Sample records for humidifiers

  1. Mold Allergy: Proper Humidifier Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Home Conditions Allergy Allergy Overview Allergy Allergens Mold Allergy Proper Humidifier Care Proper Humidifier Care Make ... neglected humidifier can be a major source of mold and mold spores. Learn how to keep a ...

  2. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    DOEpatents

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  3. Humidifier disinfectants, unfinished stories

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeyong

    2016-01-01

    Once released into the air, humidifier disinfectants became tiny nano-size particles, and resulted in chemical bronchoalveolitis. Families had lost their most beloved members, and even some of them became broken. Based on an estimate of two million potential victims who had experienced adverse effects from the use of humidifier disinfectants, we can say that what we have observed was only the tip of the iceberg. Problems of entire airways, as well as other systemic effects, should be examined, as we know these nano-size particles can irritate cell membranes and migrate into systemic circulation. The story of humidifier disinfectant is not finished yet. PMID:26987713

  4. Rate of humidifier and humidifier disinfectant usage in Korean children: A nationwide epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jisun; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Eun; Choi, Yean Jung; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Jung Lym; Lee, Ye Jin; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2017-05-01

    In South Korea, a cluster of humidifier disinfectant-induced lung injury (HDLI) cases developed between 2006 and 2011. There are no existing reports regarding the rate of humidifier disinfectant (HD) usage in the general population of Korean children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of humidifier and HD usage in the general population of Korean children. This is a general population-based birth cohort multicenter study, Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) from 2008, a humidifier and HD-related questionnaire administered to 1577 subjects (809 male, 768 female) in 2015 (n=1577). The questionnaire consisted of four categories (humidifier usage, HD usage, exposure duration, and type of HD brands). A total of 75.6% (1192/1577) had used a humidifier, and the rate of HD usage was found to be 31.1% (409/1316). Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), used as a disinfectant, was found to have the highest usage rate (62.0%). HD was used for less than 3 months of the entire lifetime of most of the subjects. In conclusion, approximately 30% of young Korean children were exposed to HD. PHMG-containing HD was the most commonly used. These results suggest that a nationwide epidemiologic investigation is needed urgently, and children exposed to HD should be investigated regarding their status of lung injury, including a pulmonary function test. Moreover, a long-term follow-up period may be required to evaluate HD usage-associated lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacteriological monitoring of water reservoirs in oxygen humidifiers: safety of prolonged and multipatient use of prefilled disposable oxygen humidifier bottles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nobuharu; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Maesaki, Shigefumi

    2006-03-01

    Bacterial colony counts in water specimens from oxygen humidifiers that used reusable water reservoirs were compared with counts in water specimens from humidifiers that used prefilled disposable reservoir bottles to evaluate the effects of prolonged and multipatient use of humidifiers. Bacteria were detected after 1 week of operation in water specimens collected from many humidifiers with reusable reservoirs, but no bacteria were detected in water specimens from disposable bottles for up to 12 weeks during use of the humidifier by multiple patients.

  6. Brief report: sound output of infant humidifiers.

    PubMed

    Royer, Allison K; Wilson, Paul F; Royer, Mark C; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The sound pressure levels (SPLs) of common infant humidifiers were determined to identify the likely sound exposure to infants and young children. This primary investigative research study was completed at a tertiary-level academic medical center otolaryngology and audiology laboratory. Five commercially available humidifiers were obtained from brick-and-mortar infant supply stores. Sound levels were measured at 20-, 100-, and 150-cm distances at all available humidifier settings. Two of 5 (40%) humidifiers tested had SPL readings greater than the recommended hospital infant nursery levels (50 dB) at distances up to 100 cm. In this preliminary study, it was demonstrated that humidifiers marketed for infant nurseries may produce appreciably high decibel levels. Further characterization of the effect of humidifier design on SPLs and further elucidation of ambient sound levels associated with hearing risk are necessary before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5450 - Respiratory gas humidifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Respiratory gas humidifier. 868.5450 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5450 Respiratory gas humidifier. (a) Identification. A respiratory gas humidifier is a device that is intended to add moisture to, and sometimes to...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5450 - Respiratory gas humidifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Respiratory gas humidifier. 868.5450 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5450 Respiratory gas humidifier. (a) Identification. A respiratory gas humidifier is a device that is intended to add moisture to, and sometimes to...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5450 - Respiratory gas humidifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Respiratory gas humidifier. 868.5450 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5450 Respiratory gas humidifier. (a) Identification. A respiratory gas humidifier is a device that is intended to add moisture to, and sometimes to...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5450 - Respiratory gas humidifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Respiratory gas humidifier. 868.5450 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5450 Respiratory gas humidifier. (a) Identification. A respiratory gas humidifier is a device that is intended to add moisture to, and sometimes to...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5450 - Respiratory gas humidifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Respiratory gas humidifier. 868.5450 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5450 Respiratory gas humidifier. (a) Identification. A respiratory gas humidifier is a device that is intended to add moisture to, and sometimes to...

  12. [Humidifier-associated disease in the general population].

    PubMed

    Müller-Wening, D; Koschel, D; Stark, W; Sennekamp, H-J

    2006-03-10

    Recently an increasing number of patients presented with febrile and respiratory symptoms associated with exposure to a new type of domestic ultrasonic humidifier. We report on 14 patients (5 females, 9 males; average age 42.5 17.4 years) with recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to ultrasonic misting fountain at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (humidifier lung: 12 patients) or toxic alveolitis (humidifier fever: 2 patients) was made on the basis of the history and the clinical, radiological, laboratory and immunological findings. 10 patients had a partial respiratory insufficiency at rest or on exercise, 9 had a restrictive ventilatory abnormality. The chest x-ray was abnormal in 7 patients. Of 8 patients in whom computed tomography was done 6 had typical changes of an exogenous allergic alveolitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytic alveolitis in 8 patients. In 12 patients bacteria, moulds and/or yeasts were demonstrated in the humidifier fluid which they had used. 13 patients had IgG antibodies to the humidifier fluid. 8 patients were subjected to inhalative challenge tests to their own ultrasonic misting fountain: all of them had positive reactions. These cases demonstrate the potential of ultrasonic humidifying devices to cause illness in the home. In view of their increasing popularity, humidifier lung and humidifier fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained pulmonary or flu-like illness with fever.

  13. Estimating retrospective exposure of household humidifier disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Park, D U; Friesen, M C; Roh, H S; Choi, Y Y; Ahn, J J; Lim, H K; Kim, S K; Koh, D H; Jung, H J; Lee, J H; Cheong, H K; Lim, S Y; Leem, J H; Kim, Y H; Paek, D M

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a comprehensive humidifier disinfectant exposure characterization for 374 subjects with lung disease who presumed their disease was related to humidifier disinfectant use (patient group) and for 303 of their family members (family group) for an ongoing epidemiological study. We visited the homes of the registered patients to investigate disinfectant use characteristics. Probability of exposure to disinfectants was determined from the questionnaire and supporting evidence from photographs demonstrating the use of humidifier disinfectant, disinfectant purchase receipts, any residual disinfectant, and the consistency of their statements. Exposure duration was estimated as cumulative disinfectant use hours from the questionnaire. Airborne disinfectant exposure intensity (μg/m(3)) was estimated based on the disinfectant volume (ml) and frequency added to the humidifier per day, disinfectant bulk level (μg/ml), the volume of the room (m(3)) with humidifier disinfectant, and the degree of ventilation. Overall, the distribution patterns of the intensity, duration, and cumulative exposure to humidifier disinfectants for the patient group were higher than those of the family group, especially for pregnant women and patients ≤6 years old. Further study is underway to evaluate the association between the disinfectant exposures estimated here with clinically diagnosed lung disease. Retrospective exposure to household humidifier disinfectant as estimated here can be used to evaluate associations with clinically diagnosed lung disease due to the use of humidifier disinfectant in Korea. The framework, with modifications to account for dispersion and use patterns, can also be potentially adapted to assessment of other household chemical exposures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Estimating Retrospective Exposure of Household Humidifier Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Uk; Friesen, Melissa C; Roh, Hyun-Suk; Choi, Ye-Yong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lim, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Koh, Dong-Hee; Jung, Hye-Jung; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lim, Sin-Ye; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Yong-Hwa; Paek, Do-Myung

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive humidifier disinfectant exposure characterization for 374 subjects with lung disease who presumed their disease was related to humidifier disinfectant use (patient group) and for 303 of their family members (family group) for an ongoing epidemiological study. We visited the homes of the registered patients to investigate disinfectant use characteristics. Probability of exposure to disinfectants was determined from the questionnaire and supporting evidence from photographs demonstrating the use of humidifier disinfectant, disinfectant purchase receipts, any residual disinfectant and the consistency of their statements. Exposure duration was estimated as cumulative disinfectant use hours from the questionnaire. Airborne disinfectant exposure intensity (μg/m3) was estimated based on the disinfectant volume (mL) and frequency added to the humidifier per day, disinfectant bulk level (μg/mL), the volume of the room (m3) with humidifier disinfectant, and the degree of ventilation. Overall, the distribution patterns of the intensity, duration and cumulative exposure to humidifier disinfectants for the patient group were higher than those of the family group, especially for pregnant women and patients ≤ 6 years old. Further study is underway to evaluate the association between the disinfectant exposure estimated here with clinically diagnosed lung disease. PMID:25557769

  15. Resistive pressure of a condenser humidifier in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Manthous, C A; Schmidt, G A

    1994-11-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (or "nose" humidifiers) are commonly used to aid in the humidification of inspired gases of mechanically ventilated patients. These devices add resistance to the ventilator circuit that has heretofore not been quantified in critically ill patients. Accordingly, we determined the resistive pressures associated with new and old (but < 24 hrs in the circuit) humidifiers in 23 critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients. Prospective study. Adult medical and surgical intensive care units at a university center. Twenty-three critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients using a condenser humidifier between the wye and the endotracheal tube. Peak and plateau airway pressures were determined with the humidifier in place. These measurements were repeated without the humidifier, then after insertion of a fresh humidifier into the circuit. In five patients, measurements were repeated after humidifiers had remained in place for a full 24 hrs. The new humidifiers increased the resistive pressure of the ventilator circuit by 4.8 +/- 2.6 cm H2O compared with no humidifier (p < .01) and had a mean resistance of 4.2 +/- 1.5 cm H2O/L/sec. Old humidifiers increased resistive pressure by 6.3 +/- 3.6 cm H2O compared with no humidifier (p < .01) and had a mean resistance of 5.1 +/- 1.8 cm H2O/L/sec. The resistive pressure doubled from 3.4 +/- 1.2 to 7.0 +/- 1.8 cm H2O (p < .01) in five patients in whom the humidifiers were left in the ventilator circuit for a full 24 hrs. The humidifier adds a significant resistance to the ventilator circuit which may lead to incorrect assessment of respiratory system mechanics, to inappropriate therapy (e.g., bronchodilators), or to difficulty in weaning from mechanical ventilation.

  16. Microbiological contamination in high and low flow oxygen humidifiers: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente-Sancho, I; Romeu-Bordas, Ó; Fernández-Aedo, I; Vallejo De la Hoz, G; Ballesteros-Peña, S

    2017-12-16

    To determine the risk of microbiological contamination with hospital use high- and low-flow bubbling humidifiers. A systematic literature review was carried out in 6 databases. Observational or experimental studies published between 1990 and 2016 were selected, written in English or Spanish, and in which microbiological contamination with hospital use high- and low-flow bubbling humidifiers was investigated. A total of 12 articles were included: 4 analyzed the water from reusable humidifiers, 4 analyzed the water from prefilled system humidifiers, and the rest compared samples from both models. Microbial contamination was observed in all studies in which reusable humidifiers were evaluated, usually involving common bacteria from the skin flora, while potential pathogenic species were notified in 2 studies. No microbial contamination was isolated from reusable humidifiers, regardless of whether they had been consecutively used over time by a single patient or by several patients. On one hand, there seems to be a low risk of contamination during the first weeks of use of prefilled humidifiers, which allows multiple use in different patients, without a risk of cross-contamination. On the other hand, it should be underscored that handling reusable humidifiers without correct aseptic measures can increase the risk of contamination; replacing reusable humidifiers with prefilled models therefore could be the safest option. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Association of high-level humidifier disinfectant exposure with lung injury in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Roh, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Eun; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Jisun; Lee, So-Yeon; Cho, Young Ah; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2018-03-01

    Children aged ≤6years reportedly account for 52% of victims of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries. To evaluate the association of humidifier disinfectants with lung injury risk among children aged ≤6years. Patients with humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injuries (n=214) who were clinically evaluated to have a definite (n=108), probable (n=49), or possible (n=57) association with humidifier disinfectants as well as control patients (n=123) with lung injury deemed unlikely to be associated with humidifier disinfectant use were evaluated to determine factors associated with increased risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. For estimated airborne humidifier disinfectant concentrations, risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury increased ≥two-fold in a dose-dependent manner in the highest quartile (Q4, 135-1443μg/m 3 ) compared with that in the lowest quartile (Q1, ≤33μg/m 3 ). Registered patients using more than two humidifier disinfectant brands were at an increased risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury (adjusted OR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8) compared with those using only one brand. With respect to the duration of humidifier disinfectant use, risk of humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury increased ≥two-fold in the lowest quartile (≤5months) compared with that in the highest quartile (≥14months; adjusted OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6). Younger children are more vulnerable to HDLI when exposed to HD chemicals within short period in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Disposable condenser humidifiers in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Oh, T E; Thompson, W R; Hayward, D R

    1981-11-01

    Two disposable condenser humidifiers were evaluated in nine ventilated intensive care patients. The Portex "Humid Vent" delivered end-inspired absolute humidities of 22--26.3 g/m3 at end-inspired temperatures of 27--28.3 degrees C. Corresponding humidities and temperatures with the Servo "Humidifier 150" were higher and were constant, at 27.7--29 g/m3 and 29.3--29.7 degrees C respectively. These disposable devices can be used for humidification in intensive care, but only for patients breathing room air, or on a short term basis.

  19. Maintenance of spray humidifiers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brundrett, G.W.

    1979-02-01

    Recycled water can become a breeding medium for micro-organisms particularly if there is nutrient such as organic dust present. If such micro-organisms and/or their metabolites are injected into the atmosphere in quantity by a spray humidifier then the room occupants are liable to develop flu-like symptoms now known as 'humidifier fever'. The symptoms are worst on re-exposure after an interval and lead to the expression 'Monday sickness'. Any industrial process involving both humidification and organic dust offers a potential breeding ground for the micro-organisms. The most common process combining the two is the stationery and printing industry. Winter humidification ismore » necessary and nutrients in the form of airborne cellulose from the paper are plentiful. Particularly high standards of maintentance, including regular cleaning and prevention of sludge buildup is needed.« less

  20. Heat Losses from a Breathing System with a Heated-water Humidifier

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, J. N.; Mapleson, W. W.; Hillard, E. K.

    1971-01-01

    Air was “breathed” in the laboratory through a heated-water humidifier and a breathing tube. Several different humidifiers and tubes were used. The temperature rise of the air on passing through the humidifier and the temperature drop on passing through the tube were measured. Both were dependent on ventilation. Insulating the tube and humidifier together with the insertion of baffles in the latter reduced the rise and fall and their dependence on ventilation. With suitable design the dependence on ventilation and the need to use high water temperatures could be greatly reduced. In addition, a thermostat with a reduced dead zone is needed. PMID:5289685

  1. Humidifier Development and Applicability to the Next Generation Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, Bruce C.; Barnes, Bruce G.; Sompayrac, Robert G.; Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    A development effort at the NASA Johnson Space Center investigated technologies to determine whether a humidifier would be required in the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) envisioned for future exploration missions. The humidifier has been included in the baseline PLSS schematic since performance testing of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) indicates that the RCA over-dries the ventilation gas stream. Performance tests of a developmental humidifier unit and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) units were conducted in December 2009. Following these tests, NASA revisited the need for a humidifier via system analysis. Results of this investigation indicate that it is feasible to meet humidity requirements without the humidifier if other changes are made to the PLSS ventilation loop and the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (LCVG).

  2. Humidifiers for oxygen therapy: what risk for reusable and disposable devices?

    PubMed

    La Fauci, V; Costa, G B; Facciolà, A; Conti, A; Riso, R; Squeri, R

    2017-06-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia accounts for the vast majority of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Although numerous medical devices have been discussed as potential vehicles for microorganisms, very little is known about the role played by oxygen humidifiers as potential sources of nosocomial pathogens. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the safety of the reuse of humidifiers by analysing the rate of microbial contamination in reusable and disposable oxygen humidifiers used during therapy, and then discuss their potential role in the transmission of respiratory pathogens. Water samples from reusable and disposable oxygen humidifiers were collected from different wards of the University Hospital of Messina, Italy, where nosocomial pneumonia has a higher incidence rate due to the "critical" clinical conditions of inpatients. In particular, we monitored the Internal Medicine and Pulmonology wards for the medical area; the General Surgery and Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery wards for the surgical area and the Intensive Care Unit and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for the emergency area. The samples were always collected after a period of 5 days from initial use for both types of humidifiers. Samples were processed using standard bacteriological techniques and microbial colonies were identified using manual and automated methods. High rates of microbial contamination were observed in samples from reusable oxygen humidifiers employed in medical (83%), surgical (77%) and emergency (50%) areas. The most relevant pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, amongst the Gram-negative bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus, amongst the Gram-positive bacteria. Other pathogens were detected in lower percentage. The disposable oxygen humidifier samples showed no contamination. This research presents evidence of the high rate and type of microbial contamination of reusable humidifiers employed for oxygen therapy. These devices may thus be involved in the transmission of potential

  3. Investigation of an outbreak of "humidifier fever" in a print shop.

    PubMed

    Mamolen, M; Lewis, D M; Blanchet, M A; Satink, F J; Vogt, R L

    1993-03-01

    An outbreak of "humidifier fever" affected 16 (57%) of 28 workers in a print shop. The most common symptoms were myalgia, chills or subjective fever, and cough. Illness began 5-13 hours after entering the workplace, and lasted 2-24 hours. A humidifier in use the day of the outbreak was found to be contaminated with fungi, amebae, and Gram-negative bacteria. The risk of illness was highest for those who had been on the job 3 months before the outbreak, a time when the humidifier was in constant use. Serologic studies of print shop workers showed positive reactions to extracts of organisms isolated from the humidifier, but could neither distinguish ill from well workers, nor identify causative organisms. The presence of endotoxin-producing bacteria and the clinical syndrome are consistent with an organic dust toxic syndrome. Previous exposure appeared to be the major risk factor for illness.

  4. [Air humidifier--benefit or risk?].

    PubMed

    Fidler, A H

    1989-12-01

    Indoor air pollution has become an issue of growing importance for the scientific community. A recent publication of a report of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) showed evidence that portable ultrasonic humidifiers may play a significant role as health hazards as far as indoor air pollution with heavy metal particles is concerned. Especially if the manufacturers' guidelines are not followed strictly and the device is operated with tap water, indoor particle concentrations may reach up to 50 times US outdoor standards for toxic particle concentration. This paper highlights potential risks and benefits of various types of humidifiers, both in private and hospital settings, emphasizing that risks of air humidification in certain situations might outweigh anticipated benefits. The health policy implication of these findings should lead to a more critical application of air humidification in the health care environment and in addition to that, promote better information of the customer about safe operation and useful indications of such devices.

  5. Design and development of an air humidifier using finite difference method for a solar desalination plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiranjeevi, C.; Srinivas, T.

    2017-11-01

    Humidifier is an important component in air humidification-dehumidification desalination plant for fresh water production. Liquid to air flow rate ratio is optimization is reported for an industrial cooling towers but for an air humidifier it is not addressed. The current work is focused on the design and analysis of an air humidifier for solar desalination plant to maximize the yield with better humidification, using finite difference method (FDM). The outlet conditions of air from the humidifier are theoretically predicted by FDM with the given inlet conditions, which will be further used in the design calculation of the humidifier. Hot water to air flow rate ratio and inlet hot water temperature are identified as key operating parameters to evaluate the humidifier performance. The maximum and optimal values of mass flow rate ratio of water to air are found to be 2.15 and 1.5 respectively using packing function and Merkel Integral. The height of humidifier is constrained to 1.5 m and the diameter of the humidifier is found as 0.28m. The performance of humidifier and outlet conditions of air are simulated using FDM and compared with experimental results. The obtained results are within an agreeable range of deviation.

  6. Neonatal hygroscopic condenser humidifier.

    PubMed

    Gedeon, A; Mebius, C; Palmer, K

    1987-01-01

    A hygroscopic condenser humidifier was developed for neonates on mechanical ventilation and was evaluated by laboratory tests and clinically. Humidification provided by the unit was measured in the 10- to 50-ml tidal-volume range at ambient temperatures of 24 degrees C and 38 degrees C. The effect of a leaking patient connection on device performance was investigated. Leakage rates were measured routinely in a neonatal ICU and surgery to determine the clinical significance. In the entire tidal volume and temperature range, the unit provided an inspiratory water content in excess of 30 g/m3 when the leak fraction (volume leaked/volume delivered at Y-piece) was less than 15%. This was found in three out of four cases. In about one out of ten cases, the leak exceeded 30%, which invariably led to corrective action, such as repositioning or changing the endotracheal tube. However, even at a 30% leak, a water content of about 26 g/m3 was still available for humidifying the inspired gas, which corresponds to normal physiologic conditions found in the trachea for nasal breathing of room air.

  7. Humidified air inhalation for treating croup.

    PubMed

    Moore, M; Little, P

    2006-07-19

    Croup (laryngotracheobronchitis) is a common cause of upper airway obstruction in children with a peak incidence of 60 per 1000 child years in those aged between one and two years. It is characterised by hoarseness, a barking cough, and inspiratory stridor. These symptoms are thought to occur as a result of oedema of the larynx and trachea, which have been triggered by a recent viral infection. Para influenza virus type 1 is the agent most commonly identified in cases of croup. Severe cases are admitted to hospital and steroid treatment is established to reduce disease severity. Treatment with humidified air was previously widely used and is still commonly recommended as home treatment. To assess the efficacy of humidified air in the treatment of croup. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2006) and EMBASE (1990 to January 2006). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving children suffering from croup treated with humidified air. Two authors independently identified potentially relevant abstracts identified from the search and then assessed the full papers for inclusion and methodological quality. Outcome measures included mortality, ventilation, admission to hospital, re-contact with medical services, number of days off school and relief of symptoms; these were separately analysed for the week following treatment. Data extraction was performed by the two authors then entered by one and checked by the second author. Missing data were obtained from trails authors where possible. Data were analysed using Review Manager version 4.2. Sensitivity and sub-group analysis were not possible due to the paucity of trials. Three studies in emergency settings provided data on 135 patients with moderate croup for the main outcome (croup score). The combined results from 20 to 60 minutes in the three studies marginally favoured the treatment group with a weighted standardised

  8. ECLSS ARS humidifier separator repair onboard Atlantis, OV-104, during STS-44

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During STS-44, the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Air Revitalization System (ARS) humidifier separator is repaired using a towel and a plastic bag underneath the middeck subfloor of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Problems with the humidifier separator began about midway through the mission.

  9. Performance of heated humidifiers with a heated wire according to ventilatory settings.

    PubMed

    Nishida, T; Nishimura, M; Fujino, Y; Mashimo, T

    2001-01-01

    Delivering warm, humidified gas to patients is important during mechanical ventilation. Heated humidifiers are effective and popular. The humidifying efficiency is influenced not only by performance and settings of the devices but the settings of ventilator. We compared the efficiency of humidifying devices with a heated wire and servo-controlled function under a variety of ventilator settings. A bench study was done with a TTL model lung. The study took place in the laboratory of the University Hospital, Osaka, Japan. Four devices (MR290 with MR730, MR310 with MR730; both Fisher & Paykel, ConchaTherm IV; Hudson RCI, and HummaxII; METRAN) were tested. Hummax II has been developed recently, and it consists of a heated wire and polyethylene microporous hollow fiber. Both wire and fiber were put inside of an inspiratory circuit, and water vapor is delivered throughout the circuit. The Servo 300 was connected to the TTL with a standard ventilator circuit. The ventilator settings were as follows; minute ventilation (V(E)) 5, 10, and 15 L/min, a respiratory rate of 10 breaths/min, I:E ratio 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4, and no applied PEEP. Humidifying devices were set to maintain the temperature of airway opening at 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The greater V(E) the lower the humidity with all devices except Hummax II. Hummax II delivered 100% relative humidity at all ventilator and humidifier settings. When airway temperature control of the devices was set at 32 degrees C, the ConchaTherm IV did not deliver 30 mg/L of vapor, which is the value recommended by American National Standards at all V(E) settings. At 10 and 15 L/min of V(E) settings MR310 with MR730 did not deliver recommended vapor, either. In conclusion, airway temperature setting of the humidifying devices influenced the humidity of inspiratory gas greatly. Ventilatory settings also influenced the humidity of inspiratory gas. The Hummax II delivered sufficient water vapor under a variety of minute ventilation.

  10. Randomized Trial of Desktop Humidifier for Dry Eye Relief in Computer Users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael T M; Chan, Evon; Ea, Linda; Kam, Clifford; Lu, Yvonne; Misra, Stuti L; Craig, Jennifer P

    2017-11-01

    Dry eye is a frequently reported problem among computer users. Low relative humidity environments are recognized to exacerbate signs and symptoms of dry eye, yet are common in offices of computer operators. Desktop USB-powered humidifiers are available commercially, but their efficacy for dry eye relief has not been established. This study aims to evaluate the potential for a desktop USB-powered humidifier to improve tear-film parameters, ocular surface characteristics, and subjective comfort of computer users. Forty-four computer users were enrolled in a prospective, masked, randomized crossover study. On separate days, participants were randomized to 1 hour of continuous computer use, with and without exposure to a desktop humidifier. Lipid-layer grade, noninvasive tear-film breakup time, and tear meniscus height were measured before and after computer use. Following the 1-hour period, participants reported whether ocular comfort was greater, equal, or lesser than that at baseline. The desktop humidifier effected a relative difference in humidity between the two environments of +5.4 ± 5.0% (P < .001). Participants demonstrated no significant differences in lipid-layer grade and tear meniscus height between the two environments (all P > .05). However, a relative increase in the median noninvasive tear-film breakup time of +4.0 seconds was observed in the humidified environment (P < .001), which was associated with a higher proportion of subjects reporting greater comfort relative to baseline (36% vs. 5%, P < .001). Even with a modest increase in relative humidity locally, the desktop humidifier shows potential to improve tear-film stability and subjective comfort during computer use.Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000326392.

  11. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... fan to blow air through a wet wick, filter or belt. Steam vaporizers use electricity to create ... help dry out damp basements. Dirty reservoirs and filters in humidifiers can quickly breed bacteria and mold. ...

  12. Adverse health effects of humidifier disinfectants in Korea: lung toxicity of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha-Ryong; Hwang, Gi-Wook; Naganuma, Akira; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to humidifier disinfectants was identified in 2011 as the potential cause of an outbreak of lung disease in Korea. It is estimated that over 8 million people have been exposed to humidifier disinfectants-chemicals added to the water used in humidifiers to prevent the growth of microorganisms-since their commercial introduction. The primary component of humidifier disinfectant products involved was polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P), a guanidine-based antimicrobial agent. Lesions observed in the lungs of patients were similar to those observed in laboratory animals exposed to PHMG-P. In this review, we outline the physicochemical and toxicological properties of PHMG-P, and introduce a putative mechanism for its lung toxicity based in large part on research findings to date.

  13. Peritoneal Tumorigenesis and Inflammation are Ameliorated by Humidified-Warm Carbon Dioxide Insufflation in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Carpinteri, Sandra; Sampurno, Shienny; Bernardi, Maria-Pia; Germann, Markus; Malaterre, Jordane; Heriot, Alexander; Chambers, Brenton A; Mutsaers, Steven E; Lynch, Andrew C; Ramsay, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Conventional laparoscopic surgery uses CO2 that is dry and cold, which can damage peritoneal surfaces. It is speculated that disseminated cancer cells may adhere to such damaged peritoneum and metastasize. We hypothesized that insufflation using humidified-warm CO2, which has been shown to reduce mesothelial damage, will also ameliorate peritoneal inflammation and tumor cell implantation compared to conventional dry-cold CO2. Laparoscopic insufflation was modeled in mice along with anesthesia and ventilation. Entry and exit ports were introduced to maintain insufflation using dry-cold or humidified-warm CO2 with a constant flow and pressure for 1 h; then 1000 or 1 million fluorescent-tagged murine colorectal cancer cells (CT26) were delivered into the peritoneal cavity. The peritoneum was collected at intervals up to 10 days after the procedure to measure inflammation, mesothelial damage, and tumor burden using fluorescent detection, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy. Rapid temperature control was achieved only in the humidified-warm group. Port-site tumors were present in all mice. At 10 days, significantly fewer tumors on the peritoneum were counted in mice insufflated with humidified-warm compared to dry-cold CO2 (p < 0.03). The inflammatory marker COX-2 was significantly increased in the dry-cold compared to the humidified-warm cohort (p < 0.01), while VEGFA expression was suppressed only in the humidified-warm cohort. Significantly less mesothelial damage and tumor cell implantation was evident from 2 h after the procedure in the humidified-warm cohort. Mesothelial cell damage and inflammation are reduced by using humidified-warm CO2 for laparoscopic oncologic surgery and may translate to reduce patients' risk of developing peritoneal metastasis.

  14. WITHDRAWN: Humidified air inhalation for treating croup.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael; Little, Paul

    2011-06-15

    Croup (laryngotracheobronchitis) is a common cause of upper airway obstruction in children with a peak incidence of 60 per 1000 child years in those aged between one and two years. It is characterised by hoarseness, a barking cough, and inspiratory stridor. These symptoms are thought to occur as a result of oedema of the larynx and trachea, which have been triggered by a recent viral infection. Para influenza virus type 1 is the agent most commonly identified in cases of croup. Severe cases are admitted to hospital and steroid treatment is established to reduce disease severity. Treatment with humidified air was previously widely used and is still commonly recommended as home treatment. To assess the efficacy of humidified air in the treatment of croup. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2006) and EMBASE (1990 to January 2006). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving children suffering from croup treated with humidified air. Two authors independently identified potentially relevant abstracts identified from the search and then assessed the full papers for inclusion and methodological quality. Outcome measures included mortality, ventilation, admission to hospital, re-contact with medical services, number of days off school and relief of symptoms; these were separately analysed for the week following treatment. Data extraction was performed by the two authors then entered by one and checked by the second author. Missing data were obtained from trial authors where possible. Data were analysed using Review Manager version 4.2. Sensitivity and sub-group analysis were not possible due to the paucity of trials. Three studies in emergency settings provided data on 135 patients with moderate croup for the main outcome (croup score). The combined results from 20 to 60 minutes in the three studies marginally favoured the treatment group with a weighted standardised mean

  15. Exposure characteristics of familial cases of lung injury associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Park, Donguk; Leem, Jonghan; Lee, Kyoungmu; Lim, Heungkyu; Choi, Yeyong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lim, Sinye; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Naroo; Jung, Hyejung; Ha, Jongsik; Paek, Domyung

    2014-09-02

    This study describes 17 families with 38 lung injury patients (14 males, 24 females; 22 preschool-age children less than six years of age and 16 individuals of 13-50 years) who used disinfectant added to humidifiers in the home. Clinical examination and humidifier disinfectant-use histories were taken, and a thorough home investigation was performed to assess exposure to humidifier disinfectant. Nine of the patients (three pregnant females, six preschool-age children) died soon after they first developed lung damage. Six (16%) were pregnant females and 22 (58%) were preschool-aged children younger than six years. The patients used humidifier disinfectant products containing either polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG, n = 36) or oligo(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxyethyl guanidinium chloride (PGH, n = 2). Twenty-six patients (68%) used the brand "Oxy"®, which contains PHMG. Of the ten patients with fatal lung injury, nine were found to have used PHMG. Our findings suggest that the use of humidifier disinfectant products containing either PGH or PHMG can cause lung injury, especially in preschool-age children younger than six years and pregnant women.

  16. Filters Reduce the Risk of Bacterial Transmission from Contaminated Heated Humidifiers Used with CPAP for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ortolano, Girolamo A.; Schaffer, Jeffrey; McAlister, Morven B.; Stanchfield, Ilia; Hill, Elizabeth; Vandenburgh, Liliana; Lewis, Michelle; John, Shirnett; Canonica, Francis P.; Cervia, Joseph S.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) during sleep, but dryness of the upper airway compromises compliance. Heated humidifiers may mitigate such noncompliance; however, recent observations suggest that their use, particularly if not cleaned, increases the risk of respiratory infections. Humidifier water may be contaminated, but the long-held view that passive humidifiers cannot aerosolize water may obscure the perception of risk of infection. Objectives: This study challenges the long-held view that “passover” humidifiers do not aerosolize water. With such evidence, this study characterizes the performance of filters to reduce the potential risk of contamination. Methods: Heated humidifier water contaminated with bacteria was studied under conditions simulating week-long use of nCPAP for OSA. Results: Bacteria were recovered in 9 of 11 tests from the breathing tubes of CPAP devices fitted with heated humidifiers with water contaminated with Brevundimonas diminuta or Serratia marcescens. Recoverable bacteria ranged from tens to thousands of colony forming units when tested at air flow rates of 60 liters per minute for 90 minutes. Neither organism was recovered from the circuit tubing when a hydrophobic breathing-circuit filter was positioned between the humidifier and face-mask tubing with a commercially available nCPAP machine tested under simulated-use conditions. Conclusion: Data suggest that patients with OSA being treated with nCPAP fitted with humidifiers may be aerosolizing bacteria, putting them at risk for developing respiratory infections and that the use of a hydrophobic filter may attenuate the passage of microbes from contaminated humidifier water. Citation: Ortolano GA; Schaffer J; McAlister MB et al. Filters reduce the risk of bacterial transmission from contaminated heated humidifiers used with CPAP for obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):700–705

  17. Effects of humidified and dry air on corneal endothelial cells during vitreal fluid-air exchange.

    PubMed

    Cekiç, Osman; Ohji, Masahito; Hayashi, Atsushi; Fang, Xiao Y; Kusaka, Shunji; Tano, Yasuo

    2002-07-01

    To report the immediate anatomic and functional alterations in corneal endothelial cells following use of humidified air and dry air during vitreal fluid-air exchange in rabbits. Experimental study. Rabbits undergoing pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy were perfused with either dry or humidified air during fluid-air exchange for designated durations. Three different experiments were performed. First, control and experimental corneas were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Second, corneas were stained with Phalloidin-FITC and examined by fluorescein microscopy. Finally, third, transendothelial permeability for carboxyfluorescein was determined using a diffusion chamber. While different from the corneal endothelial cells, those cells exposed to humidified air were less stressed than cells exposed to dry air by SEM. Actin cytoskeleton was found highly disorganized with dry air exposure. Humidified air maintained the normal actin cytoskeleton throughout the 20 minutes of fluid-air exchange. Paracellular carboxyfluorescein leakage was significantly higher in dry air insufflated eyes compared with that of the humidified air after 5, 10, and 20 minutes of fluid-air exchange (P =.002, P =.004, and P =.002, respectively). Dry air stress during fluid-air exchange causes significant immediate alterations in monolayer appearance, actin cytoskeleton, and barrier function of corneal endothelium in aphakic rabbit eyes. Use of humidified air largely prevents the alterations in monolayer appearance, actin cytoskeleton, and barrier function of corneal endothelial cells.

  18. Effect of aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers on the lung in mouse.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Masakazu; Sekita, Keisuke; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Niki, Rikio; Ihara, Tomomi; Sugamata, Masao; Takeda, Ken

    2013-12-21

    Ultrasonic humidifiers silently generate water droplets as a cool fog and produce most of the dissolved minerals in the fog in the form of an aerosolized "white dust." However, the health effect of these airborne particles is largely unknown. This study aimed to characterize the aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers and to investigate their effect on the lung tissue of mice. An ultrasonic humidifier was operated with tap water, high-silica water, ultrapure water, or other water types. In a chamber (0.765 m3, ventilation ratio 11.5 m3/hr), male ICR mice (10-week-old) were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol-containing vapor generated by the humidifier. After exposure for 7 or 14 days, lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected from each mouse and examined by microarray, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and light and electron microscopy. Particles generated from the humidifier operated with tap water had a mass concentration of 0.46 ± 0.03 mg/m3, number concentration of (5.0 ± 1.1) × 10(4)/cm3, and peak size distribution of 183 nm. The particles were phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the lung of mice. Inhalation of particles caused dysregulation of genes related to mitosis, cell adhesion molecules, MHC molecules and endocytosis, but did not induce any signs of inflammation or tissue injury in the lung. These results indicate that aerosol particles released from ultrasonic humidifiers operated with tap water initiated a cellular response but did not cause severe acute inflammation in pulmonary tissue. Additionally, high mineral content tap water is not recommended and de-mineralized water should be recommended in order to exclude any adverse effects.

  19. Relationship between Exposure to Household Humidifier Disinfectants and Risk of Lung Injury: A Family-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Uk; Choi, Ye-Yong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lim, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Roh, Hyun-Suk; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Leem, Jong-Han; Koh, Dong-Hee; Jung, Hye-Jung; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Yong-Hwa; Lim, Sin-Ye; Paek, Do-Myung; Lim, Chae-Man; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Korea, a cluster of acute lung disease patients included lung injury disease suspected of being caused by the use of humidifier disinfectants. We examined the relationship between humidifier disinfectant exposure and clinically diagnosed humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury (HDLI) in a family-based study. Methods This case-control study included 169 clinically confirmed HDLI cases and 303 family controls who lived with the HDLI patients. A range of information on exposure to humidifier disinfectants was obtained using a structured questionnaire and field investigations. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models that were adjusted for age, sex, presence of a factory within 1 km of residence, and the number of household chemical products used. Results HDLI risk increased approximately two-fold or more among the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile in terms of the hours sleeping in a room with an operating humidifier treated with disinfectant (adjusted OR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.1-3.7), average hours of disinfectant-treated humidifier use per day (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95 % CI = 1.0-4.5), airborne disinfectant intensity (adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-5.3), and cumulative disinfectant inhalation level (adjusted OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0-4.1). HDLI risk increased as the distance of the bed from humidifier gets shorter; compared with longer distance (> 1 m), the odds ratio was 2.7 for 0.5 to 1 m (95 % CI = 1.5-5.1) and 13.2 for <0.5 m (95 % CI = 2.4-73.0). Conclusions The use of household humidifier disinfectants was associated with HDLI risk in a dose-response manner. PMID:25978522

  20. Warmed, humidified CO2 insufflation benefits intraoperative core temperature during laparoscopic surgery: A meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Meara; Ramsay, Robert; Heriot, Alexander; Mackay, John; Hiscock, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Intraoperative hypothermia is linked to postoperative adverse events. The use of warmed, humidified CO2 to establish pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy has been associated with reduced incidence of intraoperative hypothermia. However, the small number and variable quality of published studies have caused uncertainty about the potential benefit of this therapy. This meta‐analysis was conducted to specifically evaluate the effects of warmed, humidified CO2 during laparoscopy. Methods An electronic database search identified randomized controlled trials performed on adults who underwent laparoscopic abdominal surgery under general anesthesia with either warmed, humidified CO2 or cold, dry CO2. The main outcome measure of interest was change in intraoperative core body temperature. Results The database search identified 320 studies as potentially relevant, and of these, 13 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. During laparoscopic surgery, use of warmed, humidified CO2 is associated with a significant increase in intraoperative core temperature (mean temperature change, 0.3°C), when compared with cold, dry CO2 insufflation. Conclusion Warmed, humidified CO2 insufflation during laparoscopic abdominal surgery has been demonstrated to improve intraoperative maintenance of normothermia when compared with cold, dry CO2. PMID:27976517

  1. Humidification during laparoscopic surgery: overview of the clinical benefits of using humidified gas during laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Binda, Maria Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    The peritoneum is the serous membrane that covers the abdominal cavity and most of the intra-abdominal organs. It is a very delicate layer highly susceptible to damage and it is not designed to cope with variable conditions such as the dry and cold carbon dioxide (CO2) during laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects caused by insufflating dry and cold gas into the abdominal cavity after laparoscopic surgery. A literature search using the Pubmed was carried out. Articles identified focused on the key issues of laparoscopy, peritoneum, morphology, pneumoperitoneum, humidity, body temperature, pain, recovery time, post-operative adhesions and lens fogging. Insufflating dry and cold CO2 into the abdomen causes peritoneal damage, post-operative pain, hypothermia and post-operative adhesions. Using humidified and warm gas prevents pain after surgery. With regard to hypothermia due to desiccation, it can be fully prevented using humidified and warm gas. Results relating to the patient recovery are still controversial. The use of humidified and warm insufflation gas offers a significant clinical benefit to the patient, creating a more physiologic peritoneal environment and reducing the post-operative pain and hypothermia. In animal models, although humidified and warm gas reduces post-operative adhesions, humidified gas at 32 °C reduced them even more. It is clear that humidified gas should be used during laparoscopic surgery; however, a question remains unanswered: to achieve even greater clinical benefit to the patient, at what temperature should the humidified gas be when insufflated into the abdomen? More clinical trials should be performed to resolve this query.

  2. Heating and humidifying of carbon dioxide during pneumoperitoneum is not indicated: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Davis, S S; Mikami, D J; Newlin, M; Needleman, B J; Barrett, M S; Fries, R; Larson, T; Dundon, J; Goldblatt, M I; Melvin, W S

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum usually is created by a compressed gas source. This exposes the patient to cool dry gas delivered at room temperature (21 degrees C) with 0% relative humidity. Various delivery methods are available for humidifying and heating CO2 gas. This study was designed to determine the effects of heating and humidifying gas for the intraabdominal environment. For this study, 44 patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were randomly assigned to one of four arms in a prospective, randomized, single-blinded fashion: raw CO2 (group 1), heated CO2 (group 2), humidified CO2 (group 3), and heated and humidified CO2 (group 4). A commercially available CO2 heater-humidifier was used. Core temperatures, intraabdominal humidity, perioperative data, and postoperative outcomes were monitored. Peritoneal biopsies were taken in each group at the beginning and end of the case. Biopsies were subjected staining protocols designed to identify structural damage and macrophage activity. Postoperative narcotic use, pain scale scores, recovery room time, and length of hospital stay were recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare the groups. Demographics, volume of CO2 used, intraabdominal humidity, bladder temperatures, lens fogging, and operative times were not significantly different between the groups. Core temperatures were stable, and intraabdominal humidity measurements approached 100% for all the patients over the entire procedure. Total narcotic dosage and pain scale scores were not statistically different. Recovery room times and length of hospital stay were similar in all the groups. Only one biopsy in the heated-humidified group showed an increase in macrophage activity. The intraabdominal environment in terms of temperature and humidity was similar in all the groups. There was no significant difference in the intraoperative body temperatures or the postoperative

  3. Beneficial effects of warmed humidified oxygen combined with nebulized albuterol and ipratropium in pediatric patients with acute exacerbation of asthma in winter months.

    PubMed

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara; Hassen, Getaw Worku; Smith, Arthur

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of nebulized albuterol and ipratropium with warmed humidified oxygen would be more beneficial when compared to the same combination with humidified oxygen at room temperature. Albuterol alone was tested in the same settings. All patients between 6 and 17 years of age who presented to a pediatric emergency department in the winter months with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma were given a combination of nebulized albuterol and ipratropium with warmed or room temperature humidified oxygen. Peak flow was measured before and after the treatment. Sixty patients were enrolled in the study, with 15 subjects in each group. The mean increase in peak flow in the albuterol-ipratropium with warm humidified oxygen group was 52.6, and in the albuterol-ipratropium with humidified oxygen at room temperature group, it was 26.2. The results of the albuterol with warmed humidified oxygen and with humidified oxygen at room temperature groups were 20.6 and 34.3, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. Our study shows that warmed humidified oxygen given along with the combination of nebulized albuterol and ipratropium is more beneficial for pediatric patients having an acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma in the winter months when compared to nebulized albuterol alone with warmed humidified oxygen, nebulized albuterol alone with room temperature humidified oxygen, or a combination of nebulized albuterol and ipratropium with room temperature humidified oxygen.

  4. Follow up investigation of workers in synthetic fibre plants with humidifier disease and work related asthma.

    PubMed

    Pal, T M; de Monchy, J G; Groothoff, J W; Post, D

    1999-06-01

    To investigate the clinical and sociomedical outcome in patients with various clinical manifestations of humidifier disease and work related asthma after removal from further exposure. Follow up investigation (range 1-13 years) of respiratory symptoms, spirometry, airway responsiveness, sickness absence, and working situation in patients with (I) humidifier fever (n = 12), (II) obstructive type of humidifier lung (n = 8), (III) restrictive type of humidifier lung (n = 4), and (IV) work related asthma (n = 22). All patients were working at departments in synthetic fibre plants with microbiological exposure from contaminated humidification systems or exposure to small particles (< 1 micron) of oil mist. At follow up patients with work related asthma were less often symptom free (37%, 7/19) than patients with humidifier disease (I, II, III) (67%, 16/24). Mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of patients with obstructive impairment had been increased significantly at follow up but still remained below the predicted value. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of patients with initially restrictive impairment had returned to normal values at follow up. Airway hyperresponsiveness at diagnosis persisted in patients with obstructive impairment (II + IV 14/17, but disappeared in patients with humidifier fever (3/3) and restrictive type of humidifier lung (2/2). In patients with obstructive impairment (II + IV), FVC and FEV1 at diagnosis were negatively associated with the duration between onset of symptoms and diagnosis and the number of years of exposure. Those with positive pre-employment history of respiratory disease had a lower FEV1 at diagnosis. Sickness absence due to respiratory symptoms decreased in all groups of patients after removal from further exposure, but this was most impressive in patients with the humidifier lung (II, III) and patients with work related asthma (IV). At follow up 83% of the patients were still at work at the same production site

  5. Warmed, humidified CO2 insufflation benefits intraoperative core temperature during laparoscopic surgery: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dean, Meara; Ramsay, Robert; Heriot, Alexander; Mackay, John; Hiscock, Richard; Lynch, A Craig

    2017-05-01

    Intraoperative hypothermia is linked to postoperative adverse events. The use of warmed, humidified CO 2 to establish pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy has been associated with reduced incidence of intraoperative hypothermia. However, the small number and variable quality of published studies have caused uncertainty about the potential benefit of this therapy. This meta-analysis was conducted to specifically evaluate the effects of warmed, humidified CO 2 during laparoscopy. An electronic database search identified randomized controlled trials performed on adults who underwent laparoscopic abdominal surgery under general anesthesia with either warmed, humidified CO 2 or cold, dry CO 2 . The main outcome measure of interest was change in intraoperative core body temperature. The database search identified 320 studies as potentially relevant, and of these, 13 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. During laparoscopic surgery, use of warmed, humidified CO 2 is associated with a significant increase in intraoperative core temperature (mean temperature change, 0.3°C), when compared with cold, dry CO 2 insufflation . CONCLUSION: Warmed, humidified CO 2 insufflation during laparoscopic abdominal surgery has been demonstrated to improve intraoperative maintenance of normothermia when compared with cold, dry CO 2. © 2016 The Authors. Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery published by Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Japan Society of Endoscopic Surgery and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Singh, Manvi; Jaiswal, Nishant; Chauhan, Anil

    2017-08-29

    Heated, humidified air has long been used by people with the common cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and that heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. This is an update of a review last published in 2013. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding, and nasal resistance. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to February 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 24 February 2017), Embase (1990 to 24 February 2017), and Current Contents (1998 to 24 February 2017). We also searched World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) (8 March 2017) and ClinicalTrials.gov (8 March 2017) as well as reference lists of included studies. Randomised controlled trials using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or experimentally induced common cold were eligible for inclusion. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Three review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion of potential studies identified from the search. We recorded the selection process in sufficient detail to complete a PRISMA flow diagram. We used a data collection form for study characteristics and outcome data that was developed and used for previous versions of this review. Two review authors independently extracted data, and a third review author resolved any disagreements. We used Review Manager 5 software to analyse data. We included six trials from five publications involving a total of 387 participants. We included no new studies in this 2017 update. The 'Risk of bias' assessment suggested an unclear risk of bias in the domain of randomisation and a low risk of bias in performance, detection, attrition, and reporting.It was uncertain whether heated, humidified air provides symptomatic relief for the common cold, as the fixed

  7. Humidity control of an incubator using the microcontroller-based active humidifier system employing an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Güler, I; Burunkaya, M

    2002-01-01

    Relative humidity levels of an incubator were measured and controlled. An ultrasonic nebulizer system as an active humidifier was used to humidify the incubator environment. An integrated circuit-type humidity sensor was used to measure the humidity level of the incubator environment. Measurement and control processes were achieved by a PIC microcontroller. The high-performance and high-speed PIC provided the flexibility of the system. The developed system can be used effectively for the intensive care of newborns and/or premature babies. Since the humidifier generates an aerosol in ambient conditions, it is possible to provide the high relative humidity level for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in medicine.

  8. Williams installs CBEF Cell Mechanosensing Humidifier

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-01

    ISS047e032018 (04/01/2016) --- NASA astronaut Jeff Williams works to install the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) Cell Mechanosensing Humidifier. Cell Mechanosensing is a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) investigation that identifies gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop countermeasures to muscle atrophy, a key space health issue. Scientists believe that the lack of mechanical stress from gravity causes tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells which changes the expression of key proteins and genes, and allows muscles to atrophy.

  9. 21 CFR 868.5460 - Therapeutic humidifier for home use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... home use. (a) Identification. A therapeutic humidifier for home use is a device that adds water vapor to breathing gases and that is intended for respiratory therapy or other medical purposes. The vapor produced by the device pervades the area surrounding the patient, who breathes the vapor during normal...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5460 - Therapeutic humidifier for home use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... home use. (a) Identification. A therapeutic humidifier for home use is a device that adds water vapor to breathing gases and that is intended for respiratory therapy or other medical purposes. The vapor produced by the device pervades the area surrounding the patient, who breathes the vapor during normal...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5460 - Therapeutic humidifier for home use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... home use. (a) Identification. A therapeutic humidifier for home use is a device that adds water vapor to breathing gases and that is intended for respiratory therapy or other medical purposes. The vapor produced by the device pervades the area surrounding the patient, who breathes the vapor during normal...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5460 - Therapeutic humidifier for home use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... home use. (a) Identification. A therapeutic humidifier for home use is a device that adds water vapor to breathing gases and that is intended for respiratory therapy or other medical purposes. The vapor produced by the device pervades the area surrounding the patient, who breathes the vapor during normal...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5460 - Therapeutic humidifier for home use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... home use. (a) Identification. A therapeutic humidifier for home use is a device that adds water vapor to breathing gases and that is intended for respiratory therapy or other medical purposes. The vapor produced by the device pervades the area surrounding the patient, who breathes the vapor during normal...

  14. Microbial and immunological investigations and remedial action after an outbreak of humidifier fever

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J H

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT Humidifier fever (Monday sickness) occuring in office staff in a factory processing rayon presented as pyrexia with a polyuria and leucocytosis on the first day back to work after a break during the winter half of the year. Chest radiographs showed no abnormalities but pulmonary function tests indicated mild airways obstruction in the affected group as a whole. Respirable dust samples taken on a Monday when 11 cases occured were not pyrogenic, indicating that a mechanism other than direct pyrogen activity produced the pyrexia. Efforts were then directed to determining an immunological basis for the episodes. In particular, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, previously held responsible for humidifier fever, was studied. During the episode of 11 cases, the number of viable airborne spores of this organism was far higher than on Mondays when no cases occured. In a second episode of nine cases, however, the airborne viable count was of the same order as non-episode Mondays. Extracts of T vulgaris produced lines of precipitation in gel diffusion studies with roughly half the office staff sera tested, but no correlation was observed between precipitin line formation and disease. A similar proportion of normal sera reacted against this extract. Extracts of dust lying on the topside surface of the suspended ceiling above the office, however, produced precipitin lines with sera from 16/18 affected individuals and 2/18 non-affected individuals (p < 0·001) as did extracts of humidifier material. Extensive microbial analysis failed to detect any one fungus or bacterium that produced antigens capable of reacting with positive serum, but extracts of amoebae correlated absolutely with humidifier material and ceiling dust extract in gel diffusion studies. A reaction of identity observed between the amoebae and ceiling dust extracts showed the presence of identical antigens. In similar studies the high degree of cross reactivity with antigens and sera from Spanish and Swedish

  15. Comparison of three humidifiers during high-frequency percussive ventilation using the VDR-4® Fail-safe Breathing Circuit Hub.

    PubMed

    Tiffin, Norman H; Short, Kathy A; Jones, Samuel W; Cairns, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    The VDR-4® high-frequency percussive ventilator (HFPV) has been shown to be beneficial in the management of inhalation injury by improving secretion clearance while maintaining oxygenation and ventilation. Delivery of gas flow during HFPV could lack adequate humidification delivered to the patient because a major portion of the delivered gas flow would bypass the humidifier when using the original VDR-4® ventilator circuit. The authors tested a novel inline vaporizing humidifier and two gas-water interface humidifiers during HFPV using the new VDR-4® Fail-safe Breathing Circuit Hub® to determine whether delivered humidification could be improved. This new humidification system, the Hydrate Omni™, delivers water vapor into the gas flow of the ventilator circuit rather than water droplets as delivered by the gas-water interface humidifiers. Measurements of absolute humidity and gas temperature were made on the three different humidification systems using a test lung model under standard ambient conditions. The authors found that when using the novel inline vaporizer, it provided better humidification when compared with the standard gas-water interface humidifier during HFPV using the new VDR-4® breathing circuit.

  16. Human exposure to polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate from humidifiers in residential settings: Cause of serious lung disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Yu, Il Je

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to the humidifier disinfectant, polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG), in mists generated from ultrasonic humidifiers was studied in a simulation chamber and apartment rooms. PHMG is suspected as a causative agent of lung disease in Korea residences. In the simulation-chamber study, the amount of disinfectant discharged from three different ultrasonic humidifiers was measured. Mists generated at 1, 2, and 4 times the recommended amount of disinfectant were sampled with an impinger, and the effect of relative humidity (RH) on airborne disinfectant concentration was studied by changing RH from 60%-70% to 90%-100%. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD) in mists was measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), and Mastersizer. In the apartment study, mists generated from ultrasonic humidifiers were sampled for 6 h in small and large rooms during fall ( n = 10) and winter ( n = 15). In the simulation study, the humidifiers discharged 205 ± 24.6 ml/h of mist at maximum capacity. Concentrations of airborne disinfectant increased with increasing concentration of disinfectant. RH affected airborne disinfectant concentration in the chamber, with increasing concentration with increasing RH. Below RH 70%, no airborne PHMG was detected. PHMG-containing mists generated from ultrasonic humidifier showed various sizes ranging from 149-157 nm to 690-740 nm to larger than 5.4 µm by SMPS, APS, and Mastersizer, respectively. Surface area mean diameter measured by Mastersizer ranged from 5.39 µm to 5.72 µm. In the apartment study conducted during the fall, the geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) and arithmetic mean (AM) and standard deviation (SD) of airborne PHMG concentration were 3.22 + 5.13 µg/m 3 and 8.26 ± 12.18 µg/m 3 , respectively. In the winter, GM + GSD and AM ± SD of airborne PHMG concentration were 0.21 + 2.11 µg/m 3 and 0.35 ± 0.62 µg/m 3 , respectively. RH and temperature

  17. [The clinical and microbiological comparison of the use of heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchanger filters with Booster in mechanically ventilated patients].

    PubMed

    Nadir Oziş, Türkan; Ozcan Kanat, Derya; Oğuzülgen, Ipek Kivilcim; Aydoğdu, Müge; Hizel, Kenan; Gürsel, Gül

    2009-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units that is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, hospitalization and increased health-care costs. Various humidifiers can be used for humidification during mechanical ventilation. Many studies were conducted to identify the effects of two different humidifiers, i.e. heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchanger filters (HME), on VAP development; and HME filters were found to decrease the VAP frequency. In this study we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of heated humidifiers and HME-Booster. Heated humidifier with conventional microbiologic filter (CMF-HH) or HME-Booster were used in randomization to 41 mechanically ventilated patients of our intensive care unit, and patients were divided into two groups as group 1 receiving CMF-HH (20 patients) and group 2 (21 patients) receiving HME-Booster. Daily secretion scores, endotracheal tube occlusion due to secretions, VAP development rate for the assessment of microbiological safety of humidifiers and differences in PETCO(2) and PaCO(2) values for the assessment of their effect on arterial blood gas were recorded prospectively. The measurement of PETCO(2) and PaCO(2) values were performed with the presence of humidifiers and after removing them in both groups. In both groups with the removal of CMF-HH and HME-Booster, a decrease in PETCO(2) value was identified, but the decrease in group 2 was statistically significant (p= 0.016). The decrease in PaCO(2) after removal of humidifiers was greater in group 2 than in group 1, but the difference was not significant (p> 0.05).The rate of VAP and endotracheal tube occlusion was not significantly different between the groups. The mean secretion score was lower in group 1 (p= 0.041). In conclusion, although both humidifiers have similar microbiological effects, heated humidifiers could be preferred particularly for the patients with an underlying chronic

  18. Devices used to humidify respired gases.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, Jörg

    2006-06-01

    The efficiency of HMEs decreases with increasing tidal volumes. HMEs always result in an elevation of the inspiratory and expiratory airway resistances; this should be considered especially in cases that involve spontaneous respiration. The pressure drop across HMEs should be less than 2 hPa for a flow of 60 L/min, a level that also has been measured for cascade humidifiers.HMEs with a hygroscopic coating of CaCl2 should be given preference over LiCl-coated ones, especially because products of the same efficiency are available with CaCl2 coating. Lithium is a potentially toxic substance that can be taken up by way of bronchopulmonary resorption after accidental washing out [37]. Therefore, a possible safety hazard cannot be eliminated, especially in neonates and babies. Not least for these reasons HMEs must never be combined with active humidification systems or medication nebulizers. Even if the reduction in functional efficiency of the HME that is caused by washing off of the coating of hygroscopic substances is disregarded, the presence of medication aerosols in the HME, in particular, can result in a dangerous increase in resistance to gas flow. The internal volumes of HMEs should be as small as possible so that they do not increase the effective deadspace too much. A combination of HMEsand catheter mounts results in a further increase in the deadspace, and there-fore, must be considered critically, especially in cases that involve spontaneous respiration. If a catheter mount is necessary to add flexibility to the breathing system, the HME preferably should be connected directly onto the tracheal tube with the catheter mount behind it; otherwise, the humidification efficiency of the HME will be reduced by condensation in the catheter mount. Children should be ventilated with special HMEs that have a small internal volume. Caution is required in patients who have elevated sputum production, pulmonary trauma with bleeding, pulmonary edema, or a similar condition

  19. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Jian Lian; Northrop, William F.

    2008-04-08

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  20. Analysis of genomic responses in a rat lung model treated with a humidifier sterilizer containing polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Seok; Jeong, Seok Won; Choi, Seong-Jin; Han, Jin-Young; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Yoon, Seokjoo; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Kyuhong

    2017-02-15

    The antimicrobial biocide polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG) phosphate is the main ingredient in the commercially available humidifier disinfectant. PHMG phosphate-based humidifier disinfectants can cause pulmonary fibrosis and induce inflammatory and fibrotic responses both in vivo and in vitro. However, toxicological mechanisms including genomic alterations induced by inhalation exposure to PHMG phosphate have not been elucidated. Therefore, this study evaluated the toxicological effects of the PHMG phosphate-containing humidifier disinfectant. We used DNA microarray to identify global gene expression changes in rats treated with PHMG phosphate-containing humidifier disinfectant for 4 weeks and 10 weeks. Functional significance of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was estimated by gene ontology (GO) analysis. Four weeks post-exposure, 320 and 392 DEGs were identified in female and male rats, respectively (>2-fold, p<0.05). Ten weeks post-exposure, 1290 and 995 DEGs were identified in females and males, respectively. Of these, 119 and 556 genes overlapped between females and males at 4 weeks and 10 weeks, respectively, post-PHMG phosphate exposure. In addition, 21 genes were upregulated and 4 genes were downregulated in response to PHMG phosphate in a time-dependent manner. Thus, we predict that changes in genomic responses could be a significant molecular mechanism underlying PHMG phosphate toxicity. Further studies are required to determine the detailed mechanism of PHMG phosphate-induced pulmonary toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Humidifier disinfectant-associated specific diseases should be called together as “humidifier disinfectant syndrome”

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Humidifier disinfectant (HD) damage was terrible chemical damage caused by household goods that happened in only South Korea, but still very little is known in HD damage. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchioles and alveoli because it is a specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out whole effects from HDs, much epidemiologic and toxicologic research is underway. HDs were shown to give rise to typical toxicologic effects on various target organs, such as skin, conjunctiva, naval mucosa, bronchial mucosa, alveoli and so on, which shared common toxicological responses. On a specific target, specific toxicologic effects existed. Diverse diseases along exposure pathways can occur at the same time with a common toxicologic mechanism and cause of HDs, which can be called as HD syndrome. To gain stronger scientific evidence about it, further epidemiological and toxicological studies should be applied. PMID:29026061

  2. [A clinical method of testing the humidifying capicity of the human nose (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simon, H; Drettner, B; Falk, B

    1976-12-01

    At the beginning attention is drawn to the fact that there is a lack of suitable clinical tests for the measurement of the humidifying and warming capacity of the nose. The great number of testing methods which have been published so far, have been either too complicated to be applied in routine checks or they were too physically strenous, so that this could not be reasonably demanded of the patients. With the help of the clinical method of testing introduced by us one can find out about norm data for the quantitiy of water needed for humidifying the inspired air in healthy persons, as well as examine the influence of pharmacons on the secretion capacity of the nose. In addition to this, pathological states such as atrophic rhinitis, vasomotoric and allergic rhinitis, patients operated with a partial maxillectomy or with total laryngectomy can also be tested as far as the humidifying and warming capacity of the nose ist concerned. In our testing method extremely dry air streams out of a compressed air cylinder with a flow of 8 1/min through a small silicone catheter at the choanal end of one nasal part and is sucked out of the other nostril with a suction flow of 5 1/min, the air passing through a psychrometer modified by us. The excess flow of 3 1/min streams from the naso- into the oropharynx most effectively preventing the air which is to be measured from mixing with the expiratory air saturated with water-vapor. A gas analyzer sensitive to carbon dioxide measures the error possible in this open system which amounts to only one percent of an average mixture with expiratory air. With the help of a psychrometer-normogramme the absolute humidity is determined from the data of the wet and both the dry thermometers. We were testing 22 healthy persons, average age 34, the norm data were established. The result is that for the hole 10 minute measurement period one nasal part needs 1.58 g water for the humidifying of the inspired air. From this it can be calculated that

  3. A randomized clinical trial comparing an extended-use hygroscopic condenser humidifier with heated-water humidification in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Kollef, M H; Shapiro, S D; Boyd, V; Silver, P; Von Harz, B; Trovillion, E; Prentice, D

    1998-03-01

    To determine the safety and cost-effectiveness of mechanical ventilation with an extended-use hygroscopic condenser humidifier (Duration; Nellcor Puritan-Bennett; Eden Prairie, Minn) compared with mechanical ventilation with heated-water humidification. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Medical and surgical ICUs of Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, a university-affiliated teaching hospital. Three hundred ten consecutive qualified patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Patients requiring mechanical ventilation were randomly assigned to receive humidification with either an extended-use hygroscopic condenser humidifier (for up to the first 7 days of mechanical ventilation) or heated-water humidification. Occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, endotracheal tube occlusion, duration of mechanical ventilation, lengths of intensive care and hospitalization, acquired multiorgan dysfunction, and hospital mortality. One hundred sixty-three patients were randomly assigned to receive humidification with an extended-use hygroscopic condenser humidifier, and 147 patients were randomly assigned to receive heated-water humidification. The two groups were similar at the time of randomization with regard to demographic characteristics, ICU admission diagnoses, and severity of illness. Risk factors for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia were also similar during the study period for both treatment groups. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was seen in 15 (9.2%) patients receiving humidification with an extended-use hygroscopic condenser humidifier and in 15 (10.2%) patients receiving heated-water humidification (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval=0.46 to 1.78; p=0.766). No statistically significant differences for hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, lengths of stay in the hospital ICU, or acquired organ system derangements were found between the two treatment groups. No episode of endotracheal tube occlusion occurred during

  4. Clinical review: Humidifiers during non-invasive ventilation - key topics and practical implications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate gas conditioning during non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can impair the anatomy and function of nasal mucosa. The resulting symptoms may have a negative effect on patients' adherence to ventilatory treatment, especially for chronic use. Several parameters, mostly technical aspects of NIV, contribute to inefficient gas conditioning. Factors affecting airway humidity during NIV include inspiratory flow, inspiratory oxygen fraction, leaks, type of ventilator, interface used to deliver NIV, temperature and pressure of inhaled gas, and type of humidifier. The correct application of a humidification system may avoid the effects of NIV-induced drying of the airway. This brief review analyses the consequences of airway dryness in patients receiving NIV and the technical tools necessary to guarantee adequate gas conditioning during ventilatory treatment. Open questions remain about the timing of gas conditioning for acute or chronic settings, the choice and type of humidification device, the interaction between the humidifier and the underlying disease, and the effects of individual humidification systems on delivered humidity. PMID:22316078

  5. Use of Normothermic Default Humidifier Settings Causes Excessive Humidification of Respiratory Gases During Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shoichiro; Iwata, Sachiko; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Sakai, Sayaka; Saikusa, Mamoru; Shindo, Ryota; Harada, Eimei; Okada, Junichiro; Hisano, Tadashi; Kanda, Hiroshi; Maeno, Yasuki; Araki, Yuko; Ushijima, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Teruo; Yamashita, Yushiro; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-12-01

    Adult patients frequently suffer from serious respiratory complications during therapeutic hypothermia. During therapeutic hypothermia, respiratory gases are humidified close to saturated vapor at 37°C (44 mg/L) despite that saturated vapor reduces considerably depending on temperature reduction. Condensation may cause serious adverse events, such as bronchial edema, mucosal dysfunction, and ventilator-associated pneumonia during cooling. To determine clinical variables associated with inadequate humidification of respiratory gases during cooling, humidity of inspiratory gases was measured in 42 cumulative newborn infants who underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Three humidifier settings of 37-default (chamber outlet, 37°C; distal circuit, 40°C), 33.5-theoretical (chamber outlet, 33.5°C; distal circuit, 36.5°C), and 33.5-adjusted (optimized setting to achieve 36.6 mg/L using feedback from a hygrometer) were tested to identify independent variables of excessively high humidity >40.7 mg/L and low humidity <32.9 mg/L. The mean (SD) humidity at the Y-piece was 39.2 (5.2), 33.3 (4.1), and 36.7 (1.2) mg/L for 37-default, 33.5-theoretical, and 33.5-adjusted, respectively. The incidence of excessive high humidity was 10.3% (37-default, 31.0%; 33.5-theoretical, 0.0%; 33.5-adjusted, 0.0%), which was positively associated with the use of a counter-flow humidifier (p < 0.001), 37-default (compared with 33.5-theoretical and 33.5-adjusted, both p < 0.001) and higher fraction of inspired oxygen (p = 0.003). The incidence of excessively low humidity was 17.5% (37-default, 7.1%; 33.5-theoretical, 45.2%; 33.5-adjusted, 0.0%), which was positively associated with the use of a pass-over humidifier and 33.5-theoretical (both p < 0.001). All patients who used a counter-flow humidifier achieved the target gas humidity at the Y-piece (36.6 ± 0.5 mg/L) required for 33.5-adjusted with 33.5-theoretical. During cooling, 37-default is associated with

  6. Local insufflation of warm humidified CO₂increases open wound and core temperature during open colon surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Frey, Joana M; Janson, Martin; Svanfeldt, Monika; Svenarud, Peter K; van der Linden, Jan A

    2012-11-01

    The open surgical wound is exposed to cold and dry ambient air resulting in heat loss through radiation, evaporation, and convection. Also, general and neuraxial anesthesia decrease the patient's core temperature. Despite routine preventive measures mild intraoperative hypothermia is still common and contributes to postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that local insufflation of warm fully humidified CO(2) would increase both the open surgical wound and core temperature. Eighty-three patients undergoing open colon surgery were equally and parallelly randomized to either standard warming measures including forced-air warming, warm fluids, and insulation of limbs and head, or to additional local wound insufflation of warm (37°C) humidified (100% relative humidity) CO(2) at a laminar flow (10 L/min) via a gas diffuser. Wound surface and core temperatures were followed with a heat-sensitive infrared camera and a tympanic thermometer. The mean wound area temperature during surgery was 31.3°C in the warm humidified CO(2) group compared with 29.6°C in the control group (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2°C to 2.3°C). Also, the mean wound edge temperature during surgery was 30.1°C compared with 28.5°C in the control group (P < 0.001, 95% CI, 0.2°C to 0.7°C). Mean core temperature before start of surgery was similar with 36.7°C ± 0.5°C in the warm humidified CO(2) group versus 36.6°C ± 0.5°C in the control group (95% CI, 0.4 to -0.1°C). At end of surgery, the 2 groups differed significantly with 36.9 ± 0.5°C in the warm humidified CO(2) group versus 36.3 ± 0.5°C in the control group (P < 0.001, 95% CI, 0.38°C to 0.82°C). Moreover, only 8 patients of 40 in the warm humidified CO(2) group had a core temperature <36.5°C (20%, 95% CI, 7 to 33%), whereas in the control group this was the case in 24 of 39 (62%, 95% CI, 46% to 78%, P = 0.001) patients (difference of the percentages between the groups 42%, 95% CI, 22% to 61%, P < 0

  7. Gas pre-warming for improving performances of heated humidifiers in neonatal ventilation.

    PubMed

    Schena, E; De Paolis, E; Silvestri, S

    2011-01-01

    Adequate temperature and humidification of gas delivered must be performed during long term neonatal ventilation to avoid potential adverse health effects. Literature shows that performances of heated humidifiers are, at least in some cases, quite poor. In this study, a novel approach to gas conditioning, consisting of gas warming upstream the humidification chamber, is presented. Gas pre-warming, in combination with a control strategy based on a mathematical model taking into account a number of parameters, allows to significantly improve the heated humidifier performances. The theoretical model has been validated and experimental trials have been carried out in the whole volumetric flow-rate (Q) range of neonatal ventilation (lower than 10 L · min(-1)). Experimental results (temperature values ranging from 36 °C to 38 °C and relative humidity values from 90 % to 98 % in the whole range of Q) show values very close to the ideal thermo-hygrometric conditions. The proposed solution allows to avoid vapor condensation at low flow rates and decrease of relative humidity at high flow rates.

