

  7. Modeling groundwater quality over a humid subtropical region using numerical indices, earth observation datasets, and X-ray diffraction technique: a case study of Allahabad district, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srivastava, Prashant K; Singh, Dharmveer; Han, Dawei; Gautam, Sandeep Kumar; Pandey, A C

    2015-02-01

    Water is undoubtedly the vital commodity for all living creatures and required for well-being of the human society. The present work is based on the surveys and chemical analyses performed on the collected groundwater samples in a part of the Ganga basin in order to understand the sources and evolution of the water quality in the region. The two standard indices such as water quality index and synthetic pollution index for the classification of water in the region are computed. The soil and sediment analysis are carried out with the help of X-ray diffractometer (XRD) for the identification of possible source of ions in water from rock and soil weathering. The dominant minerals which include quartz, muscovite, plagioclase, and orthoclase are reported in the area. The study further utilizes the multivariate statistical techniques for handling large and complex datasets in order to get better information about the groundwater quality. The following statistical methods such as cluster analysis (CA), factor analysis (FA), and principal component analysis (PCA) are applied to handle the large datasets and to understand the latent structure of the data. Through FA/PCAs, we have identified a total of 3 factors in pre-monsoon and 4 factors in post-monsoon season, which are responsible for the whole data structure. These factors explain 77.62 and 82.39% of the total variance of the pre- and post-monsoon datasets. On the other hand, CA depicted the regions that have similar pollutants origin. The average value of synthetic pollution index of groundwater during pre-monsoon is 9.27, while during post-monsoon, it has been recorded as 8.74. On the other hand, the average values of water quality index of groundwater during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons are found as 217.59 and 233.02, respectively. The study indicates that there occurs an extensive urbanization with gradual vast development of various small- and large-scale industries, which is responsible for degradation in

  8. CO2 capture from humid flue gases and humid atmosphere using a microporous coppersilicate.

    PubMed

    Datta, Shuvo Jit; Khumnoon, Chutharat; Lee, Zhen Hao; Moon, Won Kyung; Docao, Son; Nguyen, Thanh Huu; Hwang, In Chul; Moon, Dohyun; Oleynikov, Peter; Terasaki, Osamu; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2015-10-16

    Capturing CO2 from humid flue gases and atmosphere with porous materials remains costly because prior dehydration of the gases is required. A large number of microporous materials with physical adsorption capacity have been developed as CO2-capturing materials. However, most of them suffer from CO2 sorption capacity reduction or structure decomposition that is caused by co-adsorbed H2O when exposed to humid flue gases and atmosphere. We report a highly stable microporous coppersilicate. It has H2O-specific and CO2-specific adsorption sites but does not have H2O/CO2-sharing sites. Therefore, it readily adsorbs both H2O and CO2 from the humid flue gases and atmosphere, but the adsorbing H2O does not interfere with the adsorption of CO2. It is also highly stable after adsorption of H2O and CO2 because it was synthesized hydrothermally.

  9. Regional risk assessment for contaminated sites part 1: vulnerability assessment by multicriteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Zabeo, A; Pizzol, L; Agostini, P; Critto, A; Giove, S; Marcomini, A

    2011-11-01

    As highlighted in the EU Soil Communication, local contamination is one of the main soil threats and it is often related to present and past industrial activities which left a legacy of a high number of contaminated sites in Europe. These contaminated sites can be harmful to many different receptors according to their sensitivity/susceptibility to contamination, and specific vulnerability evaluations are needed in order to manage this widely spread environmental issue. In this paper a novel comprehensive vulnerability assessment framework to assess regional receptor susceptibility to contaminated site is presented. The developed methodology, which combines multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques and spatial analysis, can be applied to different receptors recognized as relevant for regional assessment. In order to characterize each receptor, picked parameters significant for the estimation of the vulnerability to contaminated sites have been selected, normalized and aggregated by means of multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The developed MCDA methodology, based on the Choquet integral, allows to include expert judgments for the elicitation of synergic and conflicting effects between involved criteria and is applied to all the geographical objects representing the identified receptors. To test the potential of the vulnerability methodology, it has been applied to a specific case study area in the upper Silesia region of Poland where it proved to be reliable and consistent with the environmental experts' expected results. The vulnerability assessment results indicate that groundwater is the most vulnerable receptor characterized by a wide area with vulnerability scores belonging to the highest vulnerability class. As far as the other receptors are concerned, human health and surface water are characterized by quite homogeneous vulnerability scores falling in the medium-high vulnerability classes, while protected areas resulted to be the less

  10. Molecular Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies that Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase by Targeting the Peripheral Site and Backdoor Region

    PubMed Central

    Essono, Sosthène; Mondielli, Grégoire; Lamourette, Patricia; Boquet, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Marchot, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition properties and target sites of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Elec403, Elec408 and Elec410, generated against Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase (AChE), have been defined previously using biochemical and mutagenesis approaches. Elec403 and Elec410, which bind competitively with each other and with the peptidic toxin inhibitor fasciculin, are directed toward distinctive albeit overlapping epitopes located at the AChE peripheral anionic site, which surrounds the entrance of the active site gorge. Elec408, which is not competitive with the other two mAbs nor fasciculin, targets a second epitope located in the backdoor region, distant from the gorge entrance. To characterize the molecular determinants dictating their binding site specificity, we cloned and sequenced the mAbs; generated antigen-binding fragments (Fab) retaining the parental inhibition properties; and explored their structure-function relationships using complementary x-ray crystallography, homology modeling and flexible docking approaches. Hypermutation of one Elec403 complementarity-determining region suggests occurrence of antigen-driven selection towards recognition of the AChE peripheral site. Comparative analysis of the 1.9Å-resolution structure of Fab408 and of theoretical models of its Fab403 and Fab410 congeners evidences distinctive surface topographies and anisotropic repartitions of charges, consistent with their respective target sites and inhibition properties. Finally, a validated, data-driven docking model of the Fab403-AChE complex suggests a mode of binding at the PAS that fully correlates with the functional data. This comprehensive study documents the molecular peculiarities of Fab403 and Fab410, as the largest peptidic inhibitors directed towards the peripheral site, and those of Fab408, as the first inhibitor directed toward the backdoor region of an AChE and a unique template for the design of new, specific modulators of AChE catalysis. PMID:24146971

  11. Multiple octamer binding sites in the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Groenen, M A; Dijkhof, R J; van der Poel, J J; van Diggelen, R; Verstege, E

    1992-01-01

    Using a set of overlapping oligonucleotides from the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene we have identified two nuclear factors which probably are involved in expression of this gene and the related calcium sensitive alpha s1- and beta-casein genes. One of these factors which was present in extracts of all tissues that have been tested including Hela cells turned out to be the octamer binding protein OCT-1. Oct-1 binds with different affinity to 4 sites at positions centred around -480, -260, -210 and -50. The strongest of these 4 binding sites, the one around position -50, is highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. The other nuclear factor (MGF, mammary gland factor) which is specifically expressed in the mammary gland, binds to a site around position -90. This binding site is also highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. Images PMID:1508722

  12. Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal Siting in a Highly Seismic Region on the Mexican Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek, Yannick; Lambert, Nicolas

    A new LNG terminal should be built on the Pacific coast of Mexico, one of the most seismic regions in the world. According to International codes, a siting process must be carried out to insure the feasibility of the project, which involves, in a first step, a data collection of all existing documents related to geology, seismicity, and geotechnics. As a second step, a seismo-tectonic study has been performed, with localisation of active faults on or close to the site (aerial and satellite imagery, geophysical investigations) and determination of OBE & SSE levels. Afterwards, the site was globally characterised, with a first geotechnical report, dealing with liquefaction risks, typical soil layers, and general foundation methodology. The general site layout, the general stability of buildings, the detailed soil investigations, and the detailed foundation design are performed in the phases as described in this paper.

  13. Adjustment of regional regression equations for urban storm-runoff quality using at-site data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Regional regression equations have been developed to estimate urban storm-runoff loads and mean concentrations using a national data base. Four statistical methods using at-site data to adjust the regional equation predictions were developed to provide better local estimates. The four adjustment procedures are a single-factor adjustment, a regression of the observed data against the predicted values, a regression of the observed values against the predicted values and additional local independent variables, and a weighted combination of a local regression with the regional prediction. Data collected at five representative storm-runoff sites during 22 storms in Little Rock, Arkansas, were used to verify, and, when appropriate, adjust the regional regression equation predictions. Comparison of observed values of stormrunoff loads and mean concentrations to the predicted values from the regional regression equations for nine constituents (chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total nitrogen as N, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as N, total phosphorus as P, dissolved phosphorus as P, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc) showed large prediction errors ranging from 63 percent to more than several thousand percent. Prediction errors for 6 of the 18 regional regression equations were less than 100 percent and could be considered reasonable for water-quality prediction equations. The regression adjustment procedure was used to adjust five of the regional equation predictions to improve the predictive accuracy. For seven of the regional equations the observed and the predicted values are not significantly correlated. Thus neither the unadjusted regional equations nor any of the adjustments were appropriate. The mean of the observed values was used as a simple estimator when the regional equation predictions and adjusted predictions were not appropriate.

  14. Seasonal variations and chemical characterization of ambient PM 10 at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata (Calcutta), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A. K.

    2006-07-01

    Monitoring of ambient PM 10 (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) has been done at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003 to November 2004. The measurements have been performed once a week during the study period. PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 68.2 to 280.6 μg/m 3 at a residential site and 62.4 to 401.2 μg/m 3 at an industrial site. Metal constituents of ambient PM 10 deposited on quartz microfibre filter papers were identified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM 10 concentrations. Results identified zinc with maximum contribution of PM 10 among measured metals having concentrations of 0.49 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 0.53 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. The PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) compounds namely, fluoranthene (Fl), pyrene (Py), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) have been analyzed using gas chromatography. The major PAH compound at the monitoring sites was BbF with 0.03 μg/m 3 at the residential site and 0.02 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC) and organic carbon (OC) of PM 10 were analyzed using a carbon analyzer. Exposed quartz microfibre filter papers were also analyzed for water-soluble anions of fluoride (F -), chloride (Cl -), nitrate (NO 3-), phosphate (PO 43-) and sulfate (SO 42-) using ion chromatography. Sulfate was found in maximum concentration among anionic species with a value of 1.2 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 1.7 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were collected

  15. Trends in tropospheric humidity from reanalysis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Davis, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    A recent paper (Paltridge et al., 2009) found that specific humidity in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis declined between 1973 and 2007, particularly in the tropical mid and upper troposphere, the region that plays the key role in the water vapor feedback. If borne out, this result suggests potential problems in the consensus view of a positive water vapor feedback. Here we consider whether this result holds in other reanalyses and what time scale of climate fluctuation is associated with the negative specific humidity trends. The five reanalyses analyzed here (the older NCEP/NCAR and ERA40 reanalyses and the more modern Japanese Reanalysis (JRA), Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)-interim reanalyses) unanimously agree that specific humidity generally increases in response to short-term climate variations (e.g., El Niño). In response to decadal climate fluctuations, the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis is unique in showing decreases in tropical mid and upper tropospheric specific humidity as the climate warms. All of the other reanalyses show that decadal warming is accompanied by increases in mid and upper tropospheric specific humidity. We conclude from this that it is doubtful that these negative long-term specific humidity trends in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis are realistic for several reasons. First, the newer reanalyses include improvements specifically designed to increase the fidelity of long-term trends in their parameters, so the positive trends found there should be more reliable than in the older reanalyses. Second, all of the reanalyses except the NCEP/NCAR assimilate satellite radiances rather than being solely dependent on radiosonde humidity measurements to constrain upper tropospheric humidity. Third, the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis exhibits a large bias in tropical upper tropospheric

  16. Water-quality and geophysical data for three study sites within the Williston Basin and Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Chesley-Preston, Tara

    2012-01-01

    This report is a data release for water geochemical sample analyses and geophysical surveys for three sites within the Williston Basin and Prairie Pothole Region of Montana and North Dakota. The data collection sites and procedures are described.

  17. Utilizing Regional Centers in Sustaining Upgraded Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, Karen Yvonne; Chainikov, General Vladimir; Fedorov, General Victor; Larionov, Igor V; Sokolnikov, Pavel I; Estigneev, Yuri; Bolton, Charles; Ross, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s the governments of the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (RF) have been collaborating on nonproliferation projects, particularly in the protection of nuclear material through the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). To date, this collaboration has resulted in upgrades to more than 72 RF Ministry of Defense (MOD) sensitive sites and facilities. These upgrades include physical protection systems (PPS), facilities to ensure material remains secure in various configurations, and infrastructure to support, maintain, and sustain upgraded sites. Significant effort on the part of both governments has also been expended to ensure that personnel obtain the necessary skills and training to both operate and maintain the security systems, thereby ensuring long term sustainability. To accomplish this, initial vendor training on physical protection systems was provided to key personnel, and an approved training curriculum was developed to teach the skills of operating, managing, administering, and maintaining the installed physical protection systems. This approach also included documentation of the processes and procedures to support infrastructure, requisite levels of maintenance and testing of systems and equipment, lifecycle management support, inventory systems and spare parts caches. One of the core components in the U.S. exit strategy and full transition to the RF MOD is the development and utilization of regional centers to facilitate centralized training and technical support to upgraded MOD sites in five regions of the RF. To date, two regional centers and one regional classroom facility are functional, and two additional regional centers are currently under construction. This paper will address the process and logistics of regional center establishment and the future vision for integrated regional center support by the RF MOD.

  18. Does ecosystem sensitivity to precipitation at the site-level conform to regional-scale predictions?.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Blair, John M; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K

    2016-03-01

    Central to understanding global C cycle dynamics is the functional relationship between precipitation and net primary production (NPP). At large spatial (regional) scales, the responsiveness of aboveground NPP (ANPP) to interannual variation in annual precipitation (AP; ANPPsens) is inversely related to site-level ANPP, coinciding with turnover of plant communities along precipitation gradients. Within ecosystems experiencing chronic alterations in water availability, plant community change will also occur with unknown consequences for ANPPsens. To examine the role plant community shifts may play in determining alterations in site-level ANPPPsens, we experimentally increased precipitation by approximately 35% for two decades in a native Central U.S. grassland. Consistent with regional models, ANPPsens decreased initially as water availability and ANPP increased. However, ANPPsens shifted back to ambient levels when mesic species increased in abundance in the plant community. Similarly, in grassland sites with distinct mesic and xeric plant communities and corresponding 50% differences in ANPP, ANPPsens did not differ over almost three decades. We conclude that responses in ANPPsens to chronic alterations in water availability within an ecosystem may not conform to regional AP-ANPP patterns, despite expected changes in ANPP and plant communities. The result is unanticipated functional resistance to climate change at the site scale. PMID:27197383

  19. Extraction of Functional Binding Sites from Unique Regulatory Regions: The Drosophila Early Developmental Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Papatsenko, Dmitri A.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Lifanov, Alex P.; Régnier, Mireille; Nazina, Anna G.; Desplan, Claude

    2002-01-01

    The early developmental enhancers of Drosophila melanogaster comprise one of the most sophisticated regulatory systems in higher eukaryotes. An elaborate code in their DNA sequence translates both maternal and early embryonic regulatory signals into spatial distribution of transcription factors. One of the most striking features of this code is the redundancy of binding sites for these transcription factors (BSTF). Using this redundancy, we explored the possibility of predicting functional binding sites in a single enhancer region without any prior consensus/matrix description or evolutionary sequence comparisons. We developed a conceptually simple algorithm, Scanseq, that employs an original statistical evaluation for identifying the most redundant motifs and locates the position of potential BSTF in a given regulatory region. To estimate the biological relevance of our predictions, we built thorough literature-based annotations for the best-known Drosophila developmental enhancers and we generated detailed distribution maps for the most robust binding sites. The high statistical correlation between the location of BSTF in these experiment-based maps and the location predicted in silico by Scanseq confirmed the relevance of our approach. We also discuss the definition of true binding sites and the possible biological principles that govern patterning of regulatory regions and the distribution of transcriptional signals. PMID:11875036

  20. Modeling of rain attenuation and site diversity predictions for tropical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semire, F. A.; Mohd-Mokhtar, R.; Ismail, W.; Mohamad, N.; Mandeep, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    Presented in this paper is an empirical model for long-term rain attenuation prediction and statistical prediction of site diversity gain on a slant path. Rain attenuation prediction on a slant path is derived using data collected from tropical regions, and the formula proposed is based on Gaussian distribution. The proposed rain attenuation model shows a considerable reduction in prediction error in terms of standard deviation and root-mean-square (rms) error. The site diversity prediction model is derived as a function of site separation distance, frequency of operation, elevation angle and baseline orientation angle. The novelty of the model is the inclusion of low elevation angles and a high link frequency up to 70 GHz in the model derivation. The results of comparison with Hodge, Panagopoulos and Nagaraja empirical predictions show that the proposed model provides a better performance for site separation distance and elevation angle. The overall performance of the proposed site diversity model is good, and the percentage error is within the allowable error limit approved by International Telecommunication Union - Region (ITU-R).

  1. Operation and research at the Ithaca MAP3S regional precipitation chemistry site

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.J.; Likens, G.E.

    1991-07-01

    Annual precipitation chemistry data from network start-up through 1988 is presented for the nine MAP3S sites. Time trends show significant negative linear regressions (P < 0.10) for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} at 2 sites, H{sup +} at 4 sites, Ca{sup ++} at 1 site, and Na{sup +} at 1 site. Significant positive regressions over time include: NH{sub 4}{sup +} at 2 sites, Ca{sup ++} at 1 site, K{sup +} at 4 sites, and Cl{sup {minus}} at 2 sites. The Ithaca site shows the highest number of significant trends, with positive trends for Cl{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, and K{sup +}, and a negative trend for H{sup +}. Linear regressions of annual SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations on SO2 emissions show a significant positive relationship for Whiteface, Illinois, and Ohio at p < 0.10, 0.02, and 0.05 respectively. Overall for all MAP3S sites, plus Hubbard Brook a 25% decline in SO2 emissions over the region has been accompanied by a 16.5% decline in annual precipitation concentrations of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. For the region as a whole, a 20% decline in combined emissions has been accompanied to a 20% decline in H{sup +} concentrations. Thus a linear relationship exists between combined emissions and precipitation H{sup +} concentrations. No strong relationship exists for NOx emissions and precipitation NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentration at the annual, seasonal or monthly level. Removing the NOx transportation sector, removing high and low precipitation values, or high pH values also does little to improve the NOx -- NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentration relationships. Dry deposition components such a PAN, NO2, gaseous HNO{sub 3}, or aerosol NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} should be included in the future with precipitation NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to relate emissions of NOx to nitrogen deposition. 11 refs., 27 figs.,1 tab.

  2. The PurR binding site in the glyA promoter region of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Steiert, J G; Kubu, C; Stauffer, G V

    1992-12-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to change the PurR binding site in the control region of a glyA-lac gene fusion. Mutations that changed the PurR binding sequence away from the consensus sequence reduced PurR binding, which correlated with reduced purine-mediated repression. Mutations that changed the binding sequence toward the consensus sequence had no significant effect on either PurR binding or purine-mediated repression. Hypoxanthine and guanine, co-repressors for PurR-mediated regulation of the pur regulon, increased binding of PurR to glyA operator DNA.

  3. Structural relationships of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Nevada Test Site region, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cashman, P.H.; Cole, J.C.

    1999-08-30

    This report summarizes the evidence for a revised interpretation of major structural features in the pre-Tertiary rocks of the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The thick miogeoclinal section of Late Proterozoic through Lower Permian sedimentary strata records major foreland-vergent thrust faulting, younger hinterland-vergent folding and thrusting, and local extension on low-angle normal faults. In addition, structural discontinuities in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site strongly suggest a broad, north-trending zone of sinistral strike-slip faulting that may have had a cumulative offset of many kilometers.

  4. Attribution of observed surface humidity changes to human influence.

    PubMed

    Willett, Katharine M; Gillett, Nathan P; Jones, Philip D; Thorne, Peter W

    2007-10-11

    Water vapour is the most important contributor to the natural greenhouse effect, and the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere is expected to increase under conditions of greenhouse-gas-induced warming, leading to a significant feedback on anthropogenic climate change. Theoretical and modelling studies predict that relative humidity will remain approximately constant at the global scale as the climate warms, leading to an increase in specific humidity. Although significant increases in surface specific humidity have been identified in several regions, and on the global scale in non-homogenized data, it has not been shown whether these changes are due to natural or human influences on climate. Here we use a new quality-controlled and homogenized gridded observational data set of surface humidity, with output from a coupled climate model, to identify and explore the causes of changes in surface specific humidity over the late twentieth century. We identify a significant global-scale increase in surface specific humidity that is attributable mainly to human influence. Specific humidity is found to have increased in response to rising temperatures, with relative humidity remaining approximately constant. These changes may have important implications, because atmospheric humidity is a key variable in determining the geographical distribution and maximum intensity of precipitation, the potential maximum intensity of tropical cyclones, and human heat stress, and has important effects on the biosphere and surface hydrology.

  5. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents’ concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  6. Two independent retrotransposon insertions at the same site within the coding region of BTK.

    PubMed

    Conley, Mary Ellen; Partain, Julie D; Norland, Shannon M; Shurtleff, Sheila A; Kazazian, Haig H

    2005-03-01

    Insertion of endogenous retrotransposon sequences accounts for approximately 0.2% of disease causing mutations. These insertions are mediated by the reverse transcriptase and endonuclease activity of long interspersed nucleotide (LINE-1) elements. The factors that control the target site selection in insertional mutagenesis are not well understood. In our analysis of 199 unrelated families with proven mutations in BTK, the gene responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia, we identified two families with retrotransposon insertions at exactly the same nucleotide within the coding region of BTK. Both insertions, an SVA element and an AluY sequence, occurred 12 bp before the end of exon 9. Both had the typical hallmarks of a retrotransposon insertion including target site duplication and a long poly A tail. The insertion site is flanked by AluSx sequences 1 kb upstream and 1 kb downstream and an unusual 60 bp sequence consisting of only As and Ts is located in intron 9, 60 bp downstream of the insertion. The occurrence of two retrotransposon sequences at exactly the same site suggests that this site is vulnerable to insertional mutagenesis. A better understanding of the factors that make this site vulnerable will shed light on the mechanisms of LINE-1 mediated insertional mutagenesis.

  7. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  8. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-08

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance.

  9. Structural relationships of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Nevada Test Site region, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, James C.; Cashman, Patricia Hughes

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a synthesis and interpretation of structural and stratigraphic data for pre-Tertiary rocks in a large area of southern Nevada within and near the Nevada Test Site. Its presents descriptive and interpretive information from discontinuously exposed localities in the context of a regional model that integrates stratigraphy, sedimentology, crustal structure, and deformational style and timing. Evidence is given for substantial strike-slip faults, for modest excursion on low-angle faults, and for pre-Oligocene formation of the regional oroclinal flexure in neighboring mountain ranges.

  10. Crystal Microbalance Monitors Relative Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensor monitors water evaporation in industrial drying processes. Measured adsorption isotherm for instrument essentially linear over entire range of relative humidity. Testing at each temperature setting less than half hour for full relative-humidity range, with estimated frequency response time less than 10 seconds. Used to measure relative humidity of ambient atmosphere near drying paper, food textile fabrics and pulp to optimize water-drying portion of processing cycle.

  11. Study of dew water collection in humid tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clus, O.; Ortega, P.; Muselli, M.; Milimouk, I.; Beysens, D.

    2008-10-01

    SummaryAn assessment of the potential for dew water to serve as a potable water source during a rainless season in a humid tropical climate was carried out in the Pacific islands of French Polynesia. The climate of these islands, in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations, wind and energy balance, is representative of the climate of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Measurements were obtained at two characteristic sites of this region; a mountainous island (Punaauia, Tahiti Island) and an atoll (Tikehau, Tuamotu Archipelago). Dew was measured daily on a 30° tilted, 1 m 2 plane collector equipped with a thermally insulated radiative foil. In addition, an electronic balance placed at 1 m above the ground with a horizontal 0.16 m 2 condensing plate made of PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (Teflon) was used in Tahiti. Dew volume data, taken during the dry season from 16/5/2005 to 14/10/2005, were correlated with air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover and visible plus infrared radiometer measurements. The data were also fitted to a model. Dew formation in such a tropical climate is characterized by high absolute humidity, weak nocturnal temperature drop and strong Trade winds. These winds prevent dew from forming unless protected e.g. by natural vegetal windbreaks. In protected areas, dew can then form with winds as large as 7 m/s. Such strong winds also hamper at night the formation near the ground of a calm and cold air layer with high relative humidity. As the cooling power is lower than in the Mediterranean islands because of the high absolute humidity of the atmosphere, both effects combine to generate modest dew yields. However, dew events are frequent and provide accumulated amounts of water attractive for dew water harvesting. Slight modifications of existing rain collection devices on roofs can enhance dew formation and collection. Dew harvesting thus appears as an attractive possibility to provide the local population with a

  12. Measurements of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using PTR-MS: calibration, humidity dependence, inter-comparison and results from field studies in an oil and gas production region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Field, R.; Geiger, F.; Veres, P. R.; Soltis, J.; Li, S.-M.; Murphy, S. M.; Sweeney, C.; Pétron, G.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2014-10-01

    Natural gas production is associated with emissions of several trace gases, some of them classified as air toxics. While volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have received much attention, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can also be of concern due to the known health impacts of exposure to this hazardous air pollutant. Here, we present quantitative, fast time-response measurements of H2S using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments. An ultra-light-weight PTR-MS (ULW-PTR-MS) in a mobile laboratory was operated for measurements of VOCs and H2S in a gas and oil field during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2012 campaign. Measurements of VOCs and H2S by a PTR-MS were also made at the Horse Pool ground site in the Uintah Basin during UBWOS 2013. The H2S measurement by PTR-MS is strongly humidity dependent because the proton affinity of H2S is only slightly higher than that of water. The H2S sensitivity of PTR-MS ranged between 0.6-1.4 ncps ppbv-1 during UBWOS 2013. We compare the humidity dependence determined in the laboratory with in-field calibrations and determine the H2S mixing ratios for the mobile and ground measurements. The PTR-MS measurements at Horse Pool are evaluated by comparison with simultaneous H2S measurements using a PTR time-of-flight MS (PTR-ToF-MS) and a Picarro cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument for H2S / CH4. On average 0.6 ± 0.3 ppbv H2S was present at Horse Pool during UBWOS 2013. The correlation between H2S and methane enhancements suggests that the source of H2S is associated with oil and gas extraction in the basin. Significant H2S mixing ratios of up to 9 ppmv downwind of storage tanks were observed during the mobile measurements. This study suggests that H2S emissions associated with oil and gas production can lead to short-term high levels close to point sources, and elevated background levels away from those sources. In addition, our work has demonstrated that PTR-MS can make reliable measurements of

  13. Measurements of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using PTR-MS: calibration, humidity dependence, inter-comparison and results from field studies in an oil and gas production region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Field, R.; Geiger, F.; Veres, P. R.; Soltis, J.; Li, S.-M.; Murphy, S. M.; Sweeney, C.; Pétron, G.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2014-06-01

    Natural gas production is associated with emissions of several trace gases, some of them classified as air toxics. While volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have received much attention, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can also be of concern due to the known health impacts of exposure to this hazardous air pollutant. Here, we present quantitative, fast time-response measurements of H2S using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments. An Ultra-Light-Weight PTR-MS (ULW-PTR-MS) in a mobile laboratory was operated for measurements of VOCs and H2S in a gas and oil field during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2012 campaign. Measurements of VOCs and H2S by a PTR-MS were also made at the Horse Pool ground site in the Uintah Basin during UBWOS 2013. The H2S measurement by PTR-MS is strongly humidity dependent because the proton affinity of H2S is only slightly higher than that of water. The H2S sensitivity of PTR-MS ranged between 0.6-1.4 ncps ppbv-1 (normalized counts per second/parts per billion by volume) during UBWOS 2013. We compare the humidity dependence determined in the laboratory with in-field calibrations and determine the H2S mixing ratios for the mobile and ground measurements. The PTR-MS measurements at Horse Pool are evaluated by comparison with simultaneous H2S measurements using a PTR Time-of-Flight MS (PTR-ToF-MS) and a Picarro cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument for H2S/CH4. On average 0.6 ± 0.3 ppbv H2S was present at Horse Pool during UBWOS 2013. The correlation between H2S and methane enhancements suggests that the source of H2S is associated with oil and gas extraction in the basin. Significant H2S mixing ratios of up to 9 ppmv downwind of storage tanks were observed during the mobile measurements. This study suggests that H2S emissions associated with oil and gas production can lead to short-term high levels close to point sources, and elevated background levels away from those sources. In addition, our work has

  14. Region of influence regression for estimating the 50-year flood at ungaged sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Hodge, S.A.; Barks, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Five methods of developing regional regression models to estimate flood characteristics at ungaged sites in Arkansas are examined. The methods differ in the manner in which the State is divided into subrogions. Each successive method (A to E) is computationally more complex than the previous method. Method A makes no subdivision. Methods B and C define two and four geographic subrogions, respectively. Method D uses cluster/discriminant analysis to define subrogions on the basis of similarities in watershed characteristics. Method E, the new region of influence method, defines a unique subregion for each ungaged site. Split-sample results indicate that, in terms of root-mean-square error, method E (38 percent error) is best. Methods C and D (42 and 41 percent error) were in a virtual tie for second, and methods B (44 percent error) and A (49 percent error) were fourth and fifth best.

  15. Site response for seattle and source parameters of earthquakes in the puget sound region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Bice, T.; Overturf, D.

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed seismograms from 21 earthquakes (M(L) 2.0-4.9) recorded by digital seismographs we deployed in urban Seatte to determine site response and earthquake stress drops. The seismometers were situated on a wide variety of geologic units, including artificial fill (e.g., Kingdome, Harbor Island), Pleistocene age soils (glacial till and outwash deposits of Seattle's hills), modified land (downtown Seattle, Space Needle), and Tertiary sedimentary rock. Two mainshock-aftershock sequences were recorded: the June 1997 Bremerton sequence (mainshock M(L) 4.9) and the February 1997 South Seattle sequence (mainshock M(L) 3.5), along with other events in the Puget Sound region. We developed a new inversion procedure to estimate site response, source corner frequencies, and seismic moments from the S-wave spectra. This inversion uses corner frequencies determined from spectral ratios of mainshock-aftershock pairs as constraints. The site responses found from the inversion are not relative to the rock site but are relative to an idealized site with a flat frequency response. The response of the rock site is also found from the inversion. The inversion results show high response for the sites on artificial fill, more moderate amplication for most sites on stiff Pleistocene soils or modified land, and low response for the rock site. Some sites display resonances, such as a strong 2-Hz resonance at our site near the Kingdome, which is caused by the surficial layers of fill and younger alluvium. The sites in West Seattle exhibit high amplification, even though they are on relatively stiff soils of glacial outwash. This may be partly caused by basin surface waves produced by conversion of incident S waves. This high response in West Seattle is consistent with damage reports from the 1949 (m(b) 7.1) and 1965 (m(b) 6.5) earthquakes. Stress-drop estimates for the events we recorded were generally low, between 0.4 and 25 bars, although some of the events may have had higher stress

  16. Polarized magnetic field fluctuations at the Apollo 15 site - Possible regional influence on lunar induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Sonett, C. P.; Schwartz, K.

    1974-01-01

    High-frequency (5 to 40 millihertz) induced lunar magnetic fields, observed at the Apollo 15 site near the southeastern boundary of Mare Imbrium and the southwestern boundary of Mare Serenitatis, show a strong tendency toward linear polarization in a direction radial to the Imbrium basin and circumferential to the Serenitatis basin, a property that could be indicative of a possible regional influence on the induction.

  17. Human cartilage aggrecan CS1 region contains cryptic T-cell recognition sites.

    PubMed Central

    Goodacre, J A; Middleton, S; Lynn, S; Ross, D A; Pearson, J

    1993-01-01

    Cartilage proteoglycan aggregates (PG) are candidate T-cell autoantigens in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have investigated the possibility that responses to class II-restricted T-cell recognition sites in human cartilage aggrecan (core protein) may depend upon whether these sites are available as free peptide antigens or as part of intact monomers. Analysis of mouse T-cell responses to intact or deglycosylated monomers, purified from human articular cartilage, and to synthetic peptides of the chondroitin sulphate (CS) attachment region homologous repeat sequence showed that recognition of T-cell epitopes in the CS1 region was strongly dependent upon the form of antigen used. The results show that the CS1 region contains cryptic T-cell recognition sites and raise the possibility that fragments of PG, released through the action of extracellular proteases in inflamed joints, may be capable of activating T cells with specificities for epitopes which are not made available following processing of intact PG. T cells with specificities for cryptic epitopes in PG may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:8388364

  18. Upper tropospheric humidity changes under constant relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, Klaus; Eleftheratos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Theoretical derivations are given on the change of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) in a warming climate. The considered view is that the atmosphere, which is getting moister with increasing temperatures, will retain a constant relative humidity. In the present study, we show that the upper tropospheric humidity, a weighted mean over a relative humidity profile, will change in spite of constant relative humidity. The simple reason for this is that the weighting function that defines UTH changes in a moister atmosphere. Through analytical calculations using observations and through radiative transfer calculations, we demonstrate that two quantities that define the weighting function of UTH can change: the water vapour scale height and the peak emission altitude. Applying these changes to real profiles of relative humidity shows that absolute UTH changes typically do not exceed 1 %. If larger changes would be observed they would be an indication of climatological changes of relative humidity. As such, an increase in UTH between 1980 and 2009 in the northern midlatitudes, as shown by earlier studies using the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) data, may be an indication of an increase in relative humidity as well.

  19. The role of CTCF binding sites in the 3' immunoglobulin heavy chain regulatory region.

    PubMed

    Birshtein, Barbara K

    2012-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus undergoes a series of DNA rearrangements and modifications to achieve the construction and expression of individual antibody heavy chain genes in B cells. These events affect variable regions, through VDJ joining and subsequent somatic hypermutation, and constant regions through class switch recombination (CSR). Levels of IgH expression are also regulated during B cell development, resulting in high levels of secreted antibodies from fully differentiated plasma cells. Regulation of these events has been attributed primarily to two cis-elements that work from long distances on their target sequences, i.e., an ∼1 kb intronic enhancer, Eμ, located between the V region segments and the most 5' constant region gene, Cμ; and an ∼40 kb 3' regulatory region (3' RR) that is located downstream of the most 3' C(H) gene, Cα. The 3' RR is a candidate for an "end" of B cell-specific regulation of the Igh locus. The 3' RR contains several B cell-specific enhancers associated with DNase I hypersensitive sites (hs1-4), which are essential for CSR and for high levels of IgH expression in plasma cells. Downstream of this enhancer-containing region is a region of high-density CTCF binding sites, which extends through hs5, 6, and 7 and further downstream. CTCF, with its enhancer-blocking activities, has been associated with all mammalian insulators and implicated in multiple chromosomal interactions. Here we address the 3' RR CTCF-binding region as a potential insulator of the Igh locus, an independent regulatory element and a predicted modulator of the activity of 3' RR enhancers. Using chromosome conformation capture technology, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and genetic approaches, we have found that the 3' RR with its CTCF-binding region interacts with target sequences in the V(H), Eμ, and C(H) regions through DNA looping as regulated by protein binding. This region impacts on B cell-specific Igh processes at different stages of B cell

  20. Candidate-Landing Sites and Backups for the Mars Surveyor Program in the Schiaparelli. Crater Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Hand, Kevin

    1999-06-01

    Our Survey area comprises the Sinus Sabeus NW quadrangle that includes most of the Schiaparelli crater and part of the Arabia SW region (3 N to 15 S Lat.) and (0 to 337.5 W long.) and covers all regions that show a potential hydrogeological link with the Schiaparelli impact structure. This area is hereafter defined as the Schiaparelli Crater Region. The Schiaparelli crater region is one of the most documented MOC targets. Up to now, MGS MOC camera took two dozen images at an average of 5m/pxl resolution that not only provide an exceptional insight on the local geology and morphology, but give also key-elements to assess landing safety criteria. In addition, the MOLA topographic profile No. 23 passes through part of the crater basin allowing the adjustment of the elevation as previously known from the Viking mission (USGS I-2125, 1991). Beyond the Mars Polar Lander mission that will land next December, the future missions (2001 APEX, 2003, and 2005) are led by a series of science objectives and engineering constraints that must be considered in order to select landing sites that will fulfill the Surveyor Program's objectives. The search for a sound and safe candidate-site (without ending up with the usual "safe but boring" or "fascinating but too risky" site) is usually limited by the data available to the investigator, by the data accuracy (e.g. poor image resolution, poor altimetry), and the lack of crucial information for science and safety that can be derived from them. The Schiaparelli region provides an exception to this recurrent pattern. We listed the preliminary constraints for landing site selection identified for the Surveyor '01 mission, in terms of safety requirements and data needed and compared them against the existing information and/or data already available for the Schiaparelli region. The engineering constraints of '03 and '05 are not designated yet but, since they are also related to atmospheric density and Lander designs, we will assume that

  1. Candidate-Landing Sites and Backups for the Mars Surveyor Program in the Schiaparelli. Crater Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Hand, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Our Survey area comprises the Sinus Sabeus NW quadrangle that includes most of the Schiaparelli crater and part of the Arabia SW region (3 N to 15 S Lat.) and (0 to 337.5 W long.) and covers all regions that show a potential hydrogeological link with the Schiaparelli impact structure. This area is hereafter defined as the Schiaparelli Crater Region. The Schiaparelli crater region is one of the most documented MOC targets. Up to now, MGS MOC camera took two dozen images at an average of 5m/pxl resolution that not only provide an exceptional insight on the local geology and morphology, but give also key-elements to assess landing safety criteria. In addition, the MOLA topographic profile No. 23 passes through part of the crater basin allowing the adjustment of the elevation as previously known from the Viking mission (USGS I-2125, 1991). Beyond the Mars Polar Lander mission that will land next December, the future missions (2001 APEX, 2003, and 2005) are led by a series of science objectives and engineering constraints that must be considered in order to select landing sites that will fulfill the Surveyor Program's objectives. The search for a sound and safe candidate-site (without ending up with the usual "safe but boring" or "fascinating but too risky" site) is usually limited by the data available to the investigator, by the data accuracy (e.g. poor image resolution, poor altimetry), and the lack of crucial information for science and safety that can be derived from them. The Schiaparelli region provides an exception to this recurrent pattern. We listed the preliminary constraints for landing site selection identified for the Surveyor '01 mission, in terms of safety requirements and data needed and compared them against the existing information and/or data already available for the Schiaparelli region. The engineering constraints of '03 and '05 are not designated yet but, since they are also related to atmospheric density and Lander designs, we will assume that

  2. Carbon dynamics within agricultural and native sites in the loess region of Western lowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Kramer, L.; Parton, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to quantify the historical changes in carbon storage that result from agricultural conversion, this study compared the carbon dynamics of two sites in the loess region of Iowa: a native prairie and a cropland. Field data were obtained to determine present-day carbon storage and its variability within a landscape (a stable ridgetop vs. eroding upper-midslope vs. depositional lower slope). Models were used to recreate the historical carbon budget of these sites and determine the cropland's potential to be a net CO2 source or sink, relative to the atmosphere. Regardless of slope position, the cropland site contains approximately half the amount of carbon as prairie. Variability in soil carbon storage within a site as a consequence of slope position is as large or larger (variations of 200-300%) than temporal variation (???200% at all slope positions). The most extreme difference in soil carbon storage between the cropland and prairie sites is found in the soil at the upper-midslope, which is the area of greatest erosion. The models estimate that 93-172% of the carbon in the original topsoil has been lost from the cropland's eroding midslope. Much of this carbon is derived from deeper soil horizons. Either a small sink or strong source of carbon to the atmosphere is created, depending on the fate of the eroded sediment and its associated carbon.

  3. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  4. Significant motions between GPS sites in the New Madrid region: implications for seismic hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Smalley, Robert; Paul, J.

    2012-01-01

    Position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the New Madrid region were differenced to determine the relative motions between stations. Uncertainties in rates were estimated using a three‐component noise model consisting of white, flicker, and random walk noise, following the methodology of Langbein, 2004. Significant motions of 0.37±0.07 (one standard error) mm/yr were found between sites PTGV and STLE, for which the baseline crosses the inferred deep portion of the Reelfoot fault. Baselines between STLE and three other sites also show significant motion. Site MCTY (adjacent to STLE) also exhibits significant motion with respect to PTGV. These motions are consistent with a model of interseismic slip of about 4  mm/yr on the Reelfoot fault at depths between 12 and 20 km. If constant over time, this rate of slip produces sufficient slip for an M 7.3 earthquake on the shallow portion of the Reelfoot fault, using the geologically derived recurrence time of 500 years. This model assumes that the shallow portion of the fault has been previously loaded by the intraplate stress. A GPS site near Little Rock, Arkansas, shows significant southward motion of 0.3–0.4  mm/yr (±0.08  mm/yr) relative to three sites to the north, indicating strain consistent with focal mechanisms of earthquake swarms in northern Arkansas.

  5. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  6. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  7. A Trial Intercomparison of Humidity Generators at Extremes of Range Using Relative Humidity Transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, M.; Benyon, R.; Bell, S. A.; Vicente, T.

    2008-10-01

    In order to effectively implement the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM), national metrology institutes (NMIs) are required to support their claims of calibration and measurement capability (CMC) with a quality system compliant with ISO/IEC 17025, and with suitable evidence of participation in key or supplementary comparisons. The CMC review process, both at regional and inter-regional levels, uses criteria that combine the provisions mentioned above, together with additional evidence demonstrating scientific and technical competence of the institutes. For dew-point temperatures, there are key comparisons in progress under the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) and under the European regional metrology organisation (EUROMET), together with information available on past regional supplementary comparisons. However, for relative humidity there are, to date, no such comparisons available to support CMC entries. This paper presents and discusses the results of a preliminary investigation of the use of relative humidity and temperature transmitters in order to determine their suitability for the intercomparison of standard humidity generators in support of CMC claims for the calibration of relative humidity instruments. The results of a recent bilateral comparison between 2 NMIs at the extremes of the range up to 98%rh at 70 °C, and down to 1%rh at -40 °C are reported. Specific precautions and recommendations on the use of the devices as transfer standards are presented.

