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Sample records for humor bipolar tipo

  1. Humor.

    PubMed

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given.

  2. Humor.

    PubMed

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given. PMID:25455066

  3. The Five Humors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerman-Cornell, William

    1999-01-01

    Compares the effects of different types of humor in the classroom: humor drawn from literature, humor at the expense of literature, humor that puts someone down, humor that builds up or shapes identity, and humor as a classroom-management tool. Shows how teachers can use laughter as a conduit for students to find humor in what they read and write.…

  4. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder Print A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  5. Humor in Educational Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtler, Leo

    Humor can be a crucial factor of learning environments and of communication. Recent investigations of humor in educational settings mostly focus on learning performance. This paper shifts the attention to the enhancement of social climate through humor. Humor can be an element to solve critical social situations. To develop humor, it is necessary…

  6. American Humor. [Course Syllabus].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, David E. E.

    This syllabus describes a three-credit course entitled "American Humor," offered at the University of New Haven (Connecticut). According to the syllabus, "American Humor" will identify traits of American humor as historical phenomena with relations to national character, business attitudes, regionalism, folk humor, and health; historical…

  7. Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. PMID:27262007

  8. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  9. Humor. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)

  10. The Humor of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchner, Joan F.

    This paper explores the development of humor, the positive potential of young children's humor, and resources for harnessing the energy of humor. The literature on humor is dominated by two theoretical streams: psychoanalytic theory, which recognizes humor as a vehicle for expressing emotions, particularly unacceptable emotions; and cognitive…

  11. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed. PMID:16367459

  12. Humor in medicine.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  13. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... or digestive problems Problems sleeping, or wanting to sleep all of the time Feeling tired all of the time Thoughts about death and suicide Causes & Risk Factors What causes bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. It sometimes runs in ...

  14. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  15. Humor and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  16. Sense of Humor Preferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2007-01-01

    Humor is a powerful tool. It can disarm an adversary. It can leaven the purposefully self-aggrandizing nature of a job interview. Perhaps most important, it can serve as a window to personality in the same way that a resume is a window to experience. In this article, the author emphasizes the value of having a sense of humor. He emphasizes that it…

  17. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  18. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of self-esteem Thoughts of death or suicide Trouble getting to sleep or sleeping too much ... with bipolar disorder are at high risk of suicide . They may use alcohol or other substances . This ...

  19. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... health professional before making a commitment. Learn More Free Booklets and Brochures Bipolar Disorder: A brochure on ... in the public domain and available for use free of charge. Citation of the NIMH is appreciated. ...

  20. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  1. Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232

  2. The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…

  3. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  4. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  5. Use of Humor in Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkaus, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Provides a summary of research on the benefits and uses of subject-matter-related humor in instructional materials, and cites comments of five experts on how to use humor in the design of instruction. Thirteen references are listed. (MER)

  6. "Tickle Your Storybone": Humorous Storytelling!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klor, Ellin

    1991-01-01

    Describes methods to use for successful humorous storytelling. Guidelines for story selection, preparation, and presentation are discussed in relation to various age groups from preschoolers through adolescents; types of humor are described; appropriate humorous stories and collections are suggested; and methods for learning a new story are…

  7. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  8. Using Humor in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  9. Humor in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on humor in later life. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children, dementia and…

  10. On Humorous Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menair, Marion Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the patterns and uses of transgressive humor and sexual talk that male traders from Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) indulge in when at their leisure from trading. I investigate how cultural conceptualizations or ideologies are brought into the present moment through discursive interaction and how the cultural signs…

  11. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  12. Bipolar electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Fosdick, Stephen E; Knust, Kyle N; Scida, Karen; Crooks, Richard M

    2013-09-27

    A bipolar electrode (BPE) is an electrically conductive material that promotes electrochemical reactions at its extremities (poles) even in the absence of a direct ohmic contact. More specifically, when sufficient voltage is applied to an electrolyte solution in which a BPE is immersed, the potential difference between the BPE and the solution drives oxidation and reduction reactions. Because no direct electrical connection is required to activate redox reactions, large arrays of electrodes can be controlled with just a single DC power supply or even a battery. The wireless aspect of BPEs also makes it possible to electrosynthesize and screen novel materials for a wide variety of applications. Finally, bipolar electrochemistry enables mobile electrodes, dubbed microswimmers, that are able to move freely in solution.

  13. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Studies Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Types of Bipolar Disorder There are several kinds of bipolar disorder. Each ... like an illness. What is the difference between bipolar disorder and ordinary mood swings? The three main things ...

  14. Bipolar-Battery Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar batteries fabricated in continuous quasi-automated process. Components of battery configured so processing steps run sequentially. Key components of battery, bipolar plate and bipolar separator, fabricated separately and later joined together.

  15. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  16. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  17. The Effects of Laughter on Humor and Humor on Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetola, Henry W.; Reno, Raymond R.

    Two experiments were conducted examining the mood altering effects of humor and the moderating effect of laughter on both humor appreciation and mood. The mood of the subjects in the first experiment was manipulated to make them feel slightly elated or slightly depressed. They then listened to either comedy routines or an interview. The comedy…

  18. Using Humor to Develop Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1988-01-01

    Reviews theory and research on the relationship between humor and creativity. Briefly describes two Israeli projects aimed at encouraging humor creativity in adolescents and at teaching teachers to use humor to foster creativity. (FMW)

  19. Humor and the Primary Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canzler, Lillian

    This study focuses on the motivational aspects of children's humor and describes the naturally occurring verbal humor of children without stimulus from adults. Kindergarten and elementary school children were observed during their lunch period at school while engaged in social interaction over 16 weeks. The study was designed to (1) record the…

  20. Not Just a Humor"ous" Text: Humor "as" Text in the Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The use of humorous texts in the writing class can help students improve skills in effective writing while encouraging critical thinking and an increased range in expression. In addition, because of the accessible nature of humor and the focus on purpose and audience that is necessary when writing it, students show a natural inclination toward…

  1. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  2. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  3. Humor in the Classroom: Considerations and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korobkin, Debra

    1988-01-01

    Shared laughter is a powerful way to reinforce learning, and it helps to make tasks less laborious and threatening. Humor, retention, anxiety; engaging in spontaneous and planned humor; concerns about humor use; and personal humor growth and integration with instruction are discussed. (MLW)

  4. Hospice: humor, heartache and healing.

    PubMed

    Showalter, S E; Skobel, S

    1996-01-01

    As the need for grief and loss education and interventions become more prevalent in our society, it will become increasingly important for health care professionals to be well-versed in a compilation of holistic expertise. As we bear witness to pain and suffering associated to loss, we must address these issues. This article specifically addresses the use of humor as a therapeutic mechanism for coping and surviving loss. This is an exploration of the universal and often healing effectiveness of humor.

  5. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Cristiano S.; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E.; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L.; Pineau, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). Material and Methods We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. Results There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. Conclusion In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group. PMID:27708912

  6. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder.

  7. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  8. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Joseph M; Wig, Gagan S; Adams, Reginald B; Janata, Petr; Kelley, William M

    2004-03-01

    Humor is a uniquely human quality whose neural substrates remain enigmatic. The present report combined dynamic, real-life content and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to dissociate humor detection ("getting the joke") from humor appreciation (the affective experience of mirth). During scanning, subjects viewed full-length episodes of the television sitcoms Seinfeld or The Simpsons. Brain activity time-locked to humor detection moments revealed increases in left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices, whereas brain activity time-locked to moments of humor appreciation revealed increases in bilateral regions of insular cortex and the amygdala. These findings provide evidence that humor depends critically upon extant neural systems important for resolving incongruities (humor detection) and for the expression of affect (humor appreciation). PMID:15006673

  9. Using Humorous Language to Teach Literary Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Don L. F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses diverse examples of literary devices by comparing metaphor and humor. Defines and illustrates paronomasia, paradox, oxymoron, anacoluthon, zeugma, parody, jargon, satire, conceit, anachronism, hyperbole, cacography, understatement, and doggerel. A humorous appendix contrasts errors with rhetorical devices. (NKA)

  10. Is Humor an Appreciated Teaching Tool? Perceptions of Professors' Teaching Styles and Use of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torok, Sarah E.; McMorris, Robert F.; Lin, Wen-Chi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of humor in college classrooms. We examined how students perceived professors' uses of various types of humor during class and the types of humor that students and faculty recommend for use in class. We also correlated the way professors incorporated humor into their class lectures with their perceived…

  11. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R.

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when…

  12. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  13. Humor and Satire in the English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Kenneth, Ed.

    1973-01-01

    According to the "Arizona English Bulletin" (AEB), not enough attention is given to humor or satire in high school English classes. AEB suggests that if the English class is a place for bringing reality into the curriculum, humor must become a part of the total English program. Featured in this issue are 25 essays on various aspects of humor and…

  14. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  15. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  16. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  17. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  18. Bipolar Disorder, Bipolar Depression and Comorbid Illness.

    PubMed

    Manning, J Sloan

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial need for the early recognition and treatment of the psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder in primary care. If comorbid conditions are recognized and treated, serious adverse health outcomes may be averted, including substantial morbidity and mortality. PMID:26172635

  19. Bipolar Disorder, Bipolar Depression and Comorbid Illness.

    PubMed

    Manning, J Sloan

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial need for the early recognition and treatment of the psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder in primary care. If comorbid conditions are recognized and treated, serious adverse health outcomes may be averted, including substantial morbidity and mortality.

  20. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  1. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  2. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  3. Nonlinear refraction in vitreous humor.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, B A; Roach, W P; Rogers, M E; Mayo, M W; Toth, C A; Cain, C P; Noojin, G D

    1993-11-01

    We extend the application of the z-scan technique to determine the nonlinear refractive index (n(2)) for human and rabbit vitreous humor, water, and physiological saline. In these measurements there were nonlinear contributions to the measured signal from the aqueous samples and the quartz cell that held the sample. Measurements were made with 60-ps pulses at 532 nm. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of the nonlinear refractive properties of biological material. PMID:19829406

  4. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  5. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies. PMID:25153846

  6. Effects of humor on sentence memory.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S R

    1994-07-01

    Memory for humorous and nonhumorous versions of sentences was compared. Humorous sentences were better remembered than the nonhumorous sentences on both free- and cued-recall tests and on measures of sentence recall and word recall. These effects persisted when subjects were warned that they were about to read a humorous sentence but were attenuated in incidental learning and limited to within-subjects manipulations. In incidental learning, recall was also scored as a function of subjective ratings of humor. Subjective humor affected memory in both within- and between-subjects designs. Attention, arousal, rehearsal, retrieval, and surprise explanations were explored. Results suggest that humorous material receives both increased attention and rehearsal relative to nonhumorous material. PMID:8064254

  7. Laughing It Up: Native American Humor as Spiritual Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Garrett, J. T.; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Native American humor is explored through a brief discussion of the current literature regarding the use of humor in counseling and descriptions of various forms and communication styles of Native humor as spiritual tradition. Implications for multicultural awareness in the use of humor and possible use of Native humor in counseling with Native…

  8. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  9. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  10. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  11. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  12. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  13. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  14. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Engmann, Birk

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet. PMID:22649454

  15. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  16. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching, viewers do not…

  17. Creativity and Humor: Integration and Incongruity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Mary C.; Ganim, Rita M.

    1993-01-01

    This descriptive study compared 13 definitions of humor and 11 theories of humor as related to creativity. It found two core definitional themes (integration and incongruity) and three core theoretical categories (play/spontaneity, release/relief, and incongruity/unexpected relationships). Tables provide comparative analyses of definitions and…

  18. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  19. Humor, Emotional Empathy, Creativity and Cognitive Dissonance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, G. Alfred; Altermatt, Ellen R.; Forsyth, Peggy D.

    The devaluation of racial, ethnic, or religious groups, sometimes disguised as humor, is a major contributor to violence and aggression against these groups. In an effort to understand this process, five factors of humor: negative ethnic stereotype jokes, play-on-word jokes, academic/social referent cartoons, gender/establishment jokes, and gross…

  20. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  1. [Neuropsychology of bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, Katrin; Gauggel, Siegfried

    2006-03-01

    In this article the contribution of neuropsychological research for a better understanding of the psychopathology of mood disorders is reviewed. First, the broad spectrum of bipolar disorders is described. Second, a selective review of important results of neuropsychological studies with patients with mood disorders is presented. Although several methodological problems limit the interpretation of the findings, there is evidence that patients with a bipolar disorder show a consistent impairment in attention, memory/learning and executive functions. The cognitive deficits are still visible during clinical recovery (euthymia) and closely associated with psychosocial limitation in daily life. Finally, the impact of neuropsychological findings is considered in relation to assessment, treatment and prognosis.

  2. Bipolar battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  3. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. PMID:26580553

  4. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads.

  5. Humor and creative life styles.

    PubMed

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  6. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Craddock, N.; Jones, I.

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depressive illness) is a complex genetic disorder in which the core feature is pathological disturbance in mood (affect) ranging from extreme elation, or mania, to severe depression usually accompanied by disturbances in thinking and behaviour. The lifetime prevalence of 1% is similar in males and females and family, twin, and adoption studies provide robust evidence for a major genetic contribution to risk. There are methodological impediments to precise quantification, but the approximate lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are: monozygotic co-twin 40-70%; first degree relative 5-10%; unrelated person 0.5-1.5%. Occasional families may exist in which a single gene plays the major role in determining susceptibility, but the majority of bipolar disorder involves the interaction of multiple genes (epistasis) or more complex genetic mechanisms (such as dynamic mutation or imprinting). Molecular genetic positional and candidate gene approaches are being used for the genetic dissection of bipolar disorder. No gene has yet been identified but promising findings are emerging. Regions of interest identified in linkage studies include 4p16, 12q23-q24, 16p13, 21q22, and Xq24-q26. Chromosome 18 is also of interest but the findings are confusing with up to three possible regions implicated. To date most candidate gene studies have focused on neurotransmitter systems influenced by medication used in clinical management of the disorder but no robust positive findings have yet emerged. It is, however, almost certain that over the next few years bipolar susceptibility genes will be identified. This will have a major impact on our understanding of disease pathophysiology and will provide important opportunities to investigate the interaction between genetic and environmental factors involved in pathogenesis. This is likely to lead to major improvements in treatment and patient care but will also raise important

  7. A threshold theory of the humor response.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the "setup" stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a "punch line" or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden "revelation" or "understanding"; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner.

  8. A threshold theory of the humor response.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the "setup" stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a "punch line" or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden "revelation" or "understanding"; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner. PMID:22478488

  9. Counseling through the Funny Bone: Humor in Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Meredith

    This paper examines the role that humor may play in guidance counseling. After a brief review of the literature on the physiology of laughter and the therapeutic effects of humor, the paper draws on past research to discuss the developmental stages of humor from infancy to late adolescence and adulthood, citing examples of the kinds of humor that…

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  11. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  12. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  13. Humoral innate immune response and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Varahan, Sriram; Yuan, Kai; Li, Xiangdong; Fleming, Sherry D.

    2012-01-01

    The humoral innate immune response consists of multiple components, including the naturally occurring antibodies (NAb), pentraxins and the complement and contact cascades. As soluble, plasma components, these innate proteins provide key elements in the prevention and control of disease. However, pathogens and cells with altered self proteins utilize multiple humoral components to evade destruction and promote pathogy. Many studies have examined the relationship between humoral immunity and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the interactions between the humoral components and their role in promoting the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Understanding the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the individual components and the interactions between proteins which regulate the innate and adaptive response will provide therapeutic targets for subsequent studies. PMID:22771788

  14. Facilitating Effects of Humor on Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1976-01-01

    The influence of listening to humor on creativity tests of adolescents is investigated. It was found that those adolescents who listened to the record performed significantly better on a creativity test than control groups. (Author/DEP)

  15. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  16. Humor Tells the Truth in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Bebe

    1987-01-01

    Examines the use of humor in books for children and adolescents as a device for discussing serious and painful topics. Passages from several books are used as examples, and a bibliography is provided. (CLB)

  17. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research. PMID:24467450

  18. Bipolar and unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jonathan; Agius, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Since Kraepelin grouped affective disorders under the title of 'manic-depressive insanity', there has been controversy over whether the bipolar and unipolar entities within this are distinct affective disorders or whether they are merely two ends of an affective continuum. In order to bring some clarity and goal-posts to this argument, we define the criteria that must be fulfilled by diseases in order to be considered as part of a spectrum. We analyse bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with respect to these criteria and find the model fits in many respects but fails to account for either the poor correlation in severity of manic and depressive symptoms or for the apparent discontinuity in the distribution of familial mania. A one-dimensional spectrum is thus too simple and a two-dimensional approach is required; this also fits much better with our current understanding of the genetic picture.

  19. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders.

  20. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  1. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  2. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. PMID:27651012

  3. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in crisis. What do I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  4. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  5. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  6. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  7. An Electrochromic Bipolar Membrane Diode.

    PubMed

    Malti, Abdellah; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Conducting polymers with bipolar membranes (a complementary stack of selective membranes) may be used to rectify current. Integrating a bipolar membrane into a polymer electrochromic display obviates the need for an addressing backplane while increasing the device's bistability. Such devices can be made from solution-processable materials.

  8. Altered sense of humor in dementia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L; Cohen, Miriam H; Woodward, Felix J; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications.

  9. Altered Sense of Humor in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L.; Cohen, Miriam H.; Woodward, Felix J.; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications. PMID:26444779

  10. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  11. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    PubMed

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions). PMID:25994908

  12. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    PubMed

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  13. Humor comprehension and appreciation: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bartolo, Angela; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nocetti, Luca; Baraldi, Patrizia; Nichelli, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Humor is a unique ability in human beings. Suls [A two-stage model for the appreciation of jokes and cartoons. In P. E. Goldstein & J. H. McGhee (Eds.), The psychology of humour. Theoretical perspectives and empirical issues. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 81-100] proposed a two-stage model of humor: detection and resolution of incongruity. Incongruity is generated when a prediction is not confirmed in the final part of a story. To comprehend humor, it is necessary to revisit the story, transforming an incongruous situation into a funny, congruous one. Patient and neuroimaging studies carried out until now lead to different outcomes. In particular, patient studies found that right brain-lesion patients have difficulties in humor comprehension, whereas neuroimaging studies suggested a major involvement of the left hemisphere in both humor detection and comprehension. To prevent activation of the left hemisphere due to language processing, we devised a nonverbal task comprising cartoon pairs. Our findings demonstrate activation of both the left and the right hemispheres when comparing funny versus nonfunny cartoons. In particular, we found activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), and the left cerebellum. These areas were also activated in a nonverbal task exploring attribution of intention [Brunet, E., Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., & Decety, J. A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task. Neuroimage, 11, 157-166, 2000]. We hypothesize that the resolution of incongruity might occur through a process of intention attribution. We also asked subjects to rate the funniness of each cartoon pair. A parametric analysis showed that the left amygdala was activated in relation to subjective amusement. We hypothesize that the amygdala plays a key role in giving humor an emotional dimension.

  14. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  15. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  16. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  17. The Performance of Humor in Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baym, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Argues that humor can be accomplished in computer-mediated communication and can be critical to creating social meaning online. Analyzes the humor of the USENET news group rec.arts.tv.soaps (r.a.t.s.), which discusses soap operas. Combines user surveys with message analysis to show the prevalence and importance of humor in r.a.t.s. (RS)

  18. The Influence of Humorous Atmosphere on Divergent Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1983-01-01

    In one experiment, 78 adolescents were shown humorous film clips and required to write captions for cartoons. A creativity test was administered. In a second study, the experimental group completed the Torrance Creativity Test with humorous responses. In both studies, a humorous atmosphere was found to significantly increase creativity scores.…

  19. Teaching and Learning with Humor: Experiment and Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments concerning the effects of humor on learning in higher education are presented. The first experiment involved 161 Israeli college students; the second involved 132 Israeli college students. Groups taught with the aid of humor performed significantly better on examinations than did those taught without humor. (TJH)

  20. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  1. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  2. Humor in the Workplace: It Is More than Telling Jokes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinton, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    Identified taxonomy of humor that was developed during seven weeks of participant observation in a small, family-owned business. The various types of humor were found to help minimize differences in status and alleviate workplace tension. Humor also had implications for socialization of employees and appeared to create bonds among employees. (TE)

  3. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  4. Assessing Students' Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study replicated and extended a preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it demeaned students as a group or individually.…

  5. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  6. Use of Humorous Visuals To Enhance Computer-Based-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snetsinger, Wendy; Grabowski, Barbara

    It was hypothesized that a visual strategy that incorporates a humorous theme and cartoons with humorous comments relevant to the content helps motivate students to focus on and retain computer-based instructional material. An experiment to assess this hypothesis was undertaken with 43 college students who received a humorous presentation on…

  7. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  8. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  9. Humor in the Classroom: Theories, Functions, and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Patrick J.

    While humor can backfire or, worse, mask dark, underlying prejudices, research reveals positive and promising connections between humor and creativity, efficiency, and mental health. Although there remains considerable room for disagreement on the essential qualities of humor, several researchers after reviewing the literature appear to have…

  10. Are We Having Fun Yet? Humor in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Argues that humor is an invaluable teaching tool in English classes. Describes how the author and her students: found humor an important means of discovering profound truths in Shakespeare's dramas; enjoyed the epic "Paradise Lost"; worked with satire in Chaucer; and used humor in students' own creative activities. (SR)

  11. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    PubMed

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  12. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  13. Humor as Camouflage of Televised Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…

  14. Culture through Humor in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guegan-Fisher, C.

    Humor can be a very effective tool to make students remember what they should know about the traditions and beliefs, manners and institutions of a culture. The teacher himself should outwardly be the embodiment of the culture which is taught. For example, when a teacher of French walks into the classroom the first day he should introduce himself…

  15. Prosodic Markers of Saliency in Humorous Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Lucy; Corduas, Marcella; Eisterhold, Jodi; Seifried, Brenna; Eggleston, Alyson; Attardo, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Much of what we think we know about the performance of humor relies on our intuitions about prosody (e.g., "it's all about timing"); however, this has never been empirically tested. Thus, the central question addressed in this article is whether speakers mark punch lines in jokes prosodically and, if so, how. To answer this question, this article…

  16. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  17. [Revisiting bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Yoshika; Ozawa, Hiroki

    2007-09-01

    According to the theory of evolution of Charles Darwin which is an author of The Origin of Species, human being evolves after long time to be profitable to "prosperity of a kind", and it is thought that there is the adaptive meaning. In other words, man stand on various creatures in number, and it may be said that human being building a high civilized society is the creature which was able to have an element of chosen mind and body in natural selection. However, a disease does not disappear from our daily life and tends to consider us to be "the misfortune" even if we human being is easy to suffer from a disease. "Evolution medicine" (Darwinian medicine) drop hint of meaning/the significance in aging and the process of the pathology. This paper refers to such a conception of bipolar disorder. PMID:17877000

  18. [Revisiting bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Senjyu, Yoshika; Ozawa, Hiroki

    2007-09-01

    According to the theory of evolution of Charles Darwin which is an author of The Origin of Species, human being evolves after long time to be profitable to "prosperity of a kind", and it is thought that there is the adaptive meaning. In other words, man stand on various creatures in number, and it may be said that human being building a high civilized society is the creature which was able to have an element of chosen mind and body in natural selection. However, a disease does not disappear from our daily life and tends to consider us to be "the misfortune" even if we human being is easy to suffer from a disease. "Evolution medicine" (Darwinian medicine) drop hint of meaning/the significance in aging and the process of the pathology. This paper refers to such a conception of bipolar disorder.

  19. Ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  20. The role of humor and folklore themes in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Heuscher, J E

    1980-12-01

    In the alternation of deconstitution and constitution that is fundamental to human life, humor has a useful role, mainly as a deconstituting force, whereas folklore emphasizes the revitalization of existence. Yet humor can be harmful in situations where there is a lack of mutual respect, and it can be growth-retarding if it becomes a substitute for needed change. The effectiveness of humor and folklore themes is proportional to the genuineness of the interpersonal relationship. In folklore, humor reinforces the injunction to seek wider worlds beyond the one that has become monotonous and stifling. Humor and folklore themes can, therefore, prove helpful when used judiciously in psychotherapy.

  1. A new bipolar transistor - GAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, H.; Yukimoto, Y.

    1980-02-01

    A new bipolar transistor named Gate Associated Transistor (GAT) was proposed and the operating mechanisms were verified. The structure of the GAT has a unique base region consisting of an FET merged into the base of a standard bipolar transistor. The operating mechanisms and characteristics of the GAT were investigated and compared with those of standard power transistors. The most outstanding feature of the GAT was a large area for safe operation.