  8. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Dryer/Humidifier Analytical Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian

    2004-01-01

    A lightweight Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) Energy Storage System concept is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System (URFCS) is unique in that it uses Regenerative Gas Dryers/Humidifiers (RGD/H) that are mounted on the surface of the gas storage tanks that act as the radiators for thermal control of the Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System (URFCS). As the gas storage tanks cool down during URFCS charging the RGD/H dry the hydrogen and oxygen gases produced by electrolysis. As the gas storage tanks heat up during URFCS discharging, the RGD/H humidify the hydrogen and oxygen gases used by the fuel cell. An analytical model was developed to simulate the URFCS RGD/H. The model is in the form of a Microsoft (registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation) Excel worksheet that allows the investigation of the RGD/H performance. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modeling of the RGD/H and the gas storage tank wall was also done to analyze spatial temperature distribution within the RGD/H and the localized tank wall. Test results obtained from the testing of the RGD/H in a thermal vacuum environment were used to corroborate the analyses.

  9. Humidifier for fuel cell using high conductivity carbon foam

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.; Stinton, David P.

    2006-12-12

    A method and apparatus of supplying humid air to a fuel cell is disclosed. The extremely high thermal conductivity of some graphite foams lends itself to enhance significantly the ability to humidify supply air for a fuel cell. By utilizing a high conductivity pitch-derived graphite foam, thermal conductivity being as high as 187 W/m.dot.K, the heat from the heat source is more efficiently transferred to the water for evaporation, thus the system does not cool significantly due to the evaporation of the water and, consequently, the air reaches a higher humidity ratio.

  10. Insufflation with Humidified and Heated Carbon Dioxide in Short-Term Laparoscopy: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Anja; De Wilde, Rudy Leon

    2015-01-01

    Background. We tested the hypothesis that warm-humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation would reduce postoperative pain and morphine requirement compared to cold-dry CO2 insufflation. Methods. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to compare warm, humidified CO2 and cold-dry CO2. Patients with benign uterine diseases were randomized to either treatment (n = 48) or control (n = 49) group during laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy. Primary endpoints of the study were rest pain, movement pain, shoulder-tip pain, and cough pain at 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, measured by visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes were morphine consumption, rejected boli, temperature change, recovery room stay, and length of hospital stay. Results. There were no significant differences in all baseline characteristics. Shoulder-tip pain at 6 h postoperatively was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Pain at rest, movement pain, and cough pain did not differ. Total morphine consumption and rejected boli at 24 h postoperatively were significantly higher in the control group. Temperature change, recovery room stay, and length of hospital were similar. Conclusions. Warm, humidified insufflation gas significantly reduces postoperative shoulder-tip pain as well as morphine demand. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registration Number   DRKS00003853 (German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS)). PMID:25722977

  11. Heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula therapy: yet another way to deliver continuous positive airway pressure?

    PubMed

    Kubicka, Zuzanna J; Limauro, Joseph; Darnall, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    The goal was to estimate the level of delivered continuous positive airway pressure by measuring oral cavity pressure with the mouth closed in infants of various weights and ages treated with heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula at flow rates of 1-5 L/minute. We hypothesized that clinically relevant levels of continuous positive airway pressure would not be achieved if a nasal leak is maintained. After performing bench measurements and demonstrating that oral cavity pressure closely approximated levels of traditionally applied nasal continuous positive airway pressure, we successfully measured oral cavity pressure during heated, humidified, high-flow nasal cannula treatment in 27 infants. Small (outer diameter: 0.2 cm) cannulae were used for all infants, and flow rates were left as ordered by providers. Bench measurements showed that, for any given leak size, there was a nearly linear relationship between flow rate and pressure. The highest pressure achieved was 4.5 cmH2O (flow rate: 8 L/minute; leak: 3 mm). In our study infants (postmenstrual age: 29.1-44.7 weeks; weight: 835-3735 g; flow rate: 1-5 L/minute), no pressure was generated with the mouth open at any flow rate. With the mouth closed, the oral cavity pressure was related to both flow rate and weight. For infants of < or = 1500 g, there was a linear relationship between flow rate and oral cavity pressure. Oral cavity pressure can estimate the level of continuous positive airway pressure. Continuous positive airway pressure generated with heated, humidified, high-flow nasal cannula treatment depends on the flow rate and weight. Only in the smallest infants with the highest flow rates, with the mouth fully closed, can clinically significant but unpredictable levels of continuous positive airway pressure be achieved. We conclude that heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula should not be used as a replacement for delivering continuous positive airway pressure.

  12. Major concerns regarding lung injury and related health conditions caused by the use of humidifier disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A total of 221 patients were evaluated to be humidifier disinfectant associated with lung injury (HDLI) through two rounds of programs through April 2015. The humidifier disinfectant (HD) brands most often associated with HDLI were found to be Oxy (n=151, 68 %) and Cefu (n=26, 17 %). Polyhexamethylene guanidine used for disinfectant for four types of HD brands including Oxy was found to be associated with the highest number of HDLI cases (n=188). Further programs are operating to identify various health effects including lung injury which may be associated with the use of HD. Not only national agencies, but also pertinent environmental health societies should cooperate in the necessary investigations so that this tragedy can be properly addressed and future incidents concerning chemicals and chemical-containing products can be prevented. PMID:27431912

  13. Hygroscopic condenser humidifier as a solution to nasal dryness due to nasal CPAP treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parra, O; Klamburg, J; Xirgu, J; Abad, J; Sala, H; Tomasa, A; Morera, J

    1991-04-01

    We report an apparent solution to nasal dryness for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) when a hygroscopic condenser humidifier is introduced into the CPAP circuit. Six patients underwent a 5-h test period of nasal CPAP therapy with a mask containing a hygroscopic humidifier. The water vapor showed a statistically significant increase in both inspired and expired gases. The relative humidity of the inspired gases increased significantly. The levels of O2 and CO2 in the respired gases did not change. When patients were asked about nasal dryness at the end of the test, all of them reported marked improvement.

  14. By-Product Carrying Humidified Hydrogen: An Underestimated Issue in the Hydrolysis of Sodium Borohydride.

    PubMed

    Petit, Eddy; Miele, Philippe; Demirci, Umit B

    2016-07-21

    Catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride generates up to four molecules of hydrogen, but contrary to what has been reported so far, the humidified evolved gas is not pure hydrogen. Elemental and spectroscopic analyses show, for the first time, that borate by-products pollute the stream as well as the vessel. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Déjà vu: Ralstonia mannitolilytica infection associated with a humidifying respiratory therapy device, Israel, June to July 2011.

    PubMed

    Block, C; Ergaz-Shaltiel, Z; Valinsky, L; Temper, V; Hidalgo-Grass, C; Minster, N; Weissman, C; Benenson, S; Jaffe, J; Moses, A E; Bar-Oz, B

    2013-05-02

    Following a bloodstream infection in June 2011 with Ralstonia mannitolilytica in a premature infant treated with a humidifying respiratory therapy device, an investigation was initiated at the Hadassah Medical Centres in Jerusalem. The device delivers a warmed and humidified mixture of air and oxygen to patients by nasal cannula. The investigation revealed colonisation with R. mannitolilytica of two of 15 patients and contamination of components of five of six devices deployed in the premature units of the Hadassah hospitals. Ten isolates from the investigation were highly related and indistinguishable from isolates described in an outbreak in 2005 in the United States (US). Measures successful in containing the US outbreak were not included in user instructions provided to our hospitals by the distributor of the device.

  16. [Case of Legionella pneumonia caused by a household humidifier].

    PubMed

    Endo, Keiichi; Ito, Kazuhisa

    2009-05-01

    A 60-year-old-man with diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital because of pyrexia of up to 40 degrees and dyspnea. Chest radiograph revealed ground glass infiltrates in both lung fields. Legionella pneumonia was diagnosed as a consequence of the urinary examination performed for Legionella antigen detection; further, we initiated intravenous pazufloxacin administration. Despite an antibiotic, sivelestat sodium, and mechanical ventilation, the condition of the patient worsened and he died of respiratory failure 5 days following admission. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to investigate the route of infection: this technique was applied to patient sputum samples and water from the humidifier in the room of the patient. The same DNA pattern as Legionella pneumophilla serogroup 1 was identified via analysis with PFGE.

  17. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Sompayrac, Robert; Conger, Bruce; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2009-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  18. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce; Sompyrac, Robert; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2008-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  19. Preparation of a self-humidifying membrane electrode assembly for fuel cell and its performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Mao, Zongqiang; Xu, Jingming; Xie, Xiaofeng; Yang, Lizhai

    2003-10-01

    A novel nano-porous material SiO2-gel was prepared. After being purified by H2O2, then protonized by H2SO4 and desiccated in vacuum, the SiO2-gel, mixed with Nafion solution, was coated between an electrode and a solid electrolyte, which made a new type of self-humidifying membrane electrode assembly. The SiO2 powder was characterized by FTIR, BET and XRD. The surface of the electrodes was characterized by SEM and EDS. The performances of the self-humidifying membrane electrodes were analyzed by polarization discharge and AC impedance under the operation modes of external humidification and self-humidification respectively. Experimental-results indicated that the SiO2 powder held super-hydrophilicity, and the layer of SiO2 and Nafion polymer between electrode and solid electrolyte expanded three-dimension electrochemistry reac-tion area, maintained stability of catalyst layer and enhanced back-diffusion of water from cathode to anode, so the PEM Fuel cell can generate electricity at self-humidification mode. The power density of single PEM fuel cell reached 1.5 W/cm2 under 0.2 Mpa, 70°C and dry hydrogen and oxygen.

  20. Ultra-modified rapid sequence induction with transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange: Challenging convention.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ketan Sakharam; Dave, Nandini; Saran, Shriyam; Garasia, Madhu; Parelkar, Sandesh

    2018-04-01

    During positive pressure ventilation, gastric inflation and subsequent pulmonary aspiration can occur. Rapid sequence induction (RSI) technique is an age-old formula to prevent this. We adopted a novel approach of RSI for patients with high risk of aspiration and evaluated it further in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries. We believe that, in patients with risk of gastric insufflation and pulmonary aspiration, transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange can be useful in facilitating pre- and apnoeic oxygenation till tracheal isolation is achieved.

  1. Intra-oral ignition of monopolar diathermy during transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE).

    PubMed

    Onwochei, D; El-Boghdadly, K; Oakley, R; Ahmad, I

    2017-06-01

    We present the case of unanticipated airway ignition during hard palate biopsy. Transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) and monopolar diathermy were utilised for the procedure, during which an arc arose from the diathermy tip to a titanium implant, causing a brief ignition on the monopolar diathermy grip. This case highlights the need for maintained awareness of fire risk when using diathermy in the presence of THRIVE during airway surgery. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Increased prevalence of IgG-induced sensitization and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (humidifier lung) in nonsmokers exposed to aerosols of a contaminated air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Richter, G; Pethran, A; Czuppon, A B; Schwaiblmair, M

    1992-01-01

    Specific IgG antibodies against antigens of a contaminated air conditioner were estimated in serum of 134 workers of a printing company. Altogether 64% of the workers investigated revealed significantly elevated levels (> 3 U/ml) of IgG antibodies specific to these antigens as compared to a nonexposed control group. The occurrence of IgG antibodies for microbial extracts were 25% for Fusarium, 23% for Penicillium notatum, 13% for Alternaria tenuis, 12% for Aureobasidium pullulans, 9% for Sphaeropsidales species, 3% for Micropolyspora faeni, 2% for Aspergillus fumigatus and 2% for Thermoactionomyces vulgaris. Out of the 86 workers with elevated IgG antibodies for air conditioner antigens, 59 were nonsmokers. Considering a cut-off level of 10 U/ml IgG for high values, the proportion of smokers to nonsmokers becomes even more pronounced (6 to 36 respectively, binominal test p < 0.001). This is despite the fact that the distribution of smokers and nonsmokers among the 134 workers is approximately equal (60 to 74). All 3 workers with clinical diagnosis of humidifier lung or humidifier fever belonged to the nonsmoker group. Our findings indicate that crude water extracts of contaminated air conditioners are the best choice as antigen source for the diagnosis of humidifier lung in exposed workers. Nonsmokers are shown to have a high risk for immunological sensitization.

  3. A novel method for calculating ambient aerosol liquid water content based on measurements of a humidified nephelometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Ye; Zhao, Chun Sheng; Zhao, Gang; Tao, Jiang Chuan; Xu, Wanyun; Ma, Nan; Bian, Yu Xuan

    2018-05-01

    Water condensed on ambient aerosol particles plays significant roles in atmospheric environment, atmospheric chemistry and climate. Before now, no instruments were available for real-time monitoring of ambient aerosol liquid water contents (ALWCs). In this paper, a novel method is proposed to calculate ambient ALWC based on measurements of a three-wavelength humidified nephelometer system, which measures aerosol light scattering coefficients and backscattering coefficients at three wavelengths under dry state and different relative humidity (RH) conditions, providing measurements of light scattering enhancement factor f(RH). The proposed ALWC calculation method includes two steps: the first step is the estimation of the dry state total volume concentration of ambient aerosol particles, Va(dry), with a machine learning method called random forest model based on measurements of the dry nephelometer. The estimated Va(dry) agrees well with the measured one. The second step is the estimation of the volume growth factor Vg(RH) of ambient aerosol particles due to water uptake, using f(RH) and the Ångström exponent. The ALWC is calculated from the estimated Va(dry) and Vg(RH). To validate the new method, the ambient ALWC calculated from measurements of the humidified nephelometer system during the Gucheng campaign was compared with ambient ALWC calculated from ISORROPIA thermodynamic model using aerosol chemistry data. A good agreement was achieved, with a slope and intercept of 1.14 and -8.6 µm3 cm-3 (r2 = 0.92), respectively. The advantage of this new method is that the ambient ALWC can be obtained solely based on measurements of a three-wavelength humidified nephelometer system, facilitating the real-time monitoring of the ambient ALWC and promoting the study of aerosol liquid water and its role in atmospheric chemistry, secondary aerosol formation and climate change.

  4. Conditioning of inspired air by a hygroscopic condenser humidifier.

    PubMed

    Primiano, F P; Moranz, M E; Montague, F W; Miller, R B; Sachs, D P

    1984-08-01

    The heat and water content of inspired air is critical to the pulmonary viability of patients with artificial airways. By continuously measuring gas conditions in the ventilator circuits of 6 adult ICU patients, we studied the heat and water reclaimed from expired air by a hygroscopic condenser humidifier (HCH) in the circuit. Temperature, partial pressure of water vapor (PH2O) and relative humidity (RH) were determined at the tracheal outlet of the endotracheal tube. The HCH was 63% efficient; the end-inspiratory gas delivered to the patients averaged 30.9 degrees C with a PH2O of 32.5 mm Hg and an RH of 97.3% or, equivalently, an RH of 69.2% referenced to 37 degrees C. These values are lower than those reported in the literature for gas in the trachea during nose breathing of ambient air, but greater than the values reported for mouth breathing of ambient air.

  5. A new method for calculating number concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei based on measurements of a three-wavelength humidified nephelometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jiangchuan; Zhao, Chunsheng; Kuang, Ye; Zhao, Gang; Shen, Chuanyang; Yu, Yingli; Bian, Yuxuan; Xu, Wanyun

    2018-02-01

    The number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) plays a fundamental role in cloud physics. Instrumentations of direct measurements of CCN number concentration (NCCN) based on chamber technology are complex and costly; thus a simple way for measuring NCCN is needed. In this study, a new method for NCCN calculation based on measurements of a three-wavelength humidified nephelometer system is proposed. A three-wavelength humidified nephelometer system can measure the aerosol light-scattering coefficient (σsp) at three wavelengths and the light-scattering enhancement factor (fRH). The Ångström exponent (Å) inferred from σsp at three wavelengths provides information on mean predominate aerosol size, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) can be calculated from the combination of fRH and Å. Given this, a lookup table that includes σsp, κ and Å is established to predict NCCN. Due to the precondition for the application, this new method is not suitable for externally mixed particles, large particles (e.g., dust and sea salt) or fresh aerosol particles. This method is validated with direct measurements of NCCN using a CCN counter on the North China Plain. Results show that relative deviations between calculated NCCN and measured NCCN are within 30 % and confirm the robustness of this method. This method enables simplerNCCN measurements because the humidified nephelometer system is easily operated and stable. Compared with the method using a CCN counter, another advantage of this newly proposed method is that it can obtain NCCN at lower supersaturations in the ambient atmosphere.

  6. Steam inhalation or humidified oxygen for acute bronchiolitis in children up to three years of age.

    PubMed

    Umoren, Rachel; Odey, Friday; Meremikwu, Martin M

    2011-01-19

    Acute bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infection and a major cause of morbidity in young children. It is treated with bronchodilators (for example, salbutamol), corticosteroids or humidified air (steam inhalation or cool mist). Steam inhalation is preferred in low-income countries as it is inexpensive and easily available. It is thought to act as a secretolytic agent to lighten secretions in the respiratory tract and relieve respiratory distress. To evaluate the effect of steam inhalation or humidified oxygen to relieve respiratory distress and to evaluate adverse events in children up to three years old with acute bronchiolitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 1) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1950 to February Week 4, 2010), EMBASE.com (1974 to March 2010), CINAHL (1981 to March 2010), AMED (1985 to March 2010), Web of Science (2000 to March 2010) and LILACS (1982 to March 2010). Randomised controlled trials involving children up to three years old with bronchiolitis comparing steam inhalation (or cool mist) or humidified oxygen against bronchodilators, corticosteroids or placebo; alone or in combination. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Only one study (156 children aged between seven weeks and 24 months with signs and symptoms of bronchiolitis) met the eligibility criteria for inclusion. Participants were randomised into three groups: nebulised salbutamol, nebulised saline and mist in a tent. The results showed a significant decrease in respiratory distress symptom (RDS) score in the nebulised salbutamol group but no significant decrease in the RDS score in the mist in a tent or nebulised saline groups. The study did not report on adverse effects of the interventions. Steam inhalation (or cool mist therapy) is commonly used to treat acute bronchiolitis in resource-constrained settings

  7. Small dead space heat and moisture exchangers do not impede gas exchange during noninvasive ventilation: a comparison with a heated humidifier.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Alexandre; Vargas, Frederic; Hilbert, Gilles; Gruson, Didier; Mousset-Hovaere, Maud; Castaing, Yves; Dreyfuss, Didier; Ricard, Jean Damien

    2010-08-01

    Adverse respiratory and gasometrical effects have been described in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) undergoing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with standard heat and moisture exchangers (HME). We decided to evaluate respiratory parameters and arterial blood gases (ABG) of patients during NIV with small dead space HME compared with heated humidifier (HH). Prospective randomized crossover study. A 16-bed medical intensive care unit (ICU). Fifty patients receiving NIV for ARF. The effects of HME and HH on respiratory rate, minute ventilation, EtCO(2), oxygen saturation, airway occlusion pressure at 0.1 s, ABG, and comfort perception were compared during two randomly determined NIV periods of 30 min. The relative impact of HME and HH on these parameters was successively compared with or without addition of a flex tube (40 and 10 patients, respectively). No difference was observed between HME and HH regarding any of the studied parameters, whether or not a flex tube was added. If one decides to humidify patients' airways during NIV, one may do so with small dead space HME or HH without altering respiratory parameters.

  8. Humidification performance of humidifying devices for tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing: a bench study.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Yusuke; Oto, Jun; Onodera, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Masaji

    2013-09-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are commonly used for humidifying respiratory gases administered to mechanically ventilated patients. While they are also applied to tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing, their performance in this role has not yet been clarified. We carried out a bench study to investigate the effects of spontaneous breathing parameters and oxygen flow on the humidification performance of 11 HMEs. We evaluated the humidification provided by 11 HMEs for tracheostomized patients, and also by a system delivering high-flow CPAP, and an oxygen mask with nebulizer heater. Spontaneous breathing was simulated with a mechanical ventilator, lung model, and servo-controlled heated humidifier at tidal volumes of 300, 500, and 700 mL, and breathing frequencies of 10 and 20 breaths/min. Expired gas was warmed to 37°C. The high-flow CPAP system was set to deliver 15, 30, and 45 L/min. With the 8 HMEs that were equipped with ports to deliver oxygen, and with the high-flow CPAP system, measurements were taken when delivering 0 and 3 L/min of dry oxygen. After stabilization we measured the absolute humidity (AH) of inspired gas with a hygrometer. AH differed among HMEs applied to tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing. For all the HMEs, as tidal volume increased, AH decreased. At 20 breaths/min, AH was higher than at 10 breaths/min. For all the HMEs, when oxygen was delivered, AH decreased to below 30 mg/L. With an oxygen mask and high-flow CPAP, at all settings, AH exceeded 30 mg/L. None of the HMEs provided adequate humidification when supplemental oxygen was added. In the ICU, caution is required when applying HME to tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing, especially when supplemental oxygen is required.

  9. The Hygroscopic Condenser Humidifier. A new device for general use in anaesthesia and intensive care.

    PubMed

    Gedeon, A; Mebius, C

    1979-01-01

    The design and performance of the Hygroscopic Condenser Humidifier (HCH) are described. In principle the HCH consists of two parts, a conventional Heat-Moisture-Exchanger (HME) and a hygroscopic unit. The hygroscopic action is shown to improve the water retention efficiency of the device by about a factor of two as compared with optimal HME designs. As a result, humidification levels corresponding to around 80% relative humidity at 37 degrees C are obtained in the trachea and this is also achieved when completely dry gases are delivered to the patient. The unit can therefore be used for all procedures in anaesthesia and in intensive care.

  10. Size-dependent chemical ageing of oleic acid aerosol under dry and humidified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kindi, Suad S.; Pope, Francis D.; Beddows, David C.; Bloss, William J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-12-01

    A chemical reaction chamber system has been developed for the processing of oleic acid aerosol particles with ozone under two relative humidity conditions: dry and humidified to 65 %. The apparatus consists of an aerosol flow tube, in which the ozonolysis occurs, coupled to a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) which measure the evolving particle size and composition. Under both relative humidity conditions, ozonolysis results in a significant decrease in particle size and mass which is consistent with the formation of volatile products that partition from the particle to the gas phase. Mass spectra derived from the ATOFMS reveal the presence of the typically observed reaction products: azelaic acid, nonanal, oxononanoic acid and nonanoic acid, as well as a range of higher molecular weight products deriving from the reactions of reaction intermediates with oleic acid and its oxidation products. These include octanoic acid and 9- and 10-oxooctadecanoic acid, as well as products of considerably higher molecular weight. Quantitative evaluation of product yields with the ATOFMS shows a marked dependence upon both particle size association (from 0.3 to 2.1 µm diameter) and relative humidity. Under both relative humidity conditions, the percentage residual of oleic acid increases with increasing particle size and the main lower molecular weight products are nonanal and oxononanoic acid. Under dry conditions, the percentage of higher molecular weight products increases with increasing particle size due to the poorer internal mixing of the larger particles. Under humidified conditions, the percentage of unreacted oleic acid is greater, except in the smallest particle fraction, with little formation of high molecular weight products relative to the dry particles. It is postulated that water reacts with reactive intermediates, competing with the processes which produce high molecular weight products. Whilst the

  11. Bronchoconstriction induced by hyperventilation with humidified hot air: role of TRPV1-expressing airway afferents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruei-Lung; Hayes, Don; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2009-06-01

    A recent study by our laboratory has shown that an increase in intrathoracic temperature activates vagal pulmonary C-fibers. Because these afferents are known to elicit reflex bronchoconstriction upon stimulation, this study was carried out to investigate if an increase in airway temperature within the physiological range alters bronchomotor tone. Adult guinea pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated via a tracheal tube. After the lung had been hyperventilated with humidified hot air (HHA) for 4 min, the tracheal temperature was elevated from 36.4 to 40.5 degrees C, which induced an immediate bronchoconstriction, increasing total pulmonary resistance (R(L)) to 177 +/- 10% and decreasing dynamic lung compliance to 81 +/- 6% of their respective baselines. The increase in R(L) returned spontaneously toward the baseline in <10 min and was reproducible in the same animals. There were no difference in the responses whether the humidity was generated from distilled water or isotonic saline. In contrast, hyperventilation with humidified air at room temperature did not cause any increase in R(L). The increase in R(L) caused by HHA was attenuated by 65.9% after a pretreatment with atropine alone and by 72.0% after a pretreatment with a combination of atropine and neurokinin receptor type 1 and 2 antagonists. In addition, capsazepine, a selective transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, reduced the HHA-induced increase in R(L) by 64.1% but did not abolish it. However, pretreatment with formoterol, a beta(2)-agonist, completely prevented the HHA-induced bronchoconstriction. These results indicate that the increase in airway temperature induced transient airway constriction in guinea pigs. Approximately two-thirds of the increase in bronchomotor tone was mediated through the cholinergic reflex, which was probably elicited by the activation of TRPV1-expressing airway afferents. The remaining bronchoconstriction was caused by other, yet

  12. Types of household humidifier disinfectant and associated risk of lung injury (HDLI) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Lim, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Choi, Ye-Yong; Ahn, Jong-Ju; Lee, Eun; Hong, Sang-Bum; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Cho, Jae-Lim; Bae, Mun-Joo; Shin, Dong-Chun; Paek, Do-Myung; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2017-10-15

    From 2002 through 2015, hundreds of people died of fatal lung injuries associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants (HDs) in Korea. Several chemical disinfectants used for household humidifiers were later clinically confirmed to cause HD-associated lung injury (HDLI). The aim of this study is to evaluate the registered lung disease cases and to compare the distribution of HDLI patients, including deaths, by HD use characteristics including types of HD and HD brands categorized by age group. A total of 530 registered were clinically examined through two rounds of investigations conducted from July 2013 until April 2015. Information on HD use was obtained from a structured questionnaire and home investigations. Approximately one-half of the patients (n=221) were clinically confirmed to be associated with the use of HDs. Pregnant women (n=35, 16%) and pre-school children≤6years old (n=128, 58%) accounted for most of the HD-associated lung injury patients (n=163, 74%). Sixty-seven percent of HDLI patients developed HDLI after less than one year of HD use. HD products containing polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG) were the most frequently used among confirmed HDLI patients (n=123, 55.7%), followed by oligo (2-(2-ethoxy) ethoxyethyl guanidinium (PGH) (n=24, 10.9%) and a mixture of chloromethylisothiazolinone (CMIT) and methylisothiazolinone (MIT) (n=3, 1.4%). Other HDs did not appear to be linked to HDLI. The majority of the HDLI patients (n=85, 38.5%) was found to use only Oxy Saksak® products containing PHMG. The development of HDLI was clinically found to be associated with the use of several HD products containing PHMG and PGH, and to lesser extent, CMIT/MIT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Humidifier Disinfectants Are a Cause of Lung Injury among Adults in South Korea: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Geun-Yong; Gwack, Jin; Park, Young-Joon; Youn, Seung-Ki; Kwon, Jun-Wook; Yang, Byung-Guk; Lee, Moo-Song; Jung, Miran; Lee, Hanyi; Jun, Byung-Yool; Lim, Hyun-Sul

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds An outbreak of lung injury among South Korean adults was examined in a hospital-based case-control study, and the suspected cause was exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD). However, a case-control study with community-dwelling controls was needed to validate the previous study’s findings, and to confirm the exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury. Methods Each case of lung injury was matched with four community-dwelling controls, according to age (±3 years), sex, residence, and history of childbirth since 2006 (for women). Environmental risk factors, which included type and use of humidifier and HD, were investigated using a structured questionnaire during August 2011. The exposure to HD was calculated for both cases and controls, and the corresponding risks of lung injury were compared. Results Among 28 eligible cases, 16 patients agreed to participate, and 60 matched controls were considered eligible for this study. The cases were more likely to have been exposed to HD (odds ratio: 116.1, 95% confidence interval: 6.5–2,063.7). All cases were exposed to HDs containing polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate, and the risk of lung injury increased with the cumulative exposure, duration of exposure, and exposure per day. Conclusions This study revealed a statistically significant exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury. Therefore, continuous monitoring and stricter evaluation of environmental chemicals’ safety should be conducted. PMID:26990641

  14. Crystalline polyoxometalate (POM)–polyethylene glycol (PEG) composites aimed as non-humidified intermediate-temperature proton conductors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tsuboi, Masaki; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2016-02-15

    Crystalline polyoxometalate (POM)–polyethylene glycol (PEG) composites aimed as non-humidified intermediate-temperature proton conductors were synthesized and characterized by single crystal and powder XRD, solid state MASNMR, and TG-DTA measurements. Among the POM–PEG composites, Cs{sub 2.7}H{sub 0.3}[PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]·1.2PEG1000 (CsHPW-PEG1000) possessed one-dimensional channels with diameters of ca. 6 and 8 Å, where PEG probably resided, and showed the best performance as a proton conductor (1.2×10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} at 443 K). Proton conductivities of POM–PEG composites decreased by the increase in molecular weights of PEG (CsHPW-PEG12,000) or anion charges (CsHSiW-PEG1000). Variable contact time {sup 13}C-CP (cross polarization) MASNMR revealed that localmore » mobility (i.e., segmental motion) of PEG is related to the trends in proton conductivities. These results show that amount of acidic protons (H{sup +}) is not the primary factor in proton conduction and that segmental motion of PEG assists the proton hopping among POMs in the crystal lattice of POM–PEG composites. - Graphical abstract: Non-humidified intermediate-temperature proton conduction in crystalline polyoxometalate (POM)–polyethylene (PEG) composites are assisted by the segmental motion of PEG. - Highlights: • Crystalline polyoxometalate–polyethlene glycol (PEG) composites were synthesized. • CsHPW-PEG1000 possessed one-dimensional channels and showed the highest proton conductivity. • {sup 13}C CPMASNMR revealed that segmental motion of PEG is related to the proton conduction.« less

  15. Factors contributing to the failure of Humidified High-Flow Nasal Cannulae.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Sophia; Clyde, Elizabeth; Dassios, Theodore; Greenough, Anne

    2018-05-24

    The use of humidified high-flow nasal cannulae (HHFNC) as an alternative mode of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in neonates has become widespread. A survey of UK neonatal units showed the proportion using HHFNC had increased from 56% in 2012 to 87% in 2015 (1). A recently reported Cochrane Review (2) comparing the use of HHFNC against other NIV modes of ventilation immediately after birth or following extubation showed no significant difference in the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death and no significant difference in the rates of treatment failure/reintubation. Benefits cited include a significantly reduced risk of nasal trauma as compared to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Furthermore, both medical staff and parents (3) were found to prefer HHFNC to CPAP. Identification of infants in whom use of HHFNC as either a primary or step-down mode of respiratory support may be inappropriate might further reduce the failure rate of HHFNC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. An analysis of a humidifier disinfectant case from a toxicological perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of patients and fatalities due to exposure to polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) shows that PHMG causes mainly lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. However, no research on the other organs has been conducted on this matter yet. So, an in-depth discussion on toxicological techniques is needed to determine whether or not PHMG is toxic to organs other than just the lungs. For the test of target organ toxicity by PHMG exposure, a toxicokinetic study must first be conducted. However, measurement method for PHMG injected into the body has not yet been established because it is not easy to analyze polymer PHMG, so related base studies on analytical technique for PHMG including radio-labeling chemistry must come first. Moreover, research on exposure-biomarker and effect-biomarker must also be conducted, primarily related to clinical application. Several limitations seem to be expected to apply the biomarker study to the patient because much time has passed after exposure to the humidifier disinfectant. It is why a more comprehensive toxicological researches must be introduced to the causality for the victims. PMID:27384221

  17. An analysis of a humidifier disinfectant case from a toxicological perspective.

    PubMed

    Park, Kawangsik

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of patients and fatalities due to exposure to polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) shows that PHMG causes mainly lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. However, no research on the other organs has been conducted on this matter yet. So, an in-depth discussion on toxicological techniques is needed to determine whether or not PHMG is toxic to organs other than just the lungs. For the test of target organ toxicity by PHMG exposure, a toxicokinetic study must first be conducted. However, measurement method for PHMG injected into the body has not yet been established because it is not easy to analyze polymer PHMG, so related base studies on analytical technique for PHMG including radio-labeling chemistry must come first. Moreover, research on exposure-biomarker and effect-biomarker must also be conducted, primarily related to clinical application. Several limitations seem to be expected to apply the biomarker study to the patient because much time has passed after exposure to the humidifier disinfectant. It is why a more comprehensive toxicological researches must be introduced to the causality for the victims.

  18. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Singh, Manvi

    2011-05-11

    Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to July Week 1, 2010), EMBASE (1990 to July 2010) and Current Contents (1994 to July 2010). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or participants with experimentally-induced common cold. We reviewed all retrieved articles and excluded any articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions. The studies we included were subjected to a methodological assessment. Six trials (394 trial participants) were included. Three trials in which patient data could be pooled found benefits of steam for symptom relief for the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.60). However, results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One study conducted in the USA demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli study showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings; there was no change in either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation has not shown any consistent benefits in the treatment of the common cold, hence is not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind, randomized trials with a standardised treatment

  19. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    2006-07-19

    Heated, humidified air has long been used by common cold sufferers. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam), in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library issue 4, 2005); MEDLINE (2003 to December Week 2 2005); EMBASE (July 2003 to September 2005); and Current Contents (current five years). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapor in patients with the common cold or volunteers with experimentally induced common cold. All the articles retrieved were initially subjected to a review for inclusion or exclusion criteria. Review articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions were excluded. Studies selected for inclusion were subjected to a methodological assessment. Six trials were included. Three found benefits of steam for symptom relief with the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31; 0.16 to 0.60; relative risk (RR) 0.56; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.79). Results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One USA study demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli one showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings: there was no change of either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation are not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind RCT trials are conducted.

  20. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Singh, Manvi

    2013-06-04

    Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 2, MEDLINE (1966 to February week 4, 2013), EMBASE (1990 to March 2013) and Current Contents (1994 to March 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or participants with experimentally induced common cold. The two review authors independently reviewed all retrieved articles and excluded any articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions. The studies we included were subjected to a methodological assessment. We included six trials (394 trial participants). Three trials in which patient data could be pooled found benefits of steam for symptom relief for the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.60). However, results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One study conducted in the USA demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli study showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings; there was no change in either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation has not shown any consistent benefits in the treatment of the common cold, hence is not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind, randomised trials with a standardised treatment modality are conducted.

  1. Improved care and growth outcomes by using hybrid humidified incubators in very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Mi; Lee, Edward Y; Chen, Jie; Ringer, Steven Alan

    2010-01-01

    To identify changes in temperature, fluid and electrolyte management, growth, and short-term outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants nursed in humidified hybrid incubators (HI group) compared with a cohort of patients cared for in nonhumidified conventional incubators (CI group). Body temperature (BT), fluid and electrolyte balance, and growth velocity (GV) were collected retrospectively on 182 ELBW infants. The CI group included ELBW infants cared for with radiant warmers followed by an incubator without humidity. The HI group included ELBW infants cared for in the radiant warmer mode in a Giraffe OmniBed, followed by the incubator mode using high humidity. The CI group included more multiple births (50.6%) than the HI group (35.8%; P < .05), but there was no difference in demographic characteristics. BT was similar during the first week. The HI group had less fluid intake, urine output, and insensible water loss, less maximum weight loss, and a lower incidence of hypernatremia during the first week than did the CI group (P < .05). The HI group also had a lower frequency of electrolyte sampling and packed red cell transfusion (P < .05), a higher incidence of hyponatremia on postnatal day 1 than the CI group (P < .05), and a higher GV than the CI group (15.2 +/- 5.0 vs 13.5 +/- 4.8 g/kg per day), especially among those with a birth weight of humidified hybrid incubator improved care for ELBW infants by making it possible to decrease fluid intake, improve electrolyte balance, and enhance GV without a disturbance of BT compared with conventional care. By adjusting fluid

  2. [Efficacy of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Mo, Min; Liu, Song-qiao; Yang, Yi

    2011-09-01

    To demonstrate the effects of heat and moisture exchangers (HME) and heated humidifiers(HH) in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched by computer retrieval and manual retrieval to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using HMEs and HHs in preventing VAP from January 1st 1990 to September 1st 2010. Meta-analysis of HME and HH in preventing VAP was conducted using the methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Eleven RCTs were included. 1 121 in HME group and 1 101 in HH group. In total, the rate of VAP in HME group and HH group was 14.2% (159/1 121) and 15.9% (175/1 101) respectively, the total relative risk (RR) was 0.88, and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.72-1.07, P=0.21. Compared with HH group, there was not a reduction in the risk ratio of VAP in the HME group. Even in mechanical ventilation(MV) with a duration of at least 7 days for subgroup analysis (8 RCTs, sample size: 834 in HME group and 859 in HH group), the rate of VAP in HME group and HH group was 15.2% (127/834) and 17.5% (150/859) respectively, the total RR was 0.84, 95%CI 0. 58-1.23, P=0.37, suggesting that in MV with a duration at least 7 days, there was also no reduction in the risk ratio of VAP in the HME group. This study suggests there is not a significant reduction in the incidence of VAP in patients humidified with HMEs during MV, even in patients ventilated for 7 days or longer. This finding is limited by lack of enough RCTs and blinding. Further large sample of high quality RCTs is necessary to examine the wider applicability of HMEs and their extended use.

  3. Experimental study of delivery of humidified-warm carbon dioxide during open abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Carpinteri, S; Sampurno, S; Malaterre, J; Millen, R; Dean, M; Kong, J; Chittleborough, T; Heriot, A; Lynch, A C; Ramsay, R G

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effect of humidified-warm carbon dioxide (HWCO 2 ) delivered into the open abdomen of mice, simulating laparotomy. Mice were anaesthetized, ventilated and subjected to an abdominal incision followed by wound retraction. In the experimental group, a diffuser device was used to deliver HWCO 2 ; the control group was exposed to passive air flow. In each group of mice, surgical damage was produced on one side of the peritoneal wall. Vital signs and core temperature were monitored throughout the 1-h procedure. The peritoneum was closed and mice were allowed to recover for 24 h or 10 days. Tumour cells were delivered into half of the mice in each cohort. Tissue was then examined using scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Passive air flow generated ultrastructural damage including mesothelial cell bulging/retraction and loss of microvilli, as assessed at 24 h. Evidence of surgical damage was still measurable on day 10. HWCO 2 maintained normothermia, whereas open surgery alone led to hypothermia. The degree of tissue damage was significantly reduced by HWCO 2 compared with that in controls. Peritoneal expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor A was lowered by HWCO 2 . These effects were also evident at the surgical damage sites, where protection from tissue trauma extended to 10 days. HWCO 2 did not reduce tumorigenesis in surgically damaged sites compared with passive air flow. HWCO 2 diffusion into the abdomen in the context of open surgery afforded tissue protection and accelerated tissue repair in mice, while preserving normothermia. Surgical relevance Damage to the peritoneum always occurs during open abdominal surgery, by exposure to desiccating air and by mechanical trauma/damage owing to the surgical intervention. Previous experimental studies showed that humidified-warm carbon dioxide (HWCO 2 ) reduced peritoneal damage during laparoscopic insufflation

  4. Understanding ion and solvent transport in anion exchange membranes under humidified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarode, Himanshu

    Anion exchange membranes (AEM) have been studied for more than a decade for potential applications in low temperature fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. They offer the advantage of faster reaction kinetics under alkaline conditions and ability to perform without costly platinum catalyst. Inherently slow diffusion of hydroxide ions compared to protons is a primary reason for synthesizing and studying the ion transport properties in AEMs. The aim of this thesis is to understand ion transport in novel AEMs using Pulse Gradient stimulated Spin Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique (PGSE NMR), water uptake, ionic conductivity, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) etc. All experiments were performed under humidified conditions (80--95% relative humidity) and fuel cell operating temperatures of 30--90°C. In this work, the NMR tube design was modified for humidifying the entire NMR tube evenly from our previous design. We have developed a new protocol for replacing caustic hydroxide with harmless fluoride or bicarbonate ions for 19F and 13 C NMR diffusion experiments. After performing these NMR experiments, we have obtained in-depth understanding of the morphology linked ion transport in AEMs. We have obtained the highest fluoride self-diffusion coefficient of > 1 x 10-5 cm2/sec ( 55°C) for ETFE-g-PVBTMA membrane which is a result of low tortuosity of 1 obtained for the membrane. This faster fluoride transport combined with low tortuosity of the membrane resulted in > 100mS/cm hydroxide conductivity for the membrane. Polycyclooctene (PCOE) based triblock copolymers are also studied for in-depth understanding of molecular weight, IEC, mechanical and transport properties. Effect of melting temperature of PCOE has favorable effect on increasing ion conductivity and lowering activation energy. Mechanical properties of these types of membranes were studied showing detrimental effect of water plasticization which results in unsuitable mechanical properties

  5. Heat and moisture exchangers versus heated humidifiers for mechanically ventilated adults and children.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Donna; Todd, David A; Foster, Jann P; Batuwitage, Bisanth T

    2017-09-14

    Invasive ventilation is used to assist or replace breathing when a person is unable to breathe adequately on their own. Because the upper airway is bypassed during mechanical ventilation, the respiratory system is no longer able to warm and moisten inhaled gases, potentially causing additional breathing problems in people who already require assisted breathing. To prevent these problems, gases are artificially warmed and humidified. There are two main forms of humidification, heat and moisture exchangers (HME) or heated humidifiers (HH). Both are associated with potential benefits and advantages but it is unclear whether HME or HH are more effective in preventing some of the negative outcomes associated with mechanical ventilation. This review was originally published in 2010 and updated in 2017. To assess whether heat and moisture exchangers or heated humidifiers are more effective in preventing complications in people receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and to identify whether the age group of participants, length of humidification, type of HME, and ventilation delivered through a tracheostomy had an effect on these findings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL up to May 2017 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. There were no language limitations. We included RCTs comparing HMEs to HHs in adults and children receiving invasive ventilation. We included randomized cross-over studies. We assessed the quality of each study and extracted the relevant data. Where possible, we analysed data through meta-analysis. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). For continuous outcomes, we calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI or standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI for parallel studies. For cross-over trials, we calculated the MD and 95% CI using correlation estimates to

  6. Humidifier Disinfectant-Associated Lung Injury: Six Years after the Tragic Event

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Young

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, a cluster of peripartum patients were admitted to the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Seoul with signs and symptoms of severe respiratory distress of unknown etiology. Subsequent epidemiological and animal studies suggested that humidifier disinfectant (HD) might represent the source of this pathology. Epidemiological studies, animal studies, and dose-response analysis demonstrated a strong association between HD use and lung injuries. The diagnostic criteria for HD-associated lung injury (HDALI) was defined on the basis of the clinical, pathological, and radiological attributes of the patients. The clinical spectrum of HDALI appears to range from asymptomatic to full-blown acute respiratory failure, and some patients have required actual lung transplantation for survival. The overall mortality of the exposed population was not significant, although peripartum patients and children who were admitted to the intensive care unit did show high mortality rates. Persistent clinical findings such as diffuse ill-defined centrilobular nodules and restrictive lung dysfunction were observed in some of the survivors. The findings of this review emphasize the importance of assessment of the level of toxicity of chemical inhalants utilized in a home setting, as well as the need to identify and monitor afflicted individuals after inhalational injury. PMID:28905528

  7. Ventilator-associated pneumonia using a heated humidifier or a heat and moisture exchanger: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN88724583].

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Mora, María L; Sierra, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Some guidelines to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) do not establish a recommendation for the preferential use of either heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) or heated humidifiers (HHs), while other guidelines clearly advocate the use of HMEs. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of VAP associated with HHs or HMEs. A randomized study was conducted in the intensive care unit of a university hospital involving patients expected to require mechanical ventilation for >5 days. Patients were assigned to two groups; one group received HH and the other group received HME. Tracheal aspirate samples were obtained on endotracheal intubation, then twice a week, and finally on extubation, in order to diagnose VAP. Throat swabs were taken on admission to the intensive care unit, then twice a week, and finally at discharge from the intensive care unit in order to classify VAP as primary endogenous, secondary endogenous, or exogenous. A total of 120 patients were assigned to HMEs (60 patients) and HHs (60 patients); 16 patients received mechanical ventilation for less than five days and were excluded from the analysis. Data analysis of the remaining 104 patients (53 HMEs and 51 HHs) showed no significant differences between groups regarding sex, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, pre-VAP use of antibiotics, days on mechanical ventilation, and diagnosis group. VAP was found in eight of 51 (15.69%) patients in the HH group and in 21 of 53 (39.62%) patients in the HME group (P = 0.006). The median time free of VAP was 20 days (95% confidence interval, 13.34-26.66) for the HH group and was 42 days (95% confidence interval, 35.62-48.37) for the HME group (P <0.001). Cox regression analysis showed the HME as a risk factor for VAP (hazard rate, 16.2; 95% confidence interval, 4.54-58.04; P < 0.001). The patients mechanically ventilated during more than 5 days developed a lower incidence of VAP with a heated humidifier than heat and

  8. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE): a physiological method of increasing apnoea time in patients with difficult airways.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Nouraei, S A R

    2015-03-01

    Emergency and difficult tracheal intubations are hazardous undertakings where successive laryngoscopy-hypoxaemia-re-oxygenation cycles can escalate to airway loss and the 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. Between 2013 and 2014, we extended the apnoea times of 25 patients with difficult airways who were undergoing general anaesthesia for hypopharyngeal or laryngotracheal surgery. This was achieved through continuous delivery of transnasal high-flow humidified oxygen, initially to provide pre-oxygenation, and continuing as post-oxygenation during intravenous induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade until a definitive airway was secured. Apnoea time commenced at administration of neuromuscular blockade and ended with commencement of jet ventilation, positive-pressure ventilation or recommencement of spontaneous ventilation. During this time, upper airway patency was maintained with jaw-thrust. Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) was used in 15 males and 10 females. Mean (SD [range]) age at treatment was 49 (15 [25-81]) years. The median (IQR [range]) Mallampati grade was 3 (2-3 [2-4]) and direct laryngoscopy grade was 3 (3-3 [2-4]). There were 12 obese patients and nine patients were stridulous. The median (IQR [range]) apnoea time was 14 (9-19 [5-65]) min. No patient experienced arterial desaturation < 90%. Mean (SD [range]) post-apnoea end-tidal (and in four patients, arterial) carbon dioxide level was 7.8 (2.4 [4.9-15.3]) kPa. The rate of increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide was 0.15 kPa.min(-1) . We conclude that THRIVE combines the benefits of 'classical' apnoeic oxygenation with continuous positive airway pressure and gaseous exchange through flow-dependent deadspace flushing. It has the potential to transform the practice of anaesthesia by changing the nature of securing a definitive airway in emergency and difficult intubations from a pressured stop-start process to a smooth and unhurried undertaking

  9. Comparative ex vivo study on humidifying function of three speaking valves with integrated heat and moisture exchanger for tracheotomised patients.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, C; Lansaat, L; Muller, S H; van den Brekel, M W M; Hilgers, F J M

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of humidifying function of tracheotomy speaking valves with integrated heat and moisture exchanger. Ex vivo measurement of water exchange and storage capacity of three tracheotomy speaking valves: Humidiphon Plus, Spiro and ProTrach DualCare (with two different heat and moisture exchangers: XtraMoist and Regular). Comprehensive Cancer Centre. Healthy volunteer. Difference between end-inspiratory and end-expiratory weight as measure for water exchange capacity, weight after 10 min breathing as measure for water storage capacity, weighing at 1-min intervals to assess residual water exchange potential in speaking mode and absolute humidity in mg/L as measure for environmental and respiratory humidity. None of the tracheotomy speaking valves provides humidification while in speaking mode. Only the ProTrach DualCare allows blocking the speaking valve and breathing through the heat and moisture exchanger during inhalation and exhalation (heat and moisture exchanger mode). This leads to an increase in inspiratory humidity of 2.5 mg (XtraMoist) and 1.6 mg (Regular). There was no measurable water storage in speaking mode in any of the three tracheotomy speaking valves. In breathing mode, water storage in the DualCare heat and moisture exchangers was 47 and 37 mg, respectively. The remaining humidifying potential in speaking mode after 10 min breathing in heat and moisture exchanger mode for XtraMoist was 38%, 15% and 10% at 1, 2 and 3 min, respectively. For Regular, this was 47%, 24% and 13%, respectively. Tracheostoma valves with integrated heat and moisture exchanger have no humidification function in speaking mode. Only ProTrach DualCare, allowing blocking the speaking mode, in heat and moisture exchanger mode enables a significant increase in humidification. Regular switching between speaking and heat and moisture exchanger mode with this latter device prolongs the humidification in speaking mode. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Humidifier disinfectant lung injury, how do we approach the issues?

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang-Bum; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Chung, Seockhoon; Lee, Eun; Choi, Jihyun

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of the Korean population has been exposed to toxic humidifier disinfectants (HDs), and considering that the majority of the victims are infants, the magnitude of the damage is expected to be considerably larger than what has currently been revealed. The current victims are voicing problems caused by various diseases, including but not limited to lung, upper respiratory tract, cardiovascular, kidney, musculoskeletal, eye, and skin diseases, etc. However, there has been difficulty in gaining validation for these health problems and identifying causal relationships due to lack of evidence proving that toxic HD is the specific causes of extrapulmonary diseases such as allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, the victims and bereaved families of the HD case have not received any support for psychological distress such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, feelings of injustice, and anger caused by the trauma. In addition, because the underlying mechanisms of the toxic materials within the HDs such as polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate, poly(oxyalkylene guanidine) hydrochloride, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone have yet to be determined, the demand for information regarding the HD issue is growing. The victims of the HD cases require support that goes beyond financial aid for medical costs and living expenses. There is a desperate need for government-led integrated support centers that provide individualized support through health screenings; in other words, we need an integrated facility that provides the appropriate social support to allow the victims to recover their physical and mental health, so as to well prepare them to return to a normal life. The implementation of such a plan requires not only the close cooperation between those departments already directly involved such as the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, but also active support on a national scale from pan-governmental consultative bodies

  11. The promotion effect of coexisting hygroscopic composition on the reaction between oxalic acid and calcite during humidifying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; He, H.

    2012-12-01

    Internally mixed oxalic acid with mineral dust has been frequently detected in field measurements (Sullivan and Prather, 2007; Wang et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2009). Meanwhile, Furukawa and Takahashi (Furukawa and Takahashi, 2011) found that most of the oxalic acid in mineral mixture is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, however, the formation mechanism of these complexes is not well known. It was reported that cloud process of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture could lead to the formation of calcium oxalate (Gierlus et al., 2012). Recently, we used Raman spectroscopy to investigate the hygroscopic behavior of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture below saturation condition as well as the effect of coexisting hygroscopic compositions, e.g. Ca(NO3)2, NaCl, NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4. It was found that there was no interaction between H2C2O4 and calcite without third component during humidifying process under ambient condition. In contrast, the presence of coexisting Ca(NO)3, NaCl, or NH4NO3 could promote the reaction between H2C2O4 and calcite by providing an aqueous circumstance after deliquescence, resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate hydrates. Moreover, substitution of strong acid (HNO3) by medium acid (H2C2O4) occurred when water vapor was absorbed in Ca(NO3)2/H2C2O4 mixture (Ma and He, 2012). As for (NH4)2SO4, there existed a competition effect between (NH4)2SO4 and H2C2O4 for the reaction with CaCO3. CaCO3 was preferentially reacted with (NH4)2SO4 to form gypsum in the solution, while the residual NH4+ and C2O42- ions were bonded to (NH4)2C2O4 after efflorescence. These results implies a potential formation pathway of metal oxalate complexes in the atmosphere and also suggests that synergistic effect between different constituents in humidifying process of mixed particles should be considered in future hygroscopic behavior studies.

  12. Humidification in the intensive care unit. Prospective study of a new protocol utilizing heated humidification and a hygroscopic condenser humidifier.

    PubMed

    Branson, R D; Davis, K; Campbell, R S; Johnson, D J; Porembka, D T

    1993-12-01

    Determine the utility of a proposed algorithm in allowing safe, efficient humidification in mechanically ventilated patients using both a hygroscopic condenser humidifier (HCH) and heated humidifier (HH). A prospective study using an algorithm to chose humidification devices based on physical examination and sputum characteristics. All patients admitted to the surgical ICU. One hundred twenty consecutive patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) were studied. Patients were examined by the attending respiratory care practitioner and given either an HCH or HH. If patients demonstrated any of the following--thick or tenacious secretions, core temperature < 32 degrees C, or bloody secretions--they were given an HH. All others used an HCH. If any of the above conditions occurred during HCH use, the patient was given an HH. Duration of ventilation, incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator circuit colonization, and mortality were determined for patients in each group. Cost of humidification devices, number of suctioning procedures per day, and volume of saline solution instilled were also recorded. Initially, 27 percent (32/120) of patients used an HH and 73 percent (88/120) used an HCH. During the study, ten patients required changing to an HH during HCH use. Patients in the HH group were more likely to have preexisting lung disease and had a longer duration of ventilation (83 +/- 21 h) and higher mortality (21 percent). Patients in the HCH group were more likely to be postoperative, had shorter durations of ventilation (38 +/- 14 h), and lower mortality (9 percent). There was no difference in the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia between the two groups (9 percent vs 6 percent) and endotracheal tube occlusion did not occur in either group. Circuit colonization was common in the HH group (64 percent) but rate in the HCH group (5 percent). Cost per day was significantly less for the HCH group ($4 vs $19.80). Patients who required a change from HCH to HH did so at

  13. Comparing two heat and moisture exchangers, one hydrophobic and one hygroscopic, on humidifying efficacy and the rate of nosocomial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Thomachot, L; Viviand, X; Arnaud, S; Boisson, C; Martin, C D

    1998-11-01

    Many heat and moisture exchangers with filter (HMEF) have been developed. In-house data from companies provide some information about their performances; unfortunately, to our knowledge, no comparative evaluation in clinical conditions has been undertaken of these newer products. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of two HMEFs, one hydrophobic and one hygroscopic, on humidifying capacity and the rate of bronchial colonization and ventilator-associated pneumonia in ICU patients. Prospective, randomized study. ICU of a university hospital. All patients who required mechanical ventilation for > or = 24 h during the study period. On admission to the ICU, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In one group, the patients were ventilated with a hygroscopic device (Humid-Vent Filter Light HMEF; Gibeck; Upplands Vaesby, Sweden). The condensation surface was made of paper (Microwell) impregnated with CaCl2. The filter membrane was made of polypropylene. In the other group, the patients were ventilated with a hydrophobic device (Pall BB100 HMEF). The condensation surface was made of a hydrophobic resin with a hydrophylic layer. The filter membrane was made of ceramic fibers. In both groups, HMEFs were changed daily. Both groups of patients were similar for the tested characteristics, including parameters of mechanical ventilation. Sixty-six patients were ventilated for 11.7+/-11 days with the Humid-Vent Filter Light HMEF and 70 patients for 12.2+/-12 days with the Pall BB 100. Patients ventilated with the Humid-Vent Filter Light underwent 6.0+/-3.0 tracheal aspirations and 1.7+/-2.0 instillations per day, and those with the Pall BB 100, 6.0+/-3.0 and 1.6+/-2.0 per day, respectively (not significant [NS]). Abundance of tracheal secretions, presence of blood, and viscosity, evaluated by semiquantitative scales, were similar in both groups. No difference in the rate of atelectasis was observed between the two groups (7.5% and 7.1%, NS). One

  14. Humidified high flow nasal cannulae: current practice in Australasian nurseries, a survey.

    PubMed

    Hough, Judith L; Shearman, Andrew D; Jardine, Luke A; Davies, Mark W

    2012-02-01

    Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula (HHFNC) has been increasingly adopted as a new means of respiratory support throughout the world. However, evidence to support its safety and efficacy is limited. The aim of the present survey was to determine current practices regarding the usage of HHFNC by neonatologists in Australia and New Zealand. Surveys were sent to all 167 neonatologists identified by the list of centres in the Australia and New Zealand Neonatal Network. A total of 157 surveys were sent to valid email addresses: 111 (71%) responded of which 105 (67%) had completed the questionnaire. HHFNC is used in 17 (63%) of neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. It is most commonly used to reduce nasal trauma (91%) and provide continuous positive airways pressure (62%). The main perceived benefits of HHFNC were the easier application and care of the infant (86%), and improved tolerance by the baby (84%). Rain out leading to fluid instillation into the upper airway (59%) was the most common problem. This survey has provided a snapshot of the practice of HHFNC usage in Australia and New Zealand in 2010 and has revealed that HHFNC use is widespread and that clinical practices are diverse. The majority of neonatologists acknowledge that there is limited evidence to support its efficacy and safety, and would be happy to participate in clinical trials to address how best to deliver HHFNC. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Performance of a Cross-Flow Humidifier with a High Flux Water Vapor Transport Membrane

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Johnson, W. B.

    Water vapor transport (WVT) flux across a composite membrane that consists of a very thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layer sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous layers is investigated. Static and dynamic tests are conducted to measure WVT flux for different composite structures; a transport model shows that the underlying individual resistances for water diffusion in the gas phase and microporous and ionomer layers and for interfacial kinetics of water uptake at the ionomer surface are equally important under different conditions. A finite-difference model is formulated to determine water transport in a full-scale (2-m2 active membrane area) planar cross-flowmore » humidifier module assembled using pleats of the optimized composite membrane. In agreement with the experimental data, the modeled WVT flux in the module increases at higher inlet relative humidity (RH) of the wet stream and at lower pressures, but the mass transfer effectiveness is higher at higher pressures. The model indicates that the WVT flux is highest under conditions that maintain the wet stream at close to 100% RH while preventing the dry stream from becoming saturated. The overall water transport is determined by the gradient in RH of the wet and dry streams but is also affected by vapor diffusion in the gas layer and the microporous layer.« less

  16. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    2001-01-01

    Heated, humidified air is used by common cold sufferers since the invention of the steam kettle. There is scientific literature available investigating this mode of therapy using a rhinotherm. The present reviews addresses to the use of hot, humid air in common cold. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour with the help of a rhinotherm (an equipment designed to deliver heated water vapour to a person's nasal cavity), in the treatment of the common cold by comparing a. symptoms b. viral shedding c. nasal resistance after a natural or experimentally induced common cold. We searched MEDLINE with MeSH headings: common cold, rhinopharyngitis, inhalation, steam, heated vapour, rhinothermy, till July 1999. EMBASE, Current Contents, review articles, cross references were also searched. Attempts were also made to contact the manufacturers for any unpublished data. Randomized trials using heated water vapour in a standardized way in patients with the common cold or volunteers with experimental induction of rhinovirus infection were included in the review. All the articles retrieved were initially subjected to a review for inclusion / exclusion criteria. Review articles, editorials, abstracts with inadequate outcome description were excluded. Studies selected for inclusion were subjected to a methodological assessment. The results of a systematic review of six trials with 319 participants, support the use of warm vapour inhalations in the common cold in terms of relief of symptoms (Odds Ratio with 95 % CI 0.31, 0.16-0.60, Relative risk 0.56, 0.4-0.79). Results on symptom score indices were equivocal. None of the studies demonstrated a worsening of clinical symptom scores. One study demonstrated increased nasal resistance one week after steam inhalation in contrast to an earlier study which showed improvement in the nasal resistance. There was no evidence of decreased viral shedding measured by virus isolation in the nasal secretions or measurement of viral

  17. Do the components of heat and moisture exchanger filters affect their humidifying efficacy and the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Thomachot, L; Vialet, R; Arnaud, S; Barberon, B; Michel-Nguyen, A; Martin, C

    1999-05-01

    To compare the efficiency of two heat and moisture exchange filters (HMEFs) of different compositions of the humidifying capacity and the rate of bronchial colonization and ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Prospective, randomized study. ICU of a university hospital. All patients who required mechanical ventilation for 24 hrs or more during the study period. At admission to the ICU, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In one group, the patients were ventilated with Humid-Vent Filter Light HMEF. The condensation surface was made of paper impregnated with CaCl2. The filter membrane was made of polypropylene. In the other group, the patients were ventilated with the Clear ThermAl HMEF (Intersurgical, France). The condensation surface was made of plastic foam impregnated with AlCl2. The filter membrane was made of two polymer fibers (modacrylic and polypropylene). In both groups, HMEFs were changed daily. Seventy-seven patients were ventilated for 19+/-7 days with the Humid-Vent Filter Light HMEF and 63 patients for 17+/-6 days with the Clear ThermAl HMEF. Patients ventilated with the Humid-Vent Filter Light underwent 8.7+/-3.7 tracheal aspirations and 1.2+/-2.0 instillations per day and those with the Clear ThermAl, 8.2+/-3.9 and 1.5+/-2.4 per day, respectively (NS). The abundance of tracheal secretions and the presence of blood and viscosity, as evaluated by semiquantitative scales, were similar in both groups. One episode of tracheal tube occlusion was observed with the Humid-Vent Filter Light HMEF and none with the other HMEF (NS). Tracheal colonization was observed at a rate of 91% with the Humid-Vent Filter Light and 97% with the Clear ThermAl (NS). The rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was similar in both groups (35%). Bacteria responsible for tracheal colonization and pneumonia were similar in both groups. Despite differences in their components, the two HMEFs that were tested achieved similar

  18. Combined approaches using adverse outcome pathways and big data to find potential diseases associated with humidifier disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jong-Han; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    According to previous survey, about two million of people were expected to suffer from toxic effects due to humidifier disinfectant (HD), regardless of healing or not. Extremely small group are recognized as HDs' victims. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchiole because it is specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out overall effects from HDs, we recommend adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as new approach. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, decreased T-cell and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophage could be key events between the exposure to HDs and diseases. ROS generation, decreased cell and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophage could be cause of interstitial fibrosis, pneumonia and many other diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, fetal death, premature baby, autoimmune disease, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, cancer, and so on. We predict potential disease candidate by AOPs. We can validate the real risk of the adverse outcome by epidemiologic and toxicologic study using big data such as National Health Insurance data and AOPs knowledge base. Application of these kinds of new methods can find the potential disease list from the exposure to HD.