  8. Report Card on Humidity Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, John C.; Bayer, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62-1999 on outdoor ventilation rates and space humidity levels for schools. Examined conventional cooling versus desiccant-based systems designed to control indoor humidity levels. Discusses the effectiveness of systems…

  9. Humidity Graphs for All Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmael, F.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal (Vol. 17, p358, 1979), a wet-bulb depression table was recommended for two simple experiments to determine relative humidity. However, the use of a graph is suggested because it gives the relative humidity directly from the wet and dry bulb readings. (JN)

  10. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment including site effects for Evansville, Indiana, and the surrounding region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haase, Jennifer S.; Bowling, Tim; Nowack, Robert L.; Choi, Yoon S.; Cramer, Chris H.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Bauer, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the Evansville, Indiana region incorporating information from new surficial geologic mapping efforts on the part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Kentucky and Indiana State Geological Surveys, as well as information on the thickness and properties of near surface soils and their associated uncertainties. The subsurface information has been compiled to determine bedrock elevation and reference depth-dependent shear-wave velocity models for the different soil types. The probabilistic seismic hazard calculation applied here follows the method used for the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Maps, with modifications to incorporate estimates of local site conditions and their uncertainties, in a completely probabilistic manner. The resulting analysis shows strong local variations of acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, particularly for 0.2-second (s) period spectral acceleration (SA), that are clearly correlated with variations in the thickness of unconsolidated soils above bedrock. These values are much greater than the USGS national seismic hazard map values, which assume B/C site conditions. When compared to the national maps with an assumed uniform site D class amplification factor applied, the high-resolution seismic hazard maps have higher amplitudes for peak ground acceleration and 0.2-s SA for most of the map region. However, deamplification relative to the D class national seismic hazard maps appears to play an important role within the limits of the ancient bedrock valley underlying Evansville where soils are thickest. For 1.0-s SA, the new high-resolution seismic hazard maps show levels consistent with D class site response within the limits of this ancient bedrock valley, but levels consistent with B/C site conditions outside.

  11. Evidence for chemoreceptors with bimodular ligand-binding regions harboring two signal-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Molina, Estela; Reyes-Darias, José-Antonio; Lacal, Jesús; Ramos, Juan L.; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gavira, Jose A.; Krell, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Chemoreceptor-based signaling is a central mechanism in bacterial signal transduction. Receptors are classified according to the size of their ligand-binding region. The well-studied cluster I proteins have a 100- to 150-residue ligand-binding region that contains a single site for chemoattractant recognition. Cluster II receptors, which contain a 220- to 300-residue ligand-binding region and which are almost as abundant as cluster I receptors, remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report high-resolution structures of the ligand-binding region of the cluster II McpS chemotaxis receptor (McpS-LBR) of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 in complex with different chemoattractants. The structure of McpS-LBR represents a small-molecule binding domain composed of two modules, each able to bind different signal molecules. Malate and succinate were found to bind to the membrane-proximal module, whereas acetate binds to the membrane-distal module. A structural alignment of the two modules revealed that the ligand-binding sites could be superimposed and that amino acids involved in ligand recognition are conserved in both binding sites. Ligand binding to both modules was shown to trigger chemotactic responses. Further analysis showed that McpS-like receptors were found in different classes of proteobacteria, indicating that this mode of response to different carbon sources may be universally distributed. The physiological relevance of the McpS architecture may lie in its capacity to respond with high sensitivity to the preferred carbon sources malate and succinate and, at the same time, mediate lower sensitivity responses to the less preferred but very abundant carbon source acetate. PMID:23112148

  12. A 400 year reconstruction of July relative air humidity for the region Vienna (eastern Austria) based on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring latewood cellulose of oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Boettger, T.; Weigl, M.; Grabner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Stable isotope chronologies and correlation to climate. We present the stable isotope chronologies of carbon (^13Clw) and oxygen (^18Olw) for the period from 1600 to 2003 respectively of non-exchangeable hydrogen (^2Hlw) for the last century constructed base upon tree-ring latewood cellulose from oaks (Quercus petraea Matt. Liebl.) grown in the region Vienna (Austria). The stable isotope ratios correspond mainly to the summer climate conditions. For the calibration period (1900-2003) we found high significant correlations (p < 0.001) between ^13Clw and relative air humidity (RH) of July (-0.66), between ^18Olw and RHV I-V II (-0.61) and between ^2Hlw and RHV I-V III(-0.56). In the case of temperatures high significant correlations between the growing season temperature and ^13Clw (0.55), between the annual mean temperatures and ^18Olw ratios (0.45) and between summer mean temperatures (June to August) and ^2Hlw values (0.49) were estimated. Modeling. Various univariate and multivariate linear regressions models were proved for the reconstruction of summer relative air humidity and temperature. We found that establishing of robust models had several uncertainties: - using common linear transfer functions which oversimplify the complexity of relations; - using of pooled material and neglecting of different reactions from individual trees to climate; - high-order autocorrelations in the isotope time series; - climatic trends in the investigated region which are different in the first and in the second half of 20th century; - temporal instability of climate signals in the isotope ratios of tree ring cellulose. In the case of temperature no valid model could be estimated caused by temporal instabilities of signal strength. For relative air humidity two bivariate models RHV II = (-4.3 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-2.8 ± 0.5) * ^18Olw + 44 [1] and RHV II = (-4.7 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-0.35 ± 0.07) * ^2Hlw - 68 [2] were found as verifiable and applicable to reconstruct RHV II

  13. Humidity micro switch based on humidity-sensitive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmann, C.; Steinke, A.; Frank, T.; Gerlach, G.

    2015-04-01

    We present recent results on a binary threshold sensor based on the binary zero-power sensor (BIZEPS) platform which is able to use the energy provided directly from the measured relative humidity of the ambient air to mechanically switch an electrical micro contact. This zero-power switch behavior is realized by using the humidity-sensitive volume swelling of a polymer layer as the detection element deflecting a mechanically deformable silicon boss structure, thus closing the electrical contacts of the switch. For the humidity-sensitive sensor switch considered here, a humidity-sensitive hydrogel blend of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(acryl acid) was used. The sensitive part affected by the measurand is completely separated from the electrical part, thus providing long-term stability. By using an inverse silicone stamping technique the polymer layer with a thickness of about 15 μm was patterned on test structures possessing a thin silicon flexure plate of 5 mm x 5 mm in size and 20 μm in thickness. Reproducible deformations of up to 15 … 24 μm has been measured. Investigations of the swelling kinetics showed for several discrete relative humidity values a saturation of the water load. The time to reach this saturation state is reduced from 5 hours down to approx. 20 min by increasing the relative humidity beyond the threshold value of 70% r.H. A significant influence of the temperature to the humidity load could not be observed.

  14. Decision Making on Regional Landfill Site Selection in Hormozgan Province Using Smce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majedi, A. S.; Kamali, B. M.; Maghsoudi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill site selection and suitable conditions to bury hazardous wastes are among the most critical issues in modern societies. Taking several factors and limitations into account along with true decision making requires application of different decision techniques. To this end, current paper aims to make decisions about regional landfill site selection in Hormozgan province and utilizes SMCE technique combined with qualitative and quantitative criteria to select the final alternatives. To this respect, we first will describe the existing environmental situation in our study area and set the goals of our study in the framework of SMCE and will analyze the effective factors in regional landfill site selection. Then, methodological procedure of research was conducted using Delphi approach and questionnaires (in order to determine research validity, Chronbach Alpha (0.94) method was used). Spatial multi-criteria analysis model was designed in the form of criteria tree in SMCE using IL WIS software. Prioritization of respective spatial alternatives included: Bandar Abbas city with total 4 spatial alternatives (one zone with 1st priority, one zone with 3rd priority and two zones with 4thpriority) was considered the first priority, Bastak city with total 3 spatial alternatives (one zone with 2nd priority, one zone with 3rdpriorit and one zone with 4th priority) was the second priority and Bandar Abbas, Minab, Jask and Haji Abad cities were considered as the third priority.

  15. Application of a regional approach for hazard mapping at an avalanche site in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, D.; Rosso, R.

    2008-04-01

    The currently adopted approach to avalanche hazard mapping in northern Italy includes avalanche dynamic modelling, coupled with statistical analysis of snow depth at avalanche start. The 30-years and 300-years return period avalanches at a given site are modelled and their run out zone and pressure are evaluated. The snow depth in the avalanche release zone is assumed to coincide with the three days snow fall depth H72 featuring a return period of 30 years and 300 years, respectively. In the Italian alps only short series of observed snow depth are available, covering a period of 20 years or so, thus requiring a regional approach, or index value approach for the purpose of high return period quantile estimation. Based of former studies, here we apply the index value approach developed for the Lombardia region, in northern Italy, for hazard mapping in a particular avalanche site. A dynamic avalanche model is tuned using the runout data for two major observed avalanche events. Then, the 30-years and 300-years runout zone and dynamic pressure are calculated. It is then shown that the obtained hazard maps are more accurate than those obtained using the evaluation of H72 as deduced from distribution fitting in a single site.

  16. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population.

  17. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population. PMID:26424906

  18. Humidity Effects and Anisotropic Etching During Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favron, Alexandre; Moraille, Patricia; Gaufres, Etienne; Roorda, Tycho; Levesque, Pierre L.; Leonelli, Richard; Martel, Richard

    Black phosphorus, a lamellar structure similar to graphene, is a high mobility semiconductor having a tunable optical band gap from 0.3 eV up to ~2 eV with decreasing layer thickness. Our previous study has highlighted a fast photo-oxidation in ambient conditions when black phosphorus is exfoliated as thin layers. The kinetics of this degradation is also enhanced by quantum confinement effects and faster for the thinnest layers, which represents an important hurdle to prepare few layers. Here we further investigate the role of water in the process by following the reaction kinetics in different humidity using fast AFM imaging. We report on important changes of wettability of thin layers at room temperature depending on the degradation stages and layer thickness. For a given level of humidity at equilibrium, we observe the formation of water droplets. Those droplets form preferentially on defects sites and cracks and then grow on the thicker parts of the flake to finally accumulate on to the thinnest regions. This sequence of water droplet growth faster from thick to thin layers is interpreted as being due to a lowering of surface tension with decreasing layer thickness. In a second study, the oxidation kinetics of layers completely immersed in water reveal an anisotropic oxidation process with preferential etching in specific orientations of the crystal. This study will be discussed in the context of a reactivity of black phosphorus that appears both anisotropic and thickness-dependent.

  19. Rapid Mapping and Prioritisation of Wetland Sites in the Manawatu-Wanganui Region, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle E.; Dymond, John R.; Shepherd, James D.

    2007-03-01

    The extent of wetland in New Zealand has decreased by approximately 90% since European settlement began in 1840. Remaining wetlands continue to be threatened by drainage, weeds, and pest invasion. This article presents a rapid method for broad-scale mapping and prioritising palustrine and estuarine wetlands for conservation. Classes of wetland (lacustrine, estuarine, riverine, marine, and palustrine) were mapped using Landsat ETM+ imagery and centre-points of palustrine and estuarine sites as ancillary data. The results shown are for the Manawatu-Wanganui region, which was found to have 3060 ha of palustrine and 250 ha of estuarine wetlands. To set conservation priorities, landscape indicators were computed from a land-cover map and a digital terrain model. Four global indicators were used (representativeness, area, surrounding naturalness, and connectivity), and each was assigned a value to score wetland sites in the region. The final score is an additive function that weights the relative importance of each indicator (i.e., multicriteria decision analysis). The whole process of mapping and ranking wetlands in the Manawatu-Wanganui region took only 6 weeks. The rapid methodology means that consistent wetland inventories and ranking can now actually be produced at reasonable cost, and conservation resources may therefore be better targeted. With complete inventories and priority lists of wetlands, managers will be able to plan for conservation without having to wait for the collection of detailed biologic information, which may now also be prioritised.

  20. Radar-Based and Large-Scale Views of Convection and Tropospheric Humidity during DYNAMO/AMIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, S.; Houze, R.

    2013-12-01

    Unresolved issues remain concerning the onset of a Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Particularly, the mechanism(s) through which widespread deep convection develops before propagating toward the east is (are) unknown. One hypothesized mechanism involves a positive feedback between environmental humidity and convection: Convection deepens as humidity builds vertically, and the taller convection detrains more moisture into the environment. The DYNAMO and AMIE field campaigns in 2011-2012 provided an unprecedented amount of radar and rawinsonde data over the central equatorial Indian Ocean during three realizations of the MJO. Several early papers using DYNAMO/AMIE radar and sounding data have already documented the evolution of humidity fields near the radar sites as well as the evolution of convection leading up to and during an MJO. While extremely valuable, the DYNAMO/AMIE data alone only yield information about convection and humidity within a fairly small volume immediately near the radar site. Humidity fields from AIRS and reflectivity from the TRMM PR examined in conjunction with observations of humidity and convection near Addu Atoll and the R/V Revelle show that the evolution of humidity and convection over each of the equatorial radar sites during DYNAMO is representative of that seen throughout a much larger domain. The time scale involved for the vertical build-up of humidity and convective depth is on the order of one week or less. On this time scale, over the three MJO events, no consistent relationship is observed between humidification of the lower troposphere and deepening of convection. Thus, the results cast doubt on the role of a cloud-humidity feedback mechanism (also known as the 'discharge-recharge' mechanism) in causing MJO onset. Preliminary modeling results using a regional model with non-parameterized convection are also briefly shown. With its boundary conditions updated regularly, the model is capable of reproducing the MJOs observed

  1. A method to characterise site, urban and regional ambient background radiation.

    PubMed

    Passmore, C; Kirr, M

    2011-03-01

    Control dosemeters are routinely provided to customers to monitor the background radiation so that it can be subtracted from the gross response of the dosemeter to arrive at the occupational dose. Landauer, the largest dosimetry processor in the world with subsidiaries in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Japan, Mexico and the UK, has clients in approximately 130 countries. The Glenwood facility processes over 1.1 million controls per year. This network of clients around the world provides a unique ability to monitor the world's ambient background radiation. Control data can be mined to provide useful historical information regarding ambient background rates and provide a historical baseline for geographical areas. Historical baseline can be used to provide site or region-specific background subtraction values, document the variation in ambient background radiation around a client's site or provide a baseline for measuring the efficiency of clean-up efforts in urban areas after a dirty bomb detonation.

  2. A method to characterise site, urban and regional ambient background radiation.

    PubMed

    Passmore, C; Kirr, M

    2011-03-01

    Control dosemeters are routinely provided to customers to monitor the background radiation so that it can be subtracted from the gross response of the dosemeter to arrive at the occupational dose. Landauer, the largest dosimetry processor in the world with subsidiaries in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Japan, Mexico and the UK, has clients in approximately 130 countries. The Glenwood facility processes over 1.1 million controls per year. This network of clients around the world provides a unique ability to monitor the world's ambient background radiation. Control data can be mined to provide useful historical information regarding ambient background rates and provide a historical baseline for geographical areas. Historical baseline can be used to provide site or region-specific background subtraction values, document the variation in ambient background radiation around a client's site or provide a baseline for measuring the efficiency of clean-up efforts in urban areas after a dirty bomb detonation. PMID:20959341

  3. Study on inelastic attenuation coefficient, site response and source parameters in Shanxi region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuo, Yong-Qing; Su, Yan; Jia, Jian-Xi; Huang, Jin-Gang

    2004-07-01

    Based on 310 horizontal-component digital seismograms recorded at 14 seismic stations in Shanxi Digital Seismograph Network, the inelastic attenuation coefficient in Shanxi region is studied. By the methods of Atkinson and Moya, the site response of each station and several source parameters are obtained and the inversion results from both methods are compared and analyzed. The frequency-dependent inelastic attenuation coefficient Q is estimated as Q(f)=323.2 f 0.506. The site responses of 14 seismic stations do not show significant amplification, which is consistent with their basement on rock. We also found the dependence of corner frequency on seismic moment, seismic moment on stress drop, source radius on stress drop.

  4. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Loots, Gabriela G. [LLNL; Ovcharenko, I. [LLNL

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. This database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a comprehensive collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes generated using multiple sources of gene annotation. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in evolutionary conserved and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and fugu genomes. (taken from paper in Journal: Bioinformatics, November 7, 2006, pp. 122-124

  5. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  6. Gas and humidity sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Komine, Y.; Sawada, T.

    1984-06-26

    A gas and humidity sensing element in a single integral structure made of a base plate of apatite ceramics, on which a particular metal oxide such as tin oxide, zinc oxide, or composite oxide of titanium and niobium is provided. The sensing element has a function of sensing gas and humidity with outstanding sensitivity to bad smell gas and alcoholic gas, in which the humidity is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the apatite ceramic base plate and the bad smell gas such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, etc. is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the metal oxide.

  7. Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, M.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1991-06-01

    Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m{sub b} = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m{sub b} = 4.4) and SALUT (m{sub b} = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m{sub b} = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Relative humidity: important modifier of pollutant uptake by plants

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Taylor, G.E.

    1981-01-09

    Laboratory measurements of foliar uptake of sulfur dioxide and ozone by red kidney beans demonstrated a strong effect of relative humidity on internal pollutant dose. Foliar uptake was enhanced two- to threefold for sulfur dioxide and three- to fourfold for ozone by an increase in relative humidity from 35 to 75 percent. For the same exposure concentration, vegetation growing in humid areas (such as the eastern United States) may experience a significantly greater internal flux of pollutants than that in more arid regions. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  9. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  10. The hinge region of chicken annexin I contains no site for tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sidis, Y; Horseman, N D

    1993-08-30

    Annexin I (AnxI) is a calcium-dependent membrane binding protein which has been implicated in various physiological activities. The region of the chicken anxI cDNA encoding the first 130 amino terminal residues was cloned by reverse transcription PCR in order to determine the relationship of its variable amino-terminal regulatory region with other known annexins. This nucleotide sequence shows 86% identity with pigeon AnxI isoforms, and 57% with its human homolog. The protein encoded by the chicken anxI cDNA lacks the canonical epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase phosphorylation site, which is present in AnxI of other species. In contrast, the putative protein kinase C phosphorylation site of the amino-terminus is present in the chicken AnxI. Whereas the pigeon genome contains two anxI genes, genomic Southern analysis shows that in the chicken AnxI is encoded by only a single gene. These data suggest that AnxI has undergone significant sequence variation in the avians, and clarifies the relationships of the avian anxI genes with their ancestral homologs.

  11. Calcitonin: regional distribution of the hormone and its binding sites in the human brain and pituitary.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, J A; Tobler, P H; Kaufmann, M; Born, W; Henke, H; Cooper, P E; Sagar, S M; Martin, J B

    1981-01-01

    Immunoreactive calcitonin (CT), indistinguishable from human CT-(1-32) and its sulfoxide, has been identified in extracts of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the thyroid obtained from human subjects at autopsy. DCT concentrations were highest in a region encompassing the posterior hypothalamus, the median eminence, and the pituitary; intermediate in the substantia nigra, the anterior hypothalamus, the globus pallidus, and the inferior colliculus; and low in the caudate nucleus, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Specific CT binding measured with 125I-labeled salmon CT was highest in homogenates of the posterior hypothalamus and the median eminence, shown to contain the highest concentrations of endogenous CT in the brain; CT binding was less than 12% of hypothalamic binding in all of the other regions of the brain examined and was negligible in the pituitary. Half-maximal binding was achieved with 0.1 nM nonradioactive salmon CT-(1-32), and the binding was directed to structural or conformational sites, or both, in the COOH-terminal half of salmon CT. The rank order of the inhibition of the binding by CT from different species and analogues of the human hormone was the same as in receptors on a human lymphoid cell line (Moran, J., Hunziker, W. & Fischer, J. A. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3984-3988). The functional role of CT and of its binding sites in the brain remains to be elucidated. PMID:6950419

  12. Seasonal Variation of Methane Emissions in California's Urban and Rural Regions Using Multi-site Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Hsu, Y.; Andrews, A. E.; Bianco, L.; Newman, S.; Cui, X.; Bagley, J.; Graven, H. D.; Salameh, P.; Sloop, C.; LaFranchi, B.; Michelsen, H. A.; Bambha, R.; Weiss, R. F.; Keeling, R. F.; Fischer, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    California's commitment (Assembly Bill 32) to reduce total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 requires quantification of current GHG emissions. We present seasonal variation of California's total CH4 emissions for summer 2013 - spring 2014, using data from a dozen sites covering urban and rural areas of California that include South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), Central Valley, and San Francisco Bay Area. We apply a Bayesian inverse model to estimate CH4 emissions from discrete regions of California and source sectors by combining atmospheric measurements, upstream background, updated high-resolution prior emission maps developed for California, and predicted atmospheric transport from WRF-STILT. We quantify site-specific model-measurement uncertainties due to transport using simulated and observed meteorology, background estimated from oceanic and aircraft observations, and the prior emissions. In particular, we evaluate predicted transport variables in WRF with networks of surface and upper air observations. Preliminary inversion results during summer of 2013 suggest that state total CH4 emissions are 1.2 - 1.7 times higher than the current CARB inventory. Here, we extend and improve upon earlier analyses to provide a full seasonal cycle of CH4 emissions across all major urban and rural regions in California.

  13. Chebbi region, Morocco: a testing site for future rover missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel de Pablo, Miguel; Blanco, Juan Jose; Moya, M. E.; Garcia, M.; Acaso, E.; Rubial, M. J.; Blanco, J. J.

    In the future, new robotic missions will be launch toward Mars with the objective of studying this planet from its surface. Phoenix (2007), Mars Science Laboratory (2009), Mars Sample Return, ExoMars, Astrobiological Field Laboratory or the Deep-drill lander (beyond 2009) are the missions already launched, approved or under planning by NASA for the future exploration of Mars by rovers. These missions involve an important number of different sensors that should be firstly tested on Earth in order to check their correct function and improve their efficiency. Furthermore, the scientific teams can be acquainted with the operations involved previously to receive data from the mission on Mars. On Earth, there are very few sites where the Martian climatic conditions and landscape similarities could be found, as the dry valleys on Antarctica or the volcanic plains forming the inner deserts of Iceland. However, there are other sites on the Earth where the landscape and geomorphological features are similar to the landscapes observed on Viking Lander, Mars Pathfinder, Sojourner and Mars Exploration Rovers images. One of these sites is the Chebbi region (31o 10'N, 4o 4'W), in Central-south of Morocco. This area is located at the south of the Atlas range, forming the northern edge of the Sahara desert. The main characteristic is the plain landscape with smooth hills and an important dune field composed of different types of dunes. Wind-streaks are also frequent with sizes ranging between centimetres to tens of meters. Aeolian processes like dust storms and dust devils are very often in spring and summer. The region is also characterized by the desertical pavement formed by different size particles from sand to blocks. Decimetres to meters in diameter blocks are also found in the dry channels formed on sporadic floods. Water from floods and rains are quickly evaporated but mud and water-marks are more perdurable. Salts deposits and crusts are visible in different areas related

  14. A site check prior to regional anaesthesia to prevent wrong-sided blocks.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, P; Pattullo, S

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the 'Stop Before You Block' (SB4YB) initiative in an Australian teaching hospital. This process, which began in the UK in 2010, is a pre-procedure pause to confirm the correct side of a regional anaesthetic block. A change in practice was implemented with the formal roll out of a SB4YB educational program. Use of the initiative was then audited over a subsequent three-month period. It was hoped that after implementing the initiative, at least 80% of blocks would have a site check performed. However, despite apparent support for the initiative, uptake was less than expected with only about 57% of blocks having a site check performed. A site check was less frequent if the block was done as an emergency procedure, outside of an operating theatre or by a locum or visiting anaesthetist. Our conclusion from the audit was that education is insufficient to promote a change in this practice. We propose that Stop Before You Block or a block time-out should be performed prior to all unilateral nerve blocks. Success of this initiative requires education, and both cultural and systems changes to occur. We propose that a formal block time-out should become part of the surgical safety checklist and this activity should be endorsed and promoted by anaesthetic professional bodies. PMID:27456184

  15. Temperature, Humidity, And Polymer Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents analysis of experimental data on electrical resistivity of polymer (polyvinyl butyral) as function of temperature and relative humidity. Resulting theoretical expression for electrical resistivity resembles generally accepted empirical law for the corrosion rate.

  16. Multi-site characterization of tropical aerosols: Implications for regional radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumit, Kumar; Devara, P. C. S.; Manoj, M. G.

    2012-03-01

    A land campaign, as a part of the Indian Space Research Organization-Geosphere Biosphere Program (ISRO-GBP), has been organized using a suit of instruments like AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) Sun/Sky sunphotometer, Microtops-II (MICROprocessor-controlled Total Ozone Portable Spectrometer), short-wave pyranometer from December 1, 2006 to April 30, 2007, over five locations (Ahmedabad, Pune, Sinhgad, Trivandrum and Gadanki) representing different environments. The dominance of different aerosol types such as biomass burning, urban/industrial pollution, marine origin and desert-dust particles is expected at these five sites. In all locations, significant day-to-day variability in AOD and Ångström exponent is observed. The Ångström exponent exhibits its lowest values over semi-arid region (Ahmedabad) 0.4-0.7, while it is around 1.8 at rural site (Gadanki). The retrieved volume size distributions for Pune, Ahmedabad and Trivandrum are found to be bimodal with varying concentration of each mode. Interesting feature of this observation is, very low coarse-mode volume concentration observed at Trivandrum even though observations were made about 300 m from the coast. The synergy of results from these complementary measurements is reflected in the computed regional aerosol radiative forcing and heating rates. We have used a radiative transfer model (SBDART) to examine the variations of aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE) and heating rates to give an overall estimation of the effect on climate. The ADRE, over different measurement sites, at short wavelength is found to be negative at the surface in the range of - 18 to - 59 W m - 2 , and TOA forcing values varied from + 0.9 to - 8 W m - 2 .

  17. Is Obsidian Hydration Dating Affected by Relative Humidity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Trembour, F.W.; Smith, G.I.; Smith, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments carried out under temperatures and relative humidities that approximate ambient conditions show that the rate of hydration of obsidian is a function of the relative humidity, as well as of previously established variables of temperature and obsidian chemical composition. Measurements of the relative humidity of soil at 25 sites and at depths of between 0.01 and 2 m below ground show that in most soil environments, at depths below about 0.25 m, the relative humidity is constant at 100%. We have found that the thickness of the hydrated layer developed on obsidian outcrops exposed to the sun and to relative humidities of 30-90% is similar to that formed on other portions of the outcrop that were shielded from the sun and exposed to a relative humidity of approximately 100%. Surface samples of obsidian exposed to solar heating should hydrate more rapidly than samples buried in the ground. However, the effect of the lower mean relative humidity experiences by surface samples tends to compensate for the elevated temperature, which may explain why obsidian hydration ages of surface samples usually approximate those derived from buried samples.

  18. A regional GIS-based model for reconstructing natural monthly streamflow series at ungauged sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumo, Dario; Lo Conti, Francesco; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2016-04-01

    Several hydrologic applications require reliable estimates of monthly runoff in river basins to face the widespread lack of data, both in time and in space. The main aim of this work is to propose a regional model for the estimation of monthly natural runoff series at ungauged sites, analyzing its applicability, reliability and limitations. A GIS (Geographic Information System) based model is here developed and applied to the entire region of Sicily (Italy). The core of this tool is a regional model for the estimation of monthly natural runoff series, based on a simple modelling structure, consisting of a regression based rainfall-runoff model with only four parameters. The monthly runoff is obtained as a function of precipitation and mean temperature at the same month and runoff at the previous month. For a given basin, the four model parameters are assessed by specific regional equations as a function of some easily measurable geomorphic and climate basins' descriptors. The model is calibrated by a "two-step" procedure applied to a number of gauged basins over the region. The first step is aimed at the identification of a set of parameters optimizing model performances at the level of single basin. Such "optimal" parameters sets, derived for each calibration basin, are successively used inside a regional regression analysis, performed at the second step, by which the regional equations for model parameters assessment are defined and calibrated. All the gauged watersheds across the Sicily have been analyzed, selecting 53 basins for model calibration and using other 6 basins exclusively for validation purposes. Model performances, quantitatively evaluated considering different statistical indexes, demonstrate a relevant model ability in capturing the observed hydrological response at both the monthly level and higher time scales (seasonal and annual). One of the key features related to the proposed methodology is its easy transferability to other arid and semiarid

  19. Region and site conditions affect phenotypic trait variation in five forest herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Isgard Holle; Kolb, Annette; Diekmann, Martin Reemt

    2012-02-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms to express different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. It may buffer individuals both against short-term environmental fluctuations and long-term effects of global change. A plastic behaviour in response to changes in the environment may be especially important in species with low migration rates and colonization capacities, such as in many forest plants in present-day fragmented landscapes. We compared the phenotypic trait variation (used as a proxy for the amount of phenotypic plasticity) of five forest herbs (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Impatiens noli-tangere, Sanicula europaea and Stachys sylvatica) between two regions in Germany that differ in their overall environmental conditions (Bremen in the northwest, Freiburg in the southwest; 5 species × 2 regions × 8-15 populations × 25-50 individuals). In addition, we measured light intensity and important soil parameters (soil pH, moisture, K, P and N) in all populations. We found consistent differences in trait variability between the two regions in several species. In Brachypodium and Stachys both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in Freiburg. Similarly, reproductive traits of Impatiens and Sanicula appeared to be more variable in Freiburg, while in both species at least one of the vegetative traits was more variable in Bremen. Mean local environmental conditions also affected trait variation; in most of the species both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in sites with higher nutrient contents and higher light availability. Across all traits and both regions, seed or fruit production was most variable. In summary, at least some of the studied forest herbs appear to respond strongly to large-scale environmental differences, showing a higher trait variability in the more southern region. Given the assumption that phenotypic trait variation is positively associated with phenotypic plasticity

  20. Humidity profiles over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, Wenqing; Niiler, Pearn P.

    1991-01-01

    The variabilities of atmospheric humidity profile over oceans from daily to interannual time scales were examined using 9 years of daily and semidaily radiosonde soundings at island stations extending from the Arctic to the South Pacific. The relative humidity profiles were found to have considerable temporal and geographic variabilities, contrary to the prevalent assumption. Principal component analysis on the profiles of specific humidity were used to examine the applicability of a relation between the surface-level humidity and the integrated water vapor; this relation has been used to estimate large-scale evaporation from satellite data. The first principal component was found to correlate almost perfectly with the integrated water vapor. The fractional variance represented by this mode increases with increasing period. It reaches approximately 90 percent at two weeks and decreases sharply, below one week, down to approximately 60 percent at the daily period. At low frequencies, the integrated water vapor appeared to be an adequate estimator of the humidity profile and the surface-level humidity. At periods shorter than a week, more than one independent estimator is needed.

  1. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    SciTech Connect

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  2. Economic impact of accelerated cleanup on regions surrounding the U.S. DOE's major nuclear weapons sites.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M; Solitare, L; Frisch, M; Lowrie, K

    1999-08-01

    The regional economic impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's accelerated environmental cleanup plan are estimated for the major nuclear weapons sites in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. The analysis shows that the impact falls heavily on the three relatively rural regions around the Savannah River (SC), Hanford (WA), and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ID) sites. A less aggressive phase-down of environmental management funds and separate funds to invest in education and infrastructure in the regions helps buffer the impacts on jobs, personal income, and gross regional product. Policy options open to the federal and state and local governments are discussed.

  3. Natural responses to Quaternary climatic change in the Nevada Test Site region

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    Migration of hazardous contaminants within geologic settings depends on natural processes. Climatic fluctuations can affect the magnitudes and rates of many of these processes. In any long-term environmental evaluation of natural processes, responses to climatic change must be considered. Four generalized categories of natural responses to Quaternary climatic change are recognized for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region of southwestern Nevada and adjacent California: (1) biologic, (2) geomorphic, (3) hydrologic (including surface and subsurface) and (4) pedologic/diagenetic. Specific examples that correspond to the four categories illustrate the broad range of complex natural processes the are affected by climatic change. These responses dictate the potential effects of climatic change on contaminant transport, effects that are being examined by existing and planned environmental-restoration and waste-management programs within the region. Regulatory requirements for many of these programs include long-term (>10,000-year) waste isolation because of radiologic components. The purpose here is not to be exhaustive in documenting all known natural responses to climatic change in the NTS region, but rather to give a flavor of the scope of interdisciplinary and interrelated fields of Quaternary science that must be considered in evaluating the possible effects of climatic change on long-term environmental programs.

  4. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  5. Human in vivo regional intestinal permeability: quantitation using site-specific drug absorption data.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Erik; Dahlgren, David; Roos, Carl; Lennernäs, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Application of information on regional intestinal permeability has been identified as a key aspect of successful pharmaceutical product development. This study presents the results and evaluation of an approach for the indirect estimation of site-specific in vivo intestinal effective permeability (Peff) in humans. Plasma concentration-time profiles from 15 clinical studies that administered drug solutions to specific intestinal regions were collected and analyzed. The intestinal absorption rate for each drug was acquired by deconvolution, using historical intravenous data as reference, and used with the intestinal surface area and the dose remaining in the lumen to estimate the Peff. Forty-three new Peff values were estimated (15 from the proximal small intestine, 11 from the distal small intestine, and 17 from the large intestine) for 14 active pharmaceutical ingredients representing a wide range of biopharmaceutical properties. A good correlation (r(2) = 0.96, slope = 1.24, intercept = 0.030) was established between these indirect jejunal Peff estimates and jejunal Peff measurements determined directly using the single-pass perfusion double balloon technique. On average, Peff estimates from the distal small intestine and large intestine were 90% and 40%, respectively, of those from the proximal small intestine. These results support the use of the evaluated deconvolution method for indirectly estimating regional intestinal Peff in humans. This study presents the first comprehensive data set of estimated human regional intestinal permeability values for a range of drugs. These biopharmaceutical data can be used to improve the accuracy of gastrointestinal absorption predictions used in drug development decision-making.

  6. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of

  7. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Loots, G; Ovcharenko, I

    2006-08-08

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. We have created a database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes entitled ECRbase that is constructed from a collection of pairwise vertebrate genome alignments produced by the ECR Browser database. ECRbase features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes presented in the database. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in all ECRs and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and two pufferfish genomes. It is freely accessible at http://ECRbase.dcode.org.

  8. Global change effects on humid tropical forests: Evidence for biogeochemical and biodiversity shifts at an ecosystem scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Daniela F.; Karpman, Jason; Ashdown, Daniel; Cao, Qian; Ciochina, Mark; Halterman, Sarah; Lydon, Scott; Neupane, Avishesh

    2016-09-01

    Government and international agencies have highlighted the need to focus global change research efforts on tropical ecosystems. However, no recent comprehensive review exists synthesizing humid tropical forest responses across global change factors, including warming, decreased precipitation, carbon dioxide fertilization, nitrogen deposition, and land use/land cover changes. This paper assesses research across spatial and temporal scales for the tropics, including modeling, field, and controlled laboratory studies. The review aims to (1) provide a broad understanding of how a suite of global change factors are altering humid tropical forest ecosystem properties and biogeochemical processes; (2) assess spatial variability in responses to global change factors among humid tropical regions; (3) synthesize results from across humid tropical regions to identify emergent trends in ecosystem responses; (4) identify research and management priorities for the humid tropics in the context of global change. Ecosystem responses covered here include plant growth, carbon storage, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and disturbance regime shifts. The review demonstrates overall negative effects of global change on all ecosystem properties, with the greatest uncertainty and variability in nutrient cycling responses. Generally, all global change factors reviewed, except for carbon dioxide fertilization, demonstrate great potential to trigger positive feedbacks to global warming via greenhouse gas emissions and biogeophysical changes that cause regional warming. This assessment demonstrates that effects of decreased rainfall and deforestation on tropical forests are relatively well understood, whereas the potential effects of warming, carbon dioxide fertilization, nitrogen deposition, and plant species invasions require more cross-site, mechanistic research to predict tropical forest responses at regional and global scales.

  9. Regional chemical setting of the Apollo 16 landing site and the importance of the Kant Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, C. G.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital X-ray data from the Apollo 16 region indicate that physiographic units identified before the lunar mission can be classified as chemical units as well. The Descartes Mountains, however, appear to be an extension of the Kant Plateau composition that is unusually anorthositic and resembles farside terra. The Cayley Plains have closer affinities to basaltic materials than terra materials, physically, spectrally and chemically. The Theophilus impact, 330 km east of the landing site, excavated magnesium-rich basalts from below less-magnesian flows in Mare Nectaris; but, mafic ejecta was substantially blocked from the Apollo 16 site by the Kant Plateau that rises 5 km above the level of the mare. Apollo 16 soil samples from stations selected to collect either Descartes Mountains material or Cayley Plains material were surprisingly similar. However, they do, indeed, show the chemical trends indicative of the two units as defined by the orbiting geochemistry detectors. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains material may be among the rare nearside examples of a plagioclase-rich cumulate of the primordial magma ocean.

  10. Variations in bone status of contralateral and regional sites in young athletic women.

    PubMed

    Lee, E J; Long, K A; Risser, W L; Poindexter, H B; Gibbons, W E; Goldzieher, J

    1995-10-01

    To determine if volleyball (VB), basketball (BB), soccer (SO) and swimming (SW) programs were associated with site-specific differences in contralateral, regional, and total body bone mineral density (BMD), 62 eumenorrheic female athletes [BB (N = 7), VB (N = 11), SO (N = 9), and SW (N = 7)] and controls participated in the study. The controls were categorized as either moderately active control (MOD) (N = 17) or sedentary control (SED) (N = 11) based on fitness and activity assessments. Contralateral, total body, lumbar (L2-L4), and femur BMD were measured (Lunar DPX). The between sport contralateral comparisons indicated that VB and BB had significantly greater leg and arm measurements than all other groups, while the within contralateral comparisons revealed significantly greater right arm measurements for all groups, except SW. No significant differences were found for the within group contralateral leg comparisons, except VB. VB and BB had significantly higher (P < or = 0.05) total body and lumbar BMD values than SW, MOD, and SED. At the femur neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle, BB showed significantly higher BMD than SW, MOD, and SED. Only BB had significantly higher Ward's triangle BMD than SW, MOD, and SED. Our findings show site-specific differences in BMD associated with selected sports' programs.

  11. Region and site specific design guidelines for the northeastern Venezuela development

    SciTech Connect

    Gajardo, E.; Paga, M.; Sully, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Several site specific studies were performed for the northeastern Venezuelan offshore development in order to determine the environmental parameters for the engineering design. The geotechnical parameters were obtained from the analysis of the soil borings, in situ tests and the high resolution seismic surveys. An evaluation of the seismic hazard was done, based on a detailed neotectonic study, the compilation of historical and instrumental seismological information, and an attenuation relationship developed for the studied area. Seismic response analyses were performed using the seismic parameters and dynamic characteristics obtained form the soil borings and in situ tests of shear waves. The met-ocean design loads of the local conditions were obtained from mathematical modeling based on in situ and regional measurements. This study defines the platforms design conditions based on a probabilistic reliability approach and it has been used, among others, as a basis for the earthquake design guidelines proposed by the International Standards Organization. A sensitivity analysis was performed starting from the uncertainties of all the input parameters, in order to obtain the best estimate average design spectrum and associated coefficient of variability. The specific approach was to maintain the same safety index adopted by API RP2A code, with a bias modification factor that relates the site nominal spectra with the spectral acceleration that would be used in order to satisfy the API requirements. The results of this approach make possible the use of site specific detailed environmental data and the proven standard procedures established on the API RP2 codes, with significant cost reduction in terms of both platform and foundation design. The considerable amount of tectonic, seismological, and geotechnical information was the principal factor allowing the above methodology.

  12. Source origin of trace elements in PM from regional background, urban and industrial sites of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Gil, J. I.; Inza, A.; Ortega, L. A.; Santamaría, J. M.; Zabalza, J.

    Despite their significant role in source apportionment analysis, studies dedicated to the identification of tracer elements of emission sources of atmospheric particulate matter based on air quality data are relatively scarce. The studies describing tracer elements of specific sources currently available in the literature mostly focus on emissions from traffic or large-scale combustion processes (e.g. power plants), but not on specific industrial processes. Furthermore, marker elements are not usually determined at receptor sites, but during emission. In our study, trace element concentrations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were determined at 33 monitoring stations in Spain throughout the period 1995-2006. Industrial emissions from different forms of metallurgy (steel, stainless steel, copper, zinc), ceramic and petrochemical industries were evaluated. Results obtained at sites with no significant industrial development allowed us to define usual concentration ranges for a number of trace elements in rural and urban background environments. At industrial and traffic hotspots, average trace metal concentrations were highest, exceeding rural background levels by even one order of magnitude in the cases of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, W, V, Ni, Cs and Pb. Steel production emissions were linked to high levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, Se and Sn (and probably Pb). Copper metallurgy areas showed high levels of As, Bi, Ga and Cu. Zinc metallurgy was characterised by high levels of Zn and Cd. Glazed ceramic production areas were linked to high levels of Zn, As, Se, Zr, Cs, Tl, Li, Co and Pb. High levels of Ni and V (in association) were tracers of petrochemical plants and/or fuel-oil combustion. At one site under the influence of heavy vessel traffic these elements could be considered tracers (although not exclusively) of shipping emissions. Levels of Zn-Ba and Cu-Sb were relatively high in urban areas when compared with industrialised regions due to tyre and brake abrasion, respectively.

  13. Radioecological characterization of a uranium mining site located in a semi-arid region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Horst M; Lamego Simoes Filho, F Fernando; Perez, Valeska; Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the radioecological characterization of the new Brazilian uranium mining and milling site located in a semi-arid region of the country. The process characterization demonstrated that in heap leach plants most of the 226Ra remains in the leached ore. Despite the potential higher availability of radium isotopes in the soils of the studied region the lack of precipitation in that area reduces the leaching/mobilization of the radionuclides. High 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations were found in manioc while 210Pb was significant in pasture. It was suggested that a range from 10(-3) to 10(-1) may conveniently encompass most of the transfer factors (TF) values for soil/plant systems (i.e. involving different cultures, different soils and natural radionuclides). Impacts due to aerial transportation of aerosols and radon generated in the mining were proved to be minimal and restricted to an area not greater than 15 km2. Finally, uranium complexation by carbonates was shown to be the main mechanism responding for the elevated radionuclide concentration in groundwater.