  2. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  3. Threat Sensitivity in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2015-01-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as “a test of general intelligence.” Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity—including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding— can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. PMID:25688436

  4. Differentiating what is humorous from what is not.

    PubMed

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter

    2016-03-01

    After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692355

  5. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity - reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition - limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional "unified field theory" of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia - the brain's primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the

  6. Treatment of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Geddes, John R; Miklowitz, David J

    2013-05-11

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  7. Bipolar cells of the ground squirrel retina.

    PubMed

    Puller, Christian; Ondreka, Katharina; Haverkamp, Silke

    2011-03-01

    Parallel processing of an image projected onto the retina starts at the first synapse, the cone pedicle, and each cone feeds its light signal into a minimum of eight different bipolar cell types. Hence, the morphological classification of bipolar cells is a prerequisite for analyzing retinal circuitry. Here we applied common bipolar cell markers to the cone-dominated ground squirrel retina, studied the labeling by confocal microscopy and electron microscopy, and compared the resulting bipolar cell types with those of the mouse (rod dominated) and primate retina. Eight different cone bipolar cell types (three OFF and five ON) and one rod bipolar cell were distinguished. The major criteria for classifying the cells were their immunocytochemical identity, their dendritic branching pattern, and the shape and stratification level of their axons in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Immunostaining with antibodies against Gγ13, a marker for ON bipolar cells, made it possible to separate OFF and ON bipolars. Recoverin-positive OFF bipolar cells partly overlapped with ON bipolar axon terminals at the ON/OFF border of the IPL. Antibodies against HCN4 labeled the S-cone selective (bb) bipolar cell. The calcium-binding protein CaB5 was expressed in two OFF and two ON cone bipolar cell types, and CD15 labeled a widefield ON cone bipolar cell comparable to the DB6 in primate.

  8. [Bipolar disorder in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Monczor, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a frequent disorder in the elderly, with a prevalence of 0.1 a 0.4%; a 10% of bipolar patients have mania onset after 50 years old. It has in ageing a more heterogeneous clinical presentation. The manic episodes are less severe, mixed depression is common, as well as confusion and cognitive impairment. A first manic episode in ageing can be secondary to medical illness. Treatment for bipolar disorder in ageing is similar to treatment for young patients. The differences are due to pharmacocinetic changes because of the age, with the comorbidity and with the etiology, if it is a secondary mania. Lithium can be the first choice for treating mania in patients with antecedent of good response and have tolerance to adverse effects, but because of its toxicity and secondary effects other possibilities may be considered: divalproate, cabamazepine, antipsychotics. There are some little studies that show lamotrigine efficacy in bipolar depression in elderly. We need more specific studies about bipolar disorder treatment in aging.

  9. Targeting astrocytes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Li, Baoman; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-06-01

    Astrocytes are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system, which are critical for development and maintenance of synaptic transmission and hence of synaptically connected neuronal ensembles. Astrocytic densities are reduced in bipolar disorder, and therefore deficient astroglial function may contribute to overall disbalance in neurotransmission and to pathological evolution. Classical anti-bipolar drugs (lithium salts, valproic acid and carbamazepine) affect expression of astroglial genes and modify astroglial signalling and homeostatic cascades. Many effects of both antidepressant and anti-bipolar drugs are exerted through regulation of glutamate homeostasis and glutamatergic transmission, through K(+) buffering, through regulation of calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (that controls metabolism of arachidonic acid) or through Ca(2+) homeostatic and signalling pathways. Sometimes anti-depressant and anti-bipolar drugs exert opposite effects, and some effects on gene expression in drug treated animals are opposite in neurones vs. astrocytes. Changes in the intracellular pH induced by anti-bipolar drugs affect uptake of myo-inositol and thereby signalling via inositoltrisphosphate (InsP3), this being in accord with one of the main theories of mechanism of action for these drugs. PMID:27015045

  10. Troubled Childhood May Boost Bipolar Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... childhood abuse may be at increased risk for bipolar disorder, researchers report. "The link between experiencing a troubled ... said in a university news release. People with bipolar disorder experience emotional extremes -- lows and highs -- which harm ...

  11. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Method Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Results Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Conclusion Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense. PMID:27788204

  12. Does humor influence the stigma of mental illnesses?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Fokuo, J Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A

    2014-05-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, the participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared with the nondisclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the nondisclosed condition, suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships.

  13. Humor and older adults: what makes them laugh?

    PubMed

    Kruse, Barbara G; Prazak, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Laughter, the physical response to perceived humor, has demonstrated positive effects on physical and psychological well-being. Studies that focus on effects of humor on health and well-being of older adults are scarce. No studies were found that examine what older adults find humorous. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the humor stimulus in a population of older adults. One hundred thirty (130) hospital auxiliary personnel aged 50 and older were asked the question What makes you laugh? Content analysis of responses revealed nine themes in two major categories, which were (a) people or animals and (b) situations or events. Children represented the largest category of people (30%), and telling jokes represented the largest category of situations or events (51%). Humor can be used by nurses as an effective therapeutic tool when caring for older adults if appropriate sources of humor are identified and applied. PMID:16880415

  14. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared to the non-disclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the non-disclosed condition suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  15. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  16. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  17. Don't Smile before Christmas: The Role of Humor in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallinger, Linda Moody

    1997-01-01

    Humor can be a powerful, productive tool to help teachers succeed in the classroom. Humor cultivates spirit, alleviates stress, improves communication, and diffuses conflict. Reviews types of humor (satire, cheerfulness, eccentricity, and sarcasm), discusses humor's classroom uses and benefits, and shows how school leaders can introduce humor into…

  18. The Use of Humor as a Counselor Strategy with Native American Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Roger D.; Meggert, Sandra S.

    1994-01-01

    Advocates that counselors incorporate humor in their work with Native Americans. Discusses psychological theories of humor and explores Native American humor. Examines humor's implications for counseling and suggests specific strategies for the use of humor, such as storytelling, imagination, puppets, clowns, games, word games, and other devices.…

  19. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  20. Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2012-11-01

    Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle at acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint is an uncommon traumatic injury. The conservative treatments adopted in the past is associated with redislocation dysfunction and deformity. A 41 years old lady with bipolar dislocation of right shoulder is treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation by oblique T-plate at sternoclavicular joint and Kirschner wire stabilization at acromioclavicular joint. The patient showed satisfactory recovery with full range of motion of the right shoulder and normal muscular strength. The case reported in view of rarity and at 2 years followup. PMID:23325981

  1. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    PubMed

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  2. Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Propson, B; Göricke, S; Jacobi, H; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Humor is a complex behavior which includes cognitive, affective and motor responses. Based on observations of affective changes in patients with cerebellar lesions, the cerebellum may support cerebral and brainstem areas involved in understanding and appreciation of humorous stimuli and expression of laughter. The aim of the present study was to examine if humor appreciation, perception of humorous stimuli, and the succeeding facial reaction differ between patients with cerebellar degeneration and healthy controls. Twenty-three adults with pure cerebellar degeneration were compared with 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects. No significant difference in humor appreciation and perception of humorous stimuli could be found between groups using the 3 Witz-Dimensionen Test, a validated test asking for funniness and aversiveness of jokes and cartoons. Furthermore, while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, and video sketches, facial expressions of subjects were videotaped and afterwards analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Using depression as a covariate, the number, and to a lesser degree, the duration of facial expressions during laughter were reduced in cerebellar patients compared to healthy controls. In sum, appreciation of humor appears to be largely preserved in patients with chronic cerebellar degeneration. Cerebellar circuits may contribute to the expression of laughter. Findings add to the literature that non-motor disorders in patients with chronic cerebellar disease are generally mild, but do not exclude that more marked disorders may show up in acute cerebellar disease and/or in more specific tests of humor appreciation.

  3. The Anals of History: Unintentional Humor from Freshman Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kristine

    1983-01-01

    Presents examples of unintentional humor from college freshman composition courses. Suggests that by pointing out miscommunications, teachers can persuade students to use standard English more effectively. (MM)

  4. Guidelines for developing and implementing humor in nursing classrooms.

    PubMed

    Ulloth, Joan Kay

    2003-01-01

    The three teachers in this study selected many types of humor to exemplify their points. To avoid predictability, they varied their humor presentation styles and frequency by using simple cartoons projected on a screen, jokes and stories, and songs and dance routines. All three teachers engaged in a continuous search for new material to further expand their repertoire. Careful not to overuse humor, they never lost sight of the learning objectives, but they added enough humor to sustain students' attention. The teachers gradually increased their use of classroom humor as they felt more comfortable with the content and setting. All of the students' and teachers' comments corroborate the conclusions reached by Bryant and Zillmann 1989), "It would appear that success in teaching with humor...depends on employing the right type of humor, under the proper conditions, at the right time, and with properly motivated and receptive students' (p. 74). Not all types of humor are appropriate for all teachers. However, for teachers who carefully invest time and effort into learning to teach with humor, the reward can be a successful and enjoyable experience for all involved.

  5. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    PubMed

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  6. Engineering Humoral Immunity as Prophylaxis or Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Cailin E.; Balazs, Alejandro B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review In this review, we will discuss the field of engineered humoral immunity with an emphasis on recent work using viral vectors to produce antibodies in vivo. As an alternative to passive transfer of monoclonal antibody protein, a transgene encoding an antibody is delivered to cells via vector transduction, resulting in expression and secretion by the host cell. This review will summarize the evidence in support of this strategy as an alternative to traditional vaccines against infection and as novel therapeutics for a variety of diseases. Recent findings Historically, humoral immunity has been engineered through vaccination and passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies. However, recent work suggests that vectors can be used to deliver transgenes encoding broadly neutralizing antibodies to nonhematopoietic tissues and can mediate long-term expression that is capable of preventing or treating infectious diseases. The production of engineered monoclonal antibodies allows for precise targeting and elimination of aberrant self-proteins that are characteristic of certain neurodegenerative disease. This approach has also been successfully used to combat cancer and addiction in several animal models. Despite the wide array of expression platforms that have been described, adeno-associated virus vectors have emerged as the frontrunner for rapid clinical translation. Summary Recent advances in vector-mediated antibody expression have demonstrated the potential for such interventions to prevent infection and treat disease. As such, it offers an alternative to immunogen-based vaccine design and a novel therapeutic intervention by enabling precise manipulation of humoral immunity. Success translating these approaches to patients may enable the development of effective prevention against previously intractable pathogens that evade immunity such as HIV, influenza, malaria or HCV and may also enable new treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases such as

  7. Using humor to communicate competitive excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsley, M.

    1994-12-31

    The use of humor to communicate excellence in the nuclear industry is described, particularly as a method to relieve public anxiety. At many companies throughout our culture, it is not okay to have fun with anything work related; it violates the puritan work ethic - you know, nose to the grindstone, buckle down and get crackin, and so forth. At Wolf Creek, we`re finding that when we have fun - not only among ourselves, but around and with others as well - we are more effective with the public, more interesting to the media, and we all smile more.

  8. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  9. Suicidality in Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheri L.; McMurrich, Stephanie L.; Yates, Marisa

    2005-01-01

    People with bipolar disorder are at high suicide risk. The literature suggests that suicidality is predicted by higher symptom severity and less use of pharmacological agents, but few studies have examined the joint contributions of these variables. The present study examines the conjoint contribution of symptom severity and pharmacological…

  10. The management of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kate E A; Geddes, John R

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common mental disorder which is relapsing and remitting in nature. Subsyndromal symptoms are common and associated with poorer outcomes. Management of the disorder can be challenging and depends on the polarity and severity of the mood episode. PMID:26961448

  11. [Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gabriele; Schaffer, Markus; Winklbaur, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are often associated with cognitive deficits which have an influence on social functioning and the course of the illness. These deficits have an impact on occupational ability and social integration. To date, specific cognitive domains have been found which characterize bipolar affective disorders. However, there is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of the disorder, including the remission phase, in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions (e.g. cognitive flexibility and problem solving). Although their cognitive deficits are comparable the deficits in patients with schizophrenia are more severe than those with bipolar disorder. Recent brain imaging findings indicate structural and functional abnormalities in the cortical and limbic networks of the brain in patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls. Mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains (e.g. executive functions and word fluency) and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning. PMID:17640495

  12. The management of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kate E A; Geddes, John R

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common mental disorder which is relapsing and remitting in nature. Subsyndromal symptoms are common and associated with poorer outcomes. Management of the disorder can be challenging and depends on the polarity and severity of the mood episode.

  13. Nicotine dependence and psychosis in Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Elena; Hartz, Sarah; Tran, Jeffrey; Hilty, Donald; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with Bipolar disorder smoke more than the general population. Smoking negatively impacts mortality and clinical course in Bipolar disorder patients. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the impact of psychosis on smoking behavior in Bipolar disorder. We analyzed a large sample of Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients and predicted those with a history of psychosis would be more likely to be nicotine dependent. Methods Data from subjects and controls were collected from the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort (GPC). Subjects were diagnosed with Bipolar disorder without psychosis (N=610), Bipolar disorder with psychosis (N=1591), and Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type (N=1544). Participants were classified with or without nicotine dependence. Diagnostic groups were compared to controls (N=10065) using logistic regression. Results Among smokers (N=6157), those with Bipolar disorder had an increased risk of nicotine dependence (OR=2.5; p<0.0001). Patients with Bipolar disorder with psychosis were more likely to be dependent than Bipolar disorder patients without psychosis (OR=1.3; p=0.03). Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients had more risk of nicotine dependence when compared to Bipolar disorder patients with or without psychosis (OR=1.2; p=0.02). Conclusions Bipolar disorder patients experiencing more severity of psychosis have more risk of nicotine dependence. PMID:26467098

  14. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  15. [Prodromal phase in bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Fakra, E; Kaladjian, A; Da Fonseca, D; Maurel, M; Adida, M; Besnier, N; Pringuey, D; Azorin, J-M

    2010-01-01

    The prodromal phase is generally described as a subsyndromal stage preceding the disease onset. The characterization of such phase found its main purpose in secondary prevention. Up to now, clinical research relating to this topic in mental health has primarily focus on schizophrenic disorders. Over the last years, some studies have applied similar methods in order to characterize a preclinical phase in bipolar disorders. In spite of the fact that this strategy appears less adequate in bipolar disorders, these studies have demonstrated the existence of prodromal signs in a majority of patients. However, these features appear for the moment neither sufficiently characteristic, nor sufficiently specific to allow the construction of suitable assessment instruments, or to suggest precise guidelines in the management of these subjects. Also, these prodromal features show considerable overlap with other psychiatric disorders, especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia Interestingly, a limited number of studies have looked at the number of patients considered in a prodromal phase of schizophrenia which later developed a bipolar disorder and reported substantial proportions of subjects in this case, further highlighting the obvious bias in favor of schizophrenia in the actual prevention politics. In order to identify potential candidates at a prodromal phase of bipolar disorders that could benefit from early intervention, studies have relied on both high genetic risk and symptoms at the boundary of the actual classification. However, even within such approach, pharmacological treatments have not proven obvious advantage in terms of prevention. It is suggested that adopting a more longitudinal vision of the disease and, given the mean age of onset of bipolar disorder and a fortiori of its prodromal phase, a more developmental perspective of individuals, could help lowering the confusion in this field ; Also, given the considerable overlap

  16. How Patients Contribute to an Online Psychoeducation Forum for Bipolar Disorder: A Virtual Participant Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel; Simpson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background In a recent exploratory randomized controlled trial, an online psychoeducation intervention for bipolar disorder has been found to be feasible and acceptable to patients and may positively impact on their self-management behaviors and quality of life. Objective The objective of the study was to investigate how these patients contribute to an online forum for bipolar disorder and the issues relevant for them. Methods Participants in the intervention arm of the Bipolar Interactive PsychoEDucation (“BIPED”) trial were invited to contribute to the Beating Bipolar forum alongside receiving interactive online psychoeducation modules. Within this virtual participant observation study, forum posts were analyzed using thematic analysis, incorporating aspects of discourse analysis. Results The key themes which arose from the forum posts included: medication, employment, stigma, social support, coping strategies, insight and acceptance, the life chart, and negative experiences of health care. Participants frequently provided personal narratives relating to their history of bipolar disorder, life experiences, and backgrounds, which often contained emotive language and humor. They regularly sought and offered advice, and expressed encouragement and empathy. The forum would have benefitted from more users to offer a greater support network with more diverse views and experiences. Conclusions Online forums are inexpensive to provide and may offer peer support and the opportunity for patients to share their experiences and explore issues related to their illness anonymously. Future research should focus on how to enhance patient engagement with online health care forums. Trial Registration ISRCTN81375447; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN81375447 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YzWtHUqu). PMID:26543925

  17. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  18. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  19. Development: Ages & Stages--The Importance of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of humor and how it helps to understand children's thinking from birth to 6 years. The article presents three sections describing how a young child's sense of humor reveals much about the way he thinks. The first section is entitled "Giggles!" written by Carla Poole. Intended for babies from birth to 2, Poole…

  20. More than trivial: strategies for using humor in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Dean, Ruth Anne Kinsman; Gregory, David M

    2005-01-01

    Humor and laughter are ubiquitous in human interactions. Terminal illness, however, is often accompanied by circumstances of anxiety, fear, and sadness. Hospice/palliative care emphasizes quality of life and the importance of human relationships. In this context, humor finds its place in authentic person-to-person connectedness. This article presents findings from a clinical ethnography that investigated the phenomena of humor and laughter in an inpatient palliative care unit. As a participant observer, the lead author accompanied 6 nurses throughout their day-to-day activities, twice weekly over 12 weeks. In addition to more than 200 hours of fieldwork, informal conversations were held with patients and families and semistructured interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 11), physicians (n = 2), a social worker (n = 1), and a physiotherapist (n = 1). Humor was pervasive, varied in the setting, and occurred across a range of intensities. Both clients and team members used humor to build relationships, contend with circumstances, and express sensibilities. Humor was affected by differences in people, differing circumstances, ethnicity, gender, and degree of stress. Participants relied on intuition as well as a constellation of other factors in discerning whether or not to use humor. Techniques for assessment included identification of cues such as expression in the eyes and timing as indications of receptivity. Combined with caring and sensitivity, humor is a powerful therapeutic asset in hospice/palliative care. It must neither be taken for granted nor considered trivial. PMID:16046892

  1. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  2. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B.; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-01-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect…

  3. Did You Hear the One about...? Humor in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…

  4. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  5. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  6. Group Time: Taking a "Humor Break" at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    January is a perfect time to insert a strong dose of humor into group time gatherings. Oftentimes, children have tired of the predictable pattern of group meetings and need some change. Humor-filled group time activities can be the best secret remedy. Not only will children become more interested in the group time meetings (and therefore listen…

  7. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  8. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  9. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  10. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. - Walnut Street Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Walnut Street (State Route 3034), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  11. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  12. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  13. Learning about and through Humor in the Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    Humorous communication is extremely complex in both its forms and functions (e.g. Norrick, 1993; 2003). Much of the previous work that has put forth suggestions for incorporating humor into the language classroom (e.g. Trachtenberg, 1979; Deneire, 1995; Schmitz, 2002) has not examined these complexities in the detail necessary for the target…

  14. Humor in Children's Lives: A Guidebook for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Amelia J., Ed.

    Designed as a resource and as a guide for professionals who work with children and their families, this book explores the cathartic effect of humor on children, and looks at humor as an infusion of energy that promotes healthy growth, development, and adjustment in children of all ages. The chapters are as follows: (1) "Introduction: A Global…

  15. Playing with Expectations: A Contextual View of Humor Development

    PubMed Central

    Airenti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms. In particular, I focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants that is also considered a typical feature of irony. I argue that all forms of humor can be regarded as a type of interaction that I propose to call “playing with expectations.” PMID:27703438

  16. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  17. [Poststroke-bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Bengesser, S A; Wurm, W E; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Reininghaus, B; Kapfhammer, H-P; Reininghaus, E

    2013-08-01

    A few weeks after suffering from a basal ganglia infarction (globus pallidus) with left-sided hemiplegia, a 23-year-old woman exhibited for the first time a pronounced mania with self-endangerment. The use of oral contraceptives was the only determinable risk factor. During the further course, the mother also developed a depressive disorder. Thus a certain genetic predisposition for affective disorders may be relevant, although this would not explain the outbreak by itself. An association between the right-sided basal ganglia infarction and the occurrence of a bipolar affective disorder has been described in the literature. Vascular or, respectively, inflammatory risk factors in synopsis with the aetiopathogenesis of bipolar affective disorders are also discussed in depth in this case report. PMID:23939559

  18. Regulation of humoral immunity by complement.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael C; Isenman, David E

    2012-08-24

    The complement system of innate immunity is important in regulating humoral immunity largely through the complement receptor CR2, which forms a coreceptor on B cells during antigen-induced activation. However, CR2 also retains antigens on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Display of antigen on FDCs is critical for clonal selection and affinity maturation of activated B cells. This review will discuss the role of complement in adaptive immunity in general with a focus on the interplay between CR2-associated antigen on B cells with CR2 expressed on FDCs. This latter interaction provides an opportunity for memory B cells to sample antigen over prolonged periods. The cocrystal structure of CR2 with its ligand C3d provides insight into how the complement system regulates access of antigen by B cells with implications for therapeutic manipulations to modulate aberrant B cell responses in the case of autoimmunity.

  19. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  20. Bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, R; Arya, R; Bhan, S

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-two elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture treated by bipolar hemiarthroplasty and 36 patients (matched for age) with an Austin-Moore hemiarthroplasty were followed-up and compared. Bipolar replacement resulted in a higher percentage of satisfactory results, less postoperative pain, greater range of movement, more rapid return to unassisted activity, fewer unsatisfactory results and no acetabular erosion. The device functioned as bipolar in all the cases studied for inner-bearing motion.

  1. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...

  2. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  3. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilber, Sherry Dunay; Mintzer, Lisa Libman; Castaneda, Marleen; Glover, Dorie; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity) and pain tolerance (submersion time) were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was). Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit. PMID:18955244

  4. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  5. Children's Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  6. [Oxidative stress in bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, E Z; Zelzer, S; Reininghaus, B; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Bengesser, S A; Fellendorf, F T; Kapfhammer, H-P; Mangge, H

    2014-09-01

    The results of mortality studies have indicated that medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes are the most important causes of mortality among patients with bipolar disorder. The reasons for the increased incidence and mortality are not fully understood. Oxidative stress and an inadequate antioxidative system might be one missing link and could also help to further elucidate the pathophysiological basis of bipolar disorder. This article provides a comprehensive review of oxidative stress in general and about the existing data for bipolar disorder. In addition information is given about possible therapeutic strategies to reduce oxidative stress and the use in bipolar disorder. PMID:24441847

  7. Treatment of Bipolar Depression: Evolving Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar depression is the most common and difficult-to-treat phase of bipolar disorder. Antidepressants for unipolar depression are among the most widely used drugs, but recent data and meta-analyses indicate a lack of efficacy. Many of the drugs discussed here are graded provisionally for the strength of the findings in the literature, safety and tolerability, and likely utility of use in patients with bipolar disorder. Successful long-term treatment of bipolar depression is critical to preventing illness-related morbidity, disability, cognitive decline, suicide, and premature loss of years of life expectancy largely from the excess medical mortality associated with cardiovascular disorders.