  19. Combined approaches using adverse outcome pathways and big data to find potential diseases associated with humidifier disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    According to previous survey, about two million of people were expected to suffer from toxic effects due to humidifier disinfectant (HD), regardless of healing or not. Extremely small group are recognized as HDs’ victims. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchiole because it is specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out overall effects from HDs, we recommend adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as new approach. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, decreased T-cell and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophage could be key events between the exposure to HDs and diseases. ROS generation, decreased cell and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophage could be cause of interstitial fibrosis, pneumonia and many other diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, fetal death, premature baby, autoimmune disease, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, cancer, and so on. We predict potential disease candidate by AOPs. We can validate the real risk of the adverse outcome by epidemiologic and toxicologic study using big data such as National Health Insurance data and AOPs knowledge base. Application of these kinds of new methods can find the potential disease list from the exposure to HD. PMID:28111421

  20. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    2004-01-01

    Heated, humidified air is used by common cold sufferers since the invention of the steam kettle. There is scientific literature available investigating this mode of therapy using a rhinotherm. The present reviews addresses to the use of hot, humid air in common cold. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour with the help of a rhinotherm (an equipment designed to deliver heated water vapour to a person's nasal cavity), in the treatment of the common cold by comparing: a. symptoms b. viral shedding c. nasal resistance after a natural or experimentally induced common cold. In the initial review published in issue 3, 1999 of The Cochrane Library, we searched MEDLINE with MeSH headings: common cold, rhinopharyngitis, inhalation, steam, heated vapour, rhinothermy (January 1966 to July 1999). EMBASE, Current Contents, review articles, cross references were also searched. Attempts were also made to contact the manufacturers for any unpublished data. In this updated review, we have searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003), MEDLINE (January 1966 to November Week 2, 2003), EMBASE (January 1990 to November 2003), and Current Contents (current five years). Randomized trials using heated water vapour in a standardized way in patients with the common cold or volunteers with experimental induction of rhinovirus infection were included in the review. All the articles retrieved were initially subjected to a review for inclusion / exclusion criteria. Review articles, editorials, abstracts with inadequate outcome description were excluded. Studies selected for inclusion were subjected to a methodological assessment. The results of a systematic review of six trials with 319 participants, support the use of warm vapour inhalations in the common cold in terms of relief of symptoms (Odds Ratio with 95 % CI 0.31, 0.16-0.60, Relative risk 0.56, 0.4-0.79). Results on symptom score indices were equivocal. None of

  1. Work of breathing during CPAP and heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sandeep; Hickey, Ann; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Peacock, Janet L; Greenough, Anne

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared with heated humidified, high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) in infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) reduced the work of breathing (WOB) and thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) and improved oxygen saturation (SaO2). Randomised crossover study. Tertiary neonatal unit. 20 infants (median gestational age of 27.6 weeks (range 24.6-31.9 weeks)) were studied at a median postnatal age of 30.9 weeks (range 28.1-39.1 weeks). Infants were studied on 2 consecutive days. On the first study day, they were randomised to either CPAP or HHFNC each for 2 h, the order being reversed on the second day. The WOB was assessed by measuring the pressure time product of the diaphragm (PTPdi). PTPdi, TAA and SaO2 were assessed during the final 5 min of each 2 h period and the results on the two study days were meaned. There were no significant differences in the results on CPAP versus HHFNC: mean PTPdi 226 (range 126-294) versus 224 cm H2O/s/min (95% CI for difference: -27 to 22; p=0.85) (range 170-318) (p=0.82), mean TAA 13.4° (range 4.51°-23.32°) versus 14.01° (range 4.25°-23.86°) (95% CI for difference: -3.9 to 2.8: p=0.73) (p=0.63) and mean SaO2 95% (range 93%-100%) versus 95% (94%-99%), (95% CI for difference -1.8 to 0.5; p=0.25) (p=0.45). In infants with evolving or established BPD, CPAP compared with HHFNC offered no significant advantage with regard to the WOB, degree of asynchrony or oxygen saturation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Randomized controlled trial on postoperative pulmonary humidification after total laryngectomy: external humidifier versus heat and moisture exchanger.

    PubMed

    Mérol, Jean-Claude; Charpiot, Anne; Langagne, Thibault; Hémar, Patrick; Ackerstaff, Annemieke H; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of immediate postoperative airway humidification after total laryngectomy (TLE), comparing the use of an external humidifier (EH) with humidification through a heat and moisture exchanger (HME). Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Fifty-three patients were randomized into the standard (control) EH (N = 26) or the experimental HME arm (N = 27). Compliance, pulmonary and sleeping problems, patients' and nursing staff satisfaction, nursing time, and cost-effectiveness were assessed with trial-specific structured questionnaires and tally sheets. In the EH arm data were available for all patients, whereas in the HME arm data were incomplete for four patients. The 24/7 compliance rate in the EH arm was 12% and in the HME arm 87% (77% if the four nonevaluable patients are considered noncompliant). Compliance and patients' satisfaction were significantly better, and the number of coughing episodes, mucus expectoration for clearing the trachea, and sleeping disturbances were significantly less in the HME arm (P < .001). This was also the case for nursing time and nursing staff satisfaction and preference. This RCT clearly shows the benefits of immediate postoperative airway humidification by means of an HME over the use of an EH after TLE. This study therefore underlines that HMEs presently can be considered the better option for early postoperative airway humidification after TLE. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. The effect of humidified heated breathing circuit on core body temperature in perioperative hypothermia during thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Ho Sik; Moon, Se Ho; Do Jeong, Hyeon; Jeon, Young Jae; Do Han, Keung; Koh, Hyun Jung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: During general anesthesia, human body easily reaches a hypothermic state, which is mainly caused by heat redistribution. Most studies suggested that humidified heated breathing circuits (HHBC) have little influence on maintenance of the core temperature during early phase of anesthesia. This study was aimed at examining heat preservation effect with HHBC in case of undergoing surgery with less exposure of surgical fields and short surgical duration. Methods: Patients aged 19 to 70 yr - old, ASA-PS I or II who were scheduled for elective thyroidectomy were assigned and divided to the group using HHBC (G1) and the group using conventional circuit (G2) by random allocation. During operation, core, skin, and room temperatures were measured every 5minutes by specific thermometer. Results: G1 was decreased by a lesser extent than G2 in core temperature, apparently higher at 30 and 60 minutes after induction. Skin and room temperatures showed no differences between the two groups (p>0.05). Consequently, we confirmed HHBC efficiently prevented a decrease in core temperature during early period in small operation which has difficulty in preparing warming devices or environments were not usually considered. Conclusions: This study showed that HHBC influences heat redistribution in early period of operation and can lessen the magnitude of the decrease in core body temperature. Therefore, it can be applied efficiently for other active warming devices in mild hypothermia.

  4. The simultaneous use of a heat and moisture exchanger and a heated humidifier causes critical airway occlusion in less than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Alexander; Mariyaselvam, Maryanne; Wijewardena, Gayathri; English, Natalie; Gent, Emma; Young, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and heated humidifiers (HHs) may be used together inadvertently. Such an incident occurred at our institution resulting in airway occlusion. A bench-top study was conducted to compare the incidence of airway occlusion when using (1) no airway humidification, (2) HME alone, (3) HH alone, and (4) both HME and HH in combination as part of a standard breathing circuit. The simultaneous use of a HME and a HH was associated with a reduction in tidal volume (no airway humidification, P ≤ .05; HME alone, P ≤ .01; and HH alone, P ≤ .01) and an increased incidence of airway occlusion (no airway humidification, 0/7; HME alone, 0/7; HH alone, 0/7; and HME and HH in combination, 7/7; P < .0001). The use of a HME and a HH in combination is likely to result in airway occlusion. Precautions should be taken to ensure that both systems are not used together in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel method for deriving the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter based only on measurements from a humidified nephelometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Ye; Zhao, Chunsheng; Tao, Jiangchuan; Bian, Yuxuan; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity is crucial for understanding roles of aerosol particles in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol climate effects. Light-scattering enhancement factor f(RH, λ) is one of the parameters describing aerosol hygroscopicity, which is defined as f(RH, λ) = σsp(RH, λ)/σsp(dry, λ), where σsp(RH, λ) or σsp(dry, λ) represents σsp at wavelength λ under certain relative humidity (RH) or dry conditions. Traditionally, an overall hygroscopicity parameter κ can be retrieved from measured f(RH, λ), hereinafter referred to as κf(RH), by combining concurrently measured particle number size distribution (PNSD) and mass concentration of black carbon. In this paper, a new method is proposed to directly derive κf(RH) based only on measurements from a three-wavelength humidified nephelometer system. The advantage of this newly proposed approach is that κf(RH) can be estimated without any additional information about PNSD and black carbon. This method is verified with measurements from two different field campaigns. Values of κf(RH) estimated from this new method agree very well with those retrieved by using the traditional method: all points lie near the 1 : 1 line and the square of correlation coefficient between them is 0.99. The verification results demonstrate that this newly proposed method of deriving κf(RH) is applicable at different sites and in seasons of the North China Plain and might also be applicable in other regions around the world.

  6. Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and heated humidifiers (HHs) in adult critically ill patients: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Maria; Chiumello, Davide; Sutherasan, Yuda; Ball, Lorenzo; Esquinas, Antonio M; Pelosi, Paolo; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2017-05-29

    The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials are to evaluate the effects of active heated humidifiers (HHs) and moisture exchangers (HMEs) in preventing artificial airway occlusion and pneumonia, and on mortality in adult critically ill patients. In addition, we planned to perform a meta-regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between the incidence of artificial airway occlusion, pneumonia and mortality and clinical features of adult critically ill patients. Computerized databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HHs and HMEs and reporting artificial airway occlusion, pneumonia and mortality as predefined outcomes. Relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval for each outcome and I 2 were estimated for each outcome. Furthermore, weighted random-effect meta-regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between the effect size on each considered outcome and covariates. Eighteen RCTs and 2442 adult critically ill patients were included in the analysis. The incidence of artificial airway occlusion (RR = 1.853; 95% CI 0.792-4.338), pneumonia (RR = 932; 95% CI 0.730-1.190) and mortality (RR = 1.023; 95% CI 0.878-1.192) were not different in patients treated with HMEs and HHs. However, in the subgroup analyses the incidence of airway occlusion was higher in HMEs compared with HHs with non-heated wire (RR = 3.776; 95% CI 1.560-9.143). According to the meta-regression, the effect size in the treatment group on artificial airway occlusion was influenced by the percentage of patients with pneumonia (β = -0.058; p = 0.027; favors HMEs in studies with high prevalence of pneumonia), and a trend was observed for an effect of the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) (β = -0.108; p = 0.054; favors HMEs in studies with longer MV time). In this meta-analysis we found no superiority of HMEs and HHs, in terms of artificial airway occlusion, pneumonia and

  7. Effort of breathing in children receiving high-flow nasal cannula.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Sarah; Ghuman, Anoopindar; Deakers, Timothy; Khemani, Robinder; Ross, Patrick; Newth, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    High-flow humidified nasal cannula is often used to provide noninvasive respiratory support in children. The effect of high-flow humidified nasal cannula on effort of breathing in children has not been objectively studied, and the mechanism by which respiratory support is provided remains unclear. This study uses an objective measure of effort of breathing (Pressure. Rate Product) to evaluate high-flow humidified nasal cannula in critically ill children. Prospective cohort study. Quaternary care free-standing academic children's hospital. ICU patients younger than 18 years receiving high-flow humidified nasal cannula or whom the medical team planned to extubate to high-flow humidified nasal cannula within 72 hours of enrollment. An esophageal pressure monitoring catheter was placed to measure pleural pressures via a Bicore CP-100 pulmonary mechanics monitor. Change in pleural pressure (ΔPes) and respiratory rate were measured on high-flow humidified nasal cannula at 2, 5, and 8 L/min. ΔPes and respiratory rate were multiplied to generate the Pressure.Rate Product, a well-established objective measure of effort of breathing. Baseline Pes, defined as pleural pressure at end exhalation during tidal breathing, reflected the positive pressure generated on each level of respiratory support. Twenty-five patients had measurements on high-flow humidified nasal cannula. Median age was 6.5 months (interquartile range, 1.3-15.5 mo). Median Pressure,Rate Product was lower on high-flow humidified nasal cannula 8 L/min (median, 329 cm H2O·min; interquartile range, 195-402) compared with high-flow humidified nasal cannula 5 L/min (median, 341; interquartile range, 232-475; p = 0.007) or high-flow humidified nasal cannula 2 L/min (median, 421; interquartile range, 233-621; p < 0.0001) and was lower on high-flow humidified nasal cannula 5 L/min compared with high-flow humidified nasal cannula 2 L/min (p = 0.01). Baseline Pes was higher on high-flow humidified nasal

  8. Randomized clinical trial of extended use of a hydrophobic condenser humidifier: 1 vs. 7 days.

    PubMed

    Thomachot, Laurent; Leone, Marc; Razzouk, Karim; Antonini, François; Vialet, Renaud; Martin, Claude

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether extended use (7 days) would affect the efficiency on heat and water preservation of a hydrophobic condenser humidifier as well as the rate of ventilation-acquired pneumonia, compared with 1 day of use. Prospective, controlled, randomized, not blinded, clinical study. Twelve-bed intensive care unit of a university hospital. One hundred and fifty-five consecutive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for > or = 48 hrs. After randomization, patients were allocated to one of the two following groups: a) heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) changed every 24 hrs; b) HMEs changed only once a week. Devices in both groups could be changed at the discretion of the staff when signs of occlusion or increased resistance were identified. Efficient airway humidification and heating were assessed by clinical variables (numbers of tracheal suctionings and instillations required, peak and mean airway pressures). The frequency rates of bronchial colonization and ventilation-acquired pneumonia were evaluated by using clinical and microbiological criteria. Endotracheal tube occlusion, ventilatory support variables, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care, acquired multiorgan dysfunction, and mortality rates also were recorded. The two groups were similar at the time of randomization. Endotracheal tube occlusion never occurred. In the targeted population (patients ventilated for > or = 7 days), the frequency rate of ventilation-acquired pneumonia was 24% in the HME 1-day group and 17% in the HME 7-day group (p > .05, not significant). Ventilation-acquired pneumonia rates per 1000 ventilatory support days were 16.4/1000 in the HME 1-day group and 12.4/1000 in the HME 7-day group (p > .05, not significant). No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups for duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit length of stay, acquired organ system derangements, and mortality rate. There was indirect evidence of

  9. Inhalation Toxicity of Humidifier Disinfectants as a Risk Factor of Children’s Interstitial Lung Disease in Korea: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinho; Lee, Eun; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Park, Ji-Hyuk; Gwack, Jin; Youn, Seung-Ki; Kwon, Jun-Wook; Jun, Byung-Yool; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Lee, Soo-Young; Park, June-Dong; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Lee, Moo-Song; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Jang, Se-Jin; Pyun, Bok-Yang; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Background The occurrence of numerous cases of interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) every spring in Korea starting in 2006 raised suspicion about a causal relationship with the use of humidifier disinfectants (HDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HD use and the risk of chILD. Methods This retrospective, 1∶3 matched case-control study consisted of 16 cases of chILD that had developed between 2010 and 2011. The three groups of parallel controls (patients with acute lobar pneumonia, asthma, and healthy children) were matched by age, gender, and index date. Indoor/outdoor environmental risk factors, including HD use, were investigated by asking the guardians to complete a questionnaire. Results The median age of the affected children (43.8% male) was 26 months (18.25–36.25). The chILD group did not differ significantly from the control groups with respect to socio-demographic and clinical variables. Indoor and outdoor environmental factors were not associated with a risk of chILD. However, the previous use of HDs (OR; 2.73. 95% CI; 1.41–5.90, P = 0.00) were independently associated with an increased risk. Conclusions This study showed that HDs, which are widely used in South Korea in the winter season, independently increased the risk of chILD in spring. Therefore, continuous monitoring and, if needed, changes in policy are essential to prevent and control pediatric diseases caused by toxic chemicals. PMID:23755124

  10. Insights into the distribution of water in a self-humidifying H2/O2 proton-exchange membrane fuel cell using 1H NMR microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feindel, Kirk W; Bergens, Steven H; Wasylishen, Roderick E

    2006-11-01

    Proton ((1)H) NMR microscopy is used to investigate in-situ the distribution of water throughout a self-humidifying proton-exchange membrane fuel cell, PEMFC, operating at ambient temperature and pressure on dry H(2)(g) and O(2)(g). The results provide the first experimental images of the in-plane distribution of water within the PEM of a membrane electrode assembly in an operating fuel cell. The effect of gas flow configuration on the distribution of water in the PEM and cathode flow field is investigated, revealing that the counter-flow configurations yield a more uniform distribution of water throughout the PEM. The maximum power output from the PEMFC, while operating under conditions of constant external load, occurs when H(2)O(l) is first visible in the (1)H NMR image of the cathode flow field, and subsequently declines as this H(2)O(l) continues to accumulate. The (1)H NMR microscopy experiments are in qualitative agreement with predictions from several theoretical modeling studies (e.g., Pasaogullari, U.; Wang, C. Y. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2005, 152, A380-A390), suggesting that combined theoretical and experimental approaches will constitute a powerful tool for PEMFC design, diagnosis, and optimization.

  11. Effect of humidity on posterior lens opacification during fluid-air exchange.

    PubMed

    Harlan, J B; Lee, E T; Jensen, P S; de Juan, E

    1999-06-01

    To study the relationship of humidity and the rate of lens opacity formation during fluid-air exchange using an animal model. Vitrectomy and fluid-air exchange was carried out using 16 eyes of 8 pigmented rabbits. One eye of each rabbit was exposed to dry air and the fellow eye received humidified air using an intraocular air humidifier. In each case, the percent humidity of the intraocular air was measured using an in-line hygrometer. Elapsed time from initial air entry to lens feathering was recorded for each eye, with the surgeon-observer unaware of the percent humidity of the air infusion. In each rabbit, use of humidified air resulted in a delay in lens feathering (P<.02), with an overall increase in time to feathering of 80% for humidified air vs room air. Use of a humidifier during fluid-air exchange prolongs intraoperative lens clarity in the rabbit model, suggesting that humidified air should prolong lens clarity during phakic fluid-air exchange in patients. Use of humidified air during vitrectomy and fluid-air exchange may retard the intraoperative loss of lens clarity, promoting better visualization of the posterior segment and enhancing surgical performance.

  12. Efficiency measurement and uncertainty discussion of an electric engine powered by a ``self-breathing'' and ``self-humidified'' proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavetti, Pierluigi; Del Prete, Zaccaria

    2007-08-01

    The efficiency of an automotive engine based on a "self-breathing" and "self-humidified" proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack (PEM FC) connected to a dc brushless electrical motor was measured under variable power load conditions. Experiments have been carried out on a small scale 150W engine model. After determining the fuel cell static polarization curve and the time response to power steps, the system was driven to copy on the test bench a "standard urban load cycle" and its instantaneous efficiencies were measured at an acquisition rate of 5Hz. The integral system efficiency over the entire urban load cycle, comprising the losses of the unavoidable auxiliary components of the engine, was then calculated. The fuel cell stack was operated mainly in "partial" dead-end mode, with a periodic anode flow channel purging, and one test was carried out in "pure" dead-end mode, with no anode channel purging. An uncertainty analysis of the efficiencies was carried out, taking into account either type A and type B evaluation methods, strengthening the discussion about the outcomes obtained for a system based on this novel simplified FC type. For our small scale engine we measured over the standard urban cycle, on the basis of the H2 high heating value (HHV), a tank-to-wheel integral efficiency of (18.2±0.8)%, when the fuel cell was operated with periodic flow channel purging, and of (21.5±1.3)% in complete dead-end operation mode.

  13. Efficiency measurement and uncertainty discussion of an electric engine powered by a "self-breathing" and "self-humidified" proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Schiavetti, Pierluigi; Del Prete, Zaccaria

    2007-08-01

    The efficiency of an automotive engine based on a "self-breathing" and "self-humidified" proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack (PEM FC) connected to a dc brushless electrical motor was measured under variable power load conditions. Experiments have been carried out on a small scale 150 W engine model. After determining the fuel cell static polarization curve and the time response to power steps, the system was driven to copy on the test bench a "standard urban load cycle" and its instantaneous efficiencies were measured at an acquisition rate of 5 Hz. The integral system efficiency over the entire urban load cycle, comprising the losses of the unavoidable auxiliary components of the engine, was then calculated. The fuel cell stack was operated mainly in "partial" dead-end mode, with a periodic anode flow channel purging, and one test was carried out in "pure" dead-end mode, with no anode channel purging. An uncertainty analysis of the efficiencies was carried out, taking into account either type A and type B evaluation methods, strengthening the discussion about the outcomes obtained for a system based on this novel simplified FC type. For our small scale engine we measured over the standard urban cycle, on the basis of the H(2) high heating value (HHV), a tank-to-wheel integral efficiency of (18.2+/-0.8)%, when the fuel cell was operated with periodic flow channel purging, and of (21.5+/-1.3)% in complete dead-end operation mode.

  14. Comparison of the effects of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers on ventilation and gas exchange during non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Samir; Chanques, Gérald; Matecki, Stefan; Ramonatxo, Michèle; Souche, Bruno; Perrigault, Pierre-François; Eledjam, Jean-Jacques

    2002-11-01

    To compare the short-term effects of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) and a heated humidifier (HH) during non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Prospective, clinical investigation. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twenty-four patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Each patient was studied with a HME and a HH in a random order during two consecutive 20min periods of NIV. Respiratory rate (RR), expiratory tidal volume (VTe) and expiratory minute ventilation (VE) were measured during the last 5 min of each period and blood gases were measured. Mean pressure support and positive end-expiratory pressure levels were, respectively, 15+/-4 and 6+/-2 cmH(2)O. VE was significantly greater with HME than with HH (14.8+/-4.8 vs 13.2+/-4.3 l/min; p<0.001). This increase in VE was the result of a greater RR for HME than for HH (26.5+/-10.6 vs 24.1+/-9.8 breaths/min; p=0.002), whereas the VT for HME was similar to that for HH (674+/-156 vs 643+/-148 ml; p=0.09). Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) was significantly higher with a HME than with a HH (43.4+/-8.9 vs 40.8+/-8.2 mmHg; p<0.005), without significantly changing oxygenation. During NIV the increased dead space of a HME can negatively affect ventilatory function and gas exchange. The effect of HME dead space may decrease efficiency of NIV in patients with ARF.

  15. Increased visceral tissue perfusion with heated, humidified carbon dioxide insufflation during open abdominal surgery in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Robson, Jonathan P; Kokhanenko, Pavlo; Marshall, Jean K; Phillips, Anthony R; van der Linden, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Tissue perfusion during surgery is important in reducing surgical site infections and promoting healing. This study aimed to determine if insufflation of the open abdomen with heated, humidified (HH) carbon dioxide (CO2) increased visceral tissue perfusion and core body temperature during open abdominal surgery in a rodent model. Using two different rodent models of open abdominal surgery, visceral perfusion and core temperature were measured. Visceral perfusion was investigated using a repeated measures crossover experiment with rodents receiving the same sequence of two alternating treatments: exposure to ambient air (no insufflation) and insufflation with HH CO2. Core body temperature was measured using an independent experimental design with three treatment groups: ambient air, HH CO2 and cold, dry (CD) CO2. Visceral perfusion was measured by laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) and core body temperature was measured with a rectal thermometer. Insufflation with HH CO2 into a rodent open abdominal cavity significantly increased visceral tissue perfusion (2.4 perfusion units (PU)/min (95% CI 1.23-3.58); p<0.0001) compared with ambient air, which significantly reduced visceral blood flow (-5.20 PU/min (95% CI -6.83- -3.58); p<0.0001). Insufflation of HH CO2 into the open abdominal cavity significantly increased core body temperature (+1.15 ± 0.14°C) compared with open cavities exposed to ambient air (-0.65 ± 0.52°C; p = 0.037), or cavities insufflated with CD CO2 (-0.73 ± 0.33°C; p = 0.006). Abdominal visceral temperatures also increased with HH CO2 insufflation compared with ambient air or CD CO2, as shown by infrared thermography. This study reports for the first time the use of LASCA to measure visceral perfusion in open abdominal surgery and shows that insufflation of open abdominal cavities with HH CO2 significantly increases visceral tissue perfusion and core body temperature.

  16. [Airway humidification practices in Chilean intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Retamal, Jaime; Castillo, Juan; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2012-11-01

    In patients with an artificial airway, inspired gases can be humidified and heated using a passive (heat and moisture exchange filter - HMEF), or an active system (heated humidifier). To assess how humidification is carried out and what is the usual clinical practice in this field in Chilean intensive care units (ICUs). A specific survey to evaluate humidification system features as well as caregivers' preferences regarding humidification systems, was carried out on the same day in all Chilean ICUs. Fifty-five ICUs were contacted and 44 of them completed the survey. From a total of 367 patients, 254 (69%) required humidification because they were breathing through an artificial airway. A heated humidifier was employed only in 12 patients (5%). Forty-three ICUs (98%) used HMEF as their routine humidification system. In 52% of surveyed ICUs, heated humidifiers were not available. In Chile the main method to humidify and heat inspired gases in patients with an artificial airway is the HMEF. Although there are clear indications for the use of heated humidifiers, they are seldom employed.

  17. High-Flow, Heated, Humidified Air Via Nasal Cannula Treats CPAP-Intolerant Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stephen; Huston, Stephanie; Campbell, Kristen; Halbower, Ann

    2017-01-01

    -flow, heated, humidified air via nasal cannula treats CPAP-intolerant children with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(8):981–989. PMID:28728621

  18. Assessing Inhalation Exposures Associated with Contamination Events in Water Distribution Systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Davis, Michael J.; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas N.

    When a water distribution system (WDS) is contaminated, short-term inhalation exposures to airborne contaminants could occur as the result of domestic water use. The most important domestic sources of such exposures are likely to be showering and the use of aerosol-producing humidifiers, i.e., ultrasonic and impeller (cool-mist) units. A framework is presented for assessing the potential effects of short-term, system-wide inhalation exposures that could result from such activities during a contamination event. This framework utilizes available statistical models for showering frequency and duration, available exposure models for showering and humidifier use, and experimental results on both aerosol generation and themore » volatilization of chemicals during showering. New models for the times when showering occurs are developed using time-use data for the United States. Given a lack of similar models for how humidifiers are used, or the information needed to develop them, an analysis of the sensitivity of results to assumptions concerning humidifier use is presented. The framework is applied using network models for three actual WDSs. Simple models are developed for estimating upper bounds on the potential effects of system-wide inhalation exposures associated with showering and humidifier use. From a system-wide, population perspective, showering could result in significant inhalation doses of volatile chemical contaminants, and humidifier use could result in significant inhalation doses of microbial contaminants during a contamination event. From a system-wide perspective, showering is unlikely to be associated with significant doses of microbial contaminants. In conclusion, given the potential importance of humidifiers as a source of airborne contaminants during a contamination event, an improved understanding of the nature of humidifier use is warranted.« less

  19. Assessing Inhalation Exposures Associated with Contamination Events in Water Distribution Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, Michael J.; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas N.

    2016-12-08

    When a water distribution system (WDS) is contaminated, short-term inhalation exposures to airborne contaminants could occur as the result of domestic water use. The most important domestic sources of such exposures are likely to be showering and the use of aerosol-producing humidifiers, i.e., ultrasonic and impeller (cool-mist) units. A framework is presented for assessing the potential effects of short-term, system-wide inhalation exposures that could result from such activities during a contamination event. This framework utilizes available statistical models for showering frequency and duration, available exposure models for showering and humidifier use, and experimental results on both aerosol generation and themore » volatilization of chemicals during showering. New models for the times when showering occurs are developed using time-use data for the United States. Given a lack of similar models for how humidifiers are used, or the information needed to develop them, an analysis of the sensitivity of results to assumptions concerning humidifier use is presented. The framework is applied using network models for three actual WDSs. Simple models are developed for estimating upper bounds on the potential effects of system-wide inhalation exposures associated with showering and humidifier use. From a system-wide, population perspective, showering could result in significant inhalation doses of volatile chemical contaminants, and humidifier use could result in significant inhalation doses of microbial contaminants during a contamination event. From a system-wide perspective, showering is unlikely to be associated with significant doses of microbial contaminants. In conclusion, given the potential importance of humidifiers as a source of airborne contaminants during a contamination event, an improved understanding of the nature of humidifier use is warranted.« less

  20. Assessing Inhalation Exposures Associated with Contamination Events in Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael J.; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    When a water distribution system (WDS) is contaminated, short-term inhalation exposures to airborne contaminants could occur as the result of domestic water use. The most important domestic sources of such exposures are likely to be showering and the use of aerosol-producing humidifiers, i.e., ultrasonic and impeller (cool-mist) units. A framework is presented for assessing the potential effects of short-term, system-wide inhalation exposures that could result from such activities during a contamination event. This framework utilizes available statistical models for showering frequency and duration, available exposure models for showering and humidifier use, and experimental results on both aerosol generation and the volatilization of chemicals during showering. New models for the times when showering occurs are developed using time-use data for the United States. Given a lack of similar models for how humidifiers are used, or the information needed to develop them, an analysis of the sensitivity of results to assumptions concerning humidifier use is presented. The framework is applied using network models for three actual WDSs. Simple models are developed for estimating upper bounds on the potential effects of system-wide inhalation exposures associated with showering and humidifier use. From a system-wide, population perspective, showering could result in significant inhalation doses of volatile chemical contaminants, and humidifier use could result in significant inhalation doses of microbial contaminants during a contamination event. From a system-wide perspective, showering is unlikely to be associated with significant doses of microbial contaminants. Given the potential importance of humidifiers as a source of airborne contaminants during a contamination event, an improved understanding of the nature of humidifier use is warranted. PMID:27930709

  1. Effectiveness of Humidification with Heat and Moisture Exchanger-booster in Tracheostomized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Isabel; Jimenez, Pilar; Valdivia, Jorge; Esquinas, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: The two most commonly used types of humidifiers are heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchange humidifiers. Heated humidifiers provide adequate temperature and humidity without affecting the respiratory pattern, but overdose can cause high temperatures and humidity resulting in condensation, which increases the risk of bacteria in the circuit. These devices are expensive. Heat and moisture exchanger filter is a new concept of humidification, increasing the moisture content in inspired gases. Aims: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the heat and moisture exchanger (HME)-Booster system to humidify inspired air in patients under mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the humidification provided by 10 HME-Booster for tracheostomized patients under mechanical ventilation using Servo I respirators, belonging to the Maquet company and Evita 4. Results: There was an increase in the inspired air humidity after 1 h with the humidifier. Conclusion: The HME-Booster combines the advantages of heat and moisture exchange minimizing the negatives. It increases the amount of moisture in inspired gas in mechanically ventilated tracheostomized patients. It is easy and safe to use. The type of ventilator used has no influence on the result. PMID:28904484

  2. Effectiveness of Humidification with Heat and Moisture Exchanger-booster in Tracheostomized Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Isabel; Jimenez, Pilar; Valdivia, Jorge; Esquinas, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    The two most commonly used types of humidifiers are heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchange humidifiers. Heated humidifiers provide adequate temperature and humidity without affecting the respiratory pattern, but overdose can cause high temperatures and humidity resulting in condensation, which increases the risk of bacteria in the circuit. These devices are expensive. Heat and moisture exchanger filter is a new concept of humidification, increasing the moisture content in inspired gases. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the heat and moisture exchanger (HME)-Booster system to humidify inspired air in patients under mechanical ventilation. We evaluated the humidification provided by 10 HME-Booster for tracheostomized patients under mechanical ventilation using Servo I respirators, belonging to the Maquet company and Evita 4. There was an increase in the inspired air humidity after 1 h with the humidifier. The HME-Booster combines the advantages of heat and moisture exchange minimizing the negatives. It increases the amount of moisture in inspired gas in mechanically ventilated tracheostomized patients. It is easy and safe to use. The type of ventilator used has no influence on the result.

  3. PubMed Central

    Costa, G.B.; Facciolà, A.; Conti, A.; Riso, R.; Squeri, R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Nosocomial pneumonia accounts for the vast majority of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Although numerous medical devices have been discussed as potential vehicles for microorganisms, very little is known about the role played by oxygen humidifiers as potential sources of nosocomial pathogens. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the safety of the reuse of humidifiers by analysing the rate of microbial contamination in reusable and disposable oxygen humidifiers used during therapy, and then discuss their potential role in the transmission of respiratory pathogens. Methods. Water samples from reusable and disposable oxygen humidifiers were collected from different wards of the University Hospital of Messina, Italy, where nosocomial pneumonia has a higher incidence rate due to the "critical" clinical conditions of inpatients. In particular, we monitored the Internal Medicine and Pulmonology wards for the medical area; the General Surgery and Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery wards for the surgical area and the Intensive Care Unit and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for the emergency area. The samples were always collected after a period of 5 days from initial use for both types of humidifiers. Samples were processed using standard bacteriological techniques and microbial colonies were identified using manual and automated methods. Results. High rates of microbial contamination were observed in samples from reusable oxygen humidifiers employed in medical (83%), surgical (77%) and emergency (50%) areas. The most relevant pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, amongst the Gram-negative bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus, amongst the Gram-positive bacteria. Other pathogens were detected in lower percentage. The disposable oxygen humidifier samples showed no contamination. Conclusions. This research presents evidence of the high rate and type of microbial contamination of reusable humidifiers employed for oxygen therapy. These devices

  4. Estimation of Organic Vapor Breakthrough in Humidified Activated Carbon Beds: -Application of Wheeler-Jonas Equation, NIOSH MultiVapor™ and RBT (Relative Breakthrough Time)

    PubMed Central

    Abiko, Hironobu; Furuse, Mitsuya; Takano, Tsuguo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the use of activated carbon beds as adsorbents for various types of organic vapor in respirator gas filters, water adsorption of the bed and test gas humidity are expected to alter the accuracy in the estimation of breakthrough data. There is increasing interest in the effects of moisture on estimation methods, and this study has investigated the effects with actual breakthrough data. Methods: We prepared several activated carbon beds preconditioned by equilibration with moisture at different relative humidities (RH=40%-70%) and a constant temperature of 20°C. Then, we measured breakthrough curves in the early region of breakthrough time for 10 types of organic vapor, and investigated the effects of moisture on estimation using the Wheeler-Jonas equation, the simulation software NIOSH MultiVapor™ 2.2.3, and RBT (Relative Breakthrough Time) proposed by Tanaka et al. Results: The Wheeler-Jonas equation showed good accordance with breakthrough curves at all RH in this study. However, the correlation coefficient decreased gradually with increasing RH regardless of type of organic vapor. Estimation of breakthrough time by MultiVapor showed good accordance with experimental data at RH=50%. In contrast, it showed discordance at high RH (>50%). RBTs reported previously were consistent with experimental data at RH=50%. On the other hand, the values of RBT changed markedly with increasing RH. Conclusions: The results of each estimation method showed good accordance with experimental data under comparatively dry conditions (RH≤50%). However, there were discrepancies under high humidified conditions, and further studies are warranted. PMID:27725483

  5. Humidification and perceived indoor air quality in the office environment.

    PubMed Central

    Reinikainen, L M; Aunela-Tapola, L; Jaakkola, J J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of humidification on the odour, acceptability, and stuffiness of indoor air. METHODS: In a six period cross over trial at the Pasila Office Center, Helsinki, the air of two wings of the building in turn were ventilated with air of 30%-40% humidity. A third wing served as a non-humidified control area. The quality of indoor air was assessed weekly by a panel containing 18 to 23 members. The intraindividual differences in the ratings for odour, stuffiness, and acceptability between humidified and non-humidified wings were used to assess the effect of humidification. The roles of sex, current smoking, and age as potential effect modifiers were assessed by comparing the mean intraindividual differences in ratings between the groups. RESULTS: Humidified air was found to be more odorous and stuffy (paired t test P = 0.0001) and less acceptable than the non-humidified air (McNemar's test P < 0.001). The differences in odour and stuffiness between humidified and non-humidified air were greater for women and for non-smokers, and greatest differences were in the youngest age group, and least in the oldest age group. The differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: An untrained panel of 20 members is able to differentiate a slight malodour and stuffiness in indoor air. The results suggest that steam air humidification decreases the perceived air quality. This effect is strongest in women and young subjects. PMID:9196454

  6. Determination of airway humidification in high-frequency oscillatory ventilation using an artificial neonatal lung model. Comparison of a heated humidifier and a heat and moisture exchanger.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, H; Singer, S; Singer, D; von Richthofen, E; Rathgeber, J; Züchner, K

    1999-09-01

    Thus far only few data are available on airway humidification during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Therefore, we studied the performance and efficiency of a heated humidifier (HH) and a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) in HFOV using an artificial lung model. Experiments were performed with a pediatric high-frequency oscillatory ventilator. The artificial lung contained a sponge saturated with water to simulate evaporation and was placed in an incubator heated to 37 degrees C to prevent condensation. The airway humidity was measured using a capacitive humidity sensor. The water loss of the lung model was determined gravimetrically. The water loss of the lung model varied between 2.14 and 3.1 g/h during active humidification; it was 2.85 g/h with passive humidification and 7.56 g/h without humidification. The humidity at the tube connector varied between 34. 2 and 42.5 mg/l, depending on the temperature of the HH and the ventilator setting during active humidification, and between 37 and 39.9 mg/l with passive humidification. In general, HH and HME are suitable devices for airway humidification in HFOV. The performance of the ventilator was not significantly influenced by the mode of humidification. However, the adequacy of humidification and safety of the HME remains to be demonstrated in clinical practice.

  7. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by misting fountains.

    PubMed

    Koschel, Dirk; Stark, Wolfram; Karmann, Fritz; Sennekamp, Jochen; Müller-Wening, Dietrich

    2005-08-01

    Recently, an increasing number of patients were presented to our clinics with febrile and respiratory symptoms associated with exposure to a new type of domestic ultrasonic humidifier. We report on 11 patients who developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to ultrasonic misting fountains at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or toxic alveolitis was made on the basis of the history and the clinical, radiological, laboratory and immunological findings. Eight patients were subjected to inhalative challenge tests with their own ultrasonic misting fountains, and all of them exhibited positive reactions. Nine patients were diagnosed with an EAA (humidifier lung) and two patients with a toxic alveolitis (humidifier fever). This study demonstrates the potential for ultrasonic misting fountains to cause illness in the home. In view of the increasing popularity of these devices, humidifier lung and humidifier fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained pulmonary or flu-like illnesses with fever.

  8. Older Consumers Safety Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... pollutants in your home. Care of Room Humidifiers Dirty room humidifiers may cause health problems. Electrocution Hazard ... in Your Home in Spanish Recipe for Safer Cooking Stay in the kitchen when cooking. Unattended cooking ...

  9. Ventilator-associated pneumonia using a heated humidifier or a heat and moisture exchanger: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN88724583

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Mora, María L; Sierra, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Some guidelines to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) do not establish a recommendation for the preferential use of either heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) or heated humidifiers (HHs), while other guidelines clearly advocate the use of HMEs. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of VAP associated with HHs or HMEs. Methods A randomized study was conducted in the intensive care unit of a university hospital involving patients expected to require mechanical ventilation for >5 days. Patients were assigned to two groups; one group received HH and the other group received HME. Tracheal aspirate samples were obtained on endotracheal intubation, then twice a week, and finally on extubation, in order to diagnose VAP. Throat swabs were taken on admission to the intensive care unit, then twice a week, and finally at discharge from the intensive care unit in order to classify VAP as primary endogenous, secondary endogenous, or exogenous. Results A total of 120 patients were assigned to HMEs (60 patients) and HHs (60 patients); 16 patients received mechanical ventilation for less than five days and were excluded from the analysis. Data analysis of the remaining 104 patients (53 HMEs and 51 HHs) showed no significant differences between groups regarding sex, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, pre-VAP use of antibiotics, days on mechanical ventilation, and diagnosis group. VAP was found in eight of 51 (15.69%) patients in the HH group and in 21 of 53 (39.62%) patients in the HME group (P = 0.006). The median time free of VAP was 20 days (95% confidence interval, 13.34–26.66) for the HH group and was 42 days (95% confidence interval, 35.62–48.37) for the HME group (P <0.001). Cox regression analysis showed the HME as a risk factor for VAP (hazard rate, 16.2; 95% confidence interval, 4.54–58.04; P < 0.001). Conclusion The patients mechanically ventilated for more than five days developed a lower incidence of

  10. Heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Effects on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Morán, Indalecio; Bellapart, Judith; Vari, Alessandra; Mancebo, Jordi

    2006-04-01

    To compare, in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) patients, the short-term effects of heat and moisture exchangers (HME) and heated humidifiers (HH) on gas exchange, and also on respiratory system mechanics when isocapnic conditions are met. Prospective open clinical study. Intensive Care Service. Seventeen invasively ventilated ALI/ARDS patients. The study was performed in three phases: (1) determinations were made during basal ventilatory settings with HME; (2) basal ventilatory settings were maintained and HME was replaced by an HH; (3) using the same HH, tidal volume (Vt) was decreased until basal PaCO2 levels were reached. FiO2, respiratory rate and PEEP were kept unchanged. Respiratory mechanics, Vdphys, gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters were obtained at each phase. By using HH instead of HME and without changing Vt, PaCO2 decreased from 46+/-9 to 40+/-8 mmHg (p<0.001) and Vdphys decreased from 352+/-63 to 310+/-74 ml (p<0.001). Comparing the first phase with the third, Vt decreased from 521+/-106 to 440+/-118 ml (p<0.001) without significant changes in PaCO2, Vd/Vt decreased from 0.69+/-0.11 to 0.62+/-0.12 (p<0.001), plateau airway pressure decreased from 25+/-6 to 21+/-6 cmH2O (p<0.001) and respiratory system compliance improved from 35+/-12 to 42+/-15 ml/cmH2O (p<0.001). PaO2 remained unchanged in the three phases. Reducing dead space with the use of HH decreases PaCO2 and more importantly, if isocapnic conditions are maintained by reducing Vt, this strategy improves respiratory system compliance and reduces plateau airway pressure.

  11. [Impact of canopy structural characteristics on inner air temperature and relative humidity of Koelreuteria paniculata community in summer].

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhong; Li, Zhan-dong; Cheng, Fang-yun; Sha, Hai-feng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of the correlations between the cooling and humidifying effects and canopy structural characteristics of the Koelreuteria paniculata community, the measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, canopy density, leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf angle (MLA) were performed on calm sunny summer days in the community in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, China. There were significant correlations between the canopy density, LAI and MLA, which affected the cooling and humidifying effects together. The cooling effect reached its maximum by 12:00, whereas the humidifying effect reached its peak at 10:00. Compared with the control open space site, the community appeared to lower the air temperature by 0.43 to 7.53 °C and to increase the relative humidity by 1%-22% during the daytime. However, the cooling and humidifying effects seem to be not effective during the night. The canopy density and LAI were better for determining the cooling and humidifying effects from 9:00 to 12:00. However, these effects were largely controlled only by the canopy density from 12:00 to 14:00 and were significantly correlated with the canopy density and LAI afterwards until 18:00.

  12. Genotoxicity Assessment of Chlorotrifluoroethylene Tetramer Acid using a Battery of In Vitro and In Vivo/In Vitro Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Laboratory cultures were maintained as monolayers at 37 ± 1.5 0 C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5 ± 1.5% CO2 and were periodically checked for...flask, allowed to attach overnight (16 to 18 h), and exposed to the test or control article for 4 h at 37 t 1.5 0 C in a humidified atmosphere ...cultures were treated with test or control material for 4 h at 37 t 1.5 0 C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2. After treatment, the cell monolayers

  13. Release of silver from nanotechnology-based consumer products for children

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the potential for children’s exposure to bioavailable silver during the realistic use of selected nanotechnology-based consumer products (plush toy, fabric products, breast milk storage bags, sippy cups, cleaning products, humidifiers, and humidifier accessory). We me...

  14. Independent testing of the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR860 Laparoscopic Humidification System.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Kahokehr, Arman; Hill, Andrew G

    2010-08-01

    In laparoscopic surgery CO2 is commonly insufflated at room temperature, with a relative humidity approaching 0%. There has been an increase in utilization of devices to warm and humidify the insufflated gas to avoid potential detrimental effects caused by desiccation. Available data on the performance of these devices are limited. We aimed to conduct independent testing of the Fisher & Paykel MR860 Laparoscopic Humidification System at variable flow rates. A 2.5l insulated chamber was constructed and a digital thermo-hygrometer placed inside it. The humidifier water vessel was weighed and exactly 30.0g of water poured in. 50.0L of CO2 was insufflated into the chamber via the humidifier at 2.0L/min, 4.0l/min, 6.0l/min, 8.0l/min, and 10l/min using a laparoscopic insufflator. Measurements of temperature and humidity in the chamber were taken at 30 second intervals. After 50.0l of gas was insufflated the water left in the humidifier was weighed, and this was used to calculate the mean absolute humidity of the insufflated gas by the gravimetric method. At every flow rate, > 98.0% relative humidity was achieved in the chamber after less than 30 seconds of insufflation. Using the gravimetric estimate, the humidifier was able to saturate 50.0l of CO2 to close to saturation humidity at every flow rate tested. The Fisher & Paykel MR860 Laparoscopic Humidification System effectively humidifies insufflated CO2 at a range of flow rates commonly used in the surgical setting.

  15. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  16. Airway humidification during high-frequency percussive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Allan, Patrick F; Hollingsworth, Michael J; Maniere, Gordon C; Rakofsky, Anthony K; Chung, Kevin K; Naworol, Gregory A; Ward, John A; Perello, Michelle; Morris, Michael J

    2009-03-01

    We were concerned about the risk of inadequate humidification during high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV). We studied 5 humidifiers during HFPV with a lung model, at bias gas flows of 10 L/min, 30 L/min, and 50 L/min, and compared the results to those from a comparator ventilator/humidifier setup and to the minimum temperature (30 degrees C) and humidity (30 mg/L) [corrected] recommended by the American Association for Respiratory Care, at both regular room temperature and a high ambient temperature. Temperature was measured at the humidifier outflow point and at the artificial carina. Humidity was measured at the artificial carina. Of the 7 HFPV/humidifier combinations, 2 (the MR850 at a bias flow of 50 L/min, and the ConchaTherm Hi-Flow with VDR nebulizer) provided a carinal temperature equivalent to the comparator setup at room temperature, whereas one HFPV/humidifier combination (the ConchaTherm Hi-Flow with modified programming, at bias flows of 30 L/min and 50 L/min) provided a higher carinal temperature. At high ambient temperature, all of the setups delivered lower carinal temperature than the comparator setup. Only 2 setups (the ConchaTherm with modified programming at a bias flow of 50 L/min, and the ConchaTherm Hi-Flow with VDR nebulizer) provided carinal humidification equivalent to the comparator setup, without regard to ambient temperature; the other humidifiers were less effective. The ConchaTherm with modified programming, and the ConchaTherm with the VDR nebulizer provided the most consistent humidification. HFPV's distinctive gas-flow mechanism may impair gas heating and humidification, so all humidification systems should be tested with HFPV prior to clinical use.

  17. Under-humidification and over-humidification during moderate induced hypothermia with usual devices.

    PubMed

    Lellouche, François; Qader, Siham; Taille, Solenne; Lyazidi, Aissam; Brochard, Laurent

    2006-07-01

    In mechanically ventilated patients with induced hypothermia, the efficacy of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers to adequately humidify the airway is poorly known. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of different humidification devices during moderate hypothermia. Prospective, cross-over randomized study. Medical Intensive Care Unit in a University Hospital. Nine adult patients hospitalized after cardiac arrest in whom moderate hypothermia was induced (33 degrees C for 24[Symbol: see text]h). Patients were ventilated at admission (period designated "normothermia") with a heat and moisture exchanger, and were randomly ventilated during hypothermia with a heat and moisture exchanger, a heated humidifier, and an active heat and moisture exchanger. Core temperature, inspired and expired gas absolute and relative humidity were measured. Each system demonstrated limitations in its ability to humidify gases in the specific situation of hypothermia. Performances of heat and moisture exchangers were closely correlated to core temperature (r (2)[Symbol: see text]=[Symbol: see text]0.84). During hypothermia, heat and moisture exchangers led to major under-humidification, with absolute humidity below 25[Symbol: see text]mgH(2)O/l. The active heat and moisture exchanger slightly improved humidification. Heated humidifiers were mostly adequate but led to over-humidification in some patients, with inspiratory absolute humidity higher than maximal water content at 33 degrees C with a positive balance between inspiratory and expiratory water content. These results suggest that in the case of moderate hypothermia, heat and moisture exchangers should be used cautiously and that heated humidifiers may lead to over-humidification with the currently recommended settings.

  18. Influence of fine water droplets to temperature and humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Hamzah, A.; Manaf, M. Z. A.; Saadun, M. N. A.; Zakaria, M. S.; Roslizar, A.; Jumaidin, R.

    2015-05-01

    Excessively dry air can cause dry skin, dry eyes and exacerbation of medical conditions. Therefore, many researches have been done in order to increase humidity in our environment. One of the ways is by using water droplets. Nowadays, it is well known in market stand fan equipped with water mister in order to increase the humidity of certain area. In this study, the same concept is applied to the ceiling fan. This study uses a model that combines a humidifier which functions as cooler, ceiling fan and scaled down model of house. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ceiling fan humidifier to the temperature and humidity in a house. The mechanism of this small model uses batteries as the power source, connected to the fan and the humidifier. The small water tank's function is to store and supply water to the humidifier. The humidifier is used to cool the room by changing water phase to fine water droplets. Fine water droplets are created from mechanism of the humidifier, which is by increasing the kinetic energy of water molecule using high frequency vibration that overcome the holding force between water molecules. Thus, the molecule of water will change to state of gas or mist. The fan is used to spread out the mist of water to surrounding of the room in order to enhance the humidity. Thermocouple and humidity meter are used to measure temperature and humidity in some period of times. The result shows that humidity increases and temperature decreases with time. This application of water droplet can be applied in the vehicles and engine in order to decrease the temperature.

  19. Quantifying Aerosol Delivery in Simulated Spontaneously Breathing Patients With Tracheostomy Using Different Humidification Systems With or Without Exhaled Humidity.

    PubMed

    Ari, Arzu; Harwood, Robert; Sheard, Meryl; Alquaimi, Maher Mubarak; Alhamad, Bshayer; Fink, James B

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol and humidification therapy are used in long-term airway management of critically ill patients with a tracheostomy. The purpose of this study was to determine delivery efficiency of jet and mesh nebulizers combined with different humidification systems in a model of a spontaneously breathing tracheotomized adult with or without exhaled heated humidity. An in vitro model was constructed to simulate a spontaneously breathing adult (tidal volume, 400 mL; breathing frequency, 20 breaths/min; inspiratory-expiratory ratio, 1:2) with a tracheostomy using a teaching manikin attached to a test lung through a collecting filter (Vital Signs Respirgard II). Exhaled heat and humidity were simulated using a cascade humidifier set to deliver 37°C and >95% relative humidity. Albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered with a jet nebulizer (AirLife Misty Max) operated at 10 L/min and a mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Solo) using a heated pass-over humidifier, unheated large volume humidifier both at 40 L/min output and heat-and-moisture exchanger. Inhaled drug eluted from the filter was analyzed via spectrophotometry (276 nm). Delivery efficiency of the jet nebulizer was less than that of the mesh nebulizer under all conditions (P < .05). Aerosol delivery with each nebulizer was greatest on room air and lowest when heated humidifiers with higher flows were used. Exhaled humidity decreased drug delivery up to 44%. The jet nebulizer was less efficient than the mesh nebulizer in all conditions tested in this study. Aerosol deposition with each nebulizer was lowest with the heated humidifier with high flow. Exhaled humidity reduced inhaled dose of drug compared with a standard model with nonheated/nonhumidified exhalation. Further clinical research is warranted to understand the impact of exhaled humidity on aerosol drug delivery in spontaneously breathing patients with tracheostomy using different types of humidifiers. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. 40 CFR 1065.309 - Continuous gas analyzer system-response and updating-recording verification-for gas analyzers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... discrete-mode testing. For this check we consider water vapor a gaseous constituent. This verification does... for water removed from the sample done in post-processing according to § 1065.659 (40 CFR 1066.620 for... contains water. You must humidify NO2 span gas with another moist gas stream. We recommend humidifying your...

  1. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Is it a route for infection in those with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea?

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca, Liam; Pullicino, Richard; Camilleri, Kyra; Abela, Rodianne; Mangion, Sean Apap; Cassar, Julian; Zammit, Matthew; Gatt, Christine; Deguara, Christopher; Barbara, Christopher; Fsadni, Peter; Montefort, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), with limited data about the prevalence of respiratory infections and microbial colonization in these patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if CPAP use is associated with respiratory infections and to identify the organisms that colonize or infect these patients. Method A retrospective, case-controlled study in patients diagnosed with OSA was carried out. 137 patients were recruited and interviewed using a questionnaire. A nasal swab was taken from each patient. Patients using CPAP machines had swabs taken from masks and humidifiers. Results 66 (48.2%) patients received CPAP treatment with 60.6% of them having a heated humidifier. 78.8% were male, with the majority using a full face mask (63.6%). No significant difference was seen in the prevalence of rhinosinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections and hospital admissions for pneumonia between CPAP and non-CPAP treated patients. The presence of a humidifier did not influence the prevalence of infections. Commensal flora was predominantly cultured from nasal swabs from both patient groups. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and Diphtheroids were the main organisms cultured from masks and humidifiers respectively. Conclusions This study shows that the use of CPAP, choice of mask and humidifier have no significant impact on the prevalence of infections and micro-organisms isolated. This is very reassuring to the physician prescribing CPAP therapy and users. PMID:28966735

  2. Effect of tubing condensate on non-invasive positive pressure ventilators tested under simulated clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hart, Diana Elizabeth; Forman, Mark; Veale, Andrew G

    2011-09-01

    Water condensate in the humidifier tubing can affect bi-level ventilation by narrowing tube diameter and increasing airflow resistance. We investigated room temperature and tubing type as ways to reduce condensate and its effect on bi-level triggering and pressure delivery. In this bench study, the aim was to test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between room temperature and tubing condensate. Using a patient simulator, a Res-med bi-level device was set to 18/8 cm H(2)O and run for 6 h at room temperatures of 16°C, 18°C and 20°C. The built-in humidifier was set to a low, medium or high setting while using unheated or insulated tubing or replaced with a humidifier using heated tubing. Humidifier output, condensate, mask pressure and triggering delay of the bi-level were measured at 1 and 6 h using an infrared hygrometer, metric weights, Honeywell pressure transducer and TSI pneumotach. When humidity output exceeded 17.5 mg H(2)O/L, inspiratory pressure fell by 2-15 cm H(2)O and triggering was delayed by 0.2-0.9 s. Heating the tubing avoided any such ventilatory effect whereas warmer room temperatures or insulating the tubing were of marginal benefit. Users of bi-level ventilators need to be aware of this problem and its solution. Bi-level humidifier tubing may need to be heated to ensure correct humidification, pressure delivery and triggering.

  3. Improved outcomes for lap-banding using the Insuflow device compared with heated-only gas.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Richard; Wong, Alvin; Nguyen, Hoang

    2009-01-01

    Preconditioning gas by humidification and warming the pneumoperitoneum improves laparoscopic outcomes. This prevents peritoneal desiccation and detrimental events related to traditional cold-dry gas. Few comparisons have been done comparing traditional cold-dry, heated-only, and humidified-warmed carbon dioxide. A prospective, controlled, randomized, double-blind study of laparoscopic gastric banding included 113 patients and compared traditional dry-cold (n=35) versus dry-heated (n=40), versus humidified-warm gas (n=38). Pain medications were standardized for all groups. Endpoints were recovery room length of stay, pain location, pain intensity, and total pain medications used postoperatively for up to 10 days. The humidified-warmed group had statistically significant differences from the other 2 groups with improvement in all end points. The dry-heated group had significantly more pain medication use and increased shoulder and chest pain than the other 2 groups had. Using warm-humidified gas for laparoscopic gastric banding reduces shoulder pain, shortens recovery room length of stay, and decreases pain medication requirements for up to 10 days postoperatively. Dry-heated gas may cause additional complications as is indicated by the increase in pain medication use and pain intensity.

  4. Respiratory gas conditioning in infants with an artificial airway.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Andreas

    2002-10-01

    There is a strong physiological rationale for delivering the inspiratory gas at or close to core body temperature and saturated with water vapour to infants with an artificial airway undergoing long-term mechanical ventilatory assistance. Cascade humidifiers with heated wire ventilatory circuitry may achieve this goal safely. Whenever saturated air leaves the humidifier chamber at 37 degrees C and condensate accumulates in the circuit, the gas loses humidity and acquires the potential to dry airway secretions near the tip of the endotracheal tube. Heat and moisture exchangers and hygroscopic condenser humidifiers with or without bacterial filters have become available for neonates. They can provide sufficient moisture output for short-term ventilation without excessive additional dead space or flow-resistive load for term infants. Their safety and efficacy for very low birthweight infants and for long-term mechanical ventilation has not been established conclusively. A broader application of these inexpensive and simple devices is likely to occur with further design improvements. When heated humidifiers are appropriately applied, water or normal saline aerosol application offers no additional significant advantage in terms of inspiratory gas conditioning and may impose a water overload on the airway or even systemically. Although airway irrigation by periodic bolus instillation of normal saline solution prior to suctioning procedures is widely practised in neonatology, virtually no data exist on its safety and efficacy when used with appropriately humidified inspired gas. There is no evidence that conditioning of inspired gas to core body temperature and full water vapour saturation may promote nosocomial respiratory infections.

  5. Perception of cabin air quality in airline crew related to air humidification, on intercontinental flights.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, T; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G

    2007-06-01

    The influence of air humidification in aircraft, on perception of cabin air quality among airline crew (N = 71) was investigated. In-flight investigations were performed in the forward part and in the aft part on eight intercontinental flights with one Boeing 767 individually, equipped with an evaporation humidifier combined with a dehumidifying unit, to reduce accumulation of condensed water in the wall construction. Four flights had the air humidification active when going out, and turned off on the return flight. The four others had the inverse humidification sequence. The sequences were randomized, and double blind. Air humidification increased relative air humidity (RH) by 10% in forward part, and by 3% in aft part of the cabin and in the cockpit. When the humidification device was active, the cabin air was perceived as being less dry (P = 0.008), and fresher (P = 0.002). The mean concentration of viable bacteria (77-108 cfu/m(3)), viable molds (74-84 cfu/m(3)), and respirable particles (1-8 microg/m3) was low, both during humidified and non-humidified flights. On flights with air humidification, there were less particles in the forward part of the aircraft (P = 0.01). In conclusion, RH can be slightly increased by using ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganisms in cabin air. The cabin air quality was perceived as being better with air humidification. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Relative air humidity is low (10-20%) during intercontinental flights, and can be increased by using ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganism in cabin air. Air humidification could increase the sensation of better cabin air quality.

  6. An assessment by calorimetric calculations of the potential thermal benefit of warming and humidification of insufflated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jonathan V; Sea, Stephanie

    2014-06-01

    Heat transfer from a patient to warm and humidify insufflated carbon dioxide (CO2) during laparoscopic surgery may contribute to perioperative hypothermia. The magnitude of this effect was calculated using calorimetric calculations. Warming to 37°C and humidifying to 100%, each 100 L of insufflated CO2 would prevent a heat transfer of 3220 calories, which would result in a decrease of temperature by 0.06°C in a 70 kg patient after total body distribution of heat. We conclude that the thermal benefit of warming and humidifying insufflated CO2 is minor, particularly in comparison with other effective and inexpensive perioperative technologies, some of which are not always used out could easily be used. The decision to use heating and humidification of insufflated CO2 should be based on its other risks, benefits, and costs.

  7. An Injectable Method for Posterior Lateral Spine Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    icasp psossessing a dsRED reporter 24 hours after exposure to (A) vehicle (B) CID and (C) polyethylenimine (PEI) cytotoxin. that the single dose of...amphotericin B (25 µg/mL) (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD). The cell line was grown at 37°C and 5% CO2 in humidified air...GeneJammer is used to efficiently transduce the cells. Adenovirus was allowed to incubate overnight at 37°C, humidified atmosphere and 5% CO2 . The transduced

  8. System for sterilizing objects. [cleaning space vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Wright, E. E., Jr.; Moyers, C. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for producing a stream of humidified sterilizing gas for sterilizing objects such as the water systems of space vehicles and the like includes a source of sterilant gas which is fed to a mixing chamber which has inlet and outlet ports. The level of the water only partially fills the mixing chamber so as to provide an empty space adjacent the top of the chamber. A heater is provided for heating the water in the chamber so as to produce a humidified atmosphere. The sterilant gas is fed through an arcuate shaped tubular member connected to the inlet port of the mixing chamber for producing a vortex type of flow of sterilant gas into the chamber for humidification. A tubular member extends from the mixing chamber for supplying the humidified sterilant gas to the object for being sterilized. Scrubbers are provided for removing the sterilant gas after use.

  9. In vitro evaluation of radio-labeled aerosol delivery via a variable-flow infant CPAP system.

    PubMed

    Farney, Kimberly D; Kuehne, Brandon T; Gibson, Laurie A; Nelin, Leif D; Shepherd, Edward G

    2014-03-01

    Nasal CPAP is widely used in neonatal ICUs. Aerosolized medications such as inhaled steroids and β agonists are commonly administered in-line through nasal CPAP, especially to infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We hypothesized that aerosol delivery to the lungs via variable-flow nasal CPAP in an in vitro model would be unreliable, and that the delivery would depend on the position of the aerosol generator within the nasal CPAP circuit. We used a system that employed a test lung placed in a plastic jar and subjected to negative pressure. Simulated inspiration effort was measured with a heated-wire anemometer. We used technetium-99m-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid as our aerosol. The nebulizer was placed either close to the humidifier or close to the nasal prongs in the circuit, and patient effort was simulated with a minute ventilation of 0.4 L/min. Relative aerosol delivery to the infant test lung with the nebulizer close to the humidifier was extremely low (0.3 ± 0.4%), whereas placing the nebulizer close to the nasal prongs resulted in significantly (P < .001) improved delivery (21 ± 11%). Major areas of aerosol deposition with the nebulizer close to the humidifier versus close to the nasal prongs were: nebulizer (10 ± 4% vs 33 ± 13%, P < .001), exhalation limb (9 ± 17% vs 26 ± 30%, P = .23), and generator tubing (21 ± 11% vs 19 ± 20%, P = .86). Placing the nebulizer close to the humidifier resulted in 59 ± 8% of the aerosol being deposited in the inhalation tubing along the heater wire. Isotope delivery from an aerosol generator placed near the humidifier on variable-flow nasal CPAP was negligible in this in vitro setup; however, such delivery was significantly improved by locating the aerosol generator closer to the nasal CPAP interface.

  10. Oxygen With Cold Bubble Humidification Is No Better Than Dry Oxygen in Preventing Mucus Dehydration, Decreased Mucociliary Clearance, and Decline in Pulmonary Function.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Michelle Lisidati; Athanazio, Rodrigo; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Carreirão-Neto, Waldir; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Rubin, Bruce K; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of long-term nasal low-flow oxygen (NLFO) on mucus and symptoms and how this variable is affected by dry or cold humidified gas. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dry-NLFO and cold bubble humidified-NLFO on nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC), mucus properties, inflammation, and symptoms in subjects with chronic hypoxemia requiring long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy. Eighteen subjects (mean age, 68 years; 7 male; 66% with COPD) initiating NLFO were randomized to receive dry-NLFO (n = 10) or humidified-NLFO (n = 8). Subjects were assessed at baseline, 12 h, 7 days, 30 days, 12 months, and 24 months by measuring nasal MCC using the saccharin transit test, mucus contact angle (surface tension), inflammation (cells and cytokine concentration in nasal lavage), and symptoms according to the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20. Nasal MCC decreased significantly (40% longer saccharin transit times) and similarly in both groups over the study period. There was a significant association between impaired nasal MCC and decline in lung function. Nasal lavage revealed an increased proportion of macrophages, interleukin-8, and epidermal growth factor concentrations with decreased interleukin-10 during the study. No changes in the proportion of ciliated cells or contact angle were observed. Coughing and sleep symptoms decreased similarly in both groups. There were no outcome differences comparing dry vs cold bubble humidified NLFO. In subjects receiving chronic NLFO, cold bubble humidification does not adequately humidify inspired oxygen to prevent deterioration of MCC, mucus hydration, and pulmonary function. The unheated bubble humidification performed no better than no humidification. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02515786; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ventilatory changes during the use of heat and moisture exchangers in patients submitted to mechanical ventilation with support pressure and adjustments in ventilation parameters to compensate for these possible changes: a self-controlled intervention study in humans.