  14. Structured Regions of Alpha-synuclein Fibrils Include the Early Onset Parkinson's Disease Mutation Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Comellas Canal, Gemma; Lemkau, Luisel R.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Kloepper, Kathryn D.; Ladror, Daniel T.; Ebisu, Reika; Woods, Wendy S.; Lipton, Andrew S.; George, Julia M.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2011-08-26

    Alpha-Synuclein (AS) fibrils constitute the major proteinaceous component of Lewy bodies (LBs), the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Three single point mutations in the AS gene, as well as multiplication of the wild-type (WT) AS allele, have been previously identified in families with early-onset PD. Although AS fibrils have been the subject of intense study, critical details about their structure including the precise location of the B-strands and the extent of the core, the three-dimensional structure and the effects of the mutations—remain unknown. Here, we have used magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy to present a detailed characterization of the full-length WT AS fibrils. With improved sample preparations, isotopic labeling patterns and NMR experiments, we have confidently assigned more than 90% of the 13C and 15N backbone and sidechain chemical shifts of the detected residues from residue 39 to 97, and quantified the conformational dynamics throughout this region. Our results demonstrate that the core of AS fibrils extends with a repeated motif and that residues 30, 46 and 53-the early-onset PD mutant sites-are located in structured regions of AS fibrils.

  15. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

    2007-03-06

    Data centers require continuous air conditioning to address high internal heat loads (heat release from equipment) and maintain indoor temperatures within recommended operating levels for computers. Air economizer cycles, which bring in large amounts of outside air to cool internal loads when weather conditions are favorable, could save cooling energy. There is reluctance from many data center owners to use this common cooling technique, however, due to fear of introducing pollutants and potential loss of humidity control. Concerns about equipment failure from airborne pollutants lead to specifying as little outside air as permissible for human occupants. To investigate contamination levels, particle monitoring was conducted at 8 data centers in Northern California. Particle counters were placed at 3 to 4 different locations within and outside of each data center evaluated in this study. Humidity was also monitored at many of the sites to determine how economizers affect humidity control. Results from this study indicate that economizers do increase the outdoor concentration in data centers, but this concentration, when averaged annually, is still below current particle concentration limits. Study results are summarized below: (1) The average particle concentrations measured at each location, both outside and at the servers, are shown in Table 1. Measurements show low particle concentrations at all data centers without economizers, regardless of outdoor particle concentrations. Particle concentrations were typically an order of magnitude below both outside particle concentrations and recently published ASHRAE standards. (2) Economizer use caused sharp increases in particle concentrations when the economizer vents were open. The particle concentration in the data centers, however, quickly dropped back to pre-economizer levels when the vents closed. Since economizers only allow outside air part of the time, the annual average concentrations still met the ASHRAE

  16. Ultrahigh humidity sensitivity of graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hengchang; Yin, Kuibo; Xie, Xiao; Ji, Jing; Wan, Shu; Sun, Litao; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2013-01-01

    Humidity sensors have been extensively used in various fields, and numerous problems are encountered when using humidity sensors, including low sensitivity, long response and recovery times, and narrow humidity detection ranges. Using graphene oxide (G-O) films as humidity sensing materials, we fabricate here a microscale capacitive humidity sensor. Compared with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the G-O based humidity sensor has a sensitivity of up to 37800% which is more than 10 times higher than that of the best one among conventional sensors at 15%–95% relative humidity. Moreover, our humidity sensor shows a fast response time (less than 1/4 of that of the conventional one) and recovery time (less than 1/2 of that of the conventional one). Therefore, G-O appears to be an ideal material for constructing humidity sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity for widespread applications. PMID:24048093

  17. Photogated humidity-driven motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-06-01

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day-night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min-1. The element can lift objects ~85 times heavier and can transport cargos ~20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids.

  18. Photogated humidity-driven motility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-01-01

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day–night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min−1. The element can lift objects ∼85 times heavier and can transport cargos ∼20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids. PMID:26067649

  19. Photogated humidity-driven motility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-06-11

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day-night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min(-1). The element can lift objects ∼85 times heavier and can transport cargos ∼20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids.

  20. Sites of calcium uptake of fish otoliths correspond with macular regions rich of carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, M.; Anken, R.; Hilbig, R.

    2006-01-01

    Based on pharmacological data, it has been suggested that the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CAH) plays a prominent role in the mineralization of fish otoliths. To directly test this proposal, the topographical distribution of CAH was histochemically analyzed in the utricular and saccular maculae of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Further investigations were focussed on the sites of otolithic calcium uptake using the fluorescent calcium tracer alizarin-complexone (AC). Both in the utricle and the saccule, CAH-reactivity was prominent in regions on both sides of the sensory macula (centrifugal (cf) and centripetal (cp) areas), which reportedly contain ionocytes, specialized cells regulating the ionic composition of the endolymph. (The terms centrifugal and centripetal were chosen instead of lateral and medial, because the saccule is positioned perpendicular to the utricle; “lateral” and “medial” thus do not allow an unambiguous allocation of the respective regions.) In the saccule, the size of cf and cp did not differ from each other, whereas, in the utricle, cp was considerably larger as compared to cf (CAH-reactivity per μm2 was nearly identical in both areas of both endorgans). AC-incubation resulted in a fluorescent band on the proximal surface of the otoliths (this surface lies next to the sensory epithelium). In saccular otoliths (sagittae), the area of the band did not differ between centrifugal and centripetal otolith regions, whereas in the utricular otoliths (lapilli), the area of the centripetal AC-band was larger in size as compared to the centrifugal one (AC-fluorescence per μm2 did not differ between the areas analyzed in both types of otoliths). These results strongly suggest that calcium/carbonate uptake of otoliths takes place especially in those regions of their proximal face which are located adjacent to CAH-rich areas of the macular epithelium. It is thus concluded that CAH is directly involved in otolith calcification. The

  1. Parameterizing century to model cultivated and noncultivated sites in the Loess region of western Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Kramer, Larry; Parton, William

    2000-01-01

    One of the main questions remaining for global science involves the cycle of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, and land. Scientists are trying to better determine the amount of carbon stored in and transferred between these three locations. This task has become more complex because in recent decades the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere has increased due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes. The amount of this increase is greater than the amount of carbon accumulating in the atmosphere and oceans. Many scientists are studying different terrestrial ecosystems to find this 'missing" carbon. One such project is the Mississippi Basin Carbon Project (MBCP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). MBCP is studying the soils and sediments of the Mississippi River Basin, with an emphasis on understanding human influences on erosion and thus the movement of carbon within a landscape. One goal of the MBCP is to understand, at the field scale, the key processes of erosion and sedimentation, and thus the movement of carbon, in upland areas. Both field measurements and modeling efforts are being used for this purpose. On the modeling front, the Century Model is being used to describe the historical carbon dynamics for two field sites, an agricultural field and uncultivated prairie, located in the loess region of western Iowa. The objective of these modeling efforts is to recreate the carbon dynamics of the upper slope in each of these watersheds. The upper slope represents the area of a hillslope with the greatest potential erosion. This report describes how Century was parameterized to represent these two sites.

  2. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core-shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ±6% and ±14% for external mixture and ±9% and ±31% for core-shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate.

  3. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  4. Influence of Regional Difference in Bone Mineral Density on Hip Fracture Site in Elderly Females by Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z L; Li, P F; Pang, Z H; Zheng, X H; Huang, F; Xu, H H; Li, Q L

    2015-11-01

    Hip fracture is a kind of osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients. Its important monitoring indicator is to measure bone mineral density (BMD) using DXA. The stress characteristics and material distribution in different parts of the bones can be well simulated by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Our previous studies have demonstrated a linear positive correlation between clinical BMD and the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur. However, the correlation between the density variation between intertrochanteric region and collum femoris region of the model and the fracture site has not been studied yet. The present study intends to investigate whether the regional difference in the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur can be used to predict hip fracture site in elderly females. The CT data of both hip joints were collected from 16 cases of elderly female patients with hip fractures. Mimics 15.01 software was used to reconstruct the model of proximal femur on the healthy side. Ten kinds of material properties were assigned. In Abaqus 6.12 software, the collum femoris region and intertrochanteric region were, respectively, drawn for calculating the corresponding regional density of the model, followed by prediction of hip fracture site and final comparison with factual fracture site. The intertrochanteric region/collum femoris region density was [(1.20 ± 0.02) × 10(6)] on the fracture site and [(1.22 ± 0.03) × 10(6)] on the non-fracture site, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Among 16 established models of proximal femur on the healthy side, 14 models were consistent with the actual fracture sites, one model was inconsistent, and one model was unpredictable, with the coincidence rate of 87.5 %. The intertrochanteric region or collum femoris region with lower BMD is more prone to hip fracture of the type on the corresponding site. PMID:27352330

  5. Regional CalVal of Altimeter Range at Non-Dedicated Sites in Preparation f Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancet, M.; Watson, C.; Haines, B.; Bonnefond, P.; Lyard, F.; Femenias, P.; Guinle, T.

    2015-12-01

    In situ calibration ensures regular and long-term control of the altimeter sea surface height (SSH) time series through comparisons with independent records. Usually, in situ calibration and validation of altimeter SSH is undertaken at specific CALVAL sites through the direct comparison of the altimeter data with in situ data [1]. However, NOVELTIS has developed a regional CALVAL technique, which aims at increasing the number and the repeatability of the altimeter bias assessments by determining the altimeter bias both on overflying passes and on satellite passes located far away from the calibration site. In principle this extends the single site approach to a wider regional scale, thus reinforcing the link between the local and the global CALVAL analyses. It also provides a means to maintain a calibration time series through periods of data-outage at a specific dedicated calibration site. The regional method was initially developed at the Corsican calibration sites of Senetosa and Ajaccio. The method was used to compute the biases of Jason-1, Jason-2 and Envisat (before and after the orbit change in 2010) at both sites, and proved its stability and generality through this cross-calibration exercise [2]. These last years, the regional method was successfully implemented at the Californian site of Harvest and at the Australian site of Bass Strait, in close collaboration with JPL and the University of Tasmania, respectively. These recent studies gave the first Envisat absolute bias estimates at non-dedicated sites using the same method, and showed high consistency with the analyses of the global CALVAL teams and the work of the in situ CALVAL teams. These results highlight the numerous advantages of this technique for monitoring missions on any orbits such as the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions.

  6. Petrologic considerations for hot dry rock geothermal site selection in the Clear Lake Region, California

    SciTech Connect

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F. ); Hearn, B.C. Jr. )

    1992-01-01

    The Clear Lake area is well known for anomalous heat flow, thermal springs, hydrothermal mineral deposits, and Quaternary volcanism. These factors, along with the apparent lack of a large reservoir of geothermal fluid north of Collayomi fault make the Clear Lake area an attractive target for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. Petrologic considerations provide some constraints on site selection for HDR development. Spatial and temporal trends in volcanism in the Coast Ranges indicate that magmatism has migrated to the north with time, paralleling passage of the Mendocino triple junction and propagation of the San Andreas fault. Volcanism in the region may have resulted from upwelling of hot asthenosphere along the southern margin of the subducted segment of the Gorda plate. Spatial and temporal trends of volcanism within the Clear Lake volcanic field are similar to larger-scale trends of Neogene volcanism in the Cost Ranges. Volcanism (especially for silicic compositions) shows a general migration to the north over the {approximately}2 Ma history of the field, with the youngest two silicic centers located at Mt. Konocti and Borax Lake. The Mt. Konocti system (active from {approximately} 0.6 to 0.3 Ma) was large and long-lived, whereas the Borax Lake system is much smaller but younger (0.09 Ma). Remnants of silicic magma bodies under Mt. Konocti may be in the latter stages of cooling, whereas a magma body centered under Borax Lake may be in the early stages of development. The existence of an upper crustal silicic magma body of under Borax Lake has yet to be demonstrated by passive geophysics, however, subsurface temperatures in the area as high (> 200{degrees}C at 2000 m) as those beneath the Mt. Konocti area. Based on petrologic considerations alone, the Mt. Konocti-Borax Lake area appears to be the most logical choice for HDR geothermal development in the region.

  7. Controlling arbitrary humidity without convection.

    PubMed

    Wasnik, Priyanka S; N'guessan, Hartmann E; Tadmor, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we show a way that allows for the first time to induce arbitrary humidity of desired value for systems without convective flow. To enable this novelty we utilize a semi-closed environment in which evaporation is not completely suppressed. In this case, the evaporation rate is determined both by the outer (open) humidity and by the inner (semi-closed) geometry including the size/shape of the evaporating medium and the size/shape of the semi-closure. We show how such systems can be used to induce desired humidity conditions. We consider water droplet placed on a solid surface and study its evaporation when it is surrounded by other drops, hereon "satellite" drops and covered by a semi-closed hemisphere. The main drop's evaporation rate is proportional to its height, in agreement with theory. Surprisingly, however, the influence of the satellite drops on the main drop's evaporation suppression is not proportional to the sum of heights of the satellite drops. Instead, it shows proportionality close to the satellite drops' total surface area. The resultant humidity conditions in the semi-closed system can be effectively and accurately induced using different satellite drops combinations. PMID:26072445

  8. Controlling arbitrary humidity without convection.

    PubMed

    Wasnik, Priyanka S; N'guessan, Hartmann E; Tadmor, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we show a way that allows for the first time to induce arbitrary humidity of desired value for systems without convective flow. To enable this novelty we utilize a semi-closed environment in which evaporation is not completely suppressed. In this case, the evaporation rate is determined both by the outer (open) humidity and by the inner (semi-closed) geometry including the size/shape of the evaporating medium and the size/shape of the semi-closure. We show how such systems can be used to induce desired humidity conditions. We consider water droplet placed on a solid surface and study its evaporation when it is surrounded by other drops, hereon "satellite" drops and covered by a semi-closed hemisphere. The main drop's evaporation rate is proportional to its height, in agreement with theory. Surprisingly, however, the influence of the satellite drops on the main drop's evaporation suppression is not proportional to the sum of heights of the satellite drops. Instead, it shows proportionality close to the satellite drops' total surface area. The resultant humidity conditions in the semi-closed system can be effectively and accurately induced using different satellite drops combinations.

  9. Relative humidity from psychrometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical equation for computing relative humidity as function of wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, and atmospheric pressure is suitable for use with calculator or computer. Analytical expressions may be useful for chemical process control systems and building environmental control systems.

  10. Pesticides analysed in rainwater in Alsace region (Eastern France): Comparison between urban and rural sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Current-used pesticides commonly applied in Alsace region (Eastern France) on diverse crops (maize, vineyard, vegetables, etc.) were analysed, together with Lindane, in rainwater between January 2002 and June 2003 simultaneously on two sites situated in a typical rural (Erstein, France) and urban area (Strasbourg, France). Rainwater samples were collected on a weekly basis by using two automatic wet only collectors associated with an open collector for the measurement of rainwater height. Pesticides were analysed by GC-MSMS and extracted from rainwater by SPME. Two runs were performed. The first one was performed by using a PDMS (100 μm) fibre for pesticides where direct injection into GC is possible (alachlor, atrazine, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, captan, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, diflufenican, α- and β-endosulfan, iprodione, lindane, metolachlor, mevinphos, parathion-methyl, phosalone, phosmet, tebuconazole, triadimefon and trifluralin). The second run was performed by using PDMS/DVB fibre and this run concerns pesticides where a preliminary derivatisation step with pentafluorobenzylbromide (PFBBr) is required for very low volatiles (bromoxynil,2,4-MCPA, MCPP and 2,4-D) or thermo labiles (chlorotoluron, diuron and isoproturon) pesticides. Results showed that the more concentrated pesticides detected were those used as herbicides in large quantities in Alsace region for maize crops (alachlor, metolachlor and atrazine). Maximum concentrations for these herbicides have been measured during intensive applications periods on maize crops following by rapid decrease immediately after use. For Alachlor, most important peaks have been observed between 21 and 28 April 2003 (3327 ng L -1 at Erstein and 5590 ng L -1 at Strasbourg). This is also the case for Metolachlor where most important peak was observed during the same week. Concentrations of pesticides measured out of application periods were very low for many pesticides and some others where never detected

  11. Humidity sensors printed on recycled paper and cardboard.

    PubMed

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-07-28

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%-80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%-90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability.

  12. Humidity Sensors Printed on Recycled Paper and Cardboard

    PubMed Central

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%–80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%–90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability. PMID:25072347

  13. Humidity sensors printed on recycled paper and cardboard.

    PubMed

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%-80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%-90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability. PMID:25072347

  14. Multi-site study of diffusion metric variability: effects of site, vendor, field strength, and echo time on regions-of-interest and histogram-bin analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, K. G.; Chou, M.-C.; Preciado, R. I.; Gimi, B.; Rollins, N. K.; Song, A.; Turner, J.; Mori, S.

    2016-03-01

    It is now common for magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) based multi-site trials to include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of the protocol. It is also common for these sites to possess MR scanners of different manufacturers, different software and hardware, and different software licenses. These differences mean that scanners may not be able to acquire data with the same number of gradient amplitude values and number of available gradient directions. Variability can also occur in achievable b-values and minimum echo times. The challenge of a multi-site study then, is to create a common protocol by understanding and then minimizing the effects of scanner variability and identifying reliable and accurate diffusion metrics. This study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two diffusion metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA) using two common analyses (region-of-interest and mean-bin value of whole brain histograms). The goal of the study was to identify sources of variability in diffusion-sensitized imaging and their influence on commonly reported metrics. The results demonstrate that the site, vendor, field strength, and echo time all contribute to variability in FA and MD, though to different extent. We conclude that characterization of the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time is a worthwhile step in the construction of multi-center trials.

  15. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Diamond Shamrock Landfill Site, Cedartown, GA, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected remedy for the Diamond Shamrock Landfill Site, Cedartown, Georgia. This action is the final action planned for the Site. The alternative calls for implementation of response measures which will protect human health and the environment. The action addresses source and ground water contamination at the Site.

  16. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps Site, Aberdeen, NC, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit Three (OU3) of the Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps Site (the 'Site'), in Aberdeen, North Carolina. The remedy selected addresses groundwater, sediment, and surface water contamination and ecological concerns to eliminate or reduce the risks posed by the Site.

  17. GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  18. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  19. Aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties at regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michaël; Barragan, Rubén; Dulac, François; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Mallet, Marc

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) program, the seasonal variability of the aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network; http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) is examined in two regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean Basin: Ersa (Corsica Island, France) and Palma de Mallorca (Mallorca Island, Spain). A third site, Alborán (Alborán Island, Spain), with only a few months of data is considered for examining possible northeast-southwest (NE-SW) gradients of the aforementioned aerosol properties. The AERONET dataset is exclusively composed of level 2.0 inversion products available during the 5-year period 2011-2015. AERONET solar radiative fluxes are compared with ground- and satellite-based flux measurements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that AERONET fluxes are compared with measurements at the top of the atmosphere. Strong events (with an aerosol optical depth at 440 nm greater than 0.4) of long-range transport aerosols, one of the main drivers of the observed annual cycles and NE-SW gradients, are (1) mineral dust outbreaks predominant in spring and summer in the north and in summer in the south and (2) European pollution episodes predominant in autumn. A NE-SW gradient exists in the western Mediterranean Basin for the aerosol optical depth and especially its coarse-mode fraction, which all together produces a similar gradient for the aerosol direct radiative forcing. The aerosol fine mode is rather homogeneously distributed. Absorption properties are quite variable because of the many and different sources of anthropogenic particles in and around the western Mediterranean Basin: North African and European urban areas, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, most forest fires and

  20. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-01-17

    The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

  1. Rapid kinematic slip inversion with regional geophysical data: towards site-specific tsunami intensity forecasts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar, D.; Bock, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid kinematic slip inversions immediately following earthquake rupture is traditionally limited to teleseismic data and delayed many hours after large events. Regional data such as strong motion is difficult to incorporate quickly into images of the source process because baseline offsets render the long period portion of the recording unreliable. Recently it's been demonstrated that high rate GPS can potentially produce rapid slip inversions for large events but is limited to very long periods. With an example of the 2011 M9 Tohoku-oki event we will demonstrate that the optimal on-the-fly combination of GPS and strong motion through a seismogeodetic Kalman filter produces reliable, broadband strong motion displacement and velocity waveforms that can be used for kinematic inversion. Through joint inversion of displacement and velocity waveforms we will show that it is possible to obtain a broadband image of the source. Furthermore, we will also show that it is possible to include offshore geophysical observables such as sea surface measurements of tsunami propagation from GPS buoys and ocean bottom pressure sensors into the kinematic inversion. These data better constrain the shallowest part of rupture. We will use the time-dependent deformation of bathymetry predicted from the inversion results as an initial condition for tsunami propagation and inundation modeling. Through a comparison to post-event survey observations we will demonstrate that it is possible to reproduce the inundation pattern along the coastline in great detail and argue that detailed site-specific forecast of tsunami intensity is achievable with current methods and instrumentation.

  2. Global and regional estimates of cancer mortality and incidence by site: II. results for the global burden of disease 2000

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Kenji; Mathers, Colin D; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher JL

    2002-01-01

    Background Mortality estimates alone are not sufficient to understand the true magnitude of cancer burden. We present the detailed estimates of mortality and incidence by site as the basis for the future estimation of cancer burden for the Global Burden of Disease 2000 study. Methods Age- and sex- specific mortality envelope for all malignancies by region was derived from the analysis of country life-tables and cause of death. We estimated the site-specific cancer mortality distributions from vital records and cancer survival model. The regional cancer mortality by site is estimated by disaggregating the regional cancer mortality envelope based on the mortality distribution. Estimated incidence-to-mortality rate ratios were used to back calculate the final cancer incidence estimates by site. Results In 2000, cancer accounted for over 7 million deaths (13% of total mortality) and there were more than 10 million new cancer cases world wide in 2000. More than 60% of cancer deaths and approximately half of new cases occurred in developing regions. Lung cancer was the most common cancers in the world, followed by cancers of stomach, liver, colon and rectum, and breast. There was a significant variations in the distribution of site-specific cancer mortality and incidence by region. Conclusions Despite a regional variation, the most common cancers are potentially preventable. Cancer burden estimation by taking into account both mortality and morbidity is an essential step to set research priorities and policy formulation. Also it can used for setting priorities when combined with data on costs of interventions against cancers. PMID:12502432

  3. Humidity Dependence of Adhesion for Silane Coated Microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; MAYER,THOMAS M.; CARPICK,ROBERT W.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

    1999-11-09

    This study examines adhesion between silane-coated micromachined surfaces that are exposed to humid conditions. Our quantitative values for interfacial adhesion energies are determined from an in-situ optical measurement of deformations in partly-adhered cantilever beams. We coated micromachined cantilevers with either ODTS (C{sub 18}H{sub 37}SiCl{sub 3}) or FDTS (C{sub 8}F{sub 17}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}SiCl{sub 3}) with the objective of creating hydrophobic surfaces whose adhesion would be independent of humidity. In both cases, the adhesion energy is significantly lower than for uncoated, hydrophilic surfaces. For relative humidities (RH) less than 95% (ODTS) and 80% (FDTS) the adhesion energy was extremely low and constant. In fact, ODTS-coated beams exposed to saturated humidity conditions and long (48 hour) exposures showed only a factor of two increase in adhesion energy. Surprisingly, FDTS coated beams, which initially have a higher contact angle (115{degree}) with water than do ODTS coated beams (112{degree}), proved to be much more sensitive to humidity. The FDTS coated surfaces showed a factor of one hundred increase in adhesion energy after a seven hour exposure to 90% RH. Atomic force microscopy revealed agglomerated coating material after exposed to high RH, suggesting a redistribution of the monolayer film. This agglomeration was more prominent for FDTS than ODTS. These findings suggest a new mechanism for uptake of moisture under high humidity conditions. At high humidities, the silane coatings can reconfigure from a surface to a bulk phase leaving behind locally hydrophilic sites which increase the average measured adhesion energy. In order for the adhesion increase to be observed, a significant fraction of the monolayer must be converted from the surface to the bulk phase.

  4. Student Involvement with the Regionally Important Geomorphological Site (RIGS) Scheme: An Opportunity to Learn Geomorphology and Gain Transferable Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Lindsey

    1996-01-01

    Outlines student involvement with a conservation project that aims to develop a Regionally Important Geological/Geomorphological Site network (RIGS) at a county level in the United Kingdom. Emphasis is placed on identifying, describing, evaluating, and documenting land forms of educational, research, historical, and/or aesthetic value. (MJP)

  5. Humidity and Buildings. Technical Paper No. 188.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheon, N. B.

    Modified and controlled relative humidity in buildings for certain occupancies is discussed. New criteria are used in determining the needs, desirability and problems associated with humidities in a building. Severe winter climate requires that special attention be given to the problems associated with increased indoor humidities during cold…

  6. The Iberian-Roman Humid Period (2600-1600 cal yr BP) in the Zoñar Lake varve record (Andalucía, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Puertas, Celia; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Brauer, Achim; Mata, M. Pilar; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Dulski, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The Iberian-Roman Humid Period (IRHP, 2600-1600 cal yr BP), is the most humid phase of the last 4000 yr in southern Spain as recorded in the sedimentary sequence of Zoñar Lake (37°29'00″N, 4°41'22″ W, 300 m a.s.l.). A varve chronology supported by several AMS 14C dates allows study of the lake evolution at annual scale in response to human impact and climate changes. There are four climate phases within this period: i) gradual transition (2600-2500 yr ago, 650-550 BC) from a previous arid period; ii) the most humid interval during the Iberian-Early Roman Epoch (2500-2140 yr ago, 550-190 BC); iii) an arid interval during the Roman Empire Epoch (2140-1800 yr ago, 190 BC AD 150); and iv) a humid period synchronous with the decline of the Roman Empire (1800-1600 yr ago, AD 150-350). Varve thickness and geochemical proxies show a multi-decadal cyclicity similar to modern North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) (60, 20 years) and solar variability cycles (11 yr). The timing and the structure of this humid period is similar to that described in Eastern Mediterranean and northern European sites and supports the same large-scale climate control for northern latitudes and the Mediterranean region.

  7. Investigation on the Ancient Site Location in the Mesopotamian Region Based on ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Ushiki, Hisao; Goto, Tomoya

    2008-11-01

    This project aims to investigate the location of ancient Mesopotamian sites in Iraq and to create a distribution map using ALOS data. Iraq is a centre of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. A distribution map is essential to conduct a prompt investigation and preservation of ancient sites and cultural heritage in Iraq which are at risk of looting and robbery due to the recent Iraqi condition. Firstly this project enables to create Satellite Image Map of Iraq, where the acquisition of detailed map is not possible, based on ALOS Data. The ancient site of Mesopotamia is called "Tell" which is swelled up from the alluvial plain and forms like a hill with the bare land on the surface. Secondly, the estimation of locating ancient site has been undertaken by using the Satellite Image Interpretation method. Finally the locations of the ancient sites and the Satellite Image map are layered to produce the Distribution Map.

  8. Evaluation and use of sediment toxicity reference sites for statistical comparisons in regional assessments.

    PubMed

    Hunt, J W; Anderson, B S; Phillips, B M; Newman, J; Tjeerdema, R S; Fairey, R; Puckett, H M; Stephenson, M; Smith, R W; Wilson, C J; Taberski, K M

    2001-06-01

    Sediment reference sites were used to establish toxicity standards against which to compare results from sites investigated in San Francisco Bay (California, USA) monitoring programs. The reference sites were selected on the basis of low concentrations of anthropogenic chemicals, distance from active contaminant sources, location in representative hydrographic areas of the Bay, and physical features characteristic of depositional areas (e.g., fine grain size and medium total organic carbon [TOC]). Five field-replicated sites in San Francisco Bay were evaluated over three seasons. Samples from each site were tested with nine toxicity test protocols and were analyzed for sediment grain size and concentrations of trace metals, trace organics, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and TOC. The candidate sites were found to have relatively low concentrations of measured chemicals and generally exhibited low toxicity. Toxicity data from the reference sites were then used to calculate numerical tolerance limits to be used as threshold values to determine which test sites had significantly higher toxicity than reference sites. Tolerance limits are presented for four standard test protocols, including solid-phase sediment tests with the amphipods Ampelisca abdita and Eohaustorius estuarius and sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo/larval development tests in pore water and at the sediment-water interface (SWI). Tolerance limits delineating the lowest 10th percentile (0.10 quantile) of the reference site data distribution were 71% of the control response for Ampelisca, 70% for Eohaustorius, 94% for sea urchin embryos in pore water, and 87% for sea urchins embryos exposed at the SWI. The tolerance limits are discussed in terms of the critical values governing their calculation and the management implications arising from their use in determining elevated toxicity relative to reference conditions.

  9. Intercomparison of atmospheric reanalysis data in the Arctic region: To derive site-specific forcing data for terrestrial models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, J.; Saito, K.; Machiya, H.; Yabuki, H.; Ikawa, H.; Ohta, T.; Iijima, Y.; Kotani, A.; Suzuki, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Sato, A.; Hajima, T.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-12-01

    An intercomparison project for the Arctic terrestrial (physical and ecosystem) models, GTMIP, is conducted, targeting at improvements in the existing terrestrial schemes, as an activity of the Terrestrial Ecosystem research group in the Arctic of Japan GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project (GRENE-TEA). For site simulations for four GRENE-TEA sites (i.e., Fairbanks/AK, Kevo/Finland, Tiksi and Yakutsk/Siberia), we needed to prepare continuous, site-fit forcing data ready to drive the models. Due to scarcity of site observations in the region, however, it was difficult to make such data directly from the observations. Therefore, we decided to create a backbone dataset (Level 0 or Lv0) first by utilizing the reanalysis data to derive the site-specific data (Level 1 or Lv1). For selection of the best dataset for our purpose, we compared four atmospheric reanalysis datasets, i.e., ERA Interim, JRA-55, NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1, and NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2, in terms of the climatic reproducibility (w.r.t. temperature at 2 m and precipitation) in the region north of 60°N. CRU for temperature and GPCP for precipitation were also used for monthly-mean ground-level climate. As we will show ERA-Interim showed the smallest bias for both the parameters in terms of RMSE. Especially, air temperature in the cold period was reproduced better in ERA-Interim than is in JRA-55 or other reanalysis products. Therefore, we created Lv0 from ERA-Interim. Comparison between the site observations and Lv0 showed good agreement except for wind speed at all sites and air temperature at Tiksi, a coastal site in the eastern Siberia. Air temperature of ERA-Interim showed significantly continental characteristics while the site observation more coastal. The 34-year-long, hourly, site-fit continuous data (Lv1) for each of the GRENE-TEA sites was then created from the Lv0 values at the grid point closest to the site, by merging with the observations.

  10. Laminar and regional distribution of galanin binding sites in cat and monkey visual cortex determined by in vitro receptor autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rosier, A.M.; Vandesande, F.; Orban, G.A. )

    1991-03-08

    The distribution of galanin (GAL) binding sites in the visual cortex of cat and monkey was determined by autoradiographic visualization of ({sup 125}I)-GAL binding to tissue sections. Binding conditions were optimized and, as a result, the binding was saturable and specific. In cat visual cortex, GAL binding sites were concentrated in layers I, IVc, V, and VI. Areas 17, 18, and 19 exhibited a similar distribution pattern. In monkey primary visual cortex, the highest density of GAL binding sites was observed in layers II/III, lower IVc, and upper V. Layers IVA and VI contained moderate numbers of GAL binding sites, while layer I and the remaining parts of layer IV displayed the lowest density. In monkey secondary visual cortex, GAL binding sites were mainly concentrated in layers V-VI. Layer IV exhibited a moderate density, while the supragranular layers contained the lowest proportion of GAL binding sites. In both cat and monkey, we found little difference between regions subserving central and those subserving peripheral vision. Similarities in the distribution of GAL and acetylcholine binding sites are discussed.

  11. First-generation site-response maps for the Los Angeles region based on earthquake ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Cranswick, E.; Meremonte, M.; Michael, J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-motion records from aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge earthquake and mainshock records from the 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, 1991 Sierra Madre, and 1994 Northridge earthquakes are used to estimate site response relative to a rock site for the urban Los Angeles area. Site response is estimated at 232 mainshock and 201 aftershock sites relative to a low-amplitude site in the Santa Monica Mountains. Average amplification values are calculated for the frequency bands: 1 to 3, 3 to 5, and 5 to 7 Hz. These bands are chosen based on limitations in aftershock recording equipment at lower frequencies and reduced significance to the building inventory at higher frequencies. Site amplification factors determined at the instrumented locations are grouped by the surficial geology and contoured to produce a continuous spatial estimation of amplification. The maps in this article represent the first attempt to produce estimates of site amplification based on observations of ground motion for such a large areal extent of the Los Angeles region. These maps are expected to evolve as more data become available and more analysis is done.

  12. Incorporating Climate and Regional Setting into Realistic-Efficacious End States for Contaminated Sites - 15386

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Dam, William; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Hydrological and geochemical controls in arid environments (many mining and milling sites) work together to limit the size of groundwater plumes and can extend plume flushing times Incorporation of these concepts may support formulation of alternative end states At several DOE-LM sites, such as Mound, land and facilities have been transferred to the local community for transitioning to beneficial reuse and development. Some of the DOE-LM UMTRCA sites appear to be good candidate for brownfield reuse and serve as a resource for future employment and ongoing benefit to stakeholders and Native American Nations.

  13. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 5): Carter Industrials Site, Detroit, MI, February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This decision document changes a decision made on September 18, 1991 in which the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) chose low-temperature thermal desorption as the remedy for PCB contamination at the Carter Industrials Site in Detroit, Michigan. U.S. EPA is hereby amending the 1991 Record of Decision (PB92-964126) to select off-site disposal as the remedy. This response action addresses remediation of PCB-contaminated soil, debris, and buildings at the Carter Industrials Site. The principal threats posed by conditions at the Site include inhalation of volatilized PCBs and fugitive dust, and dermal contact with contaminated materials. The amended remedy will eliminate these threats.

  14. GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land. PMID:22134738

  15. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

    PubMed

    Boumans, Mark L L M; Krings, Markus; Wagner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies. PMID:26222908

  16. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola).

    PubMed

    Boumans, Mark L L M; Krings, Markus; Wagner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies.

  17. Seasonal variation, source, and regional representativeness of the background aerosol from two remote sites in western China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wenjun; Wang, Dan; Wang, Yaqiang; Sheng, Lifang; Fu, Gang

    2010-08-01

    Using observations from two remote sites during July 2004 to March 2005, we show that at Akdala (AKD, 47 degrees 06' N, 87 degrees 58' E, 562 m asl) in northern Xinjiang Province, there were high wintertime loadings of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble (WS) SO4(2-), NO3(2-), and NH4+, which is similar to the general pattern in most areas of China and East Asia. However, at Zhuzhang (ZUZ, 28 degrees 00' N, 99 degrees 43' E, 3,583 m asl) in northwestern Yunnan Province, the aerosol concentrations and compositions showed little seasonal variation except for a decreasing trend of OC from August to autumn-winter. Additionally, the OC variations dominated the seasonal variation of PM10 (particlessites were regionally representative. However, the representative regions and scales of these background sites may vary seasonally as the regional atmospheric transport patterns change. Seasonal variations in the background aerosol levels from these two areas need to be considered when evaluating the regional climate effects of the aerosols.

  18. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola)

    PubMed Central

    Boumans, Mark L. L. M.; Krings, Markus; Wagner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl’s head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cadavers of the American barn owl (Tyto furcata pratincola), and their origin, courses, and insertion were traced. In the head-neck region nine superficial larger cervical muscles of the craniocervical, dorsal and ventral subsystems were selected for analysis, and the muscle attachment sites were illustrated in digital models of the skull and cervical vertebrae of the same species as well as visualised in a two-dimensional sketch. In addition, fibre orientation and lengths of the muscles and the nature (fleshy or tendinous) of the attachment sites were determined. Myological data from this study were combined with osteological data of the same species. This improved the anatomical description of the cervical region of this species. The myological description provided in this study is to our best knowledge the most detailed documentation of the cervical muscles in a strigiform species presented so far. Our results show useful information for researchers in the field of functional anatomy, biomechanical modelling and for evolutionary and comparative studies. PMID:26222908

  19. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Trace Gas Emissions From a Humid Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, T. E.; Silver, W. L.; Lugo, A. E.

    2008-12-01

    Tropical forest soils are a major source of radiatively-active trace gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Climate change is likely to alter soil moisture availability in tropical forests, and consequently the magnitude and temporal pattern of trace gas emissions from these systems. In this study, we simulate one of the major future climate scenarios for tropical regions, drought, by excluding three months of wet season throughfall in a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico. We paired five 1.24 m2 translucent roofs with five control plots of equal size in each of three forest types in the Bisley watershed (Palm, Ridge and Slope; 30 plots total). We measured weekly changes in CO2 and bi-weekly changes in N2O and methane (CH4) in response to the manipulation for each of the 30 plots. We additionally measured the physical and chemical changes associated with throughfall exclusion, including soil nutrient availability, pH and soil temperature. CO2 emissions decreased significantly in the exclusion plots in all three of the forest types. The exclusion effect on CO2 efflux was most pronounced in the sloped sites, followed by the Ridge and the Palm forest sites (32%, 30%, 15%, respectively). The strong negative effect of soil drying on CO2 efflux could mean reduced CO2 emissions from humid tropical forest soils during periods of drought.

  20. Health assessment for Commodore Semiconductor Site, Norristown, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD093730174. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-29

    The Commodore Semiconductor Site, located in a residential and light-industrial area in Norristown, Pennsylvania, is an active computer chip manufacturing facility with a history of leaking underground solvent storage tanks. On-site groundwater is contaminated with high levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including trans-dichloroethylene, benzene, chloroform, methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and tetrachloroethylene. On-site soils have been sampled on at least one occasion in 1979, and TCE was found at a concentration of 8,840 ppm. An air stripper has been in operation since 1984, but no ambient air data were supplied. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances if the aquifer were to be used as a primary water supply by nearby residents. On-site soils should be better characterized and access limited for those areas found to be highly contaminated at this active facility.

  1. Trace Metal Content of Sediments Close to Mine Sites in the Andean Region

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Cristina; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí; Miralles, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This study is a preliminary examination of heavy metal pollution in sediments close to two mine sites in the upper part of the Jequetepeque River Basin, Peru. Sediment concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn were analyzed. A comparative study of the trace metal content of sediments shows that the highest concentrations are found at the closest points to the mine sites in both cases. The sediment quality analysis was performed using the threshold effect level of the Canadian guidelines (TEL). The sediment samples analyzed show that potential ecological risk is caused frequently at both sites by As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The long-term influence of sediment metals in the environment is also assessed by sequential extraction scheme analysis (SES). The availability of metals in sediments is assessed, and it is considered a significant threat to the environment for As, Cd, and Sb close to one mine site and Cr and Hg close to the other mine site. Statistical analysis of sediment samples provides a characterization of both subbasins, showing low concentrations of a specific set of metals and identifies the main characteristics of the different pollution sources. A tentative relationship between pollution sources and possible ecological risk is established. PMID:22606058

  2. Trace metal content of sediments close to mine sites in the Andean region.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Cristina; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí; Miralles, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This study is a preliminary examination of heavy metal pollution in sediments close to two mine sites in the upper part of the Jequetepeque River Basin, Peru. Sediment concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn were analyzed. A comparative study of the trace metal content of sediments shows that the highest concentrations are found at the closest points to the mine sites in both cases. The sediment quality analysis was performed using the threshold effect level of the Canadian guidelines (TEL). The sediment samples analyzed show that potential ecological risk is caused frequently at both sites by As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The long-term influence of sediment metals in the environment is also assessed by sequential extraction scheme analysis (SES). The availability of metals in sediments is assessed, and it is considered a significant threat to the environment for As, Cd, and Sb close to one mine site and Cr and Hg close to the other mine site. Statistical analysis of sediment samples provides a characterization of both subbasins, showing low concentrations of a specific set of metals and identifies the main characteristics of the different pollution sources. A tentative relationship between pollution sources and possible ecological risk is established. PMID:22606058

  3. Characterization of spacecraft humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckle, Susan; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    When construction of Space Station Freedom reaches the Permanent Manned Capability (PMC) stage, the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem will be fully operational such that (distilled) urine, spent hygiene water, and humidity condensate will be reclaimed to provide water of potable quality. The reclamation technologies currently baselined to process these waste waters include adsorption, ion exchange, catalytic oxidation, and disinfection. To ensure that the baseline technologies will be able to effectively remove those compounds presenting a health risk to the crew, the National Research Council has recommended that additional information be gathered on specific contaminants in waste waters representative of those to be encountered on the Space Station. With the application of new analytical methods and the analysis of waste water samples more representative of the Space Station environment, advances in the identification of the specific contaminants continue to be made. Efforts by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory at JSC were successful in enlarging the database of contaminants in humidity condensate. These efforts have not only included the chemical characterization of condensate generated during ground-based studies, but most significantly the characterization of cabin and Spacelab condensate generated during Shuttle missions. The analytical results presented in this paper will be used to show how the composition of condensate varies amongst enclosed environments and thus the importance of collecting condensate from an environment close to that of the proposed Space Station. Although advances were made in the characterization of space condensate, complete characterization, particularly of the organics, requires further development of analytical methods.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Humid Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirão, S. G. S.; Ribeiro, A. P. C.; Lourenço, M. J. V.; Santos, F. J. V.; Nieto de Castro, C. A.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, measurements of the thermal conductivity of humid air as a function of pressure, temperature, and mole fraction of water, for pressures up to 5 MPa and temperatures up to 430 K, for different water contents (up to 10 % vapor mole fraction) are reported. Measurements were performed using a transient hot-wire apparatus capable of obtaining data with an uncertainty of 0.8 % for gases. However, as moist air becomes corrosive above 373 K and at pressures >5 MPa, the apparatus, namely, the pressure vessel and the cells had to be modified, by coating all stainless-steel parts with a titanium nitride thin film coating, about 4 μm thick, obtained by physical vapor deposition. The expanded uncertainty (coverage factor k = 2) of the present experimental thermal conductivity data is 1.7 %, while the uncertainty in the mole fraction is estimated to be better than 0.0006. Experimental details regarding the preparation of the samples, the precautions taken to avoid condensation in the tubes connected to the measuring cell, and the method developed for obtaining reliable values of the water content for the gas mixtures are discussed. A preliminary analysis of the application of the kinetic theory of transport properties in reacting mixtures to interpret the complex dependence of the thermal conductivity of humid air on water composition is addressed.