  8. NEURAL CORRELATES OF HUMOR DETECTION AND APPRECIATION IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Michelle N.; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is a vital component of human well-being. Neuroimaging studies conducted with adults indicate that humor activates specific brain regions including the temporo-occipito-parietal junction (TOPJ), involved in incongruity resolution, and mesolimbic regions, involved in reward processing. However, no study to date has used neuroimaging to examine humor in typically developing children. Here we illuminate the neural network involved in the detection and appreciation of humor in childhood. Fifteen typically developing children ages 6–12 were invited to watch and respond to video clips while neural activity was imaged with a 3T GE Discovery MR750 scanner. Prior to presentation during functional imaging, the clips were evaluated by age-matched controls and were representative of three categories: Funny, Positive (enjoyable but not funny), and Neutral (not intended to evoke any emotional response). We found TOPJ and mesolimbic activation in children’s response to humor, suggesting these regions may form a humor-essential neural network already present in childhood. Furthermore, in a novel comparison of Funny stimuli to Positive stimuli, we found that bilateral TOPJ activation may be specific to humor processing and not part of a general constellation of neural activity in response to reward. Finally, we observed greater activation in the inferior frontal gyrus and NAcc in younger participants, indicating humor activation intensity changes during development. By providing a crucial link in studying the neurodevelopment of humor processing across the lifespan, our findings contribute valuable information about the evolution of how children understand their world. PMID:22302817

  9. THE MECHANISM OF AQUEOUS HUMOR FORMATION INFERRED FROM CHEMICAL STUDIES ON BLOOD-AQUEOUS HUMOR DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, V. Everett; Grant, W. Morton

    1942-01-01

    The importance of considering the effect of a possible flow out of the anterior chamber before inferring any mechanism of aqueous humor formation from the relative concentration of a substance in the aqueous humor and plasma under equilibrium conditions has been stressed. Several processes to account for the chemical equilibria between aqueous humor and blood based on the ultrafiltration and secretion hypotheses with a possible simultaneous loss of aqueous humor by flow have been outlined. On the basis of these processes, equations were formulated which would relate the rates of transfer into and out of the anterior chamber to the ratio of concentration of a substance in the aqueous to that in the blood at various intervals after its introduction into the blood. The explanation of equilibrium ratios above and below one for aqueous constituents is made apparent from the mathematical formulations. For each substance tested a determination was made of the best fit when the concentration in the aqueous humor is plotted against time. This fit was obtained by plotting the rate of transfer in against the rate of transfer out of the anterior chamber for all of the experimentally found concentration ratios on the basis of both the ultrafiltration and secretory hypotheses. Two sets of values were obtained from these calculations, one set for each hypothesis. The substantial agreement of all the experimental data with an assumed rate of leakage out of the anterior chamber of approximately 4 c. mm. per minute was shown to be compatible only with the idea that all the monovalent electrolytes tested entered the anterior chamber as a result of secretory process. It could not be decided from these chemical studies whether the non-electrolytes and the one multivalent electrolyte tested enter the anterior chamber by ultrafiltration or secretion. Experimental findings from other sources were cited which would suggest that non-electrolytes enter the anterior chamber as a result of

  10. Humor: don't manage people without it.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Shearer, R

    1997-01-01

    Almost 400 years ago, the English writer and clergyman Robert Burton observed that "humor purges the blood, making the body young and lively, and fit for any manner of employment." Centuries later, Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud interpreted laughter as a means of releasing surplus tension or mental anxiety. For radiology administrators, an understanding of humor and laughter from the historical, biological and psychological perspectives provides the basis for developing successful management strategies. Successful radiology administrators can incorporate humor into the workplace in a way that enhances the work environment for all. An enjoyable workplace and happy workforce ultimately enhance the radiology department's primary goal--providing quality patient care.

  11. Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Using Humor in Education but Were Afraid to Laugh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    The importance of laughter and humor to enhance education, and special education in particular, is addressed. A sense of humor is an attitude, and humor together with enthusiasm helps students enjoy the learning process. Humor can make students become more alert, and can have very positive influences on affect. A funny remark, a pleasant…

  12. Laughter and Healing: The Uses of Humor in Hospitals Treating Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Barbara S.

    Children's use of humor in hospital settings and ways hospital personnel might encourage positive uses of humor are discussed in this paper. Three questions are raised: (1) How is humor viewed in hospitals treating children? (2) How can developmental psychology help us understand children's humor? (3) What implications does an understanding of…

  13. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought…

  14. A Study of Humor Initiated by Cosmopolitan and Locals in an Urban University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Janet G.; Jain, Nemi C.

    This paper presents the results of an empirical study designed to test three hypotheses concerning the type of humor initiated by faculty in their interpersonal communication: (1) the organizational type of person is associated with the type of humor he initiates; (2) cosmopolitans tend to initiate abrasive humor more often than lubricant humor;…

  15. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  16. Developmental staging models in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Passos, Ives C; Jansen, Karen; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2015-12-01

    The previous contribution of Duffy and colleagues suggests that a chain of behavioral events starting during childhood precedes the development of full-blown bipolar disorder. In this vein, the recent contribution of Keown-Stoneman and colleagues brings a new perspective to the study of prodromal symptoms of bipolar disorder.

  17. Screening for bipolar disorder during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Lindsay; Mittal, Leena; Nicoloro, Jennifer; Caiozzo, Christina; Maciejewski, Paul K; Miller, Laura J

    2015-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a high-risk condition during pregnancy. In women receiving prenatal care, this study addresses the proportion screening positive for bipolar disorder with or without also screening positive for depression. This is a pilot study using chart abstraction of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) scores from patients' initial prenatal visits. Among 342 participants, 289 (87.1 %) completed the EPDS, 277 (81.0 %) completed the MDQ, and 274 (80.1 %) completed both. Among EPDS screens, 49 (16.4 %) were positive. Among MDQ screens, 14 (5.1 %) were positive. Nine (21.4 %) of the 42 participants with a positive EPDS also had a positive MDQ. Of the 14 patients with a positive MDQ, five (35.7 %) had a negative EPDS. The prevalence of positive screens for bipolar disorder in an obstetric population is similar to gestational diabetes and hypertension, which are screened for routinely. Without screening for bipolar disorder, there is a high risk of misclassifying bipolar depression as unipolar depression. If only women with current depressive symptoms are screened for bipolar disorder, approximately one third of bipolar disorder cases would be missed. If replicated, these findings support simultaneous screening for both depression and bipolar disorder during pregnancy.

  18. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  19. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  20. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  1. Tipos de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Lista alfabética de todos los tipos de cáncer con enlaces a enfermedades específicas e información general sobre tratamiento, cuidados de apoyo, exámenes de detección, prevención, estudios clínicos y otros temas.

  2. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-01-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  3. TILBW Bipolar Power Switching Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silard, Andrei P.; Nani, Gabriel

    1989-03-01

    The work reports the development of TILBW (Two Interdigitation Levels with heavily-doped Base Wells) bipolar power switching transistors, which combine the main advantages of both TIL and GAT devices. The TILBW transistors exhibit the following many-fold advantages in comparison with identical, yet conventional devices of the same class (identical area and case) processed simultaneously: a reduction of the turn-on time by a factor of ˜ 20; a two-fold reduction of the fall time tf; an ˜ 18-percent increase of VCEO(SUS); an ˜ 23-percent increase of VCBO; an enhanced RBSOA.

  4. Fundamentals of bipolar high-frequency surgery.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, H D

    1993-04-01

    In endoscopic surgery a very precise surgical dissection technique and an efficient hemostasis are of decisive importance. The bipolar technique may be regarded as a method which satisfies both requirements, especially regarding a high safety standard in application. In this context the biophysical and technical fundamentals of this method, which have been known in principle for a long time, are described with regard to the special demands of a newly developed field of modern surgery. After classification of this method into a general and a quasi-bipolar mode, various technological solutions of specific bipolar probes, in a strict and in a generalized sense, are characterized in terms of indication. Experimental results obtained with different bipolar instruments and probes are given. The application of modern microprocessor-controlled high-frequency surgery equipment and, wherever necessary, the integration of additional ancillary technology into the specialized bipolar instruments may result in most useful and efficient tools of a key technology in endoscopic surgery.

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  6. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  7. Targeting Channelrhodopsin-2 to ON-bipolar Cells With Vitreally Administered AAV Restores ON and OFF Visual Responses in Blind Mice

    PubMed Central

    Macé, Emilie; Caplette, Romain; Marre, Olivier; Sengupta, Abhishek; Chaffiol, Antoine; Barbe, Peggy; Desrosiers, Mélissa; Bamberg, Ernst; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Duebel, Jens; Dalkara, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Most inherited retinal dystrophies display progressive photoreceptor cell degeneration leading to severe visual impairment. Optogenetic reactivation of retinal neurons mediated by adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy has the potential to restore vision regardless of patient-specific mutations. The challenge for clinical translatability is to restore a vision as close to natural vision as possible, while using a surgically safe delivery route for the fragile degenerated retina. To preserve the visual processing of the inner retina, we targeted ON bipolar cells, which are still present at late stages of disease. For safe gene delivery, we used a recently engineered AAV variant that can transduce the bipolar cells after injection into the eye's easily accessible vitreous humor. We show that AAV encoding channelrhodopsin under the ON bipolar cell–specific promoter mediates long-term gene delivery restricted to ON-bipolar cells after intravitreal administration. Channelrhodopsin expression in ON bipolar cells leads to restoration of ON and OFF responses at the retinal and cortical levels. Moreover, light-induced locomotory behavior is restored in treated blind mice. Our results support the clinical relevance of a minimally invasive AAV-mediated optogenetic therapy for visual restoration. PMID:25095892

  8. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  9. Humoral pattern recognition and the complement system.

    PubMed

    Degn, S E; Thiel, S

    2013-08-01

    In the context of immunity, pattern recognition is the art of discriminating friend from foe and innocuous from noxious. The basis of discrimination is the existence of evolutionarily conserved patterns on microorganisms, which are intrinsic to these microorganisms and necessary for their function and existence. Such immutable or slowly evolving patterns are ideal handles for recognition and have been targeted by early cellular immune defence mechanisms such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and by humoral defence mechanisms such as the complement system. Complement is a proteolytic cascade system comprising around 35 different soluble and membrane-bound proteins. It constitutes a central part of the innate immune system, mediating several major innate effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. The complement cascade proceeds via controlled, limited proteolysis and conformational changes of constituent proteins through three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway and the lectin pathway, which converge in common effector functions. Here, we review the nature of the pattern recognition molecules involved in complement activation, as well as their close relatives with no or unknown capacity for activating complement. We proceed to examine the composition of the pattern recognition complexes involved in complement activation, focusing on those of the lectin pathway, and arrive at a new model for their mechanism of operation, supported by recently emerging evidence.

  10. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  11. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16–24, 25–35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80–.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66–.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5–35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0–15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus–despite similar labels–these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles. PMID:27547259

  12. Viruses, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, R H; Torrey, E F

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that viruses or other infectious agents may cause schizophrenia or bipolar disorder dates to the 19th century but has recently been revived. It could explain many clinical, genetic, and epidemiologic aspects of these diseases, including the winter-spring birth seasonality, regional differences, urban birth, household crowding, having an older sibling, and prenatal exposure to influenza as risk factors. It could also explain observed immunological changes such as abnormalities of lymphocytes, proteins, autoantibodies, and cytokines. However, direct studies of viral infections in individuals with these psychiatric diseases have been predominantly negative. Most studies have examined antibodies in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and relatively few studies have been done on viral antigens, genomes, cytopathic effect on cell culture, and animal transmission experiments. Viral research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is thus comparable to viral research on multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: an attractive hypothesis with scattered interesting findings but no clear proof. The application of molecular biological techniques may allow the identification of novel infectious agents and the associations of these novel agents with serious mental diseases. PMID:7704891

  13. [Dislocation-disassembly of bipolar hip arthroplasty--case report].

    PubMed

    Gagała, Jacek; Blacha, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Bipolar hip arthroplasty dislocation is rare. A case of bipolar hip arthroplasty dislocation in patient treated because of femoral neck fracture was described. Patient had neurological problems. The arthroplasty was made with posterolateral approach. Disassembly of bipolar prosthesis occurred during closed reduction. Open reduction with bipolar head exchange was necessary. To avoid this complication reduction should be made in anesthesia with muscles relaxation.

  14. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  15. Bipolar Janus particle assembly in microdevice.

    PubMed

    Hossan, Mohammad R; Gopmandal, Partha P; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, there are significant interests in the manipulation of bipolar Janus particles. In this article, we investigate the transient behavior of the electro-orientation process and particle-particle interaction of ellipsoidal bipolar Janus particles in the presence and absence of a DC electric field. The bipolar particle dynamics is modeled with a body force term in the fluid flow equations based on the Maxwell stress tensor. This force is due to presence of bipolar surface charges on the particles as well as their interactions with an imposed field. An interface resolved numerical scheme that consider the finite size of the particle is adopted for computation of the electric and flow fields. Our numerical results show that in the absence of an electric field, particles can undergo self-orientation to reach an equilibrium position. The time taken to reach a stable orientation depends on the initial configuration and inter-particle separation distance. Bipolar particles experience forces only on their polar ends, a phenomena that is difficult to capture with noninterface resolved methods. When bipolar particles are exposed to an external electric field, they rotate to align along the external electric field direction. Depending upon the initial configuration, particles orient via clockwise or counter clockwise rotations to form head to tail chains. The time required to form particle assembly strongly depends on particle size and bipolar charge density. The present numerical algorithm can be applied to a wider class of dual-faced Janus particles.

  16. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    PubMed

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor. PMID:23797611

  17. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  18. Proteome Analysis of Human Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Madden, Benjamin J.; Charlesworth, Mary Christine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Human aqueous humor (hAH) provides nutrition and immunity within the anterior chamber of the eye. Characterization of the protein composition of hAH will identify molecules involved in maintaining a homeostatic environment for anterior segment tissues. The present study was conducted to analyze the proteome of hAH. Methods. hAH samples obtained during elective cataract surgery were divided into three matched groups and immunodepleted of albumin, IgG, IgA, haploglobin, antitrypsin, and transferrin. Reduced and denatured proteins (20 μg) from each group were separated by gel electrophoresis. Thirty-three gel slices were excised from each of three gel lanes (n = 99), digested with trypsin, and subjected to nanoflow liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). The protein component of hAH was also analyzed by antibody-based protein arrays, and selected proteins were quantified. Results. A total of 676 proteins were identified in hAH. Of the 355 proteins identified by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 206 were found in all three groups. Most of the proteins identified by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS had catalytic, enzymatic, and structural properties. Using antibody-based protein arrays, 328 cytokines, chemokines, and receptors were identified. Most of the quantified proteins had concentrations that ranged between 0.1 and 2.5 ng/mL. Ten proteins were identified by both nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS and antibody protein arrays. Conclusions. Proteomic analysis of hAH identified 676 nonredundant proteins. More than 80% of these proteins are novel identifications. The elucidation of the aqueous proteome will establish a foundation for protein function analysis and identification of differentially expressed markers associated with diseases of the anterior segment. PMID:20463327

  19. SEU In An Advanced Bipolar Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Secrest, Elaine C.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    Report summarizes investigation of single-event upsets (SEU) in bipolar integrated-circuit set of flip-flops (memory cells). Device tested made by advanced digital bipolar silicon process of Honeywell, Inc. Circuit chip contained 4 cells. Construction enabled study of effect of size on SEU behavior. Each cell externally biased so effect of bias current on SEU behavior. Results of study provides important information for optimal design of devices fabricated using buried-layer bipolar process operating in heavy-ion SEU environments. Designers use information to provide required levels of suppression of SEU in specific applications via combinations of size and/or cell-current scaling.

  20. A Rare Case of Bipolar Clavicle Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Segmental or bipolar fractures of the clavicle generally refer to a concomitant ipsilateral distal clavicle and midshaft clavicle fracture. These injuries are exceedingly rare and are generally secondary to higher energy injuries. We report a case of a 38-year-old male who sustained a left bipolar clavicle fracture after falling from a push bike while riding recreationally which unusually involved the medial and lateral ends of the clavicle and not the midshaft as previously reported in other patients. The patient's exact fracture configuration was not immediately apparent highlighting the need for careful examination of the whole clavicle in order to not miss a bipolar fracture. PMID:27051546

  1. The thermodynamics of bipolarity: a bifurcation model of bipolar illness and bipolar character and its psychotherapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Sabelli, H C; Carlson-Sabelli, L; Javaid, J I

    1990-11-01

    Two models dominate current formulations of bipolar illness: the homeostatic model implicit in Freud's psychodynamics and most neuroamine deficit/excess theories; and the oscillatory model of exaggerated biological rhythms. The homeostatic model is based on the closed systems approach of classic thermodynamics, while the oscillatory model requires the open systems approach of modern thermodynamics. Here we present a thermodynamic model of bipolarity that includes both homeostatic and oscillatory features and adds the most important feature of open systems thermodynamics: the creation of novel structures in bifurcation processes. According to the proposed model, bipolarity is the result of exaggerated biological energy that augments homeostatic, oscillatory and creative psychological processes. Only low-energy closed systems tend to rest ("point attractor") and entropic disorder. Open processes containing and exchanging energy fluctuate between opposite states ("periodic attractors"); they are characteristic of most physiological rhythms and are exaggerated in bipolar subjects. At higher energies, their strong fluctuations destroy pre-existing patterns and structures, produce turbulence ("chaotic attractors"), which sudden switches between opposite states, and create new and more complex structures. Likewise, high-energy bipolars develop high spontaneity, great fluctuations between opposite moods, internal and interpersonal chaos, and enhanced creativity (personal, artistic, professional) as well as psychopathology (personality deviations, psychotic delusions). Offered here is a theoretical explanation of the dual--creative and destructive--nature of bipolarity in terms of the new enantiodromic concept of entropy generalized by process theory. Clinically, this article offers an integrative model of bipolarity that accounts for many clinical features and contributes to a definition of the bipolar personality.

  2. Bipolar Disorder: A Daughter's Experience.

    PubMed

    Khare, Satya Rashi

    2016-09-01

    My father suffered from bipolar disorder. His illness placed an enormous strain on our relationship which, for the most part, was filled with turbulence. Although our family physician played an integral role in supporting my parents throughout the disease, I did not receive the same support and suffered as a consequence. In this essay, I describe my father's manic and major depressive episodes, as well as my emotions that resulted from the experience. Treating mental illness goes beyond just treating the patient but rather encompasses the family as a whole. My relationship with my father may have been different had I learned effective coping strategies through the support of my family physician. PMID:27621165

  3. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  4. Antidepressant chronotherapeutics for bipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Chronotherapeutics refers to treatments based on the principles of circadian rhythm organization and sleep physiology, which control the exposure to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. It includes manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance, and controlled exposure to light and dark. The antidepressant effects of chronotherapeutics are evident in difficult-to-treat conditions such as bipolar depression, which has been associated with extremely low success rates of antidepressant drugs in naturalistic settings and with stable antidepressant response to chronotherapeutics in more than half of the patients. Recent advances in the study of the effects of chronotherapeutics on neurotransmitter systems, and on the biological clock machinery, allow us to pinpoint its mechanism of action and to transform it from a neglected or “orphan” treatment to a powerful clinical instrument in everyday psychiatric practice. PMID:23393416

  5. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, B.; Bolstad, J.J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the present invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process. 4 figs.

  6. Comorbidity in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gagan; Wilens, Timothy

    2009-04-01

    The growing literature shows the pervasiveness and importance of comorbidity in youth with bipolar disorder (BPD). For instance, up to 90% of youth with BPD have been described to manifest comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Multiple anxiety, substance use, and disruptive behavior disorders are the other most commonly reported comorbidities with BPD. Moreover, important recent data highlight the importance of obsessive-compulsive and pervasive developmental illness in the context of BPD. Data suggest that not only special developmental relationships are operant in the context of comorbidity but also that the presence of comorbid disorders with BPD results in a more severe clinical condition. Moreover, the presence of comorbidity has therapeutic implications for the treatment response for both BPD and the associated comorbid disorder. Future longitudinal studies to address the relationship and the impact of comorbid disorders on course and therapeutic response over time are required in youth with BPD. PMID:19264265

  7. Antidepressant chronotherapeutics for bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Chronotherapeutics refers to treatments based on the principles of circadian rhythm organization and sleep physiology, which control the exposure to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. It includes manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance, and controlled exposure to light and dark. The antidepressant effects of chronotherapeutics are evident in difficult-to-treat conditions such as bipolar depression, which has been associated with extremely low success rates of antidepressant drugs in naturalistic settings and with stable antidepressant response to chronotherapeutics in more than half of the patients. Recent advances in the study of the effects of chronotherapeutics on neurotransmitter systems, and on the biological clock machinery, allow us to pinpoint its mechanism of action and to transform it from a neglected or "orphan" treatment to a powerful clinical instrument in everyday psychiatric practice.

  8. Mathematical modeling the radiation effects on humoral immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O. A.

    A mathematical model of humoral immune response in nonirradiated and irradiated mammals is developed. It is based on conventional theories and experimental facts in this field. The model is a system of nonlinear differential equations which describe the dynamics of concentrations of antibody and antigen molecules, immunocompetent B lymphocytes, and the rest blood lymphocytes, as well as the bone-marrow lymphocyte precursors. The interaction of antigen molecules with antibodies and with antibody-like receptors on immunocompetent cells is also incorporated. The model quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of the humoral immune response to the T-independent antigen (capsular antigen of plague microbe) in nonirradiated mammals (CBA mice). It describes the peculiarities of the humoral immune response in CBA mice exposed to acute radiation before or after introducing antigen. The model predicts an adaptation of humoral immune system to low dose rate chronic irradiation in the result of which the intensity of immune response relaxes to a new, lower than normal, stable level. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are revealed. The results obtained show that the developed model, after the appropriate identification, can be used to predict the effects of acute and low-level long-term irradiation on the system of humoral immunity in humans. Employment of the mathematical model identified in the proper way should be important in estimating the radiation risk for cosmonauts and astronauts on long space missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony.

  9. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  10. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  11. [Bipolar patients, structured psychotherapeutic treatment and approaches].

    PubMed

    Bonvalot, Thierry; Mazouni, Rabbah; Rivallan, Armel; Lassignardie, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    The current development of structured psychotherapy has brought gradual improvements to the treatment provided to bipolar patients. This psychotherapy may be either carried out individually or in a group. In this context, psychotherapeutic meditation seems beneficial.

  12. Bipolar disorder: causes, contexts, and treatments.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Robert L

    2007-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic and often devastating illness that may go undiagnosed because of its complex and diverse presentation. Clinicians can provide psychological treatments, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy, that can reduce the frequency, severity, and duration of manic and depressive episodes. Because bipolar disorder is characterized by high degrees of comorbidity and high rates of medical complications, the clinician will frequently need to implement other treatments targeted to comorbid conditions, such as panic, generalized anxiety, substance abuse, and personality disorders. This article introduces the issue of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session devoted to the treatment of bipolar disorder. We describe the cognitive styles and personal vulnerabilities that pose greater risk for bipolar disorder. Three evidence-based psychological treatments (interpersonal social rhythm therapy, family-focused treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy) and current pharmacological treatments are examined and illustrated. Finally, we review the effectiveness and practice implications of a variety of treatments for this severe and underresearched disorder.

  13. Building international partnerships through an on-line humor exchange.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kathleen J; Maiuri, Tiffany; Poleshchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The Maine/Komi Online Collaborative (MKOC) provides an online learning tool for high school students in Franklin County, Maine, and Komi, Russia. The tool, or "Humor Exchange," teaches students to use positive humor to manage stress and provide social support. Rural, disadvantaged students also become more competitive to enter college due to the language and multicultural experiences. Students utilize Blackboard's Discussion Forum and videoconferencing. Art and theater are integral components of this tool. The majority of students report that the tool is "fun" and that they have learned humorous ways to deal with stress, provide social support, and experience another culture. The videoconferencing has proven to be a unique and exciting way to communicate. This tool promotes social well-being among two countries that have been adversaries. It has mobilized social change by including the community, namely, rural high school students, where it is difficult to obtain multicultural experiences. PMID:20208205

  14. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  15. Humor theories and the physiological benefits of laughter.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Julia; Eisenbraun, Amy Janel

    2009-01-01

    There are 3 main theories used to explain the functions of humor: (1) the relief theory, (2) the incongruity theory, and (3) the superiority theory. While these theories focus on the specific role that humor plays for people in situations such as dealing with misfortune, making sense of rule violations, and bonding with others, we propose that underlying each of these theories are the physiological benefits of laughter. We draw on findings from empirical studies on laughter to demonstrate that these physiological benefits occur regardless of the theory that is used to explain the humor function. Findings from these studies have important implications for nurse practitioners working in hospice settings, long-term care facilities, nursing homes, and hospitals.