    PubMed

    Lucato, Jeanette Janaina Jaber; Cunha, Thiago Marraccini Nogueira da; Reis, Aline Mela Dos; Picanço, Patricia Salerno de Almeida; Barbosa, Renata Cléia Claudino; Liberali, Joyce; Righetti, Renato Fraga

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the possible changes in tidal volume, minute volume and respiratory rate caused by the use of a heat and moisture exchanger in patients receiving pressure support mechanical ventilation and to quantify the variation in pressure support required to compensate for the effect caused by the heat and moisture exchanger. Patients under invasive mechanical ventilation in pressure support mode were evaluated using heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchangers. If the volume found using the heat and moisture exchangers was lower than that found with the heated humidifier, an increase in pressure support was initiated during the use of the heat and moisture exchanger until a pressure support value was obtained that enabled the patient to generate a value close to the initial tidal volume obtained with the heated humidifier. The analysis was performed by means of the paired t test, and incremental values were expressed as percentages of increase required. A total of 26 patients were evaluated. The use of heat and moisture exchangers increased the respiratory rate and reduced the tidal and minute volumes compared with the use of the heated humidifier. Patients required a 38.13% increase in pressure support to maintain previous volumes when using the heat and moisture exchanger. The heat and moisture exchanger changed the tidal and minute volumes and respiratory rate parameters. Pressure support was increased to compensate for these changes.

  12. Asia Pacific Research Initiative for Sustainable Energy Systems 2011 (APRISES11)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-29

    created during a single run , highlighting rapid prototyping capabilities. NRL’s overall goal was to evaluate whether 3D printed metallic bipolar plates...varying the air flow to evaluate the effect on peak power. These runs are displayed in Figure 2.1.17. The reactants were connected in co-flow with the...way valve allows the operator to either run the gas through a humidifier (PermaPure Model FCl 25-240-7) or a bypass loop. On the humidifier side of

  13. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  14. The effect of warmed inspired gases on body temperature during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youn Yi; Kim, Hong Soon; Chang, Young Jin; Yun, Soon Young; Kwak, Hyun Jeong

    2013-07-01

    Perioperative hypothermia can develop easily during shoulder arthroscopy, because cold irrigation can directly influence core body temperature. The authors investigated whether active warming and humidification of inspired gases reduces falls in core body temperature and allows redistribution of body heat in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly assigned to receive either room temperature inspired gases using a conventional respiratory circuit (the control group, n = 20) or inspired gases humidified and heated using a humidified and electrically heated circuit (HHC) (the heated group, n = 20). Core temperatures were significantly lower in both groups from 30 min after anesthesia induction, but were significantly higher in the heated group than in the control group from 75 to 120 min after anesthesia induction. In this study the use of a humidified and electrically heated circuit did not prevent core temperature falling during arthroscopic shoulder surgery, but it was found to decrease reductions in core temperature from 75 min after anesthesia induction.

  15. Genotoxicity Assessment of Chlorotrifluoroethylene Trimer Acid Using a Battery of In Vitro and In Vivo/In Vitro Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    in liquid nitrogen. Laboratory cultures were maintained as monolayers at 37 t 1.50C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5 t 1.5% CO2 and were... atmosphere containing 5% CO2. The cells were then washed twice with Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and incubated in F12 culture medium for six...time cell cultures ware treated with test or control material for 4 h at 37 t 1.SIA in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 . After treatment, the

  16. Ventilatory changes during the use of heat and moisture exchangers in patients submitted to mechanical ventilation with support pressure and adjustments in ventilation parameters to compensate for these possible changes: a self-controlled intervention study in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lucato, Jeanette Janaina Jaber; da Cunha, Thiago Marraccini Nogueira; dos Reis, Aline Mela; Picanço, Patricia Salerno de Almeida; Barbosa, Renata Cléia Claudino; Liberali, Joyce; Righetti, Renato Fraga

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the possible changes in tidal volume, minute volume and respiratory rate caused by the use of a heat and moisture exchanger in patients receiving pressure support mechanical ventilation and to quantify the variation in pressure support required to compensate for the effect caused by the heat and moisture exchanger. Methods Patients under invasive mechanical ventilation in pressure support mode were evaluated using heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchangers. If the volume found using the heat and moisture exchangers was lower than that found with the heated humidifier, an increase in pressure support was initiated during the use of the heat and moisture exchanger until a pressure support value was obtained that enabled the patient to generate a value close to the initial tidal volume obtained with the heated humidifier. The analysis was performed by means of the paired t test, and incremental values were expressed as percentages of increase required. Results A total of 26 patients were evaluated. The use of heat and moisture exchangers increased the respiratory rate and reduced the tidal and minute volumes compared with the use of the heated humidifier. Patients required a 38.13% increase in pressure support to maintain previous volumes when using the heat and moisture exchanger. Conclusion The heat and moisture exchanger changed the tidal and minute volumes and respiratory rate parameters. Pressure support was increased to compensate for these changes. PMID:28977257

  17. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Uin, Janek

    The Brechtel Manufacturing Inc. (BMI) Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HT-DMA Model 3002) (Brechtel and Kreidenweis 2000a,b, Henning et al. 2005, Xerxes et al. 2014) measures how aerosol particles of different initial dry sizes grow or shrink when exposed to changing relative humidity (RH) conditions. It uses two different mobility analyzers (DMA) and a humidification system to make the measurements. One DMA selects a narrow size range of dry aerosol particles, which are exposed to varying RH conditions in the humidification system. The second (humidified) DMA scans the particle size distribution output from the humidification system. Scanning a wide rangemore » of particle sizes enables the second DMA to measure changes in size or growth factor (growth factor = humidified size/dry size), due to water uptake by the particles. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) downstream of the second DMA counts particles as a function of selected size in order to obtain the number size distribution of particles exposed to different RH conditions.« less

  18. Experimental study of viscoelastic in the prevention of corneal endothelial desiccation injury from vitreal fluid-air exchange.

    PubMed

    Cekiç, Osman; Ohji, Masahito; Zheng, Yuping; Hayashi, Atsushi; Kusaka, Shunji; Tano, Yasuo

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of viscoelastic in protecting the corneal endothelium from desiccation injury associated with fluid-air exchange in a rabbit model. Experimental study. Rabbit eyes undergoing pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy were insufflated with either dry or humidified air for 20 minutes following introduction of either Opegan (sodium hyaluronate 1.0%; Santen, Osaka, Japan) or Viscoat (sodium hyaluronate 3%-chondroitin sulfate 4%; Alcon, Tokyo, Japan) into the anterior chamber. In two other groups of rabbit eyes, the same procedure was performed without using any viscoelastic agent. Corneas obtained from rabbits undergoing surgery were compared with corneas obtained from rabbits not undergoing surgery. Potential alterations in the corneal endothelium were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, by Phalloidin-FITC staining of actin and by in vitro measurements of corneal permeability for carboxyfluorescein using a diffusion chamber. Scanning electron microscopy displayed less distortion of corneal endothelium with Opegan and Viscoat compared with the dry air-only exposed corneas. Using humidified air in Opegan and Viscoat coated corneas maintained the normal actin cytoskeleton during fluid-air exchange. Paracellular leakage was much less with Opegan and Viscoat use following infusion of dry air comparing to that of dry air-only group (P =.026 and P =.041). The difference was much more striking following humidified air infusion in Opegan or Viscoat coated corneas comparing to dry air-only infused corneas (P <.002 and P <.002). Coating of rabbit corneal endothelium with Opegan or Viscoat before fluid-air exchange largely prevents dry air damage to the endothelium. Infusion of humidified air further protects corneal endothelium during fluid-air exchange in aphakic rabbit eyes.

  19. Changes in ocular and nasal signs and symptoms among air crew in relation to air humidification on intercontinental flights.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla

    2006-04-01

    This study evaluates the influence of air humidification in aircraft on symptoms, tear-film stability, nasal patency, and peak expiratory flow. Commercial air crew (N=71) were given a medical examination during eight flights from Stockholm to Chicago and eight flights in the opposite direction. Examinations were done onboard one Boeing 767 aircraft equipped with an evaporation humidifier in the forward part of the cabin. The investigators followed the air crew, staying one night in Chicago and returning with the same crew. Four of the flights had the air humidification device active in-flight to Chicago and deactivated when returning to Stockholm. The other four flights had the inverse humidification sequence. The humidification sequence was randomized and double blind. Hygienic measurements were performed. The humidification increased the relative air humidity by 10% in the 1st row in business class, by 3% in the last row (39th row) in tourist class, and by 3% in the cockpit. Air humidification increased tear-film stability and nasal patency and decreased ocular, nasal, and dermal symptoms and headache. The mean concentration of viable bacteria [77-108 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3)], viable molds (74-84 cfu/m(3)), and particulate matter (1-8 microg/m(3)) was low, both during the humidified and non-humidified flights. Relative air humidity is low (10-12%) during intercontinental flights and can be increased by the use of a ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganisms in cabin air. Air humidification could increase passenger and crew comfort by increasing tear-film stability and nasal patency and reducing various symptoms.

  20. Active humidification with Boussignac CPAP: in vitro study of a new method.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Iñigo, José M; Almela, Amadeo; Albert, Alejandro; Carratalá, José M; Fas, María J

    2013-04-01

    To carry out an in vitro study of Boussignac CPAP valve performance with a new humidification method, using a heated humidifier. Two heated humidifiers were evaluated: Fisher & Paykel MR850, and Covidien Kendall Aerodyne 2000. Baseline measurements were taken in all experimental conditions without humidification. The Boussignac valve was adapted to the input of the humidification chamber. The system was connected to a test lung to assess the degree of pressurization. Hygrometric and pressure measurements were performed with the following gas flows: 10, 20, 30 and 40 L/min. The mean values of pressure generated by the Boussignac valve were 1.99 ± 0.02, 6.97 ± 0.05, 16.61 ± 0.08 and 21.24 ± 0.08 cm H2O, 10, 20, 30 and 40 L/min, respectively, no differences being detected between study groups. Overall absolute humidity was significantly greater with a heated humidifier than without humidification (range 40.01 ± 0.57-25.46 ± 0.49 compared to 0.16 ± 0.13 mgH2O/L, P < .001). Absolute humidity was significantly higher in Kendall Aerodyne 2000 compared to MR850, regardless of the selected temperature and flow (P < .001). This new method of Boussignac CPAP humidification yielded humidity values above 25 mg H2O/L regardless of the heated humidifier and flow used. Pressurization values remained constant in each experimental situation and were not influenced by adding humidification. These data open up the possibility of using Boussignac CPAP on different types of patients, with different interfaces and for long periods of time.

  1. Heated, Humidified High-Flow Nasal Cannula vs Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Respiratory Distress Syndrome of Prematurity: A Randomized Clinical Noninferiority Trial.

    PubMed

    Lavizzari, Anna; Colnaghi, Mariarosa; Ciuffini, Francesca; Veneroni, Chiara; Musumeci, Stefano; Cortinovis, Ivan; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-08-08

    Heated, humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) has gained increasing popularity as respiratory support for newborn infants thanks to ease of use and improved patient comfort. However, its role as primary therapy for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of prematurity needs to be further elucidated by large, randomized clinical trials. To determine whether HHHFNC provides respiratory support noninferior to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) or bilevel nCPAP (BiPAP) as a primary approach to RDS in infants older than 28 weeks' gestational age (GA). An unblinded, monocentric, randomized clinical noninferiority trial at a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. Inborn infants at 29 weeks 0 days to 36 weeks 6 days of GA were eligible if presenting with mild to moderate RDS requiring noninvasive respiratory support. Criteria for starting noninvasive respiratory support were a Silverman score of 5 or higher or a fraction of inspired oxygen higher than 0.3 for a target saturation of peripheral oxygen of 88% to 93%. Infants were ineligible if they had major congenital anomalies or severe RDS requiring early intubation. Infants were enrolled between January 5, 2012, and June 28, 2014. Randomization to either HHHFNC at 4 to 6 L/min or nCPAP/BiPAP at 4 to 6 cm H2O. Need for mechanical ventilation within 72 hours from the beginning of respiratory support. The absolute risk difference in the primary outcome and its 95% confidence interval were calculated to determine noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 10%). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. A total of 316 infants were enrolled in the study: 158 in the HHHFNC group (mean [SD] GA, 33.1 [1.9] weeks; 52.5% female) and 158 in the nCPAP/BiPAP group (mean [SD] GA, 33.0 [2.1] weeks; 47.5% female). The use of HHHFNC was noninferior to nCPAP with regard to the primary outcome: failure occurred in 10.8% vs 9.5% of infants, respectively (95% CI of risk difference, -6.0% to 8.6% [within the noninferiority

  2. Modeling the airborne survival of influenza virus in a residential setting: the impacts of home humidification.

    PubMed

    Myatt, Theodore A; Kaufman, Matthew H; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L; Fabian, M Patricia; McDevitt, James J

    2010-09-03

    Laboratory research studies indicate that aerosolized influenza viruses survive for longer periods at low relative humidity (RH) conditions. Further analysis has shown that absolute humidity (AH) may be an improved predictor of virus survival in the environment. Maintaining airborne moisture levels that reduce survival of the virus in the air and on surfaces could be another tool for managing public health risks of influenza. A multi-zone indoor air quality model was used to evaluate the ability of portable humidifiers to control moisture content of the air and the potential related benefit of decreasing survival of influenza viruses in single-family residences. We modeled indoor AH and influenza virus concentrations during winter months (Northeast US) using the CONTAM multi-zone indoor air quality model. A two-story residential template was used under two different ventilation conditions - forced hot air and radiant heating. Humidity was evaluated on a room-specific and whole house basis. Estimates of emission rates for influenza virus were particle-size specific and derived from published studies and included emissions during both tidal breathing and coughing events. The survival of the influenza virus was determined based on the established relationship between AH and virus survival. The presence of a portable humidifier with an output of 0.16 kg water per hour in the bedroom resulted in an increase in median sleeping hours AH/RH levels of 11 to 19% compared to periods without a humidifier present. The associated percent decrease in influenza virus survival was 17.5 - 31.6%. Distribution of water vapor through a residence was estimated to yield 3 to 12% increases in AH/RH and 7.8-13.9% reductions in influenza virus survival. This modeling analysis demonstrates the potential benefit of portable residential humidifiers in reducing the survival of aerosolized influenza virus by controlling humidity indoors.

  3. Modeling the airborne survival of influenza virus in a residential setting: the impacts of home humidification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Laboratory research studies indicate that aerosolized influenza viruses survive for longer periods at low relative humidity (RH) conditions. Further analysis has shown that absolute humidity (AH) may be an improved predictor of virus survival in the environment. Maintaining airborne moisture levels that reduce survival of the virus in the air and on surfaces could be another tool for managing public health risks of influenza. Methods A multi-zone indoor air quality model was used to evaluate the ability of portable humidifiers to control moisture content of the air and the potential related benefit of decreasing survival of influenza viruses in single-family residences. We modeled indoor AH and influenza virus concentrations during winter months (Northeast US) using the CONTAM multi-zone indoor air quality model. A two-story residential template was used under two different ventilation conditions - forced hot air and radiant heating. Humidity was evaluated on a room-specific and whole house basis. Estimates of emission rates for influenza virus were particle-size specific and derived from published studies and included emissions during both tidal breathing and coughing events. The survival of the influenza virus was determined based on the established relationship between AH and virus survival. Results The presence of a portable humidifier with an output of 0.16 kg water per hour in the bedroom resulted in an increase in median sleeping hours AH/RH levels of 11 to 19% compared to periods without a humidifier present. The associated percent decrease in influenza virus survival was 17.5 - 31.6%. Distribution of water vapor through a residence was estimated to yield 3 to 12% increases in AH/RH and 7.8-13.9% reductions in influenza virus survival. Conclusion This modeling analysis demonstrates the potential benefit of portable residential humidifiers in reducing the survival of aerosolized influenza virus by controlling humidity indoors. PMID:20815876

  4. Heat and moisture exchanger: importance of humidification in anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Vandana

    2008-08-01

    Adequate humidification is vital to maintain homeostasis of the airway. Heat and moisture exchangers conserve some of the exhaled water, heat and return them to inspired gases. Many heat and moisture exchangers also perfom bacterial/viral filtration and prevent inhalation of small particles. Heat and moisture exchangers are also called condenser humidifier, artificial nose, etc. Most of them are disposable devices with exchanging medium enclosed in a plastic housing. For adult and paediatric age group different dead space types are available. Heat and moisture exchangers are helpful during anaesthesia and ventilatory breathing system. To reduce the damage of the upper respiratory tract through cooling and dehydration inspiratory air can be heated and humidified, thus preventing the serious complications.

  5. Heat resistant alloys as interconnect materials of reduced temperature SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Li; Jian, Pu; Guangyuan, Xie; Shunxu, Wang; Jianzhong, Xiao

    Heat-resistant alloys, Haynes 230 and SS310, were exposed to air and humidified H 2 at 750 °C for up to 1000 h, respectively, simulating the environments in reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The oxidized samples were characterized by using SEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction to obtain the morphology, thickness, composition and crystal structure of the oxide scales. A mechanism for the formation of metallic Ni-rich nodules on top of the oxide scale in Haynes 230 sample oxidized in humidified H 2 was established. Thermodynamic analysis confirmed that MnCr 2O 4 is the favored spinel phase, together with Cr 2O 3, in the oxide scales.

  6. The effects of PRGF on bone regeneration and on titanium implant osseointegration in goats: a histologic and histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Orive, Gorka; Pla, Rafael; Roman, Pedro; Serrano, Victoriano; Andía, Isabel

    2009-10-01

    The effect of local application of scaffold-like preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF) on bone regeneration in artificial defects and the potential effect of humidifying titanium dental implants with liquid PRGF on their osseointegration were investigated. The PRGF formulations were obtained from venous blood of three goats and applied either as a 3D fibrin scaffold (scaffold-like PRGF) in the regeneration of artificial defects or as liquid PRGF via humidifying the implants before their insertion. Initially, 12 defects were filled with scaffold-like PRGF and another 12 were used as controls. The histological analysis at 8 weeks revealed mature bone trabeculae when PRGF was used, whereas the control samples showed mainly connective tissue with incipient signs of bone formation. For the second set of experiments, 26 implants (13 humidified with liquid PRGF) were placed in the tibiae of goats. Histological and histomorphometric results demonstrated that application of liquid PRGF increased the percentage of bone-implant contact in 84.7%. The whole surface of the PRGF-treated implants was covered by newly formed bone, whereas only the upper half was surrounded in control implants. In summary, PRGF can accelerate bone regeneration in artificial defects and improve the osseointegration of titanium dental implants.

  7. Influence of humidification on comfort during noninvasive ventilation with a helmet.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Kazuyoshi; Tomita, Toshiji; Uchiyama, Akinori; Ohta, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Naoya; Goto, Yukiko; Fujino, Yuji

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate optimal humidifier water temperature when using a helmet for noninvasive ventilation. Twenty-eight healthy individuals underwent 8 cm H2O CPAP ventilation with FIO2 of 0.21 and 0.5. Each was sequentially tested in the following order: using the helmet without humidification at ambient temperature; with humidification with unheated chamber water; and with humidification with the chamber water at 31°C, 34°C, and 37°C. At each setting, after a 20 min stabilization period, measurements were taken. Comfort level at each setting was evaluated using a visual analog scale rated zero (least comfortable) to 10 (most comfortable). Temperature and relative and absolute humidity inside the helmet increased; however, the comfort scores significantly decreased as the humidification chamber water temperature increased. Regardless of the FIO2, statistically significantly highest comfort scores were obtained when humidification water, with and without active humidification, was at ambient temperature. Unacceptable absolute humidity was obtained only without humidification at room temperature when FIO2 was 0.5. With the clinical use of a helmet, for patient comfort and mucosal humidification during CPAP, the most desirable conditions are likely to be obtained by humidifying without heating, that is by leaving the water in the humidifier chamber at room temperature.

  8. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    2000-01-01

    To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour with the help of a rhinotherm (an equipment designed to deliver heated water vapour to a person's nasal cavity), in the treatment of the common cold by comparing a. symptoms b. viral shedding c. nasal resistance after a natural or experimentally induced common cold. We searched MEDLINE with MeSH headings: common cold, rhinopharyngitis, inhalation, steam, heated vapour, rhinothermy, till July 1999. EMBASE, Current Contents, review articles, cross references were also searched. Attempts were also made to contact the manufacturers for any unpublished data. Randomized trials using heated water vapour in a standardized way in patients with the common cold or volunteers with experimental induction of rhinovirus infection were included in the review. All the articles retrieved were initially subjected to a review for inclusion / exclusion criteria. Review articles, editorials, abstracts with inadequate outcome description were excluded. Studies selected for inclusion were subjected to a methodological assessment. The results of a systematic review of six trials with 319 participants, support the use of warm vapour inhalations in the common cold in terms of relief of symptoms (Odds Ratio with 95 % CI 0.31, 0.16-0.60, Relative risk 0.56, 0.4-0. 79). Results on symptom score indices were equivocal. None of the studies demonstrated a worsening of clinical symptom scores. One study demonstrated increased nasal resistance one week after steam inhalation in contrast to an earlier study which showed improvement in the nasal resistance. There was no evidence of decreased viral shedding measured by virus isolation in the nasal secretions (Tyrrell 1989) or measurement of viral titres in nasal washings among treatment group. The rhinovirus titres in the nasal washings from the treatment group were the same as those of the placebo group on day one prior to the treatment and on all four days after the treatment. The area under curve (Hendley 1994) was also similar in the placebo and treatment groups for titres of virus in the nasal washings as were the average viral titres across five days of follow up, the maximum values after treatment, and viral shedding velocity i.e. amount of virus shed per day (Hendley 1994). Minor side effects due to thermal stress were reported in all the studies. Three trials demonstrated beneficial effects on the symptoms of the common cold. One study from Israel showed a decrease in nasal resistance measured by peak nasal expiratory and inspiratory flow rate. Studies done in North America failed to show any objective improvement in outcome measures with the study intervention. A multi-centre double blind randomised controlled trial testing this therapy with uniform outcome measures is recommended.

  9. Continuous sterilization of plumbing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Moyers, C. V.; Wright, E. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Continuous sterilization of plumbing, such as in hospitals, clinics, and biological testing laboratories is possible with ethylene oxide/Freon 12 (ETO/F-12) humidifier developed for sterilization of potable water systems.

  10. High-flow warm humidified oxygen versus standard low-flow nasal cannula oxygen for moderate bronchiolitis (HFWHO RCT): an open, phase 4, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kepreotes, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Bruce; Attia, John; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Collison, Adam; Searles, Andrew; Goddard, Bernadette; Hilton, Jodi; Lee, Mark; Mattes, Joerg

    2017-03-04

    Bronchiolitis is the most common lung infection in infants and treatment focuses on management of respiratory distress and hypoxia. High-flow warm humidified oxygen (HFWHO) is increasingly used, but has not been rigorously studied in randomised trials. We aimed to examine whether HFWHO provided enhanced respiratory support, thereby shortening time to weaning off oxygen. In this open, phase 4, randomised controlled trial, we recruited children aged less than 24 months with moderate bronchiolitis attending the emergency department of the John Hunter Hospital or the medical unit of the John Hunter Children's Hospital in New South Wales, Australia. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) via opaque sealed envelopes to HFWHO (maximum flow of 1 L/kg per min to a limit of 20 L/min using 1:1 air-oxygen ratio, resulting in a maximum FiO 2 of 0·6) or standard therapy (cold wall oxygen 100% via infant nasal cannulae at low flow to a maximum of 2 L/min) using a block size of four and stratifying for gestational age at birth. The primary outcome was time from randomisation to last use of oxygen therapy. All randomised children were included in the primary and secondary safety analyses. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12612000685819. From July 16, 2012, to May 1, 2015, we randomly assigned 202 children to either HFWHO (101 children) or standard therapy (101 children). Median time to weaning was 24 h (95% CI 18-28) for standard therapy and 20 h (95% CI 17-34) for HFWHO (hazard ratio [HR] for difference in survival distributions 0·9 [95% CI 0·7-1·2]; log rank p=0·61). Fewer children experienced treatment failure on HFWHO (14 [14%]) compared with standard therapy (33 [33%]; p=0·0016); of these children, those on HFWHO were supported for longer than were those on standard therapy before treatment failure (HR 0·3; 95% CI 0·2-0·6; p<0·0001). 20 (61%) of 33 children who experienced treatment failure on standard

  11. Assessing Inhalation Exposures Associated with ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article This paper presents a simulation-based approach for assessing short-term, water-distribution-system-wide inhalation exposures that could result from showering and the use of humidifiers during contamination events.

  12. Joint strength of a solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic sealant with metallic interconnect in a reducing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Yu-An; Wu, Si-Han; Liu, Chien-Kuo; Lee, Ruey-Yi

    2015-04-01

    Effects of reducing environment and thermal aging on the joint strength of a BaO-B2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramic sealant (GC-9) with a ferritic-stainless-steel interconnect (Crofer 22 H) for planar solid oxide fuel cells are investigated. A technique is developed for conducting mechanical tests at room temperature and 800 °C in H2-7 vol% H2O under shear and tensile loadings. Given an aged condition and loading mode, the joint strength at 800 °C is lower than that at room temperature in the given humidified hydrogen atmosphere. A thermal aging at 800 °C in H2-7 vol% H2O for 100 h or 1000 h enhances both shear and tensile joint strengths at room temperature but degrades them at 800 °C in the same reducing environment. Non-aged specimens show a comparable joint strength and fracture mode when tested in humidified hydrogen and in air under a given loading mode and testing temperature. The shear strength at 800 °C for joint specimens after a 1000-h thermal aging at 800 °C in air or humidified hydrogen is reduced by a similar extent of 19%, compared to the counterpart of non-aged joint specimens tested in the same oxidizing or reducing environment.

  13. Size distribution of salbutamol/ipratropium aerosols produced by different nebulizers in the absence and presence of heat and humidification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ssu-Han; Yang, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Hui-Ling; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Fang, Tien-Pei; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the size distribution of inhaled and exhaled aerosolized drugs, or the effect of heated humidification on particle size and lung deposition. The present study evaluated these aspects of bronchodilator (salbutamol/ipratropium) delivery using a lung model in the absence and presence of heat and humidification. We positioned filters to collect and measure the initial drug, inhaled drug, and exhaled drug. Particle size distribution was evaluated using an 8-stage Marple personal cascade impactor with 0.2-μm polycarbonate filters. A greater inhaled drug mass was delivered using a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) than by using a small volume nebulizer (SVN), when heated humidifiers were not employed. When heated and humidified medical gas was used, there was no significant difference between the inhaled drug mass delivered by the VMN and that delivered by the SVN. A significantly greater mass of inhaled 1.55-μm drug particles was produced by the VMN than with the SVN, under heated and humidified conditions. However, the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) of the aerosolized drug produced by the SVN and VMN did not differ significantly under the same conditions. The VMN produced more fine particles of salbutamol/ipratropium, and the drug particle size clearly increased in the presence of heat and humidification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of perfluorocarbon vapour on the measurement of respiratory tidal volume during partial liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Davies, M W; Dunster, K R

    2000-08-01

    During partial liquid ventilation perfluorocarbon vapour is present in the exhaled gases. The volumes of these gases are measured by pneumotachometers. Error in measuring tidal volumes will give erroneous measurement of lung compliance during partial liquid ventilation. We aim to compare measured tidal volumes with and without perfluorocarbon vapour using tidal volumes suitable for use in neonates. Tidal volumes were produced with a 100 ml calibration syringe from 20 to 100 ml and with a calibrated Harvard rodent ventilator from 2.5 to 20 ml. Control tidal volumes were drawn from a humidifier chamber containing water vapour and the PFC tidal volumes were drawn from a humidifier chamber containing water and perfluorocarbon (FC-77) vapour. Tidal volumes were measured by a fixed orifice, target, differential pressure flowmeter (VenTrak) or a hot-wire anenometer (Bear Cub) placed between the calibration syringe or ventilator and the humidifier chamber. All tidal volumes measured with perfluorocarbon vapour were increased compared with control (ANOVA p < 0.001 and post t-test p < 0.0001). Measured tidal volume increased from 7 to 16% with the fixed orifice type flow-meter, and from 35 to 41% with the hot-wire type. In conclusion, perfluorocarbon vapour flowing through pneumotachometers gives falsely high tidal volume measurements. Calculation of lung compliance must take into account the effect of perfluorocarbon vapour on the measurement of tidal volume.

  15. Effects of Heated Humidification and Topical Steroids on Compliance, Nasal Symptoms, and Quality of Life in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Using Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Silke; Doherty, Liam S.; Nolan, Geraldine M.; McNicholas, Walter T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nasal side effects are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) starting on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We tested the hypothesis that heated humidification or nasal topical steroids improve compliance, nasal side effects and quality of life in this patient group. Methods: 125 patients with the established diagnosis of OSAS (apnea/hypopnea index ≥ 10/h), who tolerated CPAP via a nasal mask, and who had a successful CPAP titration were randomized to 4 weeks of dry CPAP, humidified CPAP or CPAP with additional topical nasal steroid application (fluticasone, GlaxoWellcome). Groups were similar in all demographic variables and in frequency of nasal symptoms at baseline. Outcome measures were objective compliance, quality of life (short form 36), subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score) and nasal symptoms such as runny, dry or blocked nose, sneezing and headaches; all variables assessed using a validated questionnaire and by direct interview. Results: There was no difference in compliance between groups after 4 weeks (dry: 5.21 ± 1.66 h/night, fluticasone: 5.66 ± 1.68, humidifier: 5.21 ± 1.84; p = 0.444). Quality of life and subjective sleepiness improved in all groups, but there were no differences in the extent of improvement. Nasal Symptoms were less frequently reported in the humidifier group (28%) than in the remaining groups (dry: 70%, fluticasone: 53%, p = 0.002). However, the addition of fluticasone resulted in increased frequency of sneezing. Conclusion: The addition of a humidifier, but not nasal steroids decreases the frequency of nasal symptoms in unselected OSAS patients initiating CPAP therapy; however compliance and quality of life remain unaltered. Citation: Ryan S; Doherty LS; Nolan GM; McNicholas WT. Effects of heated humidification and topical steroids on compliance, nasal symptoms, and quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome using nasal

  16. Lubricity of well-characterized jet and broad-cut fuels by ball-on-cylinder machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, G. M.; Kim, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    A ball-on-cylinder machine (BOCM) was used to measure the lubricity of fuels. The fuels tested were well-characterized fuels available from other programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center plus some in-house mildly hydroprocessed shale fuels from other programs included Jet-A, ERBS fuel, ERBS blends, and blend stock. The BOCM tests were made before and after clay treatment of some of these fuels with both humidified air and dry nitrogen as the preconditioning and cover gas. As expected, clay treatment always reduced fuel lubricity. Using nitrogen preconditioning and cover gas always resulted in a smaller wear scar diameter than when humidified air was used. Also observed was an indication of lower lubricity with lower boiling range fuels and lower aromatic fuels. Gas chromatographic analysis indicted changes in BOCM-stressed fuels.

  17. A novel ultrasonic aerosol generator.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Hudson, N; Pirie, L

    1995-07-01

    An ultrasonic aerosol generator constructed from a domestic humidifier is described which has been used to produce liquid aerosols for physiological investigations. The instrument was constructed from a Pifco domestic humidifier modified to include an energy guide to direct the oscillations of the transducer through the coupling water, which would normally be aerosolized, onto a small membrane based sample chamber containing the liquid to be aerosolized. The size distribution of the aerosol produced was found to be between 2 and 6 mm, optimum for diffuse intrapulmonary deposition. Up to 4 ml/min of aqueous liquid was used; however the sample chamber could be made small enough to contain economic amounts of expensive material to administer by inhalation. The instrument has proved to be reliable over a period of three years.

  18. A new device for 100 per cent humidification of inspired air

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Anders; Gustafsson, Ann; Svanborg, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Devices for active humidification of the inspired air in mechanically ventilated patients cause water condensation in the ventilator tubing, which may become contaminated or interfere with the function of the ventilator. The present study describes and tests the performance of a new humidifier, which is designed to eliminate water condensation. Objectives: To test the performance of the new humidifier at different ventilator settings in a lung model, and to compare this new humidifier with a conventional active humidifier in ventilator-treated critically ill patients. Materials and methods: The humidifier (Humid-Heat; Louis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden) consists of a supply unit with a microprocessor and a water pump, and a humidification device, which is placed between the Y-piece and the endotracheal tube. The humidification device is based on a hygroscopic heat-moisture exchanger (HME), which absorbs the expired heat and moisture and releases it into the inspired gas. External heat and water are then added to the patient side of the HME, so the inspired gas should reach 100% humidity at 37°C (44 mg H2O/l air). The external water is delivered to the humidification device via a pump onto a wick and then evaporated into the inspired air by an electrical heater. The microprocessor controls the water pump and the heater by an algorithm using the minute ventilation (which is fed into the microprocessor) and the airway temperature measured by a sensor mounted in the flex-tube on the patient side of the humidification device. The performance characteristics were tested in a lung model ventilated with a constant flow (inspiratory:expiratory ratio 1:2, rate 12–20 breaths/min and a minute ventilation of 3–25 l/min) or with a decelerating flow (inspiratory:expiratory ratio 1:2, rate 12–15 breaths/min and a minute ventilation of 4.7–16.4 l/min). The device was also tested prospectively and in a randomized order compared with a conventional active

  19. 40 CFR 1065.342 - Sample dryer verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... condensation as required in § 1065.145(d)(1)(i). We recommend that the sample system components be maintained at least 5 °C above the local humidified gas dewpoint to prevent aqueous condensation. (5) Measure...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.342 - Sample dryer verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... condensation as required in § 1065.145(d)(1)(i). We recommend that the sample system components be maintained at least 5 °C above the local humidified gas dewpoint to prevent aqueous condensation. (5) Measure...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.342 - Sample dryer verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... condensation as required in § 1065.145(d)(1)(i). We recommend that the sample system components be maintained at least 5 °C above the local humidified gas dewpoint to prevent aqueous condensation. (5) Measure...

  2. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  3. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  4. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment Cooling Towers, Evaporative Condensers, and Fluid Coolers Humidifiers and Misters Domestic Water Systems Domestic Hot- ... 105° F, or 39° to 41° C) Cough (dry at first, later producing phlegm) Difficulty in breathing ...

  5. Humidification of unwrapped chilled meat on retail display using an ultrasonic fogging system.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Corry, Janet E L; Evans, Judith A

    2007-12-01

    The effects of an ultrasonic humidification system on unwrapped meat in a chilled retail display cabinet were assessed. Humidification raised the relative humidity of the cabinet air from a mean of 76.7% to just below saturation at 98.8%. This reduced the mean evaporative weight loss from whole samples of meat after 14h from 1.68% to 0.62% of their initial weight. The rate of deterioration in the appearance of the meat due to dehydration was reduced to the extent that while the unhumidified trial was terminated after 14h because all samples were judged to be unacceptable, the humidified trial was continued for 24h without any major changes in appearance. Levels of presumptive pseudomonas bacteria were relatively high in water samples taken from the humidification system and defrost water during the humidified trial, but Legionella spp. were not isolated. Significant increases in the numbers of bacteria on the meat during either trial were only found in one case, that of humidified minced beef. However, some of the samples had high counts even before display, and this may have masked any effect due to humidification. Differences in levels of air-borne contamination were small and inconsistent. Air temperatures were raised by humidification by between 1 and 2°C and this was reflected in similarly raised product temperatures. Temperatures of air leaving the evaporator indicated that this was due to icing of the evaporator in the periods leading up to defrosts.

  6. [Examination of upper airway function using the dew point hygrometer with semiconductor detector].

    PubMed

    Weremczuk, Jerzy; Paczesny, Daniel; Rapiejko, Piotr; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2005-09-01

    The nasal mucosa with blood capillary network has a remarkable role in respiration process. The most important nose functions are heating and humidifying to optimal level of reaching throat and lungs air and partly absorption of humidity and temperature from expired air. Variations of humidifying and heating processes can invoke some upper airways disorders. The paper presents dew point hygrometer which was specially design for laryngological purposes. The hygrometer can measure dynamic changes of humidity in upper airways. The device is fully automated, easy to operate and can communicate with external personal computer. Database application allows saving patient data with archive examination results and can display them easily. During ongoing clinical tests, still increasing amount of data will allow precisely investigate correlations between humidifying process and some diseases. The main advantage of the device is a short response time on humidity changing. The number of readings (detections) can reach 5 readings per second (slightly depending on humidity level) which is much faster than in available on the market hygrometers with sorption sensors. The paper also presents some results obtained in group of healthy volunteers and one patient with tracheostomy The tests figured out actual humidity in certain parts of upper airways: nose, throat, trachea in breathing cycles under various surrounding conditions. The constructed hygrometer can be used for air humidity measurement in upper airways during some diseases and for evaluation of an influence of some drugs and environmental conditions changing on air upper ways mucosa.

  7. The effect of relative humidity of inhaled air on acoustic parameters of voice in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Hemler, R J; Wieneke, G H; Dejonckere, P H

    1997-09-01

    The hypothesis that relative humidity (RH) of air exerts an effect on voice has been widely accepted. The aim of this study has been to assess whether this can be demonstrated. Eight healthy subjects inhaled during ten minutes three different air conditions: dry, standard room, and humidified air. After inhalation, the subjects produced repeatedly a sustained /a/ of controlled pitch and loudness, which was analyzed for perturbation and noise-to-harmonic parameters. Perturbation measures increased after inhalation of dry air. No significant differences existed between standard and humidified air. No significant difference in the noise-to-harmonic ratio was found among the three conditions. We conclude that the human voice is very sensitive to decreases in RH of inhaled air, because even after a short provocation with dry air, a significant increase in perturbation measures was found.

  8. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF TOXIC VOCS IN AIR ONTO CARBOPACK X SOLID ADSORBENT FOLLOWED BY THERMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of a mixture of 42 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humidified, purified air onto the solid adsorbent Carbopack X was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The evaluation included variations in sample air temperature, relative humidity, and ozon...

  9. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  10. Heat loss during carbon dioxide insufflation: comparison of a nebulization based humidification device with a humidification and heating system.

    PubMed

    Noll, Eric; Schaeffer, Roland; Joshi, Girish; Diemunsch, Sophie; Koessler, Stefanie; Diemunsch, Pierre

    2012-12-01

    This study compared the heat loss observed with the use of MR860 AEA Humidifier™ system (Fisher & Paykel Healthcare, New Zealand), which humidifies and heats the insufflated CO(2), and the use of the AeronebPro™ device (Aerogen, Ireland), which humidifies but does not heat the insufflated CO(2). With institutional approval, 16 experiments were conducted in 4 pigs. Each animal, acting as its own control, was studied at 8-day intervals in randomized sequence with the following four conditions: (1) control (C) no pneumoperitoneum; (2) standard (S) insufflation with nonhumidified, nonheated CO(2); (3) Aeroneb™ (A): insufflation with humidified, nonheated CO(2); and (4) MR860 AEA humidifier™ (MR): insufflation with humidified and heated CO(2). The measured heat loss after 720L CO(2) insufflation during the 4 h was 1.03 ± 0.75 °C (mean ± SEM) in group C; 3.63 ± 0.31 °C in group S; 3.03 ± 0.39 °C in group A; and 1.98 ± 0.09 °C in group MR. The ANOVA showed a significant difference with time (p = 0.0001) and with the insufflation technique (p = 0.024). Heat loss in group C was less than in group S after 60 min (p = 0.03), less than in group A after 70 min (p = 0.03), and less than in group MR after 150 min (p = 0.03). The heat loss in group MR was less than in group S after 50 min (p = 0.04) and less than in group A after 70 min (p = 0.02). After 160 min, the heat loss in group S was greater than in group A (p = 0.03). As far as heat loss is concerned, for laparoscopic procedures of less than 60 min, there is no benefit of using any humidification with or without heating. However, for procedures greater than 60 min, use of heating along with humidification, is superior.

  11. The Isolation and Characterization of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    2Departmentof Pathologyand LaboratoryMedicine,DavidGeffen SchoolofMedicine, Universityof Californiaat Los Angeles, Los Angeles,California...Invitrogen, ant-pm-1) and incubated at 378C in humidified air containing 5% CO2. Due to technical issues with cultivating and maintaining rodent uro

  12. Intraperitoneal temperature and desiccation during endoscopic surgery. Intraoperative humidification and cooling of the peritoneal cavity can reduce adhesions.

    PubMed

    Corona, Roberta; Verguts, Jasper; Koninckx, Robert; Mailova, Karina; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Koninckx, Philippe R

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to document quantitatively the intraperitoneal temperature and desiccation during laparoscopic surgery. The temperature, relative humidity, and flow rate were measured in vitro and during laparoscopic surgery, at the entrance and at the exit of the abdomen. This permitted us to calculate desiccation for various flow rates using either dry CO(2) or CO(2) humidified with 100% relative humidity at any preset temperature between 25 and 37°C. The study showed that desiccation, both in vitro and in vivo, varies as expected with the flow rates and relative humidity while intraperitoneal temperature varies mainly with desiccation. Temperature regulation of bowels is specific and drops to the intraperitoneal temperature without affecting core body temperature. With a modified humidifier, desiccation could be eliminated while maintaining the intraperitoneal temperature between 31 to 32°C. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Viking gas exchange reaction - Simulation on UV-irradiated manganese dioxide substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, T. R.; Holland, H. D.; Ceasar, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    The exchange of O2 for H2O, analogous to that recorded on Mars by the Viking GEX experiment, has been observed on humidifying powdered beta-MnO2 (pyrolusite) which had been irradiated by UV in a humidified analog of the Martian atmosphere. Pyrolusite irradiated in a dry atmosphere did not release O2 on humidification. The XPS spectra of Mn and O of the reactive pyrolusite were shifted toward higher binding energies during UV irradiation. These shifts are consistent with the creation of a surface layer of a Mn(V) or Mn(VI) compound. The destruction of such a layer on humidification could account for the observed O2 release. Although manganese has not been identified in the Martian regolith, the upper limit of the Mn concentration is sufficiently high that O2 release from pyrolusite could have been responsible for the results of the Viking GEX experiment.

  14. An evaluation of 2 new devices for nasal high-flow gas therapy.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Jonathan B; Granger, Wesley M

    2004-08-01

    The traditional nasal cannula with bubble humidifier is limited to a maximum flow of 6 L/min to minimize the risk of complications. We conducted a bench study of 2 new Food and Drug Administration-approved nasal cannula/humidifier products designed to deliver at flows> 6 L/min. Using a digital psychrometer we measured the relative humidity and temperature of delivered gas from each device, at 5 L/min increments over the specified functional high-flow range. The Salter Labs unit achieved 72.5-78.7% relative humidity (5-15 L/min range) at ambient temperature (21-23 degrees C). The Vapotherm device achieved 99.9% relative humidity at a temperature setting of 37 degrees C (5-40 L/min). Both devices meet minimum humidification standards and offer practical new treatment options. The patient-selection criteria are primarily the severity of the patient's condition and cost.

  15. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  16. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  17. Ambient observations of hygroscopic growth factor and f(RH) below 1: Case studies from surface and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, Taylor; Sorooshian, Armin; Ortega, Amber; Crosbie, Ewan; Wonaschütz, Anna; Perring, Anne E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ziemba, Luke; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin; Russell, Lynn M.

    2016-11-01

    This study reports a detailed set of ambient observations of optical/physical shrinking of particles from exposure to water vapor with consistency across different instruments and regions. Data have been utilized from (i) a shipboard humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer during the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment in 2011, (ii) multiple instruments on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys in 2013, and (iii) the Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe during ambient measurements in Tucson, Arizona, during summer 2014 and winter 2015. Hygroscopic growth factor (ratio of humidified-to-dry diameter, GF = Dp,wet/Dp,dry) and f(RH) (ratio of humidified-to-dry scattering coefficients) values below 1 were observed across the range of relative humidity (RH) investigated (75-95%). A commonality of observations of GF and f(RH) below 1 in these experiments was the presence of particles enriched with carbonaceous matter, especially from biomass burning. Evidence of externally mixed aerosol, and thus multiple GFs with at least one GF < 1, was observed concurrently with f(RH) < 1 during smoke periods. Possible mechanisms responsible for observed shrinkage are discussed and include particle restructuring, volatilization effects, and refractive index modifications due to aqueous processing resulting in optical size modification. To further investigate ambient observations of GFs and f(RH) values less than 1, it is recommended to add an optional prehumidification bypass module to hygroscopicity instruments, to preemptively collapse particles prior to controlled RH measurements.

  18. New design of a PEFC cathode separator of for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, K.; Takahashi, N.; Kamimura, T.

    2017-11-01

    Generally, polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) need humidifiers to prevent the drying of the membrane, but this use of humidifiers creates water management issues, such as the flooding/plugging phenomena and decreased system efficiency because of an increase in the electric energy needed for auxiliary equipment. Although most researchers have developed high-temperature membranes that do not need humidifiers, a lot of time is necessary for the development of these membranes, and these membranes drive up costs. Therefore, we propose a new cathode separator design that can recycle water generated by power generation in the same cell and a stack structure that can redistribute water collected in the cathode outlet manifold to drying cells. Because the new cathode separator has a bypass channel from the gas outlet to the gas inlet to transport excess water, a dry part in the gas inlet is supplied with excess water in the gas outlet through the bypass channel even if the PEFC is operated under dry conditions. Excess water in the PEFC stack can be transported from the cell with excess water to the drying cell through the cathode outlet manifold with a porous wall. Therefore, we confirm the influence of the plugging phenomenon in the cathode gas outlet manifold on the cell performance of each cell in the stack. As a result, the cell performance of the new cathode separator design is better than that of the standard separator under the low humidity conditions. We confirm that the plugging phenomenon in the cathode outlet manifold affects the cell performance of each cell in the stack.

  19. [Comparison of ability to humidification of inspired air through the nose and oral cavity using dew point hygrometer].

    PubMed

    Paczesny, Daniel; Rapiejko, Piotr; Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this study was to check at the hospital the dew point hygrometer for fast measurement of air humidity in upper airways. The nose ability to humidification of inspired air and partially recover moisture from expired air was evaluated. Measurements from respiration through the nose and oral cavity were compared. The study was carried out in a group of 30 people (8 female and 22 male), age group 18 to 70 (mean age: 37 years old). In 22 of the participants there were no deviation from normal state in laryngologic examination, while in 4 participants nasal septum deviation without imaired nasal; oatency was found, in other 3--nasal vonchae hyperthrophy and in 1--nasal polips (grade I). The measurements of air humidity in upper air ways was done using specially designed and constructed measurement system. The air inspired through the nose and oral cavity is humidified. For typical external conditions (T = 22 degrees C i RH = 50%) the nose humidifies inspired air two times better then oral cavity (short time range of measurement approximately 1 min). Moisture from expired air through the nose is partially recovered (for patients with regular patency is 25% of the value of humidifying of inspired air). The oral cavity does not have ability to partially recovery moisture form expired air. The paper presented fast dew point hygrometer based on semiconductor microsystems for measurement humidity in inspired and expired air through the nose and oral cavity. Presented system can be a proper instrument for evaluation of nasal functions.

  20. And Then the Rains Came.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betty D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how the library staff at Stetson University in central Florida coped with flooding. Offers recommendations on storage; carpeting; fans and humidifiers; emergency phone contacts; labeled keys; protective coverings for books; safe storage for "disaster" materials and equipment; removal of less valuable materials; sandbags;…

  1. A Classroom Demonstration of Psychrometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jim A.; Nikolajczyk, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a bench-top demonstration of heating/humidification designed to provide visual confirmation of psychrometric principles outlined in thermodynamics texts. Includes a schematic sketch of the heater/humidifier apparatus, discussion of the six steps involved during the demonstration, and a table of experimental results. (JN)

  2. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOEpatents

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  3. Interface between fatigue, creep and stress-corrosion cracking on Ti6246 titanium alloy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sarrazin-Baudoux, C.; Chabanne, Y.; Petit, J.

    1999-07-01

    The influence of mean stress on the fatigue crack growth behavior of a Ti6246 alloy has been studied in the near-threshold area at room temperature and at 500 C. Tests were performed at various constant K{sub max} levels in ambient air, high vacuum and humidified Argon. Conditions for the occurrence of an abnormal behavior consisting in the disappearance of the threshold for sufficiently high K{sub max} level, are discussed with respect to environment and temperature. This effect is observed in air and in vacuum for K{sub max} higher than 52 MPa{radical}m, and is related to an intrinsic creep damage processmore » which appears more efficient at room temperature than at 500 C and more accentuated in air than in vacuum. In humidified Argon, the critical Kmax level is reduced at 22 MPa{radical}m at 500 C, such a detrimental effect being related to a Stress Corrosion Cracking process induced by water vapor.« less

  4. Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet and Hydrogen Infrastructure at Hickam Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-27

    there has been no evidence of busbar or endplate corrosion in the manifold region. The crossover leak was the result of a failed humidification device...leak that develops within the humidifier can lead to a combustible gas mixture entering the fuel cell stack. This humidification device has been

  5. CPAP Machines: Tips for Avoiding 10 Common Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... closed and reduce the air leak if you wear a nasal mask. A full-face-mask-style device that covers your mouth and nose also may work well for you. A CPAP-heated humidifier that attaches to the air pressure machine also may help. It's normal to sometimes wake ...

  6. Impact of humidification and nebulization during expiratory limb protection: an experimental bench study.

    PubMed

    Tonnelier, Alexandre; Lellouche, François; Bouchard, Pierre Alexandre; L'Her, Erwan

    2013-08-01

    Different filtering devices are used during mechanical ventilation to avoid dysfunction of flow and pressure transducers or for airborne microorganisms containment. Water condensates, resulting from the use of humidifiers, but also residual nebulization particles may have a major influence on expiratory limb resistance. To evaluate the influence of nebulization and active humidification on the resistance of expiratory filters. A respiratory system analog was constructed using a test lung, an ICU ventilator, heated humidifiers, and a piezoelectric nebulizer. Humidifiers were connected to different types of circuits (unheated, mono-heated, new-generation and old-generation bi-heated). Five filter types were evaluated: electrostatic, heat-and-moisture exchanger, standard, specific, and internal heated high-efficiency particulate air [HEPA] filter. Baseline characteristics were obtained from each dry filter. Differential pressure measurements were carried out after 24 hours of continuous in vitro use for each condition, and after 24 hours of use with an old-generation bi-heated circuit without nebulization. While using unheated circuits, measurements had to be interrupted before 24 hours for all the filtering devices except the internal heated HEPA filter. The heat-and-moisture exchangers occluded before 24 hours with the unheated and mono-heated circuits. The circuit type, nebulization practice, and duration of use did not influence the internal heated HEPA filter resistance. Expiratory limb filtration is likely to induce several major adverse events. Expiratory filter resistance increase is due mainly to the humidification circuit type, rather than to nebulization. If filtration is mandatory while using an unheated circuit, a dedicated filter should be used for ≤ 24 hours, or a heated HEPA for a longer duration.

  7. Insufficient Humidification of Respiratory Gases in Patients Who Are Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia at a Paediatric and Adult Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukari; Iwata, Sachiko; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Tanaka, Shoichiro; Hara, Naoko; Shindou, Ryota; Harada, Eimei; Kijima, Ryouji; Yamaga, Osamu; Ohkuma, Hitoe; Ushijima, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Teruo; Yamashita, Yushiro; Iwata, Osuke

    2017-01-01

    For cooled newborn infants, humidifier settings for normothermic condition provide excessive gas humidity because absolute humidity at saturation is temperature-dependent. To assess humidification of respiratory gases in patients who underwent moderate therapeutic hypothermia at a paediatric/adult intensive care unit, 6 patients were studied over 9 times. Three humidifier settings, 37-default (chamber-outlet, 37°C; Y-piece, 40°C), 33.5-theoretical (chamber-outlet, 33.5°C; Y-piece, 36.5°C), and 33.5-adjusted (optimised setting to achieve saturated vapour at 33.5°C using feedback from a thermohygrometer), were tested. Y-piece gas temperature/humidity and the incidence of high (>40.6 mg/L) and low (<32.9 mg/L) humidity relative to the target level (36.6 mg/L) were assessed. Y-piece gas humidity was 32.0 (26.8-37.3), 22.7 (16.9-28.6), and 36.9 (35.5-38.3) mg/L {mean (95% confidence interval)} for 37-default setting, 33.5-theoretical setting, and 33.5-adjusted setting, respectively. High humidity was observed in 1 patient with 37-default setting, whereas low humidity was seen in 5 patients with 37-default setting and 8 patients with 33.5-theoretical setting. With 33.5-adjusted setting, inadequate Y-piece humidity was not observed. Potential risks of the default humidifier setting for insufficient respiratory gas humidification were highlighted in patients cooled at a paediatric/adult intensive care unit. Y-piece gas conditions can be controlled to the theoretically optimal level by adjusting the setting guided by Y-piece gas temperature/humidity.

  8. Insufficient Humidification of Respiratory Gases in Patients Who Are Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia at a Paediatric and Adult Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yukari; Iwata, Sachiko; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Tanaka, Shoichiro; Hara, Naoko; Shindou, Ryota; Harada, Eimei; Kijima, Ryouji; Yamaga, Osamu; Ohkuma, Hitoe; Ushijima, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Teruo; Yamashita, Yushiro

    2017-01-01

    For cooled newborn infants, humidifier settings for normothermic condition provide excessive gas humidity because absolute humidity at saturation is temperature-dependent. To assess humidification of respiratory gases in patients who underwent moderate therapeutic hypothermia at a paediatric/adult intensive care unit, 6 patients were studied over 9 times. Three humidifier settings, 37-default (chamber-outlet, 37°C; Y-piece, 40°C), 33.5-theoretical (chamber-outlet, 33.5°C; Y-piece, 36.5°C), and 33.5-adjusted (optimised setting to achieve saturated vapour at 33.5°C using feedback from a thermohygrometer), were tested. Y-piece gas temperature/humidity and the incidence of high (>40.6 mg/L) and low (<32.9 mg/L) humidity relative to the target level (36.6 mg/L) were assessed. Y-piece gas humidity was 32.0 (26.8–37.3), 22.7 (16.9–28.6), and 36.9 (35.5–38.3) mg/L {mean (95% confidence interval)} for 37-default setting, 33.5-theoretical setting, and 33.5-adjusted setting, respectively. High humidity was observed in 1 patient with 37-default setting, whereas low humidity was seen in 5 patients with 37-default setting and 8 patients with 33.5-theoretical setting. With 33.5-adjusted setting, inadequate Y-piece humidity was not observed. Potential risks of the default humidifier setting for insufficient respiratory gas humidification were highlighted in patients cooled at a paediatric/adult intensive care unit. Y-piece gas conditions can be controlled to the theoretically optimal level by adjusting the setting guided by Y-piece gas temperature/humidity. PMID:28512388

  9. Noise exposure is increased with neonatal helmet CPAP in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP.

    PubMed

    Trevisanuto, D; Camiletti, L; Doglioni, N; Cavallin, F; Udilano, A; Zanardo, V

    2011-01-01

    in adults, noninvasive ventilation via a helmet is associated with significantly greater noise than nasal and facial masks. We hypothesized that noise exposure could be increased with neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP). Our primary objective was to compare the noise intensity produced by a neonatal helmet CPAP and a conventional nCPAP system. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the gas flow rate and the presence of the humidifier and the filter on noise levels during neonatal helmet CPAP treatment. in this bench study, noise intensity was measured in the following settings: helmet CPAP, nCPAP, incubator and the neonatal intensive care unit. In helmet CPAP, noise measurements were performed at different gas flow rates (8, 10 and 12 l/min), while in nCPAP, the flow rate was 8 l/min. For both CPAP systems, the level of pressure was maintained constant at 5 cmH(2) O. during neonatal helmet CPAP, the median (interquartile range) noise levels were significantly higher than those during nCPAP: 70.0 dB (69.9-70.4) vs. 62.7 dB (62.5-63.0); P<0.001. In the helmet CPAP, the noise intensities changed with increasing flow rate and with the presence of a humidifier or a filter. noise intensities generated by the neonatal helmet CPAP were significantly higher than those registered while using a conventional nCPAP system. In the helmet, the noise intensity depends on the gas flow rate, and the presence of a humidifier and a filter in the system. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  10. Temperature of gas delivered from ventilators.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Yusuke; Onodera, Mutsuo; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    Although heated humidifiers (HHs) are the most efficient humidifying device for mechanical ventilation, some HHs do not provide sufficient humidification when the inlet temperature to the water chamber is high. Because portable and home-care ventilators use turbines, blowers, pistons, or compressors to inhale in ambient air, they may have higher gas temperature than ventilators with piping systems. We carried out a bench study to investigate the temperature of gas delivered from portable and home-care ventilators, including the effects of distance from ventilator outlet, fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FIO2), and minute volume (MV). We evaluated five ventilators equipped with turbine, blower, piston, or compressor system. Ambient air temperature was adjusted to 24°C ± 0.5°C, and ventilation was set at FIO2 0.21, 0.6, and 1.0, at MV 5 and 10 L/min. We analyzed gas temperature at 0, 40, 80, and 120 cm from ventilator outlet and altered ventilator settings. While temperature varied according to ventilators, the outlet gas temperature of ventilators became stable after, at the most, 5 h. Gas temperature was 34.3°C ± 3.9°C at the ventilator outlet, 29.5°C ± 2.2°C after 40 cm, 25.4°C ± 1.2°C after 80 cm and 25.1°C ± 1.2°C after 120 cm (P < 0.01). FIO2 and MV did not affect gas temperature. Gas delivered from portable and home-care ventilator was not too hot to induce heated humidifier malfunctioning. Gas soon declined when passing through the limb.

  11. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  12. 76 FR 22805 - Medical Devices; Reclassification of the Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... use and adequate healing of wounds using the TOCE. In addition, FDA has evaluated more than 20 years... humidified oxygen topically at a pressure slightly greater than atmospheric pressure to aid healing of... pressure to aid healing of chronic skin ulcers such as bedsores. Elsewhere in the Federal Register of April...

  13. Effects of prolonged storage on survival and growth of outplanted bottomland oaks

    Treesearch

    David C. Mercker; David S. Buckley; John P. Conn

    2011-01-01

    A prominent difficulty during bottomland hardwood afforestation is that sites are often flooded during the preferred months of planting (January-March), which results in delayed planting (April-June) and reduced survival. We monitored growth and survival of oak seedlings planted in 11 different months (February through December) after varying periods of humidified cold...

  14. Bio-Physicochemical Interactions of Engineered Nanomaterials in In Vitro Cell Culture Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    viz. human hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep G2), human adinocarcinoma cell line (A549), human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293), human neuroblastoma...Glutamine, 1% Na-Pyruvate and 10 ml/L antibiotic solution at 37oC under a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% air.  Human hepatocarcinoma cell line

  15. 40 CFR 1065.309 - Continuous gas analyzer system-response and updating-recording verification-for gas analyzers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... discrete-mode testing. For this check we consider water vapor a gaseous constituent. This verification does... for water removed from the sample done in post-processing according to § 1065.659 and it does not... humidification vessel that contains water. You must humidify NO2 span gas with another moist gas stream. We...

  16. Water content of delivered gases during non-invasive ventilation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lellouche, François; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Lyazidi, Aissam; Deye, Nicolas; Taillé, Solenne; Brochard, Laurent

    2009-06-01

    No clear recommendation exists concerning humidification during non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and high flow CPAP, and few hygrometric data are available. We measured hygrometry during NIV delivered to healthy subjects with different humidification strategies: heated humidifier (HH), heat and moisture exchanger, (HME) or no humidification (NoH). For each strategy, a turbine and an ICU ventilator were used with different FiO(2) settings, with and without leaks. During CPAP, two different HH and NoH were tested. Inspired gases hygrometry was measured, and comfort was assessed. On a bench, we also assessed the impact of ambient air temperature, ventilator temperature and minute ventilation on HH performances (with NIV settings). During NIV, with NoH, gas humidity was very low when an ICU ventilator was used (5 mgH(2)O/l), but equivalent to ambient air hygrometry with a turbine ventilator at minimal FiO(2) (13 mgH(2)O/l). HME and HH had comparable performances (25-30 mgH(2)O/l), but HME's effectiveness was reduced with leaks (15 mgH(2)O/l). HH performances were reduced by elevated ambient air and ventilator output temperatures. During CPAP, dry gases (5 mgH(2)O/l) were less tolerated than humidified gases. Gases humidified at 15 or 30 mgH(2)O/l were equally tolerated. This study provides data on the level of humidity delivered with different humidification strategies during NIV and CPAP. HH and HME provide gas with the highest water content. Comfort data suggest that levels above 15 mgH(2)O/l are well tolerated. In favorable conditions, HH and HMEs are capable of providing such values, even in the presence of leaks.

  17. 40 CFR 1065.350 - H2O interference verification for CO2 NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... verification as follows: (1) Start, operate, zero, and span the CO2 NDIR analyzer as you would before an.... (2) Create a humidified test gas by bubbling zero gas that meets the specifications in § 1065.750..., as close as possible to the inlet of the analyzer. For example, measure dewpoint, T dew, and absolute...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.350 - H2O interference verification for CO2 NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... verification as follows: (1) Start, operate, zero, and span the CO2 NDIR analyzer as you would before an.... (2) Create a humidified test gas by bubbling zero gas that meets the specifications in § 1065.750..., as close as possible to the inlet of the analyzer. For example, measure dewpoint, T dew, and absolute...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.350 - H2O interference verification for CO2 NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... verification as follows: (1) Start, operate, zero, and span the CO2 NDIR analyzer as you would before an.... (2) Create a humidified test gas by bubbling zero gas that meets the specifications in § 1065.750..., as close as possible to the inlet of the analyzer. For example, measure dewpoint, T dew, and absolute...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.350 - H2O interference verification for CO2 NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... verification as follows: (1) Start, operate, zero, and span the CO2 NDIR analyzer as you would before an.... (2) Create a humidified test gas by bubbling zero gas that meets the specifications in § 1065.750..., as close as possible to the inlet of the analyzer. For example, measure dewpoint, T dew, and absolute...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.350 - H2O interference verification for CO2 NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... verification as follows: (1) Start, operate, zero, and span the CO2 NDIR analyzer as you would before an.... (2) Create a humidified test gas by bubbling zero gas that meets the specifications in § 1065.750..., as close as possible to the inlet of the analyzer. For example, measure dewpoint, T dew, and absolute...

  2. Airway extravasation induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Chun; Tapia, Reyno J.; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether hyperventilation of humidified warm air (HWA) induced airway extravasation in ovalbumin (Ova)-sensitized rats. Our results showed: 1) After isocapnic hyperventilation with HWA for 2 min, tracheal temperature (Ttr) was increased to 40.3°C, and the Evans blue contents in major airways and lung tissue were elevated to 651% and 707%, respectively, of that after hyperventilation with humidified room air in Ova-sensitized rats; this striking effect of HWA was absent in control rats. 2) The HWA-induced increase in Evans blue content in sensitized rats was completely prevented by a pretreatment with either L-732138, a selective antagonist of neurokinin type 1 (NK-1) receptor, or formoterol, a selective agonist of β2 adrenoceptor. This study demonstrated that an increase in airway temperature induced protein extravasation in the major airways and lung tissue of sensitized rats, and an activation of the NK-1 receptor by tachykinins released from bronchopulmonary C-fiber nerve endings was primarily responsible. PMID:25864799

  3. HD-SP2 Measurements of Black Carbon Containing Aerosols in South Korea during KORUS-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, K. D.; Perring, A. E.; Ahn, J.; Schwarz, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a light-absorbing aerosol with strong anthropogenic sources that has important climatic and health impacts, both regionally and globally. Materials internally mixed with BC, including water, affect its optical properties and lifetime in the atmosphere, and thus are critical to determining BC's ultimate impacts. The NASA KORUS-AQ campaign during the spring/summer of 2016 was a multi-platform research campaign focused on air quality over South Korea, in a region with particularly high BC emissions and loadings. The NOAA Humidified-Dual Single Particle Soot Photometer (HD-SP2) was deployed on the NASA DC-8 aircraft to measure the optical size and refractory BC content of individual particles under dry and humidified conditions as well as the BC mass mixing ratio. We focus on evaluating BC MMR in the free troposphere up to 400 hPa in the context of previous measurements; assessing the optical impacts of observed internal mixtures with BC at different times of day; and evaluating the contribution of water uptake on BC absorption and atmospheric lifetime over Korea in ambient conditions.

  4. Performance Characteristics of a PEM Fuel Cell with Parallel Flow Channels at Different Cathode Relative Humidity Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pil Hyong; Hwang, Sang Soon

    2009-01-01

    In fuel cells flow configuration and operating conditions such as cell temperature, humidity at each electrode and stoichiometric number are very crucial for improving performance. Too many flow channels could enhance the performance but result in high parasite loss. Therefore a trade-off between pressure drop and efficiency of a fuel cell should be considered for optimum design. This work focused on numerical simulation of the effects of operating conditions, especially cathode humidity, with simple micro parallel flow channels. It is known that the humidity at the cathode flow channel becomes very important for enhancing the ion conductivity of polymer membrane because fully humidified condition was normally set at anode. To investigate the effect of humidity on the performance of a fuel cell, in this study humidification was set to 100% at the anode flow channel and was changed by 0–100% at the cathode flow channel. Results showed that the maximum power density could be obtained under 60% humidified condition at the cathode where oxygen concentration was moderately high while maintaining high ion conductivity at a membrane. PMID:22291556

  5. Performance Characteristics of a PEM Fuel Cell with Parallel Flow Channels at Different Cathode Relative Humidity Levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pil Hyong; Hwang, Sang Soon

    2009-01-01

    In fuel cells flow configuration and operating conditions such as cell temperature, humidity at each electrode and stoichiometric number are very crucial for improving performance. Too many flow channels could enhance the performance but result in high parasite loss. Therefore a trade-off between pressure drop and efficiency of a fuel cell should be considered for optimum design. This work focused on numerical simulation of the effects of operating conditions, especially cathode humidity, with simple micro parallel flow channels. It is known that the humidity at the cathode flow channel becomes very important for enhancing the ion conductivity of polymer membrane because fully humidified condition was normally set at anode. To investigate the effect of humidity on the performance of a fuel cell, in this study humidification was set to 100% at the anode flow channel and was changed by 0-100% at the cathode flow channel. Results showed that the maximum power density could be obtained under 60% humidified condition at the cathode where oxygen concentration was moderately high while maintaining high ion conductivity at a membrane.