  5. VAB Temperature and Humidity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Muktarian, Edward; Nurge, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 17 data loggers were placed in the VAB to measure temperature and humidity at 10-minute intervals over a one-year period. In 2013, the data loggers were replaced with an upgraded model and slight adjustments to their locations were made to reduce direct solar heating effects. The data acquired by the data loggers was compared to temperature data provided by three wind towers located around the building. It was found that the VAB acts as a large thermal filter, delaying and reducing the thermal oscillations occurring outside of the building. This filtering is typically more pronounced at higher locations in the building, probably because these locations have less thermal connection with the outside. We surmise that the lower elevations respond more to outside temperature variations because of air flow through the doors. Temperatures inside the VAB rarely exceed outdoor temperatures, only doing so when measurements are made directly on a surface with connection to the outside (such as a door or wall) or when solar radiation falls directly on the sensor. A thermal model is presented to yield approximate filter response times for various locations in the building. Appendix A contains historical thermal and humidity data from 1994 to 2009.

  6. Correlation characteristics of surficial deposits with a description of surficial stratigraphy in the Nevada test site region

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, D.L.; Swadley, W.C.; Gordon, A.J.

    1981-12-31

    Surficial deposits in the Nevada Test Site region have been correlated between valleys using correlation characteristics. Correlation characteristics include topography, drainage, topographic relationships, soils, desert pavement, depositional environment, and lithology. Stratigraphic units include Pliocene or Pleistocene debris flows, Pliocene or Pleistocene lakebeds, bedded gravels, and spring deposits, and two Quaternary fluvial and eolian units. The Pliocene or Pleistocene debris flows and the two Quaternary units are separated by regional unconformities. Each of the Quaternary units contains five subunits. The Bishop ash and several radiometric dates have been used to determine the age of the Quaternary units.

  7. Site-response maps for the Los Angeles region based on earthquake ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, Stephen H.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Carver, David L.; Cranswick, Edward; Meremonte, Mark E.; Michael, John A.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-motion records from aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge earthquake and main-shock records from the 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, 1991 Sierra Madre, and 1994 Northridge earthquakes are used to estimate site response in the urban Los Angeles, California, area. Two frequency bands are considered, 0.5-1.5 Hz and 2.0-6.0 Hz. Instrument characteristics prevented going to lower frequencies, and frequencies above 6.0 Hz are less important to the building inventory. Site response determined at the instrumented locations is associated with the surficial geology and contoured to produce a continuous spatial estimation of site response. The maps in this report are preliminary and will evolve as more data become available and more analysis is done.

  8. Characteristics of formation and growth of atmospheric nanoparticles observed at four regional background sites in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yumi; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Park, Jin-Soo; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Jihyung; Lim, Han-Cheol; Ryu, Jegyu; Lee, Chul-Kyu; Heo, Bok-Haeng

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of the number concentration and size distribution of atmospheric nanoparticles were conducted at four sites on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula by using identical scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPSs) in October 2012. The new particle formation and subsequent growth (NPF) of atmospheric nanoparticles, which were identified by the cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis technique, was observed on 11 out of 21 days at the Baengnyeong-do Comprehensive Monitoring Observatory (BCMO); and on 10 out of 21 days at the Korea Global Atmosphere Watch Center (KGAWC) from October 9 to 29, 2012. We also observed NPF events for 9 out of 21 days at both the Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO) and the Jeju Comprehensive Monitoring Observatory (JCMO). During the study period, NPF was simultaneously observed for five days at all four sites, which indicates that the NPF event had a spatial extent of at least 540 km. A cold, dry and cloud-free continental air mass originated from northern China, formed favorable environmental conditions (e.g., increasing solar insolation at the surface) on simultaneous NPF at the four sites. These synoptic weather patterns were closely associated with an extraordinary typhoon passing over the south of Japan. The mean values of particle formation rates at BCMO (1.26 cm- 3 s- 1) and KGAWC (1.49 cm- 3 s- 1) were relatively higher than those at GCO (0.39 cm- 3 s- 1) and JCMO (0.74 cm- 3 s- 1), however, the growth rate showed a similar level among four sites. An increase in the spatial homogeneity and inter-site correlation of atmospheric particles among the four sites was apparent for small particles (diameter < 30 nm) on simultaneous NPF event days.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Lincoln Creosote Site, Bossier City, LA, November 26, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Lincoln Creosote Site (Site) is located in Bossier City, Louisiana, and consists of a 20-acre industrial area that includes the former location of a wood treatment plant. Wood products such as railroad ties and utility poles were pressure treated at the plant, using creosote, chromated copper-arsenate (CCA) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) as wood preservatives. The compounds used for wood treatment contained metals, a number of semi-volatile organic base-neutral extractable compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). EPA`s selected removal action called for excavation of residential soils containing concentrations of wood treatment product residuals.

  10. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonal Onset of Influenza in the Continental United States

    PubMed Central

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Viboud, Cécile; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent reanalysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here, we extend these findings to the human population level, showing that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. PMID:20186267

  11. Evaluating multimodel variability of humidity over Europe using long term GPS network and ground base datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastin, Sophie; Bock, Olivier; Parracho, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to efforts made to reanalyse observed data to produce long-term homogenized datasets of new parameters or multi-parameters in recent years, we can better characterize, evaluate and analyse the water cycle in models at different scales. In this paper, a few MED-CORDEX simulations covering the ERA-interim period are evaluated against reprocessed IWV from GPS datasets over the European domain, from 1995 to 2008. The humidity is an important component of the water cycle, and models often have difficulties representing it. The high quality, consistent, long-term IWV dataset recently produced from GPS at more than 100 stations over Europe, with about half of the stations having nearly 15 years of data over the period from 1995 to 2010 is therefore used to evaluate the simulated IWV at seasonal, interannual and possibly diurnal time scales. Regional features are then identified, corresponding to different climate regimes. Other datasets, such as reanalysis of multi-parameters observed at one site (SIRTA, Palaiseau, France) over more than 10 years, or more regional networks are used to explain the dispersion of IWV among the different models and their biases against observations. The relationship between IWV and surface temperature is also evaluated locally to assess how much the sources of humidity from advection or surface fluxes are enough to reach the total capacity of the atmosphere in humidity when temperature increases. Over arid areas, this relation can depart from the Clausius-Clapeyron relation when temperature becomes too high. The ability of models to reproduce this relation during present climate is of high importance to estimate future climate.

  12. Intrinsically bent DNA flanks both sides of an RNA polymerase I transcription start site. Both regions display novel electrophoretic mobility.

    PubMed

    Schroth, G P; Siino, J S; Cooney, C A; Th'ng, J P; Ho, P S; Bradbury, E M

    1992-05-15

    We have identified two intrinsically bent regions of DNA which flank the transcription start site of the rRNA gene from Physarum polycephalum. DNA fragments from both regions were analyzed by circular permutation polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay and computer modeling. Both types of analysis indicate that one fragment contains a relatively simple bend centered about 160 base pairs (bp) upstream of the transcription start site while the other fragment contains multiple bends, the most prominent of which is centered about 150 bp downstream of the start site. According to both gel mobilities and computer modeling we estimate that the net bending in each is about 45 degrees. These fragments were studied in detail by varying parameters of electrophoresis that are known to affect bending. Previous work indicates that anomalous mobility should decrease when temperature or ethidium bromide concentration is increased, whereas anomalous mobility should increase when polyacrylamide gel percentage is increased. The anomalous mobility of both fragments decreases as temperature is raised from 4 to 65 degrees C, although the bent structure centered at -160 bp is more temperature labile than the bend at +150 bp. Strikingly different behavior was observed for the two fragments as the polyacrylamide concentrations was varied. As polyacrylamide concentrations are increased from 6 to 10%, the anomalous mobility of the bend centered at -160 bp increases while that of the bend centered at +150 bp decreases. The bend centered at +150 bp is "straightened" at all ethidium concentrations tested. In sharp contrast and unexpectedly, the anomalous migration of the bend centered at -160 bp increases dramatically in 0.1 micrograms/ml ethidium bromide. Many of the mobility differences we observe suggest that the two regions studied represent structurally distinct forms of bent DNA. The location of these strongly bent regions on either side of a RNA polymerase I transcription start site

  13. Ithaca MAP3S regional precipitation chemistry site. Annual progress report, 1 November 1984-31 October 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.J.; Likens, G.E.

    1986-07-01

    Samples were collected at the MAP3S Regional Precipitation Chemistry Site located 15 km southwest of Ithaca, New York (Lat. 42/sup 0/ 24', Long. 76/sup 0/ 39') at an elevation of 503 m. The surrounding area is rural in nature and consists of gently rolling terrain, vegetated by deciduous forest, abandoned fields, pasture and some agricultural land. Local point sources of combustion products include a 250 mw coal-fired power plant, 23 km NNE of the site and the Cornell University steam-generating plant 16 km ENE of the site. The latter produces emissions of SO/sub 2/ and particulates comparable to a 50 mw coal-fired power plant. Both of these plants are in a quadrant that is consistently downwind of the sampling station. Other local potential sources of particles are from agricultural activity, road dust, and road salt during the winter. Data are collected September 1984 through September 1985.

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns and source implications of aromatic hydrocarbons at six rural sites across China's developed coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important anthropogenic precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we measured ambient aromatic hydrocarbons from March 2012 to February 2014 at six rural sites in China's developed coastal regions. On average, benzene (B) comprised > 50% of total benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylenes (X) (BTEX) at sites in the Northeast China Plain (NECP) or in the North China Plain (NCP), whereas T, E, and X accounted for > 77% of total BTEX at sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta in the south. BTEX at the northern sites was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with combustion tracer-carbon monoxide (CO) but weakly correlated with traffic marker-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), suggesting that their main sources were coal and biofuel/biomass burning with substantially elevated B levels during the winter heating period. In contrast, BTEX at the southern sites originated mainly from traffic-related and/or industrial emission sources, as indicated by the poor correlations with CO but highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations with MTBE and tetrachloroethylene, an industrial emission tracer. The B/CO emission ratios from measurement agreed within a factor of 2 with that of a previous widely used emission inventory of China, but the T/CO ratio at the NECP site and the o-X/CO ratio at the NCP site were 29% and 38% of that in the inventory, respectively; the E/CO and X/CO ratios at the YRD site were 3.2-3.5 fold that in the emission inventory.

  15. Ambient air benzene at background sites in China's most developed coastal regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen causing leukemia, yet ambient air quality objectives for benzene are not available in China. The ambient benzene levels at four background sites in China's most developed coastal regions were measured from March 2012 to February 2013. The sites are: SYNECP, in the Northeast China Plain (NECP); YCNCP, in the North China Plain (NCP); THYRD, in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and DHPRD, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the mean annual benzene levels (578-1297 ppt) at the background sites were alarmingly higher, especially when compared to those of 60-480 pptv monitored in 28 cities in the United States. Wintertime benzene levels were significantly elevated at both sites (SYNECP and YCNCP) in northern China due to heating with coal/biofuels. Even at these background sites, the lifetime cancer risks of benzene (1.7-3.7E-05) all exceeded 1E-06 set by USEPA as acceptable for adults. At both sites in northern China, good correlations between benzene and CO or chloromethane, together with much lower toluene/benzene (T/B) ratios, suggested that benzene was largely related to coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning. At the DHPRD site in the PRD, benzene revealed a highly significant correlation with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), indicating that its source was predominantly from vehicle emissions. At the THYRD site in the YRD, higher T/B ratios and correlations between benzene and tetrachloroethylene, or MTBE, implied that benzene levels were probably affected by both traffic-related and industrial emissions.

  16. The Canopy Conductance of a Humid Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C. T.; Hsieh, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Penman-Monteith equation is widely used for estimating latent heat flux. The key parameter for implementing this equation is the canopy conductance (gc). Recent research (Blaken and Black, 2004) showed that gc could be well parameterized by a linear function of An/ (D0* X0c), where An represents net assimilation, D0 is leaf level saturation deficit, and X0c is CO2 mole fraction. In this study, we tried to use the same idea for estimating gcfor a humid grassland. The study site was located in County Cork, southwest Ireland (51o59''N 8o46''W), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was the dominant grass species in this area. An eddy covariance system was used to measure the latent heat flux above this humid grassland. The measured gc was calculated by rearranging Penman-Monteith equation combined with the measured latent heat flux. Our data showed that the gc decreased as the vapor pressure deficit and temperature increased. And it increased as the net radiation increased. Therefore, we found out that the best parameterization of gc was a linear function of the product of the vapor deficit, temperature, and net radiation. Also, we used the gc which was estimated by this linear function to predict the latent heat flux by Penman-Monteith equation and compared the predictions with those where the gc was chosen to be a fixed value. Our analysis showed that this simple linear function for gc can improve the latent heat flux predictions (R square increased from 0.48 to 0.66).

  17. Single-station and Small Source Regions GMPE for Site-specific PSHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J. C.; Lee, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Modern ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are based on datasets of ground-motion parameters recorded at multiple stations and different earthquakes in various source regions. This would cause excessive ground-motion variability and lead to overestimate of exceedance probability in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Recent efforts on decomposition for aleatory and epistemic variabilities and moving of the epistemic uncertainty to logic tree reveal that hazard level remains unchanged. To reduce the epistemic uncertainty so that the total variability is reduced in a GMPE becomes critical in the PSHA. In the present study, a total of 30,602 strong-motion records from TSMIP in Taiwan are selected and used to accomplish the regression analysis of a regional GMPE at the first step. Then, 9 stations in different part of Taiwan, each contains at least 55 records, are selected to complete a single-station GMPE, respectively, at the second step. The results reveal that the sigma of the regional GMPE is 0.626 in ln unit and the sigma of single-station GMPE is ranging 0.416 to 0.567. The single-station sigma is about 9% to 33% reduction from the regional one. At last, source zones are further divided in GMPEs, the sigma of single-station and small source regions GMPEs can be reduced 16% to 36% relative to the regional one. When PSHA is performed by adopting the single-station sigma, the hazard is 11% to 48% smaller then that regional sigma is used. The result of a PSHA may be further reduced, if this single-station to small source region attenuation relationship is used.

  18. Novel pppGpp binding site at the C-terminal region of the Rel enzyme from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Syal, Kirtimaan; Joshi, Himanshu; Chatterji, Dipankar; Jain, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis elicits the stringent response under unfavorable growth conditions, such as those encountered by the pathogen inside the host. The hallmark of this response is production of guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphates, collectively termed (p)ppGpp, which have pleiotropic effects on the bacterial physiology. As the stringent response is connected to survival under stress, it is now being targeted for developing inhibitors against bacterial persistence. The Rel enzyme in mycobacteria has two catalytic domains at its N-terminus that are involved in the synthesis and hydrolysis of (p)ppGpp, respectively. However, the function of the C-terminal region of the protein remained unknown. Here, we have identified a binding site for pppGpp in the C-terminal region of Rel. The binding affinity of pppGpp was quantified by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding site was determined by crosslinking using the nucleotide analog azido-pppGpp, and examining the crosslink product by mass spectrometry. Additionally, mutations in the Rel protein were created to confirm the site of pppGpp binding by isothermal titration calorimetry. These mutants showed increased pppGpp synthesis and reduced hydrolytic activity. We believe that binding of pppGpp to Rel provides a feedback mechanism that allows the protein to detect and adjust the (p)ppGpp level in the cell. Our work suggests that such sites should also be considered while designing inhibitors to target the stringent response. PMID:26179484

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Tenth Street Site, Columbus, NE, February 23, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document (ROD) presents the remedial action selected for the Tenth Street Site in Columbus, Nebraska. The selected remedy is ground water monitoring and institutional controls with a contingency for extraction of contaminated ground water and discharge to the Loup River.

  20. The regional ecology of alternative states and thresholds: Strategies for ecological site descriptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land dynamics, ecosystem resilience, and the interaction of management decisions with them vary significantly across space. One-size-fits-all applications across distinct land types have been responsible for many failures in rangeland management. Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) and similar lan...

  1. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  2. (+)- and (-)-N-allylnormetazocine binding sites in mouse brain: in vitro and in vivo characterization and regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, D.R.; Bagley, R.B.; Katzen, J.S.; Martin, B.R.

    1987-06-01

    In vivo and in vitro binding studies, both in whole brain and in selected areas, indicate that non-identical (+)- and (-)-NANM sites exist in the mouse brain, and each exhibits a different regional distribution. The in vivo binding of (+)-/sup 3/H-NANM was found to be saturable at pharmacologically relevant doses, and represents a relatively small (10 - 22%) portion of total brain (+)-/sup 3/H-NANM concentrations. The in vivo binding of (+)-/sup 3/H-NANM was selectively displaced by (+)-NANM and PCP, and more sensitive to haloperidol and (+)-ketocyclazocine than the (-)-/sup 3/H-NANM site. The in vivo binding of (-)-/sup 3/H-NANM was selectively displaced by (-)-NANM, and more sensitive to naloxone and (-) ketocyclazocine than the (+)-/sup 3/H-NANM site, and insensitive to PCP. This study indicates that the investigation of NANM binding sites is possible using in vivo binding techniques, and that each isomer apparently binds, in the mouse brain, to a single class of distinct sites. 32 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Relative Humidity Measurement Assurance Program Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerezo, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    During the summer of 1992, the National Conference of Standards Laboratories sponsored a relative humidity measurement assurance program (RHMAP) whose purpose was to enable each participating center to assess the quality of relative humidity calibrations being performed by their respective standards laboratories. This paper presents the data which was submitted by the participants during the first round of the program and shows the multi-laboratory comparisons of the 20%, 50%, and 80% relative humidity meaurements performed.

  4. Orbital-science investigation: Part J: preliminary geologic map of the region around the candidate Proclus Apollo landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilhelms, Don E.

    1972-01-01

    The Proclus Crater region was mapped to test the value, for photogeologic mapping purposes, of Apollo 15 metric photographs and to estimate the scientific value of the area as a potential landing site. A metric photographic frame (fig. 25-67) serves as a base for a map of the region around the Proclus Crater (fig. 25-68), and adjacent frames were overlapped with the base frame to provide stereographic images. The excellent stereocoverage allows easy simultaneous observation of topography and albedo. The large forward overlap and the extensive areal photographic coverage provide the best photogeologic data available to date. Brief study has already refined earlier interpretations of the area (refs. 25-7 and 25-32). Although volcanic units have been shown to be extensive in this region, mass wasting apparently has been more important than volcanism in shaping terra landforms.

  5. The northwestern slope valleys (NSVs) region, Mars: A prime candidate site for the future exploration of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Ferris, J.C.; Barlow, N.G.; Baker, V.R.; Mahaney, W.C.; Anderson, R.C.; Hare, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The northwestern slope valleys region is a prime candidate site for future science-driven Mars exploration because it records Noachian to Amazonian Tharsis development in a region that encapsulates (1) a diverse and temporally extensive stratigraphic record, (2) at least three distinct paleohydrologic regimes, (3) gargantuan structurally controlled flood valleys that generally correspond with gravity and magnetic anomalies, possibly marking ancient magnetized rock materials exposed by fluvial activity, (4) water enrichment, as indicated by Mars Odyssey and impact crater analyses, (5) long-lived magma and ground water/ice interactions that could be favorable for the development and sustenance of life, and (6) potential paleosol development. This region has high probability to yield significant geologic, climatic, and exobiologic information that could revolutionize our understanding of Mars. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel SATB1 binding site in the BCL2 promoter region possesses transcriptional regulatory function☆

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Feiran; Sun, Luan; Sun, Yujie

    2010-01-01

    BCL2 is a key regulator of apoptosis. Our previous work has demonstrated that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is positively correlated with BCL2 expression. In the present study, we report a new SATB1 binding site located between P1 and P2 promoters of the BCL2 gene. The candidate SATB1 binding sequence predicted by bioinformatic analysis was investigated in vitro and in vivo by electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). One 25-bp sequence, named SB1, was confirmed to be SATB1 binding site. The regulatory function of SB1 and its relevance to SATB1 were further examed with dual-luciferase reporter assay system in Jurkat cells. We found that SB1 could negatively regulate reporter gene activity. Mutation of SATB1 binding site further repressed the activity. Knockdown of SATB1 also enhanced this negative effect of SB1. Our data indicate that the SB1 sequence possesses negative transcriptional regulatory function and this function can be antagonized by SATB1. PMID:23554662

  7. Trajectory Simulations of Upper Tropospheric Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Sherwood, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    We present comparisons of simulations of upper tropospheric humidity at 215 and 146 hPa with satellite measurements. Our model uses diabatic trajectories to advect water vapor from an initial condition of 100% relative humidity to the final state. The model does not allow parcels' relative humidity to exceed 100%, and in this way crudely incorporates condensation. We find that this simple model does a good job of simulating the observations. Sensitivity studies suggest that one must have realistic wind velocities in order to accurately simulate the humidity distribution; microphysical parameterizations seem to be less important. Comparisions between simulations using UKMO and NCEP horizontal winds will be discussed.

  8. The propagation of uncertainty for humidity calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell-Smith, J.

    2009-12-01

    This paper addresses the international humidity community's need for standardization of methods for propagation of uncertainty associated with humidity generators and for handling uncertainty associated with the reference water vapour-pressure and enhancement-factor equations. The paper outlines uncertainty calculations for the mixing ratio, dew-point temperature and relative humidity output from humidity generators, and in particular considers controlling equations for a theoretical hybrid humidity generator combining single-pressure (1-P), two-pressure (2-P) and two-flow (2-F) principles. Also considered is the case where the humidity generator is used as a stable source with traceability derived from a reference hygrometer, i.e. a dew-point meter, a relative humidity meter or a wet-bulb psychrometer. Most humidity generators in use at national metrology institutes can be considered to be special cases of those considered here and sensitivity coefficients for particular types may be extracted. The ability to account for correlations between input variables and between different instances of the evaluation of the reference equations is discussed. The uncertainty calculation examples presented here are representative of most humidity calculations.

  9. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL 1 SITE, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Olver; R. de la Garza; S. Harder

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Determine the main source of the groundwater (GW) found within the DOE wells (PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3); and (2) Determine whether the Nopal I GW has any relationship to the connectivity between the regional Encinillas Aquifer to the west and the El Cuervo Aquifer to the east.

  10. An intercistronic region and ribosome-binding site in bacterial messenger RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Platt, T; Yanofsky, C

    1975-01-01

    A messenger RNA fragment about 220 nucleotides long has been isolated from 32-P-labeled tryptophan operon mRNA of Escherichia coli. When point mutations at the end of trpB and the beginning of trpA were introduced, the resulting nucleotide changes were found; hence the mRNA fragment must include the trpB-trpA intercistronic region. Most of the nucleotide sequences can be assigned to specific locations in the structural genes, based on the amino-acid sequences of the trpB and trpA proteins. In vitro, ribosomes bind to this piece of mRNA and protect from nuclease attack a region about 40 nucleotides long, containing a central AUG codon. The triplet codons to the 3' side of this AUG correspond to the first seven amino acids of the trpA protein; the codons to the 5' side correspond to the last six amino acids of the trpB protein. Translation of trpB is terminated by single UGA codon, which overlaps the trpA AUG initiation codon: UGAUG. Thus the untranslated "intercistronic" region consists of only two nucleotides. The RNA sequence spanning this region undoubtedly fulfills two functions, specifying ribosome recognition signals as well as encoding amino-acid sequences. Images PMID:1094468

  11. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M. C.; Taylor, Z. T.; Bartlett, R.; Gilbride, T.; Hefty, M.; Steward, H.; Love, P. M.; Palmer, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builders team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  12. Optimising geological storage of CO2 by development of multiple injection sites in regionally extensive storage sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhurst, Maxine; McDermott, Christopher; Williams, John; Mackay, Eric; Jin, Min; Tucker, Owain; Mallows, Tom; Hannis, Sarah; Pearce, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) is considered a key technology to provide secure, low-carbon energy supply and industrial processes to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to the adverse effects of climatic change. Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), captured during hydrocarbon production at the Sleipner Field, in strata beneath the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has been in operation since 1996. Projects to store CO2 captured at power plants in strata underlying the North Sea are currently in design. Storage of the CO2 is planned in depleted hydrocarbon fields or regionally extensive sandstones containing brine (saline aquifer sandstones). The vast majority of the UK potential storage resource is within brine-saturated sandstone formations. The sandstone formations are each hundreds to thousands of square kilometres in extent and underlie all sectors of the North Sea. The immense potential to store CO2 in these rocks can only be fully achieved by the operation of more than one injection site within each formation. Here we report an investigation into the operation of more than one injection site within a storage formation using a UK North Sea case study of the Captain Sandstone and the included Goldeneye Field, which is part of the mature hydrocarbon province offshore Scotland. Research by the CO2MultiStore project was targeted to increase understanding and confidence in the operation of two sites within the Captain Sandstone. Methods were implemented to reduce the effort and resources needed to characterise the sandstone, and increase understanding of its stability and performance during operation of more than one injection site. Generic learning was captured throughout the research relevant to the characterisation of extensive storage sandstones, management of the planned injection operations and monitoring of CO2 injection at two (or more) sites within any connected sandstone formation. The storage of CO2 can be optimised

  13. Technical Highlight: Evaluation of Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-12-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to analyze the indoor relative humidity in three home types in the hot-humid climate zone, and examine the impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls.

  14. Two sites in the MAPT region confer genetic risk for Guam ALS/PDC and dementia.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Purnima Desai; Yu, Chang-En; Sieh, Weiva; Steinbart, Ellen; Garruto, Ralph M; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu; Craig, Ulla-Katrina; Bird, Thomas D; Wijsman, Ellen M; Galasko, Douglas R; Schellenberg, Gerard D

    2007-02-01

    Unusual forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-G), Parkinsonism dementia complex (PDC-G) and Guam dementia (GD) are found in Chamorros, the indigenous people of Guam. Neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau are a neuropathologic feature of these closely related disorders. To determine if variation in the gene that encodes microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) contributes to risk for these disorders, we genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites and one insertion/deletion in the 5' end of MAPT in 54 ALS-G, 135 PDC-G, 153 GD and 258 control subjects, all of whom are Chamorros. Variation at three SNPs (sites 2, 6 and 9) influenced risk for ALS-G, PDC-G and GD. SNP2 acts through a dominant mechanism and is independent of the risk conferred by SNPs 6 and 9, the latter two acting by a recessive mechanism. Persons with the high-risk SNP6 and SNP9 AC/AC diplotype had an increased risk of 3-fold [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10-8.25] for GD, 4-fold (95% CI=1.40-11.64) for PDC-G and 6-fold (95% CI=1.44-32.14) for ALS-G, compared to persons with other diplotypes after adjusting for SNP2. Carriers of the SNP2 G allele had an increased risk of 1.6-fold (95% CI=1.00-2.62) for GD, 2-fold (95% CI=1.28-3.66) for PDC-G, and 1.5-fold (95% CI=0.74-3.00) for ALS-G, compared to non-carriers after adjusting for SNPs 6 and 9. Others have shown that SNP6 is also associated with risk for progressive supranuclear palsy. These two independent cis-acting sites presumably influence risk for Guam neuro-degenerative disorders by regulating MAPT expression.

  15. Structural features of the combining site region of Erythrina corallodendron lectin: role of tryptophan 135.

    PubMed Central

    Adar, R.; Moreno, E.; Streicher, H.; Karlsson, K. A.; Angström, J.; Sharon, N.

    1998-01-01

    The role of Trp 135 and Tyr 108 in the combining site of Erythrina corallodendron lectin (ECorL) was investigated by physicochemical characterization of mutants obtained by site-directed mutagenesis, hemagglutination-inhibition studies, and molecular modeling, including dynamics simulations. The findings demonstrate that Trp 135 in ECorL: (1) is required for the tight binding of Ca2+ and Mn2+ to the lectin because mutation of this residue into alanine results in loss of these ions upon dialysis and concomitant reversible inactivation of the mutant; (2) contributes to the high affinity of methyl alpha-N-dansylgalactosaminide (MealphaGalNDns) to the lectin; and (3) is solely responsible for the fluorescence energy transfer between the aromatic residues of the lectin and the dansyl group in the ECorL-MealphaGalNDns complex. Docking of MealphaGalNDns into the combining site of the lectin reveals that the dansyl moiety is parallel with the indole of Trp 135, as required for efficient fluorescence energy transfer, in one of the two possible conformations that this ligand assumes in the bound state. In the W135A mutant, which still binds MealphaGalNDns strongly, the dansyl group may partially insert itself into the place formerly occupied by Trp 135, a process that from dynamics simulations does not appear to be energetically favored unless the loop containing this residue assumes an open conformation. However, a small fraction of the W135A molecules must be able to bind MealphaGalNDns in order to explain the relatively high affinity, as compared to galactose, still remaining for this ligand. A model for the molecular events leading to inactivation of the W135A mutant upon demetallization is also presented in which the cis-trans isomerization of the Ala 88-Asp 89 peptide bond, observed in high-temperature dynamics simulations, appears not to be a required step. PMID:9514259

  16. Superfund Record of Decision: (EPA Region 3): Limestone Road Site, Cumberland, Maryland, September 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-30

    The Limestone Road site is located 2.5 miles east southeast of Cumberland, Allegheny County, Maryland, on the western flank of Irons Mountain and includes large areas of landfilled and dumped commercial, residential, and demolition refuse. A variety of waste has reportedly been dumped into a ravine on the property such as chromium, lead, and cadmium. In addition, an alleged 11 tons of hazardous waste have been reportedly disposed of as an extension of filling and grading operations. The primary contaminants of concern include: VOCs, base-neutral compounds, TCE, PCE, and heavy metals. Remedial action is proposed and included in the report.

  17. Human pathogenic viruses at sewage sludge disposal sites in the Middle Atlantic region.

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, S M; Adams, W N; O'Malley, M L; Lear, D W

    1984-01-01

    Human enteric viruses were detected in samples of water, crabs, and bottom sediments obtained from two sewage sludge disposal sites in the Atlantic Ocean. Viruses were isolated from sediments 17 months after the cessation of sludge dumping. These findings indicate that, under natural conditions, viruses can survive for a long period of time in the marine environment and that they may present potential public health problems to humans using these resources for food and recreation. The isolation of viruses in the absence of fecal indicator bacteria reinforces previous observations on the inadequacy of these bacteria for predicting the virological quality of water and shellfish. PMID:6334495

  18. Characterization of a DNA binding activity in DNAse I hypersensitive site 4 of the human globin locus control region.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, M; Kim, C; Gelinas, R

    1991-01-01

    A portion of the beta-globin Locus Control Region (LCR), which included DNAse I hypersensitive site 4 (HS4), was analyzed for its interactions with nuclear extracts and its contribution to LCR activity in a functional assay. In gel retardation assays, a short fragment from HS4 formed complexes with nuclear extracts from both erythroid and nonerythroid cells, and a core protected sequence 5'GACTGGC3' was revealed by DNAse I protection and methylation interference studies. This sequence resembles the binding sites of CCAAT-family members. Purified CP-2 but not CP-1 was shown to bind this HS4 sequence in a gel shift reaction, suggesting that the HS4 binding activity shares some sequence specificity with the CCAAT-factor family. Utilizing a transient expression assay in murine erythroleukemia cells, steady-state RNA levels were measured from pairs of LCR constructs linked to distinguishable beta-globin reporter genes. A short DNA fragment from HS4 which included the binding site for this novel binding activity accounted for most of the contribution to high level expression made by the entire HS4 region. Images PMID:1923823

  19. Splice junctions in adenovirus 2 early region 4 mRNAs: multiple splice sites produce 18 to 24 RNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Tigges, M A; Raskas, H J

    1984-01-01

    We localized the splice junctions in adenovirus 2 early region 4 (E4) mRNAs. Processing of the E4 precursor RNA positioned the donor splice site of the 5' leader sequence adjacent to acceptor sites near the 5' ends of five of the six open reading regions in the E4 transcription unit. Of particular interest among the E4 mRNAs is an extensively spliced class which includes multiple species with sizes ranging from 1.1 to 0.75 kilobases (kb). Purified 1.1- to 0.75-kb mRNAs specified at least 10 polypeptides in vitro. We detected eight acceptor and two donor splice sites utilized in the deletion of the intron from the 3' portion of these mRNAs. E4 RNAs were isolated from the cytoplasm of infected cells at 5, 9, 12, and 18 h after infection. The E4 mRNAs were present throughout infection, but different members of the 1.1- to 0.7-kb class were predominant at each time assayed. Alternate splicing of the 3.0-kb E4 precursor RNA can generate as many as 25 mRNAs that encode at least 16 polypeptides. Images PMID:6336328

  20. Estimating emissions of toxic hydrocarbons from natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. E.; Townsend-Small, A.; Lyon, D. R.; Tsai, T.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the past decade, shale gas operations have moved closer to urban centers and densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These HAPs include gases like hexane, 1,3-butadiene and BTEX compounds, which can cause minor health effects from short-term exposure or possibly cancer due to prolonged exposure. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples revealed enhancements in several of these toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) downwind of natural gas well pads and compressor stations. Two methods were used to estimate the emission rate of several HAPs in the Barnett Shale. The first method utilized CH4 flux measurements derived from the Picarro Mobile Flux Plane (MFP) and taken concurrently with whole air samples, while the second used a CH4 emissions inventory developed for the Barnett Shale region. From these two approaches, the regional emission estimate for benzene (C6H6) ranged from 48 ± 16 to 84 ± 26 kg C6H6 hr-1. A significant regional source of atmospheric benzene is evident, despite measurement uncertainty and limited number of samples. The extent to which these emission rates equate to a larger public health risk is unclear, but is of particular interest as natural gas productions continues to expand.

  1. Properties of acceleration sites in active regions as derived from heavy ion charge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartavykh, Y.; Dröge, W.; Klecker, B.; Möbius, E.; Popecki, M.; Mason, G.; Krucker, S.

    Charge states of heavy ions in solar energetic particle SEP events are determined by both the plasma conditions in the acceleration region and propagation effects The steep increase of the ionic charge of heavy ions as observed in all 3He- and Fe-rich SEP events suggests that stripping in a dense environment in the low corona is important in all these events The observed charge states and energy spectra of iron ions are used to infer the plasma conditions in the acceleration region by modelling the observations with a combined acceleration and propagation model that includes charge stripping acceleration coulomb losses and recombination in the corona and interplanetary propagation The interplanetary propagation includes anisotropic pitch-angle scattering on magnetic irregularities as well as magnetic focusing convection and adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind To accurately derive the value of the scattering mean free path of particles the intensity profiles and anisotropy data from ACE and Wind spacecraft were used The comparison of the deduced parameters of the acceleration region with coronal density profiles shows that the acceleration of these ions takes place in closed magnetic structures in the low corona

  2. Southwest region solar pond study for three sites: Tularosa Basin, Malaga Bend, and Canadian River

    SciTech Connect

    Boegli, W.J.; Dahl, M.M.; Remmers, H.E.

    1984-08-01

    In the study, the Bureau of Reclamation investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using solar salt-gradient ponds to generate power and to produce freshwater in Bureau projects at three sites--the Canadian River at Logan, New Mexico; Malaga Bend on the Pecos River near Carlsbad, New Mexico; and the Tularosa Basin in the vicinity of Alamogordo, New Mexico. The ponds would be used to generate electric power that could be integrated with the Bureau's power grid or used in combination with thermal energy from the ponds to power commercially available desalination systems to produce freshwater. Results of the economic analysis, which concentrated primarily on the Tularosa Basin site, showed that solar-pond-generated intermediate load power would cost between 62 and 90 mills/kWh and between 52 and 83 mills/kWh for baseload power. This results in benefit-cost ratios of approximately 2.0 and 1.3 for intermediate and baseload, respectively, when compared to similar facilities powered by fossil fuels. The cost savings are even more pronounced when comparing the two (solar versus fossil fuel) as a source of power for conventional distillation and membrane-type desalination systems.

  3. Chromosome Fragile Sites in Arabidopsis Harbor Matrix Attachment Regions That May Be Associated with Ancestral Chromosome Rearrangement Events

    PubMed Central

    dela Paz, Joelle S.; Stronghill, Patti E.; Douglas, Scott J.; Saravia, Sandy; Hasenkampf, Clare A.; Riggs, C. Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana condition a pleiotropic phenotype featuring defects in internode elongation, the homeotic conversion of internode to node tissue, and downward pointing flowers and pedicels. We have characterized five mutant alleles of BP, generated by EMS, fast neutrons, x-rays, and aberrant T–DNA insertion events. Curiously, all of these mutagens resulted in large deletions that range from 140 kbp to over 900 kbp just south of the centromere of chromosome 4. The breakpoints of these mutants were identified by employing inverse PCR and DNA sequencing. The south breakpoints of all alleles cluster in BAC T12G13, while the north breakpoint locations are scattered. With the exception of a microhomology at the bp-5 breakpoint, there is no homology in the junction regions, suggesting that double-stranded breaks are repaired via non-homologous end joining. Southwestern blotting demonstrated the presence of nuclear matrix binding sites in the south breakpoint cluster (SBC), which is A/T rich and possesses a variety of repeat sequences. In situ hybridization on pachytene chromosome spreads complemented the molecular analyses and revealed heretofore unrecognized structural variation between the Columbia and Landsberg erecta genomes. Data mining was employed to localize other large deletions around the HY4 locus to the SBC region and to show that chromatin modifications in the region shift from a heterochromatic to euchromatic profile. Comparisons between the BP/HY4 regions of A. lyrata and A. thaliana revealed that several chromosome rearrangement events have occurred during the evolution of these two genomes. Collectively, the features of the region are strikingly similar to the features of characterized metazoan chromosome fragile sites, some of which are associated with karyotype evolution. PMID:23284301

  4. Binding sites of HeLa cell nuclear proteins on the upstream region of adenovirus type 5 E1A gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K; Narita, M; Fujinaga, K

    1989-01-01

    Twenty one binding sites of HeLa cell nuclear proteins were identified on the upstream region of adenovirus type 5 E1A gene using DNase I footprint assay. The proximal promoter region contained five binding sites that overlapped the cap site, TATA box, TATA-like sequence, CCAAT box, and -100 region relative to the E1A cap site(+1). The -190 region was a potential site for octamer-motif binding proteins, such as NFIII and OBP100. An upstream copy of the E1A enhancer element 1 was the site for a factor (E1A-F) with the binding specificity of XGGAYGT (X = A, C; Y = A, T). E1A-F factor also bound to three other sites, one of which coincided with the distal E1A enhancer element. The distal element also contained a potential site for ATF factor. The adenovirus minimal origin of DNA replication competed for DNA-protein complex formation on the CCAAT and TATA box region and the -190 region, suggesting that these regions interacted with a common or related factor. Images PMID:2532319

  5. Magnetic Structure of Sites of Braiding in Hi-C Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. K.; Alexander, C. E.; Winebarger, A.; Moore, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) observations of an active region (AR) corona, at a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec, have offered the first direct evidence of field lines braiding, which could deliver sufficient energy to heat the AR corona by current dissipation via magnetic reconnection, a proposal given by Parker three decades ago. The energy required to heat the corona must be transported from the photosphere along the field lines. The mechanism that drives the energy transport to the corona is not yet fully understood. To investigate simultaneous magnetic and intensity structure in and around the AR in detail, we use SDO/HMI+AIA data of + / - 2 hours around the 5 minute Hi-C flight. In the case of the QS, work done by convection/granulation on the inter-granular feet of the coronal field lines probably translates into the heat observed in the corona. In the case of the AR, as here, there could be flux emergence, cancellation/submergence, or shear flows generating large stress and tension in coronal field loops which is released as heat in the corona. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no observational evidence available to these processes. We investigate the changes taking place in the photospheric feet of the magnetic field involved with brightenings in the Hi-C AR corona. Using HMI 45s magnetograms of four hours we find that, out of the two Hi-C sub-regions where the braiding of field lines were recently detected, flux emergence takes place in one region and flux cancellation in the other. The field in these sub-regions are highly sheared and have apparent high speed plasma flows at their feet. Therefore, shearing flows plausibly power much of the coronal and transition region heating in these areas of the AR. In addition, the presence of large flux emergence/cancellation strongly suggests that the work done by these processes on the pre-existing field also drives much of the observed heating.

  6. Characterization of FRA7B, a human common fragile site mapped at the 7p chromosome terminal region.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Nazario; Pelliccia, Franca; Rocchi, Angela

    2010-10-01

    Common fragile sites (CFS) are specific regions of the mammalian chromosomes that are particularly prone to gaps and breaks. They are a cause of genome instability, and the location of many CFS correlates with breakpoints of aberrations recurrent in some cancers. The molecular characterization of some CFS has not clarified the causes of their fragility. In this work, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with BAC and PAC clones, we determined the DNA sequence of the CFS FRA7B. The FRA7B sequence was then analyzed to identify coding sequences and some structural features possibly involved in fragility. FRA7B spans about 12.2 megabases, and is therefore one of the largest CFS analyzed. It maps at the 7p21.3-22.3 chromosome bands, therefore at the interface of G- and R-band regions that are probably difficult to replicate. A 90-kilobase long sequence that presents very high flexibility values was identified at the very beginning of the more fragile CFS region. Three large genes (THSD7A, SDK1, and MAD1L1) and two miRNA genes (MIRN589 and MIRN339) map in the fragile region. The chromosome band 7p22 is a recurrent breakpoint in chromosome abnormalities in different types of neoplasm. FRA7B is the first characterized CFS located in a chromosome terminal region.

  7. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  8. Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace elements in PM10 monitored in urban and rural sites of Piedmont Region.