  16. Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Borchert, Mark

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that spectroscopic analysis of the aqueous humor of the eye could be used to indirectly predict blood glucose levels in diabetics noninvasively. We have been investigating this potential using Raman spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) analysis. We have determined that glucose at clinically relevant concentrations can be accurately predicted in human aqueous humor in vitro using a PLS model based on artificial aqueous humor. We have further determined that with proper instrument design, the light energy necessary to achieve clinically acceptable prediction of glucose does not damage the retinas of rabbits and can be delivered at powers below internationally acceptable safety limits. Herein we summarize our current results and address our strategies to improve instrument design. 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  17. Optimising the management of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    MsAbda Mahmood; Ebmeler, Klaus R

    2015-05-01

    NICE recommends that when adults present in primary care with depression, they should be asked about previous periods of overactivity or disinhibited behaviour. If this behaviour lasted for four or more days referral for a specialist mental health assessment should be considered. Although depressive episodes are not necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, they are common and dominate the lifetime pattern of the condition: 50% of the time is spent in a euthymic (well) state, 38% in a depressed and 12% in a manic state. If there have only been depressive symptoms, it is not possible to exclude bipolar disorder. A diagnosis of bipolar disorder is supported by diagnostic criteria and usually confirmed by a psychiatrist. If the GP suspects mania or severe depression, or if patients are a danger to themselves or others, an urgent referral should be made for a specialist mental health assessment. If a manic episode has been present during the history the diagnosis is bipolar I disorder, while a hypomanic episode is indicative of bipolar disorder. The patient's care plan should include current health status, social situation, social support, co-ordination arrangements with secondary care, details of early warning signs, and the patient's preferred course of action in the event of a clinical relapse. Physical health checks should focus on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and respiratory disease given the heightened risk for these illnesses in bipolar disorder. PMID:27254890

  18. Optimising the management of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    MsAbda Mahmood; Ebmeler, Klaus R

    2015-05-01

    NICE recommends that when adults present in primary care with depression, they should be asked about previous periods of overactivity or disinhibited behaviour. If this behaviour lasted for four or more days referral for a specialist mental health assessment should be considered. Although depressive episodes are not necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, they are common and dominate the lifetime pattern of the condition: 50% of the time is spent in a euthymic (well) state, 38% in a depressed and 12% in a manic state. If there have only been depressive symptoms, it is not possible to exclude bipolar disorder. A diagnosis of bipolar disorder is supported by diagnostic criteria and usually confirmed by a psychiatrist. If the GP suspects mania or severe depression, or if patients are a danger to themselves or others, an urgent referral should be made for a specialist mental health assessment. If a manic episode has been present during the history the diagnosis is bipolar I disorder, while a hypomanic episode is indicative of bipolar disorder. The patient's care plan should include current health status, social situation, social support, co-ordination arrangements with secondary care, details of early warning signs, and the patient's preferred course of action in the event of a clinical relapse. Physical health checks should focus on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and respiratory disease given the heightened risk for these illnesses in bipolar disorder.

  19. The use of bipolar technology in hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Stefania; DE Alberti, Davide; Garuti, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar technology was introduced in the hysteroscopic clinical use in 1999, by the design of both loop electrodes addressed to resectoscopic surgery and miniaturized electrodes adaptable to small-size hysteroscopes. The need of an electrolytic solution as distension medium and the spatial relationships between the active and return bipolar electrode avoid, by definition, the risks of severe electrolyte imbalance syndromes and unpredictable electrical burns, sometimes complicating monopolar surgery. The true revolution in the hysteroscopy care has achieved through the availability of mini-hysteroscopes not requiring cervical dilatation, thus limiting uterine wall damages and allowing surgeons to manage several endometrial pathologies by mini-invasive procedures using an effective electrosurgical bipolar instrumentation. Many surgical interventions, traditionally accomplished by the resectoscope in a surgical room theatre, can be now carried out in an outpatient setting without any support from anesthesia. The patients' avoidance of surgical room access and the quick return to daily activities lead to an obvious - but not fully demonstrated - improvement in the medical and social costs associated to outpatient operative hysteroscopy. In the field of resectoscopy, bipolar electrodes are clinically as effective as monopolar devices. Randomized trials showed that bipolar resectoscopic technology prevents the electrolyte imbalance observed after monopolar surgery. However, in daily clinical practice the assumedly safer profile of bipolar with respect to monopolar resectoscopy has not been demonstrated yet.

  20. The development of lurasidone for bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Antony; Xu, Jane; Hsu, Jay; Cucchiaro, Josephine; Pikalov, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent illness that ranks among the top 10 causes of disability in the developed world. As the illness progresses, major depressive episodes increasingly predominate. However, few treatment options are available that have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in combination with mood stabilizers. Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that was initially developed for the treatment of schizophrenia. Since no previous atypical antipsychotic development program had proceeded directly from work on schizophrenia to bipolar depression, the decision to focus on this indication represented an innovation in central nervous system drug development and was designed to address a clinically significant unmet need. The current review summarizes key results of a clinical development program undertaken to characterize the efficacy and safety of lurasidone in patients diagnosed with bipolar depression. Lurasidone is currently the only treatment for bipolar depression approved in the United States as both a monotherapy and an adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate. The approval of lurasidone expands available treatment options for patients with bipolar depression and provides a therapy with an overall favorable risk-benefit profile. PMID:26771990

  1. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.

  2. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    PubMed

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further. PMID:27347254

  3. The Appreciation of Humor By Males and Females During Conditions of Crowding Experimentally Induced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prerost, Frank J.; Brewer, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Subjects rated the humor of jokes under conditions of high and low spatial density. Crowding was found to significantly diminish appreciation of three types of humor. Significant sex differences in reactivity to crowding were found. (Author/CS)

  4. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients’ recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further. PMID:27347254

  5. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  6. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  7. Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation.

    PubMed

    Deconto, Robert M; Pollard, David; Wilson, Paul A; Pälike, Heiko; Lear, Caroline H; Pagani, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The long-standing view of Earth's Cenozoic glacial history calls for the first continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica in the earliest Oligocene epoch ( approximately 33.6 million years ago), followed by the onset of northern-hemispheric glacial cycles in the late Pliocene epoch, about 31 million years later. The pivotal early Oligocene event is characterized by a rapid shift of 1.5 parts per thousand in deep-sea benthic oxygen-isotope values (Oi-1) within a few hundred thousand years, reflecting a combination of terrestrial ice growth and deep-sea cooling. The apparent absence of contemporaneous cooling in deep-sea Mg/Ca records, however, has been argued to reflect the growth of more ice than can be accommodated on Antarctica; this, combined with new evidence of continental cooling and ice-rafted debris in the Northern Hemisphere during this period, raises the possibility that Oi-1 represents a precursory bipolar glaciation. Here we test this hypothesis using an isotope-capable global climate/ice-sheet model that accommodates both the long-term decline of Cenozoic atmospheric CO(2) levels and the effects of orbital forcing. We show that the CO(2) threshold below which glaciation occurs in the Northern Hemisphere ( approximately 280 p.p.m.v.) is much lower than that for Antarctica ( approximately 750 p.p.m.v.). Therefore, the growth of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere immediately following Antarctic glaciation would have required rapid CO(2) drawdown within the Oi-1 timeframe, to levels lower than those estimated by geochemical proxies and carbon-cycle models. Instead of bipolar glaciation, we find that Oi-1 is best explained by Antarctic glaciation alone, combined with deep-sea cooling of up to 4 degrees C and Antarctic ice that is less isotopically depleted (-30 to -35 per thousand) than previously suggested. Proxy CO(2) estimates remain above our model's northern-hemispheric glaciation threshold of approximately 280 p.p.m.v. until approximately 25 Myr

  8. Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation.

    PubMed

    Deconto, Robert M; Pollard, David; Wilson, Paul A; Pälike, Heiko; Lear, Caroline H; Pagani, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The long-standing view of Earth's Cenozoic glacial history calls for the first continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica in the earliest Oligocene epoch ( approximately 33.6 million years ago), followed by the onset of northern-hemispheric glacial cycles in the late Pliocene epoch, about 31 million years later. The pivotal early Oligocene event is characterized by a rapid shift of 1.5 parts per thousand in deep-sea benthic oxygen-isotope values (Oi-1) within a few hundred thousand years, reflecting a combination of terrestrial ice growth and deep-sea cooling. The apparent absence of contemporaneous cooling in deep-sea Mg/Ca records, however, has been argued to reflect the growth of more ice than can be accommodated on Antarctica; this, combined with new evidence of continental cooling and ice-rafted debris in the Northern Hemisphere during this period, raises the possibility that Oi-1 represents a precursory bipolar glaciation. Here we test this hypothesis using an isotope-capable global climate/ice-sheet model that accommodates both the long-term decline of Cenozoic atmospheric CO(2) levels and the effects of orbital forcing. We show that the CO(2) threshold below which glaciation occurs in the Northern Hemisphere ( approximately 280 p.p.m.v.) is much lower than that for Antarctica ( approximately 750 p.p.m.v.). Therefore, the growth of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere immediately following Antarctic glaciation would have required rapid CO(2) drawdown within the Oi-1 timeframe, to levels lower than those estimated by geochemical proxies and carbon-cycle models. Instead of bipolar glaciation, we find that Oi-1 is best explained by Antarctic glaciation alone, combined with deep-sea cooling of up to 4 degrees C and Antarctic ice that is less isotopically depleted (-30 to -35 per thousand) than previously suggested. Proxy CO(2) estimates remain above our model's northern-hemispheric glaciation threshold of approximately 280 p.p.m.v. until approximately 25 Myr

  9. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  10. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  11. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  12. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  13. The Use of Humor as a Teaching Strategy in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukehart, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the use of humor as a teaching strategy among a sample of nurse educators employed by community colleges and universities in Northern and Central California nursing programs. The study also identified the types of humor used, how humor is used in the classroom, and nurse educators' perceptions of…

  14. Use and Non-Use of Humor in Academic ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…

  15. Humor in Literature about Children with Disability: What Are We Seeing in Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…

  16. Statistics? You Must Be Joking: The Application and Evaluation of Humor when Teaching Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, David L.; Hood, Michelle; Neumann, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Humor has been promoted as a teaching tool that enhances student engagement and learning. The present report traces the pathway from research to practice by reflecting upon various ways to incorporate humor into the face-to-face teaching of statistics. The use of humor in an introductory university statistics course was evaluated via interviews…

  17. The Effects of Professor Humor on College Students' Attention and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantooth, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to investigate the effect of instructor humor on college students' levels of engagement and retention of material. A convenience sample of junior- and senior-level students enrolled in four separate courses within the College of Education were exposed to two different lectures--one humorous, one non-humorous.…

  18. Humor in Pedagogy: How Ha-Ha Can Lead to Aha!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have examined the pedagogical implications and cautions concerning the use of humor in teaching. Humor has been associated with a host of positive physiological and psychological effects. Researchers have identified that educators who use humor in their instruction are more positively rated by their peers and their students; others…

  19. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  20. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  1. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process. PMID:27068058

  3. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects. PMID:19337455

  4. Brock Cole: The Good, the Bad, and the Humorously Ironic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Wendy J.

    1999-01-01

    Looks at three books for young adults by Brock Cole: "The Goats" (1987), "Celine" (1989), and "The Facts Speak for Themselves" (1997). Discusses common elements in these stories: young people who rise to the occasion; adults who often do not; characters readers can empathize with; an honest treatment of sexuality; and a wonderful use of humor. (SR)

  5. Humorous Language Play in a Thai EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Ross

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity, play, and language learning has been of increasing interest over the past decade, but the role of humour itself in SLL remains significantly under-explored. The present study examines humorous language play initiated by a bilingual EFL teacher and taken up by his post-beginner students in a Thai university…

  6. "The Truth Is Funny": A Study of Jesse Stuart's Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Wade

    This study of works of Jesse Stuart treats in some depth the setting and background for the humor in his writings, his reverence for the eastern Kentucky hill country, and the various ways he uses materials from his own life and observations as subject matter for his fictional world. After establishing Stuart's kinship with earlier frontier…

  7. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  8. Laugh and Learn: Using Humor to Teach Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)

  9. Humor As a Weapon in Virginia Woolf's "Orlando."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Robin

    Virginia Woolf's "Orlando" is an excellent example of mock biography to use in literature classes concerned with analyzing literary genres. Woolf used humor to undermine some conventions of the genre of biography and to reform biography into a shape adequate to express the life of Vita Sackville-West. An ordinary biography most likely would have…

  10. Humor as a Presentational Device in Broadcast Public Service Announcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, D. J.

    On a daily basis, American television and radio audiences are subjected to a stream of broadcast Public Service Announcements (PSAs), each promoting "some kind of social or economic action deemed beneficial" (Stridsberg, 1977). Often, these announcements employ humor as a presentational device to help stimulate the behavioral change needed to…

  11. Control of Humorous Affect in Relation to Children's Conceptual Tempo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodzinsky, David M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between conceptual tempo and control of humorous affect in young children. Records the responses of reflective, fast-accurate, impulsive, and slow-accurate fourth-grade children to a videotape of an adult telling a series of jokes, half of which are followed by audience laughter. (CM)

  12. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing.

  13. Some Observations on Humor and Laughter in Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransohoff, Rita

    1975-01-01

    Adolescent girls who were referred to a guidance counselor because of lack of academic interest, erratic attendance, or uncooperative behavior participated in this study conducted at a large, urban, public school. Two groups were formed and the function of humor and laughter explored. (BJG)

  14. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction.

    PubMed

    Barros, P S M; Padovani, C F; Silva, V V; Queiroz, L; Barros, S B M

    2003-11-01

    We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane) chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 microM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  15. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  16. Humor Preference as a Function of Preoedipal Fixation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juni, Samuel

    1982-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theory predicts that humor preference is a derivative of unresolved childhood conflicts. Analyzed students' (N=104) Rorschach protocols to yield measures of preoedipal fixation. Students ranked jokes from most to least funny. Results showed that the ranking of jokes was a function of the fixation measures for women only. (Author/RC)

  17. Does CMC Promote Language Play? Exploring Humor in Two Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergriff, Ilona; Fuchs, Carolin

    2009-01-01

    In view of the growing body of research on humor and language play in computer-mediated communication (CMC) which--more than any other medium--has been associated with goofing off, joking, and other nonserious communication, this paper compares spontaneous foreign language play (L2 play) in text-only synchronous computer-mediated versus…

  18. Mexican Proverbs: The Philosophy, Wisdom and Humor of a People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballesteros, Octavio A.

    Careful reading of proverbs can aid an individual to develop self-awareness by providing insights into what one cultural group considers desirable human behavior. Respect for the elderly can be taught to the young through the study of proverbs. Through their proverbs, the Mexicans reveal their friendliness, love of animals, sense of humor, and…

  19. Using Humorous Sitcom Clips in Teaching Federal Income Taxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, H. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…

  20. Humor as Safe House in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Anne; Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of second language (L2) classroom interaction often categorize joking and other humorous talk by students as disruptive, off-task behavior, thereby rendering it important only from a classroom management perspective. Studies of language play, however, have illustrated that such jocular talk not only allows students to construct a broader…

  1. Linguistic Humor Comprehension of Normal and Language-Impaired Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Cecile C.

    1990-01-01

    Compared to 12 normally achieving students, 12 language-impaired high school students had significantly poorer comprehension of humor elements of riddles, jokes, and puns classified according to their phonological, morphological, or syntactic elements. Especially poor were subjects' ability to grasp the nature of multimeaning words and to segment…

  2. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  3. Laughing Matters: Infant Humor in the Context of Parental Affect

    PubMed Central

    Mireault, Gina C.; Crockenberg, Susan C.; Sparrow, John E.; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early in the first year, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5- to 7-months as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-subjects design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect, but significantly longer at 5 and 6 months , and more often and sooner at 7 months when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were only more likely to smile at it when parents provided humor cues, and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months, parental affect influenced infants’ affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  4. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  5. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep-wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  6. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  7. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep-wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder.

  8. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  9. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161012.html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And ... 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For some teens with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and ...

  10. Bipolar Diagnosis May Take Up to 6 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... MONDAY, July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with bipolar disorder may face a long wait from when their ... treatment, the diagnosis of the early phase of bipolar disorder can be difficult," study leader Matthew Large, a ...

  11. Risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum and early bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Sibilski, Piotr; Lepczyńska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In recent years much attention has been given to determine risk factors for suicide among adults with bipolar disorder. Such studies concerning children and youths, which would also take into account the specificity of the developmental age, are still too few. The ability to identify risk factors for children and youths with mood disorders, as well as the possibility to monitor them, is an essential element in preventing suicidal behaviours. Previous studies have clearly indicated that in the group of patients with an early onset of the bipolar disorder the occurrence of suicidal thoughts and intentions were significantly increased. Identifying the risk of suicide is hindered further by the complexity of the phenomenon, which is a compound interaction of various factors: biological, environmental, sociological, psychological and clinical. This is especially true with young adults suffering from mental illness and presenting a number of other psychopathological symptoms. The following paper introduces and reviews the results of current studies, which analysed the risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum or already diagnosed with bipolar disorder. For this purpose we conducted the overview of recent years literature available in PubMed/MEDLINE database, including the following search criteria: early onset bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder in children and young people, the spectrum of bipolar disorder, and suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide.

  12. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  13. Electrodeionization Using Microseparated Bipolar Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald; Jackson, George; Andrews, Craig C.; Tennakoon, Charles L, K.; Singh, Waheguru; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Jabs, Harry; Chepin, James F.; Archer, Shivaun; Gonzalez-Martinez, Anukia; Cisar, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    An electrochemical technique for deionizing water, now under development, is intended to overcome a major limitation of prior electrically-based water-purification techniques. The limitation in question is caused by the desired decrease in the concentration of ions during purification: As the concentration of ions decreases, the electrical resistivity of the water increases, posing an electrical barrier to the removal of the remaining ions. In the present technique, this limitation is overcome by use of electrodes, a flowfield structure, and solid electrolytes configured to provide conductive paths for the removal of ions from the water to be deionized, even when the water has already been purified to a high degree. The technique involves the use of a bipolar membrane unit (BMU), which includes a cation-exchange membrane and an anion-exchange membrane separated by a nonconductive mesh that has been coated by an ionically conductive material (see figure). The mesh ensures the desired microseparation between the ion-exchange membranes: The interstices bounded by the inner surfaces of the membranes and the outer surfaces of the coated mesh constitute a flow-field structure that allows the water that one seeks to deionize (hereafter called "process water" for short) to flow through the BMU with a low pressure drop. The flow-field structure is such that the distance between any point in the flow field and an ionically conductive material is small; thus, the flow-field structure facilitates the diffusion of molecules and ions to and from the ion-exchange membranes. The BMU is placed between an anode and a cathode, but not in direct contact with these electrodes. Instead, the space between the anion-exchange membrane and the anode is denoted the anode compartment and is filled with an ionic solution. Similarly, the space between the cation-exchange membrane and the cathode is denoted the cathode compartment and is filled with a different ionic solution. The electrodes are

  14. A neuroplastic deafferentation hypothesis for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jonathan; Mirams, Jamie; Patel, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by extreme cyclical variations in mood between depression and mania, is a common, debilitating and sometimes fatal psychiatric condition with an unclear aetiology. In this paper we propose a hypothesis for the development of bipolar disorder through which neuroplastic changes in response to an index depressive episode leads to the amplification of subthreshold pleasurable stimuli that then drive conversion into a manic state. This ‘pleasure deafferentation hypothesis’ is reached through a discussion of the neuroscientific basis of deafferentation at the level of the neuron and its role in the development of various neurological and psychiatric phenomena before a case for deafferentation as applied to bipolar disorder is justified and its implications discussed. PMID:26459976

  15. Interventions for Sleep Disturbance in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Kaplan, Kate A.; Soehner, Adriane

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic disorder, ranked in the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. Sleep disturbances are strongly coupled with inter-episode dysfunction and symptom worsening in bipolar disorder. Experimental studies suggest that sleep deprivation can trigger manic relapse. There is evidence that sleep deprivation can have an adverse impact on emotion regulation the following day. The clinical management of the sleep disturbances experienced by bipolar patients, including insomnia, hypersomnia delayed sleep phase and irregular sleep-wake schedule, may include medication approaches, psychological interventions, light therapies and sleep deprivation. Psychological interventions, as described here, are advantageous in that they are low in side effects, may be preferred by patients, are durable and have no abuse potential. PMID:25750600

  16. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  17. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  18. Explorations of the Functions of Humor and Other Types of Fun among Families of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Alicja

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study of six families of children with disabilities and their perspectives on humor. The findings revealed that the families had an understanding of humor that went beyond the generalized humor construct. They embraced both the concept of humor and "other types of fun." Furthermore, the families' attempts at…

  19. Silence as the Root of American Indian Humor: Further Meditations on the Comic Vision of Anishinaabe Culture and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The literature on humor generally focuses on the nature of incongruities as the root of humor. In this article, the author takes the examination of humor one step further by meditating on the mental frame involved with humor. He is interested in what cultural experiences would predispose the individuals within a given culture to have a sense of…

  20. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Hippocampus: The Effects of Humor on Student Achievement and Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney Matthews, Melissa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Research literature relating to the use of humor as a teaching method or curricula specifically designed to include humor was reviewed to investigate the effects of humor on student learning in various environments from elementary schools to post-secondary classrooms. In this multi-method study, four instruments and a humor treatment were selected…

  1. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor. PMID:27180510

  2. Decoding humor experiences from brain activity of people viewing comedy movies.

    PubMed

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer's perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events.

  3. [Bipolar disorders and self-stigma].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lepouriel, H

    2015-09-16

    Despite wide media coverage in recent years, the stigmatization of people with bipolar disorder still exists. Bipolar people also have their own tendency to self-stigmatize that is to integrate their beliefs, prejudices and stigmatizing behaviors. The consequences are important: shame, guilt, withdrawal and renunciation to lead one's own life according to personal values increasing therefore the risk of mood relapses. Self-stigma is rarely assessed in clinical practice and few strategies have been designed to face them efficiently. Recognizing self-stigmatizing beliefs and challenging them are the first steps of this vast endeavour. PMID:26591079

  4. Suicidality in bipolar disorders--psychoanalytic contribution.

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Schell, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of psychoanalytic contributions to the understanding of suicidal behavior in bipolar patients. Although little specific literature is available, many authors have contributed to the understanding of these patients' psychodynamics and suicidality in various papers. Different points of emphasis are described, among these are defensive strategies, narcissistic personality structure, and dealing with intense feelings such as object loss. Using detailed case descriptions, the inner world of bipolar patients as it relates to their suicidality, along with the appropriate psychoanalytically oriented approach to treatment, are highlighted. PMID:16717045

  5. Putative Drugs and Targets for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BPD) is generally unsatisfactory for a large number of patients. Even with adequate modern bipolar pharmacological therapies, many afflicted individuals continue to have persistent mood episode relapses, residual symptoms, functional impairment and psychosocial disability. Creating novel therapeutics for BPD is urgently needed. Promising drug targets and compounds for BPD worthy of further study involve the following systems: purinergic, dynorphin opioid neuropeptide, cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic), melatonin and serotonin (5-HT2C receptor), glutamatergic, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis have all been implicated. Intracellular pathways and targets worthy of further study include glycogen synthase kinase-3 protein, protein kinase C, arachidonic acid cascade. PMID:18704977

  6. Bipolar effects in unipolar junctionless transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Mukta Singh; Ghosh, Dipankar; Armstrong, G. Alastair; Yu, Ran; Razavi, Pedram; Kranti, Abhinav

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we analyze hysteresis and bipolar effects in unipolar junctionless transistors. A change in subthreshold drain current by 5 orders of magnitude is demonstrated at a drain voltage of 2.25 V in silicon junctionless transistor. Contrary to the conventional theory, increasing gate oxide thickness results in (i) a reduction of subthreshold slope (S-slope) and (ii) an increase in drain current, due to bipolar effects. The high sensitivity to film thickness in junctionless devices will be most crucial factor in achieving steep transition from ON to OFF state.

  7. Small scale bipolar nickel-hydrogen testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, ranging in capacity from 6 to 40 A-hr, have been tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the past six years. Small scale tests of 1 A-hr nickel-hydrogen stacks have been initiated as a means of screening design and component variations for bipolar nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Four small-scale batteries have been built and tested. Characterization and limited cycle testing were performed to establish the validity of test results in the scaled down hardware. The results show characterization test results to be valid. LEO test results in the small scale hardware have limited value.

  8. Evening types among german university students score higher on sense of humor after controlling for big five personality factors.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Humor research has focused on relationships between humor and various personality traits. As personality and morningness-eveningness, as well as personality and humor, are related based on genetics and neurobehavioral function, one might also expect a relationship between humor and chronotype. 197 students responded to the Composite Scale of Morningness as a measure of chronotype, the Sense of Humor Questionnaire and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. Individuals scoring as evening types reported a greater sense of humor than morning individuals, with higher morningness scores. In a stepwise linear regression, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Chronotype each accounted for a significant amount of variance in sense of Humor scores. That is, the relationship between scores on Sense of Humor and evening orientation was significant after controlling for personality dimensions. Eveningness was related to sense of Humor scores in women but not in men. Social but not cognitive humor was predicted by eveningness.

  9. Is Laughing at the Expense of Victims and Offenders a Red Flag? Humor and Secondary Traumatic Stress.

    PubMed

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo.

  10. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account.