  6. Touchable Tornadoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhousen, David

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a tornado-producing machine that he used in teacher-led, student assisted demonstrations in order to reinforce concepts learned during a unit on weather. The machine, or simulator, was powered by a hair dryer, fan, and cool-mist humidifier. The machine consists of a demonstration table containing a plenum box,…

  7. 28. PUMP/ENGINE ROOM OFF THE BASEMENT OF MILL NO. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. PUMP/ENGINE ROOM OFF THE BASEMENT OF MILL NO. 1. ENGINE PLATFORM IS SEEN BEHIND PUMP. THIS AMERICAN MOISTURE CO. PUMP WAS USED TO HUMIDIFY UPPER FLOORS OF MILL. NOTE TANK TO LEFT, UNKNOWN USE. NOTHING IN THIS ROOM HAS BEEN USED SINCE 1945. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. NF-1 Dependent Gene Regulation in Drosophila Melanogaster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    standard cornmeal medium at 25oC in a humidified incubator. Flies were collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen at the same time of day to minimize...melanogaster media, strains and heat-shock conditions Flies were raised at room temperature (22–248C) on standard cornmeal medium. The Nf1 mutants Nf1P1 and

  9. Water vapor mass balance method for determining air infiltration rates in houses

    Treesearch

    David R. DeWalle; Gordon M. Heisler

    1980-01-01

    A water vapor mass balance technique that includes the use of common humidity-control equipment can be used to determine average air infiltration rates in buildings. Only measurements of the humidity inside and outside the home, the mass of vapor exchanged by a humidifier/dehumidifier, and the volume of interior air space are needed. This method gives results that...

  10. Investigation of low temperature solid oxide fuel cells for air-independent UUV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moton, Jennie Mariko

    Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) will benefit greatly from high energy density (> 500 Wh/L) power systems utilizing high-energy-density fuels and air-independent oxidizers. Current battery-based systems have limited energy densities (< 400 Wh/L), which motivate development of alternative power systems such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFC-based power systems have the potential to achieve the required UUV energy densities, and the current study explores how SOFCs based on gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) electrolytes with operating temperatures of 650°C and lower may operate in the unique environments of a promising UUV power plant. The plant would contain a H 2O2 decomposition reactor to supply humidified O2 to the SOFC cathode and exothermic aluminum/H2O combustor to provide heated humidified H2 fuel to the anode. To characterize low-temperature SOFC performance with these unique O2 and H2 source, SOFC button cells based on nickel/GDC (Gd0.1Ce0.9O 1.95) anodes, GDC electrolytes, and lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ or LSCF)/GDC cathodes were fabricated and tested for performance and stability with humidity on both the anode and the cathode. Cells were also tested with various reactant concentrations of H2 and O2 to simulate gas depletion down the channel of an SOFC stack. Results showed that anode performance depended primarily on fuel concentration and less on the concentration of the associated increase in product H2O. O 2 depletion with humidified cathode flows also caused significant loss in cell current density at a given voltage. With the humidified flows in either the anode or cathode, stability tests of the button cells at 650 °C showed stable voltage is maintained at low operating current (0.17 A/cm2) at up to 50 % by mole H2O, but at higher current densities (0.34 A/cm2), irreversible voltage degradation occurred at rates of 0.8-3.7 mV/hour depending on exposure time. From these button cell results, estimated average

  11. Experimental measurements during combustion of moist individual foliage samples

    Treesearch

    B.M. Pickett; C. Isackson; R. Wunder; T.H. Fletcher; B.W. Butler; D.R. Weise

    2010-01-01

    Individual samples of high moisture fuels from the western and southern United States and humidified aspen excelsior were burned over a flat-flame burner at 987° ± 12°C and 10 ± 0.5 mol% O2. Time-dependent mass and temperature profiles of these samples were obtained and analysed. It was observed that significant amounts of...

  12. Removal of Volatile Organics from Humidified Air Streams by Absorption.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Type Comments Activated Carbons: SK-4 nut shell LCL coconut shell WV-B coal base CT coconut shell Specialty Carbons: Graphpac graphitized carbon area...Capacity, g/g Percentage Sorbent ( virgin ) (treated)D Change SK-4 0.114 0.117 +2.6 Carbosieve S-11 0.195 0.180 -7.7 Spherocarb 0.149 0.151 +1.3 CT...and WV-B with respect to their adsorption capacities. CT and SK-4 are both coconut -derived carbons produced by the same manufacturer. Differences

  13. Morphology and Proton Transport in Humidified Phosphonated Peptoid Block Copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Jing; Jiang, Xi; Siegmund, Aaron; ...

    2016-04-04

    Polymers that conduct protons in the hydrated state are of crucial importance in a wide variety of clean energy applications such as hydrogen fuel cells and artificial photosynthesis. Phosphonated and sulfonated polymers are known to conduct protons at low water content. In this study, we report on the synthesis phosphonated peptoid diblock copolymers, poly-N-(2-ethyl)hexylglycine-block-poly-N-phosphonomethylglycine (pNeh-b-pNpm), with volume fractions of pNpm (Φ Npm) values ranging from 0.13 to 0.44 and dispersity (¯D) ≤ 1.0003. The morphologies of the dry block copolypeptoids were determined by transmission electron microscopy and in both the dry and hydrated states by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. Drymore » samples with Φ Npm > 0.13 exhibited a lamellar morphology. Upon hydration, the lowest molecular weight sample transitioned to a hexagonally packed cylinder morphology, while the others maintained their dry morphologies. Water uptake of all of the ordered samples was 8.1 ± 1.1 water molecules per phosphonate group. In spite of this, the proton conductivity of the ordered pNeh-b-pNpm copolymers ranged from 0.002 to 0.008 S/cm. Finally, we demonstrate that proton conductivity is maximized in high molecular weight, symmetric pNeh-b-pNpm copolymers.« less

  14. Morphology and Proton Transport in Humidified Phosphonated Peptoid Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Polymers that conduct protons in the hydrated state are of crucial importance in a wide variety of clean energy applications such as hydrogen fuel cells and artificial photosynthesis. Phosphonated and sulfonated polymers are known to conduct protons at low water content. In this paper, we report on the synthesis phosphonated peptoid diblock copolymers, poly-N-(2-ethyl)hexylglycine-block-poly-N-phosphonomethylglycine (pNeh-b-pNpm), with volume fractions of pNpm (ϕNpm) values ranging from 0.13 to 0.44 and dispersity (Đ) ≤ 1.0003. The morphologies of the dry block copolypeptoids were determined by transmission electron microscopy and in both the dry and hydrated states by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. Dry samples with ϕNpm > 0.13 exhibited a lamellar morphology. Upon hydration, the lowest molecular weight sample transitioned to a hexagonally packed cylinder morphology, while the others maintained their dry morphologies. Water uptake of all of the ordered samples was 8.1 ± 1.1 water molecules per phosphonate group. In spite of this, the proton conductivity of the ordered pNeh-b-pNpm copolymers ranged from 0.002 to 0.008 S/cm. We demonstrate that proton conductivity is maximized in high molecular weight, symmetric pNeh-b-pNpm copolymers. PMID:27134312

  15. [Biological pollution and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Carrer, P; Moscato, G

    2004-01-01

    House dust mites, pets, microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria are the main causes of indoor allergens. The diseases correlated to the presence of these allergens are of increasing importance in public health as well as in occupational medicine. Indoor allergens are widespread in residential buildings as well as in public and in office buildings. Surveys conducted in Italian office buildings demonstrated detectable allergen concentrations in most of these buildings. In some cases, the concentrations were higher than the proposed risk threshold for allergenic sensitisation or for the elicitation of symptoms in allergic individuals. The health effects of exposure to indoor allergens mainly include allergic asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis caused by IgE reactions in predisposed subjects. Moreover, exposure to indoor biological agents can cause extrinsic allergic alveolitis or other effects such as the so-called "humidifier fever" due to contaminated humidifiers. Standardized methods for the measurement of indoor allergen levels are available, and may be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of individual allergic patients or for group studies in order to evaluate the relationship between allergen indoor levels and health effects or to assess indoor allergen levels in private or public buildings for preventative purposes.

  16. Development of Algorithms for Control of Humidity in Plant Growth Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Algorithms were developed to control humidity in plant growth chambers used for research on bioregenerative life support at Kennedy Space Center. The algorithms used the computed water vapor pressure (based on measured air temperature and relative humidity) as the process variable, with time-proportioned outputs to operate the humidifier and de-humidifier. Algorithms were based upon proportional-integral-differential (PID) and Fuzzy Logic schemes and were implemented using I/O Control software (OPTO-22) to define and download the control logic to an autonomous programmable logic controller (PLC, ultimate ethernet brain and assorted input-output modules, OPTO-22), which performed the monitoring and control logic processing, as well the physical control of the devices that effected the targeted environment in the chamber. During limited testing, the PLC's successfully implemented the intended control schemes and attained a control resolution for humidity of less than 1%. The algorithms have potential to be used not only with autonomous PLC's but could also be implemented within network-based supervisory control programs. This report documents unique control features that were implemented within the OPTO-22 framework and makes recommendations regarding future uses of the hardware and software for biological research by NASA.

  17. Heated humidification improves clinical outcomes, compared to a heat and moisture exchanger in children with tracheostomies.

    PubMed

    McNamara, David G; Asher, M Innes; Rubin, Bruce K; Stewart, Alistair; Byrnes, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    The upper airway humidifies and warms inspired gases before they reach the trachea, a process bypassed by the insertion of a tracheostomy, necessitating humidification of inspired gases. The optimal method of humidification is not known. We conducted a short-term 20-hour study and a long-term 10-week randomized crossover study comparing a heated humidifier (HH) to a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) in children with established tracheostomies. Subjects were assessed for clinical events, clinical examination findings, airway cytokine levels, and airway secretion viscoelasticity. For the short-term study, 15 children were recruited; for the long-term study, 14 children were recruited. Children using the HH had decreased respiratory examination score (P < .001) but no change in clinical events over the short term. There was a decrease in acute clinical events (P = .008) in the long-term study. No differences were found in airway secretion viscoelasticity results or cytokine levels in either study, but these sample numbers were limited. Over 20 hours use, HH, compared to HME, improved work of breathing. Over a longer 10 week treatment period HH resulted in decreased adverse clinical events.

  18. Fast stack activation procedure and effective long-term storage for high-performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ri; Seo, Min Ho; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Jung, Yong-Min; Kim, Beom-Jun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    Time-saving stack activation and effective long-term storage are one of most important issues that must be resolved for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Herein, we developed the cost-effective stack activation method to finish the whole activation within 30 min and the long-term storage method by using humidified N2 without any significant decrease in cell's performance for 30 days. Specifically, the pre-activation step with the direct injection of DI water into the stack and storage at 65 or 80 °C for 2 h increases the distinctive phase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in Nafion membrane, which significantly reduces the total activation time within 30 min. Additionally, the long-term storage with humidified N2 has no effect on the Pt oxidation and drying of Nafion membrane for 30 days due to its exergonic reaction in the cell. As a result, the high water content in Nafion membrane and the decrease of Pt oxidation are the critical factors that have a strong influence on the activation and long-term storage for high-performance PEMFC.

  19. Mist and water condensation inside incubators reduce the efficacy of phototherapy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Manoel; Torrao, Carolina Turano; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2011-03-01

    To measure the irradiance in humidified incubator under three different overhead phototherapy devices. The effective irradiance of three phototherapy devices was assessed by taking a series of irradiance measurements in the illuminated field. Measurements were made with a fixed bandwidth broadband radiometer (380-530 nm). The distance between the light source and the radiometer was 35 cm for the daylight fluorescent lamp, 40 cm for the light emitting diode (LED) and 50 cm for the halogen phototherapy. A double-wall incubator was kept at 36°C and set at three different levels of humidity (60-70%, 80% and equal or above 90%). The irradiance under the overhead daylight fluorescent lamp phototherapy did not change with the increasing humidity. However, above 90% humidity, when water vapour inside the incubator was so saturated to the point of totally condensing in the incubator walls, the measured irradiance decreased 15% of the initial values with the blue LED phototherapy and 45% with the halogen spotlight phototherapy. Highly humidified incubators are frequently used to treat very low birthweight infants. Health professionals should be aware that mist and water condensation inside an incubator may significantly reduce the efficacy of treatment.

  20. Improved Oxygen Sources for Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1983-01-01

    Research is described which is directed toward the preparation of chemical oxygen sources which exhibited improved O2 storage and reaction characteristics when compared to potassium superoxide (KO2). The initial focus of the research was the preparation of calcium superoxide (Ca(O2)2) by the disproportionation of calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate. the Ca(O2)2 was characterized by chemical, thermal, and x ray analyses. Several methods for scaling up the Ca(O2)2 syntheis process were studied. The reactivity of Ca(O2)2 toward humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) was evaluated and was compared to that of KO2 under flow test conditions approximating those existing in portable breathing apparatus. The reactivities of mixtures of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 or lithium peroxide towards humidified CO2 were also studied. Finally, an analysis of two commercial, KO2-based, self contained self rescuers was conducted to determine the potential weight and volume savings which would be possible if Ca(O2)2 or a mixture of KO2 and Ca(O2)2 were used as a replacement for KO2.

  1. Sanosil, a more effective agent for preventing the hospital-acquired ventilator associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yousefshahi, Fardin; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Anbarafshan, Mohammad; Khashayar, Patricia; Najafi, Atabak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effects of Sanosil and glutaraldehyde 2 percent in disinfecting ventilator connecting tubes in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment. The 12-week open-labelled clinical trial was conducted in the surgical ICU of a teaching hospital from March to May 2005. In the first phase of the study, high level disinfection was performed using glutaraldehyde 2 percent, whereas Sanosil was used as the disinfectant agent of the second phase. Samples for microbial culture were obtained from the Y piece, the expiratory limb proximal to the ventilator and the humidifier in different stages; the results were then compared. Positive culture was more frequently reported in Y pieces, humidifiers and expiratory end of ventilators. Comparing the two groups, there were more positive cultures in the glutaraldehyde group (p value = 0.005); multiple organism growths, gram negative, gram positive and fungi were also more frequent in this group (p value = 0.01; 0. 007; 0. 062; 0.144, respectively). The paper shows that Sanosil is an effective agent in reducing the contamination risk in the tubes used in ICUs.

  2. Airway Humidification During High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Airway Humidification During High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Patrick F Allan MD, Michael J Hollingsworth CRT, Gordon C Maniere CRT, Anthony K...about the risk of inadequate humidification during high- frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV). METHODS: We studied 5 humidifiers during HFPV with a...50 L/min, and the ConchaTherm Hi-Flow with VDR nebulizer) provided carinal humidification equivalent to the comparator setup, without regard to

  3. Method of sterilization using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  4. Electrochemical production of ozone and hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganisms and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  5. Influence of ambient temperature and minute ventilation on passive and active heat and moisture exchangers.

    PubMed

    Lellouche, François; Qader, Siham; Taillé, Solenne; Lyazidi, Aissam; Brochard, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    During invasive mechanical ventilation, inspired gases must be humidified. We previously showed that high ambient temperature greatly impaired the hygrometric performance of heated wire-heated humidifiers. The aim of this bench and clinical study was to assess the humidification performance of passive and active heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and the impact of ambient temperature and ventilator settings. We first tested on the bench a device with passive and active humidification properties (Humid-Heat, Teleflex), and 2 passive hydrophobic/hygroscopic HMEs (Hygrobac and Hygrobac S, Tyco Healthcare). The devices were tested at 3 different ambient temperatures (from 22 to 30 °C), and at 2 minute ventilation settings (10 and 20 L/min). Inspired gas hygrometry was measured at the Y-piece with the psychrometric method. In addition to the bench study, we measured the hygrometry of inspired gases in 2 different clinical studies. In 15 mechanically ventilated patients, we evaluated Humid-Heat at different settings. Additionally, we evaluated Humid-Heat and compared it with Hygrobac in a crossover study in 10 patients. On the bench, with the Hygrobac and Hygrobac S the inspired absolute humidity was ∼ 30 mg H2O/L, and with the Humid-Heat, slightly < 35 mg H2O/L. Ambient temperature and minute ventilation did not have a clinically important difference on the performance of the tested devices. During the clinical evaluation, Humid-Heat provided inspired humidity in a range from 28.5 to 42.0 mg H2O/L, depending on settings, and was only weakly influenced by the patient's body temperature. In this study both passive and active HMEs had stable humidification performance with negligible influence of ambient temperature and minute ventilation. This contrasts with previous findings with heated wire-heated humidifiers. Although there are no clear data demonstrating that higher humidification impacts outcomes, it is worth noting that humidity was significantly higher with the

  6. Recombinant Reflectin-Based Optical Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    sili- con substrates were placed in a sealed plastic box. The RH was controlled using a Dydra electronic cigar humidifier and monitored using a Fisher...diffraction gratings to generate diffraction patterns. Nano-spheres and la- mellar microstructures of refCBA samples were observed by scanning electron ...samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Despite the reduced complexity of the refCBA protein compared to natural

  7. The Influence of Relative Humidity on Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Flow Control Actuator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, M.; Thomas, F. O.; Corke, T. C.; Patel, M.

    2012-11-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators possess numerous advantages for flow control applications and have been the focus of several previous studies. Most work has been performed in relatively pristine laboratory settings. In actual flow control applications, however, it is essential to assess the impact of various environmental influences on actuator performance. As a first effort toward assessing a broad range of environmental effects on DBD actuator performance, the influence of relative humidity (RH) is considered. Actuator performance is quantified by force balance measurements of reactive thrust while RH is systematically varied via an ultrasonic humidifier. The DBD plasma actuator assembly, force balance, and ultrasonic humidifier are all contained inside a large, closed test chamber instrumented with RH and temperature sensors in order to accurately estimate the average RH at the actuator. Measurements of DBD actuator thrust as a function of RH for several different applied voltage regimes and dielectric materials and thicknesses are presented. Based on these results, several important design recommendations are made. This work was supported by Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II Contract No. N00014-11-C-0267 issued by the U.S. Department of the Navy.

  8. Influence of mouth opening on oropharyngeal humidification and temperature in a bench model of neonatal continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Hendrik S; Ullrich, Tim L; Bührer, Christoph; Czernik, Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2017-02-01

    Clinical studies show that non-invasive respiratory support by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) affects gas conditioning in the upper airways, especially in the presence of mouth leaks. Using a new bench model of neonatal CPAP, we investigated the influence of mouth opening on oropharyngeal temperature and humidity. The model features the insertion of a heated humidifier between an active model lung and an oropharyngeal head model to simulate the recurrent expiration of heated, humidified air. During unsupported breathing, physiological temperature and humidity were attained inside the model oropharynx, and mouth opening had no significant effect on oropharyngeal temperature and humidity. During binasal CPAP, the impact of mouth opening was investigated using three different scenarios: no conditioning in the CPAP circuit, heating only, and heated humidification. Mouth opening had a strong negative impact on oropharyngeal humidification in all tested scenarios, but heated humidification in the CPAP circuit maintained clinically acceptable humidity levels regardless of closed or open mouths. The model can be used to test new equipment for use with CPAP, and to investigate the effects of other methods of non-invasive respiratory support on gas conditioning in the presence of leaks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A Simple Decontamination Approach Using Hydrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal article To evaluate the use of relatively low levels of hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) for the inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores within an indoor environment. Methods and Results: Laboratory-scale decontamination tests were conducted using bacterial spores of both B. anthracis Ames and Bacillus atrophaeus inoculated onto several types of materials. Pilot-scale tests were also conducted using a larger chamber furnished as an indoor office. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) humidifiers filled with aqueous solutions of 3% or 8% hydrogen peroxide were used to generate the HPV inside the mock office. The spores were exposed to the HPV for periods ranging from 8 hours up to one week. Conclusions: Four to seven day exposures to low levels of HPV (average air concentrations of approximately 5-10 parts per million) were effective in inactivating B. anthracis spores on multiple materials. The HPV can be generated with COTS humidifiers and household H2O2 solutions. With the exception of one test/material, B. atrophaeus spores were equally or more resistant to HPV inactivation compared to those from B. anthracis Ames. Significance and Impact of Study: This simple and effective decontamination method is another option that could be widely applied in the event of a B. anthracis spore release.

  10. Control assembly for controlling a fuel cell system during shutdown and restart

    DOEpatents

    Venkataraman, Ramki; Berntsen, George; Carlson, Glenn L.; Farooque, Mohammad; Beachy, Dan; Peterhans, Stefan; Bischoff, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    A fuel cell system and method in which the fuel cell system receives and an input oxidant gas and an input fuel gas, and in which a fuel processing assembly is provided and is adapted to at least humidify the input fuel gas which is to be supplied to the anode of the fuel cell of the system whose cathode receives the oxidant input gas via an anode oxidizing assembly which is adapted to couple the output of the anode of the fuel cell to the inlet of the cathode of the fuel cell during normal operation, shutdown and restart of the fuel cell system, and in which a control assembly is further provided and is adapted to respond to shutdown of the fuel cell system during which input fuel gas and input oxidant gas cease to be received by the fuel cell system, the control assembly being further adapted to, when the fuel cell system is shut down: control the fuel cell system so as to enable a purging gas to be able to flow through the fuel processing assembly to remove humidified fuel gas from the processing assembly and to enable a purging gas to be able to flow through the anode of the fuel cell.

  11. Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Ling; Zhao, Ren-Zheng; Zhang, Zheng-Dong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the levels and possible determinants of phthalate esters (PEs) in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children, dust was collected from 215 urban houses in Nanjing, China, and 145 outdoor settled dust samples were collected nearby. Six PEs were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All PEs were detected in the dust from approximately 90% of the houses, with the exception of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which had only a 59% detection rate. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the most abundant PEs, with geometric means of 110 and 16.4 μg g-1, respectively, and maximal concentrations 9950 and 2150 μg g-1. Factor analysis showed that DBP, DEHP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) might come from the same source and were significantly influenced by the use of solid-wood floor wax. High BBP, DEHP, DOP and total PE levels were associated with indices of dampness, and high DOP was associated with humidifier use. In conclusion, six PEs are ubiquitous in urban settled house dust in Nanjing, China, and both plastic materials and cosmetic and personal care products are important sources. Flooring material, dampness and humidifier use potentially influence house dust PE levels.

  12. A humidity controlled Nephelometer system to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishya, Aditya; O'Dowd, Colin; Jennings, S. Gerard

    2010-05-01

    A Humidograph system has been designed to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols for different air-masses and for different seasons in the marine environment. Since ambient marine aerosols are likely to be found in a metastable state, and in accordance with recommendations of WMO/GAW to sample dry aerosol, a drying unit (Nafion based) is placed just after the inlet to dry the aerosols to a relative humidity (RH) < 40% so as not to misinterpret the optical properties of hygroscopic aerosols if they are on the descending branch of the hysteresis curve. The flow after the dryer is split into two, one going to a 3-wavelength TSI-3563 Integrating Nephelometer, and the other to a Gore-Tex based humidifier followed by a single-wavelength TSI-3561 Integrating Nephelometer. The humidifier is used to vary the RH from 40% to 90%. While the TSI-3563 Integrating Nephelometer will operate at RH < 40%, the TSI-3561 Integrating Nephelometer will operate under varying RH conditions. Software developed in LabVIEW is used to control the hardware components and to log the data in a predefined format. Results of the performance of the Humidograph system in the laboratory and at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are presented.

  13. Humidification performance of 48 passive airway humidifiers: comparison with manufacturer data.

    PubMed

    Lellouche, François; Taillé, Solenne; Lefrançois, Frédéric; Deye, Nicolas; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Jouvet, Philippe; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Fumagalli, Bruno; Brochard, Laurent

    2009-02-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are increasingly used in the ICU for gas conditioning during mechanical ventilation. Independent assessments of the humidification performance of HMEs are scarce. The aim of the present study was thus to assess the humidification performance of a large number of adult HMEs. We assessed 48 devices using a bench test apparatus that simulated real-life physiologic ventilation conditions. Thirty-two devices were described by the manufacturers as HMEs, and 16 were described as antibacterial filters. The test apparatus provided expiratory gases with an absolute humidity (AH) of 35 mg H(2)O/L. The AH of inspired gases was measured after steady state using the psychrometric method. We performed three hygrometric measurements for each device, measured their resistance, and compared our results with the manufacturer data. Of the 32 HMEs tested, only 37.5% performed well (>or= 30 mg H(2)O/L), while 25% performed poorly (< 25 mg H(2)O/L). The mean difference (+/- SD) between our measurements and the manufacturer data was 3.0 +/- 2.7 mg H(2)O/L for devices described as HMEs (maximum, 8.9 mg H(2)O/L) [p = 0.0001], while the mean difference for 36% of the HMEs was > 4 mg H(2)O/L. The mean difference for the antibacterial filters was 0.2 +/- 1.4 mg H(2)O/L. The mean resistance of all the tested devices was 2.17 +/- 0.70 cm H(2)O/L/s. Several HMEs performed poorly and should not be used as HMEs. The values determined by independent assessments may be lower than the manufacturer data. Describing a device as an HME does not guarantee that it provides adequate humidification. The performance of HMEs must be verified by independent assessment.

  14. Removal of VOCs from humidified gas streams using activated carbon cloth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Rood, M.J.; Larson, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of relative humidity (RH) on the adsorption of soluble (acetone) and insoluble (benzene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with activated carbon cloths (ACC). A gravimetric balance was used in conjunction with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrophotometer to determine the individual amounts of water and VOC adsorbed on an ACC sample. RH values from 0 to 90% and organic concentrations from 350 to 1000 ppmv were examined. The presence of water vapor in the gas-stream along with acetone (350 and 500 ppmv) had little effect on the adsorption capacity of acetone even at 90% RH. Water vapor in the gas stream had little effect on the adsorption capacity of benzene (500 ppmv) until about 65% RH, when a rapid decrease resulted in the adsorption capacity of benzene with increasing RH. This RH was also about where capillary condensation of water vapor occurs within ACC pores. Water vapor condenses within the ACC pores, making them unavailable for benzene adsorption. Increasing benzene concentration can have a significant effect on the amount of water vapor adsorbed. At 86% RH and 500 ppmv, 284 mg/g water was adsorbed, while at 86% RH and 1000 ppmv, only 165 mg/g water was adsorbed. Water vapor was more inhibitory for benzene adsorption as benzene concentration in the gas stream decreased. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Humidification of inspired gases during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Gross, J L; Park, G R

    2012-04-01

    Humidification of inspired gas is mandatory for all mechanically ventilated patients to prevent secretion retention, tracheal tube blockage and adverse changes occurring to the respiratory tract epithelium. However, the debate over "ideal" humidification continues. Several devices are available that include active and passive heat and moisture exchangers and hot water humidifiers Each have their advantages and disadvantages in mechanically ventilated patients. This review explores each device in turn and defines their role in clinical practice.

  16. Artificial humidification for the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, N

    Caring for patients who are mechanically ventilated poses many challenges for critical care nurses. It is important to humidify the patient's airways artificially to prevent complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. There is no gold standard to determine which type of humidification is best for patients who are artificially ventilated. This article provides an overview of commonly used artificial humidification for mechanically ventilated patients and discusses nurses' responsibilities in caring for patients receiving artificial humidification.

  17. Air Revitalization Using Superoxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore; Wood, Peter C.; Spitze, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    Pellets made from powder mixtures of potassium superoxide, KO2, and calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2, proven markedly superior to pellets of pure KO2 for adding O2 to and removing CO2 from atmospheric-pressure flow of humidified CO2 in He. Superoxides used extensively to supply O2 and scrub CO2 in variety of ambient-pressure life-support applications, including portable self-contained breathing apparatuses, spacecraft, and undersea submersible craft.

  18. Humidity Control in the U.S. Air Force Aircraft Service Shelter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    printed circuit board control module , terminal boards, and blowt.r, etc.) are off-the-shelf commercial components. Only the humidifier ho:;Ift, I...indication of the shelter RH. - Circuit Breaker: A 20 amp, three pole breaker is providud fur equipment protection. o Water Storage Tank. A stainless...tapped into the shelter’s existing electrical system at the panelboard, on the load side of the 100 Amp main AC circuit breaker. Power is then

  19. Mechanisms of Action of Anticholinesterases and Oximes on Acetylcholine Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-23

    Maidstone, England) presoaked in 0.05% polyethylenimine (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) solution (to reduce nonspecific binding). The sample was washed on the...fiber filters presoaked in 0.05% polyethylenimine , using a Cell Harvester (Brandel, Gaithersburg, MD). Filters were washed twice with 5 ml of ice-cold...York). Cells were incubated at 370 in an atmosphere consisting of 10% CO2 and 90% humidified air. The medium was changed on day 3 and day 5 and

  20. Testing and Evaluation of the Bear Medical Systems, Inc. Bear 33 Volume Ventilator System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    approved for publication. RICHARD J. KNECHT, Lt Col, USAF, NC ROGER L STORK , Col, USAF, BSC Project Scientist Chief, Crew Systems Branch EORCHENDER...no problems. After the vibration tests, a visual inspection of the humidifier revealed that a screw and metal clip from a terminal on the incoming...hexagonal J-bolt nuts, which secure the sled to the litter, with larger wing nuts. This modification will allow the sled to be adequately secured by

  1. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-02-01

    -Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of a centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006a). The present report is an update to that document which summarizes results of an analysis of the impact of adding a humidifier to the HVAC system to maintain minimum levels of space relative humidity (RH) in winter. The space RH in winter has direct impact on occupant comfort and on control of dust mites, many types of disease bacteria, and 'dry air' electric shocks. Chapter 8 in ASHRAE's 2005 Handbook of Fundamentals (HOF) suggests a 30% lower limit on RH for indoor temperatures in the range of {approx}68-69F based on comfort (ASHRAE 2005). Table 3 in chapter 9 of the same reference suggests a 30-55% RH range for winter as established by a Canadian study of exposure limits for residential indoor environments (EHD 1987). Harriman, et al (2001) note that for RH levels of 35% or higher, electrostatic shocks are minimized and that dust mites cannot live at RH levels below 40%. They also indicate that many disease bacteria life spans are minimized when space RH is held within a 30-60% range. From the foregoing it is reasonable to assume that a winter space RH range of 30-40% would be an acceptable compromise between comfort

  2. Predictors of indoor absolute humidity and estimated effects on influenza virus survival in grade schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low absolute humidity (AH) has been associated with increased influenza virus survival and transmissibility and the onset of seasonal influenza outbreaks. Humidification of indoor environments may mitigate viral transmission and may be an important control strategy, particularly in schools where viral transmission is common and contributes to the spread of influenza in communities. However, the variability and predictors of AH in the indoor school environment and the feasibility of classroom humidification to levels that could decrease viral survival have not been studied. Methods Automated sensors were used to measure temperature, humidity and CO2 levels in two Minnesota grade schools without central humidification during two successive winters. Outdoor AH measurements were derived from the North American Land Data Assimilation System. Variability in indoor AH within classrooms, between classrooms in the same school, and between schools was assessed using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). Predictors of indoor AH were examined using time-series Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity models. Classroom humidifiers were used when school was not in session to assess the feasibility of increasing indoor AH to levels associated with decreased influenza virus survival, as projected from previously published animal experiments. Results AH varied little within classrooms (CCC >0.90) but was more variable between classrooms in the same school (CCC 0.81 for School 1, 0.88 for School 2) and between schools (CCC 0.81). Indoor AH varied widely during the winter (range 2.60 to 10.34 millibars [mb]) and was strongly associated with changes in outdoor AH (p < 0.001). Changes in indoor AH on school weekdays were strongly associated with CO2 levels (p < 0.001). Over 4 hours, classroom humidifiers increased indoor AH by 4 mb, an increase sufficient to decrease projected 1-hour virus survival by an absolute value of 30% during winter months

  3. Comparing charcoal and zeolite reflection filters for volatile anaesthetics: A laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sturesson, Louise W; Frennström, Jan O; Ilardi, Marcella; Reinstrup, Peter

    2015-08-01

    A modified heat-moisture exchanger that incorporates a reflecting filter for use with partial rebreathing of exhaled volatile anaesthetics has been commercially available since the 1990 s. The main advantages of the device are efficient delivery of inhaled sedation to intensive care patients and reduced anaesthetic consumption during anaesthesia. However, elevated arterial CO2 values have been observed with an anaesthetic conserving device compared with a conventional heat and moisture exchanger, despite compensation for larger apparatus dead space. The objective of this study is to thoroughly explore the properties of two reflecting materials (charcoal and zeolites). A controlled, prospective, observational laboratory study. Lund University Hospital, Sweden, from December 2011 to December 2012. None. Three filters, with identical volumes, were compared using different volatile anaesthetics at different conditions of temperature and moisture. The filtering materials were charcoal or zeolite. Glass spheres were used as an inert control. Consumption of volatile anaesthetics using different reflecting materials in filters at different conditions regarding temperature and moisture. CO2 reflection by the filtering materials: glass spheres, charcoal or zeolite. Isoflurane consumption in an open system was 60.8 g h(-1). The isoflurane consumption in dry, warm air was 39.8 g h(-1) with glass spheres. Changing to charcoal and zeolite had a profound effect on isoflurane consumption, 11.8 and 10.7 g h(-1), respectively. Heating and humidifying the air as well as the addition of N2O created only minor changes in consumption. The percentage of isoflurane conserved by the charcoal filter was independent of the isoflurane concentration (0.5 to 4.5%). Reflection of sevoflurane, desflurane and halothane by the charcoal filter was similar to reflection of isoflurane. Both charcoal and zeolite filters had CO2 reflecting properties and end-tidal CO2 increased by 3 to 3.7% compared

  4. Occupational Survey Report, Cardiopulmonary Laboratory, AFSC 4H0X1, OSSN: 2541

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    patients within facility 97 E0211 Set up humidifiers 97 E0175 Instruct patients in use of incentive spirometers 97 A0031 Obtain sputum samples 97 A0026...D0137 Calibrate pulmonary function testing equipment 100 D0150 Perform routine spirometry tests 100 D0146 Perform lung diffusion tests 100 A0042 Perform...consultations, or procedures 31 D0150 Perform routine spirometry tests 23 35 TABLE A2 REPRESENTATIVE TASKS PERFORMED BY MEMBERS IN THE SUPERVISION AND

  5. Genotoxic Changes to Rodent Cells Exposed in Vitro to Tungsten, Nickel, Cobalt and Iron

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-10

    SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 20 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified...37 ° C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. Cultures were routinely fed every 3–4 days, and passaged weekly. Experiments were conducted...Samples were stored at −80 ° C until needed. 2.4. Microarray Analysis RNA samples were sent to the Genomics Core of the Lerner Research Institute at the

  6. Energy Conversion Efficiency Potential for Forward-Deployed Generation Using Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    fuel cells vs. DCFCs. PEMFC PAFC MCFC SOFC DCFC Electrolyte Polymer Phosphoric acid Molten car- bonate salt Ceramic Fused KNO3 Operating...air O2/air CO2/O2/air O2/air Humidified air Efficiency (Higher Heating Value [HHV]) 30–35% 40–50% 50–60% 45–55% 80% PEMFC : Proton Exchange... PEMFC proton-exchange membrane fuel cell SOFC solid oxide fuel cell SRI Statistical Research, Inc. TR technical report TRL technology readiness level

  7. Local hyperthermia benefits natural and experimental common colds.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, D.; Barrow, I.; Arthur, J.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether inhaling fully humidified air at 43 degrees C gave more benefit to cold sufferers than inhaling air at 30 degrees C. DESIGN--Randomised double blind trial. Setting--General practice and the common cold research unit. SUBJECTS--87 Unselected patients with typical acute nasal and upper respiratory symptoms (general practice study), and 84 volunteers aged 18-50 without a history of chronic or allergic diseases. INTERVENTIONS--Subjects breathed from apparatus delivering 40 litres of room air heated to 43 degrees C or 30 degrees C and fully humidified (relative humidity 100%) per minute. End point--Reduction in severity of disease. MEASUREMENTS and main results--Patients recorded their symptoms (general practice study) and observers recorded symptoms and signs, weight of nasal secretions, isolation of virus, and antibody responses in volunteers. Patients treated for 20 minutes at 43 degrees C had in the succeeding days roughly half the score for symptoms of those treated at 30 degrees C. Volunteers treated for 30 minutes on three occasions when they were starting a cold showed an 18% [corrected] reduction in symptoms. Treatment of volunteers for 20 minutes at the onset of the cold and for 10 minutes on succeeding days showed no difference between 43 degrees C and 30 degrees C. CONCLUSIONS--Nasal hyperthermia can improve the course of a common cold and also give immediate relief of symptoms. PMID:2500196

  8. Characteristics and performance of lanthanum gallate electrolyte-supported SOFC under ethanol steam and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Zhu, Xin-Jian; Hu, Wan-Qi; Yu, Qing-Chun; Tu, Heng-Yong

    This study is focused on the electrochemical performance of perovskite-type materials based on doped LaGaO 3. La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3- δ (LSGM) and La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.115Co 0.085O 3- δ (LSGMC) were used as electrolytes and (Pr 0.7Ca 0.3) 0.9MnO 3 (PCM) and La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3- δ (LSCM) as cathode and anode material, respectively. LSGM and LSGMC electrolytes were prepared by tape casting with a thickness of about 600 μm. The performance of LSCM/LSGMC/PCM was slightly superior to that obtained on LSCM/LSGM/PCM at different temperatures in both humidified hydrogen and ethanol steam atmospheres, good values of power output in LSCM/LSGMC/PCM were 182 and 169 mW cm -2 using humidified hydrogen and ethanol steam as fuel, respectively, and oxygen as oxidant at 850 °C. Cell stability tests indicate no significant degradation in performance after 60 h of cell testing when LSCM anode was exposed to ethanol steam at 750 °C. Almost no carbon deposits were detected after testing in ethanol steam at 750 °C for >60 h on the LSCM anodes, suggesting that carbon deposition was limited during cell operation.

  9. Efficacy of high-flow oxygen by nasal cannula with active humidification in a patient with acute respiratory failure of neuromuscular origin.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Lobato, Salvador; Folgado, Miguel Angel; Chapa, Angel; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of choice for patients with respiratory failure of neuromuscular origin, especially in patients with hypercapnic respiratory acidosis, is noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Endotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation are indicated for patients with severe respiratory compromise or failure of NIV. In recent years, high-flow oxygen therapy and active humidification devices have been introduced, and emerging evidence suggests that high-flow oxygen may be effective in various clinical settings, such as acute respiratory failure, after cardiac surgery, during sedation and analgesia, in acute heart failure, in hypoxemic respiratory distress, in do-not-intubate patients, in patients with chronic cough and copious secretions, pulmonary fibrosis, or cancer, in critical areas and the emergency department. We report on a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who arrived at the emergency department with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. She did not tolerate NIV and refused intubation, but was treated successfully with heated, humidified oxygen via high-flow nasal cannula. Arterial blood analysis after an hour on high-flow nasal cannula showed improved pH, P(aCO2), and awareness. The respiratory acidosis was corrected, and she was discharged after 5 days of hospitalization. Her response to high-flow nasal cannula was similar to that expected with NIV. We discuss the mechanisms of action of heated, humidified high-flow oxygen therapy.

  10. A simple circuit to deliver bubbling CPAP.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Charanjit; Sema, Akatoli; Beri, Rajbir S; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2008-04-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), especially bubbling CPAP, is known to reduce the need for more invasive ventilation. We here describe a circuit that can deliver bubbling CPAP in resource poor settings. We describe how the oxygen concentration can be altered from 98% to 21% oxygen using this system. Addition of a humidifier in the circuit has the effect of reducing the oxygen concentration by 1 to 5%. The cost of putting together the system is approximately Rs 5000.

  11. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  12. A prospective, randomized comparison of an in-line heat moisture exchange filter and heated wire humidifiers: rates of ventilator-associated early-onset (community-acquired) or late-onset (hospital-acquired) pneumonia and incidence of endotracheal tube occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kirton, O C; DeHaven, B; Morgan, J; Morejon, O; Civetta, J

    1997-10-01

    To compare the performance of an in-line heat moisture exchanging filter (HMEF) (Pall BB-100; Pall Corporation; East Hills, NY) to a conventional heated wire humidifier (H-wH) (Marquest Medical Products Inc., Englewood, Colo) in the mechanical ventilator circuit on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the rate of endotracheal tube occlusion. This report describes a prospective, randomized trial of 280 consecutive trauma patients in a 20-bed trauma ICU (TICU). All intubated patients not ventilated elsewhere in the medical center prior to their TICU admission were randomized to either an in-line HMEF or a H-wH in the breathing circuit. Ventilator circuits were changed routinely every 7 days, and closed system suction catheters were changed every 3 days. HMEFs were changed every 24 h, or more frequently if necessary. A specific endotracheal tube suction and lavage protocol was not employed. Patients were dropped from the HMEF group if the filter was changed more than three times a day or the patient was placed on a regimen of ultra high-frequency ventilation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for diagnosis of pneumonia were used; early-onset, community-acquired pneumonia was defined if CDC criteria were met in < or =3 days, and late-onset, hospital-acquired pneumonia was defined if criteria were met in >3 days. Laboratory and chest radiograph interpretation were blinded. The patient ages ranged from 15 to 95 years in the HMEF group and 16 to 87 years in the H-wH group (p=not significant), with a mean age of 46 years and 48 years, respectively. The male to female ratio ranged between 78 to 82%/22 to 18%, respectively, and 55% of all admissions were related to blunt trauma, 40% secondary to penetrating trauma, and 5% to major burns. There was no difference in Injury Severity Score (ISS) between the two groups. Moreover, there was no significant difference in mean ISS among those who did not develop pneumonia and those

  13. [Study of emission spectroscopy of OH radicals in pulsed corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Xu, Fei; Zhao, Lei; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2010-02-01

    In the present paper, OH radicals generated by pulsed corona discharge in humidified air, N2 and Ar in a needle-plate reactor were measured by emission spectra. With the analysis of the emission spectra, the influence of pulse peak voltage and frequency on OH radical generation was investigated in the three kinds of background gases. The influence of the gas humidity on the generation and the distribution of OH radicals in the electric field was also discussed in detail. The authors studied the influence of the gas humidity on the generation of OH radicals in the electric field by the control of accurate change in humidity, and we also studied the distribution of OH radicals in the electric field in different background gases including humidified air, N2 and Ar by the accurate change in scales. The experiment shows that the output of OH radicals grows as the pulse peak voltage and frequency grow, but the influence of gas humidity on the process of generating OH radicals by pulsed corona discharge depends on the discharge background. The rules of the generation change when the background gases change. As the humidity in the background gases grows, the amount of OH radicals grows in the air, but it grows at first and decreases at last in N2, while it decreases at first and grows at last in Ar. The distribution of OH radical shows a trend of decreasing from the needle-electrode to its circumambience.

  14. Increased resistance of hygroscopic condenser humidifiers when using a closed circuit suction system.

    PubMed

    Martinez, F J; Pietchel, S; Wise, C; Walek, J; Beamis, J F

    1994-10-01

    To examine a hygroscopic condenser after clinical use and to describe the interaction of a hygroscopic condenser and a closed circuit suction system used simultaneously. Prospective evaluation of hygroscopic condensers used clinically, and laboratory investigation of a hygroscopic condenser used with a closed circuit suction system. Tertiary referral centers. The hygroscopic condenser used during mechanical ventilation was removed and peak inflation pressure was measured by delivering a standard tidal volume and inspiratory flow across the isolated hygroscopic condenser while recording the peak inflation pressure. In the laboratory, four 10-mL aliquots of saline were instilled via closed circuit suction system into a test lung with fresh hygroscopic condensers (n = 15) inline. At baseline and after each instillation, the hygroscopic condenser was weighed and the peak inflation pressure was measured while in five condensers, peak expiratory flow rate was also measured. In these five devices, hygroscopic condenser resistance was measured with 100 L/min of constant gas flow while measuring the pressure drop across the hygroscopic condenser. In 11 hygroscopic condensers used for 27.5 +/- 11.9 hrs with no closed circuit suction system, the peak inflation pressure was 3.74 +/- 0.58 cm H2O. In the laboratory, instillation of saline via closed circuit suction system was associated with an increase in hygroscopic condenser weight. Peak inflation pressure increased in a quadratic fashion with the increase in hygroscopic condenser weight, while peak expiratory flow rate decreased in a linear fashion. After four saline instillations, hygroscopic condenser resistance increased from 5.66 +/- 0.31 to 13.9 +/- 2.42 cm H2O/L/sec. Clinical use of a hygroscopic condenser alone is not associated with a significant increase in peak inflation pressure. We caution the use of a hygroscopic condenser and a closed circuit suction system simultaneously, as an increase in hygroscopic condenser resistance may develop and may be poorly tolerated in patients with marginal ventilatory reserve.

  15. Heated insufflation with or without humidification for laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Birch, Daniel W; Dang, Jerry T; Switzer, Noah J; Manouchehri, Namdar; Shi, Xinzhe; Hadi, Ghassan; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2016-10-19

    criteria indicated in the 'Risk of Bias Assessment' table were assessed as low risk. We used data sheets to collect data from eligible studies. We presented results using mean differences for continuous outcomes and relative risks for dichotomous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals. We used Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software to calculate the estimated effects. We took publication bias into consideration and compiled funnel plots. We included 22 studies in this updated analysis, including six new trials with 584 additional participants, resulting in a total of 1428 participants. The risk of bias was low in 11 studies, high in one study and unclear in the remaining studies, due primarily to failure to report methodology for randomisation, and allocation concealment or blinding, or both. Fourteen studies examined intraoperative core temperatures among heated and humidified insufflation cohorts and core temperatures were higher compared to cold gas insufflation (MD 0.31 °C, 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.53, I 2 = 88%, P = 0.005) (low-quality evidence). If the analysis was limited to the eight studies at low risk of bias, this result became non-significant but remained heterogeneous (MD 0.18 °C, 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.39, I 2 = 81%, P = 0.10) (moderate-quality evidence).In comparison to the cold CO 2 group, the meta-analysis of the heated, non-humidified group also showed no statistically significant difference between groups. Core temperature was statistically, significantly higher in the heated, humidified CO 2 with external warming groups (MD 0.29 °C, 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.52, I 2 = 84%, P = 0.02) (moderate-quality evidence). Despite the small difference in temperature of 0.31 °C with heated CO 2 , this is unlikely to be of clinical significance.For postoperative pain scores, there were no statistically significant differences between heated and cold CO 2 , either overall, or for any of the subgroups assessed. Interestingly, morphine-equivalent use was homogeneous and higher in heated

  16. Assessment of relative potential for Legionella species or surrogates inhalation exposure from common water uses.

    PubMed

    Hines, Stephanie A; Chappie, Daniel J; Lordo, Robert A; Miller, Brian D; Janke, Robert J; Lindquist, H Alan; Fox, Kim R; Ernst, Hiba S; Taft, Sarah C

    2014-06-01

    The Legionella species have been identified as important waterborne pathogens in terms of disease morbidity and mortality. Microbial exposure assessment is a tool that can be utilized to assess the potential of Legionella species inhalation exposure from common water uses. The screening-level exposure assessment presented in this paper developed emission factors to model aerosolization, quantitatively assessed inhalation exposures of aerosolized Legionella species or Legionella species surrogates while evaluating two generalized levels of assumed water concentrations, and developed a relative ranking of six common in-home uses of water for potential Legionella species inhalation exposure. Considerable variability in the calculated exposure dose was identified between the six identified exposure pathways, with the doses differing by over five orders of magnitude in each of the evaluated exposure scenarios. The assessment of exposure pathways that have been epidemiologically associated with legionellosis transmission (ultrasonic and cool mist humidifiers) produced higher estimated inhalation exposure doses than pathways where epidemiological evidence of transmission has been less strong (faucet and shower) or absent (toilets and therapy pool). With consideration of the large uncertainties inherent in the exposure assessment process used, a relative ranking of exposure pathways from highest to lowest exposure doses was produced using culture-based measurement data and the assumption of constant water concentration across exposure pathways. In this ranking, the ultrasonic and cool mist humidifier exposure pathways were estimated to produce the highest exposure doses, followed by the shower and faucet exposure pathways, and then the toilet and therapy pool exposure pathways. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects of grinding and humidification on the transformation of conglomerate to racemic compound in optically active drugs.

    PubMed

    Piyarom, S; Yonemochi, E; Oguchi, T; Yamamoto, K

    1997-04-01

    The effects of grinding and humidification on the transformation of conglomerate to racemic compound have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy for leucine, norleucine, valine, serine, tartaric acid and malic acid. Racemic physical mixtures were prepared by physical mixing of equimolar quantities of D and I. crystals using a mortar and pestle. Ground mixtures were obtained by grinding the physical mixtures with a vibrational mill. Humidification was performed by storing the physical mixtures and the ground mixtures in a desiccator containing saturated aqueous salt solutions at 40 degrees C. When physical mixtures of malic acid, tartaric acid and serine were ground, the XPD peaks of the racemic compounds were observed. The XPD patterns of humidified physical mixtures of these compounds also showed the formation of the racemic compounds. This indicated that grinding or humidification of malic acid, tartaric acid and serine induced the transformation of conglomerate to racemic compound crystals. When, on the other hand, the physical mixtures of valine, leucine and norleucine were ground, peaks of racemic compounds were not detected in the XPD pattern. After humidification of the ground mixtures of valine, leucine and norleucine, however, the XPD peaks of racemic compounds were observed. DSC and IR studies revealed consistent results. We concluded that grinding or humidification of malic acid, tartaric acid and serine could induce the transformation of a conglomerate to racemic compound. In contrast, humidifying after grinding was needed to bring about the transformation in leucine, norleucine and valine.

  18. Nonstimulated rabbit phonation model: Cricothyroid approximation.

    PubMed

    Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Chang, Siyuan; Luo, Haoxiang; Valenzuela, Carla V; Rousseau, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    To describe a nonstimulated in vivo rabbit phonation model using an Isshiki type IV thyroplasty and uninterrupted humidified glottal airflow to produce sustained audible phonation. Prospective animal study. Six New Zealand white breeder rabbits underwent a surgical procedure involving an Isshiki type IV thyroplasty and continuous airflow delivered to the glottis. Phonatory parameters were examined using high-speed laryngeal imaging and acoustic and aerodynamic analysis. Following the procedure, airflow was discontinued, and sutures remained in place to maintain the phonatory glottal configuration for microimaging using a 9.4 Tesla imaging system. High-speed laryngeal imaging revealed sustained vocal fold oscillation throughout the experimental procedure. Analysis of acoustic signals revealed a mean vocal intensity of 61 dB and fundamental frequency of 590 Hz. Aerodynamic analysis revealed a mean airflow rate of 85.91 mL/s and subglottal pressure of 9 cm H2 O. Following the procedure, microimaging revealed that the in vivo phonatory glottal configuration was maintained, providing consistency between the experimental and postexperimental laryngeal geometry. The latter provides a significant milestone that is necessary for geometric reconstruction and to allow for validation of computational simulations against the in vivo rabbit preparation. We demonstrate a nonstimulated in vivo phonation preparation using an Isshiki type IV thyroplasty and continuous humidified glottal airflow in a rabbit animal model. This preparation elicits sustained vocal fold vibration and phonatory measures that are consistent with our laboratory's prior work using direct neuromuscular stimulation for evoked phonation. N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:1589-1594, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Junhua Jiang; Ted Aulich

    An electrolytic renewable nitrogen fertilizer process that utilizes wind-generated electricity, N{sub 2} extracted from air, and syngas produced via the gasification of biomass to produce nitrogen fertilizer ammonia was developed at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center. This novel process provides an important way to directly utilize biosyngas generated mainly via the biomass gasification in place of the high-purity hydrogen which is required for Haber Bosch-based production of the fertilizer for the production of the widely used nitrogen fertilizers. Our preliminary economic projection shows that the economic competitiveness of the electrochemical nitrogen fertilizer process strongly dependsmore » upon the cost of hydrogen gas and the cost of electricity. It is therefore expected the cost of nitrogen fertilizer production could be considerably decreased owing to the direct use of cost-effective 'hydrogen-equivalent' biosyngas compared to the high-purity hydrogen. The technical feasibility of the electrolytic process has been proven via studying ammonia production using humidified carbon monoxide as the hydrogen-equivalent vs. the high-purity hydrogen. Process optimization efforts have been focused on the development of catalysts for ammonia formation, electrolytic membrane systems, and membrane-electrode assemblies. The status of the electrochemical ammonia process is characterized by a current efficiency of 43% using humidified carbon monoxide as a feedstock to the anode chamber and a current efficiency of 56% using high-purity hydrogen as the anode gas feedstock. Further optimization of the electrolytic process for higher current efficiency and decreased energy consumption is ongoing at the EERC.« less

  20. Investigation on Sr0.2Na0.8Nb1-xVxO3 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3) as new ceramic anode materials for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ke-Ji; Hussain, A. Mohammed; Wachsman, Eric D.

    2017-04-01

    Variants of SNNV (Sr0.2Na0.8Nb1-xVxO3, X = 0.1-0.3) ceramic oxides were synthesized via wet chemical method. SNNVs show high electronic conductivity of >100 S/cm when reduced in hydrogen at a relatively low temperature of 650 °C. In particular, 30% V-doped SNNV exhibited the highest conductivity of 300 S/cm at 450 °C. In order to investigate the fuel cell performance, Gd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ (GDC) based electrolyte-supported fuel cells were prepared to study the anode characteristics. Sr0.2Na0.8Nb0.9V0.1O3 (SNNV10)-GDC composite was used as an anode and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF)-GDC as a cathode. Both electrodes were porous and sintered at 1050 °C for 2 h in air. The anode side of the fuel cell was infiltrated with 10 wt% GDC/Ni-GDC precursor to activate the anode for fuel oxidation. I-V characteristics were determined in gas conditions such as dry/humidified hydrogen and methane at 650 °C. With the infiltration Ni-GDC, peak power density (PPD) of 280 mW/cm2 and 220 mW/cm2 in dry H2 and CH4, respectively, were obtained at 650 °C, which is higher than GDC alone as infiltrate. The high resistances in the humidified conditions are attributed to the lower conductivity of SNNV10 in high PO2 atmospheres.

  1. Climate change at northern latitudes: rising atmospheric humidity decreases transpiration, N-uptake and growth rate of hybrid aspen.

    PubMed

    Tullus, Arvo; Kupper, Priit; Sellin, Arne; Parts, Leopold; Sõber, Jaak; Tullus, Tea; Lõhmus, Krista; Sõber, Anu; Tullus, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    At northern latitudes a rise in atmospheric humidity and precipitation is predicted as a consequence of global climate change. We studied several growth and functional traits of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx.) in response to elevated atmospheric humidity (on average 7% over the ambient level) in a free air experimental facility during three growing seasons (2008-2010) in Estonia, which represents northern temperate climate (boreo-nemoral zone). Data were collected from three humidified (H) and three control (C) plots, and analysed using nested linear models. Elevated air humidity significantly reduced height, stem diameter and stem volume increments and transpiration of the trees whereas these effects remained highly significant also after considering the side effects from soil-related confounders within the 2.7 ha study area. Tree leaves were smaller, lighter and had lower leaf mass per area (LMA) in H plots. The magnitude and significance of the humidity treatment effect--inhibition of above-ground growth rate--was more pronounced in larger trees. The lower growth rate in the humidified plots can be partly explained by a decrease in transpiration-driven mass flow of NO(3) (-) in soil, resulting in a significant reduction in the measured uptake of N to foliage in the H plots. The results suggest that the potential growth improvement of fast-growing trees like aspens, due to increasing temperature and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, might be smaller than expected at high latitudes if a rise in atmospheric humidity simultaneously takes place.

  2. Climate Change at Northern Latitudes: Rising Atmospheric Humidity Decreases Transpiration, N-Uptake and Growth Rate of Hybrid Aspen

    PubMed Central

    Tullus, Arvo; Kupper, Priit; Sellin, Arne; Parts, Leopold; Sõber, Jaak; Tullus, Tea; Lõhmus, Krista; Sõber, Anu; Tullus, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    At northern latitudes a rise in atmospheric humidity and precipitation is predicted as a consequence of global climate change. We studied several growth and functional traits of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx.) in response to elevated atmospheric humidity (on average 7% over the ambient level) in a free air experimental facility during three growing seasons (2008–2010) in Estonia, which represents northern temperate climate (boreo-nemoral zone). Data were collected from three humidified (H) and three control (C) plots, and analysed using nested linear models. Elevated air humidity significantly reduced height, stem diameter and stem volume increments and transpiration of the trees whereas these effects remained highly significant also after considering the side effects from soil-related confounders within the 2.7 ha study area. Tree leaves were smaller, lighter and had lower leaf mass per area (LMA) in H plots. The magnitude and significance of the humidity treatment effect – inhibition of above-ground growth rate – was more pronounced in larger trees. The lower growth rate in the humidified plots can be partly explained by a decrease in transpiration-driven mass flow of NO3 − in soil, resulting in a significant reduction in the measured uptake of N to foliage in the H plots. The results suggest that the potential growth improvement of fast-growing trees like aspens, due to increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration, might be smaller than expected at high latitudes if a rise in atmospheric humidity simultaneously takes place. PMID:22880067

  3. All India Difficult Airway Association 2016 guidelines for the management of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation in adults.

    PubMed

    Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Shah, Amit; Kundra, Pankaj; Patwa, Apeksh; Ramkumar, Venkateswaran; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Raveendra, Ubaradka S; Shetty, Sumalatha Radhakrishna; Ahmed, Syed Moied; Doctor, Jeson Rajan; Pawar, Dilip K; Ramesh, Singaravelu; Das, Sabyasachi; Garg, Rakesh

    2016-12-01

    The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) guidelines for management of the unanticipated difficult airway in adults provide a structured, stepwise approach to manage unanticipated difficulty during tracheal intubation in adults. They have been developed based on the available evidence; wherever robust evidence was lacking, or to suit the needs and situation in India, recommendations were arrived at by consensus opinion of airway experts, incorporating the responses to a questionnaire sent to members of the AIDAA and the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists. We recommend optimum pre-oxygenation and nasal insufflation of 15 L/min oxygen during apnoea in all patients, and calling for help if the initial attempt at intubation is unsuccessful. Transnasal humidified rapid insufflations of oxygen at 70 L/min (transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange) should be used when available. We recommend no more than three attempts at tracheal intubation and two attempts at supraglottic airway device (SAD) insertion if intubation fails, provided oxygen saturation remains ≥ 95%. Intubation should be confirmed by capnography. Blind tracheal intubation through the SAD is not recommended. If SAD insertion fails, one final attempt at mask ventilation should be tried after ensuring neuromuscular blockade using the optimal technique for mask ventilation. Failure to intubate the trachea as well as an inability to ventilate the lungs by face mask and SAD constitutes 'complete ventilation failure', and emergency cricothyroidotomy should be performed. Patient counselling, documentation and standard reporting of the airway difficulty using a 'difficult airway alert form' must be done. In addition, the AIDAA provides suggestions for the contents of a difficult airway cart.

  4. Grafted functional groups on expanded tetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) support for fuel cell and water transport membranes

    DOEpatents

    Fuller, Timothy J.; Jiang, Ruichun

    2017-01-24

    A method for forming a modified solid polymer includes a step of contacting a solid fluorinated polymer with a sodium sodium-naphthalenide solution to form a treated fluorinated solid polymer. The treated fluorinated solid polymer is contacted with carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or sulfur trioxide to form a solid grafted fluorinated polymer. Characteristically, the grafted fluorinated polymer includes appended CO.sub.2H or SO.sub.2H or SO.sub.3H groups. The solid grafted fluorinated polymer is advantageously incorporated into a fuel cell as part of the ion-conducting membrane or a water transport membrane in a humidifier.

  5. Apparatus for adjusting and maintaining the humidity of gas at a constant value within a closed system

    DOEpatents

    Abernathy, Bethel R.; Walters, Ronald R.

    1986-01-01

    The humidity of a gas within a closed system is maintained at constant level by providing a saturated salt solution within a lower chamber in communication with an upper chamber conjointly defined by upper and lower container sections in sealing contact with each other to establish a closed container. A partition wall separates the salt solution from the test region in the upper chamber. A tube extending through the partition plate allows humidified gas to pass from the lower to the upper chamber. A glass wool plug or membranous material within the tube prevents migration of salt into the test region.

  6. Apparatus for adjusting and maintaining the humidity of gas at a constant value within a closed system

    DOEpatents

    Abernathy, B.R.; Walters, R.R.

    1985-08-05

    The humidity of a gas within a closed system is maintained at constant level by providing a saturated salt solution within a lower chamber in communication with an upper chamber conjointly defined by upper and lower container sections in sealing contact with each other to establish a closed container. A partition wall separates the salt solution from the test region in the upper chamber. A tube extending through the partition plate allows humidified gas to pass from the lower to the upper chamber. A glass wool plug or membranous material within the tube prevents migration of salt into the test region.

  7. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E.M.; Biggin, J.H.

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versusmore » low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.« less

  8. Effects of a mixture of chloromethylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone on peripheral airway dysfunction in children

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Ju; Park, Dong-Uk; Yoon, Jisun; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, So-Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Background Children who were only exposed to a mixture of chloromethylisothiazolinone (CMIT) and methylisothiazolinone (MIT) as humidifier disinfectant (HD) components were evaluated for humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury (HDLI) from 2012. This study was to evaluate the pulmonary function using, impulse oscillometry (IOS) for children exposed to a mixture of CMIT/MIT from HD. Methods Twenty-four children who were only exposed to a mixture of CMIT/MIT, with no previous underlying disease, were assessed by IOS. Diagnostic criteria for HDLI were categorized as definite, probable, possible, or unlikely. Home visits and administration of a standardized questionnaire were arranged to assess exposure characteristics. Results Definite and probable cases showed higher airborne disinfectant exposure intensity during sleep (32.4 ± 8.7 μg/m3) and younger age at initial exposure (3.5 ± 3.3 months) compared with unlikely cases (17.3 ± 11.0 μg/m3, p = 0.026; 22.5 ± 26.2 months, p = 0.039, respectively). Reactance at 5 Hz was significantly more negative in those with high-density exposure during sleep (mean, -0.463 kPa/L/s vs. low density, -0.296, p = 0.001). The reactance area was also higher with high-density exposure during sleep (mean, 3.240 kPa/L vs. low density, 1.922, p = 0.039). The mean bronchodilator response with high-density exposure was within the normal range for reactance. Conclusions Significant peripheral airway dysfunction were found in children with high levels of inhalation exposure to a mixture of CMIT/MIT during sleep. Strict regulation of a mixture of CMIT/MIT exposure were associated with positive effects on lung function of children. PMID:28453578

  9. The effects of non-invasive respiratory support on oropharyngeal temperature and humidity: a neonatal manikin study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Calum T; Kortekaas, Rebecca; Dawson, Jennifer A; Manley, Brett J; Owen, Louise S; Davis, Peter G

    2016-05-01

    Heating and humidification of inspired gases is routine during neonatal non-invasive respiratory support. However, little is known about the temperature and humidity delivered to the upper airway. The International Standards Organization (ISO) specifies that for all patients with an artificial airway humidifiers should deliver ≥33 g/m(3) absolute humidity (AH). We assessed the oropharyngeal temperature and humidity during different non-invasive support modes in a neonatal manikin study. Six different modes of non-invasive respiratory support were applied at clinically relevant settings to a neonatal manikin, placed in a warmed and humidified neonatal incubator. Oropharyngeal temperature and relative humidity (RH) were assessed using a thermohygrometer. AH was subsequently calculated. Measured temperature and RH varied between devices. Bubble and ventilator continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) produced temperatures >34°C and AH >38 g/m(3). Variable flow CPAP resulted in lower levels of AH than bubble or ventilator CPAP, and AH decreased with higher gas flow. High-flow (HF) therapy delivered by Optiflow Junior produced higher AH with higher gas flow, whereas with Vapotherm HF the converse was true. Different non-invasive devices deliver inspiratory gases of variable temperature and humidity. Most AH levels were above the ISO recommendation; however, with some HF and variable flow CPAP devices at higher gas flow this was not achieved. Clinicians should be aware of differences in the efficacy of heating and humidification when choosing modes of non-invasive respiratory support. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Humidification during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for adults: a bench study.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Yusuke; Imanaka, Hideaki; Ueta, Masahiko; Nishimura, Masaji

    2010-12-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has recently been applied to acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. However, the issue of humidification during HFOV has not been investigated. In a bench study, we evaluated humidification during HFOV for adults to test if adequate humidification was achieved in 2 different HFOV systems. We tested 2 brands of adult HFOV ventilators, the R100 (Metran, Japan) and the 3100B (SensorMedics, CA), under identical bias flow. A heated humidifier consisting of porous hollow fiber (Hummax II, Metran) was set for the R100, and a passover-type heated humidifier (MR850, Fisher & Paykel) was set for the 3100B, while inspiratory heating wire was applied to both systems. Each ventilator was connected to a lung model in an incubator. Absolute humidity, relative humidity and temperature at the airway opening were measured using a hygrometer under a variety of ventilatory settings: 3 stroke volumes/amplitudes, 3 frequencies, and 2 mean airway pressures. The R100 ventilator showed higher absolute humidity, higher relative humidity, and lower temperature than the 3100B. In the R100, as stroke volume and frequency increased, absolute humidity and temperature increased. In the 3100B, amplitude, frequency, and mean airway pressure minimally affected absolute humidity and temperature. Relative humidity was almost 100% in the R100, while it was 80.5±2.3% in the 3100B. Humidification during HFOV for adults was affected by stroke volume and frequency in the R100, but was not in the 3100B. Absolute humidity was above 33 mgH_2 O/L in these 2 systems under a range of settings.