    PubMed

    Padoan, Elio; Malandrino, Mery; Giacomino, Agnese; Grosa, Mauro M; Lollobrigida, Francesco; Martini, Sara; Abollino, Ornella

    2016-02-01

    The results on elemental composition of aerosol (PM10) sampled during 2011 in Piedmont region (Italy) are interpreted using meteorological data, Enrichment Factors (EF), chemometric processing by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Factor Analysis (FA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Daily concentrations of about 30 elements were measured using HR-ICP-MS in five monitoring sites. A clear seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations in autumn and winter, was observed, particularly in the urban sites. Levels of As, Cd, Ni and Pb in most of the samples were within the limits imposed by the European legislation. Spatial differences in PM10 and metal concentrations were significant, with rural and urban sites showing different metal patterns, indicating different sources. K and Ca were used, respectively, as marker of biomass burning and industrial marker (cement plant); EFs showed that Ca was enriched just in one area and K was enriched only in the winter period considered and in some stations. Data analysis through PCA, FA and HCA allowed us to identify correlations among the investigated elements and similarities between sampling sites in order to individuate specific emission sources, such as non-exhaust vehicle emission.

  9. A review of fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin region: response and ecological site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Richard F.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Pierson, Fred B.; Williams, C. Jason

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesizes the state of knowledge on fire effects on vegetation and soils in semi-arid ecosystems in the Great Basin Region, including the central and northern Great Basin and Range, Columbia River Basin, and the Snake River Plain. We summarize available literature related to: (1) the effects of environmental gradients, ecological site, and vegetation characteristics on resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive species; (2) the effects of fire on individual plant species and communities, biological soil crusts, seed banks, soil nutrients, and hydrology; and (3) the role of fire severity, fire versus fire surrogate treatments, and post-fire grazing in determining ecosystem response. From this, we identify knowledge gaps and present a framework for predicting plant successional trajectories following wild and prescribed fires and fire surrogate treatments. Possibly the three most important ecological site characteristics that influence a site’s resilience (ability of the ecological site to recover from disturbance) and resistance to invasive species are soil temperature/moisture regimes and the composition and structure of vegetation on the ecological site just prior to the disturbance event.

  10. Temporal characterization and regional contribution to O3 and NOx at an urban and a suburban site in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Min; Zhu, Kuanguang; Wang, Tijian; Chen, Pulong; Han, Yong; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Shu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    To improve our understanding of the interplay among local and regional photochemical pollutants in the typical city of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, the concurrent observation of O3 and NOx concentrations at an urban and a suburban site in Nanjing during 2008 is presented. In general, the annual mean O3 concentration is 2.35ppbv lower in the downtown than at suburban due to higher NOx pollution levels correlated with heavy traffic. At both sites, O3 shows a distinct seasonality with the spring maximum and the winter minimum, while the minimum concentration of NOx appears in summertime. Besides the chemical processes of O3 sensitivity in the daytime and the NOx titration at night, meteorological conditions also play an essential role in these monthly and diurnal variations. The ozone weekend effect that can be attributed to the weekly routine of human activities is observed in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing as well, with O3 concentrations 2.09ppbv higher and NOx concentrations 6.20ppbv lower on weekends than on weekdays. The chemical coupling of NO, NO2 and O3 is investigated to show that the OX-component (O3 and NO2) partitioning point occurs at about 35ppbv for NOx, with O3 being the dominant form at lower levels and NO2 dominating at higher levels. And it is also discovered that the level of OX is made up of two contributions, including the regional contribution affected by regional background O3 level and the local contribution correlated with the level of primary pollution. The diurnal peak of regional contribution appears 2-5h after the peak of local contribution, implying that OX in Nanjing might prominently affected by the pollutants from a short distance. The highest regional contribution and the second highest local contribution lead to the spring peak of O3 observed in Nanjing, whereas the highest local contribution and the moderate regional contribution make the O3 concentrations in summer higher than those in autumn and winter. Our results

  11. Temporal characterization and regional contribution to O3 and NOx at an urban and a suburban site in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Min; Zhu, Kuanguang; Wang, Tijian; Chen, Pulong; Han, Yong; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Shu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    To improve our understanding of the interplay among local and regional photochemical pollutants in the typical city of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, the concurrent observation of O3 and NOx concentrations at an urban and a suburban site in Nanjing during 2008 is presented. In general, the annual mean O3 concentration is 2.35ppbv lower in the downtown than at suburban due to higher NOx pollution levels correlated with heavy traffic. At both sites, O3 shows a distinct seasonality with the spring maximum and the winter minimum, while the minimum concentration of NOx appears in summertime. Besides the chemical processes of O3 sensitivity in the daytime and the NOx titration at night, meteorological conditions also play an essential role in these monthly and diurnal variations. The ozone weekend effect that can be attributed to the weekly routine of human activities is observed in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing as well, with O3 concentrations 2.09ppbv higher and NOx concentrations 6.20ppbv lower on weekends than on weekdays. The chemical coupling of NO, NO2 and O3 is investigated to show that the OX-component (O3 and NO2) partitioning point occurs at about 35ppbv for NOx, with O3 being the dominant form at lower levels and NO2 dominating at higher levels. And it is also discovered that the level of OX is made up of two contributions, including the regional contribution affected by regional background O3 level and the local contribution correlated with the level of primary pollution. The diurnal peak of regional contribution appears 2-5h after the peak of local contribution, implying that OX in Nanjing might prominently affected by the pollutants from a short distance. The highest regional contribution and the second highest local contribution lead to the spring peak of O3 observed in Nanjing, whereas the highest local contribution and the moderate regional contribution make the O3 concentrations in summer higher than those in autumn and winter. Our results

  12. Aedes aegypti disregard humidity-related conditions with adequate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Canyon, D V; Muller, R; Hii J, L K

    2013-03-01

    Weather variations have clear associations with the epidemiology of dengue fever and populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Data on humidity associations, however, lags with respect to its effect on host-biting, nectar-seeking and survival. This experimental study on Ae. aegypti, sourced from the arid tropics, investigated the effect of low and high relative humidity and diet in relation to host-biting, temporal variations in feeding frequency, and mosquito mortality. In each environmental setting, 10 replicates, containing one male and five female mosquitoes, were challenged with different nutritional sources every six hours over 12 days. Results showed that host-biting did not diminish in low humidity and was six times higher than expected. Sucrose feeding was observed to significantly moderate host-biting and water alone was inadequate for survival. The high host-biting rates help to explain the intensity of dengue epidemics, while the ability of the mosquito to disregard adverse humidity-related conditions helps to explain how dengue epidemics in arid tropical regions can be just as devastating as those in the wet tropics.

  13. Characterization of black carbon at roadside sites and along vehicle roadways in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Tri Quang; Lee, Seung-Bok; Hang, Nguyen Thanh; Kongpran, Jira; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2014-08-01

    To understand the seasonality of concentrations of traffic-related black carbon (BC) in a megacity, BC concentrations in fine particles were monitored at the roadside and on roads during both the wet and dry seasons of 2010 in the city center of Bangkok, Thailand. The BC concentration measured every 2 min by an aethalometer at the Dingdaeng roadside in the dry season was 17.9 ± 6.6 μg m-3, which was 1.6-fold higher than the value (11.5 ± 2.7 μg m-3) during the wet season. This seasonal difference could not be explained by washout by rain but was instead due to more frequent upwind conditions caused by a prevailing wind direction from the monitoring site toward the road in the wet season. When the prevailing wind direction was from the road, the average BC concentration at the roadside increased up to 30 μg m-3 during both seasons. In contrast, when the wind direction was from the site to the road, the BC concentration was reduced to the level of urban background concentrations measured inside Lumphini Park and the Dusit Zoo of Bangkok. Roadside BC concentrations were strongly correlated with NOx concentrations and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured in 24-h PM2.5 filter samples. Both relationships exhibited linear determination coefficients of more than 0.80, implying that NOx can be used as an indicator and an alternative for traffic-related BC at this roadside site when real-time BC monitors are not available. The average on-road BC concentration (25.5 μg m-3) was similar to the average at the roadside under downwind conditions (25.5 μg m-3) from morning to evening only. In contrast, the latter value was 1.7-fold higher than the daily average at the roadside (14.7 μg m-3) and 7.3-fold higher than the urban background level during the daytime (3.5 μg m-3). The results of this study suggest that residents who live next to major roads, pedestrians at the roadside, and drivers on the roads experience a high risk of exposure to severe levels of

  14. A plant scaffold attached region detected close to a T-DNA integration site is active in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, A; Kay, V; Schlake, T; Landsmann, J; Bode, J

    1994-01-01

    Integration of foreign genes into plant genomes by the Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer system has been considered to occur at random. It has been speculated that the chromosomal structure of the integration site might affect the expression pattern of the introduced genes. To gain insight into the molecular structure of T-DNA integration sites and its possible impact on gene expression, we have examined plant DNA sequences in the vicinity of T-DNA borders. Analysis of a transgenic petunia plant containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene regulated by the hemoglobin promoter (PAR) from Parasponia andersonii revealed a scaffold attachment region (SAR) close to one T-DNA end. In addition to having strong binding affinities for both animal and plant nuclear scaffolds this petunia SAR element is as active in mammalian cells as the authentic elements from mammalian sources. Images PMID:8052530

  15. Production and dissolution of nuclear explosive melt glasses at underground test sites in the Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Smith, D.K.

    1998-11-06

    From 1975 to 1996 the French detonated 140 underground nuclear explosions beneath the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa in the South Pacific; from 1965 to 1971 the United States detonated three high yield nuclear tests beneath Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain. Approximately 800 metric tons of basalt is melted per kiloton of nuclear yield; almost lo7 metric tons of basalt were melted in these tests. Long-lived and toxic radionuclides are partitioned into the melt glass at the time of explosion and are released by dissolution with seawater under saturated conditions. A glass dissolution model predicts that nuclear melt glasses at these sites will dissolve in lo6 to lo7 yea

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

  17. Satellite SAR imagery for site discovery, change detection and monitoring activities in cultural heritage sites: experiments on the Nasca region, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, D.; Cigna, F.; Masini, N.; Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    Besides their suitability for multi-temporal and spatial deformation analysis, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image archives acquired by space-borne radar sensors can be exploited to support archaeological investigations over huge sites, even those partially or totally buried and still to be excavated. Amplitude information is one of the main properties of SAR data from which it is possible to retrieve evidences of buried structures, using feature extraction and texture analysis. Multi-temporality allows the reconstruction of past and recent evolution of both landscape and built-up environment, with the possibility to detect natural and/or anthropogenic changes, including human-induced damages to the conservation of cultural heritage. We present the methodology and first results of the experiments currently undertaken using SAR data in the Nasca region (Southern Peru), where two important civilizations such as Paracas and Nasca developed and flourished from 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. The study areas include a wide spectrum of archaeological and environmental elements to be preserved, among which: the archaeological site of Cahuachi and its surroundings, considered the largest adobe Ceremonial Centre in the World; the Nasca lines and geoglyphs in the areas of Palpa, Atarco and Nasca; the ancient networks of aqueducts and drainage galleries in the Puquios area, built by Nasca in the 1st-6th centuries AD. Archaeological prospection and multi-purpose remote sensing activities are currently carried out in the framework of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), with the direct involvement of researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, Italian National Research Council. In this context, C- and L-band SAR images covering the Nasca region since 2001 were identified for the purposes of this research and, in particular, the following

  18. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  19. Creative use of pilot points to address site and regional scale heterogeneity in a variable-density model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dausman, Alyssa M.; Doherty, John; Langevin, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot points for parameter estimation were creatively used to address heterogeneity at both the well field and regional scales in a variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport model designed to test multiple hypotheses for upward migration of fresh effluent injected into a highly transmissive saline carbonate aquifer. Two sets of pilot points were used within in multiple model layers, with one set of inner pilot points (totaling 158) having high spatial density to represent hydraulic conductivity at the site, while a second set of outer points (totaling 36) of lower spatial density was used to represent hydraulic conductivity further from the site. Use of a lower spatial density outside the site allowed (1) the total number of pilot points to be reduced while maintaining flexibility to accommodate heterogeneity at different scales, and (2) development of a model with greater areal extent in order to simulate proper boundary conditions that have a limited effect on the area of interest. The parameters associated with the inner pilot points were log transformed hydraulic conductivity multipliers of the conductivity field obtained by interpolation from outer pilot points. The use of this dual inner-outer scale parameterization (with inner parameters constituting multipliers for outer parameters) allowed smooth transition of hydraulic conductivity from the site scale, where greater spatial variability of hydraulic properties exists, to the regional scale where less spatial variability was necessary for model calibration. While the model is highly parameterized to accommodate potential aquifer heterogeneity, the total number of pilot points is kept at a minimum to enable reasonable calibration run times.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi Entrance through Systemic or Mucosal Infection Sites Differentially Modulates Regional Immune Response Following Acute Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Meis, Juliana; Barreto de Albuquerque, Juliana; Silva dos Santos, Danielle; Farias-de-Oliveira, Désio Aurélio; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Savino, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Acute Chagas disease is characterized by a systemic infection that leads to the strong activation of the adaptive immune response. Outbreaks of oral contamination by the infective protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi are frequent in Brazil and other Latin American countries, and an increased severity of clinical manifestations and mortality is observed in infected patients. These findings have elicited questions about the specific responses triggered after T. cruzi entry via mucosal sites, possibly modulating local immune mechanisms, and further impacting regional and systemic immunity. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of differential lymphoid organ responses in experimental models of acute T. cruzi infection. PMID:23898334

  1. Source apportionment of PM 10 at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A. K.

    2007-03-01

    PM 10 and its chemical species mass concentrations were measured once in a week at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata for a period of 24 h during November 2003 to November 2004. At each monitoring site, 53 sets of daily average PM 10 samples were collected during the study period. Approximately 55% of the monitoring days are weekdays, while 45% are weekends. The PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 68.2 to 280.6 μg m - 3 at the residential site, and 62.4 to 401.2 μg m - 3 at the industrial site. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH), fluoranthene (Fl), pyrene (Py), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) have been analyzed using Gas Chromatoghaphy. Metals in PM 10 deposited on quartz microfibre filter papers were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer. Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM 10 concentrations. Total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC) and organic carbon (OC) were analyzed using a Carbon analyzer. Exposed quartz microfibre filter papers were also analyzed for water-soluble anions of fluoride (F -), chloride (Cl -), nitrate (NO 3-), phosphate (PO 43-) and sulfate (SO 42-) using ion chromatography. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA)/absolute principal component scores (APCS) model was applied to the mass concentrations of PM 10 and its chemical species. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation identified five possible sources; solid waste dumping, vehicular emission, coal combustion, cooking and soil dust at residential site. The extracted possible sources at the industrial site were vehicular emissions, coal combustion, electroplating industry, tyre wear and secondary aerosol. A quantitative estimation by principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) model

  2. Characteristics and seasonal variation of organic matter in PM2.5 at a regional background site of the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jialiang; Hu, Junchao; Xu, Binhua; Hu, Xiaoling; Sun, Peng; Han, Wenliang; Gu, Zeping; Yu, Xiangming; Wu, Minghong

    2015-12-01

    One hundred and ten seasonal PM2.5 samples were collected at Lin'an (LA), a regional background site in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China, to study the chemical composition, seasonal variation and sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the YRD region. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and composition of solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC) including n-alkanes, hopanes, PAHs, n-fatty acids and levoglucosan were analyzed. Back trajectory and potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis were conducted to identify the possible source areas of PM2.5 at LA. PM2.5 concentration at LA ranged from 15.7 μg m-3 to 182.1 μg m-3, with an annual average of 59.7 μg m-3. A large part of the total carbon (OC + EC, 11.8 μg m-3) was water-soluble (42% in winter and spring, 56% in summer and 49% in autumn). SEOC concentration showed distinct seasonal variation of higher in winter and lower in summer. The average concentrations of n-alkanes and PAHs in winter (105 ng m-3 and 55 ng m-3 respectively) were 5 and 8 times of that in summer. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs and PSCF analysis suggested that vehicle emission was not the main source of PAHs at LA. Based on the levoglucosan concentration (annual average of 136 ng m-3), more than 15% of the OC at LA was from biomass burning. This data set provides useful information for the understanding of the characteristics of PM2.5 in the YRD region.

  3. Comparison of atmospheric pesticide concentrations measured at three sampling sites: local, regional and long-range transport.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, A; Millet, M; Mirabe, P; Wortham, H

    2000-12-18

    We present the comparison of atmospheric concentrations of eleven currently used pesticides (HCB, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, trifluraline, mecoprop, phosalone, atrazine, carbofuran, carbaryl, diuron and isoproturon) measured in remote (Aubure), rural (Colmar) and urban (Strasbourg) areas of Alsace and Vosges regions (cast France). Pesticides samples were collected simultaneously on two of the three sites during the summer season of 1993 and 1994, using a Hi-Vol sampler with Whatman filter paper and XAD-2 resin. The particle and gas phases were collected separately during 24 h. The relative importance of local emissions and local, regional and long distance transport on the contamination of the atmosphere in the three environments (remote, rural and urban) were investigated. To facilitate the interpretation of the results, the alpha/gamma-HCH ratio was used as a tracer of pesticide emissions.

  4. Effects of low humidity on small premature infants in servocontrol incubators. I. Decrease in rectal temperature.

    PubMed

    Belgaumkar, T K; Scott, K

    1975-01-01

    19 small premature infants in servocontrol incubators, whose abdominal skin temperature was 36.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C, were subjected to alternate high- and low-humidity environments. With low humidity, rectal temperature dropped significantly below abdominal skin temperature. Skin was the predominant site of evaporative heat loss. The temperature was lower on naked skin than on an area covered by adhesive tape. Thus, servocontrol with low humidity increases evaporative heat loss and engenders a cycle of events that results in paradoxical body temperature decrease as the incubator temperature increases.

  5. Stomatal response to decreasing humidity implicated in recent decline in U.S. evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigden, A. J.; Salvucci, G.

    2015-12-01

    We detect and attribute long-term changes in evapotranspiration (ET) over the contiguous United States from 1961 to 2013 using an approach we refer to as the ETRHEQ method (Evapotranspiration from Relative Humidity at Equilibrium). The ETRHEQ method primarily uses meteorological data collected at common weather stations. Daily ET is inferred by choosing the surface conductance to water vapor transport that minimizes the vertical variance of the calculated relative humidity profile averaged over the day. The key advantage of the ETRHEQ method is that it does not require knowledge of the surface state (soil moisture, stomatal conductance, leaf are index, etc.) or site-specific calibration. We estimate daily ET at 229 weather stations for 53 years. Across the U.S., we find a decrease in summertime (JJAS) ET of 0.21 cm/yr/yr from 1961-2013 with recent (1998-2013) declines in summertime ET of 1.08 cm/yr/yr. We decompose the ET trends into the dominant environmental drivers. Our results suggest that the recent decline in ET is due to increased vegetation stress induced by increases in vapor pressure deficit. We will present out results in context of other commonly used, regional ET data products.

  6. A European aerosol phenomenology -4: Harmonized concentrations of carbonaceous aerosol at 10 regional background sites across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, F.; Alastuey, A.; Areskoug, H.; Ceburnis, D.; Čech, J.; Genberg, J.; Harrison, R. M.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Kiss, G.; Laj, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Perez, N.; Quincey, P.; Schwarz, J.; Sellegri, K.; Spindler, G.; Swietlicki, E.; Theodosi, C.; Yttri, K. E.; Aas, W.; Putaud, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    Although particulate organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) are important constituents of the suspended atmospheric particulate matter (PM), measurements of OC and EC are much less common and more uncertain than measurements of e.g. the ionic components of PM. In the framework of atmospheric research infrastructures supported by the European Union, actions have been undertaken to determine and mitigate sampling artefacts, and assess the comparability of OC and EC data obtained in a network of 10 atmospheric observatories across Europe. Positive sampling artefacts (from 0.4 to 2.8 μg C/m3) and analytical discrepancies (between -50% and +40% for the EC/TC ratio) have been taken into account to generate a robust data set, from which we established the phenomenology of carbonaceous aerosols at regional background sites in Europe. Across the network, TC and EC annual average concentrations range from 0.4 to 9 μg C/m3, and from 0.1 to 2 μg C/m3, respectively. TC/PM10 annual mean ratios range from 0.11 at a Mediterranean site to 0.34 at the most polluted continental site, and TC/PM2.5 ratios are slightly greater at all sites (0.15-0.42). EC/TC annual mean ratios range from 0.10 to 0.22, and do not depend much on PM concentration levels, especially in winter. Seasonal variations in PM and TC concentrations, and in TC/PM and EC/TC ratios, differ across the network, which can be explained by seasonal changes in PM source contributions at some sites.

  7. Does the Walker Lane extend through the Nevada test site region

    SciTech Connect

    Fridrich, C.; O'Leary, D. . Denver Federal Center)

    1993-04-01

    The southeastern terminus of the Walker Lane is poorly defined and poorly understood. Recent work in and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) suggests the presence of a structural zone that may be an extension of the Walker Lane, and that may be continuous with the Las Vegas valley shear zone farther to the southeast. Unlike the Walker Lane, large through-going strike-slip faults have not been found in the NTS zone. Instead, the strike-slip faults present are few, are relatively short, commonly consist of diffuse fault zones, are interconnected poorly if at all, and largely appear to represent zones of accommodation between domains in which extension occurred at different times and to different degrees. However, the majority of these right-slip and left-slip faults are northwest-trending and northeast-trending, respectively, suggesting that plate motions may have played a role in the creation of these accommodation zones. An obstacle to understanding the NTS zone is that major ignimbrite sheets and calderas of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SNVF) formed in this zone at the height of late Tertiary tectonic activity, possibly burying much of the structural evidence. The NTS zone could represent an intersection of the Walker Lane with another major structural feature, a significant bend in the Walker Lane, or a transtensional tear that localized accommodation structures as well as the prominent late Miocene calderas of the SNVF. Ongoing field work is aimed at determining which of these and competing interpretations is best.

  8. Rotation of late Cenozoic extensional stresses, Yucca Flat region, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ander, H.D.

    1984-12-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in the southern Basin and Range where the geology is typified by complexly deformed Paleozoic sedimentary rocks underlying Tertiary and Quaternary volcanics and alluvium all displaced by Cenozoic normal faults. The purpose of this study is to interpret the history of change in Cenozoic extensional stress orientations using ash-flow distributions, surface fault configurations, and slickenside analyses. Extensive drill hole data collected from Yucca Flat within NTS were used to construct isopach and structure contour maps of Cenozoic units occupying the northerly-trending basin. The configuration of these units indicates that the north-south-trending faults controlling present day basin morphology were inactive during deposition of the volcanic rocks from approximately 25 to 11 myBP. However, after 11 myBP, the overlying sedimentary sequence was strongly influenced by these faults and consequent basin development. In particular, an inordinately thick section of late Tertiary and Quaternary alluvium occurs at the southwestern end of Yucca Flat. Southwest-striking faults at the southwestern and of Yucca flat are postulated to be deflected at their northeast ends, becoming continuous with the north-south basin forming fault sets.

  9. A breeding site model for regional, dynamical malaria simulations evaluated using in situ temporary ponds observations.

    PubMed

    Asare, Ernest O; Tompkins, Adrian M; Amekudzi, Leonard K; Ermert, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Daily observations of potential mosquito developmental habitats in a suburb of Kumasi in central Ghana reveal a strong variability in their water persistence times, which ranged between 11 and 81 days. The persistence of the ponds was strongly tied with rainfall, location and size of the puddles. A simple power-law relationship is found to fit the relationship between the average pond depth and area well. A prognostic water balance model is derived that describes the temporal evolution of the pond area and depth, incorporating the power-law geometrical relation. Pond area increases in response to rainfall, while evaporation and infiltration act as sink terms. Based on a range of evaluation metrics, the prognostic model is judged to provide a good representation of the pond coverage evolution at most sites. Finally, we demonstrate that the prognostic equation can be generalised and equally applied to a grid-cell to derive a fractional pond coverage, and thus can be implemented in spatially distributed models for relevant vector- borne diseases such as malaria. PMID:27063734

  10. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural geology of the CP Hills, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; and regional implications

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    Detailed mapping and structural analysis of upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the CP Hills of the Nevada Test Site, together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole (1968) actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west-vergent CP thrust which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east-vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. West-vergence of the CP thrust is indicated by large scale west-vergent recumbent folds in both its hangingwall and footwall and by the fact that the CP thrust ramps up section through hangingwall strata toward the northwest. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west-vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A pre-Tertiary reconstruction of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and has important implications for the development of hinterland-vergent deformation as well as for the probable magnitude of Tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley. Subsequent to Mesozoic deformation, the CP Hills were disrupted by at least two episodes of Tertiary extensional deformation: (1) an earlier episode represented by pre-middle Miocene low-angle normal faults, and (2) a later, post-11 Ma episode of high-angle normal faulting. Both episodes of extension were related to regional deformation, the latter of which has resulted in the present basin and range topography of the NTS region.

  11. Air assimilative capacity-based environment friendly siting of new industries--a case study of Kochi region, India.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S K; Chalapati Rao, C V

    2007-09-01

    Air pollution has become a matter of grave concern, particularly in mega-cities and urban areas, where the situation is alarming and becoming more and more severe day-by-day and warrants, therefore, careful planning to facilitate future industrial development. Site selection, with the objective of minimizing adverse environmental impacts based on environmental criteria is a vital prerequisite, particularly for air polluting industries. In order to locate any air polluting industry, the assimilative capacity of the region needs to be assessed carefully and planned accordingly, so that the receiving environment is not adversely affected. Assimilative capacity of a region/airshed, widely represented through the ventilation coefficient by many researchers in the past, does not give a clear picture about the amount of emission load that can be assimilated in a given region. The ventilation coefficient, at best, can only present a broad picture about the air pollution dispersion potential (low, medium or high) of the region. A modified approach, which utilizes air quality modelling as a tool to estimate the maximum allowable emission load that a region can assimilate without violating the stipulated standards, has been used for estimating the assimilative capacity of the air environment. Details of this approach have been presented in this paper through a case study carried out for the Kochi region, located in the Kerala State of India. A variety of emission and meteorological scenarios have been considered and critical emission loads have been estimated. This approach shall provide necessary technical guidance to the environmental regulatory authorities as well as to the industries in planning environment friendly industrial development.

  12. Humidity effects on tribochemical removal of GaAs surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bingjun; Gao, Jian; Jin, Chenning; Xiao, Chen; Wu, Jiang; Liu, Huiyun; Jiang, Shulan; Chen, Lei; Qian, Linmao

    2016-06-01

    Defect-free tribochemical removal of gallium arsenide (GaAs) was demonstrated in vacuum, dry air, and various humidity environments by scratching with a SiO2 tip. The removal depth increases with increasing relative humidity (1-90%), and reaches its maximum value in water. A perfect crystal matrix without defects was observed in the cross section of the scratched groove using a transmission electron microscope. A model based on reactive tip scratching-induced oxidation, water solubility of debris, and adhesion effect was proposed to interpret tribochemical removal of GaAs surface. This study provides new insights into defect-free and site-controlled nanofabrication of GaAs.

  13. Storage corrosion of materials and equipment: Temperature-humidity and aerochemical regimes indoors and in the open air

    SciTech Connect

    Strekalov, P.V.

    1994-07-01

    The following storage factors are considered: (1) the temperature-humidity complex (THC) in the open air at representative sites with cold, moderate, and subtropical humid climate; (2) the temperature and humidity differences between the open air and an atmospheric of semiclosed spaces; (3) the THC inside storage-spaces in a humid tropical climate; (4) the concentration of SO{sub 2} and Cl{sup -} in the open air and in different storage-spaces; (5) the categories of corrosivity of the atmosphere and methods for its evaluation indoors and outdoors.

  14. Glaciation and regional ground-water flow in the Fennoscandian Shield: Site 94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, Alden M.; Voss, Clifford I.; Neuzil, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Results from a regional-scale ground-water flow model of the Fennoscandian shield suggest that ground-water flow is strongly affected by surface conditions associated with climatic change and glaciation. The model was used to run a series of numerical simulations of variable-density ground-water flow in a 1500-km-long and approximately 10-km-deep cross-section that passes through southern Sweden. Ground-water flow and shield brine transport in the cross-sectional model are controlled by an assumed time evolution of surface conditions over the next 140 ka. Simulations show that, under periglacial conditions, permafrost may locally or extensively impede the free recharge or discharge of ground water. Below cold-based glacial ice, no recharge or discharge of ground water occurs. Both of these conditions result in the settling of shield brine and consequent freshening of near-surface water in areas of natural discharge blocked by permafrost. The presence of warm-based ice with basal melting creates a potential for ground-water recharge rates much larger than under present, ice-free conditions. Recharging basal meltwater can reach depths of a few kilometers in a few thousand years. The vast majority of recharged water is accommodated through storage in the volume of bedrock below the local area of recharge; regional (lateral) redistribution of recharged water by subsurface flow is minor over the duration of a glacial advance (~10 ka). During glacial retreat, the weight of the ice overlying a given surface location decreases, and significant upward flow of ground water may occur below the ice sheet due to pressure release, despite the continued potential for recharge of basal meltwater. Excess meltwater must exit from below the glacier through subglacial cavities and channels. Subsurface penetration of meltwater during glacial advance and up-flow during glacial retreat are greatest if the loading efficiency of the shield rock is low. The maximum rate of ground

  15. Regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Annual peak-flow frequency data from 231 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota and parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Minnesota, with 10 or more years of unregulated peak-flow record, were used to develop regional regression equations for exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.002 using generalized least-squares techniques. Updated peak-flow frequency estimates for 262 streamflow-gaging stations were developed using data through 2009 and log-Pearson Type III procedures outlined by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. An average generalized skew coefficient was determined for three hydrologic zones in North Dakota. A StreamStats web application was developed to estimate basin characteristics for the regional regression equation analysis. Methods for estimating a weighted peak-flow frequency for gaged sites and ungaged sites are presented.

  16. Application of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data to urban development and regional planning: Test site, County of Los Angeles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raje, S. (Principal Investigator); Economy, R.; Mcknight, J. S.; Garofalo, P.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Signigicant results have been obtained from the analyses of ERTS-1 imagery from five cycles over Test Site SR 124 by classical photointerpretation and by an interactive hybrid multispectral information extraction system (GEMS). Photointerpretation has produced over 25 overlays at 1:1,000,000 scale depicting regional relations and urban structure in terms of several hundred linear and areal features. A possible new fault lineament has been discovered on the northern slope of the Santa Monica mountains. GEMS analysis of the ERTS-1 products has provided new or improved information in the following planning data categories: urban vegetation; land cover segregation; manmade and natural impact monitoring; urban design; land suitability. ERTS-1 data analysis has allowed planners to establish trends that directly impact planning policies. For example, detectable grading and new construction sites quantitatively indicated the extent, direction, and rate of urban expansion which enable planners to forecast demand and growth patterns on a regional scale. This new source of information will not only assist current methods to be more efficient, but permits entirely new planning methodologies to be employed.

  17. Deep sequencing of the tobacco mitochondrial transcriptome reveals expressed ORFs and numerous editing sites outside coding regions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to sequence and assemble the tobacco mitochondrial transcriptome and obtain a genomic-level view of steady-state RNA abundance. Plant mitochondrial genomes have a small number of protein coding genes with large and variably sized intergenic spaces. In the tobacco mitogenome these intergenic spaces contain numerous open reading frames (ORFs) with no clear function. Results The assembled transcriptome revealed distinct monocistronic and polycistronic transcripts along with large intergenic spaces with little to no detectable RNA. Eighteen of the 117 ORFs were found to have steady-state RNA amounts above background in both deep-sequencing and qRT-PCR experiments and ten of those were found to be polysome associated. In addition, the assembled transcriptome enabled a full mitogenome screen of RNA C→U editing sites. Six hundred and thirty five potential edits were found with 557 occurring within protein-coding genes, five in tRNA genes, and 73 in non-coding regions. These sites were found in every protein-coding transcript in the tobacco mitogenome. Conclusion These results suggest that a small number of the ORFs within the tobacco mitogenome may produce functional proteins and that RNA editing occurs in coding and non-coding regions of mitochondrial transcripts. PMID:24433288

  18. Flexibility Correlation between Active Site Regions Is Conserved across Four AmpC β-Lactamase Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jenna R.; Livesay, Dennis R.

    2015-01-01

    β-lactamases are bacterial enzymes that confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins and cephalosporins. There are four classes of β-lactamase enzymes, each with characteristic sequence and structure properties. Enzymes from class A are the most common and have been well characterized across the family; however, less is known about how physicochemical properties vary across the C and D families. In this report, we compare the dynamical properties of four AmpC (class C) β-lactamases using our distance constraint model (DCM). The DCM reliably predicts thermodynamic and mechanical properties in an integrated way. As a consequence, quantitative stability/flexibility relationships (QSFR) can be determined and compared across the whole family. The DCM calculates a large number of QSFR metrics. Perhaps the most useful is the flexibility index (FI), which quantifies flexibility along the enzyme backbone. As typically observed in other systems, FI is well conserved across the four AmpC enzymes. Cooperativity correlation (CC), which quantifies intramolecular couplings within structure, is rarely conserved across protein families; however, it is in AmpC. In particular, the bulk of each structure is composed of a large rigid cluster, punctuated by three flexibly correlated regions located at the active site. These regions include several catalytic residues and the Ω-loop. This evolutionary conservation combined with active their site location strongly suggests that these coupled dynamical modes are important for proper functioning of the enzyme. PMID:26018804

  19. Regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2015-08-06

    Annual peak-flow frequency data from 231 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota and parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Minnesota, with 10 or more years of unregulated peak-flow record, were used to develop regional regression equations for exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.002 using generalized least-squares techniques. Updated peak-flow frequency estimates for 262 streamflow-gaging stations were developed using data through 2009 and log-Pearson Type III procedures outlined by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. An average generalized skew coefficient was determined for three hydrologic zones in North Dakota. A StreamStats web application was developed to estimate basin characteristics for the regional regression equation analysis. Methods for estimating a weighted peak-flow frequency for gaged sites and ungaged sites are presented.

  20. Mange mites of sheep and goats in selected sites of Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu

    2016-03-01

    A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention. PMID:27065612

  1. Determination of linear and cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in air at a regional background site in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2013-12-01

    A number of volatile methylsiloxanes have been identified as environmental contaminants and several are currently the subject of detailed risk assessments due to concerns that they may be persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. Once emitted these chemicals reside primarily in the atmosphere. Consequently, knowledge of their concentrations in air is essential to understanding their fate in the environment and any potential adverse impacts. We developed a method to analyse 4 cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (D3, D4, D5 and D6) and 4 linear volatile methylsiloxanes (L3, L4, L5 and L6) in air at regional background levels. The method showed good repeatability (median difference between sample pairs of 2-8%) and low limits of quantification (from 3.8 pg m-3 for L3 to 320 pg m-3 for D4). However, the analysis of D3 and D4 was confounded by the transformation of D5 to these analytes on the sampling cartridge. During a sampling campaign with a daily temporal resolution between November 4 and December 14 2011, all analytes with the exception of L5 and L6 could be quantified in all samples. It was hypothesized that the ratio of the concentrations of different VMS reflected the relative strength of their emissions to the airshed due to the slow phototransformation of the VMS at high latitudes in winter. This was supported by available emissions information.

  2. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability.

  3. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability. PMID:20950170

  4. A site-related suitability analysis for the production of biomass as a contribution to sustainable regional land-use.

    PubMed

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  5. A Site-Related Suitability Analysis for the Production of Biomass as a Contribution to Sustainable Regional Land-Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, Michael; Helms, Yvonne; Herberg, Alfred; Köppen, Antje; Kunzmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Dörte; Ross, Lutz; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2008-04-01

    The use of renewable energy in Europe offers the possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and contributes to energy security and independence. With the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and a variety of recently introduced national directives supporting renewable energy sources in the European Union, the economic attractiveness of bioenergy production has distinctly increased. This article combines an economic evaluation of biomass production with site-related natural conditions of the Havelland region, situated in the north-east area of Germany. Two methods for evaluating site-specific potential biomass yields were compared. For three example biomass crops, evaluations of yield estimations at agricultural lots for site-optimized suitability (SOS) and conventional suitability (CS) were carried out. Both modelling approaches were compared. The results of the GIS modelling indicate that the financial support for increasing the use of renewable energy with the German feed-in system, called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), will possibly lead to an increased cultivation of crops with high biomass output. This monocultural orientation of farming practices and the negative effects on the ecosystem could act in opposition to other environmental initiatives of the EU. The outputs of the SOS analysis show that high biomass production could be integrated into environmental policy proposals. Therefore, new EU policy should take modified subsidies into consideration in order to avoid developing conflicts between small-scale changes in landscape ecosystems caused by large-scale transformations in energy policy.

  6. Estimating CH4 and CO Emissions in California's Urban and Rural Regions Using Multi-site Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Andrews, A. E.; Bianco, L.; Graven, H. D.; Hsu, Y.; Newman, S.; Novakovskaia, E.; Vaca, P.; Salameh, P.; Sloop, C.; Weiss, R. F.; Keeling, R. F.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    California's commitment (Assembly Bill 32) to reduce total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 (~20% reduction) requires quantification of current GHG emissions. We will present atmospheric inversion estimates of California's total CH4 emissions for summer 2013, using data from multiple sites covering urban and rural areas of California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), Central Valley, and San Francisco Bay Area. We will also use measured CO from two tall-tower sites (Central Valley and SoCAB) to quantify CO emissions as well as to evaluate atmospheric transport. We use Bayesian inverse modeling to estimate the CH4 and CO emissions from discrete regions of California by combining the atmospheric measurements, upstream background, high-resolution prior emission maps, and predicted atmospheric transport from WRF-STILT. We quantify site-specific model-measurement uncertainties due to transport using meteorological data from a network of atmospheric profilers and in-situ sensors, due to background using oceanic and aircraft observations, and the prior emissions. To reduce the uncertainty in transport, we assimilate available meteorological measurements from surface and upper air stations, and wind profilers into the WRF model. Preliminary inversion results during September 2010 - June 2011 and summer of 2012 suggest that state total CH4 emissions are 1.2 - 1.8 times higher than the current CARB inventory and we will update these estimates. We expect the results of this study will significantly improve upon existing work in quantifying CH4 and CO emissions in California's urban and rural regions.

  7. Regional Regression Equations to Estimate Flow-Duration Statistics at Ungaged Stream Sites in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple linear regression equations for determining flow-duration statistics were developed to estimate select flow exceedances ranging from 25- to 99-percent for six 'bioperiods'-Salmonid Spawning (November), Overwinter (December-February), Habitat Forming (March-April), Clupeid Spawning (May), Resident Spawning (June), and Rearing and Growth (July-October)-in Connecticut. Regression equations also were developed to estimate the 25- and 99-percent flow exceedances without reference to a bioperiod. In total, 32 equations were developed. The predictive equations were based on regression analyses relating flow statistics from streamgages to GIS-determined basin and climatic characteristics for the drainage areas of those streamgages. Thirty-nine streamgages (and an additional 6 short-term streamgages and 28 partial-record sites for the non-bioperiod 99-percent exceedance) in Connecticut and adjacent areas of neighboring States were used in the regression analysis. Weighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine the predictive equations; weights were assigned based on record length. The basin characteristics-drainage area, percentage of area with coarse-grained stratified deposits, percentage of area with wetlands, mean monthly precipitation (November), mean seasonal precipitation (December, January, and February), and mean basin elevation-are used as explanatory variables in the equations. Standard errors of estimate of the 32 equations ranged from 10.7 to 156 percent with medians of 19.2 and 55.4 percent to predict the 25- and 99-percent exceedances, respectively. Regression equations to estimate high and median flows (25- to 75-percent exceedances) are better predictors (smaller variability of the residual values around the regression line) than the equations to estimate low flows (less than 75-percent exceedance). The Habitat Forming (March-April) bioperiod had the smallest standard errors of estimate, ranging from 10.7 to 20.9 percent. In

  8. Comparable hydrogen isotopic fractionation of plant leaf wax n-alkanoic acids in arid and humid subtropical ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Zheng, Mei; Fraser, Matthew; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-02-01

    Leaf wax hydrogen isotope proxies have been widely used to reconstruct past hydrological changes. However, published reconstructions have given little consideration for the potentially variable hydrogen isotopic fractionation relative to precipitation (ɛwax-p) under different climate and environmental settings. Chief among various potential factors controlling fractionation is relative humidity, which is known to strongly affect oxygen isotopic ratios of plant cellulose, but its effect on hydrogen isotopic fractionation of leaf waxes is still ambiguous. Analyses of lake surface sediments and individual modern plants have provided valuable information on the variability of ɛwax-p, but both approaches have significant limitations. Here, we present an alternative method to obtain the integrated, time-resolved ecosystem-level ɛwax-p values, by analyzing modern aerosol samples collected weekly from arid (Arizona lowlands) and humid subtropical (Atlanta, Georgia) environments during the main growth season. Because aerosol samples mainly reflect regional leaf wax resources, the extreme contrast in the hydroclimate and associated vegetation assemblages between our study sites allows us to rigorously assess the impact of relative humidity and associated vegetation assemblages on leaf wax hydrogen isotopic fractionation. We show there is only minor difference (mostly <10‰) in the mean ɛwax-p values in the two end-member environments. One possible explanation is that the positive isotopic effects of low relative humidity are offset by progressive replacement of trees with grasses that have a more negative apparent fractionation. Our results represent an important step toward quantitative interpretation of leaf wax hydrogen isotopic records.