  11. Effects of Prostaglandin Analogues on Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Nelson S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most prevalent risk factor for glaucoma. All treatments, whether surgical or pharmaceutical, are aimed at lowering IOP. Prostaglandin analogues are a first line therapy for glaucoma due to their ability to reduce IOP, once-daily dosing, efficacy, and minimal side-effect profile. Whereas prostaglandin analogues have been known to alter aqueous humor outflow through the unconventional (uveoscleral) pathway, more recent evidence suggests their action also occurs through the conventional (trabecular) pathway. Understanding how prostaglandin analogues successfully lower IOP is important, as this information may lead to the discovery of new molecular targets for future therapeutic intervention. This review explores the current understanding of prostaglandin analogue biology as it pertains to IOP reduction and improved aqueous humor outflow facility. PMID:24359106

  12. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account. PMID:19105029

  13. Lateralization in appreciation of humor: sex differences vs stimulus effects.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, J

    1997-10-01

    The finding that women rate funnier humorous items with left-ear input, while men give higher ratings with right-ear input has been cited as evidence for a biological basis for sex differences in appreciation of humor. However, in 1991 Gallivan did not find this effect and suggested that the earlier finding could have been due to the use of 'male-oriented' stimuli. In this study, 72 subjects rated the funniness of 32 'female oriented' comedy excerpts, presented monaurally. Women gave higher ratings with right-ear input but men's ratings were not affected by ear of presentation. These findings represent another failure to replicate the earlier-reported hemispheric effect and support the conclusion that it may have been due to the stimuli used. PMID:9347538

  14. Aqueous humor cytokine profiling in patients with wet AMD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yu; Li, Jiaqing; Tang, Miao; Yuan, Miner; Hu, Andina; Zhan, Zongyi; Li, Zijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the chemokine expression profiles in the aqueous humor of wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) patients and to correlate their levels with clinical findings. Methods Undiluted aqueous humor samples (100–200 μl) were obtained from 16 wet AMD eyes and 12 control eyes. Forty chemokines were measured using a multiplex method. A 6×6 mm area of the macular region centered on the fovea was examined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results The detection rates were 50% or more for 15 chemokines. Compared with the control group, the aqueous humor in wet AMD patients showed a significantly higher expression of CXCL10 (p=0.004), CCL14 (p=0.002), CXCL16 (p=0.013), CXCL7 (p=0.033), and CCL22 (p=0.037), while growth-related oncogene (GRO) was significantly decreased in the wet AMD patients (p=0.001). When compared with treatment-naïve patients, the recurrent group had significant upregulation of CXCL10 (p=0.012) and CCL22 (p=0.002). CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size, and CCL22 was higher in patients whose OCT images showed intraretinal fluid (IRF) or hyperreflective foci (HF). Conclusions Elevated levels of inflammation-related chemokines, including CXCL10, CCL14, CXCL16, CXCL7, and CCL22, in the aqueous humor of AMD patients may suggest a pathogenic role for inflammation. CXCL10 and CCL22 were more elevated in eyes with recurrent wet AMD than in treatment-naïve eyes. CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size. The increase in CCL22 was correlated with the presence of IRF or HF. These data may be of interest in the search for biomarkers associated with wet AMD and may potentially indicate different treatment strategies. PMID:27122966

  15. HUMOR STYLES, CREATIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND CREATIVE THINKING IN A HONG KONG SAMPLE.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na

    2015-12-01

    Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits.

  16. Heritability of cognitive functions in families with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Antila, Mervi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Kieseppä, Tuula; Soronen, Pia; Palo, Outi M; Paunio, Tiina; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2007-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is highly heritable. Cognitive dysfunctions often observed in bipolar patients and their unaffected relatives implicate that these impairments may be associated with genetic predisposition to bipolar disorder and thus fulfill the criteria of a valid endophenotype for the disorder. However, the most fundamental criterion, their heritability, has not been directly studied in any bipolar population. This population-based study estimated the heritability of cognitive functions in bipolar disorder. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to a population-based sample of 110 individuals from 52 families with bipolar disorder. Heritability of cognitive functions as assessed with neuropsychological test scores were estimated using the Solar package. Significant additive heritabilities were found in verbal ability, executive functioning, and psychomotor processing speed. Genetic contribution was low to verbal learning functions. High heritability, in executive functioning and psychomotor processing speed suggest that these may be valid endophenotypic traits for genetic studies of bipolar disorder.

  17. Is There a Bipolar Prodrome Among Children and Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Schwarz, Charlotte M; Nye, Paul; Frazier, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder in youth substantially impairs behavior, family, and social functioning and interferes with developmental course. There is increasing interest in defining a bipolar prodrome similar to that reported in early-onset psychosis that will allow for earlier intervention and reduction in overall morbidity and mortality. Several lines of research have addressed this important issue including studies of offspring of bipolar parents, high-risk cohorts, and longitudinal follow-up of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), ADHD, and bipolar spectrum disorder. The development and validation of bipolar prodrome rating scales also shows promise. Recent attempts to intervene at earlier stages of bipolar disorder have led to some positive outcomes. However, a controversy remains concerning the identification and management of the earliest symptoms. Further research is needed to fully validate a bipolar prodrome and to determine the optimal course of action at various stages of illness. PMID:26893233

  18. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Neutzler, Jay Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

  19. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Neutzler, J.K.

    1998-07-07

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

  20. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo2O4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization.

  1. Memory and Learning in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Erin B.; Treland, Julia E.; Snow, Joseph; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Towbin, Kenneth E.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBPD) would demonstrate impairment relative to diagnosis-free controls of comparable age, gender, and IQ on measures of memory functioning. Method: The authors administered a battery of verbal and visuospatial memory tests to 35 outpatients with PBPD and 20 healthy…

  2. Unmet needs of bipolar disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Hajda, Miroslav; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Kamaradova, Dana; Mainerova, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with adverse impact on the lives of the patients and their caregivers. BD is associated with many limitations in personal and interpersonal functioning and restricts the patients’ ability to use their potential capabilities fully. Bipolar patients long to live meaningful lives, but this goal is hard to achieve for those with poor insight. With progress and humanization of society, the issue of patients’ needs became an important topic. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BD patients and their caregivers. Methods A systematic computerized examination of MEDLINE publications from 1970 to 2015, via the keywords “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “bipolar depression”, and “unmet needs”, was performed. Results Patients’ needs may differ in various stages of the disorder and may have different origin and goals. Thus, we divided them into five groups relating to their nature: those connected with symptoms, treatment, quality of life, family, and pharmacotherapy. We suggested several implications of these needs for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Conclusion Trying to follow patients’ needs may be a crucial point in the treatment of BD patients. However, many needs remain unmet due to both medical and social factors. PMID:27445475

  3. Electrostatic Changes Observed with Narrow Bipolar Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathne, S.; Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathna, N.

    2015-12-01

    Narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) or compact intracloud discharges are impulsive discharges that are considered to be the strongest natural emitters in the HF radio band; they usually occur at high altitudes in some thunderstorms. In the summer of 2011, we collected E-change data with wideband flat-plate antennas (0.16 Hz - 2.5 MHz) at ten stations covering an area of nearly 70 km x 100 km in and around Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. On one thunderstorm day, 14 August 2011, we detected 226 positive NBPs, and some observations of these pulses were published in Karunarathne et al. [2015, JGR-atmospheres]. Of these 226 NBPs, 50 (22.1 %) occurred within 10 km horizontally of at least one sensor. All of these closer sensors show electrostatic changes associated with corresponding NBPs, with a net electrostatic change in the main bipolar pulse and with a slower electrostatic change after the bipolar pulse that seems similar to short continuing current immediately after some cloud-to-ground return strokes. Although NBPs have been considered as short duration pulses (10 - 20 microseconds), the electrostatic changes after the main bipolar pulse ranged from 0.7 ms to 34 ms and associated charge moments were calculated. The total duration of the electrostatic E-change was strongly dependent on the distance to the sensors. In this presentation, we will present data for these electrostatic changes, some statistics, and physical background and reasoning for the electrostatic changes.

  4. [The nosological evolution of bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Bélteczki, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    The nosological improvement of the bipolar disorder (manic-depression) follow the written history of psychiatry. The symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and mixed states were described in the ancient times. In my summary I accompany the taxonomic improvement, the changing of diagnostic categories and the work of the most important researchers from the beginning to these days. PMID:27244868

  5. Titanium carbide bipolar plate for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    2000-07-04

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate is made from titanium carbide for use in an eletrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  6. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  7. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H.

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Titanium Carbide Bipolar Plate for Electrochemical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    1998-05-08

    Titanium carbide comprises a corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate for use in an electrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  9. A New Bipolar Imaging Device (BASIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Nakamura, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Shigeyuki; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    1989-10-01

    A bipolar imaging device consisting of a capacitor loaded emitter follower circuit for a photo-transistor has been implemented into linear image sensors, which has capabilities of charge amplification and self-noise-reduction. The linear sensors are demonstrated experimentally to exhibit excellent performance such as a linearity in a wide dynamic range and a high sensitivity.

  10. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  11. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  12. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  13. SEX DIFFERENCES DURING HUMOR APPRECIATION IN CHILD SIBLING-PAIRS

    PubMed Central

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to sex differences in rates of depression, a disorder afflicting twice as many women as men. In this study, we employed fMRI to investigate brain responses to funny versus positive (and neutral) video clips in 22 children ages 6 to 13 years, including 8 sibling pairs. Our data revealed increased activity to funny clips in bilateral temporo-occipital cortex, midbrain, and amygdala in girls. Conversely, we found heightened activation to positive clips in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in boys. Many of these effects persisted when looking at sibling-pairs only. We interpret such findings as reflecting the presence of early sex divergence in reward saliency / expectation and stimulus relevance attribution. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary and developmental theories of humor function. PMID:23672302

  14. The effect of humor on aggression catharsis in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ziv, A

    1987-07-01

    Two studies were designed to measure the cathartic effects of humor on aggressive responses. In the first study, two versions (easy and difficult) of Raven's intelligence test were administered to two groups of high school students. Only the easy version could be solved in the alloted time. Rosenzweig's (1951) Picture Frustration test was then administered and the students' aggressive responses were scored. Results showed that those who did not solve the problems had significantly higher scores on aggressivity than did the others. The second study, using four different groups, was planned according to a modified Solomon design. Two of the four groups of students completed the difficult part of the Raven test, and then two video-tapes were presented: a humorous one to two groups and a neutral one to the others. Finally, the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test was administered to all four groups. An analysis of variance computed on the aggressivity scores showed one significant difference: frustrated students who viewed the humorous videotape had lower scores than those viewing the neutral one. PMID:3625568

  15. Specific and nonspecific aspects of humoral immune response in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Lombardi, C; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    1. We have studied some generic and specific aspects of the humoral immune response in 96 patients with leprosy (29 paucibacillary and 67 multibacillary individuals). We determined serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG and IgA), CH50, C1q, C3 and C4, circulating immune complexes (CIC), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and antinuclear antibodies. No specific pattern of general humoral immune changes could be observed. 2. The specific immune response was studied by the detection of specific IgM anti-M. leprae antibodies. An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and an ELISA were compared for clinical effectiveness. IRMA showed greater sensitivity for the serodiagnosis of leprosy as compared to ELISA (88.1% vs 58.2% for multibacillary patients and 20.7% vs 10.3% for paucibacillary leprosy patients). Specificity was 96% for IRMA and 97% for ELISA. 3. Our results indicate that nonspecific changes in the humoral immune response are of little value in assessing leprosy patients and that immune assays for the detection of specific anti-M. leprae antibodies may be of value in the diagnosis, study and follow-up of these patients. PMID:8173529

  16. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, David F.; Krauss, Achim H.-P.; Nilsson, Siv F. E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96 ± 0.19 μL min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37 ± 0.27 μL min−1 (n = 6; P < .05) in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42 ± 0.05 μL min−1 at baseline and 0.42 ± 0.04 μL min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow. PMID:20508775

  17. Monitoring of aqueous humor metabolites using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicksted, James P.; Erckens, Roel J.; Motamedi, Massoud; March, Wayne F.

    1994-05-01

    Laser Raman scattering has been used to monitor glucose and lactate metabolites within aqueous humor specimens obtained from nine human eyes during cataract surgery. Nine postmortem rabbit eyes were also investigated. Raman measurements were obtained using a single grating Raman spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. A 514.5 nm line from an argon laser was used to illuminate capillaries containing several microliters of aqueous humor. A water background was subtracted from each of the aqueous humor Raman spectra. This experimental system was calibrated so that each metabolite in water could be measured down to 0.1 weight percent. Raman peaks indicative of the stretching vibrations of methylene and methyl groups associated with glucose and lactate, respectively, were observed in the human specimens. A second stretching mode characteristic of lactate between the carbon atom and either the carboxylic acid group or carboxylate ion group was also observed providing a distinguishing feature between the glucose and lactate Raman peaks. Similar structure was observed from the rabbit specimens, but these samples have recently been found to have been contaminated during euthanasia.

  18. Sex differences during humor appreciation in child-sibling pairs.

    PubMed

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span, and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to sex differences in rates of depression, a disorder afflicting twice as many women as men. In this study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain responses to funny versus positive (and neutral) video clips in 22 children, ages 6-13 years, including eight sibling-pairs. Our data revealed increased activity to funny clips in bilateral temporo-occipital cortex, midbrain, and amygdala in girls. Conversely, we found heightened activation to positive clips in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in boys. Many of these effects persisted when looking at sibling-pairs only. We interpret such findings as reflecting the presence of early sex divergence in reward saliency or expectation and stimulus relevance attribution. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary and developmental theories of humor function.

  19. A systematic review of humoral immune responses against tumor antigens.

    PubMed

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This review summarizes studies on humoral immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) with a focus on antibody frequencies and the potential diagnostic, prognostic, and etiologic relevance of antibodies against TAAs. We performed a systematic literature search in Medline and identified 3,619 articles on humoral immune responses and TAAs. In 145 studies, meeting the inclusion criteria, humoral immune responses in cancer patients have been analyzed against over 100 different TAAs. The most frequently analyzed antigens were p53, MUC1, NY-ESO-1, c-myc, survivin, p62, cyclin B1, and Her2/neu. Antibodies against these TAAs were detected in 0-69% (median 14%) of analyzed tumor patients. Antibody frequencies were generally very low in healthy individuals, with the exception of few TAAs, especially MUC1. For several TAAs, including p53, Her2/neu, and NY-ESO-1, higher antibody frequencies were reported when tumors expressed the respective TAA. Antibodies against MUC1 were associated with a favorable prognosis while antibodies against p53 were associated with poor disease outcome. These data suggest different functional roles of endogenous antibodies against TAAs. Although data on prediagnostic antibody levels are scarce and antibody frequencies for most TAAs are at levels precluding use in diagnostic assays for cancer early detection, there is some promising data on achieving higher sensitivity for cancer detection using panels of TAAs.

  20. A systematic review of humoral immune responses against tumor antigens

    PubMed Central

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on humoral immune responses against tumor associated antigens (TAA) with a focus on antibody frequencies and the potential diagnostic, prognostic, and etiologic relevance of antibodies against TAAs. We performed a systematic literature search in Medline and identified 3619 articles on humoral immune responses and TAAs. In 145 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, humoral immune responses in cancer patients have been analyzed against over 100 different TAAs. The most frequently analyzed antigens were p53, MUC1, NY-ESO-1, c-myc, survivin, p62, cyclin B1 and Her2/neu. Antibodies against these TAAs were detected in 0 to 69% (median 14%) of analyzed tumor patients. Antibody frequencies were generally very low in healthy individuals, with the exception of few TAAs, especially MUC1. For several TAAs, including p53, Her2/neu, and NY-ESO-1, higher antibody frequencies were reported when tumors expressed the respective TAA. Antibodies against MUC1 were associated with a favorable prognosis while antibodies against p53 were associated with poor disease outcome. These data suggest different functional roles of endogenous antibodies against TAAs. Although data on prediagnostic antibody levels is scarce and antibody frequencies for most TAAs are at levels precluding use in diagnostic assays for cancer early detection, there is some promising data on achieving higher sensitivity for cancer detection using panels of TAAs. PMID:19562338

  1. Memantine: New prospective in bipolar disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Giulia; Demontis, Francesca; Serra, Francesca; De Chiara, Lavinia; Spoto, Andrea; Girardi, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Serra, Gino

    2014-01-01

    We review preclinical and clinical evidences strongly suggesting that memantine, an old drug currently approved for Alzheimer’s dementia, is an effective treatment for acute mania and for the prevention of manic/hypomanic and depressive recurrences of manic-depressive illness. Lithium remains the first line for the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders, but currently available treatment alternatives for lithium resistant patients are of limited and/or questionable efficacy. Thus, research and development of more effective mood stabilizer drugs is a leading challenge for modern psychopharmacology. We have demonstrated that 21 d administration of imipramine causes a behavioural syndrome similar to a cycle of bipolar disorder, i.e., a mania followed by a depression, in rats. Indeed, such treatment causes a behavioural supersensitivity to dopamine D2 receptor agonists associated with an increase sexual activity and aggressivity (mania). The dopamine receptor sensitization is followed, after imipramine discontinuation, by an opposite phenomenon (dopamine receptor desensitization) and an increased immobility time (depression) in the forced swimming test of depression. Memantine blocks the development of the supersensitivity and the ensuing desensitization associated with the depressive like behavior. On the basis of these observations we have suggested the use of memantine in the treatment of mania and in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. To test this hypothesis we performed several naturalistic studies that showed an acute antimanic effect and a long-lasting and progressive mood-stabilizing action (at least 3 years), without clinically relevant side effects. To confirm the observations of our naturalistic trials we are now performing a randomized controlled clinical trial. Finally we described the studies reporting the efficacy of memantine in manic-like symptoms occurring in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar. Limitations: A randomized controlled

  2. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  3. Emotion regulation deficits in euthymic bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder: a functional and diffusion-tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Lawrence, Natalia S; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Watts, Jessica; Jones, Derek K; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emotion regulation deficits are a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, their potential neurobiological underpinnings and existence beyond bipolar I disorder remain unexplored. Our main goal was to investigate whether both individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder show deficits in emotion regulation during an attention control task, and to explore the neurophysiological underpinnings of this potential deficit. Methods Twenty healthy controls, 16 euthymic participants with bipolar I disorder, and 19 euthymic participants with bipolar II disorder completed psychometric and clinical assessments, a neuroimaging emotion regulation paradigm, and an anatomical diffusion-weighted scan. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal IQ. Results During the presence of emotional distracters, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed slowed reaction times to targets, and increased blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala, accumbens, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not increased inverse functional connectivity between these prefrontal and subcortical areas, and altered white matter microstructure organization in the right uncinate fasciculus. Subjects with bipolar II disorder showed no altered reaction times, increased BOLD responses in the same brain areas, increased inverse functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and no abnormalities in white matter organization. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I disorder showed abnormalities in functional and anatomical connectivity between prefrontal cortices and subcortical structures in emotion regulation circuitry. However, these deficits did not extend to subjects with bipolar II disorder, suggesting fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder subtypes. PMID:25771686

  4. Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Jacqueline S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Gregory, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of childhood cancer have been described as extremely stressful experiences in the life of a child. Anecdotally, children report that a sense of humor helps them cope with the daily experiences of living with cancer; however, no research has examined sense of humor and childhood cancer stressors. This study investigated the effect of sense of humor on the relationship between cancer stressors and children's psychosocial adjustment to cancer, immune function, and infection using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. A direct relationship was observed between sense of humor and psychosocial adjustment to cancer, such that children with a high sense of humor had greater psychological adjustment, regardless of the amount of cancer stressors. A moderating effect was observed for incidence of infection. As childhood cancer stressors increase, children with high coping humor scores reported fewer incidences of infection than low scorers.

  5. Different attitudes toward humor between Chinese and American students: evidence from the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Yue, Xiao Dong; Lu, Su

    2011-08-01

    Although cross-cultural research indicates that Chinese people demonstrate less humor than do Americans, little research addresses the reasons. This cross-cultural difference may be largely due to different implicit attitudes toward humor held by Chinese and Americans, deeply rooted in the two cultural traditions. Both self-report evaluation and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to compare Chinese and American attitudes toward humor. Although 60 Chinese undergraduate students showed no significant difference from 33 American exchange students in explicit attitudes toward humor, the former associated humor more frequently with unpleasant adjectives and seriousness with pleasant adjectives on the IAT; the opposite pattern was found for the American group. This indicated a negative implicit attitude toward humor among the Chinese students.

  6. Professors Are from Mars[R], Students Are from Snickers[R]: How To Write and Deliver Humor in the Classroom and in Professional Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    This book is a guide to humor that can break down the communication barriers between professors and students, who can be so different that they can seem to come from different planets. The chapters are: (1) "Why Use Humor?"; (2) "Anatomy of Humor"; (3) "Types and Forms of Humor"; (4) "Sources of Humorous Material"; (5) "Delivering Humor…

  7. A chuckle a day keeps the doctor away: therapeutic humor and laughter.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Catherine M

    2004-03-01

    There are several beneficial efforts attributed to humor and laughter, including improved immune function, increased pain tolerance, and decreased stress response. Humor therapy, laughter therapy, laughter meditation,and laughter clubs all have unique implications as group programs and as self-management techniques. For practitioners to implement credible programs and effectively teach self-management techniques, further empirical research on the physical, psychosocial, debonafide, and the placebo effects of humor and laughter needs to be conducted.

  8. Toward a Theoretical Framework for the Study of Humor in Literature and the Other Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    With a clearer understanding of the way humor works, individuals might be better able to give it the attention it deserves when they study and teach the arts. But where do they turn to find a theoretical framework for the study of humor--one that will help them clarify the role that humor plays in the arts and that will help them as well to…

  9. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A

    2013-06-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum.

  10. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048

  11. Humor as a reward mechanism: event-related potentials in the healthy and diseased brain.

    PubMed

    Mensen, Armand; Poryazova, Rositsa; Schwartz, Sophie; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Humor processing involves distinct processing stages including incongruity detection, emotional response, and engagement of mesolimbic reward regions. Dysfunctional reward processing and clinical symptoms in response to humor have been previously described in both hypocretin deficient narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) and in idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). For NC patients, humor is the strongest trigger for cataplexy, a transient loss of muscle tone, whereas dopamine-deficient PD-patients show blunted emotional responses to humor. To better understand the role of reward system and the various contributions of hypocretinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms to different stages of humor processing we examined the electrophysiological response to humorous and neutral pictures when given as reward feedback in PD, NC and healthy controls. Humor compared to neutral feedback demonstrated modulation of early ERP amplitudes likely corresponding to visual processing stages, with no group differences. At 270 ms post-feedback, conditions showed topographical and amplitudinal differences for frontal and left posterior electrodes, in that humor feedback was absent in PD patients but increased in NC patients. We suggest that this effect relates to a relatively early affective response, reminiscent of increased amygdala response reported in NC patients. Later ERP differences, corresponding to the late positive potential, revealed a lack of sustained activation in PD, likely due to altered dopamine regulation in reward structures in these patients. This research provides new insights into the temporal dynamics and underlying mechanisms of humor detection and appreciation in health and disease.

  12. The use of humor in forensic mental health staff-patient interactions.

    PubMed

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Bradley, Stephen K; Paaske, Kristian J; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting. The search was conducted in June 2013. Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychINFO were searched using keywords relevant to the study. Articles were categorized using a literature matrix and analyzed using thematic analysis. Twelve research articles were reviewed and included in the analysis. Three themes were identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) "the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts, dimensions of health, and motivation. The results of the analysis are however limited because of the dearth of published articles on the subject.

  13. Family caregivers' use of humor in conveying information about caring for dependent older adults.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L S; Travis, S S; Pecchioni, L

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three family caregivers were interviewed using a semistructured interview format to explore their experiences managing medication administration and providing long-term care to frail elderly family members. Content analysis of the transcripts utilized the arousal-relief theory of humor (Berlyne, 1969) to understand the frequent use of humorous anecdotes found throughout the interviews. For example, caregivers of individuals experiencing dementia often included smiles, jokes, and "punch lines" in their stories of behavioral problems that complicated medication administration schedules. Adult children frequently used humor to describe their role reversal with aged parents and the parents' forgetfulness, incontinence, or inability to dress without assistance. These accounts were placed in a taxonomy of humor response patterns that included categories for cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses. Second-level analysis created subcategories to reflect the function (relief or coping) that the humor served in the interview situation. It appears that humor is a useful communication tool for family caregivers that releases nervous energy about the interview process and the recall of difficult caregiving events. It is the responsibility of the interviewer to recognize the problems and issues embedded in the interview data and follow up humorous anecdotes with appropriate probes for additional information. Based on the results, a meta-humorous interaction theory is offered as an extension of the arousal-relief theory of humor.

  14. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall.