  11. Lung deposition and systemic bioavailability of different aerosol devices with and without humidification in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Islam O F; Ali, Mohammed R A-A; Al Hallag, Moataz; Rabea, Hoda; Fink, James B; Dailey, Patricia; Abdelrahim, Mohamed E A

    During mechanical ventilation medical aerosol delivery has been reported to be upto two fold greater with dry inhaled gas than with heated humidity. Urine levels at 0.5 h post dose (URSAL0.5%) has been confirmed as an index of lung deposition and 24 h (URSAL24%) as index of systemic absorption. Our aim was to determine the effect of humidification and aerosol device type on drug delivery to ventilated patients using urine levels. In a randomized crossover design, 36 (18female) mechanically ventilated patients were assigned to one of three groups. Groups 1 and 2 received 5000 μg salbutamol using vibrating mesh (VM) and jet nebulizers (JN), respectively, while group 3 received 1600 μg (16 puffs) of salbutamol via metered dose inhaler with AeroChamber Vent (MDI-AV). All devices were placed in the inspiratory limb of ventilator downstream from the humidifier. Each subject received aerosol with and without humidity at >24 h intervals with >12 h washout periods between salbutamol doses. Patients voided urine 15 min before each study dose and urine samples were collected at 0.5 h post dosing and pooled for the next 24 h. The MDI-AV and VM resulted in a higher percentage of urinary salbutamol levels compared to the JN (p < 0.05). Urine levels were similar between humidity and dry conditions. Our findings suggest that in-vitro reports overestimate the impact of dry vs. heated humidified conditions on the delivery of aerosol during invasive mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure of differentiated airway epithelial cells to volatile smoke in vitro.

    PubMed

    Beisswenger, Christoph; Platz, Juliane; Seifart, Carola; Vogelmeier, Claus; Bals, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is the predominant pathogenetic factor in the development of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the smoke-induced inflammation in epithelial cells is limited. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model to monitor the effects of volatile CS on differentiated airway epithelial cells. The airway epithelial cell line MM-39 and primary human bronchial epithelial cells were cultivated as air-liquid interface cultures and exposed directly to volatile CS. We used two types of exposure models, one using ambient air, the other using humidified and warm air. Cytokine levels were measured by quantitative PCR and ELISA. Phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase was assessed by Western blot analysis. To reduce the smoke-induced inflammation, antisense oligonucleotides directed against the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB were applied. Exposure of epithelia to cold and dry air resulted in a significant inflammatory response. In contrast, exposure to humidified warm air did not elicit a cellular response. Stimulation with CS resulted in upregulation of mRNA for IL-6 and IL-8 and protein release. Exposure to CS combined with heat-inactivated bacteria synergistically increased levels of the cytokines. Reactions of differentiated epithelial cells to smoke are mediated by the MAP kinase p38 and the transcription factor NF-kappaB. We developed an exposure model to examine the consequences of direct exposure of differentiated airway epithelial cells to volatile CS. The model enables to measure the cellular reactions to smoke exposure and to determine the outcome of therapeutic interventions. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments.

    PubMed Central

    Arundel, A V; Sterling, E M; Biggin, J H; Sterling, T D

    1986-01-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens. PMID:3709462

  14. The use of chilled condensers for the recovery of perfluorocarbon liquid in an experimental model of perfluorocarbon vapour loss during neonatal partial liquid ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Dunster, Kimble R; Davies, Mark W; Fraser, John F

    2007-01-01

    Background Perfluorocarbon (PFC) vapour in the expired gases during partial liquid ventilation should be prevented from entering the atmosphere and recovered for potential reuse. This study aimed to determine how much PFC liquid could be recovered using a conventional humidified neonatal ventilator with chilled condensers in place of the usual expiratory ventilator circuit and whether PFC liquid could be recovered when using the chilled condensers at the ventilator exhaust outlet. Methods Using a model lung, perfluorocarbon vapour loss during humidified partial liquid ventilation of a 3.5 kg infant was approximated. For each test 30 mL of FC-77 was infused into the model lung. Condensers were placed in the expiratory limb of the ventilator circuit and the amounts of PFC (FC-77) and water recovered were measured five times. This was repeated with the condensers placed at the ventilator exhaust outlet. Results When the condensers were used as the expiratory limb, the mean (± SD) volume of FC77 recovered was 16.4 mL (± 0.18 mL). When the condensers were connected to the ventilator exhaust outlet the mean (± SD) volume of FC-77 recovered was 7.6 mL (± 1.14 mL). The volume of FC-77 recovered was significantly higher when the condenser was used as an expiratory limb. Conclusion Using two series connected condensers in the ventilator expiratory line 55% of PFC liquid (FC-77) can be recovered during partial liquid ventilation without altering the function of the of the ventilator circuit. This volume of PFC recovered was just over twice that recovered with the condensers connected to the ventilator exhaust outlet. PMID:17537270

  15. Determining Water Content and Distribution in PEMFCs to Predict Aging While in Storage

    DOE PAGES

    Stariha, Sarah; Wilson, Mahlon Scott; LaManna, Jacob M.; ...

    2017-08-24

    Proton membrane exchange fuel cells (PEMFCs) have the potential to be long term backup power sources with a startup time on the order of seconds. Water management is the key issue in being able to successfully store PEMFCs for extended periods of time. In this work custom made PEMFCs were humidified at various relative humidities (%RH) and subsequently stored for different lengths of time. The fuel cell’s water content was then imaged at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) neutron imaging facility. In conclusion, the cells’ startup performances were measured simulating quick startup conditions to define the effectmore » of different water distributions.« less

  16. [The physiological significance of paranasal sinuses in man: speculations for 1800 years].

    PubMed

    Glück, U

    1991-06-22

    The function of the paranasal sinuses has been a controversial subject since the time of Galen (130-201 AD). A review of the literature reveals quite different beliefs about their biological purpose, and eight hypotheses have received particular attention: 1) They lighten the bones of the skull; 2) improve the resonance of the voice; 3) humidify and warm inspired air; 4) increase the area of the olfactory membrane; 5) serve as shock absorbers in mechanical impacts; 6) act as thermal insulators of the brain; 7) promote facial growth and architecture; and 8) persist as evolutionary relics or faults. Scrutiny of these hypotheses shows that none has a scientific basis.

  17. Determining Water Content and Distribution in PEMFCs to Predict Aging While in Storage

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stariha, Sarah; Wilson, Mahlon Scott; LaManna, Jacob M.

    Proton membrane exchange fuel cells (PEMFCs) have the potential to be long term backup power sources with a startup time on the order of seconds. Water management is the key issue in being able to successfully store PEMFCs for extended periods of time. In this work custom made PEMFCs were humidified at various relative humidities (%RH) and subsequently stored for different lengths of time. The fuel cell’s water content was then imaged at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) neutron imaging facility. In conclusion, the cells’ startup performances were measured simulating quick startup conditions to define the effectmore » of different water distributions.« less

  18. New High Performance Water Vapor Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Efficiency and Lower Costs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wagener, Earl; Topping, Chris; Morgan, Brad

    Hydrogen fuel cells are currently one of the more promising long term alternative energy options and out of the range of fuel cell technologies under development, proton exchange membranes [PEMs] have the advantage of being able to deliver high power density at relatively low operating temperatures. This is essential for systems such as fuel cell vehicles (FCV) and many stationary applications that undergoing frequent on/off cycling. One of the biggest challenges for PEM systems is the need to maintain a high level of hydration in the cell to enable efficient conduction of protons from the anode to the cathode. Inmore » addition to significant power loss, low humidity conditions lead to increased stress on the membranes which can result in both physical and chemical degradation. Therefore, an effective fuel cell humidifier can be critical for the efficient operation and durability of the system under high load and low humidity conditions. The most common types of water vapor transport (WVT) devices are based on water permeable membrane based separators. Successful membranes must effectively permeate water vapor while restricting crossover of air, and be robust to the temperature and humidity fluctuations experienced in fuel cell systems. DOE sponsored independent evaluations indicate that balance of plant components, including humidification devices, make up more than half of the cost of current automotive fuel cell systems. Despite its relatively widespread us in other applications, the current industry standard perfluorosulfonic acid based Nafion® remains expensive compared with non-perfluorinated polymer membranes. During Phase II of this project, we demonstrated the improved performance of our semi-fluorinated perfluorocyclobutyl polymer based membranes compared with the current industry standard perfluorosulfonic acid based Nafion®, at ~ 50% lower cost. Building on this work, highlights of our Phase IIB developments, in close collaboration with leading

  19. The National Asthma Survey--New York State: association of the home environment with current asthma status.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang; Lurie, Melissa; Gomez, Marta; Reddy, Amanda; Pandya, Kruti; Medvesky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The National Asthma Survey--New York State (NYS), a telephone survey of NYS residents, was conducted in 2002-2003 to further understand the burden of asthma among adults and children and to identify health, socioeconomic, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with asthma. A total of 1,412 households with at least one member with current asthma and 2,290 control households answered questions about their home environment (e.g., presence of asthma triggers and practices that promote or reduce common asthma triggers). RESULTS; For children younger than 18 years of age, we found statistically significant positive associations between current asthma and the presence of mold (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3, 3.3), air cleaners (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), dehumidifiers (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4, 2.7), and humidifiers (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3). For adults, there were statistically significant positive associations with the presence of mold (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.4), air cleaners (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.7, 2.8), and humidifiers (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.8). There were no statistically significant associations with the presence of cockroaches, pets, or tobacco smoke, while use of a wood-burning stove or fireplace was significantly more prevalent in control homes. Asthma guidelines emphasize the importance of reducing triggers in the home as part of a multifaceted approach to asthma control. Despite these guidelines, many asthma triggers (specifically, mold) were as prevalent or more so in the homes of New Yorkers with asthma as compared with control households. Public health interventions in NYS should focus on educating households about potential asthma triggers and their sources and teach methods to prevent, reduce, or eliminate them.

  20. Tin doped PrBaFe 2O 5+δ anode material for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Dong, Guohui; Yang, Chunyang; He, Fei; ...

    2017-04-25

    Ceramic anodes have many advantages over cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells. We report the synthesis and characterization of Sn doped double perovskite PrBaFe (2-x)Sn xO 5+δ (x = 0–0.3) anode materials. Different crystal structures were observed depending on the Sn doping level and gas atmosphere. The materials demonstrated excellent stability in both reducing and redox atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The oxygen content in the as-prepared PrBaFe (2-x)Sn xO 5+δ was nonlinearly correlated to the Sn doping level and reached maximum values around x = 0.1. After the reducing treatment, the oxygen content linearly decreased with increasing Sn dopingmore » level. The electrical conductivity of bulk PrBaFe (2-x)Sn xO 5+δ (x = 0.1) reached 63.6 S cm -1 at 800 °C in humidified hydrogen. At 750 °C, the surface exchange coefficient and bulk diffusivity of PrBaFe (2-x)Sn xO 5+δ reached the maximum values of 4.42 × 10 -6 m s -1 and 6.04 × 10 -7 m 2 s -1, respectively, in the reducing process when the Sn doping level was x = 0.1. The activation energies of surface exchange coefficient and bulk diffusivity of PrBaFe (2-x)Sn xO 5+δ (x = 0.1) were 0.22 eV and 0.16 eV, respectively, in the reducing process. The area specific resistance of the PrBaFe (2-x)Sn xO 5+δ (x = 0.1) anode was 0.095–0.285 Ω cm 2 from 850–750 °C in humidified hydrogen, better than or comparable to the best ceramic anodes in the literature.« less

  1. In Vitro Comparison of Aerosol Delivery Using Different Face Masks and Flow Rates With a High-Flow Humidity System.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ling; Harwood, Robert J; Fink, James B; Goodfellow, Lynda T; Ari, Arzu

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol drug delivery to infants and small children is influenced by many factors, such as types of interface, gas flows, and the designs of face masks. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate aerosol delivery during administration of gas flows across the range used clinically with high-flow humidity systems using 2 aerosol masks. A spontaneous lung model was used to simulate an infant/young toddler up to 2 y of age and pediatric breathing patterns. Nebulized salbutamol by a vibrating mesh nebulizer positioned at the inlet of a high-flow humidification system at gas flows of 3, 6, and 12 L/min was delivered via pediatric face masks to a pediatric face mannequin attached to a filter. Aerosol particle size distribution exiting the vibrating mesh nebulizer and at the mask position distal to the heated humidifier with 3 flows was measured with a cascade impactor. Eluted drug from the filters and the impactor was analyzed with a spectrophotometer (n = 3). Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance with a significant level of P < .05. The inhaled mass was between 2.8% and 8.1% among all settings and was significantly lower at 12 L/min (P = .004) in the pediatric model. Drug delivery with pediatric breathing was greater than with infant breathing (P = .004). The particle size distribution of aerosol emitted from the nebulizer was larger than the heated humidified aerosol exiting the tubing (P = .002), with no difference between the 3 flows (P = .10). The flows of gas entering the mask and breathing patterns influence aerosol delivery, independent of the face mask used. Aerosol delivery through a high-flow humidification system via mask could be effective with both infant and pediatric breathing patterns. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. The temperature and humidity in a low-flow anesthesia workstation with and without a heat and moisture exchanger.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Jair; Bolfi, Fernanda; de Carvalho, Lidia R; Braz, Jose R C

    2011-09-01

    The Dräger Primus anesthesia workstation has a built-in hotplate to heat the patient's exhaled gas. The fresh gas flow is mixed with the heated exhaled gas as they pass through the soda lime canister. A heat and moisture exchanger (HME) may also be used to further heat and humidify the inhaled gas. In this study we measured the temperature and humidity of the inhaled gas coming from the Dräger Primus with or without a HME. Thirty female patients were randomly divided into 2 groups and their lungs ventilated by the Primus Dräger anesthesia workstation with or without a HME. The humidity and temperature of the inhaled gas were measured 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after connecting the patient to the breathing circuit. After 120 minutes of ventilation with a low-flow breathing circuit, the temperatures of inhaled gas were 25°C ± 1°C and 30°C ± 2°C without and with HME, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between groups (P < 0.001) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 3.80°C to 6.40°C; and the absolute humidity values of the inhaled gas were 20.5 ± 3.6 mgH(2)O · L(-1) and 30 ± 2 mgH(2)O · L(-1) without and with HME, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between groups (P < 0.001) with 95% CI of 7.37°C to 13.03°C. The Primus anesthesia workstation partially humidifies the inspired gas when a low fresh gas flow is used. Insertion of an HME increases the humidity in inhaled gas, bringing it close to physiological values.

  3. Prevention of hypothermia in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation using the humigard® open surgery humidification system: a prospective randomized pilot and feasibility clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Laurence; Huang, Andrew; Alban, Daniel; Jones, Robert; Story, David; McNicol, Larry; Pearce, Brett

    2017-01-23

    Perioperative thermal disturbances during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are common. We hypothesized that in patients undergoing OLT the use of a humidified high flow CO 2 warming system maintains higher intraoperative temperatures when compared to standardized multimodal strategies to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis. We performed a randomized pilot study in adult patients undergoing primary OLT. Participants were randomized to receive either open wound humidification with a high flow CO 2 warming system in addition to standard care (Humidification group) or to standard care alone (Control group). The primary end point was nasopharyngeal core temperature measured 5 min immediately prior to reperfusion of the donor liver (Stage 3 - 5 min). Secondary endpoints included intraoperative PaCO 2 , minute ventilation and the use of vasoconstrictors. Eleven patients were randomized to each group. Both groups were similar for age, body mass index, MELD, SOFA and APACHE II scores, baseline temperature, and duration of surgery. Immediately prior to reperfusion (Stage 3 - 5 min) the mean (SD) core temperature was higher in the Humidification Group compared to the Control Group: 36.0 °C (0.13) vs. 35.4 °C (0.22), p = 0.028. Repeated measured ANOVA showed that core temperatures over time during the stages of the transplant were higher in the Humidification Group compared to the Control Group (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in the ETCO 2 , PaCO 2 , minute ventilation, or inotropic support. The humidified high flow CO 2 warming system was superior to standardized multimodal strategies in maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing OLT. Use of the device was feasible and did not interfere with any aspects of surgery. A larger study is needed to investigate if the improved thermoregulation observed is associated with improved patient outcomes. ACTRN12616001631493 . Retrospectively registered 25 November 2016.

  4. The importance of knowing the home conditions of patients receiving long-term oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Ilda; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Hernández, Carme; Godoy, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is one of the main treatments for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients receiving LTOT may have less than optimal home conditions and this may interfere with treatment. The objective of this study was, through home visits, to identify the characteristics of patients receiving LTOT and to develop knowledge regarding the home environments of these patients. Ninety-seven patients with a mean age of 69 plus or minus 10.5 years were evaluated. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive analysis. Data were collected during an initial home visit, using a questionnaire standardized for the study. The results were analyzed retrospectively. Seventy-five percent of the patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 11% were active smokers. The patients' mean pulse oximetry values were 85.9% plus or minus 4.7% on room air and 92% plus or minus 3.9% on the prescribed flow of oxygen. Most of the patients did not use the treatment as prescribed and most used a humidifier. The extension hose had a mean length of 5 plus or minus 3.9 m (range, 1.5-16 m). In the year prior to the visit, 26% of the patients received emergency medical care because of respiratory problems. Few patients reported engaging in leisure activities. The home visit allowed us to identify problems and interventions that could improve the way LTOT is used. The most common interventions related to smoking cessation, concentrator maintenance and cleaning, use of a humidifier, and adjustments of the length of the connector hose. Therefore, the home visit is a very important tool in providing comprehensive care to patients receiving LTOT, especially those who show lack of adequate progress and those who show uncertainty about the treatment method.

  5. Inspiratory Tube Condensation During High-Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy: A Bench Study.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Yusuke; Unai, Kazuaki; Izawa, Masayo; Okuda, Nao; Oto, Jun; Nishimura, Masaji

    2016-03-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy provides better humidification than conventional oxygen therapy. To allay loss of vapor as condensation, a servo-controlled heating wire is incorporated in the inspiratory tube, but condensation is not completely avoidable. We investigated factors that might affect condensation: thermal characteristics of the inspiratory tube, HFNC flow, and ambient temperature. We evaluated 2 types of HFNC tubes, SLH Flex 22-mm single tube and RT202. Both tubes were connected to a heated humidifier with water reservoir. HFNC flow was set at 20, 40, and 60 L/min, and FIO2 was set at 0.21. Air conditioning was used maintain ambient temperature at close to either 20 or 25°C. We weighed the tubes on a digital scale before (0 h) and at 3, 6, and 24 h after, turning on the heated humidifier, and calculated the amount of condensation by simple subtraction. The amount of distilled water used during 24 h was also recorded. At 25°C, there was little condensation, but at 20°C and HFNC flow of 20, 40, and 60 L/min for 24 h, the amount of condensation with the SLH was 50.2 ± 10.7, 44.3 ± 17.7, and 56.6 ± 13.9 mg, and the amount with the RT202 was 96.0 ± 35.1, 72.8 ± 8.2, and 64.9 ± 0.8 mg. When ambient temperature was set to 20°C, condensation with the RT202 was statistically significantly greater than with the SLH at all flow settings (P < .001). Ambient temperature statistically significantly influenced the amount of condensation in the tubes. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Tekscan pressure sensor output changes in the presence of liquid exposure.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Kyle S; Michalski, Max P; Smith, Sean D; LaPrade, Robert F; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the load output of a pressure sensor in the presence of liquid saturation in a controlled environment. We hypothesized that a calibrated pressure sensor would provide diminishing load outputs over time in controlled environments of both humidified air and while submerged in saline and the sensors would reach a steady state output once saturated. A consistent compressive load was repeatedly applied to pressure sensors over time (Model 4000, Tekscan, Inc., South Boston, MA) with a tensile testing machine (Instron ElectroPuls E10000, Norwood, MA). All sensors were initially calibrated in a dry environment and were tested in three groups: humid air, submerged in 0.9% saline solution, and dry. Linear regression of load output over time for the pressure sensors exposed to humidity and submerged showed a 4.6% and 4.7% decline in load output each hour for the initial 6h, respectively (β=-0.046, 95% CI: [-0.053 to -0.039]; p<0.001) (β=-0.047, 95% CI: [-0.053 to -0.042; p<0.001). Tests after 72 h of exposure had linear regression decline in load output over time of 0.40% and 0.47% per hour for humidified and submerged sensors, respectively (β=-0.004, 95% CI: [-0.006 to -0.003]; p<0.001) (β=-0.047, 95% CI: [-0.053 to -0.042]; p<0.001). Because outcomes in biomedical research can affect clinical practices and treatments, the diminishing load output of the sensor in the presence of liquids should be accounted for. We recommend soaking sensors for more than 48 h prior to testing in a moist environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of superoxide mixtures as air-revitalization chemicals in hyperbaric, self-contained, closed-circuit breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1985-01-01

    In portable breathing apparatus applications at 1 atm, potassium superoxide (KO2) has exhibited low-utilization efficiency of the available oxygen (O2) and diminished carbon dioxide-(CO2) scrubbing capacity caused by the formation of a fused, hydrated-hydroxide/carbonate product coating on the superoxide granules. In earlier work, it was discovered that granules fabricated from an intimate mixture of KO2 and calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2, did not exhibit formation of a fused product coating and the utilization efficiency with respect to both O2 release and CO2 absorption was superior to KO2 granules when both types of granules were reacted with humidified CO2 under identified conditions. In the work described here, single pellets of KO2, KO2/Ca(O2), mixtures and commercially available KO2 tables and granules were reacted with a flow of humidified CO2 in helium at 1- and 10-atm total pressure and at an initial temperature of 40 C. In the 1-atm flow tests, the reaction rates and utilization efficiency of the KO2/Ca(O2)2 pellets were markedly superior to the KO2 pellets, tablets, and granules when the samples were reacted under identical conditions. However, at 10 atm, the rates of O2 release and CO2 absorption, as well as the utilization efficiencies of all the superoxide samples, were one-third to one-eighth of the values observed at 1 atm. The decrease in reaction performance at 10 atm compared to that at 1 atm has been attributed principally to the lower bulk diffusivity of the CO2 and H2O reactants in helium at the higher pressure and secondarily to the moderation of the reaction temperature caused by the higher heat capacity of the 10-atm helium.

  8. Performance of La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3- δ perovskite-structure anode material at lanthanum gallate electrolyte for IT-SOFC running on ethanol fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Wang, S. R.; Liu, R. Z.; Ye, X. F.; Nie, H. W.; Sun, X. F.; Wen, T. L.

    Perovskite-structure La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3- δ (LSCM) powders were prepared using a simple combustion process. Thermal analysis was carried out on the perovskite precursor to investigate the oxide-phase formation. The structural phase of the powders was determined by X-ray diffraction. These results showed that the decomposition of the precursors occurs in a two-step reaction and temperatures higher than 1100 °C are required for these decomposition reactions. For the electrochemical characterization, LSCM anode materials and (Pr 0.7Ca 0.3) 0.9MnO 3 (PCM) cathode materials were screen-printed on two sides of dense La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3 (LSGM) electrolyte layers prepared by tape casting with a thickness of about 600 μm, respectively. The morphology of the screen-printed La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3- δ perovskite thick films (65 μm) was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and showed a porous microstructure. In addition, fuel cell tests were carried out using humidified hydrogen or ethanol stream as fuel and oxygen as oxidant. The performance of the conventional electrolyte-supported cell LSCM/LSGM/PCM while operating on humidified hydrogen was modest with a maximum power density of 165, 99 and 62 mW cm -2 at 850, 800 and 750 °C, respectively, the corresponding values for the cell while operating on ethanol stream was 160, 101 and 58 mW cm -2, respectively. Cell stability tests indicate no significant degradation in performance has been observed after 60 h of cell testing when LSCM anode was exposed to ethanol steam at 750 °C, suggesting that carbon deposition was limited during cell operation.

  9. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  10. Structural and electrochemical characterisation of Pr 0.7Ca 0.3Cr 1- yMn yO 3- δ as symmetrical solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Himri, Abdelouhad; Marrero-López, David; Ruiz-Morales, Juan Carlos; Peña-Martínez, Juan; Núñez, Pedro

    A series of compounds with composition Pr 0.7Ca 0.3Cr 1- yMn yO 3- δ (y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) were prepared from an alternative freeze-drying precursor method to obtain polycrystalline powders at relatively low temperature. These perovskite-type materials were tested simultaneously as both anode and cathode in a symmetrical SOFC. The effect of the ratio Mn/Cr on the structure, microstructure and electrochemical properties was studied. The performance is rather modest at low temperature and only interesting values were obtained at high temperatures. An assembled symmetrical SOFC rendered performances of 250 and 160 mW cm -2, at 950 °C, under humidified H 2 and CH 4 respectively.

  11. Rebreathing expired gases from bedding: a cause of cot death?

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, D P; Taylor, B J; Campbell, A J; Galland, B C; Cresswell, C

    1993-01-01

    The reported association of cot death and sleeping prone could be due to rebreathing of expired gases. A mechanical model simulating the respiratory system of an infant, exhaling warm humidified air with an end tidal carbon dioxide of 5%, has been used to investigate this. Some commonly used bedding materials caused an accumulation of carbon dioxide of 7% to over 10% with the model lying face down. This phenomenon persisted even with the head inclined at 45 degrees, but only on very soft materials, and could be a cause of cot death in a baby unresponsive to asphyxial blood gas changes. A coir fibre mattress allowed complete dispersal of exhalate as did a rubber sheet between any mattress and the covering sheet. PMID:8215518

  12. Humidity-Induced Phase Transitions in Ion-Containing Block Copolymer Membranes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Park, Moon Jeong; Nedoma, Alisyn J.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2008-08-21

    The phase behavior of ion-containing block copolymer membranes in equilibrium with humidified air is studied as a function of the relative humidity (RH) of the surrounding air, ion content of the copolymer, and temperature. Increasing RH at constant temperature results in both disorder-to-order and order-to-order transitions. In-situ small-angle neutron scattering experiments on the open block copolymer system, when combined with water uptake measurement, indicate that the disorder-to-order transition is driven by an increase in the partial molar entropy of the water molecules in the ordered phase relative to that in the disordered phase. This is in contrast to most systemsmore » wherein increasing entropy results in stabilization of the disordered phase.« less

  13. Membrane humidification--a new method for humidification of respiratory gases in ventilator treatment of neonates.

    PubMed Central

    Hanssler, L; Tennhoff, W; Roll, C

    1992-01-01

    A humidifier system for neonatology that functions according to the 'membrane humidification' principle was subjected to a performance test in our laboratory. Humidification and heating of the respiratory gases took place in a module consisting of a net of hollow fibres placed inside the incubator. In 18 measurement combinations flow, respiratory gas temperature, and incubator temperature were varied. At respiratory gas temperatures within the range of 33-37 degrees C the minimum international standard for the absolute air humidity in the respiratory gas was achieved or exceeded in all measurements. No controlled clinical tests regarding the importance and long term effects of different temperatures and different humidity levels in the inspiratory air are yet available for the ventilation treatment of neonates. PMID:1444554

  14. Dexmedetomidine, high-flow nasal oxygen and sugammadex-reversal of rocuronium: overcoming anaesthetic challenges in a parturient with congenital muscular dystrophy presenting for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Creaney, M; Moriarty, R M; Milner, M; Murphy, C

    2018-05-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophies are characterised by progressive skeletal muscle weakness from birth or early infancy. Maternal respiratory compromise, joint contractures and presence of spinal instrumentation or fusion are some of the anaesthetic challenges that may be encountered in the obstetric setting. The choice of anaesthetic technique for surgical delivery needs to be considered on an individual basis. Multidisciplinary involvement is paramount to optimise peripartum care and outcomes. In this case report, we present the use of dexmedetomidine, humidified high-flow nasal oxygen, rocuronium and sugammadex in the anaesthetic management of a wheelchair-bound, non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation-dependent parturient with congenital muscular dystrophy, who was presenting for caesarean section. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory Support in Bronchiolitis: Trial Evidence.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Steve

    2018-05-01

    Acute viral lower respiratory tract infection is frequently associated with hypoxemia and respiratory distress, sometimes progressing to hypercarbia and respiratory failure. In recent years, trials have assessed the effects of oxygen supplementation and respiratory support with high-flow oxygen therapy. An oxygen saturation target of 90% is as safe and clinically effective as 94% in infants with bronchiolitis. Trials of high-flow humidified oxygen have demonstrated safety, but as yet poorly demarcated an appropriate place for use within the clinical course of the disease. Effective trials of continuous positive airway pressure are lacking and urgently required. The trials reported to date have highlighted the need for common outcomes in relation to treatment failure. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. A parallel bubble column system for the cultivation of phototrophic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Havel, Jan; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2008-07-01

    An incubator with up to 16 parallel bubble columns was equipped with artificial light sources assuring a light supply with a homogenous light spectrum directly above the bioreactors. Cylindrical light reflecting tubes were positioned around every single bubble column to avoid light scattering effects and to redirect the light from the top onto the cylindrical outer glass surface of each bubble column. The light reflecting tubes were equipped with light intensity filters to control the total light intensity for every single photo-bioreactor. Parallel cultivations of the unicellular obligate phototrophic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942, were studied under different constant light intensities ranging from 20 to 102 microE m(-2)s(-1) at a constant humidified air flow rate supplemented with CO(2).

  17. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentrationmore » of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The Kintek system

  18. Effect of air humidification on the sick building syndrome and perceived indoor air quality in hospitals: a four month longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, K; Norbäck, D; Akselsson, R

    1994-01-01

    The sensation of dryness and irritation is essential in the sick building syndrome (SBS), and such symptoms are common in both office and hospital employees. In Scandinavia, the indoor relative humidity in well ventilated buildings is usually in the range 10-35% in winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam air humidification on SBS and perceived air quality during the heating season. The study base consisted of a dynamic population of 104 hospital employees, working in four new and well ventilated geriatric hospital units in southern Sweden. Air humidification raised the relative air humidity to 40-45% in two units during a four months period, whereas the other two units served as controls with relative humidity from 25-35%. Symptoms and perceived indoor air quality were measured before and after the study period by a standardised self administered questionnaire. The technical measurements comprised room temperature, air humidity, static electricity, exhaust air flow, aerosols, microorganisms, and volatile organic compounds in the air. The most pronounced effect of the humidification was a significant decrease of the sensation of air dryness, static electricity, and airway symptoms. After four months of air humidification during the heating season, 24% reported a weekly sensation of dryness in humidified units, compared with 73% in controls. No significant changes in symptoms of SBS or perceived air quality over time were found in the control group. The room temperature in all units was between 21-23 degrees C, and no significant effect of air humidification on the air concentration of aerosols or volatile organic compounds was found. No growth of microorganisms was found in the supply air ducts, and no legionella bacteria were found in the supply water of the humidifier. Air humidification, however, significantly reduced the measured personal exposure to static electricity. It is concluded that air humidification during the heating season

  19. Y-piece temperature and humidification during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Solomita, Mario; Daroowalla, Feroza; Leblanc, Deniese S; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2009-04-01

    Practitioners often presume there is adequate humidification in the ventilator circuit if the Y-piece is at a specified temperature, but control of Y-piece temperature may be inadequate to ensure adequate humidification. In an in vitro bench model we measured water-vapor delivery with several heated humidification setups and a wide range of minute volume (V (E)) values. The setup included a condenser, hygrometry, and thermometer. First, we calibrated the system with a point-source humidifier and water pump. Then we tested the water-vapor delivery during non-heated-wire humidification and during heated-wire humidification with a temperature gradient of +3 degrees C, 0 degrees C, and -3 degrees C between the humidifier and the Y-piece. We compared the results to 2 recommended humidification values: 100% saturated (absolute humidity 44 mg H(2)O/L) gas at 37 degrees C (saturated/37 degrees C); and 75% saturated (absolute humidity 33 mg H(2)O/L), which is the humidity recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (the ISO standard). In all the experiments the setup was set to provide 35 degrees C at the Y-piece. Our method for measuring water-vapor delivery closely approximated the amount delivered by a calibrated pump, but slightly underestimated the water-vapor delivery in all the experiments and the whole V (E) range. At all V (E) values, water-vapor delivery during non-heated-wire humidification matched or exceeded saturated/37 degrees C and was significantly greater than that during heated-wire humidification. During heated-wire humidification, water-vapor delivery varied with the temperature gradient and did not reach saturated/37 degrees C at V (E) > 6 L/min. Water-vapor delivery with the negative temperature gradient was below the ISO standard. Maintaining temperature at one point in the inspiratory circuit (eg, Y-piece), does not ensure adequate water-vapor delivery. Other factors (humidification system, V (E), gradient setting) are critical

  20. Humidification performance of two high-flow nasal cannula devices: a bench study.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Yusuke; Izawa, Masayo; Okuda, Nao; Itagaki, Taiga; Nakataki, Emiko; Onodera, Mutsuo; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2014-08-01

    Delivering heated and humidified medical gas at 20-60 L/min, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) creates low levels of PEEP and ameliorates respiratory mechanics. It has become a common therapy for patients with respiratory failure. However, independent measurement of heat and humidity during HFNC and comparison of HFNC devices are lacking. We evaluated 2 HFNC (Airvo 2 and Optiflow system) devices. Each HFNC was connected to simulated external nares using the manufacturer's standard circuit. The Airvo 2 outlet-chamber temperature was set at 37°C. The Optiflow system incorporated an O2/air blender and a heated humidifier, which was set at 40°C/3. For both systems, HFNC flow was tested at 20, 40, and 50 L/min. Simulating spontaneous breathing using a mechanical ventilator and TTL test lung, we tested tidal volumes (VT) of 300, 500, and 700 mL, and breathing frequencies of 10 and 20 breaths/min. The TTL was connected to the simulated external nares with a standard ventilator circuit. To prevent condensation, the circuit was placed in an incubator maintained at 37°C. Small, medium, and large nasal prongs were tested. Absolute humidity (AH) of inspired gas was measured at the simulated external nares. At 20, 40, and 50 L/min of flow, respective AH values for the Airvo 2 were 35.3 ± 2.0, 37.1 ± 2.2, and 37.6 ± 2.1 mg/L, and for the Optiflow system, 33.1 ± 1.5, 35.9 ± 1.7, and 36.2 ± 1.8 mg/L. AH was lower at 20 L/min of HFNC flow than at 40 and 50 L/min (P < .01). While AH remained constant at 40 and 50 L/min, at 20 L/min of HFNC flow, AH decreased as VT increased for both devices. During bench use of HFNC, AH increased with increasing HFNC flow. When the inspiratory flow of spontaneous breathing exceeded the HFNC flow, AH was influenced by VT. At all experimental settings, AH remained > 30 mg/L.

  1. Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate aerosol particles induce pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Lee, Kyuhong; Park, Chang We; Song, Jeong Ah; Shin, Da Young; Park, Yong Joo; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2016-03-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) phosphate was used as a disinfectant for the prevention of microorganism growth in humidifiers, without recognizing that a change of exposure route might cause significant health effects. Epidemiological studies reported that the use of humidifier disinfectant containing PHMG-phosphate can provoke pulmonary fibrosis. However, the pulmonary toxicity of PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles is unknown yet. This study aimed to elucidate the toxicological relationship between PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles and pulmonary fibrosis. An in vivo nose-only exposure system and an in vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) co-culture model were applied to confirm whether PHMG-phosphate induces inflammatory and fibrotic responses in the respiratory tract. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles for 3 weeks and recovered for 3 weeks in a nose-only exposure chamber. In addition, three human lung cells (Calu-3, differentiated THP-1 and HMC-1 cells) were cultured at ALI condition for 12 days and were treated with PHMG-phosphate at set concentrations and times. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, airway barrier injuries and inflammatory and fibrotic responses were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. The rats exposed to PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles in nanometer size showed pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis including inflammatory cytokines and fibronectin mRNA increase, as well as histopathological changes. In addition, PHMG-phosphate triggered the ROS generation, airway barrier injuries and inflammatory responses in a bronchial ALI co-culture model. Those results demonstrated that PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles cause pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic responses. All features of fibrogenesis by PHMG-phosphate aerosol particles closely resembled the pathology of fibrosis that was reported in epidemiological studies. Finally, we expected that PHMG-phosphate infiltrated into the lungs in the form of

  2. A mini-type hydrogen generator from aluminum for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Er-Dong; Shi, Peng-Fei; Du, Chun-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rui

    A safe and simple hydrogen generator, which produced hydrogen by chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide solution, was proposed for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The effects of concentration, dropping rate and initial temperature of sodium hydroxide solution on hydrogen generation rate were investigated. The results showed that about 38 ml min -1 of hydrogen generation rate was obtained with 25 wt.% concentration and 0.01 ml s -1 dropping rate of sodium hydroxide solution. The cell fueled by hydrogen from the generator exhibited performance improvement at low current densities, which was mainly due to the humidified hydrogen reduced the protonic resistivity of the proton exchange membrane. The hydrogen generator could stably operate a single cell under 500 mA for nearly 5 h with about 77% hydrogen utilization ratio.

  3. Wet atmospheric generation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamner, Richard M. (Inventor); Allen, Janice K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

  4. PEM regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry L.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Mccatty, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will update the progress in developing electrocatalyst systems and electrode structures primarily for the positive electrode of single-unit solid polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cells. The work was done with DuPont Nafion 117 in complete fuel cells (40 sq cm electrodes). The cells were operated alternately in fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode at 80 C. In fuel cell mode, humidified hydrogen and oxygen were supplied at 207 kPa (30 psi); in electrolysis mode, water was pumped over the positive electrode and the gases were evolved at ambient pressure. Cycling data will be presented for Pt-Ir catalysts and limited bifunctional data will be presented for Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts as well as for electrode structure variations.

  5. Achieving Continuous Anion Transport Domains Using Block Copolymers Containing Phosphonium Cations

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wenxu; Liu, Ye; Jackson, Aaron C.; ...

    2016-06-22

    Triblock and diblock copolymers based on isoprene (Ip) and chloromethylstyrene (CMS) were synthesized in this paper by sequential polymerization using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer radical polymerization (RAFT). The block copolymers were quaternized with tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphine (Ar 3P) to prepare soluble ionomers. The ionomers were cast from chloroform to form anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with highly ordered morphologies. At low volume fractions of ionic blocks, the ionomers formed lamellar morphologies, while at moderate volume fractions (≥30% for triblock and ≥22% for diblock copolymers) hexagonal phases with an ionic matrix were observed. Ion conductivities were higher through the hexagonal phase matrix than inmore » the lamellar phases. Finally, promising chloride conductivities (20 mS/cm) were achieved at elevated temperatures and humidified conditions.« less

  6. Polyethylenimine-impregnated mesoporous silica: effect of amine loading and surface alkyl chains on CO2 adsorption.

    PubMed

    Heydari-Gorji, Aliakbar; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2011-10-18

    Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) supported on pore-expanded MCM-41 whose surface is covered with a layer of long-alkyl chains was found to be a more efficient CO(2) adsorbent than PEI supported on the corresponding calcined silica and all PEI-impregnated materials reported in the literature. The layer of surface alkyl chains plays an important role in enhancing the dispersion of PEI, thus decreasing the diffusion resistance. It was also found that at low temperature, adsorbents with relatively low PEI contents are more efficient than their highly loaded counterparts because of the increased adsorption rate. Extensive CO(2) adsorption-desorption cycling showed that the use of humidified feed and purge gases affords materials with enhanced stability, despite limited loss due to amine evaporation. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy of black soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecourt, B.; Capelle, F.; Adamietz, F.; Malaplate, A.; Blaudez, D.; Kellay, H.; Turlet, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Black soap films from aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulphate are studied by micro-Raman confocal spectroscopy. At the end of the draining process films of different thicknesses are obtained depending on the experimental conditions: Working in a closed humidified chamber leads to common black films while, under evaporation or in the presence of electrolyte, Newton black films are observed. From the Raman spectra of these films, quantitative information is deduced about the conformational and lateral order of the aliphatic surfactant chains, as well as the thickness of the residual water layer. More accurate measurements of the thickness of these ultimate films have been carried out by transmission ellipsometry and their effective refractive index measured by Brewster angle reflectivity. The thinner films present higher molecular organization and their aqueous core exhibits unusual spectral features.

  8. Airway humidification with a heated wire humidifier during high-frequency ventilation using Babylog 8000 plus in neonates.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Ken; Okamoto, Toshio; Nakamura, Eiki; Hayashi, Tokitsugi; Fujieda, Kenji

    2009-03-01

    Little data are available on airway humidity during high-frequency ventilation (HFV). Our purpose is to evaluate the airway humidification during HFV. We examined the airway humidification and temperature in a neonatal HFV system using Babylog 8000 plus. The absolute humidity (AH), relative humidity (RH), and temperature at different sites and under different HFV conditions were compared with those during conventional intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). The mean AH and RH at the patient end of the respiratory circuit under 37 degrees C in the humidification chamber (HC) during HFV were less than 35 mg/L and 65%, respectively, while those during IPPV were 42.3 mg/L and 96.8%, respectively. The humidification at the outlet of the HC was similar results. Moreover, during HFV an increase in the bias-flow of ventilator led to a further decrease in the humidity at the patient end of respiratory circuit and the outlet of HC. It was necessary to set the temperature in the HC at >39 degrees C to maintain adequate humidity at the HC and the patient end of respiratory circuit during HFV. An increase in the incubator temperature led to an increase in the temperature at the patient end of the respiratory circuit. The temperature at the patient end of the respiratory circuit was about 39-40 degrees C when the incubator temperature was 35-37 degrees C. The airway humidification at the patient end of respiratory circuit and the outlet of HC in HFV were poorer than those in IPPV. However, the adequacy of humidification and safety in HFV remain to be demonstrated in clinical practice.

  9. Effect of selenium on malignant tumor cells of brain.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y; Nakatsu, S; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H

    1995-07-01

    Some reports have demonstrated that selenium can inhibit tumorigenesis in some tissues of animal. However, little is known about the inhibitory effect on malignant tumor cells of brain. The purpose of our study was to determine the biological effect of selenium on growth of rat glioma and human glioblastoma cell lines. Cell lines C6 and A172 were obtained from Japanese Cancer Research Resources Bank, Tokyo, Japan (JCRB). Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of air and 5% CO2. Antiproliferative effects of selenium were evaluated using growth rate assay quantifying cell number by MTT assay. An antiproliferative effect of selenium was found in two cell lines, which was more effective on human A172 glioblastoma and less effective on rat C6 glioma.

  10. Mechanical Ventilation: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tài; Brochard, Laurent J; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs. We also highlight recent data on patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, humidified high-flow oxygen through nasal cannula, extracorporeal life support, and the weaning phase. Finally, we discuss the future of mechanical ventilation, addressing avenues for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter (CCN) Instrument Handbook

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Uin, Janek

    2016-04-01

    The Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter—CCN (Figure 1) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility instrument for measuring the concentration of aerosol particles that can act as cloud condensation nuclei [1, 2]. The CCN draws the sample aerosol through a column with thermodynamically unstable supersaturated water vapor that can condense onto aerosol particles. Particles that are activated, i.e., grown larger in this process, are counted (and sized) by an Optical Particle Counter (OPC). Thus, activated ambient aerosol particle number concentration as a function of supersaturation is measured. Models CCN-100 and CCN-200 differ only inmore » the number of humidifier columns and related subsystems: CCN-100 has one column and CCN-200 has two columns along with dual flow systems and electronics.« less

  12. Gold-on-Polymer-Based Sensing Films for Detection of Organic and Inorganic Analytes in the Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Kenneth; Homer, Margie; Ryan, Margaret; Kisor, Adam; Shevade, Abhijit; Jewell, April; Zhou, Hanying

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses gold-on-polymer as one of the novel sensor types developed for part of the sensor development task. Standard polymer-carbon composite sensors used in the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) have been modified by evaporating 15 nm of metallic gold on the surface. These sensors have been shown to respond to alcohols, aromatics, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and elemental mercury in the parts-per-million and parts-per-billion concentration ranges in humidified air. The results have shown good sensitivity of these films operating under mild conditions (operating temperatures 23-28 C and regeneration temperature up to 40 C). This unique sensor combines the diversity of polymer sensors for chemical sensing with their response to a wide variety of analytes with the specificity of a gold sensor that shows strong reaction/binding with selected analyte types, such as mercury or sulfur.

  13. Local impact of humidification on degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Daniel G.; Ruiu, Tiziana; Biswas, Indro; Schulze, Mathias; Helmly, Stefan; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The water level in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) affects the durability as is seen from the degradation processes during operation a PEMFC with fully- and nonhumidified gas streams as analyzed using an in-situ segmented cell for local current density measurements during a 300 h test operating under constant conditions and using ex situ SEM/EDX and XPS post-test analysis of specific regions. The impact of the RH on spatial distribution of the degradation process results from different water distribution giving different chemical environments. Under nonhumidified gas streams, the cathode inlet region exhibits increased degradation, whereas with fully humidified gases the bottom of the cell had the higher performance losses. The degradation and the degree of reversibility produced by Pt dissolution, PTFE defluorination, and contaminants such as silicon (Si) and nickel (Ni) were locally evaluated.

  14. Cross-linked sulfonated aromatic ionomers via SO2 bridges: Conductivity properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vona, M. L.; Pasquini, L.; Narducci, R.; Pelzer, K.; Donnadio, A.; Casciola, M.; Knauth, P.

    2013-12-01

    The proton conductivity of SPEEK membranes in situ cross-linked by thermal treatment at 180 °C for various times was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The conductivity measurements were made on fully humidified membranes between 25 and 65 °C and on membranes exposed to different relative humidity between 80 and 140 °C. The Ionic Exchange Capacity (IEC) was determined by acid-base titration and the water uptake by gravimetry. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking and hydration number. A curve of proton conductivity vs. hydration number allows predicting that in order to reach a value of 0.1 S/cm at 100 °C a hydration number above 20 is necessary. The measured conductivity at this temperature is 0.16 S/cm for a hydration number of 60.

  15. Protonic Conductors for Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell Electrolytes: Superprotonic CsH2PO4 Stabilization and in-Doped SnP2O7 Structure Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Salinas, Heber Jair

    Proton conductor solid electrolytes CsH2PO4 and In-doped tin pyrophosphate have been investigated as candidates to fill a gap of suitable electrolytes for fuel cells at the intermediate temperature range due their unusually high conductivities between 200 and 300 °C. Unfortunately, in the case of CsH2PO4, complicated experimental conditions, like a humidified environment, or high pressure, are needed to preserve the sought high conducting phase. In the first stage of this work, X-ray diffraction on CsH2PO 4 samples performed in air, and under normal conditions of humidity and pressure, evidence of the cubic phase of CsH2PO4 was observed during short intervals of temperature and time, starting at 215 °C and disappearing completely at 265 °C into a dehydrated phase. An AC impedance spectroscopy experimental setup has been assembled and data has been successfully collected on undoped, and doped CsH2PO 4 samples to investigate the effects of chemical and environmental modifications. Measurements performed in the temperature range 200 - 260 °C, and using the frequency range 1 - 6 MHz, showed that the high conducting phase of undoped CsH2PO4 was present for a very short interval of temperature. Additionally, these measurements showed that nano-silica-doped CsH2PO4, and CsH2PO4 under a humidified environment achieve the highest values of conductivity, above 10-2 S cm-1 among the samples tested. In the second stage of this investigation, AC impedance spectroscopy measurements were successfully performed on CsH2PO4 samples in air, at temperatures from 200 - 260 °C, and in the frequency range 1 - 6 MHz, inside a hermetically sealed stainless-steel chamber, which was designed and assembled in-house. Results showed that the highly conducting phase of CsH2PO 4 was achieved at temperatures measured above 230 °C, reaching conductivity values up to 1.7 x10-2 S cm-1, and remaining stable for over 40 hours. Consequent X-ray diffraction analysis of such samples showed that a

  16. Comparison of HFNC, bubble CPAP and SiPAP on aerosol delivery in neonates: An in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sunbul, Fatemah S; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert; Sheard, Meryl M; Zimmerman, Ralph D; Ari, Arzu

    2015-11-01

    Aerosol drug delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and synchronized inspiratory positive airway pressure (SiPAP) has not been quantified in spontaneously breathing premature infants. The purpose of this study was to compare aerosol delivery via HFNC, bubble CPAP, and SiPAP in a model of a simulated spontaneously breathing preterm infant. The types of CPAP systems and nebulizer positions used during aerosol therapy will impact aerosol deposition in simulated spontaneously breathing infants. Quantitative, comparative, in-vitro study. A breath simulator was set to preterm infant settings (VT : 9 ml, RR: 50 bpm and Ti: 0.5 sec) and connected to the trachea of an anatomical upper airway model of a preterm infant via collecting filter distal to the trachea. The HFNC (Optiflow; Fisher & Paykel), Bubble CPAP (Fisher & Paykel), and SiPAP (Carefusion) were attached to the nares of the model via each device's proprietary nasal cannula and set to deliver a baseline of 5 cm H2 O pressure. Albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/0.5 ml) was aerosolized with a mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Solo) positioned(1) proximal to the patient and(2) prior to the humidifier (n = 5). The drug was eluted from the filter with 0.1 N HCl and analyzed via spectrophotometry (276 nm). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with P < 0.05 significant. At position 1, the trend of lower deposition (mean ± SD%) across devices was not significant (0.90 ± 0.26, 0.70 ± 0.16 and 0.59 ± 0.19, respectively; P = 0.098); however, in position 2, drug delivery with SiPAP (0.79 ± 0.11) was lower compared to both HFNC (1.30 ± 0.17; P = 0.003) and bubble CPAP (1.24 ± 0.24; p = 0.008). Placement of the nebulizer prior to the humidifier increased deposition with all devices (P < 0.05). Aerosol can be delivered via all three devices used in this study. Device selection and nebulizer position impacted aerosol

  17. Complex refractive indices in the near-ultraviolet spectral region of biogenic secondary organic aerosol aged with ammonia

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Flores, J. M.; Washenfelder, Rebecca; Adler, Gabriela

    2014-05-14

    Atmospheric absorption by brown carbon aerosol may play an important role in global radiative forcing. Brown carbon arises from both primary and secondary sources, but the mechanisms and reactions for the latter are highly uncertain. One proposed mechanism is the reaction of ammonia or amino acids with carbonyl products in secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We generated SOA in situ by reacting biogenic alkenes (α-pinene, limonene, and α-humulene) with excess ozone, humidifying the resulting aerosol, and reacting the humidified aerosol with gaseous ammonia. We determined the complex refractive indices (RI) in the 360 – 420 nm range for these aerosols usingmore » broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy (BBCES). The average real part (n) of the measured spectral range of the NH3-aged α-pinene SOA increased from n = 1.50 (±0.01) for the unreacted SOA to n = 1.57 (± 0.01) after a 1.5h exposure to 1.9 ppm NH3; whereas,the imaginary component (k) remained below k < 0.001 (± 0.002). For the limonene and α-humulene SOA the real part did not change significantly, and we observed a small change in the imaginary component of the RI. The imaginary component increased from k = 0.0 to an average k= 0.029 (± 0.021) for α-humulene SOA, and from k < 0.001 (± 0.002) to an average k = 0.032 (±0.019) for limonene SOA after a 1.5 h exposure to 1.3 and 1.9 ppm of NH3, respectively. Collected filter samples of the aged and unreacted α-pinene SOA and limonene SOA were analyzed off-line with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (nano-DESI/HR-MS), and in-situ with a Time-of-Fligh Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, confirming that the SOA reacted and that various nitrogen-containing reaction products formed. If we assume that NH3 aging reactions scale linearly with time and concentration, then a 1.5 h reaction with 1 ppm NH3 in the laboratory is equivalent to 24 h reaction with 63 ppbv NH3, indicating that the observed aerosol absorption will be

  18. Effectiveness of heat and moisture exchangers in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Patients may acquire ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) by aspirating the condensate that originates in the ventilator circuit upon use of a conventional humidifier. The bacteria that colonize the patients themselves can proliferate in the condensate and then return to the airways and lungs when the patient aspirates this contaminated material. Therefore, the use of HME might contribute to preventing pneumonia and lowering the VAP incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the use of HME impacts the probability of VAP occurrence in critically ill patients. On the basis of the acronym "PICO" (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome), the question that guided this review was "Do critically ill patients under invasive mechanical ventilation present lower VAP incidence when they use HME as compared with HH?". Two of the authors of this review searched the databases PUBMED/Medline, The Cochrane Library, and Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, LILACS independently; they used the following keywords: "heat and moisture exchanger", AND "heated humidifier", AND "ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention". This review included papers in the English language published from January 1990 to December 2012. This review included ten studies. Comparison between the use of HME and HH did not reveal any differences in terms of VAP occurrence (OR = 0.998; 95% CI: 0.778-1.281). Together, the ten studies corresponded to a total sample of 1077 and 953 patients in the HME and HH groups, respectively; heterogeneity among the investigations was low (I(2) < 50%). Information about the outcome mortality was available in only eight of the ten studies. The use of HME and HH did not afford different results in terms of mortality (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.864-1.376). The total sample size was 884 and 762 patients, respectively. Heterogeneity among the studies was low (I(2) = 0.0%). Current meta-analysis was not sufficient to definitely exclude an associate

  19. Humidity-dependent compression-induced glass transition of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Jung, Hyunjung; Choi, Yun Hwa; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Bang, Joona; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-07-28

    Constant rate compression isotherms of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA) show a distinct feature of an exponential increase in surface pressure in the high surface polymer concentration regime. We have previously demonstrated that this abrupt increase in surface pressure is linked to the glass transition of the polymer film, but the detailed mechanism of this process is not fully understood. In order to obtain a molecular-level understanding of this behavior, we performed extensive characterizations of the surface mechanical, structural and rheological properties of Langmuir PLGA films at the air-water interface, using combined experimental techniques including the Langmuir film balance, X-ray reflectivity and double-wall-ring interfacial rheometry methods. We observed that the mechanical and structural responses of the Langmuir PLGA films are significantly dependent on the rate of film compression; the glass transition was induced in the PLGA film only at fast compression rates. Surprisingly, we found that this deformation rate dependence is also dependent on the humidity of the environment. With water acting as a plasticizer for the PLGA material, the diffusion of water molecules through the PLGA film seems to be the key factor in the determination of the glass transformation properties and thus the mechanical response of the PLGA film against lateral compression. Based on our combined results, we hypothesize the following mechanism for the compression-induced glass transformation of the Langmuir PLGA film; (1) initially, a humidified/non-glassy PLGA film is formed in the full surface-coverage region (where the surface pressure shows a plateau) during compression; (2) further compression leads to the collapse of the PLGA chains and the formation of new surfaces on the air side of the film, and this newly formed top layer of the PLGA film is transiently glassy in character because the water evaporation rate

  20. Microspheres and nanoparticles from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Won Hyuk

    Improved preparations of various examples of monodispersed, porous, hollow, and core-shell metal and semiconductor nanoparticles or nanowires have been developed. Now titania microspheres and nanoparticles and silica microspheres can be synthesized using an inexpensive high frequency (1.7 MHz) ultrasonic generator (household humidifier; ultrasonic spray pyrolysis; USP). Morphology and pore size of titania microspheres were controlled by the silica to Ti(IV) ratio and silica particle size. Fine tuning the precursor ratio affords sub-50 nm titania nanoparticles as well. In terms of silica microspheres, morphology was controlled by the silica to organic monomer ratio. In liquids irradiated with high intensity ultrasound (20 kHz; HIUS), acoustic cavitation produces high energy chemistry through intense local heating inside the gas phase of collapsing bubbles in the liquid. HIUS and USP confine the chemical reactions to isolated sub-micron reaction zones, but sonochemistry does so in a heated gas phase within a liquid, while USP uses a hot liquid droplet carried by a gas flow. Thus, USP can be viewed as a method of phase-separated synthesis using submicron-sized droplets as isolated chemical reactors for nanomaterial synthesis. While USP has been used to create both titania and silica spheres separately, there are no prior reports of titania-silica composites. Such nanocomposites of metal oxides have been produced, and by further manipulation, various porous structures with fascinating morphologies were generated. Briefly, a precursor solution was nebulized using a commercially available household ultrasonic humidifier (1.7 MHz ultrasound generator), and the resulting mist was carried in a gas stream of air through a quartz glass tube in a hot furnace. After exiting the hot zone, these microspheres are porous or hollow and in certain cases magnetically responsive. In the case of titania microspheres, they are rapidly taken up into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells and

  1. Acute epiglottitis: A review of 50 patients.

    PubMed

    Lon, Shafkat Ahmad; Lateef, Mohd; Sajad, Mir

    2006-04-01

    We reviewed 50 patients admitted to the department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery of Govt Medical College Srinagar from September 19% to September 2002 diagnosed with acute epiglottitis. Male were more commonly involved than females in the ratio of 2.8:1 with only 6 cases younger than 10 years of age. The highest incidence was in the month of January (22%). The common symptoms of acute epiglottitis were sorethroat(92%) and odynophagia(88%). Any patient with sudden onset of these symptoms should be suspected of having acute epiglottitis and should have an indirect laryngoscopy. Blood culture was obtained in 20 cases Cultures were positive only in 5 cases, out of which 4 were positive for Hemophilus influenzae type B. Throat cultures were not obtamed The primary treatment of acute epiglottitis is intravenous antibiotics, steriods, and humidified air. Treacheostomy was needed only in 4 patients. There were no deaths.

  2. Speaking Tracheostomy Tube and Modified Mouthstick Stylus in a Ventilator-Dependent Patient with Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Mitate, Eiji; Kubota, Kensuke; Ueki, Kenji; Inoue, Rumi; Inoue, Ryosuke; Momii, Kenta; Sugimori, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Nakamura, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Communication is a serious problem for patients with ventilator-dependent tetraplegia. A 73-year-old man was presented at the emergency room in cardiopulmonary arrest after falling from a height of 2 m. After successful resuscitation, fractures of the cervical spine and cervical spinal cord injury were found. Due to paralysis of the respiratory muscles, a mechanical ventilator with a tracheostomy tube was required. First, a cuffed tracheostomy tube and a speaking tracheostomy tube were inserted, and humidified oxygen was introduced via the suction line. Using these tubes, the patient could produce speech sounds, but use was limited to 10 min due to discomfort. Second, a mouthstick stylus, fixed on a mouthpiece that fits over the maxillary teeth, was used. The patient used both a communication board and a touch screen device with this mouthstick stylus. The speaking tracheostomy tube and mouthstick stylus greatly improved his ability to communicate.

  3. The Viking gas exchange experiment results from Chryse and Utopia surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, V. I.; Berdahl, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Immediate gas changes occurred when untreated Martian surface samples were humidified and/or wet by an aqueous nutrient medium in the Viking lander gas exchange experiment. The evolutions of N2, CO2, and Ar are mainly associated with soil surface desorption caused by water vapor, while O2 evolution is primarily associated with decomposition of superoxides inferred to be present on Mars. On recharges with fresh nutrient and test gas, only CO2 was given off, and its rate of evolution decreased with each recharge. This CO2 evolution is thought to come from the oxidation of organics present in the nutrient by gamma Fe2O3 in the surface samples. Atmospheric analyses were also performed at both sites. The mean atmospheric composition from four analyses is N2, 2.3%; O2, not greater than 0.15%; Ar, 1.5% and CO2, 96.2%.

  4. Carbon catalyzed SO2 oxidation by NO2 and O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Schryer, D. R.; Rogowski, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on carbon particles by trace quantities of NO2 and O3 was studied. Particulate carbon black was either: (1) directly exposed on the pan of a microbalance to various humidified mixtures of SO2 and oxidant gas and the resultant weight gains monitored, or (2) the gas mixtures were bubbled through aqueous suspensions of carbon black and pure water blanks. In each set of experiments the run times were varied appropriately and the yields of sulfate were determined analytically. Conversion of SO2 to sulfate was thus characterized as a function of exposure time and of oxidant gas. Carbon black was determined to be an excellent catalyst for SO2 oxidation to sulfate by both NO2 and O3. No saturation effects were observed in either experimental approach. Conversions of SO2 to sulfate did not appear pH dependent.

  5. The effect of the type of HA on the degradation of PLGA/HA composites.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ashutosh; Shepherd, David V; Shepherd, Jennifer H; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the importance of the potentially competing effects of buffering effects of the calcium phosphate filler and particle-mediated water sorption on the degradation products of poly(d,l lactide-co-glycolide (50:50))(PLGA)/hydroxyapatite(HA) composites. Further the influence of type of HA on the mechanical properties of the composites was investigated. Phase pure HA was synthesised via a reaction between aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid. The powder produced was either used as produced (uncalcined) or calcined in air or calcined in a humidified argon atmosphere. An in-vitro degradation study was carried out in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results obtained indicated that the degradation rate of the composite might be better understood if both the buffering effects and the rate of water sorption by the composites are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water-vapor effects on friction of magnetic tape in contact with nickel-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of humidity of moist nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a nickel-zinc ferrite spherical pin were studied. The results indicate that the coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. Although the coefficient of friction remains low below 40-percent relative humidity, it increases rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent. The general ambient environment of the tape does not have any effect on the friction behavior if the area where the tape is in sliding contact with the ferrite pin is flooded with controlled nitrogen. The response time for the friction of the tape to humidity changes is about 10 sec. The effect of friction as a function of relative humidity on dehumidifying is very similar to that on humidifying. A surface softening of the tape due to water vapor increases the friction of the tape.

  7. The effect of H2O and pretreatment on the activity of a Pt/SnO2 catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannorman, John D.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Schryer, Jacqueline; Schryer, David R.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Sidney, Barry D.

    1990-01-01

    CO oxidation catalysts with high activity at 25 C to 100 C are important for long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed CO2 lasers. A reductive pretreatment with either CO or H2 has been shown to significantly enhance the activity of a commercially available platinum on tin (IV) oxide (Pt/SnO2) catalyst relative to an oxidative or inert pretreatment or no pretreatment. Pretreatment at temperatures of 175 C and above causes an initial dip in the observed CO2 yield before the steady-state yield is attained. This dip has been found to be caused by dehydration of the catalyst during pretreatment and is readily eliminated by humidifying the catalyst or the reaction gas mixture. It is hypothesized that the effect of humidification is to increase the concentration of OH groups on the catalyst surface which play a role in the reaction mechanism.

  8. The effects of pretreatment conditions on a Pt/SnO2 catalyst for the oxidation of CO in CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, David R.; Vannorman, John D.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Schryer, Jacqueline

    1989-01-01

    CO oxidation catalysts with high activity at 25 to 100 C are important for long life, closed cycle operation of pulsed CO2 lasers. A reductive pretreatment with either CO or H2 was shown to significantly enhance the activity of a commercially available platinum on tin (IV) oxide (Pt/SnO2) catalyst relative to an oxidative or inert pretreatment of no pretreatment. Pretreatment at temperatures of 175 C and above causes an initial dip in the observed CO2 yield before the steady state yield is attained. This dip was found to be caused by dehydration of the catalyst during pretreatment and is readily eliminated by humidifying the catalyst or the reaction gas mixture. It is hypothesized that the effect of humidification is to increase the concentration of OH groups on the catalyst surface which play a role in the reaction mechanism.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ROOM AIR CONDITIONING UNITS AND HUMIDIFIERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE), to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small to medium sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  10. Fetal blood gas values during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair performed under carbon dioxide insufflation.

    PubMed

    Baschat, Ahmet A; Ahn, Edward S; Murphy, Jamie; Miller, Jena L

    2018-05-10

    Fetoscopic myelomeningocele (MMC) repair is performed with intrauterine carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation. While lamb experiments have shown significant fetal acidemia following CO 2 insufflation corresponding information for human pregnancies is not available. We performed umbilical venous cord blood sampling in three patients during fetoscopic MMC repair at 25+1, 25+3 and 24+1 weeks gestation. Fetal venous pH at the beginning of CO 2 insufflation were 7.36, 7.46 and 7.37; repeat values were 7.28, 7.35, 7.36 after 181, 159 and 149 minutes respectively. The partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide was maintained in the normal range at these times and pH decrease was less in patient 3 receiving humidified CO2 insufflation. Our observations suggest that in contrast to sheep experiments, CO2 insufflation during fetoscopic myelomeningocele repair does not cause fetal acidemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Nosocomial outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 pneumonia in a new bone marrow transplant unit: evaluation, treatment and control.

    PubMed

    Oren, I; Zuckerman, T; Avivi, I; Finkelstein, R; Yigla, M; Rowe, J M

    2002-08-01

    A nosocomial outbreak of pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3 occurred in four patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in a new bone marrow transplantation (BMT) unit during a 2 week period. The causative organism was recovered from the water supply system to the same unit just before the outbreak. Nineteen other BMT patients were hospitalized in the same unit at the same time, giving a frequency of proven infection of 4/23 = 17%. Immediately after recognition of the outbreak, use of tap water was forbidden, humidifiers were disconnected, and ciprofloxacin prophylaxis was started for all patients in the unit, until decontamination of the water was achieved. No other cases were detected. In conclusion, contamination of the hospital water supply system with legionella carries a high risk for legionella pneumonia among BMT patients. Early recognition of the outbreak, immediate restrictions of water use, antibiotic prophylaxis for all non-infected patients, and water decontamination, successfully terminated the outbreak.