  9. The strength of an Ig switch region is determined by its ability to drive R loop formation and its number of WGCW sites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng Z; Pannunzio, Nicholas R; Han, Li; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Yu, Kefei; Lieber, Michael R

    2014-07-24

    R loops exist at the murine IgH switch regions and possibly other locations, but their functional importance is unclear. In biochemical systems, R loop initiation requires DNA sequence regions containing clusters of G nucleotides, but cellular studies have not been done. Here, we vary the G-clustering, total switch region length, and the number of target sites (WGCW sites for the activation-induced deaminase) at synthetic switch regions in a murine B cell line to determine the effect on class switch recombination (CSR). G-clusters increase CSR regardless of their immediate proximity to the WGCW sites. This increase is accompanied by an increase in R loop formation. CSR efficiency correlates better with the absolute number of WGCW sites in the switch region rather than the total switch region length or density of WGCW sites. Thus, the overall strength of the switch region depends on G-clusters, which initiate R loop formation, and on the number of WGCW sites. PMID:25017067

  10. The Strength of an Ig Switch Region is Determined by its Ability to Drive R-loop Formation and its Number of WGCW Sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng Z.; Pannunzio, Nicholas R.; Han, Li; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Yu, Kefei; Lieber, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY R-loops exist at the murine IgH switch regions and possibly other locations, but their functional importance is unclear. In biochemical systems, R-loop initiation requires DNA sequence regions containing clusters of G nucleotides, but cellular studies have not been done. Here, we vary the G-clustering, total switch region length, and the number of target sites (WGCW sites for the activation-induced deaminase) at synthetic switch regions in a murine B cell line to determine the effect on class switch recombination (CSR). G-clusters increase CSR, regardless of their immediate proximity to the WGCW sites. This increase is accompanied by an increase in R-loop formation. CSR efficiency correlates better with the absolute number of WGCW sites in the switch region rather than the total switch region length or density of WGCW sites. Thus, the overall strength of the switch region depends on G-clusters, which initiate R-loop formation, and on the number of WGCW sites. PMID:25017067

  11. Seasonal changes in humidity impact drought resistance in tropical Drosophila leontia: testing developmental effects of thermal versus humidity changes.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam

    2014-03-01

    Drosophila leontia is native to highly humid equatorial tropical habitats but its desiccation sensitivity (~10h) is not consistent with its abundance during the drier autumn season in the subtropical regions. We have tested the effects of developmental acclimation on desiccation resistance and water balance related traits of D. leontia collected during rainy and autumn seasons. The isofemale lines of seasonal populations were reared under ecologically relevant growth temperatures (18 or 26 °C) or humidity conditions (35 or 85% RH) but tested at different times under identical experimental conditions. The larvae as well as flies reared under two thermal conditions (18 or 26 °C) showed no effect on desiccation related traits as well as storage and utilization of energy metabolites. In contrast, for D. leontia reared under low humidity (35% RH), significant changes at larval as well adult stages include increase in the desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity, reduced levels of rate of body water loss, higher storage of carbohydrates but lower rate of utilization of carbohydrates as compared with flies reared at high humidity (85% RH). D. leontia has responded to rearing under low humidity conditions by increasing its desiccation resistance but not due to changes in the growth temperatures. These laboratory observations on seasonal populations highlight differences due to rearing conditions but not due to seasons. Further, direct analysis of wild-caught seasonal populations has shown trends similar to developmental acclimation effects. For wild caught flies, there are significant seasonal differences i.e. higher desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity but reduced rate of water loss for autumn than rainy season flies. Thus, our laboratory observations are relevant for understanding seasonal adaptations of natural populations of tropical D. leontia to wet-dry conditions in the wild.

  12. Chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Olivadoti, J. T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved molecular absorption spectrophotometry of iodinated ersatz humidity condensates and iodinated ersatz urine distillates across the UV and visible spectral regions are used to investigate the chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate. Single contaminant systems at equivalent concentrations are also employed to study rates of iodine. Pseudo-first order rate constants are identified for ersatz contaminant model mixtures and for individual reactive constituents. The second order bimolecular reaction of elemental iodine with formic acid, producing carbon dioxide and iodine anion, is identified as the primary mechanism underlying the decay of residual I2 in ersatz humidity concentrate.

  13. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk analysis of the disposal of chemical munitions at regional or national sites. Final report, 3 February 1986-25 August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Barsell, A.W.; Bellis, E.A.; Bolig, C.A.; Deremer, R.K.; Everline, C.J.

    1987-08-01

    This document was prepared for the U.S. Army to support the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. This report describes the results of a comprehensive probabilistic assessment of the frequency and magnitude of chemical agent release for the storage, handling, on-site transportation, off-site transportation, and chemical-demilitarization plant operations associated with the disposal of the chemical stockpile at two regional disposal sites or at a single national disposal site. Rail transportation from seven sites, air transportation from two sites and water transportation from one site were the off-site transportation modes analyzed. Both internal accident initiators (e.g., human error, equipment malfunction) and external accident initiators (e.g., earthquakes, airplane crashes) were included in the analysis.

  14. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W. , Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will place a single lander on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, following a December 1996 launch. As a result of the very successful first Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop, the project has selected the Ares Vallis outflow channel in Chryse Planitia as the landing site. This location is where a large catastrophic outflow channel debouches into the northern lowlands. A second workshop and series of field trips, entitled Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington, were held in Spokane and Moses Lake, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a focus for learning as much as possible about the Ares Vallis region on Mars before landing there. The rationale is that the more that can be learned about the general area prior to landing, the better scientists will be able interpret the observations made by the lander and rover and place them in the proper geologic context. The field trip included overflights and surface investigations of the Channeled Scabland (an Earth analog for the martian catastrophic outflow channels), focusing on areas particularly analogous to Ares Vallis and the landing site. The overflights were essential for placing the enormous erosional and depositional features of the Channeled Scabland into proper three-dimensional context. The field trips were a joint educational outreach activity involving K-12 science educators, Mars Pathfinder scientists and engineers, and interested scientists from the Mars scientific community. Part 1 of the technical report on this workshop includes a description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, abstracts accepted for presentation at the workshop, an introduction to the Channeled Scabland, and field trip guides for the overflight and two field trips. This part, Part 2, includes the program for the workshop, summaries of the workshop technical sessions, a summary of the field trips and ensuing

  15. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Edgett, K. S.; Rice, J. W., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Mars Pathfinder will place a single lander on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, following a December 1996 launch. As a result of the very successful first Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop, the project has selected the Ares Vallis outflow channel in Chryse Planitia as the landing site. This location is where a large catastrophic outflow channel debouches into the northern lowlands. A second workshop and series of field trips, entitled Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington, were held in Spokane and Moses Lake, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a focus for learning as much as possible about the Ares Vallis region on Mars before landing there. The rationale is that the more that can be learned about the general area prior to landing, the better scientists will be able interpret the observations made by the lander and rover and place them in the proper geologic context. The field trip included overflights and surface investigations of the Channeled Scabland (an Earth analog for the martian catastrophic outflow channels), focusing on areas particularly analogous to Ares Vallis and the landing site. The overflights were essential for placing the enormous erosional and depositional features of the Channeled Scabland into proper three-dimensional context. The field trips were a joint educational outreach activity involving K-12 science educators, Mars Pathfinder scientists and engineers, and interested scientists from the Mars scientific community. Part 1 of the technical report on this workshop includes a description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, abstracts accepted for presentation at the workshop, an introduction to the Channeled Scabland, and field trip guides for the overflight and two field trips. This part, Part 2, includes the program for the workshop, summaries of the workshop technical sessions, a summary of the field trips and ensuing

  16. Effects of urbanization on stream quality at selected sites in the seacoast region in New Hampshire, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Soule, Sally A.; Smith, Thor E.

    2005-01-01

    A study of selected water-quality and macroinvertebrate community data was conducted at 10 stream sites in the Seacoast region of New Hampshire to determine if a relation is present between stream quality and the extent of urbanization in a watershed. Watersheds with similar characteristics, but varying in their degree of urban development, were studied. The percent of impervious surface, the percent of urban land use in a watershed, and the percent of urban land use in two types of stream buffers were compared and correlated with stream-quality variables. Specific conductance, turbidity, nitrite plus nitrate yields, and selected macroinvertebrate community data were significantly correlated with most measures of urbanization used in this study; however, concentrations and total phosphorus yields were not statistically correlated with most measures of urbanization in this study. The measures of urbanization that had the highest correlations with stream-quality variables were those measures that were associated with the percent of urban land in buffer zones near and upstream of a sampling site. A water-quality and habitat conditions score was negatively correlated with the percent of urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (rho (r) = -0.86; p < 0.001), the percent of impervious surface (r = -0.70; p < 0.05), and the percent of urban land in the watershed (r = -0.67; p < 0.05). A biological condition score also was negatively correlated with the percent of urban land in a 1-kilometer radial buffer of the sampling site (r = -0.95; p < 0.0001), the percent of impervious surface (r = -0.75; p < 0.05), and the percent of urban land in the watershed (r = -0.79; p < 0.01). The percent of urban land in a 25-meter stream buffer along the stream corridor also had negative correlations with a water-quality and habitat conditions score (r = -0.80; p < 0.01) and a biological condition score (r = -0.86; p < 0.01). Mean Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and

  17. Volatilization modeling of two herbicides from soil in a wind tunnel experiment under varying humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Martina; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2012-11-20

    Volatilization of pesticides from the bare soil surface is drastically reduced when the soil is under dry conditions (i.e., water content lower than the permanent wilting point). This effect is caused by the hydrated mineral surfaces that become available as additional sorption sites under dry conditions. However, established volatilization models do not explicitly consider the hydrated mineral surfaces as an independent sorption compartment and cannot correctly cover the moisture effect on volatilization. Here we integrated the existing mechanistic understanding of sorption of organic compounds to mineral surfaces and its dependence on the hydration status into a simple volatilization model. The resulting model was tested with reported experimental data for two herbicides from a wind tunnel experiment under various well-defined humidity conditions. The required equilibrium sorption coefficients of triallate and trifluralin to the mineral surfaces, K(min/air), at 60% relative humidity were fitted to experimental data and extrapolated to other humidity conditions. The model captures the general trend of the volatilization in different humidity scenarios. The results reveal that it is essential to have high quality input data for K(min/air), the available specific surface area (SSA), the penetration depth of the applied pesticide solution, and the humidity conditions in the soil. The model approach presented here in combination with an improved description of the humidity conditions under dry conditions can be integrated into existing volatilization models that already work well for humid conditions but still lack the mechanistically based description of the volatilization process under dry conditions.

  18. Dropwise condensation dynamics in humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo Chacon, Julian Eduardo

    Dropwise condensation of atmospheric water vapor is important in multiple practical engineering applications. The roles of environmental factors and surface morphology/chemistry on the condensation dynamics need to be better understood to enable efficient water-harvesting, dehumidication, and other psychrometric processes. Systems and surfaces that promote faster condensation rates and self-shedding of condensate droplets could lead to improved mass transfer rates and higher water yields in harvesting applications. The thesis presents the design and construction of an experimental facility that allows visualization of the condensation process as a function of relative humidity. Dropwise condensation experiments are performed on a vertically oriented, hydrophobic surface at a controlled relative humidity and surface subcooling temperature. The distribution and growth of water droplets are monitored across the surface at different relative humidities (45%, 50%, 55%, and 70%) at a constant surface subcooling temperature of 15 °C below the ambient temperature. The droplet growth dynamics exhibits a strong dependency on relative humidity in the early stages during which there is a large population of small droplets on the surface and single droplet growth dominates over coalescence effects. At later stages, the dynamics of droplet growth is insensitive to relative humidity due to the dominance of coalescence effects. The overall volumetric rate of condensation on the surface is also assessed as a function of time and ambient relative humidity. Low relative humidity conditions not only slow the absolute rate of condensation, but also prolong an initial transient regime over which the condensation rate remains significantly below the steady-state value. The current state-of-the-art in dropwise condensation research indicates the need for systematic experimental investigations as a function of relative humidity. The improved understanding of the relative humidity

  19. Burial trench dynamic compaction demonstration at a humid site

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    This task has the objective of determining the degree of consolidation which can be achieved by dynamic compaction of a closed burial trench within a cohesive soil formation. A seven-year-old burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was selected for this demonstration. This 251 m/sup 3/ trench contained about 80 Ci of mixed radionuclides, mostly /sup 90/Sr, in 25 m/sup 3/ of waste consisting of contaminated equipment, dry solids, and demolition debris. Prior to compaction, a total trench void space of 79 m/sup 3/ was measured by pumping the trench full of water with corrections for seepage. Additional pre-compaction characterization included trench cap bulk density (1.68 kg/L), trench cap permeability (3 x 10/sup -7/ m/s), and subsurface waste/backfill hydraulic conductivity (>0.01 m/s). Compaction was achieved by repeatedly dropping a 4-ton steel-reinforced concrete cylinder from heights of 4 to 8 m using the whipline of a 70-ton crane. The average trench ground surface was depressed 0.79 m, with some sections over 2 m, yielding a surveyed volumetric depression which totaled to 64% of the measured trench void space. Trench cap (0 to 60 cm) bulk density and permeability were not affected by compaction indicating that the consolidation was largely subsurface. Neither surface nor airborne radioactive contamination were observed during repeated monitoring during the demonstration. Dynamic compaction was shown to be an excellent and inexpensive (i.e., about $20/m/sup 2/) method to collapse trench void space, thereby hastening subsidence and stabilizing the land surface. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Surface Temperature Humidity Reference System Handbook - November 2005

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2005-11-30

    The Surface Temperature and Humidity Reference (SURTHREF) system is intended to provide accurate reference values of ambient temperature and relative humidity for comparison with radiosonde prelaunch values.

  1. Regional and global significance of Pliocene sea surface temperatures from the Gulf of Cadiz (Site U1387) and the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanova, Alexandrina; Herbert, Timothy D.

    2015-10-01

    The Atlantic-Mediterranean water exchange is a component of global ocean circulation capable of influencing deep water formation in the North Atlantic, yet it is poorly constrained for the time period preceding the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The sea surface temperature (SST) gradient between the Atlantic and Mediterranean sides of the Strait of Gibraltar can shed light on the communication between the two basins. IODP Site U1387 in the Gulf of Cadiz provides the first alkenone based reconstruction of SST for the Atlantic waters that flowed into the Mediterranean Sea during the Pliocene. This site reflects open ocean North Atlantic subtropical temperature trends while the published SST records from the Rossello composite section (Sicily) in the Mediterranean reflect the addition of regional, continentally-influenced signals from Europe and Northern Africa. The Mediterranean, in particular, may be influenced by high latitude Northern hemisphere climatic evolution. In the modern regime the sites discussed in this work have comparable SST and uninhibited surface connection; however, change in local heat loss/gain over the Mediterranean due to variability in latent heat loss and obstructed connection can result in a gradient between the sites in the Pliocene. The Pliocene surface waters of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea were as much as 7 °C warmer than the modern average of ~ 19-20 °C. The reconstructed temperatures show a ~ 1 °C cooling for the Atlantic side of the Strait of Gibraltar from ~ 6 Ma to ~ 2.7 Ma and increasingly cooler glacials. The long-term SST record from Site U1387 provides a basis for future studies into the hydrological balance of the Mediterranean and the temperature component of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) density. We compared SST on either side of Gibraltar between ~ 3.4-2.7 Ma and found that between ~ 2.7 and ~ 3.1 Ma the Mediterranean and Atlantic surface waters show comparable average

  2. Health assessment for Bog Creek Farm Site (BCFS) National Priorities List (NPL) site, Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD063157150. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Bog Creek Farm Site, located in a rural area of Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, is on the National Priorities List. In 1973 and 1974, various wastes were reportedly dumped at the site, including lacquer thinners, paint solvents and resins, disinfectants, animal carcasses, and residential debris. Sampling and analysis of on-site and off-site ground water, surface water, and sediments and of on-site waste and soil revealed several contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds, and heavy metals. Site contamination appears to be greatest immediately adjacent to an on-site waste-disposal trench. A potential public health threat exists from dermal absorption, ingestion, or inhalation of contamination from ground water, surface water, sediment, waste, and soil.

  3. Application of earth resources technology satellite data to urban and regional planning: Test site, County of Los Angeles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raje, S.; Mcknight, J.; Willoughby, G.; Economy, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The County of Los Angeles photointerpreted ERTS film products to define problems of interest, coordinated ground truth over the complex test site including interfaces with secondary users as well as participated in on-line analyses of the GE multispectral information extraction systems. Interactive machine analyses were carried out, developing techniques and procedures as well as evaluating the outputs for community and regional planning. Extensive aircraft underflight coverage was provided that was valuable both in inputs preparation and outputs evaluation of the machine-aided analyses. One of the nonstandard ERTS images led to the discovery of a major new fault lineament on the northern slope of the Santa Monica Mountains.

  4. Ten-Meter Scale Topography and Roughness of Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Sites and Martian Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Anton B.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has been operating on board of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft since 1998. It consists of three cameras - Red and Blue Wide Angle cameras (FOV=140 deg.) and Narrow Angle camera (FOV=0.44 deg.). The Wide Angle camera allows surface resolution down to 230 m/pixel and the Narrow Angle camera - down to 1.5 m/pixel. This work is a continuation of the project, which we have reported previously. Since then we have refined and improved our stereo correlation algorithm and have processed many more stereo pairs. We will discuss results of our stereo pair analysis located in the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) landing sites and address feasibility of recovering topography from stereo pairs (especially in the polar regions), taken during MGS 'Relay-16' mode.

  5. Apparatus and methods for humidity control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinauer, William R. (Inventor); Otis, David R. (Inventor); El-Wakil, Mohamed M. (Inventor); Vignali, John C. (Inventor); Macaulay, Philip D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus is provided which controls humidity in a gas. The apparatus employs a porous interface that is preferably a manifolded array of stainless steel tubes through whose porous surface water vapor can pass. One side of the porous interface is in contact with water and the opposing side is in contact with gas whose humidity is being controlled. Water vapor is emitted from the porous surface of the tubing into the gas when the gas is being humidified, and water vapor is removed from the gas through the porous surfaces when the gas is being dehumidified. The temperature of the porous interface relative to the gas temperature determines whether humidification or dehumidification is being carried out. The humidity in the gas is sensed and compared to the set point humidity. The water temperature, and consequently the porous interface temperature, are automatically controlled in response to changes in the gas humidity level above or below the set point. Any deviation from the set point humidity is thus corrected.

  6. Aerosol light scattering measurements as a function of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Day, D E; Malm, W C; Kreidenweis, S M

    2000-05-01

    The hygroscopic nature of atmospheric fine aerosol was investigated at a rural site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park during July and August 1995. Passing the sample aerosol through an inlet, which housed an array of Perma Pure diffusion dryers, controlled the sample aerosol's relative humidity (RH). After conditioning the aerosol sample in the inlet, the light scattering coefficient and the aerosol size distribution were simultaneously measured. During this study, the conditioned aerosol's humidity ranged between 5% < RH < 95%. Aerosol response curves were produced using the ratio bspw/bspd; where bspw is the scattering coefficient measured at some RH greater than 20% and bspd is the scattering coefficient of the "dry" aerosol. For this work, any sample RH values below 15% were considered dry. Results of this investigation showed that the light scattering ratio increased continuously and smoothly over the entire range of relative humidity. The magnitude of the ratio at a particular RH value, however, varied considerably in time, particularly for RH values greater than approximately 60%. Curves of the scattering coefficient ratios as a function of RH were generated for each day and compared to the average 12-hour chemical composition of the aerosol. This comparison showed that for any particular RH value the ratio was highest during time periods of high sulfate concentrations and lowest during time periods of high soil or high organic carbon concentrations.

  7. Mapping Calcium-Sensitive Regions in the Neuronal Calcium Sensor GCAP2 by Site-Specific Fluorescence Labeling.

    PubMed

    Sulmann, Stefan; Wallisch, Melanie; Scholten, Alexander; Christoffers, Jens; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm

    2016-05-10

    Myristoylation of most neuronal calcium sensor proteins, a group of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins mainly expressed in neuronal tissue, can have a strong impact on protein dynamics and functional properties. Intracellular oscillations of the free Ca(2+) concentration can trigger conformational changes in Ca(2+) sensors. The position and possible movements of the myristoyl group in the photoreceptor cell-specific Ca(2+) sensor GCAP2 are not well-defined but appear to be different from those of the highly homologous cognate GCAP1. We designed and applied a new group of diaminoterephthalate-derived fluorescent probes to label GCAP2 at a covalently attached 12-azido-dodecanoic acid (a myristoyl substitute) and at cysteine residues in critical positions. Fluorescence emission of dye-labeled GCAP2 decreased when going from low (10(-9) M) to high [Ca(2+)] (10(-3) M), reaching a half-maximal effect of fluorescence emission at 0.44 ± 0.07 μM. The modified acyl group can therefore monitor changes in the protein conformation during binding and dissociation of Ca(2+) in the physiological range of free [Ca(2+)]. However, fluorescence quenching studies showed that the dye-acyl chain was shielded from the quencher by an adjacent polypeptide region. Further probing three cysteine positions (C35, C111, and C131) by dye labeling revealed that all positions were also sensitive to a change in [Ca(2+)], but only one (C131) was sensitive to a change in [Mg(2+)]. We suggest a scenario during illumination of the photoreceptor cell in which Ca(2+) dissociates first from low and medium affinity binding sites. These steps are sensed by dyes in cysteines at positions 35 and 111. Release of Ca(2+) from high affinity sites is sensed by regions adjacent to the dye-labeled fatty acid and involves the critical conformational change leading to activating guanylate cyclase.

  8. Nationwide summary of US Geological Survey regional regression equations for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods for ungaged sites, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, M.E.; Thomas, W.O.; Riggs, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    For many years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been involved in the development of regional regression equations for estimating flood magnitude and frequency at ungaged sites. These regression equations are used to transfer flood characteristics from gaged to ungaged sites through the use of watershed and climatic characteristics as explanatory or predictor variables. Generally these equations have been developed on a statewide or metropolitan area basis as part of cooperative study programs with specific State Departments of Transportation or specific cities. The USGS, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, has compiled all the current (as of September 1993) statewide and metropolitan area regression equations into a micro-computer program titled the National Flood Frequency Program.This program includes regression equations for estimating flood-peak discharges and techniques for estimating a typical flood hydrograph for a given recurrence interval peak discharge for unregulated rural and urban watersheds. These techniques should be useful to engineers and hydrologists for planning and design applications. This report summarizes the statewide regression equations for rural watersheds in each State, summarizes the applicable metropolitan area or statewide regression equations for urban watersheds, describes the National Flood Frequency Program for making these computations, and provides much of the reference information on the extrapolation variables needed to run the program.

  9. Mutations in a conserved region of RNA polymerase II influence the accuracy of mRNA start site selection.

    PubMed Central

    Hekmatpanah, D S; Young, R A

    1991-01-01

    A sensitive phenotypic assay has been used to identify mutations affecting transcription initiation in the genes encoding the two large subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2). The rpb1 and rpb2 mutations alter the ratio of transcripts initiated at two adjacent start sites of a delta-insertion promoter. Of a large number of rpb1 and rpb2 mutations screened, only a few affect transcription initiation patterns at delta-insertion promoters, and these mutations are in close proximity to each other within both RPB1 and RPB2. The two rpb1 mutations alter amino acid residues within homology block G, a region conserved in the large subunits of all RNA polymerases. The three strong rpb2 mutations alter adjacent amino acids. At a wild-type promoter, the rpb1 mutations affect the accuracy of mRNA start site selection by producing a small but detectable increase in the 5'-end heterogeneity of transcripts. These RNA polymerase II mutations implicate specific portions of the enzyme in aspects of transcription initiation. Images PMID:1922077

  10. Health assessment for Anaconda Smelter Site, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, Montana, Region 8. CERCLIS No. MTD093291656. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-05

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA,) Region VIII has requested that the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) evaluate the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Reports for the Mill Creek, Montana Anaconda Swelter Site. Extensive environmental sampling by EPA, urinary arsenic surveys conducted by the Centers for Disease Control, the Endangerment Assessment (EA,) and the RI have consistently shown extensive contamination of soils and house dust by arsenic, cadmium, and lead, and episodic contamination of drinking water with arsenic above the EPA Maximal Contaminant Level (MCL). The RI presents results of calculations showing, potentially, an elevated excess lifetime risk of skin cancer for males from chronic exposure to arsenic by ingestion. The calculations were performed only for males, the most sensitive subpopulation; however, the female subpopulation would also be expected to have a lesser but elevated excess skin cancer risk from ingestion of arsenic. The long-term health effects of cadmium and lead are additional concerns. When EPA makes a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Mill Creek site, ATSDR can more readily make a definitive statement about the adequacy of the chosen Alternative for reducing the public health risk at Mill Creek.

  11. The functional importance of a cap site-proximal region of the human prointerleukin 1[beta] gene is defined

    SciTech Connect

    Hunninghake, G.W.; Geist, L.J.; Monick, M.M.; Stinski, M.F. ); Monks, B.G.; Monroy, M.A.; Fenton, M.J. ); Webb, A.C. ); Dayer, J.M. ); Auron, P.E. )

    1992-08-01

    Prointerleukin 1[beta] (IL-1[beta]) is a cytokine that mediates a broad range of biological activities. Genomic sequences that regulate IL-1[beta] transcription include both inducible regulatory elements located more than 2,700 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site (cap site) and proximal elements located near the TATA box of this gene. In this study, we focused on the identification and characterization of trans-acting nuclear regulatory proteins that bind to the cap site-proximal region of the human IL-1[beta] gene. We identified a protein, termed NFIL-1[beta]A (NF[beta]A), that binds to a highly conserved 12-bp DNA sequence (-49 to -38) located upstream of the TATA box motif in both the human and murine IL-1[beta] genes. The IL-1[alpha] gene, which lacks a TATA motif, does not possess an NF[beta]A-binding sequence within the promoter region, suggesting that NF[beta]A may selectively regulate IL-1[beta] expression. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified several distinct DNA-protein complexes that are expressed in a cell-type-specific manner. In monocytic cell lines, the relative abundance of these complexes varied rapidly following stimulation of the cells with phorbol esters or lipopolysaccharide. UV cross-linking analysis identified two distinct DNA-binding polypeptides that comprise distinct complexes. The functional role of NF[beta]A was assessed in transient transfection assays. These data indicate the NF[beta]A is required for both basal and inducible promoter activity in monocytic cells. Furthermore, the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 gene product requires the presence of NF[beta]A in order to trans-activate the proximal IL-1[beta] promoter in a monocytic cell line. We propose that NF[beta]A is a factor that mediates either direct or indirect activation by the immediate-early 1 gene product. The proximity of this essential factor to the TATA motif suggests a possible role in transcriptional initiation.

  12. Intron Retention in the Alternatively Spliced Region of RON Results from Weak 3’ Splice Site Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsay D.; Lucas, Christian M.; Eperon, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    The RON gene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor for macrophage-stimulating protein. A constitutively active isoform that arises by skipping of exon 11 is expressed in carcinomas and contributes to an invasive phenotype. However, a high proportion of the mRNA expressed from the endogenous gene, or from transfected minigenes, appears to retain introns 10 and 11. It is not known whether this represents specific repression or the presence of weak splicing signals. We have used chimeric pre-mRNAs spliced in vitro to investigate the reason for intron retention. A systematic test showed that, surprisingly, the exon sequences known to modulate exon 11 skipping were not limiting, but the 3’ splice site regions adjacent to exons 11 and 12 were too weak to support splicing when inserted into a globin intron. UV-crosslinking experiments showed binding of hnRNP F/H just 5’ of these regions, but the hnRNP F/H target sequences did not mediate inhibition. Instead, the failure of splicing is linked to weak binding of U2AF65, and spliceosome assembly stalls prior to formation of any of the ATP-dependent complexes. We discuss mechanisms by which U2AF65 binding is facilitated in vivo. PMID:24155930

  13. Integrated evaluation of aerosols during haze-fog episodes at one regional background site in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qi; Li, Weijun; Zhou, Shengzhen; Yang, Lingxiao; Chi, Jianwei; Sui, Xiao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate haze-fog (HF) formation mechanisms and transport, trace gases and aerosols in the aged air masses during regional haze episodes were measured at a regional background site in the North China Plain during 4-19 July, 2011. Mixing state of individual particles, soluble ions of PM2.5, and particle number concentrations were studied using transmission electron microscope, ambient ion monitoring, and wide-range particle spectrometer, respectively. Average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 3 times higher on HF days (70 μg/m3) than on clear days (22 μg/m3). The major soluble ionic components (SO42 -, NO3-, and NH4+) in PM2.5 were over 4 times higher on HF days (40.6 μg/m3) than on clear days (9.1 μg/m3). The high sulfur oxidation ratios (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation ratios (NOR) values during HF days suggest that polluted weather favored transformation of SO2 and NOx into sulfates and nitrates compared to clear days. Particle number fraction of the accumulation mode increases from 11% on clear days up to 26% on HF days. Individual particle analysis shows that secondary inorganic particles (e.g., sulfate and nitrate) as the most abundant species likely determine internal mixing of individual particles and almost half of them mixed refractory particles (e.g., metal, fly ash, soot, and mineral) on HF days. These fine refractory particles were likely emitted from coal fired power plants, heavy industries, and urban city in Shandong and Hebei provinces. Our results suggest that aged air masses mostly contain aged particles of long-range transport and some from new particle formation and growth in the regional background atmosphere.

  14. A Humidity-Driven Prediction System for Influenza Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrastarson, H. T.; Teixeira, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of absolute (or specific) humidity conditions as a leading explanation for the seasonal behavior of influenza outbreaks in temperate regions. If the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be forecast, this would be of great value for public health response efforts. We have developed and implemented a SIRS (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible) type numerical prediction system that is driven by specific humidity to predict influenza outbreaks. For the humidity, we have explored using both satellite data from the AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) instrument as well as ERA-Interim re-analysis data. We discuss the development, testing, sensitivities and limitations of the prediction system and show results for influenza outbreaks in the United States during the years 2010-2014 (modeled in retrospect). Comparisons are made with other existing prediction systems and available data for influenza outbreaks from Google Flu Trends and the CDC (Center for Disease Control), and the incorporation of these datasets into the forecasting system is discussed.

  15. The Russian National Standard of Gases Humidity and Traceability System of Humidity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovikov, N. I.; Podmurnaya, O. A.; Skryabikov, N. P.; Sokov, I. A.; Vinge, A. F.

    2016-05-01

    The Russian national humidity standard of gases has been modernized in order to increase the number of reproducible quantities of humidity (relative humidity, dew/frost-point temperature, mole fraction) and to extend the humidity and operating temperature ranges. The basis of the standard comprises two humidity generators with operating temperature ranges from 5 ^{circ }hbox {C} to 90 ^{circ }hbox {C} and from -60 ^{circ }hbox {C} to 15 ^{circ }hbox {C}. The common working range (from 5 ^{circ }hbox {C} to 15 ^{circ }hbox {C}) allows comparison of the generators. The generators use the two-pressure method to generate humid gas defined in terms of the relative humidity (from 5 %rh to 98 %rh at temperatures from 90 ^{circ }hbox {C} to -60 ^{circ }hbox {C}) and the one-pressure (or phase equilibrium) method to generate humid gas defined in terms of the vapor mole fraction (from 0.6 ppm to 700× 103 ppm) and dew/frost-point temperature (from -79 ^{circ }hbox {C} to 90 ^{circ }hbox {C}). The expanded uncertainty in the relative humidity is no more than 0.2 %rh, no more than 1.2 % in the vapor mole fraction, and no more than 0.12 ^{circ }hbox {C} in the dew/frost-point temperature. The ordinary hygrometers are traceable to the national primary standard in accordance with the state hierarchical chain for measuring means of gas humidity. The state hierarchical chain consists of three branches for means of measurements: (a) mole fraction, (b) dew/frost-point temperature, and (c) relative humidity with each branch represented as the scheme: primary standard-secondary standard-working standard-ordinary hygrometer. Calibration and verification of working standards and ordinary hygrometers, and their traceability to the primary standard use methods of (i) direct measurements, (ii) direct comparison, or (iii) comparison with a comparator.

  16. A European aerosol phenomenology -5: climatology of black carbon optical properties at 9 regional background sites across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanatta, Marco; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Gysel, Martin; Weingartner, Ernest; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Putaud, Jean Philippe; Müller, Thomas; Baltensperger, Urs; Laj, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    A reliable assessment of the optical properties of atmospheric black carbon is of crucial importance for an accurate estimation of radiative forcing. In this study we investigate the spatio-temporal variability of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of atmospheric black carbon, defined as light absorption coefficient (σap) divided by elemental carbon mass concentration (mEC). σap and mEC have been monitored at supersites of the ACTRIS network for a minimum period of one year. The 9 rural background sites considered in this study cover southern Scandinavia, central Europe and the Mediterranean. σap was determined using filter based absorption photometers and mEC using a thermo-optical technique. Homogeneity of the data set was ensured by harmonization of the instruments deployed at all sites during extensive intercomparison exercises at the European Center for Aerosol Calibration. Annual mean values of σap at a wavelength of 637 nm vary between 0.75 - 1.6 Mm-1 in southern Scandinavia, 4.1 - 11 Mm-1 in central Europen and 2.3-2.8 Mm-1 in the Mediterranean region. Annual mean values of mEC vary between 0.75 and 1.6 μg m-3 in southern Scandinavia, 0.28-1.1 in Central Europe and British Isles, and 0.22-0.26 in the Mediterranean. Both σap and mEC in southern Scandinavia and central Europe have a distinct seasonality with maxima during the cold season and minima during summer, whereas at the Mediterranean sites an opposite trend was observed. Annual mean MAC values were quite similar across all sites and the seasonal variability was small at most sites such that a MAC value of 10± 2.5 m2 g-1 (mean ± SD of station means) at a wavelength of 637 nm can be considered to be representative of the mixed boundary layer at European background sites. This is rather small spatial variability compared to the variability of values in previous literature, indicating that the harmonization efforts resulted in substantially increased precision of the reported MAC. However

  17. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-02-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7–6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids.

  18. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-01-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7-6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids. PMID:26829756

  19. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-01-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7–6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids. PMID:26829756

  20. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  1. Humidity control tool for neonatal incubator.

    PubMed

    Abdiche, M; Farges, G; Delanaud, S; Bach, V; Villon, P; Libert, J P

    1998-03-01

    In the first days of life, the daily evaporative loss from premature neonates can reach up to 20% of body mass. Such loss can be reduced by increasing the air humidity inside the incubator. Neither passive humidification nor open loop systems allow high humidity rates to be maintained or easily controlled: at 34 degrees C, the maximum levels vary with the system from 40% to 77% of relative humidity. The skin evaporative exchanges between the neonate and the environment are directly proportional to the water vapour partial pressure difference between the neonate's skin and the air. An active closed loop system has been designed, which permits reliable and accurate control of humidity according to the water vapour partial pressure set, between 1 and 6 kPa, in an air temperature range of 28-39 degrees C. It is characterised by variations of about 0.05 kPa around the set value and a maximum humidification speed of 0.25 kPa min-1. The algorithm is based on optimal control and the dynamic programming principles. Test results place this active system above usual systems for its power, precision and adaptability. It is an exploitable tool in fundamental and clinical research, to precisely study the humidity effects on neonatal comfort and thermo-regulation evolution.

  2. Model, Proxy and Isotopic Perspectives on the East African Humid Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Lewis, Sophie C.; Cook, Benjamin I.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2011-01-01

    Both North and East Africa experienced more humid conditions during the early and mid-Holocene epoch (11,000-5000yr BP; 11-5 ka) relative to today. The North African Humid Period has been a major focus of paleoclimatic study, and represents a response of the hydrological cycle to the increase in boreal summer insolation and associated ocean, atmosphere and land surface feedbacks. Meanwhile, the mechanisms that caused the coeval East African Humid Period are poorly understood. Here, we use results from isotopeenabled coupled climate modeling experiments to investigate the cause of the East African Humid Period. The modeling results are interpreted alongside proxy records of both water balance and the isotopic composition of rainfall. Our simulations show that the orbitally-induced increase in dry season precipitation and the subsequent reduction in precipitation seasonality can explain the East African Humid Period, and this scenario agrees well with regional lake level and pollen paleoclimate data. Changes in zonal moisture flux from both the Atlantic and Indian Ocean account for the simulated increase in precipitation from June through November. Isotopic paleoclimate data and simulated changes in moisture source demonstrate that the western East African Rift Valley in particular experienced more humid conditions due to the influx of Atlantic moisture and enhanced convergence along the Congo Air Boundary. Our study demonstrates that zonal changes in moisture advection are an important determinant of climate variability in the East African region.

  3. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  4. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  5. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  6. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Kauffman and Minteer, Inc., Superfund Site, Jobstown, Burlington County, NJ, September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The selected remedy represents the first and only planned operable unit for the Kauffman and Minteer Site. It addresses contaminated lagoon sediments at the Site and the shallow groundwater. The major components of the selected remedy include: Excavation, off-site treatment as necessary, and off-site disposal of approximately 1000 cubic yards of lagoon sediments; Long-term monitoring of the contaminated shallow ground-water underlying the Site; and Institutional controls to limit groundwater use in the Navesink Formation.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Chemform, Inc. , Site, Operable Unit Two, Pompano Beach, FL, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Chemform, Inc. Site in Pompano Beach, Florida. This remedy applies to Operable Unit Two at the site which pertains to the site-related soil contamination. Due to an extensive cleanup of the site related contaminant sources, and a significant reduction in soil contaminant levels, no further Superfund action is necessary to address Operable Unit Two at the site.

  8. Use of antibodies specific to defined regions of scorpion. cap alpha. -toxin to study its interaction with its receptor site on the sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ayeb, M.E.; Bahraoui, E.M.; Granier, C.; Rochat, H.

    1986-10-21

    Five antibody populations selected by immunoaffinity chromatography for the specificity toward various regions of toxin II of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector were used to probe the interaction of this protein with its receptor site on the sodium channel. These studies indicate that two antigenic sites, one located around the disulfide bridge 12-63 and one encompassing residues 50-59, are involved in the molecular mechanisms of toxicity neutralization. Fab fragments specific to the region around disulfide bridge 12-63 inhibit binding of the /sup 125/I-labeled toxin to its receptor site. Also, these two antigenic regions are inaccessible to the antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor site. In contrast, the two other antigenic sites encompassing the only ..cap alpha..-helix region (residues 23-32) and a ..beta..-turn structure (residues 32-35) are accessible to the respective antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor. Together, these data support the recent proposal that a region made of residues that are conserved in the scorpion toxin family is involved in the binding of the toxin to the receptor.

  9. Regional groundwater flow and tritium transport modeling and risk assessment of the underground test area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The groundwater flow system of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was evaluated to estimate the highest potential current and near-term risk to the public and the environment from groundwater contamination downgradient of the underground nuclear testing areas. The highest, or greatest, potential risk is estimated by assuming that several unusually rapid transport pathways as well as public and environmental exposures all occur simultaneously. These conservative assumptions may cause risks to be significantly overestimated. However, such a deliberate, conservative approach ensures that public health and environmental risks are not underestimated and allows prioritization of future work to minimize potential risks. Historical underground nuclear testing activities, particularly detonations near or below the water table, have contaminated groundwater near testing locations with radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Tritium was selected as the contaminant of primary concern for this phase of the project because it is abundant, highly mobile, and represents the most significant contributor to the potential radiation dose to humans for the short term. It was also assumed that the predicted risk to human health and the environment from tritium exposure would reasonably represent the risk from other, less mobile radionuclides within the same time frame. Other contaminants will be investigated at a later date. Existing and newly collected hydrogeologic data were compiled for a large area of southern Nevada and California, encompassing the Nevada Test Site regional groundwater flow system. These data were used to develop numerical groundwater flow and tritium transport models for use in the prediction of tritium concentrations at hypothetical human and ecological receptor locations for a 200-year time frame. A numerical, steady-state regional groundwater flow model was developed to serve as the basis for the prediction of the movement of tritium from the

  10. Regional distribution of M1, M2 and non-M1, non-M2 subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlert, F.J.; Tran, L.P. )

    1990-12-01

    The distribution of subtypes of the muscarinic receptor in homogenates of the rat brain was investigated by measuring the competitive inhibition of the binding (3H)N-methylscopolamine by pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 (11((2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one). In most brain regions, the competitive binding curves for AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine were consistent with a two-site model. The dissociation constant of pirenzepine for its high-affinity site (M1 receptor) was approximately 10(-8) M, whereas the dissociation constant of AF-DX 116 for its high affinity site (M2 receptor) was approximately 10(-7) M. In many regions, particularly those in the forebrain, the sum of the densities of the M1 and M2 binding sites was substantially less than 100% of the total sites, indicating the existence of a third population of sites lacking high affinity for both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116. We have designated these latter sites as non-M1, non-M2 muscarinic receptors. In general, the densities of the M1 and non-M1, non-M2 binding sites were highest in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and hippocampus, intermediate in thalamus and hypothalamus, and lowest in midbrain, medulla-pons and cerebellum, whereas the M2 binding site had a relatively low, uniform density throughout the brain. The binding capacity of (3H)N-methylquinuclidinyl benzilate was estimated to be 20 to 30% lower than that of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in various regions of the forebrain, but not in more caudal regions of the brain where the two radioligands had approximately the same binding capacities.

  11. Silver Doped Titanium Dioxide Humidity Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshiar Zare, Ali; Mohammadi, Somayye

    2011-02-01

    The effect of silver doping on the sensitivity, dynamic range and the response time of a titanium dioxide-based resistive humidity sensor is studied. Sample pallets were prepared by sintering the dry pressed samples at 900°C in air. Silver was added to the ceramic raw material in the form of AgNO3 which was decomposed during the sintering process. Large area silver electrodes were deposited on the sintered disks by paste printing. The resistance and the response time of the various pallets containing different additive levels were measured at relative humidity range of 4-100%. Silver doping, substantially increased the sensitivity to the ambient humidity. Moreover, it resulted in faster responses; the response time of the silver added pallets were about four times shorter than the pure ones.

  12. Humidity Dependent Extinction of Clay Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. E.; Attwood, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the Earth’s radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of aerosol forcing can be altered by changes in relative humidity which cause aerosol size, shape and refractive index to vary. To quantify these effects, a custom cavity ring down instrument operated at 532 nm with two sample channels measures aerosols extinction under dry conditions and at elevated humidity. The optical growth, fRH(ext), is determined as a ratio of the extinction cross section at high relative humidity to that under dry conditions. Three key clay components of mineral dust and mixtures of clay components with ammonium sulfate are investigated using this method. Experimentally obtained optical growth is compared with physical growth factors from the literature and our work determined using several different techniques. Further, Mie theory calculations based on published optical constants are compared with experimental results. Differences between theory and experiment will be discussed.