  15. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Dell'Aglio, José Caetano; Basso, Lissia Ana; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  16. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Dell'Aglio, José Caetano; Basso, Lissia Ana; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied. PMID:25923299

  17. [Detection of leptospira by culture of vitreous humor and detection of antibodies against leptospira in vitreous humor and serum of 225 horses with equine recurrent uveitis].

    PubMed

    Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU. PMID:27344913

  18. [Detection of leptospira by culture of vitreous humor and detection of antibodies against leptospira in vitreous humor and serum of 225 horses with equine recurrent uveitis].

    PubMed

    Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU.

  19. Comorbidity of Asperger's syndrome and Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is a pervasive developmental disorder that is sometimes unrecognized, especially in the adult psychiatric setting. On the other hand, in patients with an AS diagnosis, comorbid psychiatric disorders may be unrecognized in the juvenile setting. The aim of the paper is to show and discuss some troublesome and complex problems of the management of patients with AS and comorbid Bipolar Disorder (BD). Methods The paper describes three patients affected by AS and bipolar spectrum disorders. Results and conclusion Mood stabilizers and 2nd generation antipsychotics were effective in the treatment of these AS patients with comorbid BD, while the use of antidepressants was associated with worsening of the mood disorder. It is of importance to recognize both the psychiatric diagnoses in order to arrange an exhaustive therapeutic program and to define specific and realistic goals of treatment. PMID:19014623

  20. Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.

  1. Customization in prescribing for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Horgan, Constance M; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Frank, Richard G; Lee, Sue

    2012-06-01

    For many disorders, patient heterogeneity requires physicians to customize their treatment to each patient's needs. We test for the existence of customization in physicians' prescribing for bipolar disorder, using data from a naturalistic clinical effectiveness trial of bipolar disorder treatment (STEP-BD), which did not constrain physician prescribing. Multinomial logit is used to model the physician's choice among five combinations of drug classes. We find that our observed measure of the patient's clinical status played only a limited role in the choice among drug class combinations, even for conditions such as mania that are expected to affect class choice. However, treatment of a patient with given characteristics differed widely depending on which physician was seen. The explanatory power of the model was low. There was variation within each physician's prescribing, but the results do not suggest a high degree of customization in physicians' prescribing, based on our measure of clinical status.

  2. Bipolar switching in chalcogenide phase change memory

    PubMed Central

    Ciocchini, N.; Laudato, M.; Boniardi, M.; Varesi, E.; Fantini, P.; Lacaita, A. L.; Ielmini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Phase change materials based on chalcogenides are key enabling technologies for optical storage, such as rewritable CD and DVD, and recently also electrical nonvolatile memory, named phase change memory (PCM). In a PCM, the amorphous or crystalline phase affects the material band structure, hence the device resistance. Although phase transformation is extremely fast and repeatable, the amorphous phase suffers structural relaxation and crystallization at relatively low temperatures, which may affect the temperature stability of PCM state. To improve the time/temperature stability of the PCM, novel operation modes of the device should be identified. Here, we present bipolar switching operation of PCM, which is interpreted by ion migration in the solid state induced by elevated temperature and electric field similar to the bipolar switching in metal oxides. The temperature stability of the high resistance state is demonstrated and explained based on the local depletion of chemical species from the electrode region. PMID:27377822

  3. Bipolar switching in chalcogenide phase change memory.

    PubMed

    Ciocchini, N; Laudato, M; Boniardi, M; Varesi, E; Fantini, P; Lacaita, A L; Ielmini, D

    2016-01-01

    Phase change materials based on chalcogenides are key enabling technologies for optical storage, such as rewritable CD and DVD, and recently also electrical nonvolatile memory, named phase change memory (PCM). In a PCM, the amorphous or crystalline phase affects the material band structure, hence the device resistance. Although phase transformation is extremely fast and repeatable, the amorphous phase suffers structural relaxation and crystallization at relatively low temperatures, which may affect the temperature stability of PCM state. To improve the time/temperature stability of the PCM, novel operation modes of the device should be identified. Here, we present bipolar switching operation of PCM, which is interpreted by ion migration in the solid state induced by elevated temperature and electric field similar to the bipolar switching in metal oxides. The temperature stability of the high resistance state is demonstrated and explained based on the local depletion of chemical species from the electrode region. PMID:27377822

  4. Bipolar switching in chalcogenide phase change memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocchini, N.; Laudato, M.; Boniardi, M.; Varesi, E.; Fantini, P.; Lacaita, A. L.; Ielmini, D.

    2016-07-01

    Phase change materials based on chalcogenides are key enabling technologies for optical storage, such as rewritable CD and DVD, and recently also electrical nonvolatile memory, named phase change memory (PCM). In a PCM, the amorphous or crystalline phase affects the material band structure, hence the device resistance. Although phase transformation is extremely fast and repeatable, the amorphous phase suffers structural relaxation and crystallization at relatively low temperatures, which may affect the temperature stability of PCM state. To improve the time/temperature stability of the PCM, novel operation modes of the device should be identified. Here, we present bipolar switching operation of PCM, which is interpreted by ion migration in the solid state induced by elevated temperature and electric field similar to the bipolar switching in metal oxides. The temperature stability of the high resistance state is demonstrated and explained based on the local depletion of chemical species from the electrode region.

  5. Diagnostic features, prevalence, and impact of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ketter, Terrence A

    2010-06-01

    Bipolar disorder shares depressive symptoms with unipolar major depressive disorder but is defined by episodes of mania or hypomania. Bipolar disorder in its broadest sense has a community lifetime prevalence of 4% and is a severely impairing illness that impacts several aspects of patients' lives. Race, ethnicity, and gender have no effect on prevalence rates, but women are more likely to experience rapid cycling, mixed states, depressive episodes, and bipolar II disorder than men. Patients with bipolar disorder have high rates of disability and higher rates of mortality than individuals without bipolar disorder. Natural causes such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as suicide and other "unnatural" causes are key contributors to the high mortality rate. The costs associated with bipolar disorder include not only the direct costs of treatment, but also the much greater indirect costs of decreased productivity, excess unemployment, and excess mortality. PMID:20573324

  6. The developmental stages of Bipolar Disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Fatima Imam; Verdolini, Norma; Agius, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a developing disorder; its early stages are sometimes misdiagnosed as anxiety or depressive disorders. At the same time, these disorders are often in comorbidity with bipolar disorder. This complex symptomatology can lead to misinterpretation and underdiagnosis of bipolar disorders, mainly at the earliest stages. Consequently, one of the most important challenges for clinicians is to recognize the non specific early symptoms with the aid of clinical information, for example a family history of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, it is well-known that comorbid anxiety disorders can lead to a worse prognosis in bipolar patients but it is not exactly clear to what extent. A deeper understanding of the relationship between these comorbidities and their stage of development will hopefully lead to better care of patients with bipolar disorder from a younger age. PMID:26417761

  7. [Bipolar disorder and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania].

    PubMed

    Solimano, Alberto; Manfredi, Clelia

    2006-01-01

    The categorical diagnostic model of bipolar disorders (DSM IV) has brought about increasing questioning, since its use gains troubles related not only to clinical experience, but to epidemiological studies as well. Regarding this, other models have emerged, such as the bipolar spectrum by Akiskal that covers the classic bipolar disorder on one side to unipolar disorder on the other, including soft bipolar disorders as well. The authors start from this notion of bipolar spectrum to set out the relationship between bipolar disease and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania. They develop Freud's basic theories and those of the British School that constitute a strong and coherent theoretical structure. Psychoanalysis proposes a unitary psychopathological model that manifests itself as depression or maniac reaction as secondary defense, to account for both the clinical expression and the psychodynamic comprehension of mood disorders.

  8. Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent mental illness characterized by extreme episodes of depressed and manic mood, interspersed with less severe but highly variable mood fluctuations. Here, we develop a novel mathematical approach for exploring the dynamics of bipolar disorder. We investigate how the dynamics of subjective experience of mood in bipolar disorder can be understood using a relaxation oscillator (RO) framework and test the model against mood time-series fluctuations from a set of individuals with bipolar disorder. We show that variable mood fluctuations in individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder can be driven by the coupled effects of deterministic dynamics (captured by ROs) and noise. Using a statistical likelihood-based approach, we show that, in general, mood dynamics are described by two independent ROs with differing levels of endogenous variability among individuals. We suggest that this sort of nonlinear approach to bipolar disorder has neurobiological, cognitive and clinical implications for understanding this mental illness through a mechacognitive framework. PMID:26577592

  9. Selecting appropriate treatments for maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Thase, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Long-term management of bipolar disorder is a crucial component of treatment because the recurrence of the illness negatively affects patients' daily lives and increases their risks for poor health and suicide. An ideal maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder is relatively simple to take, prevents recurrence of both manic and depressive episodes, and is well-tolerated over the long term. Although many different types of medications are used for maintenance therapy of bipolar disorder, none can be considered ideal for a majority of people with bipolar disorder, and each specific form of therapy has different strengths and limitations. Clinicians need to be aware of unique efficacy and side effect factors when choosing long-term therapy and consider treatment components, goals, and individual patient characteristics, which are essential to the successful long-term management of bipolar disorder. Additionally, several forms of psychotherapy specifically tailored to the needs of people with bipolar disorder should be considered as an adjunct to medication.

  10. A Review of MR Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, D.G.; Hellem, T.L.; Shi, X.-F.; Sung, Y.H.; Prescot, A.P.; Kim, T.S.; Huber, R.S.; Forrest, L.N.; Renshaw, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness whose pathophysiology is poorly understood and for which there is an urgent need for improved diagnosis and treatment. MR spectroscopy is a neuroimaging method capable of in vivo measurement of neurochemicals relevant to bipolar disorder neurobiology. MR spectroscopy studies of adult bipolar disorder provide consistent evidence for alterations in the glutamate system and mitochondrial function. In bipolar disorder, these 2 phenomena may be linked because 85% of glucose in the brain is consumed by glutamatergic neurotransmission and the conversion of glutamate to glutamine. The purpose of this article is to review the MR spectroscopic imaging literature in pediatric bipolar disorder, at-risk samples, and severe mood dysregulation, with a focus on the published findings that are relevant to glutamatergic and mitochondrial functioning. Potential directions for future MR spectroscopy studies of the glutamate system and mitochondrial dysfunction in pediatric bipolar disorder are discussed. PMID:24557702

  11. The Clinical Impact of Humoral Immunity in Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J.; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V. Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K.; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I.

    2013-01-01

    The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study. PMID:23449533

  12. The clinical impact of humoral immunity in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-03-01

    The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study.

  13. The area asymmetry in bipolar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T. T.

    2012-03-01

    Context. The area asymmetry between the preceding and following regions of opposite magnetic polarity in a bipolar sunspot group has been known since the studies of Hale and his colleagues in the early 20th century. This area asymmetry, however, has not yet been investigated quantitatively using magnetograms. Aims: We quantitatively define the area asymmetry of bipolar magnetic fields in the photosphere of active regions on the Sun, and investigate correlations between the area asymmetry and other parameters. Methods: We selected 138 bipolar regions including eleven recurrent regions from magnetograms observed by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) from 23 April 1996 to 2 September 2001. These regions are on the southern hemisphere and around the solar meridian. The area asymmetry (A), tilt angle (θ), and magnetic orientation (M) are investigated separately in the preceding and following polarities of the respective active regions. Results: It is found that in 37% (51/138) of our events the preceding polarity regions have larger areas than the following polarity regions. The ratio of the area of the preceding and following polarity regions become close to be unity in four recurrent active regions. In the other four regions, the area ratios do not change, and in three regions, the area ratios become far from unity. Conclusions: Our results quantitatively confirmed our impression that areas of the preceding polarities are lower than those of the following polarities in many bipolar magnetic regions. Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A13

  14. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Hall, A. M.; Russell, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the bipolar Ni-H2 battery with other energy systems to be used in future high-power space systems is presented. The initial design for the battery under the NASA-sponsored program is described and the candidate stack components are evaluated, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte reservoir plate, and recombination sites. The compressibility of the cell elements, electrolyte activation, and thermal design are discussed. Manufacturing and prototype test results are summarized.

  15. Immunological study of the aqueous humor in ocular herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Denis, J

    1976-01-01

    (1) Isolation of herpetic virus and immunological studies of the serum and aqueous humor are two complementary methods of investigation in the diagnosis of ocular herpes simplex infection, their relative value depending on the clinical situation. (2) Of the different immunological techniques that of antibody titration by the hemagglutination method is an easy, sensitive test, but only if the Goldmann-Witner ratio is calculated. By this technique, the diagnosis of herpetic infection can be made in unusual clinical presentations or old cases in which all specificity had disappeared.

  16. Joy, happiness, and humor in dementia care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Person, Marianne; Hanssen, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    People with advanced dementia can still enjoy life. Even if their language is impaired and they live in the moment, it should still be possible for them to live a life of pleasure and joy. A pilot study was conducted to learn more about these individuals' experiences, but because of the decline in their access to language, it was necessary to have others speak on their behalf. Analysis of findings was based on a hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur (1981). Central findings were that all the interviewees emphasized humor and interacting with other people as a source of happiness.

  17. Bipolar Pathophysiology and Development of Improved Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide strategies and their rationale which can facilitate scientifically productive investigations into genetic, neuronal, brain functional and clinical aspects of bipolar disorder. The presentation addresses both factors that have impeded and those that have facilitated landmark advances on the pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorders. Application of the strategies can provide a scientific platform that may be useful to basic and clinical scientists for the purposes of achieving seminal advances in understanding pathophysiology, including inherited and experience based contributors to disease expression. Current diagnostic criteria omit certain key symptoms, do not include illness course or family history and lack specification of the importance of fundamental symptomatology. Consideration of such factors in inclusion and exclusion criteria, and in assessment instruments in basic and clinical studies, serves to strengthen the capability of a research plan to test key hypotheses regarding moderating and mediating factors of this complex illness. For example, most studies of brain structure and function and of new interventions have selected subjects on the basis of traditional full syndromal criteria. Evidence indicates that additional consideration of principal behavioral domains of bipolar symptomatology, e.g., anxiety, psychosis, impulsivity, elevated psychomotor and cognitive processing speed, rather than strictly depressive or manic syndromes can provide more homogeneous samples for study, and increase the focus of experimental hypotheses. PMID:18582440

  18. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Brittany L.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored. PMID:27429010

  19. Numerical Modeling of η Carinae Bipolar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Raga, A. C.; Velázquez, P. F.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we present two-dimensional gasdynamic simulations of the formation and evolution of the η Car bipolar outflows. Adopting the interacting nonspherical winds model, we have carried out high-resolution numerical simulations, which include explicitly computed time-dependent radiative cooling, for different possible scenarios of the colliding winds. In our simulations, we consider different degrees of nonspherical symmetry for the preoutburst wind and the great eruption of the 1840s produced by the η Car wind. Different models show important differences in the shape and kinematical properties of the Homunculus structure. In particular, we search for the appropriate combination of wind parameters (which control the degree of nonspherical symmetry) to obtain the numerical results that best match both the observed morphology and the expansion velocity of the η Car bipolar shell. In addition, our numerical simulations show the formation of a bipolar nebula embedded within the Homunculus (the little Homunculus) that developed from a secondary eruptive event suffered by the star in the 1890s, and also the development of tenuous, high-velocity ejections in the equatorial region that resulted from the impact of the eruptive wind of the 1840s with the preoutburst wind; these ejections could explain some of the high-speed features observed in the equatorial ejecta. The models were, however, unable to produce the equatorial ejections associated with the second eruptive event.

  20. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria.

    PubMed

    Mason, Brittany L; Brown, E Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described "manic depressive insanity" and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  1. A Well-Defined Bipolar Outflow Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Patel, Nimesh

    1992-12-01

    A well-defined "eggplant-shaped" thin shell is revealed in the Mon R2 central core region by CO and (13) CO J=1-0 maps obtained with QUARRY. This thin shell outlines the extended blue lobe of the massive bipolar outflow. The projected length and width of the shell are about 5.7 pc and 2.5 pc respectively, and the averaged projected thickness of the shell is ~ 0.3 pc. The shape of this shell can be satisfactorily accounted for quantitatively in terms of limb-brightening within the framework of the Shu et al shell model with radially directed wind, although the model seems to be oversimplified with respect to the complexity that our data reveal. The outflow shell's symmetry axis is estimated to be inclined by ~ 70(deg) with respect to the line of sight. We suggest that the coincident blue- and red-shifted emission and the bending of the red-shifted lobe are the result of the red-shifted shell being compressed, rather than having a second bipolar outflow aligned roughly perpendicular to the axis of the first bipolar outflow.

  2. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria.

    PubMed

    Mason, Brittany L; Brown, E Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described "manic depressive insanity" and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored. PMID:27429010

  3. Topological Changes in Bipolar Nematic Droplets under Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Nieves, A.; Link, D. R.; Márquez, M.; Weitz, D. A.

    2007-02-01

    Bipolar liquid crystal drops moving inside microchannels exhibit periodic director field transformations due to induced circulating flows inside them. These modifications are characterized by changes in the type of point surface disclinations; they periodically change from splay to bend disclinations, implying the drop changes between bipolar and escaped concentric configurations. Upon stopping the flow, this structure does not relax to the lower energy bipolar configuration; we argue this is due to drop flattening inside the channels.

  4. Bipolar disorder--underdiagnosis and HoNOS-PbR.

    PubMed

    Bongards, Eva Nora; Agius, Mark; Zaman, Rashid

    2013-09-01

    The effect of reassessing patients with depression and resistant depression in a CMHT caseload using the DSM IV criteria for bipolar I and bipolar II conditions inevitably leads to the diagnosis of more patients with bipolar disorder. This has an effect on the number of patients within the population of the CMHT who fall within the psychotic clusters of HONOS-PBR. This should effect the resources which will be allocated to deal with the patients in the team.

  5. Birth of cone bipolar cells, but not rod bipolar cells, is associated with existing RGCs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ling; Kiyama, Takae; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) play important roles in retinogenesis. They are required for normal retinal histogenesis and retinal cell number balance. Developmental RGC loss is typically characterized by initial retinal neuronal number imbalance and subsequent loss of retinal neurons. However, it is not clear whether loss of a specific non-RGC cell type in the RGC-depleted retina is due to reduced cell production or subsequent degeneration. Taking advantage of three knockout mice with varying degrees of RGC depletion, we re-examined bipolar cell production in these retinas from various aspects. Results show that generation of the cone bipolar cells is correlated with the existing number of RGCs. However, generation of the rod bipolar cells is unaffected by RGC shortage. Results report the first observation that RGCs selectively influence the genesis of subsequent retinal cell types.

  6. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 2015 of literature published during the last 10 years on the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A wide-ranging evaluation of the existing work was done with search terms such as "mood disorders and biology," "bipolar disorder and HPA axis," "bipolar disorder and cytokines," "mood disorders and circadian rhythm," "bipolar disorder and oxidative stress," etc. This endeavor showed that bipolar disorder is a diverse condition sharing neurobiological mechanisms with major depressive disorder and psychotic spectrum disorders. There is convincing evidence of crosstalk between different biological systems that act in a deleterious manner causing expression of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Inflammatory mediators act in concert with oxidative stress to dysregulate hormonal, metabolic, and circadian homeostasis in precipitating and perpetuating the illness. Stress, whether biologically or psychologically mediated, is responsible for the initiation and progression of the diathesis. Bipolar spectrum disorders have a strong genetic component; severe life stresses acting through various paths cause the illness phenotype. PMID:26865997

  7. Review of Evidence for Use of Antidepressants in Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Shane J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Depressive episodes predominate over the course of bipolar disorder and cause considerable functional impairment. Antidepressants are frequently prescribed in the treatment of bipolar depression, despite concerns about efficacy and risk of switching to mania. This review provides a critical examination of the evidence for and against the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression. Data Sources: English-language peer-reviewed literature and evidence-based guidelines published between January 1, 1980, and March 2014, were identified using PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO/PsycLIT, and EMBASE. All searches contained the terms antidepressants, bipolar depression, depressive episodes in bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines for bipolar depression. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines were included. Bibliographies from these publications were used to identify additional articles of interest. Data Extraction: Studies involving treatment of bipolar depression with antidepressant monotherapy, adjunctive use of antidepressant with a mood stabilizer, and meta-analysis of such studies combined were reviewed. Conclusions: The body of evidence on the use of antidepressant monotherapy to treat patients with bipolar depression is contentious, but the recommendations from evidence-based guidelines do not support antidepressant monotherapy for bipolar depression. Only when mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic monotherapy has failed should adjunctive treatment with an antidepressant be considered. PMID:25667812

  8. Modeling of single-event upset in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of work done on the quantitative characterization of single-event upset (SEU) in bipolar random-access memories (RAMs) have been obtained through computer simulation of SEU in RAM cells that contain circuit models for bipolar transistors. The models include current generators that emulate the charge collected from ion tracks. The computer simulation results are compared with test data obtained from a RAM in a bipolar microprocessor chip. This methodology is applicable to other bipolar integrated circuit constructions in addition to RAM cells.

  9. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 2015 of literature published during the last 10 years on the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A wide-ranging evaluation of the existing work was done with search terms such as "mood disorders and biology," "bipolar disorder and HPA axis," "bipolar disorder and cytokines," "mood disorders and circadian rhythm," "bipolar disorder and oxidative stress," etc. This endeavor showed that bipolar disorder is a diverse condition sharing neurobiological mechanisms with major depressive disorder and psychotic spectrum disorders. There is convincing evidence of crosstalk between different biological systems that act in a deleterious manner causing expression of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Inflammatory mediators act in concert with oxidative stress to dysregulate hormonal, metabolic, and circadian homeostasis in precipitating and perpetuating the illness. Stress, whether biologically or psychologically mediated, is responsible for the initiation and progression of the diathesis. Bipolar spectrum disorders have a strong genetic component; severe life stresses acting through various paths cause the illness phenotype.

  10. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 2015 of literature published during the last 10 years on the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A wide-ranging evaluation of the existing work was done with search terms such as "mood disorders and biology," "bipolar disorder and HPA axis," "bipolar disorder and cytokines," "mood disorders and circadian rhythm," "bipolar disorder and oxidative stress," etc. This endeavor showed that bipolar disorder is a diverse condition sharing neurobiological mechanisms with major depressive disorder and psychotic spectrum disorders. There is convincing evidence of crosstalk between different biological systems that act in a deleterious manner causing expression of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Inflammatory mediators act in concert with oxidative stress to dysregulate hormonal, metabolic, and circadian homeostasis in precipitating and perpetuating the illness. Stress, whether biologically or psychologically mediated, is responsible for the initiation and progression of the diathesis. Bipolar spectrum disorders have a strong genetic component; severe life stresses acting through various paths cause the illness phenotype. PMID:26865997

  11. Correspondence: Spatial variations of viscoelastic properties of porcine vitreous humors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sangpil; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2013-11-01

    Using a microbubble-based acoustic radiation force approach, spatial variations of Young's modulus and shear viscosity of the porcine vitreous humors in two groups--young pigs (6 months old) and mature pigs (2 to 3 years old)--were measured in situ. The measurements in these groups (4 specimens in each group) were performed in several positions along an anterior-to-posterior direction. At each position, microbubbles were generated by focusing a nanosecond pulsed laser beam and the displacement of each microbubble in response to an impulsive acoustic radiation force was measured every 10 µs using a custom-made high-pulse-repetition-frequency ultrasound system. Based on measured dynamics of the microbubble, Young's modulus and shear viscosity at various locations of the vitreous were reconstructed. Young's moduli of the young and mature porcine vitreous at anterior region were the highest, whereas the central region had the lowest values, indicating the clear spatial variations in the vitreous humor elasticity in both groups.

  12. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Junyent, Ana; Maldonado-Bas, Arturo; Gonzalez, Andrea; Pueyrredón, Francisco; Maldonado-Junyent, María; Maldonado-Junyent, Arturo; Rodriguez, Diego; Bulacio, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  13. Hot and cold in transformation: is Iban medicine humoral?