  12. Humidification during mechanical ventilation in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Al Ashry, Haitham S; Modrykamien, Ariel M

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions.

  13. A Novel Hybrid Axial-Radial Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Technique for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Containing Cu, Co, Ni, and Samaria-Doped Ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuglietta, Mark; Kuhn, Joel; Kesler, Olivera

    2013-06-01

    Composite coatings containing Cu, Co, Ni, and samaria-doped ceria (SDC) have been fabricated using a novel hybrid atmospheric plasma spraying technique, in which a multi-component aqueous suspension of CuO, Co3O4, and NiO was injected axially simultaneously with SDC injected radially in a dry powder form. Coatings were characterized for their microstructure, permeability, porosity, and composition over a range of plasma spray conditions. Deposition efficiency of the metal oxides and SDC was also estimated. Depending on the conditions, coatings displayed either layering or high levels of mixing between the SDC and metal phases. The deposition efficiencies of both feedstock types were strongly dependent on the nozzle diameter. Plasma-sprayed metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells utilizing anodes fabricated with this technique demonstrated power densities at 0.7 V as high as 366 and 113 mW/cm2 in humidified hydrogen and methane, respectively, at 800 °C.

  14. Experiment K-313: Rat and quail ontogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of spaceflight on the processes of mammalian fertilizaton, implantation and embryonic development are investigated. Five female and two male rats were placed together on Day 2 of the flight. By R+17, it was determined that both flight and synchronous females were not carrying normal pregnancies and three of the flight animals were laparotomized. The uterus and ovaries were processed for microscopic analyses. The two remaining flight females were allowed to recover from the exploratory operation, rebred with flight males and delivered normal litters. As a control for potential transplacental effects that might be interpreted as direct spaceflight effects, a series of fertilized Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs was flown on Cosmos 1129. Although all of the eggs were adversely impacted by an inflight failure of the incubator humidifier on flight Day 13, several embryos were able to progress to a developmental stage equivalent to that of a control 10-12 Day embryo.

  15. Medical devices; reclassification of the topical oxygen chamber for extremities. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-04-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reclassifying the topical oxygen chamber for extremities (TOCE) from class III to class II. This device is intended to surround a patient's limb and apply humidified oxygen topically at a pressure slightly greater than atmospheric pressure to aid healing of chronic skin ulcers, such as bedsores. This reclassification is on the Secretary of Health and Human Services's own initiative based on new information. This action is being taken under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (the 1976 Amendments), the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 (the SMDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of the guidance document entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities,'' which will serve as the special control for this device.

  16. Investigation of Sterilization Mechanism for Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores with Plasma-Excited Neutral Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Kei; Ikenaga, Noriaki; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the mechanism of the sterilization with plasma-excited neutral gas that uniformly sterilizes both the space and inner wall of the reactor chamber at atmospheric pressure. Only reactive neutral species such as plasma-excited gas molecules and radicals are separated from the plasma and sent to the reactor chamber for chemical sterilization. The plasma source gas uses humidified mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores and tyrosine which is amino acid are treated by the plasma-excited neutral gas. Shape change of the treated spore is observed by SEM, and chemical modification of the treated tyrosine is analyzed by HPLC. As a result, the surface of the treated spore shows depression. Hydroxylation and nitration of tyrosine are shown after the treatment. For these reasons, we believe that the sterilization with plasma-excited neutral gas results from the deformation of spore structure due to the chemical modification of amino acid.

  17. Heated air humidification versus cold air nebulization in newly tracheostomized patients

    PubMed Central

    Händel, Alexander; Wenzel, Angela; Kramer, Benedikt; Aderhold, Christoph; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A.; Sommer, J. Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background After tracheostomy, the airway lacks an essential mechanism for warming and humidifying the inspired air with the consequent functional impairment and discomfort. The purpose of this study was to compare airway hydration with cold‐air nebulization versus heated high‐flow humidification on medical interventions and tracheal ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Methods Newly tracheostomized patients (n = 20) were treated either with cold‐air nebulization or heated humidification. The number of required tracheal suctioning procedures to clean the trachea and tracheal CBF were assessed. Results The number of required suctions per day was significantly lower in the heated humidification group with medians 3 versus 5 times per day. Mean CBF was significantly higher in the heated humidification group (6.36 ± 1.49 Hz) compared to the cold‐air nebulization group (3.99 ± 1.39 Hz). Conclusion The data suggest that heated humidification enhanced mucociliary transport leading to a reduced number of required suctioning procedures in the trachea, which may improve postoperative patient care. PMID:28990261

  18. Humidification of incubators.

    PubMed Central

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1985-01-01

    The effect of increasing the humidity in incubators was examined in 62 infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation. Thirty three infants nursed in high humidity for two weeks were compared retrospectively with 29 infants from an earlier study who were nursed under plastic bubble blankets or with topical paraffin but without raised humidity. Humidification reduced skin water loss and improved maintenance of body temperature from birth, but did not delay the normal postnatal maturation of the skin. Infants nursed without humidity frequently became hypothermic in spite of a high incubator air temperature. These advantages must be weighed against the finding that overheating was more common and Pseudomonas was more commonly isolated from the infants. It is recommended that incubator humidity is raised for babies under 30 weeks' gestation in the first days of life but meticulous attention should be paid to fluid balance, avoiding overheating, and cleansing of the humidifier reservoir. PMID:3985653

  19. Clinical evidence on high flow oxygen therapy and active humidification in adults.

    PubMed

    Gotera, C; Díaz Lobato, S; Pinto, T; Winck, J C

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in an alternative to conventional oxygen therapy: the heated, humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC). A number of physiological effects have been described with HFNC: pharyngeal dead space washout, reduction of nasopharyngeal resistance, a positive expiratory pressure effect, an alveolar recruitment, greater humidification, more comfort and better tolerance by the patient, better control of FiO2 and mucociliary clearance. There is limited experience of HFNC in adults. There are no established guidelines or decision-making pathways to guide use of the HFNC therapy for adults. In this article we review the existing evidence of HFNC oxygen therapy in adult patients, its advantages, limitations and the current literature on clinical applications. Further research is required to determine the long-term effect of this therapy and identify the adult patient population to whom it is most beneficial. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Field-deployable sniffer for 2,4-dinitrotoluene detection.

    PubMed

    Albert, K J; Myrick, M L; Brown, S B; James, D L; Milanovich, F P; Walt, D R

    2001-08-01

    A field-deployable instrument has been developed to detect low-level 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) vapors. The system is based on previously developed artificial nose technology and employs an array of sensory materials attached to the distal tips of an optical fiber bundle. Both semiselective and nonspecific, cross-reactive sensors were employed. Each sensor within the array responds differentially to vapor exposure so the array's fluorescence response patterns are unique for each analyte. The instrument is computationally "trained" to discriminate target response patterns from nontarget and background environments. This detection system has been applied to detect 2,4-DNT, an analyte commonly detected on the soil surface above buried 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) land mines, in spiked soil and aqueous and ground samples. The system has been characterized and demonstrated the ability to detect 120 ppb 2,4-DNT vapor in blind (unknown) humidified samples during a supervised field test.

  1. CFD analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming: Coupled interactions of transport, heterogeneous catalysis and electrochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Deutschmann, Olaf

    Direct internal reforming in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) results in increased overall efficiency of the system. Present study focus on the chemical and electrochemical process in an internally reforming anode supported SOFC button cell running on humidified CH 4 (3% H 2 O). The computational approach employs a detailed multi-step model for heterogeneous chemistry in the anode, modified Butler-Volmer formalism for the electrochemistry and Dusty Gas Model (DGM) for the porous media transport. Two-dimensional elliptic model equations are solved for a button cell configuration. The electrochemical model assumes hydrogen as the only electrochemically active species. The predicted cell performances are compared with experimental reports. The results show that model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observation except the open circuit potentials. Furthermore, the steam content in the anode feed stream is found to have remarkable effect on the resulting overpotential losses and surface coverages of various species at the three-phase boundary.

  2. Fuel cell water transport

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  3. Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Al Ashry, Haitham S.; Modrykamien, Ariel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions. PMID:25089275

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Giangioppo, Sandra; Kalaci, Odion; Radhakrishnan, Arun; Fleischer, Erin; Itterman, Jennifer; Lyttle, Brian; Price, April; Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the overall prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use among children with cystic fibrosis, determine specific modalities used, predictors of use and subjective helpfulness or harm from individual modalities. Of 53 children attending the cystic fibrosis clinic in London, Ontario (100% recruitment), 79% had used complementary and alternative medicine. The most commonly used modalities were air purifiers, humidifiers, probiotics, and omega-3 fatty acids. Family complementary and alternative medicine use was the only independent predictor of overall use. The majority of patients perceived benefit from specific modalities for cystic fibrosis symptoms. Given the high frequency and number of modalities used and lack of patient and disease characteristics predicting use, we recommend that health care providers should routinely ask about complementary and alternative medicine among all pediatric cystic fibrosis patients and assist patients in understanding the potential benefits and risks to make informed decisions about its use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment options for the management of exercise-induced asthma and bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Millward, David T; Tanner, Lindsay G; Brown, Mark A

    2010-12-01

    Treatment for exercise-induced bronchospasm and exercise-induced asthma includes both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options. Pharmacologic agents that have been proven to be effective for treating these conditions include short- and long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists, mast cell-stabilizing agents, anticholinergics, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). When selecting the most appropriate medication, factors to consider include the effectiveness of each, the duration of action, frequency of administration, potential side effects, and tolerance level. Long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists should not be used without ICS. Nonpharmacologic treatments include physical conditioning, incorporating a warm-up before and a cool-down period after exercise, performing nasal breathing, avoiding cold weather or environmental allergens, using a face mask or other aid to warm and humidify inhaled air, and modifying dietary intake. The data to support nonpharmacologic treatments are limited; however, they are routinely recommended because of the low risk associated with their use. This article highlights the advantages and limitations of each treatment option.

  6. Sensitisation to Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium notatum in laboratory workers.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, P; Piccolomini, R; Benvenuti, F; Catamo, G; Di Gioacchino, M

    1999-01-01

    Four workers in medical research laboratories, located in a basement level of a University facility equipped with a humidified air conditioning system, complained of cough and/or asthma and/or rhinitis during their normal working activities. Since exposure to toxic compounds was very low (similar to that of the outdoor environment) only microbiological monitoring was performed. Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium notatum were found in some laboratories. Eight laboratory workers (including the 4 symptomatic subjects) out of 26 investigated were found to be atopic. Specific IgE sensitisation to Aspergillus fumigatus was found in the 8 atopic and in the 6 non-atopic workers, while Penicililum notatum was found in 7 atopic and 4 non-atopic subjects. History, physical examination and laboratory data excluded the presence of aspergillosis or allergic bronchial aspergillosis in the sensitised subjects. Our results suggest that evaluation of immune parameters, along with monitoring of the working environment, may reduce the risk of sensitisation and/or allergic symptoms in atopic laboratory workers.

  7. Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters: their use in anaesthesia and intensive care. Part 1 - history, principles and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, A R

    2011-01-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters are intended to replace the normal warming, humidifying and filtering functions of the upper airways when these structures are bypassed during anaesthesia and intensive care. Guidance on their use continues to evolve. The aim of this part of the review is to describe the principles of their action and efficiency and to summarise the findings from clinical and laboratory studies. Based on previous studies, an appropriate minimum target for moisture output is 30 and 20 g.m⁻³ for long-duration use in intensive care and short-duration use in anaesthesia, respectively. The practice of reusing a breathing system in anaesthesia, provided it is protected by a filter, assumes that the filter is effective. However, there is wide variation in the gas-borne filtration performance, and contaminated condensate can potentially pass through some filters under typical pressures encountered during mechanical ventilation. © 2010 The Author. Anaesthesia © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pati, Amrita; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt

    Saccharomonospora viridis (Schuurmans et al. 1956) Nonomurea and Ohara 1971 is the type species of the genus Saccharomonospora which belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae. S. viridis is of interest because it is a Gram-negative organism classified amongst the usually Gram-positive actinomycetes. Members of the species are frequently found in hot compost and hay, and its spores can cause farmer?s lung disease, bagassosis, and humidifier fever. Strains of the species S. viridis have been found to metabolize the xenobiotic pentachlorophenol (PCP). The strain described in this study has been isolated from peat-bog in Ireland. Here we describe the features of thismore » organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, and the 4,308,349 bp long single replicon genome with its 3906 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.« less

  9. Characterization of metal oxide absorbents for regenerative carbon dioxide and water vapor removal for advanced portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kast, Timothy P.; Nacheff-Benedict, Maurena S.; Chang, Craig H.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Characterization of the performance of a silver-oxide-based absorbent in terms of its ability to remove both gaseous CO2 and water vapor in an astronaut portable life support systems (PLSS) is discussed. Attention is focused on regeneration of the absorbent from the carbonite state of the oxide state, preconditioning of the absorbent using a humidified gas stream, and absorption breakthrough testing. Based on the results of bench-scale experiments, a test plan is carried out to further characterize the silver-oxide-based absorbent on a larger scale; it calls for examination of the absorbent in both an adiabatic packed bed and a near-isothermal cooled bed configuration. It is demonstrated that the tested absorbent can be utilized in a way that removes substantial amounts of CO2 and water vapor during an 8-hour extravehicular activity mission, and that applying the absorbent to PLSS applications can simplify the ventilation loop.

  10. Apparatus and methods for humidity control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinauer, William R. (Inventor); Otis, David R. (Inventor); El-Wakil, Mohamed M. (Inventor); Vignali, John C. (Inventor); Macaulay, Philip D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus is provided which controls humidity in a gas. The apparatus employs a porous interface that is preferably a manifolded array of stainless steel tubes through whose porous surface water vapor can pass. One side of the porous interface is in contact with water and the opposing side is in contact with gas whose humidity is being controlled. Water vapor is emitted from the porous surface of the tubing into the gas when the gas is being humidified, and water vapor is removed from the gas through the porous surfaces when the gas is being dehumidified. The temperature of the porous interface relative to the gas temperature determines whether humidification or dehumidification is being carried out. The humidity in the gas is sensed and compared to the set point humidity. The water temperature, and consequently the porous interface temperature, are automatically controlled in response to changes in the gas humidity level above or below the set point. Any deviation from the set point humidity is thus corrected.

  11. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael

    Prior research suggests that chemical processes taking place on the surface of particle filters employed in buildings may lead to the formation of harmful secondary byproducts. We investigated ozone reactions with fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester and polyolefin filter media, as well as hydrolysis of filter media additives. Studies were carried out on unused media, and on filters that were installed for 3 months in buildings at two different locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Specimens from each filter media were exposed to {approx}150 ppbv ozone in a flow tube under a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50percent RH).more » Ozone breakthrough was recorded for each sample over periods of {approx}1000 min; the ozone uptake rate was calculated for an initial transient period and for steady-state conditions. While ozone uptake was observed in all cases, we did not observe significant differences in the uptake rate and capacity for the various types of filter media tested. Most experiments were performed at an airflow rate of 1.3 L/min (face velocity = 0.013 m/s), and a few tests were also run at higher rates (8 to 10 L/min). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were quantified downstream of each sample. Those aldehydes (m/z 31 and 45) and other volatile byproducts (m/z 57, 59, 61 and 101) were also detected in real-time using Proton-Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Low-ppbv byproduct emissions were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, and were higher when the filters were loaded with particles, as compared with unused filters. No significant differences were observed when ozone reacted over various types of filter media. Fiberglass filters heavily coated with impaction oil (tackifier) showed higher formaldehyde emissions than other samples. Those emissions were particularly high in the case of used filters, and were observed even in the absence of ozone, suggesting that hydrolysis of

  12. Hygroscopic Measurements of Aerosol Particles in the San Joaquin Valley California during the DRAGON and Discover AQ Campaign 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, D.; Delgado, R.; Hoff, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the ambient atmosphere, aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth due to the influence of relative humidity (RH). Wet aerosols particles are larger than their dry equivalents, therefore they scatter more light. Quantitative knowledge of the RH effect and its influence on the light scattering coefficient on aerosol particles is of substantial importance when comparing ground based observations with other optical aerosol measurements techniques such satellite and sunphotometric retrievals of aerosol optical depth. The DISCOVER-AQ campaign is focused in improving the interpretation and relation between satellite observations and surface conditions related to air quality. In the winter of 2013, this campaign was held in the San Joaquin Valley, California, where systematic and concurrent observations of column integrated surface, and vertically resolved distributions of aerosols and trace gases relevant to air quality and their evolution during the day were observed. Different instruments such as particulate samplers, lidars, meteorological stations and airborne passive and active monitoring were coordinated to measure the aerosol structure of the San Joaquin Valley in a simultaneous fashion. A novel humidifier-dryer system for a TSI 3563 Nephelometer was implemented in the Penn State University NATIVE trailer located in Porterville California in order to measure the scattering coefficient σsp(λ) at three different wavelengths (λ=440, 550 and 700nm) in a RH range from 30 to 95%. The system was assembled by combining Nafion tubes to humidify and dry the aerosols and stepping motor valves to control the flow and the amount of humidity entering to the Nephelometer. Measurements in Porterville California reached dry scattering coefficient readings greater than 300Mm-1 at 550nm indicating the presence of a large amount of particles in the region. However, the ratio between scattering coefficients at high and low humidity, called the enhancement factor f

  13. Complex refractive indices in the near-ultraviolet spectral region of biogenic secondary organic aerosol aged with ammonia.

    PubMed

    Flores, J M; Washenfelder, R A; Adler, G; Lee, H J; Segev, L; Laskin, J; Laskin, A; Nizkorodov, S A; Brown, S S; Rudich, Y

    2014-06-14

    Atmospheric absorption by brown carbon aerosol may play an important role in global radiative forcing. Brown carbon arises from both primary and secondary sources, but the mechanisms and reactions of the latter are highly uncertain. One proposed mechanism is the reaction of ammonia or amino acids with carbonyl products in secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We generated SOA in situ by reacting biogenic alkenes (α-pinene, limonene, and α-humulene) with excess ozone, humidifying the resulting aerosol, and reacting the humidified aerosol with gaseous ammonia. We determined the complex refractive indices (RI) in the 360-420 nm range for these aerosols using broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy (BBCES). The average real part (n) of the measured spectral range of the NH3-aged α-pinene SOA increased from n = 1.50 (±0.01) for the unreacted SOA to n = 1.57 (±0.01) after 1.5 h of exposure to 1.9 ppm NH3, whereas the imaginary component (k) remained below k < 0.001((+0.002)(-0.001)). For the limonene and α-humulene SOA the real part did not change significantly, and we observed a small change in the imaginary component of the RI. The imaginary component increased from k = 0.000 to an average k = 0.029 (±0.021) for α-humulene SOA, and from k < 0.001((+0.002)(-0.001)) to an average k = 0.032 (±0.019) for limonene SOA after 1.5 h of exposure to 1.3 and 1.9 ppm of NH3, respectively. Collected filter samples of the aged and unreacted α-pinene SOA and limonene SOA were analyzed off-line by nanospray desorption electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (nano-DESI/HR-MS), and in situ using a Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS), confirming that the SOA reacted and that various nitrogen-containing reaction products formed. If we assume that NH3 aging reactions scale linearly with time and concentration, which will not necessarily be the case in the atmosphere, then a 1.5 h reaction with 1 ppm NH3 in the laboratory is equivalent to 24 h reaction

  14. WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle

    2012-10-02

    Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion pathsmore » for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the

  15. [Humidification and heating of anesthetic gases during pediatric anesthesia using the Cicero Anesthesia Workstation].

    PubMed

    Strauss, J M; Hausdörfer, J; Hagemann, H; Schröder, D

    1992-09-01

    A series of 52 infants underwent general or urological surgery; all were ventilated with the CICERO. Two different flows of fresh gas were used. In group I (n = 21) the fresh gas flow was set exactly at the level of the minute volume, representing a half-open, non-rebreathing system. In group II (n = 31) the fresh gas flow was adjusted to 10% of the required minute volume. Temperature and relative humidity of the inspired gas were measured continuously close to the tracheal tube. Anaesthesia was accomplished with 2 vol% isoflurane, 21-30 vol% oxygen in nitrous oxide. The results were compared with those achieved with our time-tested paediatric equipment, a SERVO 900D ventilator with a Fisher-Paykel humidifier (Group III, n = 35). Using a high fresh gas flow, no increase in relative humidity in the inspired gas could be detected. The values varied between 12% and 25% (group I). Reducing the flow of fresh gas as indicated above resulted in an increase in the relative humidity (group II). Over the evaluated period of 2 h, humidity increased slowly from an initial mean value of 20% to a maximum of something over 70%. Using the SERVO 900D ventilator combined with the Fisher-Paykel humidifier, humidity reached a value of greater 90% within 10 min after activation of the heated cascade. Humidity in the inspired gas should exceed 70% to avoid damage to infant airways. This will not be attained until after more than 2 h with unaided breathing systems, by when most operations performed on paediatric patients will already be over. Condensed water may aspirated by small infants. This potentially dangerous situation was only encountered in the CICERO circuit, and not in the system protected by the Fisher-Paykel cascade. Dry gases can result in thickened mucous and in obstruction of a small tracheal tube, which requires emergency reintubation. With artificial airways dry gases damage the ciliated epithelia of the trachea and cause loss of water and body heat. The temperature of

  16. The Synthesis and Characterization of Ionic Liquids for Alkali-Metal Batteries and a Novel Electrolyte for Non-Humidified Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Telpriore G.

    This thesis focused on physicochemical and electrochemical projects directed towards two electrolyte types: 1) class of ionic liquids serving as electrolytes in the catholyte for alkali-metal ion conduction in batteries and 2) gel membrane for proton conduction in fuel cells; where overall aims were encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy. Large-scale, sodium-ion batteries are seen as global solutions to providing undisrupted electricity from sustainable, but power-fluctuating, energy production in the near future. Foreseen ideal advantages are lower cost without sacrifice of desired high-energy densities relative to present lithium-ion and lead-acid battery systems. Na/NiCl2 (ZEBRA) and Na/S battery chemistries, suffer from high operation temperature (>300ºC) and safety concerns following major fires consequent of fuel mixing after cell-separator rupturing. Initial interest was utilizing low-melting organic ionic liquid, [EMI+][AlCl 4-], with well-known molten salt, NaAlCl4, to create a low-to-moderate operating temperature version of ZEBRA batteries; which have been subject of prior sodium battery research spanning decades. Isothermal conductivities of these electrolytes revealed a fundamental kinetic problem arisen from "alkali cation-trapping effect" yet relived by heat-ramping >140ºC. Battery testing based on [EMI+][FeCl4 -] with NaAlCl4 functioned exceptional (range 150-180ºC) at an impressive energy efficiency >96%. Newly prepared inorganic ionic liquid, [PBr4+][Al2Br7-]:NaAl2Br 7, melted at 94ºC. NaAl2Br7 exhibited super-ionic conductivity 10-1.75 Scm-1 at 62ºC ensued by solid-state rotator phase transition. Also improved thermal stability when tested to 265ºC and less expensive chemical synthesis. [PBr4 +][Al2Br7-] demonstrated remarkable, ionic decoupling in the liquid-state due to incomplete bromide-ion transfer depicted in NMR measurements. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices generating electrical energy reacting hydrogen/oxygen gases producing water vapor. Principle advantage is high-energy efficiency of up to 70% in contrast to an internal combustion engine <40%. Nafion-based fuel cells are prone to carbon monoxide catalytic poisoning and polymer membrane degradation unless heavily hydrated under cell-pressurization. This novel "SiPOH" solid-electrolytic gel (originally liquid-state) operated in the fuel cell at 121ºC yielding current and power densities high as 731mAcm-2 and 345mWcm-2, respectively. Enhanced proton conduction significantly increased H2 fuel efficiency to 89.7% utilizing only 3.1mlmin-1 under dry, unpressurized testing conditions. All these energy devices aforementioned evidently have future promise; therefore in early developmental stages.

  17. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  18. High-performance low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with novel BSCF cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. L.; Khor, K. A.; Chan, S. H.

    An anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), consisting of a dense 10 μm Gd 0.1Ce 0.9O 1.95 (GDC) electrolyte, a porous Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BSCF) cathode and a porous Ni-GDC cermet anode, is successfully assembled and electrochemically characterized. With humidified (3% water vapour) hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant, the cell exhibits open-circuit voltages of 0.903 and 0.984 V when operating at 600 and 500 °C, respectively. The cell produces peak power densities of 1329, 863, 454, 208 and 83 mW cm -2 at 600, 550, 500, 450 and 400 °C, respectively. These results are impressive and demonstrate the potential of BSCF for use as the cathode material in new-generation SOFCs with GDC as the electrolyte. In addition, the sustained performance at temperatures below 600 °C warrants commercial exploitation of this SOFC in stationary and mobile applications.

  19. The effects of elastocapillary length on the surface creasing instability of hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Tetsu; Liu, Qihan; Suo, Zhigang; Hayward, Ryan

    Creasing is a mode of surface instability induced by compressing elastomers or gels. Formation of creases is known to proceed by a nucleation and growth process, and the critical nucleus size is thought to be determined by the elastocapillary length (defined by the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus). Here, we vary the elastocapillary length over the range of 0.008 to 0.4 mm by preparing a series of soft hydrogels with different compositions and contacting them with humidified air. By rapidly applying compression, we are able to achieve strains that exceed the Maxwell strain (where creases become favorable compared to a flat surface) by more than 0.10, and which approach Biot's prediction for linear instability of a compressed half-space. Regardless of the conditions, however, we observe formation of creases only by nucleation and growth, although the density of nucleation sites is found to be sensitive to elastocapillary length. Interestingly, fast propagation of creases (at velocities similar to the speed of sound in the material) are found at strains approaching Biot's point.

  20. The role of water in healthcare-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Decker, Brooke K; Palmore, Tara N

    2013-08-01

    The aim is to discuss the epidemiology of infections that arise from contaminated water in healthcare settings, including Legionnaires' disease, other Gram-negative pathogens, nontuberculous mycobacteria, and fungi. Legionella can colonize a hospital water system and infect patients despite use of preventive disinfectants. Evidence-based measures are available for secondary prevention. Vulnerable patients can develop healthcare-associated infections with waterborne organisms that are transmitted by colonization of plumbing systems, including sinks and their fixtures. Room humidifiers and decorative fountains have been implicated in serious outbreaks, and pose unwarranted risks in healthcare settings. Design of hospital plumbing must be purposeful and thoughtful to avoid the features that foster growth and dissemination of Legionella and other pathogens. Exposure of patients who have central venous catheters and other invasive devices to tap water poses a risk for infection with waterborne pathogens. Healthcare facilities must conduct aggressive clinical surveillance for Legionnaires' disease and other waterborne infections in order to detect and remediate an outbreak promptly. Hand hygiene is the most important measure to prevent transmission of other Gram-negative waterborne pathogens in the healthcare setting.

  1. Progress in Metal-Supported Axial-Injection Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using Nanostructured NiO-Y0.15Zr0.85O1.925 Dry Powder Anode Feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, C.; Harris, J.; Kuhn, J.; Marr, M.; Kesler, O.

    2013-06-01

    A composite NiO-Y0.15Zr0.85O1.925 (YSZ) agglomerated feedstock having nanoscale NiO and YSZ primary particles was used to fabricate anodes having sub-micrometer structure. These anodes were incorporated into two different metal-supported SOFC architectures, which differ in the order of electrode deposition. The composition of the composite Ni-YSZ anodes is controllable by selection of the agglomerate size fraction and standoff distance, while the porosity is controllable by selection of agglomerate size fraction and addition of a sacrificial pore-forming material. A bi-layer anode was fabricated having a total porosity of 33% for the diffusion layer and 23% porosity for the functional layer. A power density of 630 mW/cm2 was obtained at 750 °C in humidified H2 with cells having the bi-layer anode deposited on the metal support. Cells having the cathode deposited on the metal support showed poor performance due to a significant number of vertical cracks through the electrolyte, allowing excessive gas cross-over between the anode and the cathode compartments.

  2. Characterization of Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by solution precursor plasma spraying with axial feedstock injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Craig; Lay-Grindler, Elisa; Kesler, Olivera

    2014-02-01

    Nickel and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes were fabricated by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) and incorporated into metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A power density of 0.45 W cm-2 at 0.7 V and a peak power density of 0.52 W cm-2 at 750 °C in humidified H2 was obtained, which are the first performance results reported for an SOFC having an anode fabricated by SPPS. The effects of solution composition, plasma gas composition, and stand-off distance on the composition of the deposited Ni-YSZ coatings by SPPS were evaluated. It was found that the addition of citric acid to the aqueous solution delayed re-solidification of NiO particles, improving the deposition efficiency and coating adhesion. The composition of the deposited coatings was found to vary with torch power. Increasing torch power led to coatings with decreasing Ni content, as a result of Ni vaporizing in-flight at stand-off distances less than 60 mm from the torch nozzle exit.

  3. Evidence-based practice standards for the use of topical pressurised oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Orsted, Heather L; Poulson, Randy; Baum, Joseph; Christensen, Dawn; Despatis, Marc; Goettl, Kyle; Haligowski, David; Ho, Chester; Louis, Keith; O'Sullivan-Drombolis, Deirdre; Winberg, Valerie; Woo, Kevin Y

    2012-06-01

    Whenever a new therapy enters the wound care arena it is mandatory to deliver the best evidence to clinicians, healthcare administrators and policy makers to support integration of the technology into clinical practice. While this can often be problematic when novel therapies lack a large body of supporting evidence, methods that incorporate the use of expert opinion do exist to evaluate existing evidence and create consensus statements that can help guide decisions. Topical pressurised oxygen therapy is a method of delivering pressurised and humidified oxygen directly to the wound bed to support the healing of chronic and hypoxic wounds. This article will present the process by which the evidence was identified and evaluated as well as present standards based on the evidence related to topical pressurised oxygen therapy. We will show, through the use of the evidence, how this therapy can be a non invasive safe approach for wound management for selected patients in all clinical care settings. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  4. Recent developments in persufflation for organ preservation.

    PubMed

    Min, Catherine G; Papas, Klearchos K

    2018-06-01

    To summarize current literature and recent findings on the potential of humidified oxygenated gas perfusion (persufflation) as an alternative method for improved organ preservation. Although there are some conflicting data, the majority of the evidence suggests that persufflation, by enhancing oxygenation, can improve preservation and even rescue organs, including organs with prior exposure to warm ischemia. In some cases, persufflation produced better results than hypothermic machine perfusion. The timing of persufflation is of importance; benefits of persufflation appear to increase as the timing of its administration postprocurement decreases. This may be particularly true for tissues that are more sensitive to ischemia, such as the pancreas prior to islet isolation. Combining oxygen persufflation with nitric oxide and addition of pulsatile flow may provide further benefits and amplify its effects on improving transplant outcomes. Persufflation is a promising, relatively simple, preservation technique that enables improved oxygenation, which provides protection and improvement in the graft condition during preservation and prior to transplantation. More detailed studies are needed to optimize persufflation and evaluate its short and long-term effects in vivo.

  5. Dehydration of Traditional Dried Instant Noodle (Mee Siput) Using Controlled Temperature & Humidity Dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, K. A.; Yusof, M. S.; Yusoff, Wan Fauziah Wan; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Hassan, S.; Rahman, M. Qusyairi. A.; Karim, M. A. Abd

    2017-05-01

    Drying process is an essential step to produce instant noodles. Yet, the industries especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), is seeking for an efficient method to dry the noodles. This paper discusses the performance of an invented drying system which employed heating and humidifying process. The drying system was tested using 30 kilogram of the raw noodle known as “Mee Siput”. Temperature controlled system were used in the study to control the temperature of the drying process and prevent the dried noodles from damage by maintaining the temperature of lower than 80°C. The analysis shows that the system was drastically decreased the humidity from 80% to 40% just after 200 minutes of the drying process. The complete dehydration time of noodle has also decreased to only 4 hours from 16 hours when using traditional drying system without sacrificed the good quality of the dried noodle. In overall, the invented system believed to increase the production capacity of the noodle, reduce cost of production which would highly beneficial for Small Medium Industries (SMEs) in Malaysia.

  6. Portable Cathode-Air Vapor-Feed Electrochemical Medical Oxygen Concentrator (OC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Missions on the International Space Station and future space exploration will present significant challenges to crew health care capabilities, particularly in the efficient utilization of onboard oxygen resources. Exploration vehicles will require lightweight, compact, and portable oxygen concentrators that can provide medical-grade oxygen from the ambient cabin air. Current pressure-swing adsorption OCs are heavy and bulky, require significant start-up periods, operate in narrow temperature ranges, and require a liquid water feed. Lynntech, Inc., has developed an electrochemical OC that operates with a cathode-air vapor feed, eliminating the need for a bulky onboard water supply. Lynntech's OC is smaller and lighter than conventional pressure-swing OCs, is capable of instant start-up, and operates over a temperature range of 5-80 C. Accomplished through a unique nanocomposite proton exchange membrane and catalyst technology, the unit delivers 4 standard liters per minute of humidified oxygen at 60 percent concentration. The technology enables both ambient-pressure operating devices for portable applications and pressurized (up to 3,600 psi) OC devices for stationary applications.

  7. Heated air humidification versus cold air nebulization in newly tracheostomized patients.

    PubMed

    Birk, Richard; Händel, Alexander; Wenzel, Angela; Kramer, Benedikt; Aderhold, Christoph; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A; Sommer, J Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    After tracheostomy, the airway lacks an essential mechanism for warming and humidifying the inspired air with the consequent functional impairment and discomfort. The purpose of this study was to compare airway hydration with cold-air nebulization versus heated high-flow humidification on medical interventions and tracheal ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Newly tracheostomized patients (n = 20) were treated either with cold-air nebulization or heated humidification. The number of required tracheal suctioning procedures to clean the trachea and tracheal CBF were assessed. The number of required suctions per day was significantly lower in the heated humidification group with medians 3 versus 5 times per day. Mean CBF was significantly higher in the heated humidification group (6.36 ± 1.49 Hz) compared to the cold-air nebulization group (3.99 ± 1.39 Hz). The data suggest that heated humidification enhanced mucociliary transport leading to a reduced number of required suctioning procedures in the trachea, which may improve postoperative patient care. © 2017 The Authors Head & Neck Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Humidification performance of heat and moisture exchangers for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Yusuke; Sumida, Chihiro; Oto, Jun; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    Background. While heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) have been increasingly used for humidification during mechanical ventilation, the efficacy of pediatric HMEs has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods. We tested ten pediatric HMEs when mechanically ventilating a model lung at respiratory rates of 20 and 30 breaths/min and pressure control of 10, 15, and 20 cmH(2)O. The expiratory gas passed through a heated humidifier. We created two rates of leakage: 3.2 L/min (small) and 5.1 L/min (large) when pressure was 10 cmH(2)O. We measured absolute humidity (AH) at the Y-piece. Results. Without leakage, eight of ten HMEs maintained AH at more than 30 mg/L. With the small leak, AH decreased below 30 mg/L (26.6 to 29.5 mg/L), decreasing further (19.7 to 27.3 mg/L) with the large leak. Respiratory rate and pressure control level did not affect AH values. Conclusions. Pediatric HMEs provide adequate humidification performance when leakage is absent.

  9. Humidification Performance of Heat and Moisture Exchangers for Pediatric Use

    PubMed Central

    Chikata, Yusuke; Sumida, Chihiro; Oto, Jun; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    Background. While heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) have been increasingly used for humidification during mechanical ventilation, the efficacy of pediatric HMEs has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods. We tested ten pediatric HMEs when mechanically ventilating a model lung at respiratory rates of 20 and 30 breaths/min and pressure control of 10, 15, and 20 cmH2O. The expiratory gas passed through a heated humidifier. We created two rates of leakage: 3.2 L/min (small) and 5.1 L/min (large) when pressure was 10 cmH2O. We measured absolute humidity (AH) at the Y-piece. Results. Without leakage, eight of ten HMEs maintained AH at more than 30 mg/L. With the small leak, AH decreased below 30 mg/L (26.6 to 29.5 mg/L), decreasing further (19.7 to 27.3 mg/L) with the large leak. Respiratory rate and pressure control level did not affect AH values. Conclusions. Pediatric HMEs provide adequate humidification performance when leakage is absent. PMID:22312483

  10. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-05-03

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus.

  11. Breathing hot humid air induces airway irritation and cough in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Mehdi; Collins, Paul B; Lin, Ruei-Lung; Hayes, Don; Smith, Jaclyn A; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    We studied the respiratory responses to an increase in airway temperature in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Responses to isocapnic hyperventilation (40% of maximal voluntary ventilation) for 4min of humidified hot air (HA; 49°C) and room air (RA; 21°C) were compared between AR patients (n=7) and healthy subjects (n=6). In AR patients, cough frequency increased pronouncedly from 0.10±0.07 before to 2.37±0.73 during, and 1.80±0.79coughs/min for the first 8min after the HA challenge, but not during the RA challenge. In contrast, neither HA nor RA had any significant tussive effect in healthy subjects. The HA challenge also caused respiratory discomfort (mainly throat irritation) measured by the handgrip dynamometry in AR patients, but not in healthy subjects. Bronchoconstriction was not detected after the HA challenge in either group of subjects. In conclusion, hyperventilation of HA triggered vigorous cough response and throat irritation in AR patients, indicating the involvement of sensory nerves innervating upper airways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of biofiltration to the degradation of hydrogen sulfide in gas effluents.

    PubMed

    Elías, A; Barona, A; Ríos, F J; Arreguy, A; Munguira, M; Peñas, J; Sanz, J L

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory scale bioreactor has been designed and set up in order to degrade hydrogen sulfide from an air stream. The reactor is a vertical column of 7 litre capacity and 1 meter in height. It is divided into three modules and each module is filled with pellets of agricultural residues as packing bed material. The gas stream fed into the reactor through the upper inlet consists of a mixture of hydrogen sulfide and humidified air. The hydrogen sulfide content in the inlet gas stream was increased in stages until the degradation efficiency was below 90%. The parameters to be controlled in order to reach continuous and stable operation were temperature, moisture content and the percentage of the compound to be degraded at the inlet and outlet gas streams (removal or elimination efficiency). When the H2S mass loading rate was between 10 and 40 g m(-3) h(-1), the removal efficiency was greater than 90%. The support material had a good physical performance throughout operation time, which is evidence that this material is suitable for biofiltration purposes.

  13. Flow in the human upper airway: work of breathing and the compliant soft palate and tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermy, Mark; Adams, Cletus; Aplin, Jonathan; Buchajczyk, Marcin; van Hove, Sibylle; Kabaliuk, Natalia; Geoghegan, Patrick; Cater, John

    2016-11-01

    The human upper airway (nasal cavity, pharynx and trachea) filters, heats and humidifies inspired air. Its pressure drop affects the work of breathing (WOB, energy expended to inspire and expire) to a degree which varies from person to person, and which is altered by breathing therapy devices. We report experimental studies using 3D printed models of the upper airway based on CT scans of single individuals (adult and paediatric), and average geometries based on PCA analysis of 150 individuals. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), gas concentration and pressure measurements, coupled with CFD simulation. These reveal the details of the washout of CO2 rich exhaled gas, the direction-dependent time-varying pressure drop, and the effect of high-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) on these phenomena. A 1D multi-compartment model is used to estimate the work of breathing. For the first time, soft (compliant) elements have been included in the model airways and show that the assumption of rigid tissue is acceptable for unassisted breathing, but unrealistic for therapy-assisted flows.

  14. Changes in infant disposable diaper weights at selected intervals post-wetting.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Joan; Moore, Amanda; Cooper, Alyssa; Henderson, Terri; Mayfield, Debbie; Taylor, Randa; Thomas, Jennifer; Van Fleet, Laduska; Askanazi, David; Fineberg, Naomi; Sun, Yanhui

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric acute care nurses questioned the practice of weighing disposable infant diapers immediately after voiding. This study asked the research question, "Does volume of saline, diaper configuration, and/or size of diaper statistically effect changes in diaper weights over time?" The method was an experimental, laboratory model. Pre-set volumes of saline were added to disposable diapers that were then left folded or unfolded. Each diaper was weighed immediately post-wetting and re-weighed at hourly intervals for seven hours. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) with balanced data (F-test). Diaper weight changes over time were statistically significant for all time points and for all volumes regardless of diaper size; however, the changes in weight were small and without clinical significance. It is appropriate to weigh diapers at the end of eight hours without risk of altering subsequent fluid management of patients in open-air, non-humidified environments. This practice has led to more efficient use of nurses' time with fewer interruptions for patients and families.

  15. Performance and Microstructure of a Novel Cr-Getter Material with LSCF-based Cells in a Generic Stack Test Fixture

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    In addition to developing passive means for Cr mitigation via coatings, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has teamed up with the University of Connecticut to adopt an active approach by employing a novel Cr-getter material in the system. In this work, validation of the novel Cr-getter was conducted using cells in a generic stack test condition with humidified air and coated metallic interconnect. Two Cr-getter locations were investigated: one upstream and one “on cell.” Pre-oxidized AISI 441 metal stripes were used as Cr source. Three single cell tests were conducted at 800oC in constant current mode for 1000h with periodic stopsmore » for measurement of impedance and IV: a baseline cell, a cell with Cr source and getter, and a cell with Cr source but no getter. Results showed that the cell with Cr-getter degraded much slower (11.5% kh-1) than the baseline (15.3% kh-1) and the cell without the getter (56% kh-1).« less

  16. Symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells with impregnated SrFe0.75Mo0.25O3-δ electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xie; Liu, Xuejiao; Han, Da; Wu, Hao; Li, Junliang; Zhan, Zhongliang

    2014-04-01

    Here we report nominally symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells that feature thin La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) electrolytes and impregnated SrFe0.75Mo0.25O3-δ (SFMO)-LSGM composite electrodes. Operation on hydrogen fuels and air oxidants can produce maximum power densities of 0.39 W cm-2 at 650 °C and 0.97 W cm-2 at 800 °C. Impedance measurements indicate that the anode and the cathode polarizations are 0.22 and 0.04 Ω cm2 at 800 °C, respectively. Hydrogen partial pressure and temperature dependence of impedance data in humidified hydrogen shows that hydrogen oxidation kinetics is largely determined by hydrogen adsorption on the SFMO catalysts at high temperatures and charge transfer reactions along the SFMO|LSGM interfaces at low temperatures. Carbon tolerance of the present fuel cells is also examined in iso-octane fuels balanced by nitrogen at 800 °C that yields stable maximum power densities of 0.39 W cm-2.

  17. Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters: their use in anaesthesia and intensive care. Part 2 - practical use, including problems, and their use with paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, A R

    2011-01-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters are intended to replace the normal warming, humidifying and filtering functions of the upper airways. The first part of this review considered the history, principles of operation and efficiency of these devices. The aim of this part of the review is to summarise recent guidelines on the use of these devices and outline the problems that can occur. In particular, the effect of these devices on gas analysis, dead space, resistance to gas flow and blockage of the breathing system is considered. In children, it is important to consider the addition of dead space and resistance to gas flow. A body weight of 2.5 kg is probably the lower weight limit for use with heat and moisture exchangers, and 3 kg for filters. The resistance to gas flow of a heat- and moisture-exchanging filter added to a Mapleson F breathing system can cause a delay in the induction of anaesthesia. © 2010 The Author. Anaesthesia © 2010 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  19. Laboratory studies of monoterpene secondary organic aerosol formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, J. A.; D'Ambro, E.; Zhao, Y.; Lee, B. H.; Pye, H. O. T.; Schobesberger, S.; Shilling, J.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have conducted a series of chamber experiments to study the molecular composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from monoterpenes under a range of photochemical and dark conditions. We connect variations in the SOA mass yield to molecular composition and volatility, and use a detailed Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) based chemical box model with dynamic gas-particle partitioning to examine the importance of various peroxy radical reaction mechanisms in setting the SOA yield and properties. We compare the volatility distribution predicted by the model to that inferred from isothermal room-temperature evaporation experiments using the FIGAERO-CIMS where SOA particles collected on a filter are allowed to evaporate under humidified pure nitrogen flow stream for up to 24 hours. We show that the combination of results requires prompt formation of low volatility SOA from predominantly gas-phase mechanisms, with important differences between monoterpenes (alpha-Pinene and delta-3-Carene) followed by slower non-radical particle phase chemistry that modulates both the chemical and physical properties of the SOA. Implications for the regional evolution of atmospheric monoterpene SOA are also discussed.

  20. The development of an alternative thermoplastic powder prepregging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogden, A. L.; Hyer, M. W.; Wilkes, G. L.; Loos, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    An alternative powder prepregging technique is discussed that is based on the deposition of powder onto carbon fibers that have been moistened using an ultrasonic humidifier. The dry fiber tow is initially spread to allow a greater amount of the fiber surface to be exposed to the powder, thus ensuring a significant amount of intimate contact between the fiber and the matrix. Moisture in the form of ultrafine water droplets is then deposited onto the spread fiber tow. The moisture promotes adhesion to the fiber until the powder can be tacked to the fibers by melting. Powdered resin is then sieved onto the fibers and then tacked onto the fibers by quick heating in a convective oven. This study focuses on the production of prepregs and laminates made with LaRC-TPI (thermoplastic polyimide) using this process. Although the process appears to be successful, early evaluation was hampered by poor interfacial adhesion. The adhesion problem, however, seems to be the result of a material system incompatibility, rather than being influenced by the process.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Anode-Supported YSZ Thin Film Electrolyte by Co-Tape Casting and Co-Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. L.; Fu, C. J.; Chan, S. H.; Pasciak, G.

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a co-tape casting and co-sintering process has been developed to prepare yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte films supported on Ni-YSZ anode substrates in order to substantially reduce the fabrication cost of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Through proper control of the process, the anode/electrolyte bilayer structures with a size of 7.8cm × 7.8cm were achieved with good flatness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicated that the YSZ electrolyte film was about 16 μm in thickness, highly dense, crack free and well-bonded to the anode support. The electrochemical properties of the prepared anode-supported electrolyte film was evaluated in a button cell mode incorporating a (LaSr)MnO3-YSZ composite cathode. With humidified hydrogen as the fuel and stationary air as the oxidant, the cell demonstrated an open-circuit voltage of 1.081 V and a maximum power density of 1.01 W/cm2 at 800°C. The obtained results represent the important progress in the development of anode-supported intermediate temperature SOFC with reduced fabrication cost.

  2. Surface fractal dimension, water adsorption efficiency, and cloud nucleation activity of insoluble aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laaksonen, Ari; Malila, Jussi; Nenes, Athanasios; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Surface porosity affects the ability of a substance to adsorb gases. The surface fractal dimension D is a measure that indicates the amount that a surface fills a space, and can thereby be used to characterize the surface porosity. Here we propose a new method for determining D, based on measuring both the water vapour adsorption isotherm of a given substance, and its ability to act as a cloud condensation nucleus when introduced to humidified air in aerosol form. We show that our method agrees well with previous methods based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption. Besides proving the usefulness of the new method for general surface characterization of materials, our results show that the surface fractal dimension is an important determinant in cloud drop formation on water insoluble particles. We suggest that a closure can be obtained between experimental critical supersaturation for cloud drop activation and that calculated based on water adsorption data, if the latter is corrected using the surface fractal dimension of the insoluble cloud nucleus.

  3. Multi-objective Optimization of a Solar Humidification Dehumidification Desalination Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafigh, M.; Mirzaeian, M.; Najafi, B.; Rinaldi, F.; Marchesi, R.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, a humidification-dehumidification desalination unit integrated with solar system is considered. In the first step mathematical model of the whole plant is represented. Next, taking into account the logical constraints, the performance of the system is optimized. On one hand it is desired to have higher energetic efficiency, while on the other hand, higher efficiency results in an increment in the required area for each subsystem which consequently leads to an increase in the total cost of the plant. In the present work, the optimum solution is achieved when the specific energy of the solar heater and also the areas of humidifier and dehumidifier are minimized. Due to the fact that considered objective functions are in conflict, conventional optimization methods are not applicable. Hence, multi objective optimization using genetic algorithm which is an efficient tool for dealing with problems with conflicting objectives has been utilized and a set of optimal solutions called Pareto front each of which is a tradeoff between the mentioned objectives is generated.

  4. Production of fibrolytic enzymes by Aspergillus japonicus C03 using agro-industrial residues with potential application as additives in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio; Vici, Ana Claudia; Reis, Victor Ricardo Amin; Jorge, João Atilio; Terenzi, Héctor Francisco; Reis, Ricardo Andrade; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes

    2011-03-01

    Solid-state fermentation obtained from different and low-cost carbon sources was evaluated to endocellulases and endoxylanases production by Aspergillus japonicus C03. Regarding the enzymatic production the highest levels were observed at 30 °C, using soy bran added to crushed corncob or wheat bran added to sugarcane bagasse, humidified with salt solutions, and incubated for 3 days (xylanase) or 6 days (cellulase) with 70% relative humidity. Peptone improved the xylanase and cellulase activities in 12 and 29%, respectively. The optimum temperature corresponded to 60 °C and 50-55 °C for xylanase and cellulase, respectively, both having 4.0 as optimum pH. Xylanase was fully stable up to 40 °C, which is close to the rumen temperature. The enzymes were stable in pH 4.0-7.0. Cu++ and Mn++ increased xylanase and cellulase activities by 10 and 64%, respectively. A. japonicus C03 xylanase was greatly stable in goat rumen fluid for 4 h during in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  5. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in the Peoples Republic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. W.

    1980-12-01

    A brief review of the direct utilization of geothermal energy in three regions of the Peoples' Republic of China is presented, stressing a development outline for the next five to ten years. The geothermal resource of the Tianjin-Beijing area is mainly to be developed for space heating, whereas along the coastal area of Fujian and Guangdong, it will be developed for agriculture, and industrial and residential use. Electric power generation will be the main concern in the southwest at Tengchong. Most theoretical research will be done on geologic structure interpretation, corrosion of pump shafts and buried pipelines, and heat flow, with some interest in the study of geopressure and hot dry rock systems. Specific examples from the Tianjin area include a wool factory; a wool rug weaving shop; heating of a hotel; public bathing; and well drilling for apartment heating, fish breeding, and greenhouses. Direct use of geothermal energy in the Beijing area includes cotton dyeing, humidifying, medical purposes, and animal husbandry. Experimental geothermal electric power plants are summarized in table form.

  6. An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization study of the positive and negative ion chemistry of the hydrofluorocarbons 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and of perfluoro-n-hexane (FC-72) in air plasma at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Ester; Paradisi, Cristina; Scorrano, Gianfranco

    2004-07-01

    A report is given on the ionization/dissociation behavior of the title compounds within air plasmas produced by electrical corona discharges at atmospheric pressure: both positive and negative ions were investigated at different temperatures using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). CHF(2)CH(3) (HFC-152a) undergoes efficient ionic oxidation to C(2)H(5)O(+), in which the oxygen comes from water present in the plasma. In contrast, CF(3)CH(2)F (HFC-134a) does not produce any characteristic positive ion under APCI conditions, its presence within the plasma being revealed only as a neutral ligand in ion-molecule complexes with ions of the background (H(3)O(+) and NO(+)). Analogously, the perfluorocarbon FC-72 (n-C(6)F(14)) does not produce significant positive ions at 30 degrees C: at high temperature, however, it undergoes dissociative ionization to form many product ions including C(3)F(6)(+), C(2)F(4)(+), C(n)F(2n+1)(+) and a few families of oxygen containing cations (C(n)F(2n+1)OH(2)(+), C(n)F(2n)OH(+), C(n)F(2n-1)O(+), C(n)F(2n-1)O(2)H(2)(+), C(n)F(2n-2)O(2)H(+)) which are suggested to derive from C(n)F(2n+1)(+) in a cascade of steps initiated by condensation with water followed by steps of HF elimination and H(2)O addition. Negative ions formed from the fluoroethanes CHF(2)CH(3) and CF(3)CH(2)F (M) include complexes with ions of the background, O(2)(-)(M), O(3)(-)(M) and some higher complexes involving also water, and complexes of the fluoride ion, F(-)(H(2)O), F(-)(M) and higher complexes with both M and H(2)O also together. The interesting product O(2)(-)(HF) is also formed from 1,1-difluoroethane. In contrast to the HFCs, perfluoro-n-hexane gives stable molecular anions, M(-), which at low source temperature or in humidified air are also detected as hydrates, M(-)(H(2)O). In addition, in humidified air F(-)(H(2)O)(n) complexes are also formed. The reactions leading to all major positive and negative product ions are discussed

  7. POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

    2011-03-08

    At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systemsmore » using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a layer of NaHCO{sub 3

  8. A micro-nano porous oxide hybrid for efficient oxygen reduction in reduced-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Da Han; Liu, Xuejiao; Zeng, Fanrong; Qian, Jiqin; Wu, Tianzhi; Zhan, Zhongliang

    2012-01-01

    Tremendous efforts to develop high-efficiency reduced-temperature (≤ 600°C) solid oxide fuel cells are motivated by their potentials for reduced materials cost, less engineering challenge, and better performance durability. A key obstacle to such fuel cells arises from sluggish oxygen reduction reaction kinetics on the cathodes. Here we reported that an oxide hybrid, featuring a nanoporous Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3−δ (SSC) catalyst coating bonded onto the internal surface of a high-porosity La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3−δ (LSGM) backbone, exhibited superior catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reactions and thereby yielded low interfacial resistances in air, e.g., 0.021 Ω cm2 at 650°C and 0.043 Ω cm2 at 600°C. We further demonstrated that such a micro-nano porous hybrid, adopted as the cathode in a thin LSGM electrolyte fuel cell, produced impressive power densities of 2.02 W cm−2 at 650°C and 1.46 W cm−2 at 600°C when operated on humidified hydrogen fuel and air oxidant. PMID:22708057

  9. Automated life-detection experiments for the Viking mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the Viking mission to Mars in 1975, an automated set of instruments is being built to test for the presence of metabolizing organisms on that planet. Three separate modules are combined in this instrument so that samples of the Martian surface can be subjected to a broad array of experimental conditions so as to measure biological activity. The first, the Pyrolytic Release Module, will expose surface samples to a mixture of C-14O and C-14O2 in the presence of Martian atmosphere and a light source that simulates the Martian visible spectrum. The assay system is designed to determine the extent of assimilation of CO or CO2 into organic compounds. The Gas Exchange Module will incubate surface samples in a humidified CO2 atmosphere. At specified times, portions of the incubation atmosphere will be analyzed by gas chromatography to detect the release or uptake of CO2 and several additional gases. The Label Release Module will incubate surface samples with a dilute aqueous solution of simple radioactive organic substrates in Martian atmosphere, and the gas phase will be monitored continuously for the release of labeled CO2.

  10. Electrochemical performance of Ni0.8Cu0.2/Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 cermet anodes with functionally graded structures for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell fueled with syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Michihiro; Iwami, Makoto; Takeuchi, Mizue; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu

    2018-06-01

    The electrochemical performance of layered Ni0.8Cu0.2/Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) cermet anodes is investigated for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) at 600 °C using humidified (3% H2O) model syngas with a molar ratio of H2/CO = 3/2 as the fuel. From the results obtained, the electrochemical performance of the functionally graded multi-layered anodes is found to be superior to the mono-layered anodes. The test cell with a bi-layered anode consisting of 100 mass% Ni0.8Cu0.2/0 mass% GDC (10M/0E) and 70 mass% Ni0.8Cu0.2/30 mass% GDC (7M/3E) exhibits high power density. The test cell with a tri-layered anode consisting of 10M/0E, 7M/3E, and 50 mass% Ni0.8Cu0.2/50 mass% GDC (5M/5E) exhibits an even higher power density, suggesting that 10M/0E and 5M/5E layers contribute to the current collecting part and active part, respectively.

  11. Adherence to the items in a bundle for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sachetti, Amanda; Rech, Viviane; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Fontana, Caroline; Barbosa, Gilberto da Luz; Schlichting, Dionara

    2014-01-01

    To assess adherence to a ventilator care bundle in an intensive care unit and to determine the impact of adherence on the rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A total of 198 beds were assessed for 60 days using a checklist that consisted of the following items: bed head elevation to 30 to 45º; position of the humidifier filter; lack of fluid in the ventilator circuit; oral hygiene; cuff pressure; and physical therapy. Next, an educational lecture was delivered, and 235 beds were assessed for the following 60 days. Data were also collected on the incidence of ventilator-acquired pneumonia. Adherence to the following ventilator care bundle items increased: bed head elevation from 18.7% to 34.5%; lack of fluid in the ventilator circuit from 55.6% to 72.8%; oral hygiene from 48.5% to 77.8%; and cuff pressure from 29.8% to 51.5%. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was statistically similar before and after intervention (p=0.389). The educational intervention performed in this study increased the adherence to the ventilator care bundle, but the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia did not decrease in the small sample that was assessed.

  12. Development of an expert system for fractography of environmentally assisted cracking

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Minoshima, Kohji; Komai, Kenjiro; Yamasaki, Norimasa

    1997-12-31

    An expert system that diagnoses the causes of failure of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) based upon fractography has been developed. The system uses the OPS83 programming language, expressing rules in the manner of production rules, and is composed of three independent subsystems, which respectively deal with EACs of high-strength or high-tensile-strength steel, aluminum alloy, and stainless steel in dry and humidified air, water, and aqueous solutions containing Cl, Br, or I ions. The concerned EAC issues cover stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement, cyclic SCC, dynamic SCC, and corrosion fatigue as well as fatigue and overload fracture. The knowledge basemore » covers the rules relating to not only environments, materials, and loading conditions, but also macroscopic and microscopic fracture surface morphology. In order to deal with vague expressions of fracture surface morphology, fuzzy set theory is used in the system, and the description of rules about vague fracture surface appearance is thereby possible. Applying the developed expert system to case histories, accurate diagnoses were made. The authors discuss the related diagnosis results and usefulness of the developed system.« less

  13. Crosslinked polybenzimidazoles containing branching structure as membrane materials with excellent cell performance and durability for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Meishao; Ni, Jiangpeng; Zhang, Boping; Neelakandan, Sivasubramaniyan; Wang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Crosslinking is an effective method to improve the properties of high temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazole. However, the compact structure of crosslinked polybenzimidazole hinders the phosphoric acid absorption of the membranes, resulting in a relatively poor fuel cell performance. Recently, we find that branched polymers can absorb more phosphoric acid with a larger free volume, but suffer from deteriorated mechanical strength. In this work, a new method is proposed to obtain excellent over-all properties of high temperature proton exchange membranes. A series of crosslinked polybenzimidazoles containing branching structure as membrane materials are successfully prepared for the first time. Compared with conventional crosslinked membranes, these crosslinked polybenzimidazole membranes containing branching structure exhibit a higher phosphoric acid doping level and proton conductivity, improved durability, lower swelling rate and comparable mechanical strength. In particular, the fuel cell base on the crosslinked and branched membrane with a 10% ratio of crosslinker in non-humidified hydrogen/air at 160 °C achieves a power density of 404 mW cm-2. The results indicate that the combination of crosslinking and branching is an effective approach to improve the properties of polybenzimidazole membrane materials.

  14. Simultaneous Online Measurement of H2O and CO2 in the Humid CO2 Adsorption/Desorption Process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qingni; Ye, Sha; Zhu, Jingke; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A dew point meter (DP) and an infrared (IR) CO2 analyzer were assembled in a humid CO2 adsorption/desorption system in series for simultaneous online measurements of H2O and CO2, respectively. The humidifier, by using surface-flushing on a saturated brine solution was self-made for the generation of humid air flow. It was found that by this method it became relatively easy to obtain a low H2O content in air flow and that its fluctuation could be reduced compared to the bubbling method. Water calibration for the DP-IR detector is necessary to be conducted for minimizing the measurement error of H2O. It demonstrated that the relative error (RA) for simultaneous online measurements H2O and CO2 in the desorption process is lower than 0.1%. The high RA in the adsorption of H2O is attributed to H2O adsorption on the transfer pipe and amplification of the measurement error. The high accuracy of simultaneous online measurements of H2O and CO2 is promising for investigating their co-adsorption/desorption behaviors, especially for direct CO2 capture from ambient air.

  15. Potential GPRS 900/180-MHz and WCDMA 1900-MHz interference to medical devices.

    PubMed

    Iskra, Steve; Thomas, Barry W; McKenzie, Ray; Rowley, Jack

    2007-10-01

    This study compared the potential for interference to medical devices from radio frequency (RF) fields radiated by GSM 900/1800-MHz, general packet radio service (GPRS) 900/1800-MHz, and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) 1900-MHz handsets. The study used a balanced half-wave dipole antenna, which was energized with a signal at the standard power level for each technology, and then brought towards the medical device while noting the distance at which interference became apparent. Additional testing was performed with signals that comply with the requirements of the international immunity standard to RF fields, IEC 61000-4-3. The testing provides a sense of the overall interference impact that GPRS and WCDMA (frequency division duplex) may have, relative to current mobile technologies, and to the internationally recognized standard for radiated RF immunity. Ten medical devices were tested: two pulse oximeters, a blood pressure monitor, a patient monitor, a humidifier, three models of cardiac defibrillator, and two models of infusion pump. Our conclusion from this and a related study on consumer devices is that WCDMA handsets are unlikely to be a significant interference threat to medical electronics at typical separation distances.

  16. The Role of Water in Healthcare-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Brooke K.; Palmore, Tara N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim is to discuss the epidemiology of infections that arise from contaminated water in healthcare settings, including Legionnaire’s disease, other Gram-negative pathogens, nontuberculous mycobacteria, and fungi. Recent findings Legionella can colonize a hospital water system and infect patients despite use of preventive disinfectants. Evidence-based measures are available for secondary prevention. Vulnerable patients can develop care-associated infections with waterborne organisms that are transmitted by colonization of plumbing systems, including sinks and their fixtures. Room humidifiers and decorative fountains have been implicated in serious outbreaks, and pose unwarranted risks in healthcare settings. Summary Design of hospital plumbing must be purposeful and thoughtful to avoid the features that foster growth and dissemination of Legionella and other pathogens. Exposure of patients who have central venous catheters and other invasive devices to tap water poses a risk for infection with waterborne pathogens. Healthcare facilities must conduct aggressive clinical surveillance for Legionnaire’s disease and other waterborne infections in order to detect and remediate an outbreak promptly. Hand hygiene is the most important measure to prevent transmission of other Gram-negative waterborne pathogens in the healthcare setting. PMID:23806897

  17. Process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Daubresse, P.; Ntibashirwa, S.; Gheysen, A.

    1987-06-01

    An artisanal static process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation, developed in laboratory and tested on pilot units in Burundi (Central Africa), provides enriched cassava containing 10.7% of dry matter protein versus 1% before fermentation. Cassava chips, processed into granules of 2-4-mm diameter, are moistened (40% water content) and steamed. After cooling to 40 degrees C, cassava is mixed with a nutritive solution containing the inoculum (Rhizopus oryzae, strain MUCL 28627) and providing the following per 100 g dry matter: 3.4 g urea, 1.5 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, O.8 g MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, and 22.7 g citric acid.more » For the fermentation, cassava, with circa 60% moisture content, is spread in a thin layer (2-3 cm thick) on perforated trays and slid into an aerated humidified enclosure. The incubation lasts more or less 65 hours. The production of protein enriched cassava is 3.26 kg dry matter/square m tray. The effects of the variation of the nutritive solution composition and the inoculum conservation period on the protein production are equally discussed. (Refs. 37).« less

  18. Sorbent Structural Testing on Carbon Dioxide Removal Sorbents for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, David; Knox, James C.; West, Phillip; Bush, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Long term space missions require carbon dioxide removal systems that can function with minimal downtime required for maintenance, low power consumption and maximum efficiency for CO2 removal. A major component of such a system are the sorbents used for the CO2 and desiccant beds. Sorbents must not only have adequate CO2 and H2O removal properties, but they must have the mechanical strength to prevent structural breakdown due to pressure and temperature changes during operation and regeneration, as well as resistance to breakdown due to moisture in the system from cabin air. As part of the studies used to select future CO2 sorbent materials, mechanical tests are performed on various zeolite sorbents to determine mechanical performance while dry and at various humidified states. Tests include single pellet crush, bulk crush and attrition tests. We have established a protocol for testing sorbents under dry and humid conditions, and previously tested the sorbents used on the International Space Station carbon dioxide removal assembly. This paper reports on the testing of a series of commercial sorbents considered as candidates for use on future exploration missions.

  19. Novel electrospun gas diffusion layers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Part II. In operando synchrotron imaging for microscale liquid water transport characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, S.; Ge, N.; Lee, J.; George, M. G.; Liu, H.; Shrestha, P.; Muirhead, D.; Lavielle, N.; Hatton, B. D.; Bazylak, A.

    2017-06-01

    This is the second paper in a two-part series in which we investigate the impact of the gas diffusion layer structure on the liquid water distribution in an operating polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell through the procedures of design, fabrication, and testing of novel hydrophobic electrospun gas diffusion layers (eGDLs). In this work, fibre diameters and alignment in eGDLs are precisely controlled, and concurrent synchrotron X-ray radiography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to evaluate the influence of the controlled eGDL parameters on the liquid water distribution and on membrane liquid water content. For eGDLs with small fibre diameters (150-200 nm) and correspondingly smaller pore sizes, reduced liquid water accumulation under the flow field ribs is observed. However, more liquid water is pinned onto the eGDL - at the interface with flow field channels. Orienting fibre alignment perpendicular to the flow field channel direction leads to improved eGDL-catalyst layer contact and prevents rib-channel membrane deformation. On the other hand, eGDLs facilitate significant membrane dry-out, even under highly humidified operating conditions at high current densities.

  20. Novel electrospun gas diffusion layers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Part I. Fabrication, morphological characterization, and in situ performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, S.; Lavielle, N.; Hatton, B. D.; Bazylak, A.