  13. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    DOEpatents

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  14. A new method of measuring skin humidity.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, H; Brenneisen, G

    1976-08-01

    A device suitable for the long-time measurement of relative skin humidity is described. This is a simple circuit with a resistance bridge for lithium chloride sensors connected to a digitally steered logic circuit, which causes dried air to stream intermittently through a measuring chamber placed on the skin in such a way that the relative humidity over the skin is maintained at a constant level. The number of switching time periods is proportional to the relative humidity (secretion performance) of the skin and can be counted, recorded, or directly fed into a digital calculator. The apparatus, including a two-channel version with skin temperature recording, has proved useful in sleep investigations under extreme climatic conditions.

  15. All-Optical Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Weng Hong; Yap, Yuen Kiat; Chong, Wu Yi; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-01-01

    The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm. Due to the dependence of the dielectric properties of the GO film on water content, this high TE-mode absorption decreases when the ambient relative humidity increases. The proposed sensor shows a rapid response (<1 s) to periodically interrupted humid air flow. The transmission of the proposed sensor shows a linear response of 0.553 dB/% RH in the range of 60% to 100% RH. PMID:25526358

  16. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips in the Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P. (Editor); Edgett, K. S. (Editor); Rice, J. W., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume, the first of two comprising the technical report for this workshop, contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop 2: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region, September 24-30, 1995, in Spokane, Washington. The Mars Pathfinder Project received a new start in October 1993 as one of the next missions in NASA's long-term Mars exploration program. The mission involves landing a single vehicle on the surface of Mars in 1997. The project is one of the first Discovery-class missions and is required to be a quick, low-cost mission and achieve a set of significant but focused engineering, science, and technology objectives. The primary objective is to demonstrate a low-cost cruise, entry, descent, and landing system required to place a payload on the martian surface in a safe, operational configuration. Additional objectives include the deployment and operation of various science instruments and a microrover. Pathfinder paves the way for a cost-effective implementation of future Mars lander missions. Also included in this volume is the field trip guide to the Channeled Scabland and Missoula Lake Break-out. On July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder is scheduled to land near 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, in a portion of Ares Vallis. The landing ellipse covers a huge (100 x 200 km) area that appears to include both depositional and erosional landforms created by one or more giant, catastrophic floods. One of the best known terrestrial analogs to martian outflow channels (such as Ares Vallis) is the region known as the Channeled Scabland. The field trip guide describes some of the geomorphological features of the Channeled Scabland and adjacent Lake Missoula break-out area near Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.

  17. Pregnancy outcomes, site of delivery, and community schisms in regions affected by the armed conflict in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brentlinger, Paula E; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Cedeño, Marcos Arana; Morales, Lic Guadalupe Vargas; Hernán, Miguel A; Micek, Mark A; Ford, Douglas

    2005-09-01

    The Zapatista armed conflict began in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, in 1994, and overlaps pre-existing local disputes about land, religion, and other issues. Related disruptions in access to and utilization of health services have been alleged to have compromised local health status, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as indigenous women and infants. The study objective was to measure maternal and perinatal mortality ratios and utilization of pregnancy-related health services in the region affected by the Zapatista conflict, and to describe associations between these primary outcome measures, socioeconomic and demographic factors, and factors associated with inter-party and intra-community conflict. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in 46 communities in three regions. The study subjects were 1227 women, 13-49 years old, who had been pregnant during the preceding 2 years (1999-2001). Principal outcome measures were maternal and perinatal mortality, and site of delivery. Secondary analyses explored associations between primary outcomes and socioeconomic, demographic, and conflict-related factors. Most births (87.1%) occurred at home. The crude observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were 607/100,000 and 23.5/1000 live births, respectively. Those who died had difficulty accessing emergency obstetrical care. Both home birth and mortality were associated with descriptors of intra-community conflict. Observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were substantially higher than those officially reported for Mexico or Chiapas. Reduction of high reproductive mortality ratios will require attention to socioeconomic and conflict-related problems, in addition to improved access to emergency obstetrical services.

  18. Heat or humidity, which triggers tree phenology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, Julia; Sparks, Tim H.; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    An overwhelming number of studies confirm that temperature is the main driver for phenological events such as leafing, flowering or fruit ripening, which was first discovered by Réaumur in 1735. Since then, several additional factors which influence onset dates have been identified, such as length of the chilling period, photoperiod, temperature of the previous autumn, nutrient availability, precipitation, sunshine and genetics (local adaptations). Those are supposed to capture some of the remaining, unexplained variance. But our ability to predict onset dates remains imprecise, and our understanding of how plants sense temperature is vague. From a climate chamber experiment on cuttings of 9 tree species we present evidence that air humidity is an important, but previously overlooked, factor influencing the spring phenology of trees. The date of median leaf unfolding was 7 days earlier at 90% relative humidity compared to 40% relative humidity. A second experiment with cuttings shows that water uptake by above-ground tissue might be involved in the phenological development of trees. A third climate chamber experiment suggests that winter dormancy and chilling might be linked to dehydration processes. Analysis of climate data from several meteorological stations across Germany proves that the increase in air humidity after winter is a reliable signal of spring, i.e. less variable or susceptible to reversal compared to temperature. Finally, an analysis of long-term phenology data reveals that absolute air humidity can even be used as a reliable predictor of leafing dates. Current experimental work tries to elucidate the involved foliar uptake processes by using deuterium oxide marked water and Raman spectroscopy. We propose a new framework, wherein plants' chilling requirements and frost tolerance might be attributed to desiccation processes, while spring development is linked to re-humidification of plant tissue. The influence of air humidity on the spring

  19. Paragon Homes: Mixed, Humid Climate Region 40+% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-13

    This case study focuses on a community of homes designed to perform 40+% better than the Building America benchmark house, using advanced framing with added insulation; insulated sheathing; high efficiency windows, and tightly sealed envelope.

  20. Different papillomaviruses have different repertoires of transcription factor binding sites: convergence and divergence in the upstream regulatory region

    PubMed Central

    García-Vallvé, Santiago; Iglesias-Rozas, José R; Alonso, Ángel; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2006-01-01

    Background Papillomaviruses (PVs) infect stratified squamous epithelia in warm-blooded vertebrates and have undergone a complex evolutionary process. The control of the expression of the early ORFs in PVs depends on the binding of cellular and viral transcription factors to the upstream regulatory region (URR) of the virus. It is believed that there is a core of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) common to all PVs, with additional individual differences, although most of the available information focuses only on a handful of viruses. Results We have studied the URR of sixty-one PVs, covering twenty different hosts. We have predicted the TFBS present in the URR and analysed these results by principal component analysis and genetic algorithms. The number and nature of TFBS in the URR might be much broader than thus far described, and different PVs have different repertoires of TFBS. Conclusion There are common fingerprints in the URR in PVs that infect primates, although the ancestors of these viruses diverged a long time ago. Additionally, there are obvious differences between the URR of alpha and beta PVs, despite these PVs infect similar histological cell types in the same host, i.e. human. A thorough analysis of the TFBS in the URR might provide crucial information about the differential biology of cancer-associated PVs. PMID:16526953

  1. Analysis of broadband seismic noise at the German Regional Seismic Network and search for improved alternative station sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, P.; Wylegalla, K.; Klinge, K.

    The German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) comprizes now 16 digital broadband stations equipped with Wieland-Streckeisen STS-2 seismometers, 24-bit dataloggers and a seismological data center at Erlangen. It covers the whole territory of Germany with station-spacings between 80 km to 240 km. The stations are sited in very different environments ranging from near shore at the Baltic Sea coast up to distances of about 700 km from the coast, both within cities and up to about 10 km away from any major settlement, industry or traffic roads. The underground varies from outcropping hard rocks in Hercynian mountain areas, sedimentary rocks in areas of Mesozoic platform cover to up to 1.5 km unconsolidated Quarternary and Tertiary subsoil. Accordingly, seismic background noise varies in a wide range between the upper and lower bounds of the new global noise model. The noise conditions at the GRSN have been investigated systematically by means of displacement power spectral analysis within the frequency range 10-2 5 for RUE and > 10 for BSEG have been confirmed for frequencies between about 0.6 Hz 3 Hz. Strong lateral velocity and impedance contrasts between the outcropping Triassic/Permian sedimentary rocks and the surrounding unconsolidated Quarternary/Tertiary sediments are shown to be the main cause for the strong noise reduction and signal-to-noise ratio improvement at RUE and can account for about 50% of the noise reduction at BSEG.

  2. Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Bio-monitor Samples and Soil from Target sites in Western Balkan Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Sarata K.; Enomoto, Hiroko; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Zunic, Zora S.

    2008-08-07

    Lichen and Moss are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. In this paper, we report results of uranium and its isotope ratios using mass spectrometric measurements (followed by chemical separation procedure) for mosses, lichens and soil samples from a depleted uranium (DU) target site in western Balkan region. Samples were collected in 2003 from Han Pijesak (Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Hercegovina). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show the presence of high concentration of uranium in some samples. Concentration of uranium in moss samples ranged from 5.2-755.43 Bq/Kg. We have determined {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) from the samples with high uranium content and the ratios are in the range of 0.002097-0.002380. TIMS measurement confirms presence of DU in some samples. However, we have not noticed any traces of DU in samples containing lesser amount of uranium or from any samples from the living environment of same area.

  3. Trichodiene synthase. Probing the role of the highly conserved aspartate-rich region by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Cane, D E; Xue, Q; Fitzsimons, B C

    1996-09-24

    Trichodiene synthase catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trichodiene. The enzyme normally requires a divalent cation, Mg2+, which can be substituted by Mn2+. Trichodiene synthase from Fusarium sporotrichioides has a highly conserved aspartate rich region, aa 100-104 (DDSKD). Three mutants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in which each aspartate residue was individually replaced by glutamate. The mutants were each overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. The importance of Asp100 and Asp101 for catalysis was established by the observation of an increase in Km as well as a reduction in kcat in the corresponding Glu mutants. Replacement of the Asp104 residue with Glu had little effect on either Km or kcat. All three mutants produced anomalous sesquiterpene products in addition to trichodiene when incubated with farnesyl diphosphate. Interestingly, when Mg2+ was replaced by Mn2+ in the incubation buffer, the kcat/Km of both wild type trichodiene synthase and the D104E dropped significantly, while those of the other two mutants were not much affected. The proportion of anomalous products increased significantly when the D100E and D101E mutants were incubated in the presence of Mn2+. These observations all lend weight to the proposal that the aspartate residues mediate substrate binding by chelation of the divalent metal ion. Asp100 and Asp101 appear to play a relatively more important role than Asp104. PMID:8823172

  4. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Conservation Chemical Company site, Kansas City, Missouri (remedial alternative selection), September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-30

    Contents include: site location and description; site history; endangerment assessment; development of alternatives; detailed evaluation of alternatives; recommended alternative; applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements; schedule; community relations; enforcement analysis; and responsiveness summary.

  6. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Stanley Kessler Superfund Site, King of Prussia, PA, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-29

    This decision document presents the final selected remedial action for the Stanley Kessler Superfund Site (the Site). The selected remedy for the Site will restore contaminated ground water to its beneficial use by cleaning up the ground water to background levels as established by EPA or the appropriate Maximum Contaminant Levels or non-zero Maximum Contaminant Level Goals established under the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act whichever is more stringent. The selected remedy is the only planned action for the Site.

  7. Coastal geoindicators of environmental change in the humid tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The primary geoindicators appropriate for monitoring environmental changes in the humid tropics are transitory surface water levels, shoreline position, wetlands distribution, coral reefs, landforms, and sediment sequence and composition. Lateral zonations and temporal successions of vegetation also can be used as geoindicators of riverine and shoreline changes. All of these coastal geoindicators are sensitive to regional tectonic processes and anthropogenic alterations and they typically reflect significant changes in coastal conditions such as fluvial processes, coastal energy, water quality, relative sea level, and sediment supply. Where humid tropical coasts coincide with active tectonic margins, indicators of seismic activity are critical to understanding Coastal changes associated with co-seismic subsidence or uplift, tsunamis, and liquefaction of coastal sediments. Coastal landforms and sedimentary deposits that record late Quaternary environmental changes include perched fluvial and marine terraces, delta-plain morphologies, crevassesplay deposits, peats and other paleosols, beach ridges, mud capes, and mud volcanoes. Although these features and deposits typically reflect environmental changes spanning more than 100 years, they are relevant to modern processes, management of coastal lands and resources, and prediction of future conditions. In some regions of the humid tropics, large coastal areas are unaffected by hurricanes or typhoons. Nevertheless, these tropical coasts are vulnerable to other non-storm processes, such as El Nin??o events, tsunamis, and monsoons that increase water levels, and cause widespread flooding and beach erosion. The environmental and political significance of coastal geoindicators increases when they are integrated and applied to issues of human safety and health such as hazards mapping, risk assessment, and dispersion of contaminated sediments. However, to be relevant, those socio-environmental applications demand accurate

  8. How Ambient Humidity May Affect the Transmission of Viral Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2013-04-01

    Viral infectious diseases such as influenza have been a great burden to public health. The airborne transmission route is an important venue for the spread of many respiratory viral diseases. Many airborne viruses have been shown to be sensitive to ambient humidity, yet the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon may provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of diseases. For instance, studies have repeatedly suggested ambient humidity as an important environmental determinant in the transmission of influenza in temperate regions. Further, knowing how to optimize humidity so as to minimize virus survival may have practical implications for disease prevention. In this talk, we will discuss multiple mechanisms that may account for the association between humidity and viability of viruses in aerosols, including water activity, surface inactivation, salt toxicity, and conformational changes to the virus in response to varying pH. As a case study, we will discuss our work on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on survival of influenza A virus (IAV) and how it may contribute to the transmission patterns of seasonal flu around the world. We measured the change in viability of IAV in droplets at various RHs. Results suggest three potential regimes defined by humidity: physiological (~100% RH) with high viability, concentrated (~50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability, and dry (<~50% RH) with high viability. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic basis for the dependence of IAV's transmission on humidity. In temperate regions, the increase in influenza activity in winter may be due to enhanced transmission via the aerosol route thanks to IAV's higher viability in droplets at low RH. In tropical regions, transmission could be enhanced due to high viability of IAV at extremely high RH (rainy season), as observed in our study, possibly through both the aerosol route and the contact

  9. Controls on Carbonate Hillslope Morphology in sub-Humid Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, M.; Haviv, I.

    2014-12-01

    The convexity of soil-covered hillslopes has long been recognized to reflect transport mechanisms of regolith. Intense previous research using cosmogenic isotopes and numerical models mostly focused on the influence of tectonics and erosion rates in regions with silicate rocks, generally downplaying the influence of parameters such as climate, chemical denudation rates and dust flux. The goal of the current research is to characterize and understand how hillslope curvature in carbonate rocks (∂2z/∂x2) vary as a function of precipitation and dust flux. The study area is located in the Eastern Mediterranean across a prominent north-to-south gradient in both precipitation (300 to 1000 mm yr-1) and dust flux (150 to 40 g m-2 yr-1). We combine topographic analysis using high resolution data from airborne LiDAR, field measurements, and numerical modeling. The soil creep diffusion coefficient is evaluated using two different methods: (1) Calculated directly at sites with known cosmogenically-derived erosion rate; (2) Estimated using numerical models at snmites with known initial hillslope form at a known point in time such as volcanic cinder cones with known eruption ages. Initial results indicate that soil-mantled, carbonate hillslopes in the sub-humid Eastern Mediterranean are convex and parabolic in form adjacent to the divide and hillslope curvature is strongly correlated with precipitation in an inverse manner. This dependency could reflect: (1) soil creep diffusion coefficients which increase with precipitation, (2) chemical denudation whose relative fraction of the total denudation increases with precipitation, and (3) dust flux which decreases with precipitation. The relative contribution of these 3 components is currently being evaluated. Diffusion coefficients were estimated based on numerical modeling of high-resolution, field-measured, hillslope profiles of several cinder cones, across a rainfall gradient from 600 to 900 mm yr-1, without apparent

  10. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  11. Determining Monthly Mean Humidities From Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Y. T.; Niiler, P. P.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes statistical study to estimate monthly average humidity of marine surface layer of atmosphere from measurements by radiometers on satellites. Study part of continuing effort to determine flux density of latent heat due to evaporation at ocean surface. Such observations and measurements important because latent-heat flux affects weather and temperature and salinity of upper ocean layers.

  12. The Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherrix, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    The infrared radiation from the earth in two spectral bands during both day and night portions of the orbit is measured. Pictures of cloud cover, three dimensional mappings of cloud cover, temperature mappings of clouds, land, and ocean surface, cirrus cloud content, atmospheric contamination, and relative humidity are provided.

  13. Conserved POU/OCT- and GATA-binding sites in 5'-flanking promoter region of mammalian WNT8B orthologs.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-05-01

    WNT family members are secreted-type glycoproteins regulating cell fate, planar cell polarity, cell adhesion, and cell movement. WNT signals are context-dependently transduced to the canonical pathway for the transcriptional up-regulation of MYC, CCND1, FGF20, JAG1, WISP1 and DKK1 genes, and also to the non-canonical pathway for the activation of RHOA, JNK, PKC, NFAT and NLK signaling cascades. We cloned and characterized the wild-type human WNT8B, while another group the aberrant human WNT8B with Gly230Ala and Arg284Leu amino-acid substitutions. Although WNT8B is undetectable in normal adult tissues by using Northern blot analyses, WNT8B is expressed in gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and embryonal tumors. Here, comparative integromics on WNT8B orthologs were investigated by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Cow Wnt8b gene was identified within NW_001494361.1 genome sequence. Predicted sequence XM_582222.3 was an artificial cow Wnt8b with aberrant prediction for the first exon. Cow Wnt8b complete coding sequence was found to encode a 350-amino-acid protein, which showed 96.9% total-amino-acid identity with human WNT8B. Comparative proteomics revealed that N-terminal signal peptide, 22 Cys residues, two Asn-linked glycosylation sites, Gly230, and Arg284 of human WNT8B were conserved among mammalian WNT8B orthologs. Comparative genomics revealed that POU/OCT- and GATA-binding sites in the 5'-flanking promoter region were conserved among human, chimpanzee, cow, mouse, and rat WNT8B orthologs. In silico expression analyses revealed that human WNT8B was expressed in embryoid body derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells, hepatocyte progenitors derived from ES cells, fetal brain, diffuse-type gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian fibrotheoma. Based on the expression profiles of POU and GATA family transcription factors, it was revealed that WNT8B expression in hepatocyte

  14. Ambient humidity and the skin: the impact of air humidity in healthy and diseased states.

    PubMed

    Goad, N; Gawkrodger, D J

    2016-08-01

    Humidity, along with other climatic factors such as temperature and ultraviolet radiation, can have an important impact on the skin. Limited data suggest that external humidity influences the water content of the stratum corneum. An online literature search was conducted through Pub-Med using combinations of the following keywords: skin, skin disease, humidity, dermatoses, dermatitis, eczema, and mist. Publications included in this review were limited to (i) studies in humans or animals, (ii) publications showing relevance to the field of dermatology, (iii) studies published in English and (iv) publications discussing humidity as an independent influence on skin function. Studies examining environmental factors as composite influences on skin health are only included where the impact of humidity on the skin is also explored in isolation of other environmental factors. A formal systematic review was not feasible for this topic due to the heterogeneity of the available research. Epidemiological studies indicated an increase in eczema with low internal (indoors) humidity and an increase in eczema with external high humidity. Other studies suggest that symptoms of dry skin appear with low humidity internal air-conditioned environments. Murine studies determined that low humidity caused a number of changes in the skin, including the impairment of the desquamation process. Studies in humans demonstrated a reduction in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (a measure of the integrity of the skin's barrier function) with low humidity, alterations in the water content in the stratum corneum, decreased skin elasticity and increased roughness. Intervention with a humidifying mist increased the water content of the stratum corneum. Conversely, there is some evidence that low humidity conditions can actually improve the barrier function of the skin. Ambient relative humidity has an impact on a range of parameters involved in skin health but the literature is inconclusive. Further

  15. The intergenic region between the divergently transcribed niiA and niaD genes of Aspergillus nidulans contains multiple NirA binding sites which act bidirectionally.

    PubMed Central

    Punt, P J; Strauss, J; Smit, R; Kinghorn, J R; van den Hondel, C A; Scazzocchio, C

    1995-01-01

    The niaD and niiA genes of Aspergillus nidulans, which code, respectively, for nitrate and nitrite reductases, are divergently transcribed, and their ATGs are separated by 1,200 bp. The genes are under the control of the positively acting NirA transcription factor, which mediates nitrate induction. The DNA binding domain of NirA was expressed as a fusion protein with the glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma japonicum. Gel shift and footprint experiments have shown that in the intergenic region there are four binding sites for the NirA transcription factor. These sites can be represented by the nonpalindromic consensus 5'CTCCGHGG3'. Making use of a bidirectional expression vector, we have analyzed the role of each of the sites in niaD and niiA expression. The sites were numbered from the niiA side. It appeared that site 1 is necessary for the inducibility of niiA only, while sites 2, 3, and to a lesser extent 4 (which is nearer to and strongly affects niaD) act bidirectionally. The results also suggest that of the 10 binding sites for the AreA protein, which mediates nitrogen metabolite repression, those which are centrally located are physiologically important. The insertion of an unrelated upstream activating sequence into the intergenic region strongly affected the expression of both genes, irrespective of the orientation in which the element was inserted. PMID:7565720

  16. Highly sensitive humidity sensing properties of carbon quantum dots films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ming, Hai; Liu, Ruihua; Han, Xiao; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yonglai

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A humidity sensing device was fabricated based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) films. ► The conductivity of the CQDs films shows a linear and rapid response to atmosphere humidity. ► The humidity sensing property was due to the hydrogen bonds between the functional groups on CQDs. -- Abstract: We reported the fabrication of a humidity sensing device based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) film. The conductivity of the CQDs film has a linear and rapid response to relative humidity, providing the opportunity for the fabrication of humidity sensing devices. The mechanism of our humidity sensor was proposed to be the formation of hydrogen bonds between carbon quantum dots and water molecules in the humidity environment, which significantly promote the electrons migration. In a control experiment, this hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the humidity sensitivity of candle soot (i.e. carbon nanoparticles) with and without oxygen containing groups on the surfaces.

  17. Multi-Site and Multi-Variables Statistical Downscaling Technique in the Monsoon Dominated Region of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    South Asia is under the severe impacts of changing climate and global warming. The last two decades showed that climate change or global warming is happening and the first decade of 21st century is considered as the warmest decade over Pakistan ever in history where temperature reached 53 0C in 2010. Consequently, the spatio-temporal distribution and intensity of precipitation is badly effected and causes floods, cyclones and hurricanes in the region which further have impacts on agriculture, water, health etc. To cope with the situation, it is important to conduct impact assessment studies and take adaptation and mitigation remedies. For impact assessment studies, we need climate variables at higher resolution. Downscaling techniques are used to produce climate variables at higher resolution; these techniques are broadly divided into two types, statistical downscaling and dynamical downscaling. The target location of this study is the monsoon dominated region of Pakistan. One reason for choosing this area is because the contribution of monsoon rains in this area is more than 80 % of the total rainfall. This study evaluates a statistical downscaling technique which can be then used for downscaling climatic variables. Two statistical techniques i.e. quantile regression and copula modeling are combined in order to produce realistic results for climate variables in the area under-study. To reduce the dimension of input data and deal with multicollinearity problems, empirical orthogonal functions will be used. Advantages of this new method are: (1) it is more robust to outliers as compared to ordinary least squares estimates and other estimation methods based on central tendency and dispersion measures; (2) it preserves the dependence among variables and among sites and (3) it can be used to combine different types of distributions. This is important in our case because we are dealing with climatic variables having different distributions over different meteorological

  18. Uncertainties in climatological tropical humidity profiles: Some implications for estimating the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzler, D.S. )

    1993-05-01

    The vertical profile of water vapor, the principal infrared-absorbing gas in the atmosphere, is an important factor in determining the energy balance of the climate system. This study examines uncertainties in calculating a climatological humidity profile: specifically one derived from radiosonde data representative of the moist and highly convective region over the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Uncertainties in the humidity data are large in conditions of low temperature or low humidity in the mid- and upper troposphere. Results derived from a single United States station (Koror) and from an average of four United States-operated stations (all near the equator west of the date line) yield nearly identical results. No humidity measurements are reported in fully the upper third of the troposphere. The implications of these uncertainties for determining the climatological humidity profile are quantitatively assessed by bracketing the range of plausible assumptions for unreported humidity to produce extreme estimates of the climatological profile. These profiles, together with the observed climatological temperature profile, are used as input to a radiative transfer model to ascertain the uncertainty in clear-sky outgoing infrared radiance due to water vapor uncertainties. The radiance uncertainty is shown to be comparable in magnitude to the purely radiative response of the tropical atmosphere to doubling carbon dioxide. The uncertainty associated with unmeasured upper-tropospheric humidity is approximately equal to that arising from incompletely measured midtropospheric humidity. Clear-sky radiative uncertainties, however, are modest relative to the uncertainty associated with variations of infrared absorption due to clouds, as demonstrated by introducing citrus ice particles into the radiative transfer calculations.

  19. Relationship of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 third variable loop to a component of the CD4 binding site in the fourth conserved region.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, R; Thali, M; Tilley, S; Pinter, A; Posner, M; Ho, D; Robinson, J; Sodroski, J

    1992-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies that recognize the human immunodeficiency virus gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein and are directed against either the third variable (V3) loop or conserved, discontinuous epitopes overlapping the CD4 binding region have been described. Here we report several observations that suggest a structural relationship between the V3 loop and amino acids in the fourth conserved (C4) gp120 region that constitute part of the CD4 binding site and the conserved neutralization epitopes. Treatment of the gp120 glycoprotein with ionic detergents resulted in a V3 loop-dependent masking of both linear C4 epitopes and discontinuous neutralization epitopes overlapping the CD4 binding site. Increased recognition of the native gp120 glycoprotein by an anti-V3 loop monoclonal antibody, 9284, resulted from from single amino acid changes either in the base of the V3 loop or in the gp120 C4 region. These amino acid changes also resulted in increased exposure of conserved epitopes overlapping the CD4 binding region. The replication-competent subset of these mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to neutralization by antibody 9284 and anti-CD4 binding site antibodies. The implied relationship of the V3 loop, which mediates post-receptor binding steps in virus entry, and components of the CD4 binding region may be important for the interaction of these functional gp120 domains and for the observed cooperativity of neutralizing antibodies directed against these regions. Images PMID:1279195

  20. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  1. Comparative Studies of the Influence of Relative Humidity and Temperature on the Longevity and Fecundity of the Parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes

    PubMed Central

    GD, Emana

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was introduced for biological control of the stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in eastern and southern African countries. The parasitoid became firmly established in Ethiopia, with varying density and distribution in various regions of the country indicating that there are factors regulating the success of the parasitoid. From previous studies, it was known that the population of the parasitoid released, the type of host, and temperature highly affect some of the biological parameters of the parasitoid. The current studies were undertaken to understand the individual and interactive effect of temperature and relative humidity on the longevity and fecundity of C. flavipes. The study was conducted on C. flavipes collected from the Melkassa Agricultural Research Center Experimental Field, Ethiopia. C. flavipes was reared in the laboratory on C. partellus feeding on pieces of sorghum stem. The longevity experiment was conducted at 10, 20, 30 and 40 °C, while the fecundity experiment was conducted at 20, 25, 28 and 30 °C. For both experiments 40–50%, 60–70% and 80–90% relative humidity regimes were used. The results obtained indicate that the interactive effect of temperature and relative humidity significantly affected the longevity, the number of oocytes, and fecundity of C. flavipes implying that the two factors play an important role in the success of the parasitoid as a biocontrol agent against C. partellus. The results obtained suggests the importance of the selection of target release sites for maximum efficiency of the parasitoid, which can have a positive impact on the on-going augmentative release of C. flavipes in Ethiopia. PMID:20307235

  2. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Shapardanis, Steven; Hudpeth, Mathew; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-12-15

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  3. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapardanis, Steven; Hudpeth, Mathew; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10-5 cm2/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  4. The role of groundwater in streamflow in a headwater catchment with sub-humid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaping; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Tie, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bedrock groundwater can exert considerable influence on streamflow in headwater catchments under humid climate. However, study of the role of bedrock groundwater is still challenged due to limited direct observation data. In this study, by utilizing observed hydrometric and hydrochemical data, we aimed at characterize the bedrock groundwater's response to rainfall at hillslope and catchment scales in a small headwater catchment with sub-humid climate. We selected Xitaizi catchment with area of 6.7 km in the earth-rock mountain region, which located in the north of Beijing, China, as study area. The catchment bedrock is mainly consist of fractured granite. Four weather stations were installed to observe the weather condition and soil volumetric water content (VWC) at depth of 10-60 cm with 10-minute interval. Five wells with depth of 10 m were drilled in two slopes to monitor the bedrock water table by pneumatic water gauge. At slope 1, the soil VWC at depth of 10-80 cm were also observed by soil moisture sensors, and surface/subsurface hillslope runoff at three different layers (0-20cm, 20-80cm, 80-300cm) was observed by three recording buckets. Field works were conducted from July 2013 to November 2014. During the period, precipitation, river, spring and groundwater were sampled nearly monthly. Water temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were measured in site with portable instruments. In addition, the precipitation, river and groundwater were also sampled intensively during two storm events. All the samples were subjected to stable isotope analysis, the samples taken monthly during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 were subjected to hydrochemistry analysis. Our results show that: (1) the bedrock groundwater is the dominant component of streamflow in the headwater catchment with sub-humid climate; (2) stream is recharged by groundwater sourcing from different mountains with different hydrochemistry characteristics

  5. Evaluation of Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to analyze the indoor relative humidity in three home types in the hot-humid climate zone, and examine the impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls. As the Building America program researches construction of homes that achieve greater source energy savings over typical mid-1990s construction, proper modeling of whole-house latent loads and operation of humidity control equipment has become a high priority. Long-term high relative humidity can cause health and durability problems in homes, particularly in a hot-humid climate. In this study, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used the latest EnergyPlus tool equipped with the moisture capacitance model to analyze the indoor relative humidity in three home types: a Building America high-performance home; a mid-1990s reference home; and a 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)-compliant home in hot-humid climate zones. They examined the impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls on the high-performance home where the dehumidification equipment energy use can become a much larger portion of whole-house energy consumption. The research included a number of simulated cases: thermostat reset, A/C with energy recovery ventilator, heat exchanger assisted A/C, A/C with condenser reheat, A/C with desiccant wheel dehumidifier, A/C with DX dehumidifier, A/C with energy recovery ventilator, and DX dehumidifier. Space relative humidity, thermal comfort, and whole-house source energy consumption were compared for indoor relative humidity set points of 50%, 55%, and 60%. The study revealed why similar trends of high humidity were observed in all three homes regardless of energy efficiency, and why humidity problems are not necessarily unique in the high-performance home. Thermal comfort analysis indicated that occupants are unlikely to notice indoor humidity problems. The study confirmed that supplemental

  6. Public health assessment for Agrico Chemical Site, Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, Region 4. Cerclis No. FLD980221857. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-07

    The Agrico Chemical Co. Superfund site (Agrico) is a former sulfuric acid and phosphate fertilizer production facility in Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida. The authors focused their public assessment on the following chemicals: arsenic, chromium, fluoride, lead, manganese, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfate and vanadium. Workers and treapassers on the site may have accidentally eaten contaminated soil or waste sludge, or gotten this material or contaminated water on their skin. Arsenic in surface soil on the site may also increase the risk of skin, bladder, liver, kidney and lung cancer. Arsenic in surface soil at the onsite baseball field, and lead and PAHs in surface soil on and off of the site would result in no apparent increase in the risk of cancer. Analysis of off-site surface soil samples has been limited to PAHs, fluoride and three analyses for lead. Based on the information the authors have, this site is a public health hazard.

  7. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Limestone Road Superfund Site, operable unit 2, Cumberland, MD, June 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Record of Decision (`ROD`) presents the final remedial action selected for Operable Unit 2 (`OU2`) of the Limestone Road Superfund Site (`Site`), located in Cumberland, Allegany County, Maryland. The selected remedy for the Site consists of the installation of a waterline and ancillary equipment (a pumping station and fire hydrants) to service residents in the vicinity of the Site. Implementation of deed restrictions on the previously capped areas of the Site to prevent use of such areas in such a manner as would cause disturbance of the caps; Implementation of a ground water management program to prevent installation of drinking water wells in the vicinity of the Site; Continuation of the long term ground water, surface water, and sediment monitoring plans currently being implemented pursuant to OU1; and Abandonment of existing residential water supply well.

  8. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Superfund Site, Hickman County, Wrigley, TN, February 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for the Wrigley Charcoal Site, in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tennessee. The U.S. EPA has modified a wide variety of items that require immediate response action for the first step of cleanup activities to be taken at the Wrigley Charcoal Site. The major goal of these cleanup activities is to address the most serious threats at the Wrigley Charcoal Site by removing contaminated media from the Primary Site flood plain, remediating wastes at the Storage Basin, and through limited access restrictions at the Primary Site and the Storage Basin. The cleanup activities as presented in this IRA Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment will achieve significant risk reduction and will prepare the Site for future remedial activities.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Brio Refining Site, Harris County, Texas, March 1988. First remedial action. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-31

    The 58-acre Brio Refining site is located in Harris County, Texas, approximately 20 miles southeast of Houston. The site is broken into two parcels, 49-acre Brio North and 9-acre Brio South, separated by Drive Farm Road. Between 1957 and 1982 the site refined crude oil and styrene tars to produce toluene, ethylbenzene, solvents, naphthalene, diesel fuel and kerosene. Site investigation indicate that between 500,000-700,000 sq yds of onsite soil have measurable contamination, and that high levels of VOCs exist in ground water underlying the site. The selected remedial action for the Brio Refining site includes: Excavation and incineration or biological treatment of all onsite soils, sludges, and liquids found to be above action levels defined in the Endangerment Assessment, with backfilling of all treated material passing the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  10. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA region 6): Vertac Superfund Site, operable unit 3, Jacksonville, AR, September 17, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 3 (OU3), Ground Water, for the Vertac, Incorporated, site in Jacksonville, Arkansas. The remedy selected in this ROD for Operable Unit 3 will contain within the site`s confines dioxin- and herbicide- contaminated ground water that constitutes a low level long term threat, will treat to State of Arkansas water quality standards the ground water extracted from the site in connection with the hydraulic containment of the contaminated ground water plume, and will prioide a legal mechanism by which EPA will reevaluate the remedy selected in five-year intervals from the date the remedy is initiated.

  12. Health assessment for Somersworth Municipal Landfill Site, Strafford County, Somersworth, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD980520225. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-12

    The Somersworth Municipal Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in a predominantly residential part of central Somersworth, New Hampshire, approximately one mile southwest of downtown Somersworth. On-site soils are contaminated with low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groundwater beneath the site is contaminated with low levels of VOCs. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has concluded that the Somersworth Landfill Site is of potential public health concern under current conditions because of the potential risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.

  13. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 7): Former Nebraska Ordnance Plant Site, Operable Unit 1, Mead, NE, August 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) site, in Mead, Nebraska. The former NOP site was used as an ordnance loading, assembly, and packing facility. Operations at the NOP resulted in contamination of soil with explosive compounds. Operable Unit 1 (OU1) encompasses the upper 4 feet of soil contaminated with explosive compounds. The remedial action for OU1 addresses one of the principal threats at the site, explosives-contaminated soil, by thermally treating the contaminated soil on-site.

  14. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali

    2007-04-01

    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP. PMID:16987605

  15. The Structures of Antibiotics Bound to the E Site Region of the 50 S Ribosomal Subunit of Haloarcula marismortui: 13-Deoxytedanolide and Girodazole

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder,S.; Blaha, G.; Tirado-Rives, J.; Steitz, T.; Moore, P.

    2007-01-01

    Crystal structures of the 50 S ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui complexed with two antibiotics have identified new sites at which antibiotics interact with the ribosome and inhibit protein synthesis. 13-Deoxytedanolide binds to the E site of the 50 S subunit at the same location as the CCA of tRNA, and thus appears to inhibit protein synthesis by competing with deacylated tRNAs for E site binding. Girodazole binds near the E site region, but is somewhat buried and may inhibit tRNA binding by interfering with conformational changes that occur at the E site. The specificity of 13-deoxytedanolide for eukaryotic ribosomes is explained by its extensive interactions with protein L44e, which is an E site component of archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes, but not of eubacterial ribosomes. In addition, protein L28, which is unique to the eubacterial E site, overlaps the site occupied by 13-deoxytedanolide, precluding its binding to eubacterial ribosomes. Girodazole is specific for eukarytes and archaea because it makes interactions with L15 that are not possible in eubacteria.

  16. Hydrologic and geologic characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site relevant to the performance of a potential repository: Day 1, Las Vegas, Nevada to Pahrump, Nevada: Stop 6A. Keane Wonder Spring and regional groundwater flow in the Death Valley region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located ~100 mi northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been designated by Congress as a site to be characterized for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This field trip will examine the regional geologic and hydrologic setting for Yucca Mountain, as well as specific results of the site characterization program, The first day focuses on the regional seeing with emphasis on current and paleo hydrology, which are both of critical concern for predicting future performance of a potential repository. Morning stops will be in southern Nevada and afternoon stops will be in Death Valley. The second day will be spent at Yucca Mountain. The filed trip will visit the underground testing sites in the "Exploratory Studies Facility" and the "Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Field Test" plus several surface-based testing sites. Much of the work at the site has concentrated on studies of the unsaturated zone, and element of the hydrologic system that historically has received little attention. Discussions during the second day will comprise selected topics of Yucca Mountain geology, mic hazard in the Yucca Mountain area. Evening discussions will address modeling of regional groundwater flow, the geology and hydrology of Yucca Mountain to the performance of a potential repository. Day 3 will examine the geologic framework and hydrology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Groundwater Basin and then will continue to Reno via Hawthorne, Nevada and the Walker Lake area.

  17. Climate variability and dengue fever in warm and humid Mexico.

    PubMed

    Colón-González, Felipe J; Lake, Iain R; Bentham, Graham

    2011-05-01

    Multiple linear regression models were fitted to look for associations between changes in the incidence rate of dengue fever and climate variability in the warm and humid region of Mexico. Data were collected for 12 Mexican provinces over a 23-year period (January 1985 to December 2007). Our results show that the incidence rate or risk of infection is higher during El Niño events and in the warm and wet season. We provide evidence to show that dengue fever incidence was positively associated with the strength of El Niño and the minimum temperature, especially during the cool and dry season. Our study complements the understanding of dengue fever dynamics in the region and may be useful for the development of early warning systems.

  18. Estimation of shallow S-wave velocity structure and site response characteristics by microtremor array measurements in Tekirdag region, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Citak, Seckin; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Hatayama, Ken

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the S-wave velocity structure of shallow soils using microtremors in order to estimate site responses in Tekirdag and surrounding areas (NW Turkey). We collected microtremor array data at 44 sites in Tekirdag, Marmara Ereglisi, Corlu, and Muratlı. The phase velocities of Rayleigh waves were estimated from the microtremor data using a Spatial Autocorrelation method. Then, we applied a hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm to obtain a 1D S-wave velocity structure at each site. Comparison between the horizontal-to-vertical ratio of microtremors and computed ellipticities of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves showed good agreement with validation models. The depth of the engineering bedrock changed from 20 to 50 m in the Tekirdag city center and along the coastline with a velocity range of 700-930 m/s, and it ranged between 10 and 65 m in Marmara Ereglisi. The average S-wave velocity of the engineering bedrock was 780 m/s in the region. We obtained average S-wave velocities in the upper 30 m to compare site amplifications. Empirical relationships between the AVs30, the site amplifications, and also average topographic slopes were established for use in future site effects microzonation studies in the region.

  19. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-04-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha‑1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  20. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0–4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha−1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination. PMID:27114032

  1. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0-4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha(-1) on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination. PMID:27114032

  2. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0-4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha(-1) on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  3. Photoacoustic and filter-based ambient aerosol light absorption measurements: Instrument comparisons and the role of relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Moosmüller, H.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.; Raspet, R.; Slaton, W. V.; Hand, J. L.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Ambient measurements are reported of aerosol light absorption from photoacoustic and filter-based instruments (aethalometer and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP)) to provide insight on the measurement science. Measurements were obtained during the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study at the Big Bend National Park in South Texas. The aethalometer measurements of black carbon concentration at this site correlate reasonably well with photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption, with a slope of 8.1 m2/g and a small offset. Light absorption at this site never exceeded 2.1 Mm-1 during the month of collocated measurements. Measurements were also obtained, as a function of controlled relative humidity between 40% and 90%, during the Photoacoustic IOP in 2000 at the Department of Energy Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site (SGP). PSAP measurements of aerosol light absorption correlated very well with photoacoustic measurements, but the slope of the correlation indicated the PSAP values were larger by a factor of 1.61. The photoacoustic measurements of light absorption exhibited a systematic decrease when the RH increased beyond 70%. This apparent decrease in light absorption with RH may be due to the contribution of mass transfer to the photoacoustic signal. Model results for the limiting case of full water saturation are used to evaluate this hypothesis. A second PSAP measured the light absorption for the same humidified samples, and indicated very erratic response as the RH changed, suggesting caution when interpreting PSAP data under conditions of rapid relative humidity change.