    PubMed

    Barrett, R J; Lucas, R H

    1994-01-01

    Iban categories of hot and cold are examined in the context of humoral medical systems in southeast Asia. These categories are more than binary and oppositional: they are also contradictory and can only be understood in terms of their capacity for transformation in 'depth'. Analysis of the Iban epistemology of temperature sensation reveals the limitations of reductionist empirical approaches to hot and cold. Illness is apprehended, at one level, in terms of unusual conjunctions of opposite temperatures which signify a deeper disturbance in the relationship between body and soul, humans and spirits. Iban therapy redefines and relocates these categories in their proper place and at their appropriate level. It progresses from hot lay treatments to cool ritual treatments, yet cannot be accounted for within a limited framework of homeostatic balance. This paper develops an ethnographically grounded definition of humoralism which emphasizes non-reductive logic, cultural practice and transformation. The key element, transformation, is defined as a transition between categories and a shift in the level of interpretation which fundamentally alter the Iban experience of body and illness. PMID:8140465

  14. Hot and cold in transformation: is Iban medicine humoral?

    PubMed

    Barrett, R J; Lucas, R H

    1994-01-01

    Iban categories of hot and cold are examined in the context of humoral medical systems in southeast Asia. These categories are more than binary and oppositional: they are also contradictory and can only be understood in terms of their capacity for transformation in 'depth'. Analysis of the Iban epistemology of temperature sensation reveals the limitations of reductionist empirical approaches to hot and cold. Illness is apprehended, at one level, in terms of unusual conjunctions of opposite temperatures which signify a deeper disturbance in the relationship between body and soul, humans and spirits. Iban therapy redefines and relocates these categories in their proper place and at their appropriate level. It progresses from hot lay treatments to cool ritual treatments, yet cannot be accounted for within a limited framework of homeostatic balance. This paper develops an ethnographically grounded definition of humoralism which emphasizes non-reductive logic, cultural practice and transformation. The key element, transformation, is defined as a transition between categories and a shift in the level of interpretation which fundamentally alter the Iban experience of body and illness.

  15. Influenza vaccination and humoral alloimmunity in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Pieter; Aubert, Vincent; Sugamele, Rocco; Aubert, John-David; Venetz, Jean-Pierre; Meylan, Pascal; Pascual, Manuel; Manuel, Oriol

    2014-09-01

    Annual influenza vaccination is recommended in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, concerns have been raised about the impact of vaccination on antigraft alloimmunity. We evaluated the humoral alloimmune responses to influenza vaccination in a cohort of SOT recipients between October 2008 and December 2011. Anti-HLA antibodies were measured before and 4-8 weeks after influenza vaccination using a solid-phase assay. Overall, 169 SOT recipients were included (kidney = 136, lung = 26, liver = 3, and combined = 4). Five (2.9%) of 169 patients developed de novo anti-HLA antibodies after vaccination, including one patient who developed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) 8 months after vaccination. In patients with pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies, median MFI was not significantly different before and after vaccination (P = 0.73 for class I and P = 0.20 for class II anti-HLA antibodies) and no development of de novo DSA was observed. Five episodes of rejection (2.9%) were observed within 12 months after vaccination, and only one patient had de novo anti-HLA antibodies. The incidence of development of anti-HLA antibodies after influenza vaccination in our cohort of SOT recipients was very low. Our findings indicate that influenza vaccination is safe and does not trigger humoral alloimmune responses in SOT recipients.

  16. Serum immunoglobulin levels and humoral immune competence in coalworkers

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.D.; Boyd, J.E.; Collins, H.P.; Davis, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were measured in 788 coalworkers and 121 nonmining controls for comparison with the radiological category of pneumoconiosis after taking into account age and smoking habit. In addition a simple assessment of humoral immune competence was made by estimating the titre of serum antibody against the common gut commensal Escherichia coli. Smoking was found to depress serum IgA and IgM while levels of IgG and IgA increased slightly with age. Men with radiological signs of coalworkers pneumoconiosis (CWP) had significantly raised levels of IgA and IgG with increasing pneumoconiosis category. Even coalworkers with less than category 1 simple pneumoconiosis had raised levels of IgA, suggesting that increased production of this immunoglobulin occurs before radiologically identifiable pathological changes have occurred in the lung tissue. No association between reduced humoral immune competence and radiological category of pneumoconiosis was found. Whether high Ig levels in men exposed to coal dust are merely a passive response to dusted lung tissue or whether they indicate that an immunological process is important in the development of pneumoconiotic lesions remains uncertain.

  17. Cellular and humoral immunity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Dhib-Jalbut, S S; Abdelnoor, A M; Haddad, F S

    1981-01-01

    Cellular and humoral immunity was studied in 26 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Results were compared with those of 14 normal controls and 11 patients suffering from other neurological disorders. It was shown that cellular and humoral immune responses are adequate in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The persistently elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA indicated a persistent infection, and their progressive rise in later stages correlated with the progressive nature of the illness. IgG progressively increased with the clinical stage in the cerebrospinal fluid unaccompanied by a corresponding rise in the measles antibody titer. This suggests that antigenic determinants other than those tested play a role in the production of IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid. The progressive increase in the ratio of cerebrospinal fluid to serum IgG with the advance of the disease suggests synthesis of IgG locally in the central nervous system. Elevated measles antibody titer in serum and cerebrospinal fluid is a consistent aid in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. It is more specific in cerebrospinal fluid than in serum. Its level did not vary significantly with the clinical stages or duration of illness. Depressed serum complement activity has been detected in some subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients in whom serum levels of the third and fourth components of the complement were normal. PMID:6973545

  18. Neural Correlates of Deficits in Humor Appreciation in Gelotophobics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Gelotophobics have social deficits in the form of relative humorlessness and heightened sensitivity to aggressive humor; however, little is known about the neural reward mechanisms for this group. The present study attempted to identify the neural substrates of responses to hostile and non-hostile jokes in gelotophobics and non-gelotophobics. Gelotophobics showed greater activation than did non-gelotophobics in the dorsal corticostriatal system, which comprises the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, suggesting a higher degree of voluntary top-down cognitive control of emotion. As expected, gelotophobics showed less activation in the ventral mesocorticolimbic system (MCL) in response to both hostile and non-hostile jokes, suggesting a relative deficit in the reward system. Conversely, non-gelotophobics displayed greater activation than gelotophobics did in the MCL system, particularly for non-hostile jokes, which suggests a more robust bottom-up emotional response. In response to non-hostile jokes, non-gelotophobics showed greater activation in the ventral MCL reward system, which comprises the midbrain, amygdalae, nucleus accumbens, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and insula. Psychophysiological interaction analyses further showed that gelotophobics exhibited diminished MCL activation in response to hostile jokes. These group differences may have important implications for our understanding of the neural correlates of social motivation and humor appreciation. PMID:27694969

  19. Effect of centchroman on cellular and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Licto; Asad, Mohammad; Hrishikeshavan, Heremaglur Jagannath; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2007-01-01

    Centchroman (Ormeloxifene) is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used as once a week oral contraceptive agent. The effect of centchroman on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. The first three models namely carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and neutrophil adhesion test were used to study cell mediated immunity while the latter three models were used to see the effect on humoral immunity. Centchroman was administered orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg and levamisole (2.5 mg/kg/ p.o) was used as standard drug. Centchroman significantly increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and also prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased significantly the circulating antibody litre in indirect haemagglunation test. However, it did not show any significant effect on phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay and nor did influence the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Centchroman was also not effective in preventing the cyclophosphamde induced neutropenia. Hence, it was concluded that centchroman increases humoral immunity with no significant effect on cell mediated immunity. PMID:18476393

  20. Searching for biomarkers: humoral response profiling with luciferase immunoprecipitation systems.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Bren, Kathleen E; Iadarola, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    B-cell-mediated humoral responses are triggered in many human diseases, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and neurologic and infectious diseases. However, the full exploitation of the information contained within a patient's antibody repertoire for diagnosis, monitoring and even disease prediction has been limited due to the poor diagnostic performance of many immunoassay formats. We have developed luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) that harnesses light-emitting proteins to generate high-definition antibody profiles that are optimal for both diagnostics and biomarker discovery. Here, we describe the results and implications from a range of LIPS-antibody profiling studies performed in our laboratory. These include highly sensitive diagnostics for domestic and global pathogens, insights into infection-related diseases, discovery of new biomarkers for human diseases, subcategorization of symptoms and identification of pathogenic autoantibodies against self-proteins. These investigations highlight the types of humoral response profiles associated with different diseases, provide new information related to disease pathogenesis and offer a framework for incorporating LIPS antibody profiling into global health initiatives and disease monitoring. PMID:21679112

  1. Humoral immune responses in CD40 ligand-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Individuals with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome fail to express functional CD40 ligand (CD40L) and, as a consequence, are incapable of mounting protective antibody responses to opportunistic bacterial infections. To address the role of CD40L in humoral immunity, we created, through homologous recombination, mice deficient in CD40L expression. These mice exhibited no gross developmental deficiencies or health abnormalities and contained normal percentages of B and T cell subpopulations. CD40L-deficient mice did display selective deficiencies in humoral immunity; basal serum isotype levels were significantly lower than observed in normal mice, and IgE was undetectable. Furthermore, the CD40L-deficient mice failed to mount secondary antigen- specific responses to immunization with a thymus-dependent antigen, trinitrophenol-conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH). By contrast, the CD40L-deficient mice produced antigen-specific antibody of all isotypes except IgE in response to the thymus-independent antigen, DNP-Ficoll. These results underscore the requirement of CD40L for T cell-dependent antibody responses. Moreover, Ig class switching to isotypes other than IgE can occur in vivo in the absence of CD40L, supporting the notion that alternative B cell signaling pathways regulate responses to thymus-independent antigens. PMID:7964465

  2. A Review of Humor in Educational Settings: Four Decades of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, John A.; Dunbar, Norah; Rodriguez, Dariela; Liu, Shr-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to provide a summary of extant research regarding humor in the classroom, with an emphasis on identifying and explaining inconsistencies in research findings and offering new directions for future studies in this area. First, the definitions, functions, and main theories of humor are reviewed. Next, the paper…

  3. Moderating Influence of Gender on the Relationship between Humor and Peer Acceptance in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.

    The hypothesis was tested that humor facilitates social attraction. Students in three fourth-grade classrooms responded to two different peer rating surveys, one measuring interpersonal perceptions of humorousness and the other measuring classroom social distance. Differences between same- and cross-gender ratings were examined. Statistical…

  4. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  5. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed measures of abstract…

  6. Computer-Mediated Humor and Ethos: Exploring Threads of Constitutive Laughter in Online Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubler, Mike T.; Bell, Diana Calhoun

    2003-01-01

    Argues that humor serves a critical ethos function in online communities created by mailing lists. Connects what humor theorists already recognize as a social dimension in joking to the contemporary interpretation of ethos as a constitutive force. Applies the model to the rhetoric of a university writing center mailing list. (SG)

  7. The Use of Humor in a CBI Science Lesson To Enhance Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snetsinger, Wendy; Grabowski, Barbara

    This research experiment studied the effect of humor versus non-humor on learning and retention of a computer-based instructional (CBI) lesson on tick identification. The experiment also surveyed the subjects' enjoyment of the lesson material, their personal experiences with ticks, and their concerns about ticks and tick-borne diseases.…

  8. A Cheerful Heart is Good Medicine: The Emotional and Physical Benefits of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Brian Richard

    This paper presents a research review conducted to determine whether there is empirical support for the idea that people can benefit both emotionally and physically from humor. Special attention is given to stress and coping since these concepts have been of particular interest to humor researchers. The document begins with a discussion of the…

  9. Buoyancy of human and intraocular lenses in air and in aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Renard, M; Delmelle, M; Galand, A

    1985-01-01

    The weights of seven human lenses in air and in aqueous humor were determined and compared to those of ten intraocular lens implants (IOLs). All IOLs tested were found to be significantly lighter than the human lenses in both air and in the aqueous humor.

  10. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  11. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  12. The Role of Humor in Learning Physics: a Study of Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, Maria

    2016-02-01

    We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh about when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students' laughter during collaborative work in physics has been investigated. In order to do this, a framework inspired by conversation analysis has been used. Empirical data was drawn from two video-recorded sessions in which first-year engineering students solved physics problems together. The analysis revealed that the students' use of humor was almost exclusively related to physics. Five themes identified summarize the role of humor in the group discussions: Something is obvious, Something is difficult, Something said might be wrong, Something is absurd, and Something said is not within informal norms. This study shows that humor may contribute not only to a good working atmosphere and thereby to the students' learning but also how humor interrelates with both disciplinary culture of physics and its epistemology. The students do not only create and re-create humor that facilitates their social interactions, but through humor they constitute local norms of science and engage with the disciplinary discourse.

  13. "Last Professor Standing!": Powerpoint Enables All Faculty to Use Humor in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    There are two major global educational trends that have changed the form and execution of humor in the classroom and in professional conferences: (1) the burgeoning instructional technology, especially PowerPoint, which can provide a vehicle for several forms of low risk humor anyone can present; and (2) the diversity of classroom demographics,…

  14. Humor in High School and the Role of Teacher Leaders in School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosiczky, Bonnie; Mullen, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    How can public schools improve public relations strategies, particularly in communications between teachers and students? The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom and discover how humor might bridge instruction to student learning and strengthen…

  15. Infant Humor: The Theory of the Absurd and the Empowerment Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Eleni

    2005-01-01

    This study looked at how six infants in a group child care setting produced and appreciated humor. With the use of multiple qualitative methods, participant and non-participant observations, journal writing, videotaping, interviewing, and document review this study looked at children's humor as indicated through their smiles and laughter. Findings…

  16. Humor and laughter in persons with cognitive impairment and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Liptak, Amy; Tate, Judith; Flatt, Jason; Oakley, Mary Ann; Lingler, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe humor and laughter in persons with cognitive impairment (PWCI) and caregivers who were recalling a shared experience in a focus group. Design Twenty participants attended an Art Engagement Activity at the Andy Warhol Art Museum, which included a guided tour and an art project. All PWCI had medically diagnosed cognitive disorders and all caregiver participants did not. Four focus groups were conducted and transcripts of audio-recorded sessions were transferred to a qualitative software program. Methods Words, phrases and episodes of humor and laughter were used to construct codes, which were refined during group analysis using constant comparison. Findings Humor and laughter were present in all four focus groups. Emerging themes of humor included silliness, sarcasm and commenting about hardships of dementia. Laughter was identified in segments with and without humor. Some PWCI were unable to follow social cues. Conclusions Humor and laughter played a role in creating a safe social environment. PWCI were able to engage in humor during social interactions, yet some had difficulty recognizing social cues. Further study may reveal roles of humor and laughter in adaptation to cognitive decline and holistic interventions for improved quality of life. PMID:23926217

  17. Humor and Comparatives in Ads for High- and Low-Involvement Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bob T. W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of humor in advertising, comparative advertising, and consumer involvement with the product. Finds that humorous ads are more eye catching but less impressive and less sufficient in information than nonhumorous ads. Finds the performance of comparative ads is generally negative and especially so in the high…

  18. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  19. All Kidding Aside: Humor Increases Learning at Knowledge and Comprehension Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Garczynski, Amy M.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn; Tennial, Rachel D.; Solomon, Erin D.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that humor is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between instructor and student, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study sought to add to the literature by empirically testing some assumptions about humor as a pedagogical tool. Specifically, we predicted that…

  20. The Potency of Humor and Instructional Self-Efficacy on Art Teacher Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Palmer, Teri

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was sparked by a keen interest in art teachers who practice humor in challenging school environments. Stressors unique to art education can cause teachers to lose heart in such a way that their ability to perform is compromised. To teach effectively, teachers must maintain resilience to cope with stress. Pedagogical humor,…

  1. Teacher Leaders' Perceptions of the Use of Humor in the High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosiczky, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom. For the purposes of this qualitative research the case study method was used. The question of what makes teachers successful with their use of humor in the classroom has been divided into four categories: climate,…

  2. What Role Does Humor in the Higher Education Classroom Play in Student-Perceived Instructor Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halula, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has had college instructors who they thought were excellent and those who were not. In pondering what attributes might have made the difference between these groups, the idea of "humor" came to mind, setting the researcher on course to study the research question "What role does humor in the higher education classroom play…

  3. Humor Styles and Their Relationship to Well-Being among the Gifted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick; Ronner, Sieuwke; Nauta, Arnolda

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which a sample of 202 gifted individuals (members of Mensa) engaged in four humor styles and the extent to which these humor styles were related to their well-being. These results were compared to a comparative population sample (n = 265). Results showed that gifted individuals most often used positive…

  4. Laughter: The Navajo Way. Humorous Stories of the People (in Navajo and English) Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alan; Dennison, Gene

    This book has been prepared for the use of teachers, ethnologists, linguists, Indian studies scholars, language students and those who have an interest in the languages and cultures of the earlier inhabitants of this continent. The stories reflect the Navajo love for and genius with words and humor. Most of the humor represented is of three basic…

  5. Entextualized Humor in the Formation of Scientist Identities among U.S. Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Mary; Skapoulli, Elena; Barnwell, Brendan; Lee, Jung-Eun Janie

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the socialization of novices into scientific cultures typically emphasize official knowledge-making activities. However, scientific socialization is also accomplished informally through humor. As entextualized humor, formulaic jokes enable U.S. undergraduate students in science to claim scientist identities both through a displayed…

  6. Humor As a Management Technique: Its Impact on School Culture and Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ronny A.; Clouse, R. Wilburn

    Ways in which humor is used as an administrative technique are explored in this paper, with a focus on its impact on school culture. Case study methodology is based on interviews with two principals and five staff members at a Tennessee high school. Following a review of transcript excerpts, the principal's use of humor is viewed through four…

  7. A Review of Humor for Computer Games: Play, Laugh and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormann, Claire; Biddle, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Computer games are now becoming ways to communicate, teach, and influence attitudes and behavior. In this article, we address the role of humor in computer games, especially in support of serious purposes. We begin with a review of the main theories of humor, including superiority, incongruity, and relief. These theories and their…

  8. Antigenic Targets of the Bovine Humoral Response to PDD-associated Spirochetes Change with Subsequent Exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD), also known as hairy heel wart, is a major cause of lameness of cows in the U.S. dairy industry. Cattle are known to mount a humoral response to spirochetes isolated from PDD lesions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the progression of the bovine humoral i...

  9. [Confusing clinical presentations and differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Gorwood, P

    2004-01-01

    An early recognition of bipolar disorders may have an important impact on the prognosis of this disorder according to different mechanisms. Bipolar disorder is nevertheless not easy to detect, the diagnosis being correctly proposed after, in average more than a couple of Years and three different doctors assessments. A short delay before introducing the relevant treatment should help avoiding inappropriate treatments (prescribing, for example, neuroleptics for long periods, antidepressive drugs each time depressive symptoms occurs, absence of treatment despite mood disorders), with their associated negative impact such as mood-switching, rapid cycling or presence of chronic side-effects stigmates. Furthermore, non-treated mood disorders in bipolar disorder are longer, more stigmatizing and may be associated with an increased risk of suicidal behaviour and mortality. Lastly, compliance, an important factor regarding the long term prognosis of bipolar disorder, should be improved when there is a short delay between correct diagnosis and treatment and onset of the disorder. We therefore propose to review the literature for the different pitfalls involved in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Non-bipolar mood-disorders are frequently quoted as one of the alternative diagnosis. Hyperthymic temperament, side-effects of prescribed treatments and organic comorbid disorders may be involved. Bipolar disorders have a sex-ratio closer to 1 (men are thus more frequently of the bipolar type in mood-disorders), with earlier age at onset, and more frequent family history of suicidal attempts and bipolar disorder. Schizo-affective disorders are also a major concern regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. This is explained by flat affects sometimes close to anhedonia, presence of a schizoïd personality in bipolar disorder, persecutive hostility that can be considered to be related to irritability rather than a schizophrenic symptom. Rapid cycling, mixed episodes and short

  10. Differential function of Gγ13 in rod bipolar and ON cone bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Hariharasubramanian; Dhingra, Anuradha; Tummala, Shanti R; Fina, Marie E; Li, Jian J; Lyubarsky, Arkady; Vardi, Noga

    2015-01-01

    Key points The G-protein-mediated metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) signalling cascade is critical for light responses in all retinal ON bipolar cells. The present study evaluates the role of G-protein subunit Gγ13 in ON bipolar cells by deleting the mouse Gng13 gene. Gγ13 is a partner of Gβ3 in all types of retinal ON bipolar cells, and contributes to generating the light response. Gγ13 also contributes to maintenance because, in its absence, the light response decreases with age. Three independent functionality assessments (i.e. light response as measured by electroretinogram b-waves, localization of GTPase activating proteins and deterioration of the light response with age) show that the contribution of Gγ13 is much greater in rod bipolar cells than in ON cone bipolar cells. Our data also suggest that the contribution of Gγ13 to coupling mGluR6 to its effector is smaller than its contribution to maintaining GTPase activating protein localization. Abstract Heterotrimeric G-proteins (comprising Gα and Gβγ subunits) are critical for coupling of metabotropic receptors to their downstream effectors. In the retina, glutamate released from photoreceptors in the dark activates metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) receptors in ON bipolar cells; this leads to activation of Go, closure of transient receptor potential melastatin 1 channels and hyperpolarization of these cells. Go comprises Gαo, Gβ3 and a Gγ. The best Gγ candidate is Gγ13, although functional data to support this are lacking. Thus, we tested Gγ13 function by generating Gng13−/− knockout (KO) mice, recording electroretinograms (ERG) and performing immunocytochemical staining. The amplitude of scotopic ERG b-waves in KO mice was lower than in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, in both KO and WT mice, the ERG b-wave decreased with age; this decrease was much more pronounced in KO mice. By contrast, the photopic ERG b-waves in KO mice were hardly affected at any age. In KO mice

  11. Virtuous laughter: we should teach medical learners the art of humor.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Simon

    2015-05-11

    There is increasing recognition of the stress and burnout suffered by critical care workers. Physicians have a responsibility to teach learners the skills required not only to treat patients, but to cope with the demands of a stressful profession. Humor has been neglected as a strategy to help learners develop into virtuous and resilient physicians. Humor can be used to reduce stress, address fears, and to create effective health care teams. However, there are forms of humor which can be hurtful or discriminatory. In order to maximize the benefits of humor and to reduce its harms, we need to teach and model the effective and virtuous use of humor in the intensive care unit.

  12. Comparison of fluconazole pharmacokinetics in serum, aqueous humor, vitreous humor, and cerebrospinal fluid following a single dose and at steady state.

    PubMed

    Mian, U K; Mayers, M; Garg, Y; Liu, Q F; Newcomer, G; Madu, C; Liu, W; Louie, A; Miller, M H

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters and penetration of fluconazole following a single dose in the serum, aqueous humor, vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of non pigmented rabbits using serial sampling techniques and to determine if the pharmacokinetic parameters in the eye and CSF are similar. Twenty healthy male rabbits received intravenous fluconazole 20 mg/kg as a single dose or 20 mg/kg every 12 hours for 4 doses. Serum, aqueous humor, vitreous humor and CSF samples were taken 15 minutes after the initial intravenous injection and hourly thereafter for six hours. Fluconazole concentrations were determined by microbiological assay. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using a nonlinear least-square regression program. Fluconazole's penetration in all anatomical compartments was > 70% than in the serum. Similar elimination half-lives and time to reach maximum concentrations were noted in all compartments. While mean concentrations in each anatomical compartment were similar in animals receiving a single dose or among those at serum steady state, the mean concentrations achieved in the serum, aqueous and vitreous humors and CSF were between 1.82 and 2.17 times higher at serum steady state than following a single dose. At serum concentrations that are comparable to those in humans, the penetration of fluconazole into the noninflamed aqueous and vitreous humors and CSF were > or = 70%. The CSF and ocular pharmacokinetic parameters closely resembled each other, so that either could be used as a surrogate for the other.

  13. Don't Tease Me, I'm Working: Examining Humor in a Midwestern Organization Using Ethnography of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojha, Ajay K.; Holmes, Tammy L.

    2010-01-01

    Within organizations, the communicative phenomenon of humor is commonplace. Humorous talk is just as important and frequent to regular discourse that takes place between organizational members. In this inquiry we examine humor as a particular way of communicating between members of a small Midwestern United States organization. Specifically, we…

  14. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  15. Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Management of Mixed States in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fagiolini, Andrea; Coluccia, Anna; Maina, Giuseppe; Forgione, Rocco N; Goracci, Arianna; Cuomo, Alessandro; Young, Allan H

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 40% of patients with bipolar disorder experience mixed episodes, defined as a manic state with depressive features, or manic symptoms in a patient with bipolar depression. Compared with bipolar patients without mixed features, patients with bipolar mixed states generally have more severe symptomatology, more lifetime episodes of illness, worse clinical outcomes and higher rates of comorbidities, and thus present a significant clinical challenge. Most clinical trials have investigated second-generation neuroleptic monotherapy, monotherapy with anticonvulsants or lithium, combination therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuroleptic drugs are often used alone or in combination with anticonvulsants or lithium for preventive treatment, and ECT is an effective treatment for mixed manic episodes in situations where medication fails or cannot be used. Common antidepressants have been shown to worsen mania symptoms during mixed episodes without necessarily improving depressive symptoms; thus, they are not recommended during mixed episodes. A greater understanding of pathophysiological processes in bipolar disorder is now required to provide a more accurate diagnosis and new personalised treatment approaches. Targeted, specific treatments developed through a greater understanding of bipolar disorder pathophysiology, capable of affecting the underlying disease processes, could well prove to be more effective, faster acting, and better tolerated than existing therapies, therefore providing better outcomes for individuals affected by bipolar disorder. Until such time as targeted agents are available, second-generation neuroleptics are emerging as the treatment of choice in the management of mixed states in bipolar disorder.

  16. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  17. Pharmacological Management of Bipolar Disorder in a Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelBello, Melissa P.; Correll, Christoph U.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Carlson, Harold E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, four clinicians respond to the following case vignette: A 12-year-old girl with insulin-dependent diabetes presents for treatment of her newly diagnosed bipolar disorder. How would you address the bipolar disorder pharmacologically, and how would the presence of diabetes affect your selection of medication and clinical management?

  18. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  19. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Prodromal States and Early Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.; Navsaria, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childhood bipolar disorder remains a controversial but increasingly diagnosed disorder that is associated with significant impairment, chronic course and treatment resistance. Therefore, the search for prodromes or early markers of risk for later childhood bipolar disorder may be of great importance for prevention and/or early…

  20. Treatment Guidelines for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowatch, Robert A.; Fristad, Mary; Birmaher, Boris; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Findling, Robert L.; Hellander, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Clinicians who treat children and adolescents with bipolar disorder desperately need current treatment guidelines. These guidelines were developed by expert consensus and a review of the extant literature about the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bipolar disorders. The four sections of these guidelines include diagnosis, comorbidity, acute…

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  2. The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Toscano, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Biederman and colleagues reported that a CBCL profile identified youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Some studies found that this CBCL profile does not reliably identify children who present with bipolar disorder, but nonetheless this CBCL does identify youngsters with severe dysfunction. However, the nature of the impairment of…

  3. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  4. Commentary: Treatment Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Once considered rare in children, pediatric bipolar disorder is now widely diagnosed in the United States. The illness has become a cultural phenomenon, adorning the cover of Time magazine and headlining national news broadcasts. Kowatch and colleagues, in compiling consensus recommendations for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, have…

  5. Bipolar-FET combinational power transistors for power conversion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. Y.; Chin, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four bipolar-FET (field-effect transistor) combinational transistor configurations are compared from the application point of view. The configurations included are FET-Darlington (cascade), emitter-open switch (cascode), parallel configuration, and FET-gated bipolar transistors (FGT).

  6. Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Management of Mixed States in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fagiolini, Andrea; Coluccia, Anna; Maina, Giuseppe; Forgione, Rocco N; Goracci, Arianna; Cuomo, Alessandro; Young, Allan H

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 40% of patients with bipolar disorder experience mixed episodes, defined as a manic state with depressive features, or manic symptoms in a patient with bipolar depression. Compared with bipolar patients without mixed features, patients with bipolar mixed states generally have more severe symptomatology, more lifetime episodes of illness, worse clinical outcomes and higher rates of comorbidities, and thus present a significant clinical challenge. Most clinical trials have investigated second-generation neuroleptic monotherapy, monotherapy with anticonvulsants or lithium, combination therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuroleptic drugs are often used alone or in combination with anticonvulsants or lithium for preventive treatment, and ECT is an effective treatment for mixed manic episodes in situations where medication fails or cannot be used. Common antidepressants have been shown to worsen mania symptoms during mixed episodes without necessarily improving depressive symptoms; thus, they are not recommended during mixed episodes. A greater understanding of pathophysiological processes in bipolar disorder is now required to provide a more accurate diagnosis and new personalised treatment approaches. Targeted, specific treatments developed through a greater understanding of bipolar disorder pathophysiology, capable of affecting the underlying disease processes, could well prove to be more effective, faster acting, and better tolerated than existing therapies, therefore providing better outcomes for individuals affected by bipolar disorder. Until such time as targeted agents are available, second-generation neuroleptics are emerging as the treatment of choice in the management of mixed states in bipolar disorder. PMID:26369921

  7. Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Of Bipolar Digital Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Ronnie D.; Ubele, John L., II

    1994-01-01

    In system, bipolar digital data transmitted by use of wavelength-division multiplexing on single optical fiber. Two different wavelengths used to transmit pulses signifying "positive" or "negative" bipolar digital data. Simultaneous absence of pulses at both wavelengths signifies digital "zero."

  8. [Obesity and dyslipidemia in Tunisian bipolar subjects].

    PubMed

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with lipid parameters in bipolar patients. Our study included 130 patients with bipolar disorder and 130 control subjects aged respectively 37.9 +/- 12.1 and 37.2 +/- 13.1 years. Obesity was evaluated by body mass index (BMI). Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, cLDL and cHDL were determined by enzymatic methods and ApoA1, ApoB and Lp(a) by techniques immunoturbidimetric. The prevalence of obesity in patients is 30.1% vs 12.3% in controls. A significant increase in BMI was noted in patients compared with controls regardless of sex and tobacco status and in patients aged less than 35 years and those consumers of alcohol. The majority of obese and overweight patients are treated with valproic acid. We found increase in cholesterol (4.41 +/- 1.02 vs 3.90 +/- 0.98 mmol/L), in cLDL (2.13 +/- 1.09 vs 1.29 +/- 0.56 mmol/L) and in Lp(a) (236 +/- 207 vs 163 +/- 150 mg/L) and decrease in HDLc (0.98 +/- 0.28 vs 1.09 +/- 0.36 mmol/L), more frequent at the obese patients and those presenting an overweight. In conclusion, in bipolar patients, obesity and overweight are frequent and associated with perturbations in lipid profile particularly an increase in total cholesterol, cLDL and Lp(a) and decrease in cHDL that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20478770

  9. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  10. [Bipolar disorder in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Fu-I, Lee

    2004-10-01

    Many advances in the knowledge of childhood- and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder have been seen over the last 15 years. Current efforts focus on investigating clinical features, developing more instruments for early diagnosis and improving treatment research. The present study aims to present the main clinical characteristic of the disorder in children and adolescents, as well as the nomenclature, description of clinical phenotypes and the most common cycling pattern in youths. A discussion of comorbidity, differential diagnosis and advances in psychopharmacological treatment will also be presented.

  11. The birth of the bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Pichot, P

    1995-01-01

    The history of the description by Jean-Pierre Falret of circular insanity, the origin of our present day bipolar disorder, is presented as well as the claims of priority raised by his colleague Jules Baillarger. A detailed account is given of the long-lasting controversy which has often given rise to biased judgments about the respective roles of the two psychiatrists. It is shown that the clinical concept was an expression of Falret's views about the nature of mental disorders and that, through the influence these views had on future nosological systems, the apparently purely picturesque episode corresponds to a landmark in the history of psychiatry.

  12. Dissymmetric carbon nanotubes by bipolar electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Nguyen, Thi; Majimel, Jérome; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Lapeyre, Véronique; Garrigue, Patrick; Ravaine, Valérie; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    Short carbon nanotubes have been modified selectively on one end with metal using a bulk technique based on bipolar electrochemistry. A stabilized suspension of nanotubes is introduced in a capillary containing an aqueous metal salt solution, and a high electric field is applied to orientate and polarize the individual tubes. During their transport through the capillary under sufficient polarization (30 kV), each nanotube is the site of water oxidation on one end and the site of metal ion reduction on the other end with the size of the formed metal cluster being proportional to the potential drop along the nanotube.

  13. Perpendicular transport in superlattice bipolar transistors (SBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibille, A.; Palmier, J. F.; Minot, C.; Harmand, J. C.; Dubon-Chevallier, C.

    Diffusion-limited electron transport in superlattices is studied by gain measurements on heterojunction bipolar transistors with a {GaAs}/{GaAlAs} superlattice base. In the case of thin barriers, Bloch conduction is observed, while hopping between localized levels prevails for large barriers. A transition occurs between these two regimes, localization being achieved when the energy broadening induced by the electron-phonon coupling added to the disorder due to imperfect growth is of the order of the miniband width. This interpretation is supported by temperature dependence measurements of the perpendicular mobilities in relation with theoretical calculations of these mobilities.

  14. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  15. Progress and challenges in bipolar lead-acid battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    1995-05-01

    Bipolar lead-acid batteries have higher power densities than any other aqueous battery system. Predicted specific powers based on models and prototypes range from 800 kW/kg for 100 ms discharge times to 1.6 kW/kg for 10 s. A 48 V automotive bipolar battery could have 2 1/2 times the cold cranking rate of a monopolar 12 V design in the same size. Problems which have precluded the development of commercial bipolar designs include the instability of substrate materials and enhanced side reactions. Design approaches include pseudo-bipolar configurations, as well as true bipolar designs in planar and tubular configurations. Substrate materials used include lead and lead alloys, carbons, conductive ceramics, and tin-oxide-coated glass fibers. These approaches are reviewed and evaluated.

  16. Design concepts of high power bipolar rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The present study shows that current bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries using a 0.38 mm thick TiS2 bipolar plate can yield moderate specific power and also high specific energy battery. The computer design studies project that a 100 V, 10 A h bipolar Li/TiS2 battery can achieve 150 W h/kg, 210 W h/l, and 150 W/kg. The unoptimized experimental bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries (3 cells, 90 mA h) exhibited 47 W h/kg, 90 W h/l, and 140 W/kg. Preliminary results on the cycleability of the bipolar batteries are demonstrated. The results also show that enhanced rate capability can be achieved by using pulse discharge and longer rest period between pulses.

  17. Neuropsychological evidence of impaired cognitive empathy in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Harari, Hagai; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2009-01-01

    The empathic abilities have never been examined in bipolar disorder patients, despite frequent observations of impaired social behavior. To examine the neuropsychological processes that underlie the affective and cognitive empathic ability in bipolar disorder, the authors compared affective and cognitive empathic abilities, as well as theory of mind and executive functions, of euthymic bipolar disorder patients and healthy comparison subjects. Significant deficits in cognitive empathy and theory of mind were observed, while affective empathy was elevated in bipolar disorder. Patients showed impaired cognitive flexibility (shifting and reversal learning) but intact planning behavior. Impaired cognitive empathy was related with performance in neurocognitive tasks of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that prefrontal cortical dysfunction may account for impaired cognitive empathy in bipolar disorder. PMID:19359453

  18. Science for the Public Through Collaboration and Humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-03-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  19. Brain hemodynamic activity during viewing and re-viewing of comedy movies explained by experienced humor.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events.

  20. Brain hemodynamic activity during viewing and re-viewing of comedy movies explained by experienced humor.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events. PMID:27323928

  1. Brain hemodynamic activity during viewing and re-viewing of comedy movies explained by experienced humor

    PubMed Central

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events. PMID:27323928

  2. Laughter and resiliency: a behavioral genetic study of humor styles and mental toughness.

    PubMed

    Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Martin, Rod A; Vernon, Philip A

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated phenotypic correlations between mental toughness and humor styles, as well as the common genetic and environmental effects underlying these correlations. Participants were 201 adult twin pairs from North America. They completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, assessing individual differences in two positive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two negative (aggressive, self-defeating) humor styles. They also completed the MT48, measuring individual differences in global mental toughness and its eight factors (Commitment, Control, Emotional Control, Control over Life, Confidence, Confidence in Abilities, Interpersonal Confidence, Challenge). Positive correlations were found between the positive humor styles and all of the mental toughness factors, with all but one reaching significance. Conversely, negative correlations were found between all mental toughness factors and the negative humor styles, with the mental toughness factors of Control, Emotional Control, Confidence, Confidence in Abilities, and Interpersonal Confidence exhibiting significant correlations. Subsequent behavioral genetic analyses revealed that these phenotypic correlations were primarily attributable to common genetic and common non-shared environmental factors. The implications of these findings regarding the potential effects of humor styles on wellbeing, and the possible selective use of humor by mentally tough individuals are discussed.

  3. An overview of bipolar qualitative decision rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Didier; Fargier, Hélène

    Making a good decision is often a matter of listing and comparing positive and negative arguments, as studies in cognitive psychology have shown. In such cases, the evaluation scale should be considered bipolar, that is, negative and positive values are explicitly distinguished. Generally, positive and negative features are evaluated separately, as done in Cumulative Prospect Theory. However, contrary to the latter framework that presupposes genuine numerical assessments, decisions are often made on the basis of an ordinal ranking of the pros and the cons, and focusing on the most salient features, i.e., the decision process is qualitative. In this paper, we report on a project aiming at characterizing several decision rules, based on possibilistic order of magnitude reasoning, and tailored for the joint handling of positive and negative affects, and at testing their empirical validity. The simplest rules can be viewed as extensions of the maximin and maximax criteria to the bipolar case and, like them, suffer from a lack of discrimination power. More decisive rules that refine them are also proposed. They account for both the principle of Pareto-efficiency and the notion of order of magnitude reasoning. The most decisive one uses a lexicographic ranking of the pros and cons. It comes down to a special case of Cumulative Prospect Theory, and subsumes the “Take the best” heuristic.

  4. High-performance silicon nanowire bipolar phototransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Dan, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as sensitive absorbing materials for photodetection at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared. Most of the reports on SiNW photodetectors are based on photoconductor, photodiode, or field-effect transistor device structures. These SiNW devices each have their own advantages and trade-offs in optical gain, response time, operating voltage, and dark current noise. Here, we report on the experimental realization of single SiNW bipolar phototransistors on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Our SiNW devices are based on bipolar transistor structures with an optically injected base region and are fabricated using CMOS-compatible processes. The experimentally measured optoelectronic characteristics of the SiNW phototransistors are in good agreement with simulation results. The SiNW phototransistors exhibit significantly enhanced response to UV and visible light, compared with typical Si p-i-n photodiodes. The near infrared responsivities of the SiNW phototransistors are comparable to those of Si avalanche photodiodes but are achieved at much lower operating voltages. Compared with other reported SiNW photodetectors as well as conventional bulk Si photodiodes and phototransistors, the SiNW phototransistors in this work demonstrate the combined advantages of high gain, high photoresponse, low dark current, and low operating voltage.

  5. Sealed bipolar multi-cell battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A low maintenance battery comprises a sealed casing (102) having a cavity (204) receiving a stack (108) of monopolar and bipolar plates (110, 112) interspersed with mats (122) of fiberglass felt immobilizing electrolyte and forming a gas path for diffusion of oxygen to the negative electrode (112). The casing contains a single, resealable vent (202). During charging, oxygen generated at the positive plate (110) diffuses through the mat (122) and decomposes at the negative plate (112). The negative plate (112) has a larger capacity than the positive plate (110) to prevent evolution of hydrogen. Voltage potential is increased or decreased by placing one or more bipolar plates (120) in series relation between alternating positive and negative monopolar plates that are connected in parallel to respective positive and negative battery terminals (104, 106). The monoplates (110, 112) are connected in parallel to respective positive and negative battery terminals (104, 106) by way of bus plates (114, 116, 130, 132). The resealable vent permits operation by way of the oxygen cycle which prevents loss of electrolyte. The vent prevents invasion of oxygen from the ambient to discharge negative plates.

  6. Current issues: women and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Marangell, Lauren B.

    2008-01-01

    While the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) is typically complex, the treatment of women with bipolar disorder is even more challenging because clinicians must also individualize treatment based on the potential for pregnancy, drug interactions with oral contraceptives, and an increased risk of endocrine diseases that can either impact the course of illness or become manifest with some treatments. Women with BD should be checked for hypothyroidism, and if prescribed antidepressants, carefully watched for rapid cycling or a mood switch to mania, hypomania, or a mixed state. Several medications interact with oral contraceptives or increase the risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome. Consideration of possible pregnancy is essential, and should be planned in advance whenever possible. Rates of recurrence have been shown to be equal in pregnant and nonpregnant women with BD. Risks of medication to the fetus at various points of development must be balanced against the risks of not treating, which is also detrimental to both fetus and mother. The postpartum period is a time of especially high risk; as many as 40% to 67% of women with BD report experiencing a postpartum mania or depression. The decision to breastfeed must also take into account the adverse impact of sleep deprivation in triggering mood episodes. In order to best address these issues, clinicians must be familiar with the data and collaborate with the patient to assess risks and benefits for the individual women and her family. PMID:18689292

  7. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsson, Erik O.; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices. PMID:25553192

  8. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices. PMID:25553192

  9. A linkage study of bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsoe, J.R.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Remick, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    We are currently surveying the genome with polymorphic DNA markers in search of loci linked to bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness) in three populations: 20 families (175 subjects) from the general North American population from San Diego (UCSD) and Vancouver (UBC); 3 Icelandic families (55 subjects); and an Old Order Amish pedigree 110 (118 subjects). Over 50 markers on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 11, 17, 18, 20 and 21 have been examined. All markers have been tested in the Amish and Icelandic families, and a portion of them in the UCSD/UBC families, which we have only recently begun genotyping. The following candidate genes have been examined: {beta}-TSH, dopamine transporter (HDAT), {beta}2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), glucocorticoid type II receptor (GRL), D2 dopamine receptor, serotonin transporter (HSERT), and G{alpha}s G protein subunit (GNAS1). Linkage analysis was conducted using an autosomal dominant model with age-dependent reduced penetrance. Subjects with bipolar, schizoaffective, or recurrent major depressive disorders were considered affected. No significant evidence for linkage was obtained. Mildly positive lods ranging between 1.1 and 1.6 were obtained for three loci: D11S29, HDAT, and GRL.

  10. The structural neuroimaging of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Emsell, Louise; McDonald, Colm

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing body of literature fuelled by advances in high-resolution structural MRI acquisition and image processing techniques which implicates subtle neuroanatomical abnormalities in the aetiopathogenesis of bipolar disorder. This account reviews the main findings from structural neuroimaging research into regional brain abnormalities, the impact of genetic liability and mood stabilizing medication on brain structure in bipolar disorder, and the overlapping structural deviations found in the allied disorders of schizophrenia and depression. The manifold challenges extant within neuroimaging research are highlighted with accompanying recommendations for future studies. The most consistent findings include preservation of total cerebral volume with regional grey and white matter structural changes in prefrontal, midline and anterior limbic networks, non-contingent ventriculomegaly and increased rates of white matter hyperintensities, with more pronounced deficits in juveniles suffering from the illness. There is increasing evidence that medication has observable effects on brain structure, whereby lithium status is associated with volumetric increase in the medial temporal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus. However, research continues to be confounded by the use of highly heterogeneous methodology and clinical populations, in studies employing small scale, low-powered, cross-sectional designs. Future work should investigate larger, clinically homogenous groups of patients and unaffected relatives, combining both categorical and dimensional approaches to illness classification in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs in order to elucidate trait versus state mechanisms, genetic effects and medication/illness progression effects over time. PMID:20374145

  11. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Fiacconi, Chris M.; Owen, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological “moment of insight” that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others. PMID:26332843

  12. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  13. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity.

  14. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. PMID:21796701

  15. IL-21 optimizes T cell and humoral responses in the central nervous system during viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Phares, Timothy W.; DiSano, Krista D.; Hinton, David R.; Hwang, Mihyun; Zajac, Allan J.; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Bergmann, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Acute coronavirus encephalomyelitis is controlled by T cells while humoral responses suppress virus persistence. This study defines the contribution of interleukin (IL)-21, a regulator of T and B cell function, to central nervous system (CNS) immunity. IL-21 receptor deficiency did not affect peripheral T cell activation or trafficking, but dampened granzyme B, gamma interferon and IL-10 expression by CNS T cells and reduced serum and intrathecal humoral responses. Viral control was already lost prior to humoral CNS responses, but demyelination remained comparable. These data demonstrate a critical role of IL-21 in regulating CNS immunity, sustaining viral persistence and preventing mortality. PMID:23992866

  16. Proliferative effects of humoral factors derived from neuroblastoma cells on cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, M; Amano, S; Hazama, F; Handa, J

    1994-08-29

    The proliferative effects of humoral factors released from N18-RE105 neuroblastoma (NRE) cells on cultured astrocytes were assessed in separate co-culture and conditioned medium studies. In both experimental conditions, the humoral factors derived from neuroblastoma cells had growth-promoting effects on C6 glioma cells of astroglial lineage, but not on primary cultured astrocytes from new-born rat cerebral cortex. It is assumed that neuron-derived humoral factors include astroglial growth factors and that differences in responsiveness between two kinds of cells are probably related to the stages of astroglial maturation processes.

  17. Broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder: benefits vs. risks

    PubMed Central

    STRAKOWSKI, STEPHEN M.; FLECK, DAVID E.; MAJ, MARIO

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether bipolar and related disorders that share common signs and symptoms, but are currently defined as distinct clinical entities in DSM-IV and ICD-10, may be better characterized as falling within a more broadly defined “bipolar spectrum”. With a spectrum view in mind, the possibility of broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder has been proposed. This paper discusses some of the rationale for an expanded diagnostic scheme from both clinical and research perspectives in light of potential drawbacks. The ultimate goal of broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder is to help identify a common etiopathogenesis for these conditions to better guide treatment. To help achieve this goal, bipolar researchers have increasingly expanded their patient populations to identify objective biological or endophenotypic markers that transcend phenomenological observation. Although this approach has and will likely continue to produce beneficial results, the upcoming DSM-IV and ICD-10 revisions will place increasing scrutiny on psychiatry’s diagnostic classification systems and pressure to re-evaluate our conceptions of bipolar disorder. However, until research findings can provide consistent and converging evidence as to the validity of a broader diagnostic conception, clinical expansion to a dimensional bipolar spectrum should be considered with caution. PMID:21991268

  18. Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: conception, birth and rebirth.

    PubMed

    Angst, J; Marneros, A

    2001-12-01

    We review the history of bipolar disorders from the classical Greek period to DSM-IV. Perhaps the first person who described mania and melancholia as two different phenomenological states of one and the same disease was the Greek physician of the 1st century AD, Aretaeus of Cappadocia. The modern concept of bipolar disorders was born in France, with the publications of and. Emil Kraepelin, however, in 1899, unified all types of affective disorders in 'manic-depressive insanity'; in spite of some opposition, Kraepelin's unitary concept was adopted worldwide. In the 1960s, however, the rebirth of bipolar disorders took place through the publications of Jules Angst, Carlo Perris, and George Winokur, who independently showed that there exist clinical, familial and course characteristics validating the distinction between unipolar and bipolar disorders; in addition, they verified several of the corresponding opinions of the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard school. The concept of unipolar and bipolar disorders has further advanced in the last three decades: landmark developments include the renaissance of Kraepelin's mixed states and of Kahlbaum's and Hecker's cyclothymia and related affective temperaments, the concept of soft bipolar spectrum (Akiskal), and the distinction of schizoaffective disorders into unipolar and bipolar forms.

  19. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: cross-national community study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sing; Tsang, Adley; Kessler, Ronald C.; Jin, Robert; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura; Karam, Elie G.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Merikangas, Kathleen; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Popovici, Daniela Georgeta; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Zarkov, Zahari; Petukhova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in the community is largely unknown. Aims To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in a large cross-national community sample. Method The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI version 3.0) was used to examine the prevalence, severity, comorbidity, impairment, suicidality, sociodemographics, childhood adversity and treatment of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in ten countries (n = 54 257). Results The 12-month prevalence of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder was 0.3%. Roughly a third and two-fifths of participants with lifetime and 12-month bipolar disorder respectively met criteria for rapid cycling. Compared with the non-rapid-cycling, rapid-cycling bipolar disorder was associated with younger age at onset, higher persistence, more severe depressive symptoms, greater impairment from depressive symptoms, more out-of-role days from mania/hypomania, more anxiety disorders and an increased likelihood of using health services. Associations regarding childhood, family and other sociodemographic correlates were less clear cut. Conclusions The community epidemiological profile of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder confirms most but not all current clinically based knowledge about the illness. PMID:20194545

  20. An exploration of testosterone levels in patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wooderson, Sarah C.; Gallagher, Peter; Watson, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone influences well-being, mood and cognition and may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Aim To examine testosterone levels in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy controls. Method We examined baseline total testosterone levels and current depression scores in male and female patients with bipolar disorder and mild to moderate depression and healthy controls. Results A significant interaction between diagnosis and gender was observed (F(2,97)=9.791, P=0.002). Testosterone levels were significantly lower for male patients with bipolar disorder compared with male controls (P=0.001). Women with bipolar disorder had significantly higher testosterone levels than female controls (P=0.03). Conclusions Disturbances in testosterone levels may represent an important neurobiological abnormality in bipolar disorder and may differ by gender. If these findings are confirmed, the use of gender appropriate treatment strategies for the normalisation of testosterone levels in bipolar disorder depression should be further explored. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703738