    2017-06-01

    In this first of a series of two papers, we report an in-depth analysis of the impact of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) structure on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance through the use of custom GDLs fabricated in-house. Hydrophobic electrospun nanofibrous gas diffusion layers (eGDLs) are fabricated with controlled fibre diameter and alignment. The eGDLs are rendered hydrophobic through direct surface functionalization, and this molecular grafting is achieved in the absence of structural alteration. The fibre diameter, chemical composition, and electrical conductivity of the eGDL are characterized, and the impact of eGDL structure on fuel cell performance is analysed. We observe that the eGDL facilitates higher fuel cell power densities compared to a commercial GDL (Toray TGP-H-60) at highly humidified operating conditions. The ohmic resistance of the fuel cell is found to significantly increase with increasing inter-fiber distance. It is also observed that the addition of a hydrophobic treatment enhances membrane hydration, and fibres perpendicularly aligned to the channel direction may enhance the contact area between the catalyst layer and the GDL.

  1. High power density cell using nanostructured Sr-doped SmCoO3 and Sm-doped CeO2 composite powder synthesized by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Toshio; Sumi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Koichi; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    High power density solid oxide electrochemical cells were developed using nanostructure-controlled composite powder consisting of Sr-doped SmCoO3 (SSC) and Sm-doped CeO2 (SDC) for electrode material. The SSC-SDC nano-composite powder, which was synthesized by spray pyrolysis, had a narrow particle size distribution (D10, D50, and D90 of 0.59, 0.71, and 0.94 μm, respectively), and individual particles were spherical, composing of nano-size SSC and SDC fragments (approximately 10-15 nm). The application of the powder to a cathode for an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) realized extremely fine cathode microstructure and excellent cell performance. The anode-supported SOFC with the SSC-SDC cathode achieved maximum power density of 3.65, 2.44, 1.43, and 0.76 W cm-2 at 800, 750, 700, and 650 °C, respectively, using humidified H2 as fuel and air as oxidant. This result could be explained by the extended electrochemically active region in the cathode induced by controlling the structure of the starting powder at the nano-order level.

  2. Humidity effects on adhesion of nickel-zinc ferrite in elastic contact with magnetic tape and itself

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Kusaka, T.; Maeda, C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the adhesion of Ni-Zn ferrite and magnetic tape in elastic contact with a Ni-Zn ferrite hemispherical pin in moist nitrogen were studied. Adhesion was independent of normal load in dry, humid, and saturated nitrogen. Ferrites adhere to ferrites in a saturated atmosphere primarily from the surface tension effects of a thin film of water adsorbed on the ferrite surfaces. The surface tension of the water film calculated from the adhesion results was 48 times 0.00001 to 56 times 0.00001 N/cm; the accepted value for water is 72.7 x 0.00001 N/cm. The adhesion of ferrite-ferrite contacts increased gradually with increases in relative humidity to 80 percent, but rose rapidly above 80 percent. The adhesion at saturation was 30 times or more greater than that below 80 percent relative humidity. Although the adhesion of magnetic tape - ferrite contacts remained low below 40 percent relative humidity and the effect of humidity was small, the adhesion increased considerably with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent. The changes in adhesion of elastic contacts were reversible on humidifying and dehumidifying.

  3. Lamellar ichthyosis in a female neonate without a collodion membrane.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kevin; Aleshin, Maria; Goldstein, Zachary; Worswick, Scott; Hogeling, Marcia

    2018-02-15

    The term, autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI), describes a group of rare genetic skin diseases of cornification involving hyperkeratotic scaling at birth. The defective skin barrier function may lead to dehydration, body temperature instability, and high susceptibility to infections. In most cases of ARCI, neonates are born with a collodion membrane covering the body, often presenting with ectropion and eclabium. We report a premature female neonate presenting with hyperkeratotic scaling at birth without a collodion membrane. She was managed with placement in a humidified isolette, prophylactic antibiotics, dilute bleach baths, petrolatum ointment, and artificial eye drops. By the fourth week of life, there was marked improvement in her skin with the large, brown, plate-like scales on the trunk and extremities becoming lighter in color and finer in appearance. The ichthyosis genetic panel showed mutations in the ABCA12 gene resulting in the lamellar ichthyosis phenotype of ARCI. Our literature review revealed at least 28 patients with ARCI who were not born as collodion babies. Although collodion babies are a hallmark of most ARCI cases, clinicians should be aware of neonates with ARCI born without a collodion membrane and expedite appropriate workup and treatment.

  4. Influence of Meiotic Stages on Developmental Competence of Goat’ Oocyte After Vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ihsan, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    This objective of this research was to investigate effect of goat oocyte meiotic stages on developmental competence after cryopreservation. Ovaries were collected from slaugterhouse and oocytes was aspirated from2-6 mm of follicles. Oocyte with compacted cumulus cells and evenly granulated ooplasm were selected for this experiment. The lenght of in vitro maturation before vitrification was 8 or 22 h in IVM media TCM 199 + FCS 10 % + PMSG 10 IU + hCG 10 IU at 38.5 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 % CO2 in air and were vitrified. After vitrification process, GVBD and MII oocyte were matured for 18 or 4 h to fullfill 26 h maturation requirement and then oocytes were subjected to IVF and culture. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rate were to asses their developmental competence. Cleavage rates were obtained for both GVBD ( 56.78 %) and MII (69.64 % ) oocytes (P<0.05). Proportion of cleaved embryos from vitrified MII oocytes develop into blastocysts higher (P<0.05) than those from vitrified GVBD oocytes (10.25% vs 3.54%) repectively. Goat oocytes in different maturation stages response to vitrification differently and MII stages have better developmental competence than GVBD.

  5. KSC-01pp1505

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-22

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- On KSC’s Shuttle Landing Facility runway 15 following mission STS-105, orbiter Discovery undergoes safing operations such as being checked for toxic or hazardous gases, and having purge air introduced to cool the vehicle and humidified air conditioning to the payload bay and other cavities to remove any residual explosive or toxic fumes that may be present. The operations include preparing the orbiter for ground tow operations, installing switch guards and removing data packages from any onboard experiments. Main gear touchdown was at 2:22:58 p.m. EDT; wheel stop, at 2:24:06 p.m. EDT. The 11-day, 21-hour, 12-minute mission accomplished the goals set for the 11th flight to the International Space Station: swapout of the resident Station crew; delivery of equipment, supplies and scientific experiments; and installation of the Early Ammonia Servicer and heater cables for the S0 truss on the Station. Discovery traveled 4.3 million miles on its 30th flight into space, the 106th mission of the Space Shuttle program. Out of five missions in 2001, the landing was the first to occur in daylight at KSC

  6. KSC-01pp1503

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-22

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- On KSC’s Shuttle Landing Facility runway 15 following mission STS-105, orbiter Discovery undergoes safing operations such as being checked for toxic or hazardous gases, and having purge air introduced to cool the vehicle and humidified air conditioning to the payload bay and other cavities to remove any residual explosive or toxic fumes that may be present. The operations include preparing the orbiter for ground tow operations, installing switch guards and removing data packages from any onboard experiments. Main gear touchdown was at 2:22:58 p.m. EDT; wheel stop, at 2:24:06 p.m. EDT. The 11-day, 21-hour, 12-minute mission accomplished the goals set for the 11th flight to the International Space Station: swapout of the resident Station crew; delivery of equipment, supplies and scientific experiments; and installation of the Early Ammonia Servicer and heater cables for the S0 truss on the Station. Discovery traveled 4.3 million miles on its 30th flight into space, the 106th mission of the Space Shuttle program. Out of five missions in 2001, the landing was the first to occur in daylight at KSC

  7. Symptoms of respiratory illness in young children and the use of wood-burning stoves for indoor heating

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Honicky, R.E.; Osborne, J.S.; Akpom, C.A.

    1985-03-01

    The occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness among preschool children living in homes heated by wood-burning stoves was examined by conducting an historical prospective study (n . 62) with an internal control group (matched for age, sex, and town of residence). Exposures of subjects were not significantly different (P greater than .05) with respect to parental smoking, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and use of humidifiers. The control group made significantly greater use of gas stoves for cooking whereas the study group made greater use of electric stoves for cooking and of air filters (P less than .05). Only one home usedmore » a kerosene space heater. During the winter of 1982, moderate and severe symptoms in all categories were significantly greater for the study group compared with the control group (P less than .001). These differences could not be accounted for by medical histories (eg, allergies, asthma), demographic or socioeconomic characteristics, or by exposure to sources of indoor air pollution other than wood-burning stoves. Present findings suggest that indoor heating with wood-burning stoves may be a significant etiologic factor in the occurrence of symptoms of respiratory illness in young children.« less

  8. Numerical Simulation of rivulet build up via lubrication equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzzi, N.; Croce, G.

    2017-11-01

    A number of engineering problems involve the evolution of a thin layer of liquid over a non-wettable substrate. For example, CO2 chemical absorption is carried out in packed columns, where post-combustion CO2 flows up while liquid solvent falls down through a collection of corrugated sheets. Further application include, among others, in-flight icing simulations, moisture condensation on de-humidifier fins, fogging build up and removal. Here, we present a development of an in-house code solving numerically the 2D lubrication equation for a film flowing down an inclined plate. The disjoining pressure approach is followed, in order to model both the contact line discontinuity and the surface wettability. With respect to the original implementation, the full modeling of capillary pressure terms according to Young- Laplace relation allows to investigate contact angles close to π/2. The code is thus validated with literature numerical results, obtained by a fully 3D approach (VOF), showing satisfying agreement despite a strong reduction in terms of computational cost. Steady and unsteady wetting dynamics of a developing rivulet are investigated (and validated) under different load conditions and for different values of the contact angles.

  9. Aerodynamic and acoustic effects of abrupt frequency changes in excised larynges.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fariborz; Finnegan, Eileen M; Scherer, Ronald C

    2009-04-01

    To determine the aerodynamic and acoustic effects due to a sudden change from chest to falsetto register or vice versa. It was hypothesized that the continuous change in subglottal pressure and flow rate alone (pressure-flow sweep [PFS]) can trigger a mode change in the canine larynx. Ten canine larynges were each mounted over a tapered tube that supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air. Glottographic signals were recorded during each PFS experiment, during which airflow was increased in a gradual manner for a period of 20-30 s. Abrupt changes in fundamental frequency (F(0)) and mode of vibration occurred during the PFS in the passive larynx without any change in adduction or elongation. The lower frequency mode of oscillation of the vocal folds, perceptually identified as the chest register, had relatively large amplitude oscillation, significant vocal fold contact, a rich spectral content, and a relatively loud audio signal. The higher frequency mode of oscillation, perceptually identified as falsetto, had little or no vocal fold contact and a dominant first partial. Relatively abrupt F(0) changes also occurred for gradual adduction changes, with the chest register corresponding to greater adduction, falsetto to less adduction.

  10. A Calibration Facility for Dew Point in Air up to 1 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, P. A.; Bell, S. A.; Stevens, M.

    2015-12-01

    The provision of primary dew-point standards for humidified air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is well established, and measurement traceability to these standards provides confidence in a vast number of air humidity measurements. However, hygrometers are used industrially at a wide range of pressures. Both the performance of hygrometers and the properties of humid gases are known to vary with gas pressure. The pressure-dependence of gas non-ideality for air-water mixtures (water-vapor enhancement factor) is well enough known at moderate pressures, but there remains a need to characterize hygrometers at the pressure of use. To address this, a humidity calibration capability of wider scope is under development at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL). As an initial stage in the development of this capability, a humidity standard generating air or nitrogen in the dew-point range from -60° C to +10° C, at pressures up to 1 MPa (10 bar) has been validated for the calibration of hygrometers. The expanded uncertainty of the dew-point generator in this range with a coverage factor k= 2 is ± 0.07° C.

  11. The humidity in a Dräger Primus anesthesia workstation using low or high fresh gas flow and with or without a heat and moisture exchanger in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, Gustavo P; Braz, Leandro G; de Jesus, Larissa S B; Pedigone, Cesar M C; de Carvalho, Lídia R; Módolo, Norma S P; Braz, José R C

    2014-10-01

    An inhaled gas absolute humidity of 20 mg H2O·L is the value most considered as the threshold necessary for preventing the deleterious effects of dry gas on the epithelium of the airways during anesthesia. Because children have small minute ventilation, we hypothesized that the humidification of a circle breathing system is lower in children compared with adults. The Primus anesthesia workstation (Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany) has a built-in hotplate to heat the patient's exhaled gases. A heat and moisture exchanger (HME) is a device that can be used to further humidify and heat the inhaled gases during anesthesia. To evaluate the humidifying properties of this circle breathing system during pediatric anesthesia, we compared the temperature and humidity of inhaled gases under low or high fresh gas flow (FGF) conditions and with or without an HME. Forty children were randomly allocated into 4 groups according to the ventilation of their lungs by a circle breathing system in a Dräger Primus anesthesia workstation with low (1 L·min) or high (3 L·min) FGF without an HME (1L and 3L groups) or with an HME (Pall BB25FS, Pall Biomedical, East Hills, NY; HME1L and HME3L groups). The temperature and absolute humidity of inhaled gases were measured at 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 minutes after connecting the patient to the breathing circuit. The mean inhaled gas temperature was higher in HME groups (HME1L: 30.3°C ± 1.1°C; HME3L: 29.3°C ± 1.2°C) compared with no-HME groups (1L: 27.0°C ± 1.2°C; 3L: 27.1°C ± 1.5°C; P < 0.0001). The mean inhaled gas absolute humidity was higher in HME than no-HME groups and higher in low-flow than high-flow groups ([HME1L: 25 ± 1 mg H2O·L] > [HME3L: 23 ± 2 mg H2O·L] > [1L: 17 ± 1 mg H2O·L] > [3L: 14 ± 1 mg H2O·L]; P < 0.0001). In a pediatric circle breathing system, the use of neither high nor low FGF provides the minimum humidity level of the inhaled gases thought to reduce the risk of dehydration of airways. Insertion of

  12. Stability of Fe-Cr alloy interconnects under CH 4-H 2O atmosphere for SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horita, Teruhisa; Xiong, Yueping; Yamaji, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Natsuko; Yokokawa, Harumi

    The chemical stability of Fe-Cr alloys (ZMG232 and SUS430) was examined under humidified CH 4 gases at 1073 K to simulate the real anode atmosphere in SOFC operation. Surface microstructure change and oxide scale layer formation were observed on the oxidized Fe-Cr alloy surfaces. The main reaction products were Mn-Cr-(Fe) spinels for both alloys. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was applied to measure the elemental distribution of minor and major elements around the oxide scale/alloy interface. A high concentration of Mn on the oxide scale surface suggested the fast diffusion of Mn in the oxide scale to form the spinels. Annealing in CH 4-H 2O made the oxide scale thicker with duration time on the alloy surface. The parabolic growth rates ( kp) of oxide scale layer were evaluated from the thickness of oxide scales by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiles, which were calculated to the following: kp=6.25×10 -6 μm 2/s for SUS430 and kp=4.42×10 -6 μm 2/s for ZMG232. The electrical conductivity of oxidized alloys showed the semi-conductor temperature dependence for both alloys. The electrical conductivity of oxidized ZMG232 alloy was higher than that of oxidized SUS430.

  13. Stabilization of sulfuric acid dimers by ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Coty N.; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.

    2014-06-01

    This study experimentally explores how ammonia (NH3), methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) affect the chemical formation mechanisms of electrically neutral clusters that contain two sulfuric acid molecules (dimers). Dimers may also contain undetectable compounds, such as water or bases, that evaporate upon ionization and sampling. Measurements were conducted using a glass flow reactor which contained a steady flow of humidified nitrogen with sulfuric acid concentrations of 107 to 109 cm-3. A known molar flow rate of a basic gas was injected into the flow reactor. The University of Minnesota Cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer was used to measure the resulting sulfuric acid vapor and cluster concentrations. It was found that, for a given concentration of sulfuric acid vapor, the dimer concentration increases with increasing concentration of the basic gas, eventually reaching a plateau. The base concentrations at which the dimer concentrations saturate suggest NH3 < MA < TMA ≲ DMA in forming stabilized sulfuric acid dimers. Two heuristic models for cluster formation by acid-base reactions are developed to interpret the data. The models provide ranges of evaporation rate constants that are consistent with observations and leads to an analytic expression for nucleation rates that is consistent with atmospheric observations.

  14. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, H.; Bussiahn, R.; Hammer, M. U.; Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100-400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10-200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH2O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O2•-) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  15. Embryo density and medium volume effects on early murine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Canseco, R S; Sparks, A E; Pearson, R E; Gwazdauskas, F C

    1992-10-01

    One-cell mouse embryos were used to determine the effects of drop size and number of embryos per drop for optimum development in vitro. Embryos were collected from immature C57BL6 female mice superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated by CD1 males. Groups of 1, 5, 10, or 20 embryos were cultured in 5-, 10-, 20-, or 40-microliters drops of CZB under silicon oil at 37.5 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. Development score for embryos cultured in 10 microliters was higher than that of embryos cultured in 20 or 40 microliters. Embryos cultured in groups of 5, 10, or 20 had higher development scores than embryos cultured singly. The highest development score was obtained by the combination of 5 embryos per 10-microliters drop. The percentage of live embryos in 20 or 40 microliters was lower than that of embryos cultured in 10 microliters. Additionally, the percentage of live embryos cultured singly was lower than that of embryos cultured in groups. Our results suggest that a stimulatory interaction occurs among embryos possibly exerted through the secretion of growth factors. This effect can be diluted if the embryos are cultured in large drops or singly.

  16. Humidification and heating of inhaled gas in patients with artificial airway. A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Plotnikow, Gustavo Adrián; Accoce, Matias; Navarro, Emiliano; Tiribelli, Norberto

    2018-03-01

    Instrumentation of the airways in critical patients (endotracheal tube or tracheostomy cannula) prevents them from performing their function of humidify and heating the inhaled gas. In addition, the administration of cold and dry medical gases and the high flows that patients experience during invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation generate an even worse condition. For this reason, a device for gas conditioning is needed, even in short-term treatments, to avoid potential damage to the structure and function of the respiratory epithelium. In the field of intensive therapy, the use of heat and moisture exchangers is common for this purpose, as is the use of active humidification systems. Acquiring knowledge about technical specifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each device is needed for proper use since the conditioning of inspired gases is a key intervention in patients with artificial airway and has become routine care. Incorrect selection or inappropriate configuration of a device can have a negative impact on clinical outcomes. The members of the Capítulo de Kinesiología Intensivista of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva conducted a narrative review aiming to show the available evidence regarding conditioning of inhaled gas in patients with artificial airways, going into detail on concepts related to the working principles of each one.

  17. Heated wire humidification circuit attenuates the decrease of core temperature during general anesthesia in patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Sooyong; Yoon, Seok-Hwa; Youn, Ann Misun; Song, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Ja Gyung

    2017-12-01

    Intraoperative hypothermia is common in patients undergoing general anesthesia during arthroscopic hip surgery. In the present study, we assessed the effect of heating and humidifying the airway with a heated wire humidification circuit (HHC) to attenuate the decrease of core temperature and prevent hypothermia in patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery under general anesthesia. Fifty-six patients scheduled for arthroscopic hip surgery were randomly assigned to either a control group using a breathing circuit connected with a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) (n = 28) or an HHC group using a heated wire humidification circuit (n = 28). The decrease in core temperature was measured from anesthetic induction and every 15 minutes thereafter using an esophageal stethoscope. Decrease in core temperature from anesthetic induction to 120 minutes after induction was lower in the HHC group (-0.60 ± 0.27℃) compared to the control group (-0.86 ± 0.29℃) (P = 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of intraoperative hypothermia or the incidence of shivering in the postanesthetic care unit. The use of HHC may be considered as a method to attenuate intraoperative decrease in core temperature during arthroscopic hip surgery performed under general anesthesia and exceeding 2 hours in duration.

  18. Outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sood, Geeta; Parrish, Nikki

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging literature on nontuberculous mycobacteria outbreaks in healthcare settings. As our ability to identify mycobacterial species develops, we are better able to recognize epidemiologic connections and better understand the prevalence and importance of these outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in healthcare settings. The number of outbreaks related to nontuberculous outbreaks is increasing because of heightened awareness and better diagnostic tests for species level identification of mycobacteria. Outbreaks in healthcare settings have been related to cardiac surgery, plastic surgery, including medical tourism, colonized humidifiers and heater-cooler devices, imperfect disinfection, and hospital water sources. Mycobacteria have a predilection to form biofilms, are resistant to disinfection and are prevalent in hospital water systems. Patients with structural lung disease like cystic fibrosis patients are at particularly high risk for mycobacterial infection. It has been thought that acquisition in this patient population is from common environmental exposure; however, there is increasing evidence that transmission in this patient population can occur through either direct or indirect patient-to-patient spread. Mycobacteria outbreaks in healthcare settings have been underrecognized. As we identify additional clusters of infection with better diagnostic tools and heightened awareness, we will likely need better infection control practices to prevent infections in healthcare settings.

  19. An automated and semi-continuous method for the analysis of water-soluble constituents in PM(2.5).

    PubMed

    Lee, B K; Kim, Y H; Lee, D S

    2008-04-01

    An automated and semi-continuous method for measuring water-soluble constituents in PM(2.5) was developed. The system consists of a multi-tube diffusion scrubber (MTDS), a low temperature particle impactor (LTPI), an inertial air/liquid separator, and two ion chromatography systems. The MTDS acts as an interfering gas removal system and also as a humidifier for growing particles. Since the MTDS operates at 40 degrees C, the loss of volatile compounds and hydrological conversion of nitrogen oxides to nitrite were not of significant concern. The condensation of water vapor, dissolution of soluble constituents, and capture of insoluble particles occurred in the LTPI. The condensed liquid containing the dissolved species and the insoluble particles was separated from the airflow using an inertial air/liquid separator. The analysis of cations and anions in the effluent liquid was performed using two ion chromatography systems. The collection efficiency, including the inlet loss, of the system was 96.6+/-7.1% at an air flow rate of 1.0 SLPM. The limits of detection ranged from 12 to 57 ng/m(3) for major ionic constituents without any pre-concentration procedure. This method was tested in the field and the average data capture was over 90%, demonstrating the reliability of the system.

  20. Hygroscopic growth of size-resolved, emission-source classified, aerosol particles sampled across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingler, T.; Crosbie, E. C.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Mikoviny, T.; Wisthaler, A.; Sorooshian, A.

    2014-12-01

    The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosol particles is a key air quality parameter, impacting the radiation budget, visibility, and cloud formation. During the DC3 and SEAC4RS field campaigns (>300 total flight hours), measurements were made over 32 US states, Canada, the Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico, between the surface and 41,000 feet ASL. The aircraft research payloads included a suite of in-situ aerosol and gas phase instruments. The Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe (DASH-SP) and the Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) humidified nephelometer instrument applied different techniques to measure water uptake by aerosol particles at prescribed relative humidity values. Size-resolved growth factor (GF ≡ Dp,wet/Dp,dry) measurements by the DASH-SP are compared to bulk scattering measurements (f(RH) ≡ σscat,wet/σscat,dry) by the LARGE instrument. Spatial location and volatile organic compound tracers such as isoprene and acetonitrile are used to classify the origin of distinct air masses, including: forest fires, biogenic-emitting forests, agricultural use lands, marine boundary layer, urban, and rural background. Analyses of GF results by air mass origin are reported and results are compared with f(RH) measurements. A parameterization between the f(RH) and GF measurements and its potential uses are discussed.

  1. Acute cardiovascular toxicity of sterilizers, PHMG, and PGH: severe inflammation in human cells and heart failure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Hak Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, dozens of children and pregnant women in Korea died by exposure to sterilizer for household humidifier, such as Oxy(®) and Cefu(®). Until now, however, it remains unknown how the sterilizer affect the human health to cause the acute deaths. To find its toxicity for organ, we investigated the putative toxicity of the sterilizer in the cardiovascular system. The sterilizers, polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG, Cefu(®)), and oligo-[2-(2-ethoxy)-ethoxyethyl)-guanidinium-chloride (PGH, Oxy(®)) were treated to human lipoproteins, macrophages, and dermal fibroblast cells. The PGH and PHMG at normal dosages caused severe atherogenic process in human macrophages, cytotoxic effect, and aging in human dermal cell. Zebrafish embryos, which were exposed to the sterilizer, showed early death with acute inflammation and attenuated developmental speed. All zebrafish exposed to the working concentration of PHMG (final 0.3 %) and PGH (final 10 mM) died within 70 min and displayed acute increases in serum triacylglycerol level and fatty liver induction. The dead zebrafish showed severe accumulation of fibrous collagen in the bulbous artery of the heart with elevation of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, the sterilizers showed acute toxic effect in blood circulation system, causing by severe inflammation, atherogenesis, and aging, with embryo toxicity.

  2. Toxic Inhalational Injury-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyung Young; Yu, Jinho; Jhang, Won-Kyoung; Park, Seong-Jong; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Cho, Young Ah; Kim, Sun-A; Jang, Se Jin

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) is a group of disorders characterized by lung inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. In the past recent years, we noted an outbreak of child in Korea, which is possibly associated with inhalation toxicity. Here, we report a series of cases involving toxic inhalational injury-associated chILD with bronchiolitis obliterans pattern in Korean children. This study included 16 pediatric patients confirmed by lung biopsy and chest computed tomography, between February 2006 and May 2011 at Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital. The most common presenting symptoms were cough and dyspnea. The median age at presentation was 26 months (range: 12-47 months), with high mortality (44%). Histopathological analysis showed bronchiolar destruction and centrilobular distribution of alveolar destruction by inflammatory and fibroproliferative process with subpleural sparing. Chest computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities and consolidation in the early phase and diffuse centrilobular nodular opacity in the late phase. Air leak with severe respiratory difficulty was associated with poor prognosis. Although respiratory chemicals such as humidifier disinfectants were strongly considered as a cause of this disease, further studies are needed to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease to improve the prognosis and allow early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23772158

  3. Effects of mineral amendments on trace elements leaching from pre-treated marine sediment after simulated rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Hurel, C; Taneez, M; Volpi Ghirardini, A; Libralato, G

    2017-01-01

    Bauxite extraction by-products (red mud) were used to evaluate their potential ability to stabilize trace elements from dredged and aerated/humidified marine sediment. The investigated by-products were: bauxaline ® (BX) that is a press-filtered red mud; bauxsol™(BS) that is a press-filtered red mud previously washed with excess of seawater, and gypsum neutralized bauxaline ® (GBX). These materials were separately mixed to dredged composted sediment sample considering 5% and 20% sediment: stabilizer ratios. For pilot experiments, rainfall events were regularly simulated for 3 months. Concentrations of As, Mo, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni were analyzed in collected leachates as well as toxicity. Results showed that Cd, Mo, Zn, and Cu were efficiently stabilized in the solid matrix when 20% of BX, BS, and GBX was applied. Consequently, toxicity of leachates was lower than for the untreated sediment, meaning that contaminants mobility was reduced. A 5% GBX was also efficient for Mo, Zn and Cu stabilization. In all scenarios, As stabilization was not improved. Compared to all other monitored elements, Mo mobility seemed to depend upon temperature-humidity conditions during pilot experiments suggesting the need of further investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical application of the pO(2)-pCO(2) diagram.

    PubMed

    Paulev, P-E; Siggaard-Andersen, O

    2004-10-01

    Based on the classic, linear blood gas diagram a logarithmic blood gas map was constructed. The scales were extended by the use of logarithmic axes in order to allow for high patient values. Patients with lung disorders often have high arterial carbon dioxide tensions, and patients on supplementary oxygen typically respond with high oxygen tensions off the scale of the classic diagram. Two case histories illustrate the clinical application of the logarithmic blood gas map. Variables from the two patients were measured by the use of blood gas analysis equipment. Measured and calculated values are tabulated. The calculations were performed using the oxygen status algorithm. When interpreting the graph for a given patient it is recommended first to observe the location of the marker for the partial pressure of oxygen in inspired, humidified air (I) to see whether the patient is breathing atmospheric air or air with supplementary oxygen. Then observe the location of the arterial point (a) to see whether hypoxemia or hypercapnia appears to be the primary disturbance. Finally observe the alveolo-arterial oxygen tension difference to estimate the degree of veno-arterial shunting. If the mixed venous point (v) is available, then observe the value of the mixed venous oxygen tension. This is the most important indicator of global tissue hypoxia.

  5. In-Line Reactions and Ionizations of Vaporized Diphenylchloroarsine and Diphenylcyanoarsine in Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2016-07-01

    We propose detecting a fragment ion (Ph2As+) using counter-flow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry for sensitive air monitoring of chemical warfare vomiting agents diphenylchloroarsine (DA) and diphenylcyanoarsine (DC). The liquid sample containing of DA, DC, and bis(diphenylarsine)oxide (BDPAO) was heated in a dry air line, and the generated vapor was mixed into the humidified air flowing through the sampling line of a mass spectrometer. Humidity effect on the air monitoring was investigated by varying the humidity of the analyzed air sample. Evidence of the in-line conversion of DA and DC to diphenylarsine hydroxide (DPAH) and then BDPAO was obtained by comparing the chronograms of various ions from the beginning of heating. Multiple-stage mass spectrometry revealed that the protonated molecule (MH+) of DA, DC, DPAH, and BDPAO could produce Ph2As+ through their in-source fragmentation. Among the signals of the ions that were investigated, the Ph2As+ signal was the most intense and increased to reach a plateau with the increased air humidity, whereas the MH+ signal of DA decreased. It was suggested that DA and DC were converted in-line into BDPAO, which was a major source of Ph2As+.

  6. Phase Behavior and Conductivity of Phosphonated Block Copolymers Containing Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ha Young; Kim, Sung Yeon; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-03-01

    As the focus on proton exchange fuel cells continues to escalate in the era of alternative energy systems, the rational design of sulfonated polymers has emerged as a key technique for enhancing device efficiency. While the sulfonic acid group guarantees high proton conductivity of membranes under humidified conditions, the growing need for high temperature operation has discouraged their practical uses in fuel cells. In this respect, phosphonated polymers have drawn intensive attention in recent years owing to their self-dissociation ability. In this study, we have synthesized a set of phosphonated block copolymers, poly(styrenephosphonate-methylbutylene) (PSP- b - PMB), by varying phosphonation level (PL). A wide variety of self-assembled morphologies, i.e., disordered, lamellar, hexagonally perforated lamellae and hexagonally packed cylindrical phases, were observed with PL. Remarkably, upon comparing the morphology of PSP- b-PMB and that of sulfonated analog, we found distinctly dissimilar domain sizes at the same molecular weight and composition. A range of ionic liquids (ILs) were incorporated into the PSP- b-PMB block copolymers and their ion transport properties were examined. It has been revealed that the degree of confinement of ionic phases (domain size) impacts the ion mobility and proton dissociation efficiency of IL-containing polymers.

  7. Novel fluoropolymer anion exchange membranes for alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Fang, Jun; Wu, Yongbin; Xu, Hankun; Chi, Xianjun; Li, Wei; Yang, Yixu; Yan, Ge; Zhuang, Yongze

    2012-09-01

    A series of novel fluoropolymer anion exchange membranes based on the copolymer of vinylbenzyl chloride, butyl methacrylate, and hexafluorobutyl methacrylate has been prepared. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques are used to study the chemical structure and chemical composition of the membranes. The water uptake, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), conductivity, methanol permeability, and chemical stability of the membranes are also determined. The membranes exhibit high anionic conductivity in deionized water at 65 °C ranging from 3.86×10(-2) S cm(-1) to 4.36×10(-2) S cm(-1). The methanol permeability coefficients of the membranes are in the range of 4.21-5.80×10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) at 65 °C. The novel membranes also show good chemical and thermal stability. An open-circuit voltage of 0.7 V and a maximum power density of 53.2 mW cm(-2) of alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) with the membrane C, 1 M methanol, 1 M NaOH, and humidified oxygen are achieved at 65 °C. Therefore, these membranes have great potential for applications in fuel cell systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heated wire humidification circuit attenuates the decrease of core temperature during general anesthesia in patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sooyong; Song, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Ja Gyung

    2017-01-01

    Background Intraoperative hypothermia is common in patients undergoing general anesthesia during arthroscopic hip surgery. In the present study, we assessed the effect of heating and humidifying the airway with a heated wire humidification circuit (HHC) to attenuate the decrease of core temperature and prevent hypothermia in patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery under general anesthesia. Methods Fifty-six patients scheduled for arthroscopic hip surgery were randomly assigned to either a control group using a breathing circuit connected with a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) (n = 28) or an HHC group using a heated wire humidification circuit (n = 28). The decrease in core temperature was measured from anesthetic induction and every 15 minutes thereafter using an esophageal stethoscope. Results Decrease in core temperature from anesthetic induction to 120 minutes after induction was lower in the HHC group (–0.60 ± 0.27℃) compared to the control group (–0.86 ± 0.29℃) (P = 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of intraoperative hypothermia or the incidence of shivering in the postanesthetic care unit. Conclusions The use of HHC may be considered as a method to attenuate intraoperative decrease in core temperature during arthroscopic hip surgery performed under general anesthesia and exceeding 2 hours in duration. PMID:29225745

  9. Investigation of aluminosilicate as a solid oxide fuel cell refractory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Paul S.; Sofie, Stephen W.

    2011-05-01

    Aluminosilicate represents a potential low cost alternative to alumina for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) refractory applications. The objectives of this investigation are to study: (1) changes of aluminosilicate chemistry and morphology under SOFC conditions, (2) deposition of aluminosilicate vapors on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and nickel, and (3) effects of aluminosilicate vapors on SOFC electrochemical performance. Thermal treatment of aluminosilicate under high temperature SOFC conditions is shown to result in increased mullite concentrations at the surface due to diffusion of silicon from the bulk. Water vapor accelerates the rate of surface diffusion resulting in a more uniform distribution of silicon. The high temperature condensation of volatile gases released from aluminosilicate preferentially deposit on YSZ rather than nickel. Silicon vapor deposited on YSZ consists primarily of aluminum rich clusters enclosed in an amorphous siliceous layer. Increased concentrations of silicon are observed in enlarged grain boundaries indicating separation of YSZ grains by insulating glassy phase. The presence of aluminosilicate powder in the hot zone of a fuel line supplying humidified hydrogen to an SOFC anode impeded peak performance and accelerated degradation. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detected concentrations of silicon at the interface between the electrolyte and anode interlayer above impurity levels.

  10. The viking biological investigation: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Klein, H P; Horowitz, N H; Levin, G V; Oyama, V I; Lederberg, J; Rich, A; Hubbard, J S; Hobby, G L; Straat, P A; Berdahl, B J; Carle, G C; Brown, F S; Johnson, R D

    1976-10-01

    Three different types of biological experiments on samples of martian surface material ("soil") were conducted inside the Viking lander. In the carbon assimilation or pyrolytic release experiment, (14)CO(2) and (14)CO were exposed to soil in the presence of light. A small amount of gas was found to be converted into organic material. Heat treatment of a duplicate sample prevented such conversion. In the gas exchange experiment, soil was first humidified (exposed to water vapor) for 6 sols and then wet with a complex aqueous solution of metabolites. The gas above the soil was monitored by gas chromatography. A substantial amount of O(2) was detected in the first chromatogram taken 2.8 hours after humidification. Subsequent analyses revealed that significant increases in CO(2) and only small changes in N(2) had also occurred. In the labeled release experiment, soil was moistened with a solution containing several (14)C-labeled organic compounds. A substantial evolution of radioactive gas was registered but did not occur with a duplicate heat-treated sample. Alternative chemical and biological interpretations are possible for these preliminary data. The experiments are still in process, and these results so far do not allow a decision regarding the existence of life on the plonet Mars.

  11. Fuel composition effect on cathode airflow control in fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nana; Zaccaria, Valentina; Tucker, David

    2018-04-01

    Cathode airflow regulation is considered an effective means for thermal management in solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system. However, performance and controllability are observed to vary significantly with different fuel compositions. Because a complete system characterization with any possible fuel composition is not feasible, the need arises for robust controllers. The sufficiency of robust control is dictated by the effective change of operating state given the new composition used. It is possible that controller response could become unstable without a change in the gains from one state to the other. In this paper, cathode airflow transients are analyzed in a SOFC-GT system using syngas as fuel composition, comparing with previous work which used humidified hydrogen. Transfer functions are developed to map the relationship between the airflow bypass and several key variables. The impact of fuel composition on system control is quantified by evaluating the difference between gains and poles in transfer functions. Significant variations in the gains and the poles, more than 20% in most cases, are found in turbine rotational speed and cathode airflow. The results of this work provide a guideline for the development of future control strategies to face fuel composition changes.

  12. Molecular Functionalization of Graphene Oxide for Next-Generation Wearable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, Hadis; Sy, Serubbabel; Fu, Jing; Jiang, Gaopeng; Kang, Keunwoo; Jun, Yun-Seok; Yu, Aiping; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Acquiring reliable and efficient wearable electronics requires the development of flexible electrolyte membranes (EMs) for energy storage systems with high performance and minimum dependency on the operating conditions. Herein, a freestanding graphene oxide (GO) EM is functionalized with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (HMIM) molecules via both covalent and noncovalent bonds induced by esterification reactions and electrostatic πcation-π stacking, respectively. Compared to the commercial polymeric membrane, the thin HMIM/GO membrane demonstrates not only slightest performance sensitivity to the operating conditions but also a superior hydroxide conductivity of 0.064 ± 0.0021 S cm(-1) at 30% RH and room temperature, which was 3.8 times higher than that of the commercial membrane at the same conditions. To study the practical application of the HMIM/GO membranes in wearable electronics, a fully solid-state, thin, flexible zinc-air battery and supercapacitor are made exhibiting high battery performance and capacitance at low humidified and room temperature environment, respectively, favored by the bonded HMIM molecules on the surface of GO nanosheets. The results of this study disclose the strong potential of manipulating the chemical structure of GO to work as a lightweight membrane in wearable energy storage devices, possessing highly stable performance at different operating conditions, especially at low relative humidity and room temperature.

  13. Variations in incubator temperature and humidity management: a survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Deguines, C; Décima, P; Pelletier, A; Dégrugilliers, L; Ghyselen, L; Tourneux, P

    2012-03-01

    To describe and assess routine procedures and practices for incubator temperature and humidity management in France in 2009. A questionnaire was sent to all the 186 neonatal care units in France. The questionnaire return rate was 86%. Seventy-five per cent of the units preferred skin servo-control to air temperature control in routine practice. Air temperature control was mainly used for infants with a gestational age of more than 28 weeks and aged over 7 days of life. In general, thermal management decisions did not depend on the infant's age but were based on a protocol applied specifically by each unit. All units humidified the incubator air, but there was a large difference between the lowest and highest reported humidity values (45% and 100% assumed to be a maximal value, respectively). More than 65% of the units used a fixed humidity value, rather than a variable, protocol-derived value. We observed large variations in incubator temperature and humidity management approaches from one neonatal care unit to another. There is a need for more evidence to better inform practice. A task force should be formed to guide clinical practice. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Reactive adsorption of SO2 on activated carbons with deposited iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Arcibar-Orozco, Javier A; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2013-02-15

    The effect of iron particle size anchored on the surface of commercial activated carbon on the removal of SO(2) from a gas phase was studied. Nanosize iron particles were deposited using forced hydrolysis of FeCl(3) with or without H(3)PO(4) as a capping agent. Dynamic adsorption experiments were carried out on either dry or pre-humidified materials and the adsorption capacities were calculated. The surface of the initial and exhausted materials was extensively characterized by microscopic, porosity, thermogravimetric and surface chemistry. The results indicate that the SO(2) adsorption capacity increased two and half times after the prehumidification process owing to the formation of H(2)SO(4) in the porous system. Iron species enhance the SO(2) adsorption capacity only when very small nanoparticles are deposited on the pore walls as a thin layer. Large iron nanoparticles block the ultramicropores decreasing the accessibility of the active sites and consuming oxygen that rest adsorption centers for SO(2) molecules. Iron nanoparticles of about 3-4 nm provide highly dispersed adsorption sites for SO(2) molecules and thus increase the adsorption capacity of about 80%. Fe(2)(SO(4))(3) was detected on the surface of exhausted samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

    1996-09-01

    Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μ/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

  16. Production of thermostable invertases by Aspergillus caespitosus under submerged or solid state fermentation using agroindustrial residues as carbon source

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Ana Cláudia Paiva; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria; Terenzi, Héctor Francisco; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus caespitosus was a good producer of intracellular and extracellular invertases under submerged (SbmF) or solid-state fermentation (SSF), using agroindustrial residues, such as wheat bran, as carbon source. The production of extracellular enzyme under SSF at 30°C, for 72h, was enhanced using SR salt solution (1:1, w/v) to humidify the substrate. The extracellular activity under SSF using wheat bran was around 5.5-fold higher than that obtained in SbmF (Khanna medium) with the same carbon source. However, the production of enzyme with wheat bran plus oat meal was 2.2-fold higher than wheat bran isolated. The enzymatic production was affected by supplementation with nitrogen and phosphate sources. The addition of glucose in SbmF and SSF promoted the decreasing of extracellular activity, but the intracellular form obtained in SbmF was enhanced 3-5-fold. The invertase produced in SSF exhibited optimum temperature at 50°C while the extra- and intracellular enzymes produced in SbmF exhibited maximal activities at 60°C. All enzymatic forms exhibited maximal activities at pH 4.0-6.0 and were stable up to 1 hour at 50°C. PMID:24031406

  17. The 5-6 December 1991 FIRE IFO 2 Jet Stream Cirrus Case Study: Possible Influences of Volcanic Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Starr, David OC.; Mace, Gerald G.; Poellot, Michael R.; Melfi, S. H.; Eberhard, Wynn L.; Spinhirne, James D.; Eloranta, E. W.; Hagen, Donald E.; Hallett, John

    1996-01-01

    In presenting an overview of the cirrus clouds comprehensively studied by ground based and airborne sensors from Coffeyville, Kansas, during the 5-6 December 1992 First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) intensive field observation (IFO) case study period, evidence is provided that volcanic aerosols from the June 1991 Pinatubo eruptions may have significantly influenced the formation and maintenance of the cirrus. Following the local appearance of a spur of stratospheric volcanic debris from the subtropics, a series of jet streaks subsequently conditioned the troposphere through tropopause foldings with sulfur based particles that became effective cloud forming nuclei in cirrus clouds. Aerosol and ozone measurements suggest a complicated history of stratospheric-tropospheric exchanges embedded with the upper level flow, and cirrus cloud formation was noted to occur locally at the boundaries of stratospheric aerosol enriched layers that became humidified through diffusion, precipitation, or advective processes. Apparent cirrus cloud alterations include abnormally high ice crystal concentrations (up to approximately 600 L(exp. 1)), complex radial ice crystal types, and relatively large haze particles in cirrus uncinus cell heads at temperatures between -40 and -50 degrees C. Implications for volcanic-cirrus cloud climate effects and unusual (nonvolcanic) aerosol jet stream cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  18. Hydration and dehydration cycles in polymer electrolyte fuel cells operated with wet anode and dry cathode feed: A neutron imaging and modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Sánchez, D. G.; Boillat, P.; Vera, M.; Friedrich, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    Proper water management plays an essential role in the performance and durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs), but it is challenged by the variety of water transport phenomena that take place in these devices. Previous experimental work has shown the existence of fluctuations between low and high current density levels in PEFCs operated with wet hydrogen and dry air feed. The alternation between both performance states is accompanied by strong changes in the high frequency resistance, suggesting a cyclic hydration and dehydration of the membrane. This peculiar scenario is examined here considering liquid water distributions from neutron imaging and predictions from a 3D two-phase non-isothermal model. The results show that the hydration-dehydration cycles are triggered by the periodic condensation and shedding of liquid water at the anode inlet. The input of liquid water humidifies the anode channel and offsets the membrane dry-out induced by the dry air stream, thus leading to the high-performance state. When liquid water is flushed out of the anode channel, the dehydration process takes over, and the cell comes back to the low-performance state. The predicted amplitude of the current oscillations grows with decreasing hydrogen and increasing air flow rates, in agreement with previous experimental data.

  19. Measuring mass-based hygroscopicity of atmospheric particles through in situ imaging

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Piens, Dominique S.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Harder, Tristan H.

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental compositionmore » of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state of 158 other particles from the sample broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. As a result, these methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicrometer atmospheric particles.« less

  20. Measuring Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Atmospheric Particles through in situ Imaging

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Piens, Dominique` Y.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Harder, Tristan

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental compositionmore » of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state determined for 158 particles broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer the atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. These methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicron atmospheric particles.« less

  1. Factors Associated with Post-Seasonal Serological Titer and Risk Factors for Infection with the Pandemic A/H1N1 Virus in the French General Population

    PubMed Central

    Lapidus, Nathanael; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Salez, Nicolas; Setbon, Michel; Delabre, Rosemary M.; Ferrari, Pascal; Moyen, Nanikaly; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Vely, Frédéric; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Andreoletti, Laurent; Cauchemez, Simon; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Vivier, Éric; Abel, Laurent; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Legeas, Michèle; Le Cann, Pierre; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The CoPanFlu-France cohort of households was set up in 2009 to study the risk factors for infection by the pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) in the French general population. The authors developed an integrative data-driven approach to identify individual, collective and environmental factors associated with the post-seasonal serological H1N1pdm geometric mean titer, and derived a nested case-control analysis to identify risk factors for infection during the first season. This analysis included 1377 subjects (601 households). The GMT for the general population was 47.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 45.1, 49.2). According to a multivariable analysis, pandemic vaccination, seasonal vaccination in 2009, recent history of influenza-like illness, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, social contacts at school and use of public transports by the local population were associated with a higher GMT, whereas history of smoking was associated with a lower GMT. Additionally, young age at inclusion and risk perception of exposure to the virus at work were identified as possible risk factors, whereas presence of an air humidifier in the living room was a possible protective factor. These findings will be interpreted in light of the longitudinal analyses of this ongoing cohort. PMID:23613718

  2. New design of a cathode flow-field with a sub-channel to improve the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yulin; Yue, Like; Wang, Shixue

    2017-03-01

    The cathode flow-field design of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells determines the distribution of reactant gases and the removal of liquid water. A suitable design can result in perfect water management and thus high cell performance. In this paper, a new design for a cathode flow-field with a sub-channel was proposed and had been experimentally analyzed in a parallel flow-field PEM fuel cell. Three sub-channel inlets were placed along the cathode channel. The main-channel inlet was fed with moist air to humidify the membrane and maintain high proton conductivity, whereas, the sub-channel inlet was fed with dry air to enhance water removal in the flow channel. The experimental results indicated that the sub-channel design can decrease the pressure drop in the flow channel, and the sub-channels inlet positions (SIP, where the sub-channel inlets were placed along the cathode channel) and flow rates (SFR, percentage of air from the sub-channel inlet in the total cathode flow rate) had a considerable impact on water removal and cell performance. A proposed design that combines the SIP and SFR can effectively eliminate water from the fuel cell, increasing the maximum power density by more than 13.2% compared to the conventional design.

  3. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humiditymore » cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.« less

  4. Measuring mass-based hygroscopicity of atmospheric particles through in situ imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Piens, Dominique S.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Harder, Tristan H.; ...

    2016-04-18

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental compositionmore » of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state of 158 other particles from the sample broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. As a result, these methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicrometer atmospheric particles.« less

  5. Characterization of ceria electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, Christopher Edward

    The goal of this research effort is to characterize cation doped cerium dioxide for use as an electrolyte material in solid oxide fuel cell applications. A variety of analytical techniques including thermogravimetric analysis, controlled atmosphere dilatometry, and AC/DC electronic measurements on single cells and stacks have been coupled with thermodynamic calculations to evaluate the suitability of several doping schemes. The results of this analysis indicate that doping CeOsb2 with 20% SmOsb{1.5} or codoping with 19% GdOsb{1.5} + 1% PrOsb{1.83} provides the best combination of stability and performance. Under dual atmosphere fuel cell conditions, these dopants do not provide sufficient stabilization energy to prevent the reduction of ceria. A significant oxygen leakage current can be expected, particularly near open circuit conditions. Incorporation of 10% SrO provides similar short-term advantages to the lanthanide doped system but this electrolyte material undergoes an irreversible degradation mechanism that results in cell failure within 1500 hours of test. Under fuel cell conditions, the maximum efficiency of such systems in stacks will be below 40% at 200 mW/cmsp2 when operated on humidified hydrogen fuels. This compares to an expected efficiency of 45-50% at a similar power density for nonmixed conducting electrolyte (e.g., YSZ).

  6. Hygroscopic and Chemical Properties of Aerosols collected near a Copper Smelter: Implications for Public and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Csavina, Janae; Shingler, Taylor; Dey, Stephen; Brechtel, Fred J.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter emissions near active copper smelters and mine tailings in the southwestern United States pose a potential threat to nearby environments owing to toxic species that can be inhaled and deposited in various regions of the body depending on the composition and size of the particles, which are linked by particle hygroscopic properties. This study reports the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved chemical and hygroscopic properties of particles next to an active copper smelter and mine tailings by the towns of Hayden and Winkelman in southern Arizona. Size-resolved particulate matter samples collected near an active copper smelter were examined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. Aerosol particles collected at the measurement site are enriched in metals and metalloids (e.g. arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and water-uptake measurements of aqueous extracts of collected samples indicate that the particle diameter range of particles most enriched with these species (0.18–0.55 µm) overlaps with the most hygroscopic mode at a relative humidity of 90% (0.10–0.32 µm). These measurements have implications for public health, microphysical effects of aerosols, and regional impacts owing to the transport and deposition of contaminated aerosol particles. PMID:22852879

  7. Extremely fine structured cathode for solid oxide fuel cells using Sr-doped LaMnO3 and Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 nano-composite powder synthesized by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Sumi, Hirofumi; Nomura, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu

    2017-02-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for high power density operation was developed with a microstructure-controlled cathode using a nano-composite powder of Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) synthesized by spray pyrolysis. The individual LSM-YSZ nano-composite particles, formed by crystalline and amorphous nano-size LSM and YSZ particles, showed spherical morphology with uniform particle size. The use of this powder for cathode material led to an extremely fine microstructure, in which all the LSM and YSZ grains (approximately 100-200 nm) were highly dispersed and formed their own network structures. This microstructure was due to the two phase electrode structure control using the powder, namely, nano-order level in each particle and micro-order level between particles. An anode-supported SOFC with the LSM-YSZ cathode using humidified H2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant exhibited high power densities, such as 1.29 W cm-2 under a voltage of 0.75 V and a maximum power density of 2.65 W cm-2 at 800 °C. Also, the SOFC could be stably operated for 250 h with no degradation, even at a high temperature of 800 °C.

  8. Challenge for lowering concentration polarization in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Sumi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Koichi; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    In the scope of electrochemical phenomena, concentration polarization at electrodes is theoretically inevitable, and lowering the concentration overpotential to improve the performance of electrochemical cells has been a continuing challenge. Electrodes with highly controlled microstructure, i.e., high porosity and uniform large pores are therefore essential to achieve high performance electrochemical cells. In this study, state-of-the-art technology for controlling the microstructure of electrodes has been developed for realizing high performance support electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The key is controlling the porosity and pore size distribution to improve gas diffusion, while maintaining the integrity of the electrolyte and the structural strength of actual sized electrode supports needed for the target application. Planar anode-supported SOFCs developed in this study realize 5 μm thick dense electrolyte (yttria-stabilized zirconia: YSZ) and the anode substrate (Ni-YSZ) of 53.6 vol.% porosity with a large median pore diameter of 0.911 μm. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the performance of the anode-supported SOFCs improves with increasing anode porosity. This Ni-YSZ anode minimizes the concentration polarization, resulting in a maximum power density of 3.09 W cm-2 at 800 °C using humidified hydrogen fuel without any electrode functional layers.

  9. A high stability Ni-La0.5Ce0.5O2-δ asymmetrical metal-ceramic membrane for hydrogen separation and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Sun, Wenping; Wang, Zhongtao; Cao, Jiafeng; Dong, Yingchao; Liu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    In this work, hydrogen permeation properties of Ni-La0.5Ce0.5O2-δ (LDC) asymmetrical cermet membrane are investigated, including hydrogen fluxes (JH2) under different hydrogen partial pressures, the influence of water vapor on JH2 and the long-term stability of the membrane operating under the containing-CO2 atmosphere. Ni-LDC asymmetrical membrane shows the best hydrogen permeability among LDC-based hydrogen separation membranes, inferior to Ni-BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3-δ asymmetrical membrane. The water vapor in feed gas is beneficial to hydrogen transport process, which promote an increase of JH2 from 5.64 × 10-8 to 6.83 × 10-8 mol cm-2 s-1 at 900 °C. Stability testing of hydrogen permeation suggests that Ni-LDC membrane remains stable against CO2. A dual function of combining hydrogen separation and generation can be realized by humidifying the sweep gas and enhance the hydrogen output by 1.0-1.5 times. Ni-LDC membrane exhibits desirable performance and durability in dual-function mode. Morphologies and phase structures of the membrane after tests are also characterized by SEM and XRD.

  10. On pressure-frequency relations in the excised larynx.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fariborz; Scherer, Ronald C

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to find relationships between subglottal pressure (P(s)) and fundamental frequency (F(0)) of phonation in excised larynx models. This included also the relation between F(0) and its rate of change with pressure (dFdP). Canine larynges were prepared and mounted over a tapered tube that supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air. Glottal adduction was accomplished either by using two-pronged probes to press the arytenoids together or by passing a suture to simulate lateral cricoarytenoid muscle activation. The pressure-frequency relation was obtained through a series of pressure-flow sweep experiments that were conducted for eight excised canine larynges. It was found that, at set adduction and elongation levels, the pressure-frequency relation is nonlinear, and is highly influenced by the adduction and elongation. The results indicated that for the lower phonation mode, the average rate of change of frequency with pressure was 2.9+/-0.7 Hzcm H(2)O, and for the higher mode was 5.3+/-0.5 Hzcm H(2)O for adduction changes and 8.2+/-4.4 Hzcm H(2)O for elongation changes. The results suggest that during speech and singing, the dFdP relationships are taken into account.

  11. Study of temperature, air dew point temperature and reactant flow effects on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performances using electrochemical spectroscopy and voltammetry techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasterlain, S.; Candusso, D.; Hissel, D.; Harel, F.; Bergman, P.; Menard, P.; Anwar, M.

    A single PEMFC has been operated by varying the assembly temperature, the air dew point temperature and the anode/cathode stoichiometry rates with the aim to identify the parameters and combinations of factors affecting the cell performance. Some of the experiments were conducted with low humidified reactants (relative humidity of 12%). The FC characterizations tests have been conducted using in situ electrochemical methods based on load current and cell voltage signal analysis, namely: polarization curves, EIS measurements, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetries (CV and LSV). The impacts of the parameters on the global FC performances were observed using the polarization curves whereas EIS, CV and LSV test results were used to discriminate the different voltage loss sources. The test results suggest that some parameter sets allow maximal output voltages but can also induce material degradation. For instance, higher FC temperature and air flow values can induce significant electrical efficiency benefits, notably by increasing the reversible potential and the reaction kinetics. However, raising the cell temperature can also gradually dry the FC and increase the risk of membrane failure. LSV has also shown that elevated FC temperature and relative humidity can also accelerate the electrolyte degradation (i.e. slightly higher fuel crossover rate) and reduce the lifetime consequently.

  12. Steam vaporizers: A danger for paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Lonie, Sarah; Baker, Paul; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Steam vaporizers are used to humidify air in dry environments. They are marketed to moisten children's airway secretions and thus to help relieve symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately the steam emitted from the unit can also pose a significant risk of burns to children. Our study aimed to ascertain patterns of injury and treatment outcomes from steam burns resulting from these devices. Potential preventative measures are discussed. Children who had sustained vaporizer scald burns were identified at the outpatient burns clinic over a 10-month period (November 2014-August 2015). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively and data collected on pattern of injury, management and outcomes. Ten children were treated for vaporizer steam burns over the study period. The mean age was 1.6 years and 8 (80%) patients were male. Operative intervention was undergone in 5 (50%) cases; four acutely and one as a secondary reconstructive procedure. Hand burns accounted for 8 (80%) of cases. Steam vaporizers can cause significant burns in the paediatric population. Toddlers were most at risk, frequently sustaining hand burns that underwent skin grafting. Greater public awareness of the danger is indicated and measures to prevent such injuries should be addressed by appropriate authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethene removal from a synthetic waste gas using a dry biobed

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    De Heyder, B.; Overmeire, A.; Van Langenhove, H.

    A packed granular activated carbon (GAC) biobed, inoculated with the ethene-degrading strain Mycobacterium E3, was used to study ethene removal from a synthetic waste gas. Ethene, for which the dimensionless partition coefficient for an air-water system at 20C is about 7.6, was used as a model compound for poorly water soluble gaseous pollutants. In a first mode of operation, the GAC biobed was sprinkled intermittently and the waste gas influent was continuously pre-humidified, establishing relatively moist conditions. A volumetric ethene removal rate of 0.382 kg COD [center dot] m[sup [minus]3] [center dot] d[sup [minus]1] was obtained for an influent concentrationmore » of 125 ppm, a superficial waste gas velocity of 3.6E-3 m [center dot] s[sup [minus]1] and a pseudo residence time of 45 s. However, in the second mode of operation, omitting the pre-humidification of the waste gas influent and establishing a dry'' biobed and thus obtaining better mass transfer to the biofilm, the ethene removal could be doubled for otherwise comparable operating parameters. Furthermore, under decreased wetting and for the given experimental conditions, the ethene removal was not limited by mass transfer of ethene through the water layer covering the biofilm.« less

  14. The role of the indoor environment: Residential determinants of allergy, asthma and pulmonary function in children from a US-Mexico border community.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Erik R; Gonzales, Melissa; Commodore, Adwoa

    2018-03-01

    The El Paso Children's Health Study examined environmental risk factors for allergy and asthma among fourth and fifth grade schoolchildren living in a major United States-Mexico border city. Complete questionnaire information was available for 5210 children, while adequate pulmonary function data were available for a subset of 1874. Herein we studied indoor environmental health risk factors for allergy and asthma. Several indoor environmental risk factors were associated with allergy and asthma. In particular, we found that ant and spider pest problems, pet dogs, fireplace heat, central air conditioning, humidifier use, and cooking with gas stoves were positively associated with both allergy and asthma prevalence. With regards to asthma severity, our analysis indicated that exposure to pet dogs increased monotonically with increasing asthma severity while the lack of any heat source and gas stove use for cooking decreased monotonically with increasing asthma severity. Lung function also decreased among children who lived in homes with reported cockroach pest problem in the past year without concurrent use of pesticides. These effects on pulmonary function were present even after excluding children with a current physician's diagnosis of asthma. Clinicians and public health professionals may need to look closely at the contribution of these indoor risk factors on pulmonary health and quality of life among susceptible populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of Feeding Progression in a Preterm Infant: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Shapiro, Nicole; Healy-Baker, Elissa; Menchavez, Lina; Rankin, Kristin; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To present the case of a premature infant who displayed immature feeding progression due to nasal occlusion. Subjects Two male preterm infants 33 weeks gestational age at birth from a larger randomized trial. Design Comparative case study. Methods Using a prospective design, feeding assessments were conducted weekly from initiation of oral feeding until hospital discharge. Sucking organization was measured using the Medoff-Cooper Nutritive Sucking Apparatus (M-CNSA) which measured negative sucking pressure generated during oral feedings. Oral and nasogastric (NG) intake and vital signs were recorded. Results At 35 weeks, Infant A demonstrated an immature feeding pattern with NG feedings prevailing over oral feedings. When attempting to feed orally, Infant A exhibited labored breathing and an erratic sucking pattern. During the third weekly feeding evaluation, nasal occlusion was discovered, the NG tube was discontinued, and neosynephrene and humidified air were administered. Following treatment, Infant A’s sucking pattern normalized and the infant maintained complete oral feeding. Infant B demonstrated normal feeding progression. Conclusion Nasal occlusion prevented Infant A from achieving successful oral feeding. The M-CNSA has the ability to help clinicians detect inconsistencies in the breath-suck-swallow feeding patterns of infants and objectively measures patterns of nutritive sucking. The M-CNSA has the potential to influence clinical decision making and identify the need for intervention. PMID:23722488

  16. Catheter-Based Sensing In The Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouke, J. M.; Saunders, K. G.

    1988-04-01

    Studies attempting to define the role of the respiratory tract in heating and humidifying inspired air point to the need for sensing many variables including airway wall and airstream temperatures, humidity, and surface fluid pH and osmolarity. In order to make such measurements in vivo in human volunteers, catheter based technologies must be exploited both to assure subject safety and subject comfort. Miniturization of the electrodes or sensors becomes a top priority. This paper describes the use of thin-film microelectronic technology to fabricate a miniature, flexible sensor which can be placed directly onto the surface of the airway to measure the electrical conductance of the fluids present. From this information the osmolarity of the surface fluid was calculated. Physiologic evaluation of the device and corroboration of the calculations was performed in mongrel dogs. We also describe the successful application of current thermistor technology for the thermal mapping of the airways in humans in order to characterize the dynamic intrathoracic events that occur during breathing. The thermal probe consisted of a flexible polyvinyl tube that contained fourteen small thermistors fixed into the catheter. Data have been obtained in dozens of people, both normal subjects and asthmatic patients, under a variety of interventions. These data have substantively advanced the study of asthma, a particularly troublesome chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder.

  17. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Reuter, S.

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100–400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH{sub 2}O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stablemore » reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup •−}) and hydroxyl radicals ({sup •}OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.« less

  18. Artificial voice modulation in dogs by recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation: electrophysiological confirmation of anatomic data.

    PubMed

    Broniatowski, Michael; Grundfest-Broniatowski, Sharon; Tucker, Harvey M; Tyler, Dustin J

    2007-02-01

    We hypothesized that voice may be artificially manipulated to ameliorate dystonias considered to be a failure in dynamic integration between competing neuromuscular systems. Orderly intrinsic laryngeal muscle recruitment by anodal block via the recurrent laryngeal and vagus nerves has allowed us to define specific values based on differential excitabilities, but has precluded voice fluency because of focused breaks during stimulation and the need to treat several neural conduits. Such problems may be obviated by a circuit capable of stimulating some axons while simultaneously blocking others in the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which carries innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, including the arguably intrinsic cricothyroideus. In 5 dogs, both recurrent laryngeal nerves received 40-Hz quasi-trapezoidal pulses (0 to 2000 microA, 0 to 2000 micros, 0 to 500 micros decay) via tripolar electrodes. Electromyograms were matched with audio intensities and fundamental frequencies recorded under a constant flow of humidified air. Data were digitized and evaluated for potential correlations. Orderly recruitment of the thyroarytenoideus, posterior cricoarytenoideus, and cricothyroideus was correlated with stimulating intensities (p < .001), and posterior cricoarytenoideus opposition to the thyroarytenoideus and cricothyroideus was instrumental in manipulating audio intensities and fundamental frequencies. Manipulation of canine voice parameters appears feasible via the sole recurrent laryngeal nerve within appropriate stimulation envelopes, and offers promise in human laryngeal dystonias.

  19. Mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Nelson/Hayes estuarine system (Hudson Bay, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, C.; Mokhtar, M.; Perroud, A.; McCullough, G.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study (2009-2012) investigating the mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Nelson/Hayes estuary (Hudson Bay). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored DOM, and humic-like DOM decreased with increasing salinity (r2 = 0.70-0.84). Removal of DOM was noticeable at low to mid salinity range, likely due to degradation and/or adsorption to particles. DOM photobleaching rates (i.e., decrease in DOM signal resulting from exposure to solar radiation) ranged from 0.005 to 0.030 h- 1, corresponding to half-lives of 4.9-9.9 days. Dissolved organic matter from the Nelson and Hayes Rivers was more photoreactive than from the estuary where the photodegradation of terrestrial DOM decreased with increasing salinity. Coincident with the loss of CDOM absorption was an increase in spectral slope S, suggesting a decrease in DOM molecular weight. Marked differences in photoreactivity of protein- and humic-like DOM were observed with highly humidified material being the most photosensitive. Information generated by our study will provide a valuable data set for better understanding the impacts of future hydroelectric development and climate change on DOM biogeochemical dynamics in the Nelson/Hayes estuary and coastal domain. This study will constitute a reference on terrestrial DOM fate prior to building additional generating capacity on the Nelson River.

  20. Evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: results of a knowledge test among European intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Labeau, S; Vandijck, D; Rello, J; Adam, S; Rosa, A; Wenisch, C; Bäckman, C; Agbaht, K; Csomos, A; Seha, M; Dimopoulos, G; Vandewoude, K H; Blot, S

    2008-10-01

    As part of a needs analysis preceding the development of an e-learning platform on infection prevention, European intensive care unit (ICU) nurses were subjected to a knowledge test on evidence-based guidelines for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A validated multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed to 22 European countries between October 2006 and March 2007. Demographics included nationality, gender, ICU experience, number of ICU beds and acquisition of a specialised degree in intensive care. We collected 3329 questionnaires (response rate 69.1%). The average score was 45.1%. Fifty-five percent of respondents knew that the oral route is recommended for intubation; 35% knew that ventilator circuits should be changed for each new patient; 38% knew that heat and moisture exchangers were the recommended humidifier type, but only 21% knew that these should be changed once weekly; closed suctioning systems were recommended by 46%, and 18% knew that these must be changed for each new patient only; 51% and 57%, respectively, recognised that subglottic drainage and kinetic beds reduce VAP incidence. Most (85%) knew that semi-recumbent positioning prevents VAP. Professional seniority and number of ICU beds were shown to be independently associated with better test scores. Further research may determine whether low scores are related to a lack of knowledge, deficiencies in training, differences in what is regarded as good practice, and/or a lack of consistent policy.