  4. Using Relative Humidity Forecasts to Manage Meningitis in the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Akweogno, P.; Awine, T.; Dalaba, M.; Dukic, V.; Dumont, A.; Hayden, M.; Hodgson, A.; Hopson, T. M.; Hugonnet, S.; Yoksas, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur quasi-regularly and with devastating impact. In 2008, for example, eighty-eight thousand people contracted meningitis and over five thousand died. Until very recently, the protection provided by the only available vaccine was so limited and short-lived that the only practical strategy for vaccination was reactive: waiting until an epidemic occurred in the region and then vaccinating in that region to prevent the epidemic's further growth. Even with that strategy, there were still times when demand outpaced available vaccine. While a new vaccine has recently been developed that is effective and inexpensive enough to be used more broadly and proactively, it is only effective against the strain of bacteria that causes the most common kind of bacterial meningitis. As a result, there will likely be continued need for reactive vaccination strategies. It is widely known that meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur only in the dry season. Our project investigated this relationship, and several independent lines of evidence demonstrate a robust relationship between the onset of the rainy season, as marked by weekly average relative humidity above 40%, and the end of meningitis epidemics. These lines of evidence include statistical analysis of two years of weekly meningitis and weather data across the Sahel, cross-correlation of ten years of meningitis and weather data in the Upper East region of northern Ghana, and high-resolution weather simulations of past meningitis seasons to interpolate available weather data. We also adapted two techniques that have been successfully used in public health studies: generalized additive models, which have been used to relate air quality and health, and a linearized version of the compartmental epidemics model that has been used to understand MRSA. Based on these multiple lines of evidence, average weekly relative humidity forecast two weeks in advance appears consistently and strongly related to

  5. Differences between high-affinity forskolin binding sites in dopamine-riche and other regions of rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Poat, J.A.; Cripps, H.E.; Iversen, L.L.

    1988-05-01

    Forskolin labelled with (/sup 3/H) bound to high- and low-affinity sites in the rat brain. The high-affinity site was discretely located, with highest densities in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercule, substantia nigra, hippocampus, and the molecular layers of the cerebellum. This site did not correlate well with the distribution of adenylate cyclase. The high-affinity striatal binding site may be associated with a stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Thus, the number of sites was increased by the addition of Mg/sup 2 +/ and guanylyl imidodiphosphate. Cholera toxin stereotaxically injected into rat striatum increased the number of binding sites, and no further increase was noted following the subsequent addition of guanyl nucleotide. High-affinity forskolin binding sites in non-dopamine-rich brain areas (hippocampus and cerebullum) were modulated in a qualitatively different manner by guanyl nucleotides. In these areas the number of binding sites was significantly reduced by the addition of guanyl nucleotide. These results suggest that forskolin may have a potential role in identifying different functional/structural guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Pease Air Force Base, Site 8, NH, September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The decision document presents a selected remedial action designed to protect human and ecological receptors at Site 8, Pease AFB, New Hampshire. This action addresses the prinicipal threat posed by Site 8, preventing endangerment of public health, welfare, or the environment by implementation of this ROD through remediation of the soil and groundwater, and, consequently, minizing the leaching potential of soil contaminants.

  7. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA region 3): Saunders Supply Company Superfund Site, Chuckatuck, VA, September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This decision document revises the Record of Decision (ROD) signed on September 30, 1991 for the Saunders Supply Company Site (Site), in Chuckatuck, Virginia. This ROD Amendment revises the previously selected remedy by changing the methodology for treatment of contaminated soil and sediment from onsite low temperature thermal desorption and onsite dechlorination, respectively, to offsite incineration.

  8. The association of myosin IB with actin waves in dictyostelium requires both the plasma membrane-binding site and actin-binding region in the myosin tail.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A; Korn, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave.

  9. Comparison Of Multi-Frequency SAR Land Cover Signatures For Multi-Site Semi-Arid Regions Of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spies, Bernard; Lamb, Alistair; Brown, Sarah, Balzter, Heiko; Fisher, Peter

    2013-12-01

    This study shows the analysis and comparison of different SAR backscatter signatures (σ0 distributions) for distinguishable land cover types over two semi-arid test sites in Africa. The two sites that were chosen are located in Tanzania and Chad, where existing multi- frequency data was available from the different synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archives. Images were grouped into wet and dry season for the Tanzania site, whereas only dry season imagery was available for the Chad site. An IsoData unsupervised classification was applied on all three sets of images to classify seven land cover classes. Random samples were taken from each of the classes, resulting in σ0 distributions for the different classes for each site. These SAR land cover signatures are interpreted and discussed, with further steps identified.

  10. Health assessment for Springfield Township Dump Site, Oakland County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980499966. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-19

    The Springfield Township Dump NPL Site is located in Oakland County, approximately 35 miles northwest of Detroit, Michigan. A number of Hazardous Substance List (HSL) contaminants exist on-site including chlorinated aliphatics, benzene compounds, toluene, xylene, phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs), dieldrin, lead, and chromium. Two on-site groundwater contaminants, trichloroethene and 1,1-dichloroethene were found at levels in excess of EPA's drinking-water MCLs. The highest levels of contaminants were found in on-site soils although contaminants were also detected in the site's ground water at much lower levels. The primary contaminant migration pathways include movement of contaminated groundwater, volatilization of contaminants, soil erosion and transport, and bioaccumulation. The most likely routes for human contaminant exposure are direct contact with contaminated soils and sludge, inhalation of fugitive dusts or vapors, or the ingestion of contaminated plants, animals, soil, or ground water.

  11. Health assessment for Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site, Franklin, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID980901227. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-06

    The Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site is listed on the National Priorities List. Virtually no testing has been conducted at the Fadrowski site. Site characterization was only beginning at the time of the site visit. The only testing that had been done was of the contents of drums uncovered during excavations involved in construction. Samples of the contents of the drums - sludges, oily water, and paint waste - showed concentrations of lead (400 - 32,700 ppm), chromium (< 100 - 6,800 ppm), DDT (p.p. DDT - 1,000 ppm; o.p. DDT - 450 ppm), and petroleum distillates. The uncovered wastes were re-covered with clay. At that time, the presence of hazardous materials on site was verified, but the extent and limits of contamination were not and have not yet been determined.

  12. Health assessment for Chemform, Inc. Site, Pompano Beach, Broward County, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD080174402. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-27

    In compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has prepared Health Assessment reports for sites currently on, or proposed for, the National Priorities List (NPL). Health Assessments are also prepared for non-NPL sites in response to requests from States and individuals. In this report, the presence and nature of health hazards at this site are assessed, and the public health implications specific to this site are evaluated. The Health Assessment is based on such factors as the nature, concentration, toxicity, and extent of contamination at the site; the existence of potential pathways for the human exposure; the size and nature of the community likely to be exposed; and any other information available to ATSDR that is relevant to a determination of potential risks to public health.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Bofors-Nobel site, Muskegon, MI. (First remedial action), September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-17

    The 85-acre Bofors Nobel site is an active specialty chemical production plant in Edelston Township, Muskegon County, Michigan. An inactive landfill is also located in the eastern portion of the site. Onsite wetlands lie within the floodplain of Big Black Creek, which runs through the southern portion of the site. The site overlies a lacustrine aquifer, a potential drinking water source, which has been contaminated as a result of site activities. During the 1960s and early 1970s, sludge, wastewater, and waste liquids from plant operations were discharged into 10 onsite lagoons. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses remediation of the lagoons, as well as upgrading the current ground water treatment system. A subsequent final ROD will address other contaminated soil and complete restoration of the aquifer. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sludge, and ground water are VOCs including benzene.

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Allegany Ballistics Laboratory (USNavy) Site 10, Mineral, WV, June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Site 10 (the Site) Groundwater at the Allegany Ballistics Laboratory (ABL), Rocket Center, West Virginia. The major components of the selected remedy are: Institutional controls, including land use restrictions imposed through appropriate administrative mechanisms to prevent groundwater use; Groundwater pumping from a minimum of three extraction wells to capture the hot spot of the VOC contaminant plume; Installation of a pipeline to transport groundwater from Site 10 to the Site 1 treatment plant; Discharge to the North Branch Potomac River; and Groundwater monitoring on a timely basis, quarterly to semi-annually, will evaluate groundwater quality, contaminant migration, and degradation for inclusion in the 5-year site reviews.

  15. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  16. Characterization of Semi-volatility of Atmospheric Submicron Particles at a Regional Background Site in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    HE Lingyan1, HUANG Congni1, HUANG Xiaofeng11. Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China Abstract:The coupling of a Thermal Denuder (TD) with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was used in Xianghe, which is a regional background site in North China, during June - July, 2013 to on-line measure the mass concentrations and semi-volatilities of atmospheric submicron particles, including organic matter (OM), SO42- , NO3-, NH4+, and Cl-. The total PM1 mass concentration measured was averagely (47.9±47.3) mg/m3 during the campaign, with OM accounting for 38.2% of the total PM1 mass, followed by SO42- (33.7%), NH4+ (13.8%), NO3- (12.3%), and Cl- (2.0%). It was found that NO3- and Cl- had the highest semi-volatility, with about 60% of them evaporating into the gas phase by increasing the temperature to 50 °C, while SO42- showed the lowest semi-volatility, with almost 90% of its mass remaining in the particle phase at 50 °C. The semi-volatility of OM and NH4+ was at the middle level. The semi-volatility of NO3- was affected by the pollution level of the atmospheric submicron particles since it showed an increasing trend with the increasing of PM1 at 50 °C. The oxygen-to-carbon ration of organic aerosol was 0.47 to 0.60 by increasing the temperature from 50 ℃ to 200 °C. In addition, the semi-volatility of the PM1 species with vacuum aerodynamic diameters of 60-2000 nm was little size dependent. The calculation based on the high-resolution mass spectra of OM showed that CO2+-containing organic species had lower semi-volatility, while C4H9+-containing organic species had higher semi-volatility. The semi-volatility of OM was found to be negatively related to its oxidation state. The quantitative result of atmospheric submicron particles' semi-volatility is essential to the research of the physicochemical

  17. Residential Dehumidification Systems Research for Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-02-01

    Twenty homes were tested and monitored in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, to evaluate the humidity control performance and operating cost of six integrated dehumidification and ventilation systems.

  18. Temperature and humidity profiles over coastal water

    SciTech Connect

    Leeuw, G. de; Neele, F.P.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, June 1--19, experiments were conducted at the North Sea, about 10 km southwest from the German island Sylt, to study atmospheric effects on IR and radar propagation. As part of this experiment, temperature and humidity profiles were measured for testing current models describing IR and RF propagation. In particular the authors aimed to address the effect of waves on the surface layer profiles, in particular at low altitudes, and the formulation of the surface layer profiles in stable stratification.

  19. Potato growth in response to relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Russet Burbank, Norland, and Denali) were grown for 56 days in controlled-environment rooms under continuous light at 20C and 50% or 85% RH. No significant differences in total plant dry weight were measured between the humidity treatments, but plants grown under 85% RH produced higher tuber yields. Leaf areas were greater under 50% RH and leaves tended to be larger and darker green than at 85% RH.

  20. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  1. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  2. The Relationship between Humidity and Influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H. O.; Melton, F. S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Predictions of trends in the distribution of known diseases can be used to inform and drive public health action. Given the strong linkage between climate and influenza, we propose an in-depth study of the relationship between humdidty and other climate variables and influenza morbidity and mortality at various temporal and spatial scales. Although several studies indicate that relative humidity affects both influenza virus transmission and influenza virus survival, a new lab-based study suggests that it is absolute humidity that constrains both transmission efficiency of the influenza virus survival and its transmission. We test this assumption using a 20-year disease and humidity data for seven US cities. The ultimate goal of the study is to make it possible to use weather and climate predictions at or before the start of the influenza season to provide valuable prediction of the characteristics of the season. We further suggest that using the NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System offers a unique and promising opportunity to apply data from NASA satellites and modeling frameworks to enable prediction of the severity and peak time of influenza based on climate indicators. Improving the predictability of influenza can result in the development of more cost effective and successful disease control strategies and enhance our understanding of how the disease might respond to potential climate changes.

  3. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

  4. Public health assessment for Limestone Road Site, Cumberland, Allegany County, Maryland, Region 3. Cerclis No. MDD980691588. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Limestone Road Site, located in Cumberland, Maryland, has been evaluated for potential health risks to the neighboring residential community. The site is classified as an indeterminate public health hazard because of possible past and present exposure to surface soil contamination. Surface soil contamination has not been adequately characterized to determine levels of exposure. Also, drinking water samples from two residential wells contained lead at levels above health comparison values. Surface water and sediment sampling indicated that some off-site migration of heavy metals including chromium, cadmium, barium, lead and nickel has occurred. Levels of some of these contaminants exceed USEPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the protection of human health.

  5. Health assessment for South Andover National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Andover, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND980609614. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-06

    The South Andover National Priorities List Site is located in Andover, Minnesota. The site is located in a semi-industrial area characterized by used-car dealerships, and auto part and salvage operations. The surficial aquifer is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and metals. The contamination present in the soil, deeper aquifer, air, and biota has not been fully characterized. A supplemental Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) will be conducted in 1989. Removal of tires, which cover much of the site, is ongoing; it will be completed in the spring of 1989.

  6. Health assessment for Newcastle Abandoned Container Site, Newcastle, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED058980442. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-15

    The Newcastle Abandoned Container site is listed on the National Priorities List. On February 28, 1986, radioactive, corrosive, and toxic materials, and a large number of containers filled with unknown material, were inventoried, containerized, and removed. On-site contamination consists of polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, creosote, chloroform, and di-n-butylphthalate in soil; and tetrachloroethylene, acetone, xylene, trichlorofluoromethane, trichloroethylene, and tris(betachloroisopropyl)phosphate in groundwater. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater. The potential for contamination of the lower aquifer should be investigated.

  7. Induced Air Movement for Wide-Span Schools in Humid Asia. Educational Building Digest 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Schools in the hot and humid zones of the Asian region are narrow to ensure good ventilation. The purpose of this report is to show that it is possible, through appropriate design, to obtain sufficient breeze for thermal comfort in buildings as wide as 15 meters. Some of the conclusions of a study of the subject are summarized. The summary is…

  8. Resonance energy transfer imaging of phospholipid vesicle interaction with a planar phospholipid membrane: undulations and attachment sites in the region of calcium-mediated membrane--membrane adhesion

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Membrane fusion of a phospholipid vesicle with a planar lipid bilayer is preceded by an initial prefusion stage in which a region of the vesicle membrane adheres to the planar membrane. A resonance energy transfer (RET) imaging microscope, with measured spectral transfer functions and a pair of radiometrically calibrated video cameras, was used to determine both the area of the contact region and the distances between the membranes within this zone. Large vesicles (5-20 microns diam) were labeled with the donor fluorophore coumarin- phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), while the planar membrane was labeled with the acceptor rhodamine-PE. The donor was excited with 390 nm light, and separate images of donor and acceptor emission were formed by the microscope. Distances between the membranes at each location in the image were determined from the RET rate constant (kt) computed from the acceptor:donor emission intensity ratio. In the absence of an osmotic gradient, the vesicles stably adhered to the planar membrane, and the dyes did not migrate between membranes. The region of contact was detected as an area of planar membrane, coincident with the vesicle image, over which rhodamine fluorescence was sensitized by RET. The total area of the contact region depended biphasically on the Ca2+ concentration, but the distance between the bilayers in this zone decreased with increasing [Ca2+]. The changes in area and separation were probably related to divalent cation effects on electrostatic screening and binding to charged membranes. At each [Ca2+], the intermembrane separation varied between 1 and 6 nm within each contact region, indicating membrane undulation prior to adhesion. Intermembrane separation distances < or = 2 nm were localized to discrete sites that formed in an ordered arrangement throughout the contact region. The area of the contact region occupied by these punctate attachment sites was increased at high [Ca2+]. Membrane fusion may be initiated at these sites of

  9. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70 °F....

  10. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70 °F....

  11. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70 °F....

  12. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70° F....

  13. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70 °F....

  14. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned...

  15. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned...

  16. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned...

  17. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned...

  18. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement. 89.326 Section 89.326 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned...

  19. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  2. Characterizing stopover sites of migrating passerine birds in the lower Chesapeake Bay region for conservation: an integrated radar-habitat study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabey, S.; Watts, B.; Paxton, B.; Smith, F.; Truitt, B.; Dawson, D.

    2005-01-01

    Many conservation organizations and initiatives including Partners-in-Flight and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's regional Joint Ventures have identified migratory songbird stopover habitat as a priority conservation target. However, the spatial and temporal variability inherent in migration presents a number of challenges to both identifying and characterizing stopover habitat. Scarce conservation resources further demand that stopover sites be classified on a scale of priority so that conservation action can proceed according to ecological value. We are applying weather surveillance radar data collected from the National Weather Service WSR-88D at Wakefield, VA, and NASA's Doppler radar, NPOL, in Oyster, VA, to identify passerine stopover sites in the lower Chesapeake Bay region and develop spatial models to characterize these sites based on relative migrant abundance and consistency of use between and within seasons. We are using the stopover patterns to generate hypotheses regarding the habitat, geographic, and stochastic factors contributing to the distribution of migrants at a regional scale. We are testing these hypotheses with detailed habitat data and ground surveys of migrating birds with the goal of creating a generalized prioritization system for stopover site conservation.

  3. Interannual Variations in Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Humidity: Understanding Tropical Convective and Dynamical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Fitzjarrald, Dan E.; Miller, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty remains as to what extent variability in mid to upper tropospheric moisture, especially over the tropics, behaves as constant relative humidity during interannual climate variations associated with ENSO. Systematic variations in HIRS 6.7 micron and MLS 205 GHz suggest that dry subtropical regions evolving during warm SST events depress relative humidity, but the interpretation of these events is still uncertain. Additional specific concerns have to do with regional signatures of convective processes: How does the origin of dry air in the eastern subtropical N. Pacific differ in ENSO warm versus cold years? The dynamics of Rossby wave forcing by convective heating, subtropical jet stream dynamics, and dynamics driven subsidence all come into play here. How variations in precipitating ice hydrometeors from tropical anvils relate to variations in UTH is also a subject of debate? Do variations in precipitating ice, cloud cover and water vapor behavior show any support for the Iris-hypothesis mechanism? Here we examine historical records of SSM/T-2 data to gain a better physical understanding of the effects of deep convective moisture sources and dynamically-induced vertical circulations on UTH. These high frequency microwave measurements (183.3 GHz) take advantage of far less sensitivity to cloud hydrometeors than the 6.7 micron data to yield a record of upper tropospheric relative humidity. Furthermore, signatures of precipitating ice from these channels facilitate comparisons to TRMM hydrometeors detected by radar. In analyzing these observations, we isolate water vapor and temperature change components that affect brightness temperatures and the inferred relative humidity. Trajectory modeling is also used to understand interannual humidity anomalies in terms of outflow fbm convective regions and history of diabatically-driven sinking which modifies relative humidity.

  4. Comparisons of Upper Tropospheric Humidity Retrievals from TOVS and METEOSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escoffier, C.; Bates, J.; Chedin, A.; Rossow, W. B.; Schmetz, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two different methods for retrieving Upper Tropospheric Humidities (UTH) from the TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) instruments aboard NOAA polar orbiting satellites are presented and compared. The first one, from the Environmental Technology Laboratory, computed by J. Bates and D. Jackson (hereafter BJ method), estimates UTH from a simplified radiative transfer analysis of the upper tropospheric infrared water vapor channel at wavelength measured by HIRS (6.3 micrometer). The second one results from a neural network analysis of the TOVS (HIRS and MSU) data developed at, the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (hereafter the 3I (Improved Initialization Inversion) method). Although the two methods give very similar retrievals in temperate regions (30-60 N and S), an absolute bias up to 16% appears in the convective zone of the tropics. The two datasets have also been compared with UTH retrievals from infrared radiance measurements in the 6.3 micrometer channel from the geostationary satellite METEOSAT (hereafter MET method). The METEOSAT retrievals are systematically drier than the TOVS-based results by an absolute bias between 5 and 25%. Despite the biases, the spatial and temporal correlations are very good. The purpose of this study is to explain the deviations observed between the three datasets. The sensitivity of UTH to air temperature and humidity profiles is analysed as are the clouds effects. Overall, the comparison of the three retrievals gives an assessment of the current uncertainties in water vapor amounts in the upper troposphere as determined from NOAA and METEOSAT satellites.

  5. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 7): Sheller-Globe Corporation Disposal Site, Keokuk, IA, September 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Sheller-Globe Corporation Disposal site located near Keokuk, Iowa. The selected remedy consists of the following components: Recording of deed restrictions to run with the land which limit land use. Deed restrictions will limit future use of the Site to non-residential and will notify future potential property purchasers that hazardous substances remain on-Site; Demolition of the on-Site house to preclude future use as a residence; Removal of all drums exposed at the ground surface (all identified drums were determined during the RI to be empty or filled with non-hazardous material such as soil, sticks, rusty metal, etc.); The addition of a 12-inch layer of topsoil placed in those areas in which ash material is exposed at the surface; and Seeding with grass in the areas of contamination those areas not currently vegetated.

  6. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Shriver`s Corner Site, Straban Township, PA, September 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for the Shriver`s Corner Site in Straban Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania. The elements of the selected remedy are: Provision of an alternate water supply to the currently affected residences from a single community supply well; Construction and operation of a groundwater extraction and treatment system that will contain, extract and treat contaminated groundwater. The on-site treatment process will include air-stripping with carbon adsorption for air emission control; Discharge of the treated groundwater to the Western Tributary, and/or Rock Creek, or for use as a nonpotable water supply; Provision of periodic groundwater monitoring during and after completion of the groundwater remediation; Excavation and disposal off-site all contaminated soil from the Upper Culp Area and Shealer Area that exceed the cleanup criterion; and Excavation and disposal off-site all contaminated sediment from the Culp Tributary that exceed the cleanup criterion.

  7. Health assessment for Brown Wood Preserving Site, Suwannee County, Live Oak, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD980728935. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-24

    The Brown Wood Preserving site is a National Priorities List (NPL) site located at the intersection of Saw Mill Road and Gold Kist Road, west of the city of Live Oak, Suwannee County, Florida. Surface soil and surface water at the disposal lagoon area were contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groundwater was also tested for PAHs with none found; however, analytical detection limits were greater than appropriate health-based guideline values. The site is located in an area of intermediate karst (sinkhole) development. This area of direct aquifer recharge is surrounded by residences using private potable wells. The exposures of concern for humans include dermal absorption and inhalation of dust from contaminated surface soil. Residents reside 100 feet northwest of the site and may constitute a susceptible population because of their proximity to contaminated soils.

  8. Health assessment for Beacon Heights Landfill site, Beacon Falls, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD072122062. Addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-20

    The Beacon Heights Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) Site is located in Beacon Falls, Connecticut. From the 1920's to 1979, municipal and industrial wastes were disposed of at the landfill. Leachate from the landfill has migrated into the local groundwater aquifers. Two residential wells to the northwest of the site have been contaminated with site-related contaminants. This site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in Human Exposure Pathways Section below, human exposure to benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, and methylene chloride may have occurred via ingestion, inhalation, and direct dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. No health study follow-up is indicated at this time.

  9. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Marine Corps Base, operable unit 5 (site 2), Camp Lejeune, NC, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-15

    The decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit No. 5 (Site 2) at Marine Corps Base (MCB), Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The selected remedy for Site 2, Institutional Controls/Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring, is the final action to be conducted at this site. A Time Critical Removal Action (TCRA) is planned to be completed prior to that of the selected remedy at the operable unit for the removal of pesticide-contaminated soils and sediment identified during the remedial investigation. The contaminated soils and sediment may present an adverse risk to human health and the environment, and are potential sources of groundwater contamination. The selected remedial action included in this ROD addresses the principal threats remaining (i.e., post-TCRA) at Site 2 by addressing groundwater contamination.

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Eagle Mine Site, operable unit 1, Eagle County, CO, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Eagle Mine Site, Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) (Site), located in Eagle County, Colorado. This Operable Unit, one of two designated for the Site, addresses the principal sources of mine waste pollution that are impacting the Eagle River and certain ground water resources. The purpose of this Operable Unit (OU-1) is to control the transport of toxic metals originating from various sources to the Eagle River and to Site ground waters. The identified sources include the Eagle Mine, the Roaster Pile area, the Waste Rock Piles, Rex Flats, the Old Tailings Pile (OTP), the Consolidated Tailings Pile (CTP) and the Maloit Park Wetlands.

  11. 2-(/sup 125/I)iodomelatonin binding sites in hamster brain membranes: pharmacological characteristics and regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.J.; Takahashi, J.S.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-05-01

    Studies in a variety of seasonally breeding mammals have shown that melatonin mediates photoperiodic effects on reproduction. Relatively little is known, however, about the site(s) or mechanisms of action of this hormone for inducing reproductive effects. Although binding sites for (3H)melatonin have been reported previously in bovine, rat, and hamster brain, the pharmacological selectivity of these sites was never demonstrated. In the present study, we have characterized binding sites for a new radioligand, 2-(125I)iodomelatonin, in brains from a photoperiodic species, the Syrian hamster. 2-(125I)Iodomelatonin labels a high affinity binding site in hamster brain membranes. Specific binding of 2-(125I)iodomelatonin is rapid, stable, saturable, and reversible. Saturation studies demonstrated that 2-(125I)iodomelatonin binds to a single class of sites with an affinity constant (Kd) of 3.3 +/- 0.5 nM and a total binding capacity (Bmax) of 110.2 +/- 13.4 fmol/mg protein (n = 4). The Kd value determined from kinetic analysis (3.1 +/- 0.9 nM; n = 5) was very similar to that obtained from saturation experiments. Competition experiments showed that the relative order of potency of a variety of indoles for inhibition of 2-(125I)iodomelatonin binding site to hamster brain membranes was as follows: 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to 2-iodomelatonin greater than N-acetylserotonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-dichloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 5-methoxytryptophol greater than 5-methoxytryptamine greater than or equal to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than serotonin greater than 5-methoxyindole (inactive).

  12. Study of disease and symptom prevalence, Newsom Brothers National Priorities List Site, Columbia, Mississippi, Region 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Columbia, Mississippi is the site of an abandoned chemical manufacturing plant that was contaminated with several VOCs and was included in the EPA's National Priorities List in 1986. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), in cooperation with the Mississippi State Department of Health, conducted a survey of disease and symptom prevalence. The objective of the survey was to determine whether the community living near the site (within a 1/4 mile radius of two on-site ponds) had an excess prevalence of specific self-reported diseases or symptoms, compared with an appropriate community not situated near the site. The results of the study show that residents ages 12 years and older living near the site reported more constitutional complaints (numbness, tingling or prickling, rash, watery or burning eyes, wheezing chest pain, dizziness) and memory loss than did the comparison community. No significant differences were found in self-reported symptoms or diseases among children in the two areas. No environmental exposure pathways or their resulting toxicological processes are known to explain the uniform increase in symptoms seen in the study. The apparent elevation in reported symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by the respondents living near the site.

  13. Health assessment for Mottolo Hazardous Waste Site, Raymond, New Hampshire, Region 1. CERCLIS No. NHD980503361. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-12

    The Mottolo Hazardous Waste Site is listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL). The site consists of a 10 acre portion of a 50 acre parcel of land formerly used for a piggery. Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) are the only hazardous chemicals identified at the Mottolo Site. Groundwater and surface water have been the only media sampled. Groundwater analysis for inorganic compounds detected onsite concentrations of iron and manganese exceeding Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels. Groundwater on-site has contained up to 8 ppm of total VOCs. Both the overburden and bedrock aquifers have been contaminated. Specific contaminants detected in groundwater were benzene, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrahydrofuran, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, toluene, and xylenes. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern due to the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated groundwater, surface water, and soil. There appear to be no sources of acute health risks at the Mottolo Site. However, potential chronic health risks may be associated with contaminated groundwater, surface water, and potentially contaminated soils. A continual monitoring program of residential wells in the area is recommended until the source of contamination is mitigated or an alternate water source is provided.

  14. Regional and Site-Scale Hydrogeologic Analyses of a Proposed Canadian Deep Geologic Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.; Yin, Y.; Sykes, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface. This paper describes a regional-scale and linked site-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVS-OPG flow and transport model. The work illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier and provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geoscientific data. The structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock were defined by the Ontario Petroleum Institute's Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Library borehole logs covering Southern Ontario and by site-specific data. The regional- scale domain encompasses an 18,500 km2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The site- scale spatial domain encompasses an area of approximately 361 km2 with the repository at its centre. Its boundary conditions are determined using both the nested model approach and an embedment approach. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing pore fluids with high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. Site-specific data indicate that the Ordovician is under-pressured relative to the surface elevation while the Cambrian is over-pressured. The computational sequence for the analyses involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density-dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Sensitivity

  15. The MaoP/maoS Site-Specific System Organizes the Ori Region of the E. coli Chromosome into a Macrodomain.

    PubMed

    Valens, Michèle; Thiel, Axel; Boccard, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The Ori region of bacterial genomes is segregated early in the replication cycle of bacterial chromosomes. Consequently, Ori region positioning plays a pivotal role in chromosome dynamics. The Ori region of the E. coli chromosome is organized as a macrodomain with specific properties concerning DNA mobility, segregation of loci and long distance DNA interactions. Here, by using strains with chromosome rearrangements and DNA mobility as a read-out, we have identified the MaoP/maoS system responsible for constraining DNA mobility in the Ori region and limiting long distance DNA interactions with other regions of the chromosome. MaoP belongs to a group of proteins conserved in the Enterobacteria that coevolved with Dam methylase including SeqA, MukBEF and MatP that are all involved in the control of chromosome conformation and segregation. Analysis of DNA rings excised from the chromosome demonstrated that the single maoS site is required in cis on the chromosome to exert its effect while MaoP can act both in cis and in trans. The position of markers in the Ori region was affected by inactivating maoP. However, the MaoP/maoS system was not sufficient for positioning the Ori region at the ¼-¾ regions of the cell. We also demonstrate that the replication and the resulting expansion of bulk DNA are localized centrally in the cell. Implications of these results for chromosome positioning and segregation in E. coli are discussed. PMID:27627105

  16. The MaoP/maoS Site-Specific System Organizes the Ori Region of the E. coli Chromosome into a Macrodomain

    PubMed Central

    Valens, Michèle; Thiel, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The Ori region of bacterial genomes is segregated early in the replication cycle of bacterial chromosomes. Consequently, Ori region positioning plays a pivotal role in chromosome dynamics. The Ori region of the E. coli chromosome is organized as a macrodomain with specific properties concerning DNA mobility, segregation of loci and long distance DNA interactions. Here, by using strains with chromosome rearrangements and DNA mobility as a read-out, we have identified the MaoP/maoS system responsible for constraining DNA mobility in the Ori region and limiting long distance DNA interactions with other regions of the chromosome. MaoP belongs to a group of proteins conserved in the Enterobacteria that coevolved with Dam methylase including SeqA, MukBEF and MatP that are all involved in the control of chromosome conformation and segregation. Analysis of DNA rings excised from the chromosome demonstrated that the single maoS site is required in cis on the chromosome to exert its effect while MaoP can act both in cis and in trans. The position of markers in the Ori region was affected by inactivating maoP. However, the MaoP/maoS system was not sufficient for positioning the Ori region at the ¼–¾ regions of the cell. We also demonstrate that the replication and the resulting expansion of bulk DNA are localized centrally in the cell. Implications of these results for chromosome positioning and segregation in E. coli are discussed. PMID:27627105

  17. Correlation between the compact regions predicted by the average distance map (ADM) and the biologically active sites in atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, T

    1992-10-01

    The prediction of the short-range compact regions of human atrial natriuretic peptide (alpha-hANP), one of the biologically active peptides, has been made by means of the Average Distance Map(ADM). We found out that the location of the predicted short-range compact regions is consistent with the structural units determined by the NMR analysis (Kobayashi et al., 1988). Furthermore, the short-range compact regions correspond well to the biologically active areas of atriopeptin (103-125)-amide (which is homologous peptide to alpha-hANP), detected by the glycine substitution technique (Konishi et al., 1987). The results suggest that a predicted short-range compact region can be regarded as a possible active site in a biologically active peptide.

  18. Developing of a VS30 map for addressing site effects for Portugal: evaluation of the effectiveness of using VS30-proxies for stable continental regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, Susana; Narciso, Joao; Carvalho, Joao; Pinto, Carlos; Lopes, Isabel; Nemser, Eliza; Borges, Jose; Oliveira, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The need to perform first-order estimates for site amplification in a regional sense has been strongly emphasized in recent years. The use site-amplification maps is of major importance for addressing both land-use planning (seismic-hazard maps) and emergency planning (instrumental intensity maps). Project SCENE, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), aimed at gathering and acquiring shear-wave velocity profiles in diverse lithological and geological formations in Portugal, in order to develop a regional site conditions map to be used for including first-order site-effects into seismic hazard assessment maps. Within the scope of project SCENE thirty sites where strong motion stations are installed were characterized using shear-wave seismic refraction. The project SCENE shear-wave database also includes a significant amount of shear-wave refraction data available from FCT project NEFITAG and from previously performed CAPSA and ERSTA campaigns. Few sites characterised by using other methods (multichannel analysis of surface waves and invasive profiles) were also included in the database. The shear-wave database currently includes 85 shear-wave depth sections or profiles from a variety of lithological/geological formations. In addition to the shear-wave profile database we compiled geotechnical and geological profiles in the vicinity of the sites analysed. We performed a careful evaluation of the geological conditions for each site in the database using the largest scale available (usually 1:50 000). A smaller scale map (1:500000) was also used in order to evaluate the bias introduced by the scale-dependent map accuracy. We grouped the sites into six generalized geological units: S1 - igneous and metamorphic rocks; S2 - old sedimentary rocks (Limestones, marly limestones, dolomites, conglomerates and sandstones); S3 - Sand, sandstones, clays and conglomerates of Miocene age; S4 - Sandstones, gravels, sands and clays of Pliocene age; S5

  19. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 9: Shore zone land use and land cover; Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, R.; Hayden, B. P.; Vincent, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of the land use and land cover maps provides a stratification of the CARETS shore area into regions which have a similar environmental organization. Different elements of the landscape are altered less frequently moving inland. Near the beach, higher frequency of monitoring is needed than is needed in the inland areas, including the marsh and estuarine areas.

  20. Health assessment for Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation Proposed National Priorities List Site, Intel Corporation National Priorities List Site, Raytheon Company National Priorities List Site, Mountain View, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD095989778. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-07

    The Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, the Intel Corporation, and the Raytheon Company each have a facility located approximately 3 miles south of San Francisco Bay in Mountain View, California. The Intel and Raytheon facilities are on the National Priorities List (NPL) while the Fairchild facility is a proposed NPL site. Within the one-half square mile area containing the three sites, 37 potential and two inferred sources of contamination have been identified. The major contaminants for the three sites include trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113), and vinyl chloride. These contaminants are attributed to the sites and have been found primarily in the ground water and subsurface soil on the sites and in ground water off the sites. Contaminant concentrations in surface soils were within the normal range of background values. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in surface water west of the study area in Stevens Creek, an intermittent stream. The source of these contaminants is suspected to be treated ground water that has been pumped from the Fairchild and Raytheon sites and discharged to Stevens Creek under a permit.

  1. Long-distance recording of the humidity over the sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buklanov, V. V.; Klaptsov, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is developed for long distance recording of humidity over the sea that uses humidity detectors of the sorption type, whose electrical properties depend on the relative humidity of the air. The moisture sensitive material of the hygristor is the organic polymer polyacrylonitryl, deposited on silver electrodes and thermally treated. In the measurements of the relative humidity from 60% to 95%, the resistance of the hygristor varies from several hundred kiloohms to a few kiloohms, and is an essentially nonlinear function of the humidity.

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Woodbury Chemical Site, Princeton, FL. (First remedial action), June 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-25

    The 5-acre Woodbury Chemical (Princeton Plant) site is a pesticide and fertilizer formulation and storage facility located approximately one-half mile southwest of Princeton, Dade County, Florida. From 1959 to the present, the site has been used for formulating technical-grade materials to produce pesticides and fertilizers. As a result of a tank leak or spill in the late 1970's, EPA conducted numerous investigations that revealed toxaphene contamination in soil. In 1990, a removal action was conducted at the site, which resulted in the excavation of contaminated soil. Soil contaminated with greater than 100 mg/kg of toxaphene was sent offsite to the GSX facility in Pinewood, South Carolina, and soil contaminated with less than 100 mg/kg was sent to the South Dade County landfill. The previous removal action has eliminated the principal threat at the site and no additional action is necessary to protect human health or the environment. Therefore, there are no contaminants of concern affecting this site.

  3. Catalytic roles of flexible regions at the active site of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.; Harpel, M.R.; Chen, Yuh-Ru; Larson, E.M.; Larimer, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical and mutagenesis studies of Rubisco have identified Lys329 and Glu48 as active-site residues that are located in distinct, interacting domains from adjacent subunits. Crystallographic analyses have shown that Lys329 is the apical residue in a 12-residue flexible loop (loop 6) of the {Beta},{alpha}-barrel domain of the active site and that Glu48 resides at the end of helix B of the N-terminal domain of the active site. When phosphorylated ligands are bound by the enzyme, loop 6 adopts a closed conformation and, in concert with repositioning of helix B, thereby occludes the active site from the external environment. In this closed conformation, the {gamma}-carboxylate of Glu48 and the {epsilon}-amino group of Lys329 engage in intersubunit electrostatic interaction. By use of appropriate site-directed mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum Rubisco, we are addressing several issues: the catalytic roles of Lys329 and Glu48, the functional significance of the intersubunit salt bridge comprised of these two residues, and the roles of loop 6 and helix B in stabilizing labile reaction intermediates. Characterization of novel products derived from misprocessing of D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) by the mutant proteins have illuminated the structure of the key intermediate in the normal oxygenase pathway.

  4. The Three Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen 85 Isoforms Have Unique Substrates and Activities Determined by Non-active Site Regions*

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Keriann M.; Dolan, Michael A.; Barry, Conor S.; Joe, Maju; McPhie, Peter; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Lowary, Todd L.; Davis, Benjamin G.; Barry, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    The three isoforms of antigen 85 (A, B, and C) are the most abundant secreted mycobacterial proteins and catalyze transesterification reactions that synthesize mycolated arabinogalactan, trehalose monomycolate (TMM), and trehalose dimycolate (TDM), important constituents of the outermost layer of the cellular envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These three enzymes are nearly identical at the active site and have therefore been postulated to exist to evade host immunity. Distal to the active site is a second putative carbohydrate-binding site of lower homology. Mutagenesis of the three isoforms at this second site affected both substrate selectivity and overall catalytic activity in vitro. Using synthetic and natural substrates, we show that these three enzymes exhibit unique selectivity; antigen 85A more efficiently mycolates TMM to form TDM, whereas C (and to a lesser extent B) has a higher rate of activity using free trehalose to form TMM. This difference in substrate selectivity extends to the hexasaccharide fragment of cell wall arabinan. Mutation of secondary site residues from the most active isoform (C) into those present in A or B partially interconverts this substrate selectivity. These experiments in combination with molecular dynamics simulations reveal that differences in the N-terminal helix α9, the adjacent Pro216–Phe228 loop, and helix α5 are the likely cause of changes in activity and substrate selectivity. These differences explain the existence of three isoforms and will allow for future work in developing inhibitors. PMID:25028517

  5. Regional skew for California, and flood frequency for selected sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, based on data through water year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea; Stedinger, J.R.; Barth, N.A.; Knifong, Donna L.; Ferris, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Improved flood-frequency information is important throughout California in general and in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin in particular, because of an extensive network of flood-control levees and the risk of catastrophic flooding. A key first step in updating flood-frequency information is determining regional skew. A Bayesian generalized least squares (GLS) regression method was used to derive a regional-skew model based on annual peak-discharge data for 158 long-term (30 or more years of record) stations throughout most of California. The desert areas in southeastern California had too few long-term stations to reliably determine regional skew for that hydrologically distinct region; therefore, the desert areas were excluded from the regional skew analysis for California. Of the 158 long-term stations used to determine regional skew, 145 have minimally regulated annual-peak discharges, and 13 stations are dam sites for which unregulated peak discharges were estimated from unregulated daily maximum discharge data furnished by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using an expected moments algorithm (EMA) program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual peak-discharge data. The Bayesian GLS regression method previously developed was modified because of the large cross correlations among concurrent recorded peak discharges in California and the use of censored data and historical flood information with the new expected moments algorithm. In particular, to properly account for these cross-correlation problems and develop a suitable regression model and regression diagnostics, a combination of Bayesian weighted least squares and generalized least squares regression was adopted. This new methodology identified a nonlinear function relating regional skew to mean basin elevation. The regional skew values ranged from -0.62 for a mean basin elevation of zero to 0.61 for a mean basin elevation

  6. How important is tropospheric humidity for coastal rainfall in the tropics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergemann, Martin; Jakob, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Climate models show considerable rainfall biases in coastal tropical areas, where approximately 33% of the overall rainfall received is associated with coastal land-sea interaction. Building on an algorithm to objectively identify rainfall that is associated with land-sea interaction we investigate whether the relationship between rainfall in coastal regions and atmospheric humidity differs from that over the open ocean or over inland areas. We combine 3-hourly satellite estimates of rainfall with humidity estimates from reanalyses and investigate if coastal rainfall reveals the well-known relationship between area-averaged precipitation and column-integrated moisture. We find that rainfall that is associated with coastal land-sea effects occurs under much drier midtropospheric conditions than that over the ocean and does not exhibit a pronounced critical value of humidity. In addition, the dependence of the amount of rainfall on midtropospheric moisture is significantly weaker when the rainfall is coastally influenced.

  7. Influenza and humidity--Why a bit more damp may be good for you!

    PubMed

    Metz, Jane A; Finn, Adam

    2015-06-01

    Influenza viruses cause much winter-time morbidity and death in temperate regions. We still do not understand why 'flu is more common in winter. Since the 1960s, investigators have studied the role of relative humidity and temperature on viral survival, transmission and infection rates but results have demonstrated only inconclusive trends. Over the past few years however, a series of exciting studies have instead focussed on absolute humidity and demonstrated highly significant correlations with viral survival and transmission rates in both laboratory and epidemiological models. Here we review the evidence for a causal association between absolute humidity and 'flu transmission and outline how this could lead to a new approach to curbing this and perhaps other viral epidemics in the winter months.

  8. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic.

    PubMed

    Cox, Christopher J; Walden, Von P; Rowe, Penny M; Shupe, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10 W m(-2). With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1-5 W m(-2) in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5-15 W m(-2) by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.

  9. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.

  10. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    DOE PAGES

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Ourmore » findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.« less

  11. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing te