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Sample records for humor outflow pathway

  1. The aqueous humor outflow pathways in glaucoma: A unifying concept of disease mechanisms and causative treatment.

    PubMed

    Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R

    2015-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the critical risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease and frequent cause of blindness worldwide. As of today, all effective strategies to treat glaucoma aim at lowering IOP. IOP is generated and maintained via the aqueous humor circulation system in the anterior eye. Aqueous humor is secreted by the ciliary processes and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork (TM) or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. The TM outflow pathways provide resistance to aqueous humor outflow and IOP builds up in response to it. In the normal eye, the resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in the inner wall region is lowered through the contraction of the ciliary muscle or the relaxation of contractile myofibroblasts in the posterior part of the TM and the adjacent scleral spur. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most frequent form of glaucoma, typically suffer from an abnormally high outflow resistance of the inner wall region. There is increasing evidence that the increase in TM outflow resistance in POAG is the result of a characteristic change in the biological properties of the resident cells in the JCT, which increasingly acquire the phenotype of contractile myofibroblasts. This scenario strengthens simultaneously both their actin cytoskeleton and their directly associated extracellular matrix fibrils, leads to overall stiffening of the tissue, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells in glaucoma. Causative therapy concepts targeting the aqueous outflow pathways in glaucoma should aim at interfering with this process either by attenuating TM or SC stiffness, and/or by modulating TGF-β/CTGF signaling.

  2. Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intraocular Pressure and the Mechanisms Involved in Resistance of the Aqueous Humor Flow in the Trabecular Meshwork Outflow Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP), the critical risk factor for glaucoma, is generated and maintained by the aqueous humor circulation system. Aqueous humor is secreted from the epithelial layers of the ciliary body and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. IOP builds up in response to a resistance to aqueous humor flow in the trabecular outflow pathways. The trabecular outflow resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in this region is lowered through the relaxation of contractile myofibroblast-like cells in trabecular meshwork and the adjacent scleral spur, or the contraction of the ciliary muscle. In primary open-angle glaucoma, the most frequent form of glaucoma, outflow resistance of the inner wall region is typically higher than normal. There is evidence that the increase in resistance is related to characteristic biological changes in the resident cells of the JCT, which more and more acquire the structural and functional characteristics of contractile myofibroblasts. The changes involve an augmentation of their actin cytoskeleton and of their surrounding fibrillary extracellular matrix, which connects to JCT cells via integrins. This scenario leads to an overall stiffening of the inner wall region, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β/connective tissue growth factor signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells. Stiffening of JCT and SC cells is very likely a critical causative factor for the increase in trabecular outflow resistance in POAG.

  4. Automated circumferential construction of first-order aqueous humor outflow pathways using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Alex S.; Belghith, Akram; Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose was to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of circumferential aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in a living human eye with an automated detection algorithm for Schlemm's canal (SC) and first-order collector channels (CC) applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Anterior segment SD-OCT scans from a subject were acquired circumferentially around the limbus. A Bayesian Ridge method was used to approximate the location of the SC on infrared confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopic images with a cross multiplication tool developed to initiate SC/CC detection automated through a fuzzy hidden Markov Chain approach. Automatic segmentation of SC and initial CC's was manually confirmed by two masked graders. Outflow pathways detected by the segmentation algorithm were reconstructed into a 3-D representation of AHO. Overall, only <1% of images (5114 total B-scans) were ungradable. Automatic segmentation algorithm performed well with SC detection 98.3% of the time and <0.1% false positive detection compared to expert grader consensus. CC was detected 84.2% of the time with 1.4% false positive detection. 3-D representation of AHO pathways demonstrated variably thicker and thinner SC with some clear CC roots. Circumferential (360 deg), automated, and validated AHO detection of angle structures in the living human eye with reconstruction was possible.

  5. Imaging the Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathway in Human Eyes by Three-dimensional Micro-computed Tomography (3D micro-CT)

    SciTech Connect

    C Hann; M Bentley; A Vercnocke; E Ritman; M Fautsch

    2011-12-31

    The site of outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma is believed to be located in the region of Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelium, its basement membrane and the adjacent juxtacanalicular tissue. Evidence also suggests collector channels and intrascleral vessels may have a role in intraocular pressure in both normal and glaucoma eyes. Traditional imaging modalities limit the ability to view both proximal and distal portions of the trabecular outflow pathway as a single unit. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (3D micro-CT) as a potential method to view the trabecular outflow pathway. Two normal human eyes were used: one immersion fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and one with anterior chamber perfusion at 10 mmHg followed by perfusion fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde/2% glutaraldehyde. Both eyes were postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide and scanned with 3D micro-CT at 2 {mu}m or 5 {mu}m voxel resolution. In the immersion fixed eye, 24 collector channels were identified with an average orifice size of 27.5 {+-} 5 {mu}m. In comparison, the perfusion fixed eye had 29 collector channels with a mean orifice size of 40.5 {+-} 13 {mu}m. Collector channels were not evenly dispersed around the circumference of the eye. There was no significant difference in the length of Schlemm's canal in the immersed versus the perfused eye (33.2 versus 35.1 mm). Structures, locations and size measurements identified by 3D micro-CT were confirmed by correlative light microscopy. These findings confirm 3D micro-CT can be used effectively for the non-invasive examination of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, collector channels and intrascleral vasculature that comprise the distal outflow pathway. This imaging modality will be useful for non-invasive study of the role of the trabecular outflow pathway as a whole unit.

  6. Variations in active outflow along the trabecular outflow pathway.

    PubMed

    Cha, Elliott D K; Xu, Jia; Gong, Lihua; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Previous tracer studies have shown segmental outflow in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and along the inner wall (IW) of Schlemm's canal (SC). Whether segmental outflow is conserved distal to SC has not yet been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether the segmented pattern of outflow is conserved in distal outflow pathways by using a newly developed global imaging method and to evaluate variations of active outflow in three distinct regions along trabecular outflow pathway. Six normal whole globe human eyes were first perfused at 15 mmHg to establish a stable baseline outflow facility. The anterior chamber was then exchanged (5 mL) and perfused with fluorescent microspheres (0.002% v/v, 200 μL) to label areas of active outflow. All eyes were perfusion fixed and dissected into anterior segments. The TM and scleral surface were en face imaged globally. Effective filtration area (EFA) and fluorescent tracer distribution and intensity were analyzed in global images for both the TM and episcleral veins (EPVs). Anterior segments were further dissected into a minimum of 16 radial wedges, from which frontal sections were cut, stained, and imaged, using confocal microscopy. EFA from all three locations along the trabecular outflow pathway were measured and compared. Additionally, TM thickness, SC height, and total number of collector channels (CC) were analyzed and compared between active and inactive areas of outflow. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank test with a required significance of p ≤ 0.05. All three locations showed a segmental outflow pattern. The TM had a significantly higher mean EFA (86.3 ± 3.5%) compared to both the IW (34.7 ± 2.9%; p ≤ 0.01) and EPVs (41.1 ± 3.8%; p ≤ 0.01). No significant difference in mean EFA was found between IW and EPVs. Preferential active outflow was observed in the nasal and inferior quadrants. TM thickness was significantly larger in areas of active

  7. The trabecular meshwork outflow pathways: structural and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Ernst R

    2009-04-01

    The major drainage structures for aqueous humor (AH) are the conventional or trabecular outflow pathways, which are comprised of the trabecular meshwork (made up by the uveal and corneoscleral meshworks), the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT), the endothelial lining of Schlemm's canal (SC), the collecting channels and the aqueous veins. The trabecular meshwork (TM) outflow pathways are critical in providing resistance to AH outflow and in generating intraocular pressure (IOP). Outflow resistance in the TM outflow pathways increases with age and primary open-angle glaucoma. Uveal and corneoscleral meshworks form connective tissue lamellae or beams that are covered by flat TM cells which rest on a basal lamina. TM cells in the JCT are surrounded by fibrillar elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to form a loose connective tissue. In contrast to the other parts of the TM, JCT cells and ECM fibrils do not form lamellae, but are arranged more irregularly. SC inner wall endothelial cells form giant vacuoles in response to AH flow, as well as intracellular and paracellular pores. In addition, minipores that are covered with a diaphragm are observed. There is considerable evidence that normal AH outflow resistance resides in the inner wall region of SC, which is formed by the JCT and SC inner wall endothelium. Modulation of TM cell tone by the action of their actomyosin system affects TM outflow resistance. In addition, the architecture of the TM outflow pathways and consequently outflow resistance appear to be modulated by contraction of ciliary muscle and scleral spur cells. The scleral spur contains axons that innervate scleral spur cells or that have the ultrastructural characteristics of mechanosensory nerve endings.

  8. Aqueous Humor Outflow Physiology in NOS3 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuan; Zhang, Xuejin; Song, Maomao; Wu, Jihong; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on conventional outflow function using NOS3 knockout (KO) mice. Intraocular pressure was measured in both NOS3 KO and wild type (WT) by rebound tonometry. Outflow facility was measured by perfusing enucleated mouse eyes at multiple pressure steps. A subset of eyes was sectioned and stained for histology. Mock aqueous humor ± the nitric oxide (NO) donors nitroprusside dihydrate (SNP) or S-Nitroso-N-Acetyl-D,L-Penicillamine (SNAP) was perfused into enucleated eyes. SNP and SNAP was administered topically at 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours while the contralateral eyes served as vehicle controls. Intraocular pressure was measured in both eyes before and after the last drug treatment. Intraocular pressure was higher in KO mice (18.2 ± 0.7 mm Hg vs. 13.9 ± 0.5 mm Hg, mean ± SEM, n = 30, P < 0.05), and pressure-dependent conventional drainage was significantly lower (0.0058 ± 0.0005 μL/min/mm Hg, mean ± SEM, n = 21) compared with WT mice (0.0082 ± 0.0013 μL/min/mm Hg, n = 23, P < 0.05). No obvious morphological differences in iridiocorneal angle tissues were observed in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections. SNP and SNAP significantly increased pressure-dependent drainage in KO animals (n = 12, P < 0.05). In WT mice, SNP and SNAP caused a significant increase in pressure dependent drainage (n = 12, P < 0.05) to a similar degree as in KO mice. Topical application of SNP significantly reduced IOP in WT and KO mice (n = 12, P < 0.05), but SNAP did not change IOP significantly (n = 19). NOS3 KO mice have elevated IOP, which is likely the result of reduced pressure-dependent drainage. These findings are consistent with human data showing polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene associate with ocular hypertension and the development of glaucoma.

  9. The Autophagic Lysosomal System in Outflow Pathway Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Liton, Paloma B.

    2015-01-01

    Malfunction of the trabecular meshwork (TM)/schlemm’s canal (SC) conventional outflow pathway is associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and, therefore, increased risk of developing glaucoma, a potentially blinding disease affecting more than 70 million people worldwide. This TM/SC tissue is subjected to different types of stress, including mechanical, oxidative, and phagocytic stress. Long-term exposure to these stresses is believed to lead to a progressive accumulation of damaged cellular and tissue structures causing permanent alterations in the tissue physiology, and contribute to the pathologic increase in aqueous humor (AH) outflow resistance. Autophagy is emerging as an essential cellular survival mechanism against a variety of stressors. In addition to performing basal functions, autophagy acts as a cellular survival pathway and represents an essential mechanism by which organisms can adapt to acute stress conditions and repair stress-induced damage. A decline in autophagy has been observed in most tissues with aging and has been considered responsible, at least in part, for the accumulation of damaged cellular components in almost all tissues of aging organisms. Dysfunction in the autophagy pathway is associated with several human diseases, from infectious diseases to cancer and neurodegeneration. In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge of the emerging roles of autophagy in outflow tissue physiology and pathophysiology, including novel evidence suggesting compromised autophagy in the glaucomatous outflow pathway. PMID:26226231

  10. Aqueous Humor Outflow Structure and Function Imaging At the Bench and Bedside: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alex S.; Mohindroo, Chirayu; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Anterior segment glaucoma clinical care and research has recently gained new focus because of novel imaging modalities and the advent of angle-based surgical treatments. Traditional investigation drawn to the trabecular meshwork now emphasizes the entire conventional aqueous humor outflow (AHO) pathway from the anterior chamber to the episcleral vein. AHO investigation can be divided into structural and functional assessments using different methods. The historical basis for studying the anterior segment of the eye and AHO in glaucoma is discussed. Structural studies of AHO are reviewed and include traditional pathological approaches to modern tools such as multi-model two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Functional assessment focuses on visualizing AHO itself through a variety of non-real-time and real-time techniques such as aqueous angiography. Implications of distal outflow resistance and segmental AHO are discussed with an emphasis on melding bench-side research to viable clinical applications. Through the development of an improved structure: function relationship for AHO in the anterior segment of the normal and diseased eye, a better understanding of the eye with improved therapeutics may be developed. PMID:27790380

  11. Regionally Discrete Aqueous Humor Outflow Quantification Using Fluorescein Canalograms

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Pritha; Schuman, Joel S.; Sigal, Ian A.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To visualize and quantify conventional outflow directly in its anatomic location. Methods We obtained fluorescein canalograms in six porcine whole eyes and six porcine anterior segment cultures. Eyes were perfused with a constant pressure of 15 mmHg using media containing 0.017 mg/ml fluorescein. Flow patterns were visualized using a stereo dissecting microscope equipped for fluorescent imaging. Images were captured every 30 seconds for 20 minutes for time lapse analysis. Anterior chamber cultures were imaged again on day three of culture. Canalograms were first analyzed for filling time per quadrant. We then wrote a program to automatically compute focal flow fits for each macropixel and to detect convergent perilimbal flow patterns with macropixels grouped into 3 equal-radial width rings around the cornea. A generalized additive model was used to determine fluorescence changes of individual macropixels. Results The resulting imaging algorithm deployed 1024 macropixels that were fit to determine maximum intensity and time to fill. These individual fits highlighted the focal flow function. In whole eyes, significantly faster flow was seen in the inferonasal (IN) and superonasal (SN) quadrants compared to the superotemporal (ST) and inferotemporal (IT) ones (p<0.05). In anterior chamber cultures, reduced flow on day 1 increased in all quadrants on day 3 except in IT (p<0.05). Perilimbal ring analysis uncovered convergent perilimbal flow. Conclusions An algorithm was developed that analyzes regional and circumferential outflow patterns. This algorithm found flow patterns that changed over time and differ in whole eyes and anterior segment cultures. PMID:26998833

  12. Involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the aqueous humor outflow-enhancing effects of abnormal-cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhuanhong; Kumar, Akhilesh; Kumar, Pritesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal-cannabidiol (abn-cbd), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid agonist, on aqueous humor outflow via the trabecular meshwork (TM) of porcine eye, and to examine the involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor and the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) pathway. The effects of abn-cbd on aqueous humor outflow were measured using a porcine anterior segment perfused organ culture model. The activation of p42/44 MAPK by abn-cbd was determined in cultured TM cells with western blot analysis using an anti-phospho-p42/44 MAPK antibody. Administration of abn-cbd caused a concentration-dependent enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility with a maximum effect (155.0 ± 11.7% of basal outflow facility) after administration of 30 nM abn-cbd. Pretreatment with 1 μM of O-1918, a cannabidiol analog that acts as a selective antagonist at the non-CB1/CB2 receptor, produced a full antagonism of 30 nM abn-cbd induced increase of aqueous humor outflow facility. Pretreatment with 1 μM of CB1 antagonist SR141716A partially blocked, whereas pretreatment with either 1 μM of CB1 antagonist AM251 or 1 μM of CB2 antagonist SR144528 had no effect on abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. Treatment of TM cells with 30 nM of abn-cbd activated p42/44 MAPK, which was blocked completely by pretreatment with O-1918, and partially by pretreatment with SR141716A, but not by either AM251 or SR144528. In addition, PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK pathway, blocked completely the abn-cbd induced p42/44 MAPK activation and blocked partially the abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that abn-cbd increases aqueous humor outflow through the TM pathway of the eye, and this effect is mediated by a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor, with an involvement of p42/44 MAPK signaling pathway.

  13. Reduction of the Available Area for Aqueous Humor Outflow and Increase in Meshwork Herniations into Collector Channels Following Acute IOP Elevation in Bovine Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Battista, Stephanie A.; Lu, Zhaozeng; Hofmann, Sara; Freddo, Thomas; Overby, Darryl R.; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To understand how hydrodynamic and morphologic changes in the aqueous humor outflow pathway contribute to decreased aqueous humor outflow facility after acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in bovine eyes. Methods Enucleated bovine eyes were perfused at 1 of 4 different pressures (7, 15, 30, 45 mm Hg) while outflow facility was continuously recorded. Dulbecco PBS + 5.5 mM glucose containing fluorescent microspheres (0.5 μm, 0.002% vol/vol) was perfused to outline aqueous outflow patterns, followed by perfusion-fixation. Confocal images were taken along the inner wall (IW) of the aqueous plexus (AP) in radial and frontal sections. Percentage effective filtration length (PEFL; IW length exhibiting tracer labeling/total length of IW) was measured. Herniations of IW into collector channel (CC) ostia were examined and graded for each eye by light microscopy. Results Increasing IOP from 7 to 45 mm Hg coincided with a twofold decrease in outflow facility (P < 0.0001), a 33% to 57% decrease in PEFL with tracer confined more to the vicinity of CC ostia, progressive collapse of the AP, and increasing percentage of CC ostia exhibiting herniations (from 15.6% ± 6.5% at 7 mm Hg to 95% ± 2.3% at 30 mm Hg [P < 10−4], reaching 100% at 45 mm Hg). Conclusions Decreasing outflow facility during acute IOP elevation coincides with a reduction in available area for aqueous humor outflow and the confinement of outflow to the vicinity of CC ostia. These hydrodynamic changes are likely driven by morphologic changes associated with AP collapse and herniation of IW of AP into CC ostia. PMID:18515571

  14. Aqueous Angiography: Real-Time and Physiologic Aqueous Humor Outflow Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathy, Sindhu; Tan, James C. H.; Yu, Fei; Francis, Brian A.; Hinton, David R.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Huang, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Trabecular meshwork (TM) bypass surgeries attempt to enhance aqueous humor outflow (AHO) to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). While TM bypass results are promising, inconsistent success is seen. One hypothesis for this variability rests upon segmental (non-360 degrees uniform) AHO. We describe aqueous angiography as a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes as a way to simulate live AHO imaging. Methods Pig (n = 46) and human (n = 6) enucleated eyes were obtained, orientated based upon inferior oblique insertion, and pre-perfused with balanced salt solution via a Lewicky AC maintainer through a 1mm side-port. Fluorescein (2.5%) was introduced intracamerally at 10 or 30 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent (486 nm) images were acquired. Image processing allowed for collection of pixel information based on intensity or location for statistical analyses. Concurrent OCT was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histological analysis of angiographically active areas. Results Aqueous angiography yielded high quality images with segmental patterns (p<0.0001; Kruskal-Wallis test). No single quadrant was consistently identified as the primary quadrant of angiographic signal (p = 0.06–0.86; Kruskal-Wallis test). Regions of high proximal signal did not necessarily correlate with regions of high distal signal. Angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Conclusions Aqueous angiography is a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes. PMID:26807586

  15. Genetic Deletion of the NOS3 Gene in CAV1-/- Mice Restores Aqueous Humor Outflow Function.

    PubMed

    Song, Maomao; Wu, Jihong; Lei, Yuan; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of genetic deletion of NOS3 in CAV1-/- mice on aqueous humor outflow function using a mouse genetic double knockout model (DKO, NOS3-/- CAV1-/-). IOP was measured in DKO, NOS3 KO, CAV1 KO, and wild-type (WT) mice by rebound tonometry. Outflow facility was measured by perfusing enucleated mouse eyes at multiple pressure steps. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was administered topically, whereas the contralateral eyes served as vehicle controls. IOP was measured in both eyes before drug treatment and 1 hour after the last drug treatment. Mock aqueous humor ± the nitric oxide (NO) donor SNP or NOS inhibitor L-NAME was perfused into enucleated eyes. IOP was 11 ± 0.23 mm Hg in DKO mice, which was similar to WT mice and significantly lower than CAV1 KO mice (n = 18, P > 0.05). NOS3 deletion in CAV1-/- mice resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in conventional outflow facility (Ccon) compared with CAV1 KO mice (n = 7, P < 0.05). Topical application of NO donor SNP did not significantly change IOP (n = 18, P > 0.05) or Ccon in DKO mice (SNP, n = 20; vehicle, n = 11, P > 0.05). Topical application of L-NAME significantly increased IOP in WT, DKO, and CAV1 mice by reducing Ccon. Nitrotyrosine and PKG levels of DKO mice were similar to, whereas sGC was lower than, WT mice (P < 0.05). Genetic deletion of NOS3 in CAV1-deficient mice restored IOP and conventional aqueous humor drainage to WT level. NOS3 and CAV1 interaction is important to IOP regulation.

  16. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  17. Recent Developments in Understanding the Role of Aqueous Humor Outflow in Normal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Cheryl R.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second leading cause of blindness in the world's rapidly aging population. POAG is characterized by progressive degeneration of neural structures in the posterior segment, often associated with a concomitant elevation of intraocular pressure. Changes in IOP are believed to be caused by a disruption in the normal outflow of aqueous humor. This article reviews recent research associated with normal and POAG aqueous humor outflow. Novel findings elucidating biochemical and pathological changes in the ocular tissues affected in POAG are presented. Stem cell research, identification of lymphatic markers, and increased use of mouse models give researchers exciting new tools to understand aqueous humor outflow, changes associated with POAG and identify underlying causes of the disease. PMID:26236568

  18. Aqueous Angiography in Living Nonhuman Primates Shows Segmental, Pulsatile, and Dynamic Angiographic Aqueous Humor Outflow.

    PubMed

    Huang, Alex S; Li, Meng; Yang, Diya; Wang, Huaizhou; Wang, Ningli; Weinreb, Robert N

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of safely performing aqueous angiography in intact eyes of living nonhuman primates (NHPs) for evaluating aqueous humor outflow and segmental patterns. Cross-sectional, observational study. Six nonhuman primates. Aqueous angiography was performed in 6 nonhuman primates. After anesthesia, an anterior chamber (AC) maintainer was placed through a temporal 1-mm side-port wound. Indocyanine green (ICG; 0.4%) or 2.5% fluorescein was introduced (individually or in sequence) into the eye with a gravity-driven constant-pressure system. Aqueous angiography images were obtained with a Spectralis HRA+OCT (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) suspended over the NHP eye using a custom-designed surgical boom arm. Concurrent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed on distally angiographically positive and negative regions. Angiographic patterns described by location, time-course, choice of tracer, and anterior-segment OCT. Aqueous angiography in the living NHP eye demonstrated mostly stable angiographic patterns. With multimodal imaging, angiographically positive signal co-localized with episcleral veins as identified by infrared imaging and intrascleral lumens, as demonstrated by anterior segment OCT. Sequential aqueous angiography in individual eyes with ICG followed by fluorescein showed similar angiographic patterns. A pulsatile nature of aqueous angiographic outflow was sometimes observed. Aqueous angiographic patterns could also dynamically change. In some instances, positive angiographic flow suddenly arose in regions previously without an angiographic signal. Alternatively, an angiographic signal could suddenly disappear from regions in which an angiographic signal was initially documented. Aqueous angiography in living NHPs demonstrated segmental and pulsatile patterns with a newly described ability to dynamically shift. These characteristics further the understanding of live aqueous humor outflow biology

  19. Mechanisms of ATP Release by Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells, the Enabling Step in Purinergic Regulation of Aqueous Humor Outflow

    PubMed Central

    LI, ANG; LEUNG, CHI TING; PETERSON-YANTORNO, KIM; STAMER, W. DANIEL; MITCHELL, CLAIRE H.; CIVAN, MORTIMER M.

    2011-01-01

    Our guiding hypothesis is that ecto-enzymatic conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine activates A1 adenosine receptors, reducing resistance to aqueous humor outflow and intraocular pressure. The initial step in this purinergic regulation is ATP release from outflow-pathway cells by mechanisms unknown. We measured similar ATP release from human explant-derived primary trabecular meshwork (TM) cells (HTM) and a human TM cell line (TM5). Responses to 21 inhibitors indicated that pannexin-1 (PX1) and connexin (Cx) hemichannels and P2X7 receptors (P2RX7) were comparably important in modulating ATP release induced by hypotonic swelling, whereas vesicular release was insignificant. Consistent with prior studies of PX1 activity in certain other cells, ATP release was lowered by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Overexpressing PX1 in HEK293T cells promoted, while partial knockdown (KD) in both HEK293T and TM5 cells inhibited hypotonicity-activated ATP release. Additionally, KD reduced the pharmacologically-defined contribution of PX1 and enhanced those of Cx and P2RX7. ATP release was also triggered by raising intracellular Ca2+ activity with ionomycin after a prolonged lag time and was unaffected by the PX1 blocker probenecid, but nearly abolished by P2RX7 antagonists. We conclude that swelling-stimulated ATP release from human TM cells is physiologically mediated by PX1 and Cx hemichannels and P2X7 receptors, but not by vesicular release. PX1 appears not to be stimulated by intracellular Ca2+ in TM cells, but can be modulated by oxidation-reduction state. The P2RX7-dependent component of swelling-activated release may be mediated by PX1 hemichannels or reflect apoptotic magnification of ATP release, either through itself and/or hemichannels. PMID:21381023

  20. Endothelial glycocalyx layer in the aqueous outflow pathway of bovine and human eyes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Yuan Charlie; Huynh, Tiffany; Johnson, Mark; Gong, Haiyan

    2014-11-01

    The glycocalyx layer on the vascular endothelium is known to have an important role as a transport barrier and in the mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress. The detailed structure and distribution of the glycocalyx in the bovine and human aqueous humor outflow pathways has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this layer exists in the bovine and human aqueous outflow pathways and to compare the distribution and thickness therein. Enucleated bovine (N = 4) and human (N = 4) eyes were fixed using Alcian Blue to preserve the glycocalyx. The glycocalyx distribution and thickness (in regions where it was seen) were measured on the trabecular beams (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC)/aqueous plexus (AP), and collector channels (CC). The glycocalyx, which appears as a layer of hair-like brushes, coats the surface of the endothelium non-uniformly in the bovine and human aqueous outflow pathways with a thickness in bovine eyes of 68-122 nm and in human eyes of 52-166 nm (25th to 75th percentiles). The distribution of the glycocalyx in different regions of the outflow pathway is not the same between bovine and human eyes. In both species, the glycocalyx was most uniform in the CCs. Less coverage of glycocalyx was found in the AP than the TM in bovine eyes, while more coverage was found in SC than the TM in human eyes. Most interestingly, glycocalyx was also found filling most pores of the endothelium of AP/SC in both bovine and human eyes. Glycocalyx was usually not found coating the inner membranes of the giant vacuoles (GVs); however, in GVs with a visible pore, glycocalyx was frequently observed on the inner membranes of the GVs. Based on our findings and those from the vascular endothelium, it is likely that the glycocalyx in SC plays a role in transduction of shear stress and perhaps regulation of outflow resistance.

  1. Endothelial Glycocalyx Layer in the Aqueous Outflow Pathway of Bovine and Human Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen-Yuan Charlie; Huynh, Tiffany; Johnson, Mark; Gong, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    The glycocalyx layer on the vascular endothelium is known to have an important role as a transport barrier and in the mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress. The detailed structure and distribution of the glycocalyx in the bovine and human aqueous humor outflow pathways has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this layer exists in the bovine and human aqueous outflow pathways and to compare the distribution and thickness therein. Enucleated bovine (N=4) and human (N=4) eyes were fixed using Alcian Blue to preserve the glycocalyx. The glycocalyx distribution and thickness (in regions where it was seen) were measured on the trabecular beams (TM), Schlemm’s canal (SC)/aqueous plexus (AP), and collector channels (CC). The glycocalyx, which appears as a layer of hair-like brushes, coats the surface of the endothelium non-uniformly in the bovine and human aqueous outflow pathways with a thickness in bovine eyes of 68–122 nm and in human eyes of 52–166 nm (25th to 75th percentiles). The distribution of the glycocalyx in different regions of the outflow pathway is not the same between bovine and human eyes. In both species, the glycocalyx was most uniform in the CCs. Less coverage of glycocalyx was found in the AP than the TM in bovine eyes, while more coverage was found in SC than the TM in human eyes. Most interestingly, glycocalyx was also found filling most pores of the endothelium of AP/SC in both bovine and human eyes. Glycocalyx was usually not found coating the inner membranes of the giant vacuoles (GVs); however, in GVs with a visible pore, glycocalyx was frequently observed on the inner membranes of the GVs. Based on our findings and those from the vascular endothelium, it is likely that the glycocalyx in SC plays a role in transduction of shear stress and perhaps regulation of outflow resistance. PMID:25217864

  2. Modeling glaucoma in rats by sclerosing aqueous outflow pathways to elevate intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, John C.; Cepurna, William O.; Johnson, Elaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline via episcleral veins toward the limbus in laboratory rats can produce elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) by sclerosis of aqueous humor outflow pathways. This article describes important anatomic characteristics of the rat optic nerve head (ONH) that make it an attractive animal model for human glaucoma, along with the anatomy of rat aqueous humor outflow on which this technique is based. The injection technique itself is also described, with the aid of a supplemental movie, including necessary equipment and specific tips to acquire this skill. Outcomes of a successful injection are presented, including IOP elevation and patterns of optic nerve injury. These concepts are then specifically considered in light of the use of this model to assess potential neuroprotective therapies. Advantages of the hypertonic saline model include a delayed and relatively gradual IOP elevation, likely reproduction of scleral and ONH stresses and strains that may be important in producing axonal injury, and its ability to be applied to any rat (and potentially mouse) strain, leaving the unmanipulated fellow eye as an internal control. Challenges include the demanding surgical skill required by the technique itself, a wide range of IOP response, and mild corneal clouding in some animals. However, meticulous application of the principles detailed in this article and practice will allow most researchers to attain this useful skill for studying cellular events of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. PMID:26003399

  3. Humor.

    PubMed

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given.

  4. The Outflow Pathway: A Tissue With Morphological and Functional Unity.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Gandolfi, Stefano; Bagnis, Alessandro; Manni, Gianluca; Damonte, Gianluca; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Izzotti, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    The trabecular meshwork (TM) plays an important role in high-tension glaucomas. Indeed, the TM is a true organ, through which the aqueous humor flows from the anterior chamber to Schlemm's canal (SC). Until recently, the TM, which is constituted by endothelial-like cells, was described as a kind of passive filter. In reality, it is much more. The cells delineating the structures of the collagen framework of the TM are endowed with a cytoskeleton, and are thus able to change their shape. These cells also have the ability to secrete the extracellular matrix, which expresses proteins and cytokines, and are capable of phagocytosis and autophagy. The cytoskeleton is attached to the nuclear membrane and can, in millionths of a second, send signals to the nucleus in order to alter the expression of genes in an attempt to adapt to biomechanical insult. Oxidative stress, as happens in aging, has a deleterious effect on the TM, leading eventually to cell decay, tissue malfunction, subclinical inflammation, changes in the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton, altered motility, reduced outflow facility, and (ultimately) increased IOP. TM failure is the most relevant factor in the cascade of events triggering apoptosis in the inner retinal layers, including ganglion cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1876-1893, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Yeni H; Johnston, Miles G; Ly, Tina; Patel, Manoj; Drake, Brian; Gümüş, Ersin; Fraenkl, Stephan A; Moore, Sara; Tobbia, Dalia; Armstrong, Dianna; Horvath, Eva; Gupta, Neeru

    2009-11-01

    Impaired aqueous humor flow from the eye may lead to elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Drainage of aqueous fluid from the eye occurs through established routes that include conventional outflow via the trabecular meshwork, and an unconventional or uveoscleral outflow pathway involving the ciliary body. Based on the assumption that the eye lacks a lymphatic circulation, the possible role of lymphatics in the less well defined uveoscleral pathway has been largely ignored. Advances in lymphatic research have identified specific lymphatic markers such as podoplanin, a transmembrane mucin-type glycoprotein, and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1). Lymphatic channels were identified in the human ciliary body using immunofluorescence with D2-40 antibody for podoplanin, and LYVE-1 antibody. In keeping with the criteria for lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva used as positive control, D2-40 and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic channels in the ciliary body had a distinct lumen, were negative for blood vessel endothelial cell marker CD34, and were surrounded by either discontinuous or no collagen IV-positive basement membrane. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the presence D2-40-immunoreactivity in lymphatic endothelium in the human ciliary body. Fluorescent nanospheres injected into the anterior chamber of the sheep eye were detected in LYVE-1-positive channels of the ciliary body 15, 30, and 45 min following injection. Four hours following intracameral injection, Iodine-125 radio-labeled human serum albumin injected into the sheep eye (n = 5) was drained preferentially into cervical, retropharyngeal, submandibular and preauricular lymph nodes in the head and neck region compared to reference popliteal lymph nodes (P < 0.05). These findings collectively indicate the presence of distinct lymphatic channels in the human ciliary body, and that fluid and solutes flow at least partially through this system. The discovery of a uveolymphatic

  6. Transport Pathways for Asian Pollution Outflow Over the Pacific: Interannual and Seasonal Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-01-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission (February-April 2001). The model is used also to place the TRACE-P observations in an interannual (1994-2001) and seasonal context. The major process driving Asian pollution outflow in spring is frontal lifting ahead of southeastward-moving cold fronts (the leading edge of cold surges) and transport in the boundary layer behind the cold fronts. Orographic lifting over central and eastern China combines with the cold fronts to promote the transport of Chinese pollution to the free troposphere. Outflow of seasonal biomass burning in Southeast Asia during spring takes place mostly by deep convection but also by northeastward transport and frontal lifting, mixing with the anthropogenic outflow. Boundary layer outflow over the western Pacific is largely devoid of biomass burning influence. European and African (biomass burning) plumes in Asian outflow during TRACE-P were weak (less than 60 ppbv and 20 ppbv CO, respectively) and were not detectable in the observations because of superposition of the much larger Asian pollution signal. Spring 2001 (La Nina) was characterized by unusually frequent cold surge events in the Asian Pacific rim and strong convection in Southeast Asia, leading to unusually strong boundary layer outflow of anthropogenic emissions and convective outflow of biomass burning emissions in the upper troposphere. The Asian outflow flux of CO to the Pacific is found to vary seasonally by a factor of 3-4 (maximum in March and minimum in summer). The March maximum results from frequent cold surge events and seasonal biomass burning emissions.

  7. Transport Pathways for Asian Pollution Outflow Over the Pacific: Interannual and Seasonal Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-01-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission (February-April 2001). The model is used also to place the TRACE-P observations in an interannual (1994-2001) and seasonal context. The major process driving Asian pollution outflow in spring is frontal lifting ahead of southeastward-moving cold fronts (the leading edge of cold surges) and transport in the boundary layer behind the cold fronts. Orographic lifting over central and eastern China combines with the cold fronts to promote the transport of Chinese pollution to the free troposphere. Outflow of seasonal biomass burning in Southeast Asia during spring takes place mostly by deep convection but also by northeastward transport and frontal lifting, mixing with the anthropogenic outflow. Boundary layer outflow over the western Pacific is largely devoid of biomass burning influence. European and African (biomass burning) plumes in Asian outflow during TRACE-P were weak (less than 60 ppbv and 20 ppbv CO, respectively) and were not detectable in the observations because of superposition of the much larger Asian pollution signal. Spring 2001 (La Nina) was characterized by unusually frequent cold surge events in the Asian Pacific rim and strong convection in Southeast Asia, leading to unusually strong boundary layer outflow of anthropogenic emissions and convective outflow of biomass burning emissions in the upper troposphere. The Asian outflow flux of CO to the Pacific is found to vary seasonally by a factor of 3-4 (maximum in March and minimum in summer). The March maximum results from frequent cold surge events and seasonal biomass burning emissions.

  8. Boar pheromone androstenol may affect the ovarian morphology in cycling gilts by humoral pathway.

    PubMed

    Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Wasowska, B; Jana, B

    2002-01-01

    Up to 1999 it was accepted that pheromones act exclusively by stimulation of dendritic receptors of olfactory neurons massed in the olfactory epithelium, but in 1999-2000, the presence of local humoral pathway for transfer of boar pheromone androstenol from the nasal cavity to the hypophysis and brain was demonstrated in gilts. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether boar pheromone androstenol may affect by humoral pathway the ovarian morphology in gilts. This study demonstrated that intramuscular injections of androstenol in the follicular phase (17-20 day) of the estrous cycle in anosmatic gilts, in which the neural pathway for olfactory function was experimentally blocked, produced lack of the ovulation and changes in the morphology of ovaries. Histological analysis of the ovaries, collected seven days after androstenol injections, revealed the absence of corpora lutea and healthy follicles of a diameter over 6 mm as well as a significant decrease in the number of the follicles up to I mm in diameter (P<0.01). In androstenol-treated gilts, the number of atretic follicles from 1 mm to 6 mm in size was increased (P<0.01-P<0.001) and in one gilt cysts were found. The obtained results provided some evidence that in gilts in addition to acting by standard neural pathway, androstenol as a priming pheromone may affect the ovarian morphology by a humoral pathway.

  9. In Vivo Identification of the Posttrabecular Aqueous Outflow Pathway Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Uji, Akihito; Muraoka, Yuki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a novel imaging technique to identify the continuous posttrabecular aqueous outflow pathway from a single B-scan, using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Three-dimensional volume scans of the temporal or nasal side of the anterior segment area at the limbus were acquired from 11 eyes of 11 healthy subjects, using SS-OCT. The aqueous outflow pathway was identified using an en face OCT image and reconstructed images of the vasculature (vasculature map). Delineation of the whole aqueous outflow pathway in a single B-scan was accomplished by reslicing the volume scan. The posttrabecular aqueous outflow pathway was successfully identified in 10 eyes (90.9%). Combined with a flattening technique, the en face video and vasculature map showed a clear blood stream that could not be observed on a sequential stack of B-scans. In the en face images, the vessels were widely branched in the episclera venous plexus, perpendicularly penetrating the scleral stroma. Vessels running parallel to Schlemm's canal and the collector channels were observed in the deeper region of the sclera. The average longitudinal diameter of the vessel was 29.7 ± 6.6 μm at the episcleral venous plexus, and it was significantly larger than that in the deep scleral aqueous plexus (22.0 ± 4.8 μm; P = 0.0002). The continuous posttrabecular aqueous outflow pathway could be identified from a single B-scan and quantitatively analyzed using SS-OCT with en face imaging and volume scan reslicing.

  10. Localized and Controlled Delivery of Nitric Oxide to the Conventional Outflow Pathway via Enzyme Biocatalysis: Toward Therapy for Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chandrawati, Rona; Chang, Jason Y H; Reina-Torres, Ester; Jumeaux, Coline; Sherwood, Joseph M; Stamer, W Daniel; Zelikin, Alexander N; Overby, Darryl R; Stevens, Molly M

    2017-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is able to lower intraocular pressure (IOP); however, its therapeutic effects on outflow physiology are location- and dose-dependent. A NO delivery platform that directly targets the resistance-generating region of the conventional outflow pathway and locally liberates a controlled dose of NO is reported. An increase in outflow facility (decrease in IOP) is demonstrated in a mouse model. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Importance of accessory outflow pathways in hydrocephalus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Griebel, R.W.; Black, P.M.; Pile-Spellman, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-02-01

    This study evaluated the changes in pathways of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow that accompanied acute and compensated hydrocephalus in the rabbit. Intraventricularly injected 99mTc antimony sulfide was used as a tracer of outflow pathways, and specified structures were counted 12 to 24 hours after injection. Fifteen rabbits were divided into three groups: 1) an acutely hydrocephalic group in which 3 cisternal injections of blood were followed by a study of CSF pressure, ventricular size, and CSF outflow pathways 1 week after the last injection; 2) a control group treated according to the same protocol, except that sterile saline was injected instead of blood; and 3) a chronic group also treated according to the same protocol but in which the animals were maintained an average of 4 weeks after the last blood injection. Ventricular size was measured by computed digitation and expressed as an area ratio of ventricle to brain (VBR). In control animals, 11.8% of the injected colloid dosage was found in cranial perineural lymphatic channels, and 4.8% appeared in the spinal cord. The mean CSF pressure was 149 +/- 20.2 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and the mean VBR was 0.040 +/- 0.003. In animals evaluated 1 week after subarachnoid injection, accessory cranial perineural lymphatic outflow decreased significantly to 3.4%, and spinal cord activity increased to 9.8% (P less than 0.05, two-tailed t-test). These animals were hydrocephalic and had CSF pressure of 247 +/- 25.1 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and VBR of 0.083 +/- 0.009.

  12. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K; Pott, F; Stok, W J; Karemaker, J M

    2004-01-01

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture and central venous pressure (CVP) on the distribution of cerebral outflow over the internal jugular veins and the vertebral plexus, using a mathematical model. Input to the model was a data set of beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity and CVP measurements in 10 healthy subjects, during baseline rest and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position, but mainly through the vertebral plexus in the upright position. A Valsalva manoeuvre while standing completely re-opened the jugular veins. Results of ultrasound imaging of the right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area at the level of the laryngeal prominence in six healthy subjects, before and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R2 = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway. The internal jugular veins are collapsed in the standing position and blood is shunted to an alternative venous pathway, but a marked increase in CVP while standing completely re-opens the jugular veins. PMID:15284348

  13. Eliminating the isoleucine biosynthetic pathway to reduce competitive carbon outflow during isobutanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ida, Kengo; Ishii, Jun; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Takashi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-04-29

    Isobutanol is an important biorefinery target alcohol that can be used as a fuel, fuel additive, or commodity chemical. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a promising organism for the industrial manufacture of isobutanol because of its tolerance for low pH and resistance to autolysis. It has been reported that gene deletion of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which is directly involved in pyruvate metabolism, improved isobutanol production by S. cerevisiae. However, the engineering strategies available for S. cerevisiae are immature compared to those available for bacterial hosts such as Escherichia coli, and several pathways in addition to pyruvate metabolism compete with isobutanol production. The isobutyrate, pantothenate or isoleucine biosynthetic pathways were deleted to reduce the outflow of carbon competing with isobutanol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. The judicious elimination of these competing pathways increased isobutanol production. ILV1 encodes threonine ammonia-lyase, the enzyme that converts threonine to 2-ketobutanoate, a precursor for isoleucine biosynthesis. S. cerevisiae mutants in which ILV1 had been deleted displayed 3.5-fold increased isobutanol productivity. The ΔILV1 strategy was further combined with two previously established engineering strategies (activation of two steps of the Ehrlich pathway and the transhydrogenase-like shunt), providing 11-fold higher isobutanol productivity as compared to the parent strain. The titer and yield of this engineered strain was 224 ± 5 mg/L and 12.04 ± 0.23 mg/g glucose, respectively. The deletion of competitive pathways to reduce the outflow of carbon, including ILV1 deletion, is an important strategy for increasing isobutanol production by S. cerevisiae.

  14. [Coronary blood outflow along parasinoidal pathways in the left heart (possible pathogenesis of angina attacks with normal coronary circulation)].

    PubMed

    Kositskiĭ, G I; D'iakonova, I N; Tverskaia, M S

    1984-04-01

    Acute experiments on isolated cat hearts were made to study the involvement of the parasinus pathways of the left heart in the blood outflow from the myocardium. The magnitude of the blood outflow to the left heart via the parasinus pathways may vary within a wide range, depending on heart function conditions. During heart work normalization, the specific values of the outflow to the left heart are minimal, amounting on an average to 10%, those under heart perfusion with venous blood to 39%, reaching 64% after 30 minutes of ischemia. The data obtained indicate that the assessment of myocardial supply by the blood inflow to the coronary arteries cannot be regarded as adequate and that angina pectoris attacks may occur because of the shunt drainage of the coronary blood, by-passing the myocardial capillaries.

  15. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by /sup 3/H-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using /sup 3/H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and /sup 3/H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma.

  16. Distinct Pathways of Humoral and Cellular Immunity Induced with the Mucosal Administration of a Nanoemulsion Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Makidon, Paul E.; Janczak, Katarzyna W.; Blanco, Luz P.; Swanson, Benjamin; Smith, Douglas M.; Pham, Tiffany; Szabo, Zsuzsanna; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F.; Baker, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Nasal administration of an oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant W805EC produces potent systemic and mucosal, Th-1– and Th-17–balanced cellular responses. However, its molecular mechanism of action has not been fully characterized and is of particular interest because NE does not contain specific ligands for innate immune receptors. In these studies, we demonstrate that W805EC NE adjuvant activates innate immunity, induces specific gene transcription, and modulates NF-κB activity via TLR2 and TLR4 by a mechanism that appears to be distinct from typical TLR agonists. Nasal immunization with NE-based vaccine showed that the TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 pathways and IL-12 and IL-12Rβ1 expression are not required for an Ab response, but they are essential for the induction of balanced Th-1 polarization and Th-17 cellular immunity. NE adjuvant induces MHC class II, CD80, and CD86 costimulatory molecule expression and dendritic cell maturation. Further, upon immunization with NE, adjuvant mice deficient in the CD86 receptor had normal Ab responses but significantly reduced Th-1 cellular responses, whereas animals deficient in both CD80 and CD86 or lacking CD40 failed to produce either humoral or cellular immunity. Overall, our data show that intranasal administration of Ag with NE induces TLR2 and TLR4 activation along with a MyD88-independent Ab response and a MyD88-dependent Th-1 and Th-17 cell–mediated immune response. These findings suggest that the unique properties of NE adjuvant may offer novel opportunities for understanding previously unrecognized mechanisms of immune activation important for generating effective mucosal and systemic immune responses. PMID:24532579

  17. The three-dimensional organisation of the post-trabecular aqueous outflow pathway and limbal vasculature in the mouse.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Kidson, Susan H

    2014-08-01

    The mouse eye has been used as a model for studies on the microanatomy of the outflow pathways but most of what is known comes from histological sections. These studies have focused mainly on the morphological features of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal and aqueous channels that link to the superficial episcleral vasculature. However, the anatomical architecture of the aqueous outflow vessels and their relationship to each other and to the general vascular circulation is not well understood. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the microarchitecture of the aqueous outflow vessels and their relationship to the superficial limbal/episcleral vasculature throughout the entire limbus. The aqueous outflow vessels and blood and lymphatic vessels were imaged in PECAM-1 and LYVE-1 immunostained whole anterior segments of adult mice and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of the optical sections were generated to reveal the aqueous, blood and lymphatic architecture. The arterial supply, venous drainage, organisation of perilimbal vasculature, collector channels/aqueous veins and the morphology of Schlemm's canal were revealed in their entirety and the relationships between these structures is described. Schlemm's canal was PECAM-1 positive but there was no affinity for the lymphatic marker LYVE-1. We show that Schlemm's canal is a continuous circular structure and more often seen as a single, broad, varicose vessel with short regions appearing as a plexus. Aqueous veins link Schlemm's canal to the superficial vasculature and there were no direct links seen between the canal and the lymphatic vessels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Murine Humoral Immune Response to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Idiotype Network Pathways.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Michael Roy

    Recognition of a wide spectrum in disease outcomes following Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection has led to the suggestion that individual differences may be due to characteristics of the immune response. HBV, a hepatotropic virus, is not directly cytopathic to the host hepatocytes but the cellular damage which does not occur may be due to the host's own immune response. It is this variety in immune response capabilities following natural infection or vaccination which led to the present study in which the murine humoral immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was examined. Following immunization with purified HBsAg an anti-HBs response could be detected in 19 inbred strains of mice. The response, which varied among the strains, was linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Among high responders to HBsAg were two strains in which a poor response to a single epitope could be detected. Although quantitatively serum from these strains resembled serum from other high responders, there was a major difference in the qualitative aspects. Included within this study was the role of idotype networks within the murine anti-HBs response. By directly targeting HBsAg-specific B cells within the framework of an idiotype network by an Ab-2, it was possible to circumvent T cell-dependent regulation of an immune response. In each of five inbred strains of mice immunized with a polyclonal rabbit Ab-2 an Ab-3 population with HBsAg-specificity (Ab -1^') was induced. These mice were also immunized with HBsAg resulting in a higher anti-HBs response as compared to HBsAg immunization alone in all of the strains tested except for one. The response in this strain, normally a low responder to HBsAg, indicated that the mechanisms for genetic restriction of the anti -HBs response was still active, although it was not apparent during anti-Id immunization. The effects of an anti-Id on the murine antibody response to HBsAg may lead to insights on the presence of idiotype

  19. Profiling of Cytokines Secreted by Conventional Aqueous Outflow Pathway Endothelial Cells Activated In Vitro and Ex Vivo With Laser Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Jorge A.; Chau, Phuonglan; Wu, Jianfeng; Juster, Richard; Shifera, Amde Selassie; Geske, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To profile which cytokine genes are differentially expressed (DE) as up- or downregulated by cultured human trabecular meshwork (TMEs) and Schlemm's canal endothelial cells (SCEs) after three experimental treatments consisting of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) irradiation, exposure to media conditioned either by SLT-irradiated TMEs (TME-cm) or by SCEs (SCE-cm). Also, to profile which cytokines are upregulated ex vivo in SLT-irradiated human conventional aqueous outflow pathway (CAOP) tissues. Methods After each treatment, Affymetrix microarray assays were used to detect upregulated and downregulated genes for cytokines and their receptors in TMEs and SCEs. ELISA and protein antibody arrays were used to detect upregulated cytokines secreted in SLT-irradiated CAOP tissues ex vivo. Results The SLT irradiation upregulated numerous cytokine genes in TMEs, but only a few in SCEs. Exposure to TME- and SCE-cm induced SCEs to upregulate many more cytokine genes than TMEs. Selective laser trabeculoplasty irradiation and exposure to TME-cm downregulated several cytokine genes in TMEs but none in SCEs. Selective laser trabeculoplasty irradiation induced one upregulated and three downregulated cytokine-receptor genes in TMEs but none in SCEs. Exposure to TME-cm induced upregulation of one and downregulation of another receptor gene in TMEs, whereas two unique cytokine-receptor genes were upregulated in SCEs. Cytokine protein expression analysis showed that at least eight cytokines were upregulated in SLT-irradiated human CAOP tissues in situ/ex vivo. Conclusions This study has helped us identify a cytokine signaling pathway and to consider newly identified mechanisms regulating aqueous outflow that may lay the foundation for the future development of cytokine-based glaucoma therapies. PMID:26529044

  20. Relationships between increased aqueous outflow facility during washout with the changes in hydrodynamic pattern and morphology in bovine aqueous outflow pathways.

    PubMed

    Scott, Patrick A; Lu, Zhaozeng; Liu, Ye; Gong, Haiyan

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that the structural correlate for the increased outflow facility (C) during washout in the bovine eye is separation between the inner wall (IW) and underlying juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT). However, how these structural changes affect hydrodynamic patterns of outflow during washout has not been studied. We hypothesize that an increase in the outflow facility during washout is associated with an increase in the effective filtration area (EFA) of aqueous outflow, which is regulated by a loss of the connectivity between the IW and JCT. To test this hypothesis, the relationship between C and the hydrodynamic patterns of outflow as well as the morphological changes in JCT and IW during the washout were investigated. Ten bovine eyes were perfused at 15 mmHg with Dulbecco's PBS + 5.5 mM glucose (DPBS) for 30 min to establish stable baseline C. After measuring baseline C, five eyes (short-duration group) were perfused with 0.5 mL DPBS containing 0.002% microspheres (0.5 microm) to trace the hydrodynamic pattern of outflow. Five other eyes (long-duration group) were perfused for 3 h to elicit a significant washout effect followed by subsequent perfusion of the same volume (0.5 mL) of microspheres to map out the outflow pattern after washout. All eyes were then perfusion-fixed. Anterior segments were sectioned and prepared for confocal and light microscopy. Total length (TL) and filtration length (FL) of the IW were measured in > or =15 images/eye to calculate percent effective filtration length (PEFL = FL/TL) while TL and length exhibiting JCT/IW separation (SL) were measured in > or =13 images/eye to calculate percent separation length (PSL = SL/TL). In long-duration eyes, C increased 170.5 +/- 21.3% (mean +/- SEM, 1.55 +/- 0.24 vs 4.13 +/- 0.55 microl/min/mmHg, p = 0.001) above baseline. Pre-fixation C (4.13 +/- 0.55 microl/min/mmHg) in long-duration was 1.6-fold greater than that (2.14 +/- 0.61 microl/min/mmHg; p = 0.042) in short

  1. The Changing Paradigm of Outflow Resistance Generation: Towards Synergistic Models of the JCT and Inner Wall Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Darryl R.; Stamer, W. Daniel; Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous humor outflow resistance is the primary determinant of intraocular pressure (IOP), and increased outflow resistance is the basis for elevated IOP associated with glaucoma. Experimental evidence suggests that the bulk of outflow resistance is generated in the vicinity of the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm’s canal, its basement membrane and the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT). However, attempts to sort out the contribution of each of these tissues to total outflow resistance have not been successful. Conventional understanding of outflow resistance assumes that the resistance of each tissue strata (i.e., the inner wall endothelium, its basement membrane and JCT) in the outflow pathway adds in series to contribute to total outflow resistance generation. However, this perspective leads to a paradox where the apparent resistances of all tissues in the outflow pathway are much lower than the measured total resistance. To resolve this paradox, we explore synergistic models of outflow resistance generation where hydrodynamic interactions between different tissue strata lead to a total resistance that is greater than the sum of the individual tissue resistances. We closely examine the “funneling” hypothesis that has emerged as a leading synergistic model, and we review the basis of funneling, mechanical and biological requirements for funneling and evidence in support of this hypothesis. We also propose refinements to the funneling model and describe how funneling may relate to segmental variability of aqueous humor outflow patterns observed within the trabecular meshwork. Pressure gradients across the JCT and inner wall endothelium will generate mechanical loads that influence the morphology of these tissues. Because tissue morphology may in turn affect outflow resistance, there exists the potential for a two-way coupling or a “fluid-solid interaction” between outflow hydrodynamics and the mechanical behavior of the inner wall and JCT

  2. The exit strategy: Pharmacological modulation of extracellular matrix production and deposition for better aqueous humor drainage.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan P; Toris, Carol B

    2016-09-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an optic neuropathy and an irreversible blinding disease. The etiology of glaucoma is not known but numerous risk factors are associated with this disease including aging, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), race, myopia, family history and use of steroids. In POAG, the resistance to the aqueous humor drainage is increased leading to elevated IOP. Lowering the resistance and ultimately the IOP has been the only way to slow disease progression and prevent vision loss. The primary drainage pathway comprising of the trabecular meshwork (TM) is made up of relatively large porous beams surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). Its juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) or the cribriform meshwork is made up of cells embedded in dense ECM. The JCT is considered to offer the major resistance to the aqueous humor outflow. This layer is adjacent to the endothelial cells forming Schlemm's canal, which provides approximately 10% of the outflow resistance. The ECM in the TM and the JCT undergoes continual remodeling to maintain normal resistance to aqueous humor outflow. It is believed that the TM is a major contributor of ECM proteins and evidence points towards increased ECM deposition in the outflow pathway in POAG. It is not clear how and from where the ECM components emerge to hinder the normal aqueous humor drainage. This review focuses on the involvement of the ECM in ocular hypertension and glaucoma and the mechanisms by which various ocular hypotensive drugs, both current and emerging, target ECM production, remodeling, and deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glacial Lake Outflow via the St. Lawrence Pathway Prior to the Champlain Sea Invasion and During the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhietti, S.; Anderson, T. W.; Karrow, P. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Mott, R. J.; Parent, M.; Richard, P. J.; Rodrigues, C. G.; Stea, R.

    2005-12-01

    When the Laurentide Ice Sheet receded north of the Adirondacks, Glacial Lake Frontenac overflowed to Glacial Lake Vermont (Coveville phase)-Albany. The water level of Lake Frontenac fell by about 90 m, as a result of the drawdown, glacio-isostatic rebound and outflow of Lake Vermont-Albany through the Hudson Valley to the North Atlantic Ocean. Lake level stabilized to form the Belleville, Upper Fort-Ann, post-Sherbrooke phase of glacial lakes post-Iroquois, Vermont and Memphremagog, respectively. Initially, the confluent fresh-water body extended from the Lake Ontario basin into the upper St. Lawrence Valley, Lake Champlain basin and along the Appalachian piedmont. The outlet of the lake was the Upper Fort-Ann sill, along the Hudson pathway (Lake Albany). The expansion of the lake was time transgressive and related to the regional ice retreat. As the lake expanded across the lowlands, into the Ottawa and central St. Lawrence valleys, and along the Appalachian piedmont, its level fell by about 20 m, from the Belleville to the Trenton strandlines on the western side of the Adirondacks, and about 26 m (Rayburn, 2004) from the Upper to the Lower Fort-Ann strandlines in the Lake Champlain basin. The extent of the lake during its final stage is estimated at about 30,000 km2. Varves deposited in the deeper parts of the lake are characterized by the ostracode Candona subtriangulata. Varve counts from several reference sections provide an approximate duration for the glaciolacustrine phase in different parts of the lowlands. They range from about 50 to 30 yr in the lower Ottawa Valley, where the estimated depth was 180 to 200 m, about 100 yr along the Appalachian piedmont and, tentatively, to more than 160 yr in the Lake Champlain basin (Rayburn et al., 2005). The lake overflowed/drained suddenly to the east, toward the western arm of the Goldthwait Sea, in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, and hence into the North Atlantic Ocean. During this event, the water level fell

  4. Humoral pathway for transfer of the boar pheromone, androstenol, from the nasal mucosa to the brain and hypophysis of gilts.

    PubMed

    Krzymowski, T; Grzegorzewski, W; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Skipor, J; Wasowska, B

    1999-11-01

    Signaling and priming pheromones play an important role in intraspecies behavioral and sexual interactions and in the control of reproduction. It is generally accepted that pheromones act by stimulating the dendritic receptors in the mucus-imbedded cilia of olfactory neurons massed in the olfactory epithelium. The boar pheromone androstenol, known to induce sexual behavior in pigs, is 1 of 2 pheromones that have been chemically defined, tritiated and thus made available for use in studies. In Experiment 1, sexually mature cyclic gilts at Days 16 to 21 of the estrous cycle were humanely killed and the heads separated from the bodies. The heads were attached to a perfusion system using heated, oxygenated, heparinized, autologous blood. A total amount of 10(8) dpm (758 ng) of 3H-5 alpha-androstenol (3HA) was either infused into the angularis oculi veins that drain the nasal cavities (n = 7) over a 5-min period or applied through intranasal catheters onto the mucose surface (n = 16) for 2 min. In both groups frequent blood samples were collected from the carotid rete and from venous effluent. Concentration of 3HA in the arterial blood of the carotid rete after direct (into angularis oculi veins) or indirect (onto the nasal mucosa) administration of 3HA into veins draining the nasal cavities was significantly higher than background radioactivity before 3HA administration (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). The 3HA was selectively accumulated (compared with the respective control tissue) in the neurohypophysis (P < 0.001), adenohypophysis (P < 0.01), ventromedial hypothalamus (P < 0.05), corpus mammillare (P < 0.01), and perihypophyseal vascular complex (P < 0.001). In a second in vitro experiment, active uptake of 3HA into the nasal mucosa of the proximal, respiratory segment of the nasal cavity was observed. These results demonstrate a humoral pathway for the transfer of pheromones from the nasal cavity to the hypophysis and brain. Androstenol was taken up by the

  5. Molecular Outflows: Observed Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Lane, Adair P.

    Introduction Molecular Outflow Characteristics Recent Developments EHV CO Outflows Luminosity Dependence of Flow Properties and Statistics Optical and Near-IR Observations of Molecular Outflows Outflow Models

  6. Protostellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John

    2016-09-01

    Outflows from accreting, rotating, and magnetized systems are ubiquitous. Protostellar outflows can be observed from radio to X-ray wavelengths in the continuum and a multitude of spectral lines that probe a wide range of physical conditions, chemical phases, radial velocities, and proper motions. Wide-field visual and near-IR data, mid-IR observations from space, and aperture synthesis with centimeter- and millimeterwave interferometers are revolutionizing outflow studies. Many outflows originate in multiple systems and clusters. Although most flows are bipolar and some contain highly collimated jets, others are wide-angle winds, and a few are nearly isotropic and exhibit explosive behavior. Morphologies and velocity fields indicate variations in ejection velocity, mass-loss rate, and in some cases, flow orientation and degree of collimation. These trends indicate that stellar accretion is episodic and often occurs in a complex dynamical environment. Outflow power increases with source luminosity but decreases with evolutionary stage. The youngest outflows are small and best traced by molecules such as CO, SiO, H2O, and H2. Older outflows can grow to parsec scales and are best traced by shock-excited atoms and ions such as hydrogen-recombination lines, [Sii], and [Oii]. Outflows inject momentum and energy into their surroundings and provide an important mechanism in the self-regulation of star formation. However, momentum injection rates remain uncertain with estimates providing lower bounds.

  7. Role of nitric oxide in murine conventional outflow physiology

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jason Y. H.; Stamer, W. Daniel; Bertrand, Jacques; Read, A. Thomas; Marando, Catherine M.; Ethier, C. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for glaucoma. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) decreases IOP by increasing outflow facility, but whether endogenous NO production contributes to the physiological regulation of outflow facility is unclear. Outflow facility was measured by pressure-controlled perfusion in ex vivo eyes from C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) or transgenic mice expressing human endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) superimposed on the endogenously expressed murine eNOS (eNOS-GFPtg). In WT mice, exogenous NO delivered by 100 μM S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) increased outflow facility by 62 ± 28% (SD) relative to control eyes perfused with the inactive SNAP analog N-acetyl-d-penicillamine (NAP; n = 5, P = 0.016). In contrast, in eyes from eNOS-GFPtg mice, SNAP had no effect on outflow facility relative to NAP (−9 ± 4%, P = 0.40). In WT mice, the nonselective NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10 μM) decreased outflow facility by 36 ± 13% (n = 5 each, P = 0.012), but 100 μM l-NAME had no detectable effect on outflow facility (−16 ± 5%, P = 0.22). An eNOS-selective inhibitor (cavtratin, 50 μM) decreased outflow facility by 19 ± 12% in WT (P = 0.011) and 39 ± 25% in eNOS-GFPtg (P = 0.014) mice. In the conventional outflow pathway of eNOS-GFPtg mice, eNOS-GFP expression was localized to endothelial cells lining Schlemm's canal and the downstream vessels, with no apparent expression in the trabecular meshwork. These results suggest that endogenous NO production by eNOS within endothelial cells of Schlemm's canal or downstream vessels contributes to the physiological regulation of aqueous humor outflow facility in mice, representing a viable strategy to more successfully lower IOP in glaucoma. PMID:26040898

  8. Correction to "Asian chemical Outflow to the Pacific in Spring: Origins, Pathways, and Budgets" by Isabelle Bey et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Isabelle; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the Asian outflow of CO, ozone, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the Pacific in spring by using the GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and simulating the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) aircraft mission in February-March 1994. The GEOS-CHEM model uses assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). It reproduces relatively well the main features of tropospheric ozone, CO, and reactive nitrogen species observed in PEM-West B, including latitudinal and vertical gradients of the Asian pollution outflow over the western Pacific although simulated concentrations of CO tend to be too low (possibly because biogenic sources are underestimated). We use CO as a long-lived tracer to diagnose the processes contributing to the outflow. The highest concentrations in the outflow are in the boundary layer (0-2 km), but the strongest outflow fluxes are in the lower free troposphere (2-5 km) and reflect episodic lifting of pollution over central and eastern China ahead of eastward moving cold fronts. This frontal lifting, followed by westerly transport in the lower free troposphere, is the principal process responsible for export of both anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution from Asia. Anthropogenic emissions from Europe and biomass burning emissions from Africa make also major contributions to the Asian outflow over the western Pacific; European sources dominate in the lower troposphere north of 40 degrees N, while African sources are important in the upper troposphere at low latitudes. For the period of PEM-West B (February-March) we estimate that fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning make comparable contributions to the budgets of CO, ozone, and NO, in the Asian outflow. We find that 13% of NO, emitted in Asia is exported as NO, or PAN, a smaller fraction than for the United States because of higher aerosol concentrations that promote heterogeneous conversion of NOx to HNO3

  9. Correction to "Asian chemical Outflow to the Pacific in Spring: Origins, Pathways, and Budgets" by Isabelle Bey et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Isabelle; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the Asian outflow of CO, ozone, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the Pacific in spring by using the GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and simulating the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) aircraft mission in February-March 1994. The GEOS-CHEM model uses assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). It reproduces relatively well the main features of tropospheric ozone, CO, and reactive nitrogen species observed in PEM-West B, including latitudinal and vertical gradients of the Asian pollution outflow over the western Pacific although simulated concentrations of CO tend to be too low (possibly because biogenic sources are underestimated). We use CO as a long-lived tracer to diagnose the processes contributing to the outflow. The highest concentrations in the outflow are in the boundary layer (0-2 km), but the strongest outflow fluxes are in the lower free troposphere (2-5 km) and reflect episodic lifting of pollution over central and eastern China ahead of eastward moving cold fronts. This frontal lifting, followed by westerly transport in the lower free troposphere, is the principal process responsible for export of both anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution from Asia. Anthropogenic emissions from Europe and biomass burning emissions from Africa make also major contributions to the Asian outflow over the western Pacific; European sources dominate in the lower troposphere north of 40 degrees N, while African sources are important in the upper troposphere at low latitudes. For the period of PEM-West B (February-March) we estimate that fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning make comparable contributions to the budgets of CO, ozone, and NO, in the Asian outflow. We find that 13% of NO, emitted in Asia is exported as NO, or PAN, a smaller fraction than for the United States because of higher aerosol concentrations that promote heterogeneous conversion of NOx to HNO3

  10. Aqueous outflow: Segmental and distal flow

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Swarup S.; Oh, Dong-Jin; Kang, Min Hyung; Rhee, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A prominent risk factor of primary open-angle glaucoma is ocular hypertension, a pathologic state caused by impaired outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork within the iridocorneal angle. The juxtacanalicular region of the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of Schlemm canal have been identified as the main contributors to aqueous outflow resistance, and both extracellular matrix within the trabecular meshwork and trabecular meshwork cell shape have been shown to affect outflow. Overexpression of multiple ECM proteins in perfused cadaveric human eyes has led to increased outflow resistance and elevated IOP. Pharmacologic agents targeting trabecular meshwork cytoskeletal arrangements have been developed after multiple studies demonstrated the importance of cell shape on outflow. Several groups have shown that aqueous outflow occurs only at certain segments of the trabecular meshwork circumferentially, a concept known as segmental flow. This is based on the theory that aqueous outflow is dependent on the presence of discrete pores within the Schlemm canal. Segmental flow has been described in the eyes of multiple species, including primate, bovine, mouse, and human samples. While the trabecular meshwork appears to be the major source of resistance, trabecular meshwork bypass procedures have been unable to achieve the degree of IOP reduction observed with trabeculectomy, reflecting the potential impact of distal flow, or flow through Schlemm canal and collector channels, on outflow. Multiple studies have demonstrated that outflow occurs preferentially near collector channels, suggesting that these distal structures may be more important to aqueous outflow than previously believed. PMID:25088623

  11. Wholemount imaging reveals abnormalities of the aqueous outflow pathway and corneal vascularity in Foxc1 and Bmp4 heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Kidson, Susan H

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the FOXC1/Foxc1 gene in humans and mice and Bmp4 in mice are associated with congenital anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) and the development of the aqueous outflow structures throughout the limbus. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of anterior segment abnormalities in mouse models of ASD using a 3-D imaging approach. Holistic imaging information combined with quantitative measurements were carried out on PECAM-1 stained individual components of the aqueous outflow vessels and corneal vasculature of Foxc1(+/-) on the C57BL/6Jx129 and ICR backgrounds, Bmp4(+/-) ICR mice, and wildtype mice from each background. In both wildtype and heterozygotes, singular, bifurcated and plexus forms of Schlemm's canal were noted. Of note, missing portions of the canal were seen in the heterozygous groups but not in wildtype animals. In general, we found the number of collector channels to be reduced in both heterozygotes. Lastly, we found a significant increase in the complexity of the corneal arcades and their penetration into the cornea in heterozygotes as compared with wild types. In conclusion, our 3-D imaging studies have revealed a more complex arrangement of both the aqueous vessels and corneal arcades in Foxc1(+/-) and Bmp4(+/-) heterozygotes, and further advance our understanding of how such abnormalities could impact on IOP and the aetiology of glaucoma.

  12. Murine Dishevelled 3 Functions in Redundant Pathways with Dishevelled 1 and 2 in Normal Cardiac Outflow Tract, Cochlea, and Neural Tube Development

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, S. Leah; Ray, Saugata; Li, Shuangding; Hamblet, Natasha S.; Lijam, Nardos; Tsang, Michael; Greer, Joy; Kardos, Natalie; Wang, Jianbo; Sussman, Daniel J.; Chen, Ping; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are important signaling components of both the canonical β-catenin/Wnt pathway, which controls cell proliferation and patterning, and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which coordinates cell polarity within a sheet of cells and also directs convergent extension cell (CE) movements that produce narrowing and elongation of the tissue. Three mammalian Dvl genes have been identified and the developmental roles of Dvl1 and Dvl2 were previously determined. Here, we identify the functions of Dvl3 in development and provide evidence of functional redundancy among the three murine Dvls. Dvl3 −/− mice died perinatally with cardiac outflow tract abnormalities, including double outlet right ventricle and persistent truncus arteriosis. These mutants also displayed a misorientated stereocilia in the organ of Corti, a phenotype that was enhanced with the additional loss of a single allele of the PCP component Vangl2/Ltap (LtapLp/+). Although neurulation appeared normal in both Dvl3 −/− and LtapLp/+ mutants, Dvl3 +/−;LtapLp/+ combined mutants displayed incomplete neural tube closure. Importantly, we show that many of the roles of Dvl3 are also shared by Dvl1 and Dvl2. More severe phenotypes were observed in Dvl3 mutants with the deficiency of another Dvl, and increasing Dvl dosage genetically with Dvl transgenes demonstrated the ability of Dvls to compensate for each other to enable normal development. Interestingly, global canonical Wnt signaling appeared largely unaffected in the double Dvl mutants, suggesting that low Dvl levels are sufficient for functional canonical Wnt signals. In summary, we demonstrate that Dvl3 is required for cardiac outflow tract development and describe its importance in the PCP pathway during neurulation and cochlea development. Finally, we establish several developmental processes in which the three Dvls are functionally redundant. PMID:19008950

  13. Murine dishevelled 3 functions in redundant pathways with dishevelled 1 and 2 in normal cardiac outflow tract, cochlea, and neural tube development.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, S Leah; Ray, Saugata; Li, Shuangding; Hamblet, Natasha S; Lijam, Nardos; Tsang, Michael; Greer, Joy; Kardos, Natalie; Wang, Jianbo; Sussman, Daniel J; Chen, Ping; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are important signaling components of both the canonical beta-catenin/Wnt pathway, which controls cell proliferation and patterning, and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which coordinates cell polarity within a sheet of cells and also directs convergent extension cell (CE) movements that produce narrowing and elongation of the tissue. Three mammalian Dvl genes have been identified and the developmental roles of Dvl1 and Dvl2 were previously determined. Here, we identify the functions of Dvl3 in development and provide evidence of functional redundancy among the three murine Dvls. Dvl3(-/-) mice died perinatally with cardiac outflow tract abnormalities, including double outlet right ventricle and persistent truncus arteriosis. These mutants also displayed a misorientated stereocilia in the organ of Corti, a phenotype that was enhanced with the additional loss of a single allele of the PCP component Vangl2/Ltap (LtapLp/+). Although neurulation appeared normal in both Dvl3(-/-) and LtapLp/+ mutants, Dvl3(+/-);LtapLp/+ combined mutants displayed incomplete neural tube closure. Importantly, we show that many of the roles of Dvl3 are also shared by Dvl1 and Dvl2. More severe phenotypes were observed in Dvl3 mutants with the deficiency of another Dvl, and increasing Dvl dosage genetically with Dvl transgenes demonstrated the ability of Dvls to compensate for each other to enable normal development. Interestingly, global canonical Wnt signaling appeared largely unaffected in the double Dvl mutants, suggesting that low Dvl levels are sufficient for functional canonical Wnt signals. In summary, we demonstrate that Dvl3 is required for cardiac outflow tract development and describe its importance in the PCP pathway during neurulation and cochlea development. Finally, we establish several developmental processes in which the three Dvls are functionally redundant.

  14. Humor in Educational Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtler, Leo

    Humor can be a crucial factor of learning environments and of communication. Recent investigations of humor in educational settings mostly focus on learning performance. This paper shifts the attention to the enhancement of social climate through humor. Humor can be an element to solve critical social situations. To develop humor, it is necessary…

  15. Pharmacology of novel intraocular pressure-lowering targets that enhance conventional outflow facility: Pitfalls, promises and what lies ahead?

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Ganesh; Li, Byron; Mogi, Muneto; Rice, Dennis S

    2016-09-15

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering drugs that are approved for the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension have limited activity on increasing aqueous humor movement through the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal (TM/SC). The TM/SC complex is considered the conventional outflow pathway and is a primary site of increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow in glaucoma. Novel mechanisms that enhance conventional outflow have shown promise in IOP reduction via modulation of several pathways including Rho kinase, nitric oxide/soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP, adenosine A1, prostaglandin EP4/cAMP, and potassium channels. The clinical translatability of these pharmacological modulators based on pre-clinical efficacy models is currently being explored. In addition, identification of pathways from GWAS and other studies involving transgenic rodent models with elevated/reduced IOP phenotypes have begun to yield additional insights into IOP regulation and serve as a source for the next generation of IOP lowering targets. Lastly, improvements in drug delivery technologies to enable sustained IOP reduction are also discussed.

  16. TRPV4 regulates calcium homeostasis, cytoskeletal remodeling, conventional outflow and intraocular pressure in the mammalian eye

    PubMed Central

    Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Frye, Amber M.; Phuong, Tam T. T.; Yarishkin, Oleg; Jo, Andrew O.; Xu, Yong; Lakk, Monika; Iuso, Anthony; Redmon, Sarah N.; Ambati, Balamurali; Hageman, Gregory; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Torrejon, Karen Y.; Križaj, David

    2016-01-01

    An intractable challenge in glaucoma treatment has been to identify druggable targets within the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway, which is thought to be regulated/dysregulated by elusive mechanosensitive protein(s). Here, biochemical and functional analyses localized the putative mechanosensitive cation channel TRPV4 to the plasma membrane of primary and immortalized human TM (hTM) cells, and to human and mouse TM tissue. Selective TRPV4 agonists and substrate stretch evoked TRPV4-dependent cation/Ca2+ influx, thickening of F-actin stress fibers and reinforcement of focal adhesion contacts. TRPV4 inhibition enhanced the outflow facility and lowered perfusate pressure in biomimetic TM scaffolds populated with primary hTM cells. Systemic delivery, intraocular injection or topical application of putative TRPV4 antagonist prodrug analogs lowered IOP in glaucomatous mouse eyes and protected retinal neurons from IOP-induced death. Together, these findings indicate that TRPV4 channels function as a critical component of mechanosensitive, Ca2+-signaling machinery within the TM, and that TRPV4-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling regulates TM stiffness and outflow. Thus, TRPV4 is a potential IOP sensor within the conventional outflow pathway and a novel target for treating ocular hypertension. PMID:27510430

  17. TRPV4 regulates calcium homeostasis, cytoskeletal remodeling, conventional outflow and intraocular pressure in the mammalian eye.

    PubMed

    Ryskamp, Daniel A; Frye, Amber M; Phuong, Tam T T; Yarishkin, Oleg; Jo, Andrew O; Xu, Yong; Lakk, Monika; Iuso, Anthony; Redmon, Sarah N; Ambati, Balamurali; Hageman, Gregory; Prestwich, Glenn D; Torrejon, Karen Y; Križaj, David

    2016-08-11

    An intractable challenge in glaucoma treatment has been to identify druggable targets within the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway, which is thought to be regulated/dysregulated by elusive mechanosensitive protein(s). Here, biochemical and functional analyses localized the putative mechanosensitive cation channel TRPV4 to the plasma membrane of primary and immortalized human TM (hTM) cells, and to human and mouse TM tissue. Selective TRPV4 agonists and substrate stretch evoked TRPV4-dependent cation/Ca(2+) influx, thickening of F-actin stress fibers and reinforcement of focal adhesion contacts. TRPV4 inhibition enhanced the outflow facility and lowered perfusate pressure in biomimetic TM scaffolds populated with primary hTM cells. Systemic delivery, intraocular injection or topical application of putative TRPV4 antagonist prodrug analogs lowered IOP in glaucomatous mouse eyes and protected retinal neurons from IOP-induced death. Together, these findings indicate that TRPV4 channels function as a critical component of mechanosensitive, Ca(2+)-signaling machinery within the TM, and that TRPV4-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling regulates TM stiffness and outflow. Thus, TRPV4 is a potential IOP sensor within the conventional outflow pathway and a novel target for treating ocular hypertension.

  18. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. American Humor. [Course Syllabus].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, David E. E.

    This syllabus describes a three-credit course entitled "American Humor," offered at the University of New Haven (Connecticut). According to the syllabus, "American Humor" will identify traits of American humor as historical phenomena with relations to national character, business attitudes, regionalism, folk humor, and health;…

  20. Inhibitory humoral responses to the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate EBA-175 are independent of the erythrocyte invasion pathway.

    PubMed

    Badiane, Aida S; Bei, Amy K; Ahouidi, Ambroise D; Patel, Saurabh D; Salinas, Nichole; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndir, Omar; Tolia, Niraj H; Mboup, Souleymane; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2013-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum utilizes multiple ligand-receptor interactions for invasion. The invasion ligand EBA-175 is being developed as a major blood-stage vaccine candidate. EBA-175 mediates parasite invasion of host erythrocytes in a sialic acid-dependent manner through its binding to the erythrocyte receptor glycophorin A. In this study, we addressed the ability of naturally acquired human antibodies against the EBA-175 RII erythrocyte-binding domain to inhibit parasite invasion of ex vivo isolates, in relationship to the sialic acid dependence of these parasites. We have determined the presence of antibodies to the EBA-175 RII domain by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in individuals from areas of Senegal where malaria is endemic with high and low transmission. Using affinity-purified human antibodies to the EBA-175 RII domain from pooled patient plasma, we have measured the invasion pathway as well as the invasion inhibition of clinical isolates from Senegalese patients in ex vivo assays. Our results suggest that naturally acquired anti-EBA-175 RII antibodies significantly inhibit invasion of Senegalese parasites and that these responses can be significantly enhanced through limiting other ligand-receptor interactions. However, the extent of this functional inhibition by EBA-175 antibodies is not associated with the sialic acid dependence of the parasite strain, suggesting that erythrocyte invasion pathway usage by parasite strains is not driven by antibodies targeting the EBA-175/glycophorin A interaction. This work has implications for vaccine design based on the RII domain of EBA-175 in the context of alternative invasion pathways.

  1. Inhibitory Humoral Responses to the Plasmodium falciparum Vaccine Candidate EBA-175 Are Independent of the Erythrocyte Invasion Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Badiane, Aida S.; Bei, Amy K.; Ahouidi, Ambroise D.; Patel, Saurabh D.; Salinas, Nichole; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndir, Omar; Tolia, Niraj H.; Mboup, Souleymane

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum utilizes multiple ligand-receptor interactions for invasion. The invasion ligand EBA-175 is being developed as a major blood-stage vaccine candidate. EBA-175 mediates parasite invasion of host erythrocytes in a sialic acid-dependent manner through its binding to the erythrocyte receptor glycophorin A. In this study, we addressed the ability of naturally acquired human antibodies against the EBA-175 RII erythrocyte-binding domain to inhibit parasite invasion of ex vivo isolates, in relationship to the sialic acid dependence of these parasites. We have determined the presence of antibodies to the EBA-175 RII domain by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in individuals from areas of Senegal where malaria is endemic with high and low transmission. Using affinity-purified human antibodies to the EBA-175 RII domain from pooled patient plasma, we have measured the invasion pathway as well as the invasion inhibition of clinical isolates from Senegalese patients in ex vivo assays. Our results suggest that naturally acquired anti-EBA-175 RII antibodies significantly inhibit invasion of Senegalese parasites and that these responses can be significantly enhanced through limiting other ligand-receptor interactions. However, the extent of this functional inhibition by EBA-175 antibodies is not associated with the sialic acid dependence of the parasite strain, suggesting that erythrocyte invasion pathway usage by parasite strains is not driven by antibodies targeting the EBA-175/glycophorin A interaction. This work has implications for vaccine design based on the RII domain of EBA-175 in the context of alternative invasion pathways. PMID:23761656

  2. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  3. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  4. Humor. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)

  5. Humor. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)

  6. Cellular basis for bimatoprost effects on human conventional outflow.

    PubMed

    Stamer, W Daniel; Piwnica, David; Jolas, Thierry; Carling, Robert W; Cornell, Clive L; Fliri, Hans; Martos, Jose; Pettit, Simon N; Wang, Jenny W; Woodward, David F

    2010-10-01

    Bimatoprost is a widely used ocular hypotensive agent to treat glaucoma. It lowers intraocular pressure in humans by increasing both pressure-independent (uveoscleral) and pressure-dependent (conventional) aqueous humor outflow. The present study specifically examines bimatoprost effects on the cells that populate human outflow tissues. The authors tested for prostamide receptor activation in primary cultures of human trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC), and ciliary smooth muscle (CSM) cells using cellular dielectric spectroscopy (CDS). The authors observed that bimatoprost produced an immediate and concentration-dependent increase in cell monolayer impedance for TM, SC, and CSM cells with EC(50) values of 4.3, 1.2, and 1.7 nM, respectively; corresponding to decreased cell contractility. Notably, in TM, SC, and CSM cells, bimatoprost was approximately equipotent to the selective FP receptor agonists fluprostenol and 17-phenyl PGF(2α). Bimatoprost effects were insensitive to cholera toxin and pertussis toxin but were abolished by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate pretreatment, suggesting Gq-involvement in cell signaling. The effects of bimatoprost on TM and SC cells were inhibited by the prostamide receptor antagonist AGN211334, with IC(50) values of 1.2 and 3.3 μM, respectively. Interestingly, AGN211334 behaved as an apparent inverse agonist in CDS assays involving TM cells but as a neutral prostamide antagonist with SC cells. Taken together, results suggest that bimatoprost specifically activates receptors in both cell types of the human conventional outflow pathway to modify intraocular pressure. However, only TM cell monolayers appear to have autocrine, or agonist-independent, receptor signaling that is sensitive to a prostamide receptor antagonist.

  7. Humor in medicine.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  8. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  9. Humor's healing potential.

    PubMed

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  10. Sense of Humor Preferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2007-01-01

    Humor is a powerful tool. It can disarm an adversary. It can leaven the purposefully self-aggrandizing nature of a job interview. Perhaps most important, it can serve as a window to personality in the same way that a resume is a window to experience. In this article, the author emphasizes the value of having a sense of humor. He emphasizes that it…

  11. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  12. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  13. Sense of Humor Preferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2007-01-01

    Humor is a powerful tool. It can disarm an adversary. It can leaven the purposefully self-aggrandizing nature of a job interview. Perhaps most important, it can serve as a window to personality in the same way that a resume is a window to experience. In this article, the author emphasizes the value of having a sense of humor. He emphasizes that it…

  14. Humor and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  15. Statistics? You Must Be Joking: The Application and Evaluation of Humor when Teaching Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, David L.; Hood, Michelle; Neumann, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Humor has been promoted as a teaching tool that enhances student engagement and learning. The present report traces the pathway from research to practice by reflecting upon various ways to incorporate humor into the face-to-face teaching of statistics. The use of humor in an introductory university statistics course was evaluated via interviews…

  16. The Humor in Horror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  17. Memory for humorous cartoons.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S R; Williams, A R

    2001-03-01

    Incidental memory for three types of cartoons was compared: original cartoons, literal translations of the originals, and weird cartoons created by inserting incongruous material into the literal translations. In Experiment 1, the three types of cartoons were mixed together in lists. In Experiment 2, each list contained only two cartoon types. In both experiments, original cartoons were remembered better than the literal and the weird cartoons, whereas the literal and the weird cartoons were equally well remembered. The detection of incongruities, or attempts to resolve those incongruities, cannot adequately explain the observed humor effects. The results were also inconsistent with both rehearsal and distinctiveness interpretations. Rather, humor per se appears to support good memory performance. Perhaps participants elaborated or gave sustained attention to humorous material at the expense of less humorous material.

  18. The origin of humor.

    PubMed

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  19. Humor and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  20. Circadian Variation of Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Older Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Cherie B.; Malihi, Mehrdad; McLaren, Jay W.; Hodge, David O.; Sit, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Intraocular pressure in the sitting position changes minimally during sleep, although aqueous humor flow decreases by 50% or more at night. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy has been unclear. This study investigated the roles of outflow facility, episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow in maintaining IOP at night. Methods. Forty-two eyes of 21 healthy subjects (age 47–76 years, mean 59 years) were studied. Aqueous humor flow rate, IOP in the sitting position, outflow facility, and EVP were measured in each eye during the middiurnal period (2:00–4:00 PM). Uveoscleral flow was calculated from the other variables by using the modified Goldmann equation. These variables were remeasured during the midnocturnal period (2:00–4:00 AM) and compared with those measured during the diurnal period by using generalized estimating equation models. Results. Intraocular pressure did not change from the middiurnal period (13.9 ± 3.0 mm Hg) to the midnocturnal period (13.0 ± 1.8 mm Hg, mean ± SD, P = 0.07), although aqueous humor flow rate decreased from 2.48 ± 0.96 μL/min to 1.27 ± 0.63 μL/min (P < 0.001). Outflow facility decreased from 0.23 ± 0.06 μL/min/mm Hg to 0.20 ± 0.06 μL/min/mm Hg (P = 0.004), and EVP was unchanged from the middiurnal period (7.4 ± 1.8 mm Hg) to the midnocturnal period (7.4 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.95). Uveoscleral outflow decreased 93%, from 0.94 ± 1.26 μL/min during the middiurnal period to 0.07 ± 0.78 μL/min (P = 0.008) during the midnocturnal period. Conclusions. The nocturnal decrease in aqueous humor flow rate in older, healthy subjects is compensated by a small decrease in outflow facility and a large decrease in uveoscleral outflow to maintain a stable IOP. PMID:24243986

  1. Constructal law analysis of Cl(-) transport in eyes aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Umberto; Grisolia, Giulia; Astori, Maria Rosa

    2017-07-31

    Progressive loss-of-vision related to any intraocular disorder is known as glaucoma. Secretion of aqueous humor is physiologically important to provide nutrients and oxygen to the avascular anterior segment and ensuring normal visual function, even if, nowadays reducing the secretory rate to lower intraocular pressure is a major strategy in treating glaucomatous patients. Understanding the mechanisms and regulation of aqueous humor formation is very important to develop possible new approaches to lower intraocular pressure,but today there isn't any comprehensive model of the regulation of these component in forming aqueous humor. In this paper Construcal law is used to suggest how the Cl(-) fluxes can determine the water inflow and outflow, and, consequently, how the intraocular pressure is controlled by these fluxes.

  2. The Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator IWP-953 Increases Conventional Outflow Facility in Mouse Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Pei; Navarro, Iris D.; Kessler, Marco M.; Bernier, Sylvie G.; Perl, Nicholas R.; Sarno, Renee; Masferrer, Jaime; Hannig, Gerhard; Stamer, W. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The nitric oxide (NO)–cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway regulates aqueous humor outflow and therefore, intraocular pressure. We investigated the pharmacologic effects of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator IWP-953 on primary human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells and conventional outflow facility in mouse eyes. Methods Cyclic GMP levels were determined in vitro in HEK-293 cells and four HTM cell strains (HTM120/HTM123: predominantly myofibroblast-like phenotype, HTM130/HTM141: predominantly endothelial-like phenotype), and in HTM cell culture supernatants. Conventional outflow facility was measured following intracameral injection of IWP-953 or DETA-NO using a computerized pressure-controlled perfusion system in enucleated mouse eyes ex vivo. Results IWP-953 markedly stimulated cGMP production in HEK-293 cells in the presence and absence of DETA-NO (half maximal effective concentrations: 17 nM, 9.5 μM). Similarly, IWP-953 stimulated cGMP production in myofibroblast-like HTM120 and HTM123 cells, an effect that was greatly amplified by the presence of DETA-NO. In contrast, IWP-953 stimulation of cGMP production in endothelial-like HTM130 and HTM141 cells was observed, but was markedly less prominent than in HTM120 and HTM123 cells. Notably, cGMP was found in all HTM culture supernatants, following IWP-953/DETA-NO stimulation. In paired enucleated mouse eyes, IWP-953 at 10, 30, 60, and 100 μM concentration-dependently increased outflow facility. This effect (89.5%) was maximal at 100 μM (P = 0.002) and in magnitude comparable to DETA-NO at 100 μM (97.5% increase, P = 0.030). Conclusions These data indicate that IWP-953, via modulation of the sGC–cGMP pathway, increases aqueous outflow facility in mouse eyes, suggesting therapeutic potential for sGC stimulators as novel ocular hypotensive drugs. PMID:26998718

  3. [Humoral sleep theories].

    PubMed

    Radulovački, Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    The common feature that characterized humoral theories of sleep is the production and accumulation of certain substances, usually end-products of metabolism, either in the tissues, in general, or in certain organs, such as the brain. When a definite concentration of such substances has been reached, the activity of the brain is depressed either directly, or through indirect influences, like vasoconstriction or asphyxia. The gradual removal of these substances during sleep leads to a return to the waking state. Humoral sleep theories were popular in the twentieth century. However, none of them lasted for a long time since either their authors or other investigators were not able to repeat them. Thus, this brief review mentions only a few of them. Today, humoral sleep theories are only of historic interest to sleep researchers and illustrate the creativity and the rich imagination of our predecessors.

  4. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  5. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  6. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  7. Using Humor in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  8. "Tickle Your Storybone": Humorous Storytelling!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klor, Ellin

    1991-01-01

    Describes methods to use for successful humorous storytelling. Guidelines for story selection, preparation, and presentation are discussed in relation to various age groups from preschoolers through adolescents; types of humor are described; appropriate humorous stories and collections are suggested; and methods for learning a new story are…

  9. Humor Competence: The Fifth Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Gladys M.

    The production and understanding of humor calls for a specific competence. It appears that second language learners fail to develop this competence even when they reach native-like proficiency levels. A review of the literature suggests that the notion of humor competence in second language learning has not been examined. Humor competence can be…

  10. Humor Hints for School Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bryan

    An attempt is made to show or suggest to the newcomer, whether adviser or reporter, some of the humor forms, devices, or ideas that can be used in a school publication. Twenty-four different types of humorous devices are included. These are boners (humorous errors); howlers (play on words); the pun; ethical light verse and limericks; humorous…

  11. Using Humor in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  12. Humor as a teaching strategy.

    PubMed

    Parrott, T E

    1994-01-01

    Nurse educators often look for alternate teaching strategies to increase students' attention, comprehension, motivation, and retention of content. Frequently, the use of humor has been shown qualitatively to be such a strategy. The author gives some of the theoretical basis for the use of humor in education and some examples of how humor has been used in her own teaching.

  13. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  14. Teaching the Psychology of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endlich, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the study of the psychology of humor integrates areas such as child development stereotyping and creativity. Describes an undergraduate college-level course in which students apply psychological theories of humor to understand both popular humor and experiences in everyday life. (CFR)

  15. "Tickle Your Storybone": Humorous Storytelling!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klor, Ellin

    1991-01-01

    Describes methods to use for successful humorous storytelling. Guidelines for story selection, preparation, and presentation are discussed in relation to various age groups from preschoolers through adolescents; types of humor are described; appropriate humorous stories and collections are suggested; and methods for learning a new story are…

  16. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  17. Directly Driven Ion Outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Moore, T. E.; Russell, C. T.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We examine ionospheric outflows in the high altitude magnetospheric polar cap during the POLAR satellite's apogee on April 19, 1996 using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) instrument. The elevated levels of O(+) observed in this pass may be due to the geophysical conditions during and prior to the apogee pass. In addition to the high abundance of O(+) relative to H(+), several other aspects of this data are noteworthy. We observe relationships between the density, velocity, and temperature which appear to be associated with perpendicular heating and the mirror force, rather than adiabatic expansion. The H(+) outflow is at a fairly constant flux which is consistent with being source limited by charge exchange at lower altitudes. Local centrifugal acceleration in the polar cap is found to be insufficient to account for the main variations we observe in the outflow velocity. The solar wind speed is high during this pass approximately 700 kilometers per second, and there are Alfve'n waves present in the solar wind such that the solar wind speed and IMF Bx are correlated. In this pass both the H(+) and O(+) outflow velocities correlate with both the solar wind speed and IMF fluctuations. Polar cap magnetometer and Hydra electron data show the same long period wave structure as found in the solar wind and polar cap ion outflow. In addition, the polar cap Poynting flux along the magnetic field direction correlates well with the H(+) temperature (R=0.84). We conclude that the solar wind can drive polar cap ion outflow particularly during polar squalls by setting up a parallel drop that is tens of eV which then causes the ion outflow velocity of O(+) and H(+), the electrons, and magnetic perturbations to vary in a similar fashion.

  18. Outflow Propagation in Collapsars: Collimated Jets And Expanding Outflows

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, A.; Yamasaki, T.; Nagataki, S.; Mineshige, S.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-06-08

    We investigate the outflow propagation in the collapsar in the context of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with 2D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. We vary the specific internal energy and bulk Lorentz factor of the injected outflow from non-relativistic regime to relativistic one, fixing the power of the outflow to be 10{sup 51}erg s{sup -1}. We observed the collimated outflow, when the Lorentz factor of the injected outflow is roughly greater than 2. To the contrary, when the velocity of the injected outflow is slower, the expanding outflow is observed. The transition from collimated jet to expanding outflow continuously occurs by decreasing the injected velocity. Different features of the dynamics of the outflows would cause the difference between the GRBs and similar phenomena, such as, X-ray flashes.

  19. On Humorous Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menair, Marion Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the patterns and uses of transgressive humor and sexual talk that male traders from Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) indulge in when at their leisure from trading. I investigate how cultural conceptualizations or ideologies are brought into the present moment through discursive interaction and how the cultural signs…

  20. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  1. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  2. On Humorous Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menair, Marion Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the patterns and uses of transgressive humor and sexual talk that male traders from Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) indulge in when at their leisure from trading. I investigate how cultural conceptualizations or ideologies are brought into the present moment through discursive interaction and how the cultural signs…

  3. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  4. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The aqueous humor (AH) is the fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. Its main roles are to provide nourishment and metabolic waste removal to active metabolic ocular structures that are avascular and to contribute maintaining a normal intraocular pressure (IOP) without altering the refractive status of the eye. Its composition and the fluid dynamics associated with its flow are voluble and undergo changes associated with age and disease. Of particular importance is that the resistance to the outflow of AH from the anterior chamber is influenced by morphologic, physiologic, and biochemical dynamic factors.1 Beside aqueous nutritional importance, its solutes also participate in establishing the anterior chamber associate immune deviation, and carry and distribute the different proteins and molecules that promote and direct tissue remodeling and changes in the anterior segment that are associated with both age and disease. PMID:26337760

  5. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  6. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  7. VEGF as a Paracrine Regulator of Conventional Outflow Facility

    PubMed Central

    Reina-Torres, Ester; Wen, Joanne C.; Liu, Katy C.; Li, Guorong; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Chang, Jason Y. H.; Challa, Pratap; Flügel-Koch, Cassandra M.; Stamer, W. Daniel; Allingham, R. Rand; Overby, Darryl R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates microvascular endothelial permeability, and the permeability of Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelium influences conventional aqueous humor outflow. We hypothesize that VEGF signaling regulates outflow facility. Methods We measured outflow facility (C) in enucleated mouse eyes perfused with VEGF-A164a, VEGF-A165b, VEGF-D, or inhibitors to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). We monitored VEGF-A secretion from human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells by ELISA after 24 hours of static culture or cyclic stretch. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to localize VEGF-A protein within the TM of mice. Results VEGF-A164a increased C in enucleated mouse eyes. Cyclic stretch increased VEGF-A secretion by human TM cells, which corresponded to VEGF-A localization in the TM of mice. Blockade of VEGFR-2 decreased C, using either of the inhibitors SU5416 or Ki8751 or the inactive splice variant VEGF-A165b. VEGF-D increased C, which could be blocked by Ki8751. Conclusions VEGF is a paracrine regulator of conventional outflow facility that is secreted by TM cells in response to mechanical stress. VEGF affects facility via VEGFR-2 likely at the level of SC endothelium. Disruption of VEGF signaling in the TM may explain why anti-VEGF therapy is associated with decreased outflow facility and sustained ocular hypertension. PMID:28358962

  8. A Shocking Outflow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-28

    This image shows an outflow of gas from a new star as it jets from a space object dubbed IRAS 21078+5211. The reddish blob in its center, as picked up by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope contrasts nicely with the clouds, colored green, that surround it.

  9. METALLICITY AND QUASAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Yuan, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Correlations of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the C IV line, with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, are investigated. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to C IV increase prominently with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of the dominant coolant, C IV line, decreases, and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using Si IV+O IV]/C IV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicity and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7-6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely by affecting outflow acceleration. This effect may have a profound impact on galaxy evolution via momentum feedback and chemical enrichment.

  10. Metallicity and Quasar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Tinggui

    2012-06-01

    Correlations of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the C IV line, with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, are investigated. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to C IV increase prominently with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of the dominant coolant, C IV line, decreases, and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using Si IV+O IV]/C IV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicity and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7-6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely by affecting outflow acceleration. This effect may have a profound impact on galaxy evolution via momentum feedback and chemical enrichment.

  11. GALAXY OUTFLOWS WITHOUT SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Sur, Sharanya; Scannapieco, Evan; Ostriker, Eve C. E-mail: sharanya.sur@asu.edu

    2016-02-10

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have ≈50–100 km s{sup −1} line of sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds ≈35 km s{sup −1}, as occurs in the dense disks that have star-formation rate (SFR) densities above ≈0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These outflows are triggered by a thermal runaway, arising from the inefficient cooling of hot material coupled with successive heating from turbulent driving. Thus, even in the absence of stellar feedback, a critical value of the SFR density for outflow generation can arise due to a turbulent heating instability. This suggests that in strongly self-gravitating disks, outflows may be enhanced by, but need not caused by, energy input from supernovae.

  12. Humor. An antidote for terrorism.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Elaine Anne

    2003-12-01

    It has been more than 2 years since the terrorist attacks of September 11, and the emotional fallout is still being felt. Nurses need to understand the crisis presented by terrorism and explore ways of dealing with it. The purpose of this article is to discuss humor as a means of facilitating coping with terrorism. Terrorism is a humanly caused disaster that threatens the physical, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of one's personhood. The effects of humor strengthen these dimensions of self. In trying to deal with a terrorist event, people pass through several phases of emotional adjustment. Humor is a holistic, noninvasive strategy that may facilitate that adjustment and may be used effectively to heal both survivor-clients and disaster personnel who are working with them. Awareness of the phases of emotional adjustment, associated humor styles, and ways to incorporate therapeutic humor into crisis management approaches are essential for effectively using humor as an antidote for terrorism.

  13. Humoral pathway for local transfer of the priming pheromone androstenol from the nasal cavity to the brain and hypophysis in anaesthetized gilts.

    PubMed

    Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Krzymowski, T; Grzegorzewski, W; W sowska, B; Skipor, J

    2000-11-01

    from the nasal cavity into the venous blood. Moreover, we found that 3H-A was present in the olfactory bulb (P <0.01), amygdala, septum, hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis (P > 0.05) and perihypophyseal vascular complex (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that, in anaesthetized gilts, the boar pheromone androstenol may be resorbed from the nasal mucosa, transferred in the perihypophyseal vascular complex into arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis, and then arrested in the hypophysis and certain brain structures. We suggest that in addition to the standard neural pathway for signalling pheromones, another pathway exists whereby androstenol, as a priming pheromone, may be resorbed from the nasal cavity into the bloodstream and then pass locally from the perihypophyseal vascular complex into the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis, thus avoiding the first passage metabolism in the liver.

  14. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  15. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  16. Aquaporin-1 Expression and Conventional Aqueous Outflow in Human Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Stamer, W. Daniel; Chan, Darren W.H.; Conley, Shannon M.; Coons, Serena; Ethier, C. Ross

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin channels facilitate the enhanced permeability of secretory and absorptive tissues to water. In the conventional drainage tract, aquaporin-1 is expressed but its contribution to outflow facility is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of elevated aquaporin-1 expression by cells of the human conventional drainage pathway on outflow facility. Using thirteen pairs of human anterior segments in organ culture, we modified aquaporin-1 protein expression in outflow cells using adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1. Contralateral anterior segments served as controls and were transduced with adenovirus encoding beta galactosidase. By confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed that inner trabecular meshwork cells from anterior segments exposed to adenovirus (via injection into the inlet tubing during perfusion) had increased aquaporin-1 protein expression compared to endogenous levels. In contrast, elevation of aquaporin-1 protein in outer meshwork cells (juxtacanalicular region) and Schlemm’s canal required transduction of adenovirus into anterior segments using retroperfusion via episcleral veins. Regardless of exposure route, outflow facility of experimental segments was not different than control. Specifically, overexpression of aquaporin-1 in the inner meshwork resulted in an average facility change of −2.0 ± 9.2 %, while overexpression of aquaporin-1 in the resistance-generating region changed outflow facility by −3.2 ± 11.2 %. Taken together, these results indicate that a transcellular pathway, mediated by aquaporin-1, does not contribute significantly to bulk outflow through the conventional aqueous outflow tract of human eyes. PMID:18657536

  17. Chryse Outflow Channel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-08

    A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander. This image is a composite of NASA's Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00418

  18. The mass and momentum outflow rates of photoionized galactic outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti, Christy A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei

    2017-08-01

    Galactic outflows are believed to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies, but estimates of the outflowing mass and momentum have historically been based on uncertain assumptions. Here, we measure the mass, momentum and energy outflow rates of seven nearby star-forming galaxies using ultraviolet absorption lines and observationally motivated estimates for the density, metallicity, and radius of the outflow. Low-mass galaxies generate outflows faster than their escape velocities with mass outflow rates up to twenty times larger than their star formation rates. These outflows from low-mass galaxies also have momenta larger than provided from supernovae alone, indicating that multiple momentum sources drive these outflows. Only 1-20 per cent of the supernovae energy is converted into kinetic energy, and this fraction decreases with increasing stellar mass, such that low-mass galaxies drive more efficient outflows. We find scaling relations between the outflows and the stellar mass of their host galaxies (M*) at the 2-3σ significance level. The mass-loading factor, or the mass outflow rate divided by the star formation rate, scales as M_\\ast ^{-0.4} and with the circular velocity as v_circ^{-1.6}. The scaling of the mass-loading factor is similar to recent simulations, but the observations are a factor of 5 smaller, possibly indicating that there is a substantial amount of unprobed gas in a different ionization phase. The outflow momenta are consistent with a model where star formation drives the outflow while gravity counteracts this acceleration.

  19. Humoral immunity and bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Stead, A; Douglas, J G; Broadfoot, C J; Kaminski, E R; Herriot, R

    2002-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is a common complication of primary antibody deficiency but the incidence of antibody deficiency as an underlying cause of bronchiectasis is largely undefined. In this study the humoral immune status of a cohort of bronchiectatic patients was investigated to detect the frequency of significant antibody deficiency and to determine the extent of immunological investigation which is appropriate for routine assessment of bronchiectasis patients. Fifty-six out-patients (with a mean age of 59·6 years) had serum immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses and specific antibodies to capsular polysaccharides of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae measured. Where specific antibody levels were low, where possible, appropriate immunization with pneumococcal or conjugated Haemophilus polysaccharide vaccines was offered and the responses quantified. Three of 56 patients had low total serum IgG levels. Thirteen of 56 had deficiencies of either a single IgG subclass or combinations of two or more subclasses, with IgG4 being most frequently implicated (9/56). Twenty-nine of 56 had low basal specific polysaccharide antibody levels. Test immunization, where performed, produced satisfactory responses in all cases except one, where a specific defect of responsiveness to pneumococcal polysaccharide was identified. This study indicates that antibody deficiency is an uncommon aetiological/underlying factor in the causation of bronchiectasis beyond the fourth decade and that detailed investigation of humoral immune status as a routine in bronchiectasis patients, at least at this age, is not generally justified. PMID:12390323

  20. Aqueous humor dynamics in beagle dogs with caffeine-induced ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kurata, K; Fujimoto, H; Tsukuda, R; Suzuki, T; Ando, T; Tokuriki, M

    1998-06-01

    In order to investigate the possible mechanisms for caffeine-induced ocular hypertension, the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the outflow through the trabecular meshwork were measured in beagle dog eyes after dosing with intravenous caffeine (30 mg/kg) alone or in combination with the topical beta-blocker befunolol [applied as 100 microliters of a 1% (w/v) solution] which inhibits aqueous humor formation in the ciliary body. Intravenous injections of caffeine significantly increased the IOP at 0.25 and 1 hr after a single dose. The ocular hypertension recovered within 2 hr following dosing. Over time, there were no differences in the outflow between the caffeine and control groups. The instillation of befunolol lowered outflow and produced ocular hypotension. The levels of the IOP and outflow in dogs treated with caffeine and befunolol in combination were almost the same as those in dogs treated with befunolol alone. Single-dose and combination-dose studies demonstrate that intravenous caffeine increases the IOP in normal beagle dogs possibly by increasing aqueous humor formation and not by the inhibition of aqueous humor drainage through the trabecular meshwork.

  1. Some Humor in the Bible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehlk, Heinz D.

    The Bible contains a variety of literary genres including drama, tragedy, and epic poetry, and it is an excellent basis for character study. It also contains a certain amount of humor, which should not be overlooked by students of biblical literature. Examples of intentional humor include the second version of the creation, found in the second…

  2. The Scoop on Good Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends teaching about the uses of humor in technical writing classes by using computer user manuals. Suggests that humor has a place in technical communication, particularly in computer manuals, where new users' apprehension must be reduced, heavy technical points need clarification, and warnings and cautions should be reinforced. (SKC)

  3. Some Humor in the Bible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehlk, Heinz D.

    The Bible contains a variety of literary genres including drama, tragedy, and epic poetry, and it is an excellent basis for character study. It also contains a certain amount of humor, which should not be overlooked by students of biblical literature. Examples of intentional humor include the second version of the creation, found in the second…

  4. Cartoon humor in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Pease, R A

    1991-01-01

    The use of cartoons and humor in nursing education has had a positive effect on learning: Humor promotes group unity, relieves tension, and stimulates creative thinking. Cartoons have been used to help nursing students identify and examine stereotypes, an important part of their education, because they must provide care to many people of different ages and cultural backgrounds.

  5. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  6. Aqueous humor changes after experimental filtering surgery.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J; Claflin, A; Fiorentino, G

    1980-02-01

    We studied aqueous humor of rhesus and owl monkeys for its effect on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture. Aqueous humor samples obtained before glaucoma surgery inhibited the initiation of growth of fibroblasts. However, postoperative aqueous humor samples supported growth of fibroblasts. The change in aqueous humor physiology lasted for up to two months after glaucoma surgery. Our study indicated that possibly material added to the postoperative aqueous humor inactivates an inhibitor normally present in primary aqueous humor. An alternative explanation would be that primary aqueous humor, in contrast to secondary aqueous humor, lacks sufficient nutrient material to support fibroblast growth in tissue culture.

  7. Chryse Outflow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by a chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a complex of connected channel floors and chaotic terrain and extend as far south as and connect to eastern Valles Marineris. Ares Vallis originates from discontinuous patches of chaotic terrain within large craters. In the Chryse basin the Ares channel forks; one branch continues northwest into central Chryse Planitia (Latin for plain) and the other extends north into eastern Chryse Planitia.

  8. Chryse Outflow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by a chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a complex of connected channel floors and chaotic terrain and extend as far south as and connect to eastern Valles Marineris. Ares Vallis originates from discontinuous patches of chaotic terrain within large craters. In the Chryse basin the Ares channel forks; one branch continues northwest into central Chryse Planitia (Latin for plain) and the other extends north into eastern Chryse Planitia.

  9. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  10. Not Just a Humor"ous" Text: Humor "as" Text in the Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The use of humorous texts in the writing class can help students improve skills in effective writing while encouraging critical thinking and an increased range in expression. In addition, because of the accessible nature of humor and the focus on purpose and audience that is necessary when writing it, students show a natural inclination toward…

  11. Not Just a Humor"ous" Text: Humor "as" Text in the Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The use of humorous texts in the writing class can help students improve skills in effective writing while encouraging critical thinking and an increased range in expression. In addition, because of the accessible nature of humor and the focus on purpose and audience that is necessary when writing it, students show a natural inclination toward…

  12. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  13. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  14. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  15. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  16. Aqueous Angiography-Mediated Guidance of Trabecular Bypass Improves Angiographic Outflow in Human Enucleated Eyes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Alex S; Saraswathy, Sindhu; Dastiridou, Anna; Begian, Alan; Mohindroo, Chirayu; Tan, James C H; Francis, Brian A; Hinton, David R; Weinreb, Robert N

    2016-09-01

    To assess the ability of trabecular micro-bypass stents to improve aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in regions initially devoid of AHO as assessed by aqueous angiography. Enucleated human eyes (14 total from 7 males and 3 females [ages 52-84]) were obtained from an eye bank within 48 hours of death. Eyes were oriented by inferior oblique insertion, and aqueous angiography was performed with indocyanine green (ICG; 0.4%) or fluorescein (2.5%) at 10 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent images were acquired. Concurrent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histologic analysis of angiographically positive and negative areas. Experimentally, some eyes (n = 11) first received ICG aqueous angiography to determine angiographic patterns. These eyes then underwent trabecular micro-bypass sham or stent placement in regions initially devoid of angiographic signal. This was followed by fluorescein aqueous angiography to query the effects. Aqueous angiography in human eyes yielded high-quality images with segmental patterns. Distally, angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Trabecular bypass but not sham in regions initially devoid of ICG aqueous angiography led to increased aqueous angiography as assessed by fluorescein (P = 0.043). Using sequential aqueous angiography in an enucleated human eye model system, regions initially without angiographic flow or signal could be recruited for AHO using a trabecular bypass stent.

  17. Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykov, Andrei; Gehrels, Neil; Krawczynski, Henric; Lemoine, Martin; Pelletier, Guy; Pohl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this review we confront the current theoretical understanding of particle acceleration at relativistic outflows with recent observational results on various source classes thought to involve such outflows, e.g. gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and pulsar wind nebulae. We highlight the possible contributions of these sources to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  18. Zephyria Outflow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    1 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows streamlined islands and a small cataract in an outflow channel system in the Zephyria region of Mars, south of Cerberus. The fluids responsible for creating these landforms flowed from the lower left (southwest) toward upper right (northeast). The fluids may have been water and mud or, some Mars scientists have argued, extremely fluid lava. The presence of a small cataract probably argues more strongly for a water and mud origin. This image is located near 3.8oN, 204.7oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from upper left.

  19. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  20. [Quantitative evaluation of uveoscleral outflow for optimization of glaucoma treatment].

    PubMed

    Stolyarov, G M; Tikhomirova, N V; Tikhomirov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The leading role in glaucoma treatment is now played by prostaglandin analogues (PGAs), whose point of application is the uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humor. Quantitative evaluation of the latter is, however, a problem yet unsolved. To assess the clinical applicability of a new method for quantitative evaluation of the uveoscleral outflow in human eyes, which is meant to help with optimization of glaucoma therapy. Patients with early (n=33) and advanced (n=30) primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were enrolled. Besides the routine ophthalmic examination, all patients had their uveoscleral outflow quantified with our method. Basing on these findings, we have analyzed the effect of different hypotensive eye drops, namely, betaxolol 0.5% (selective beta-1-blocker), brinzolamid 1% (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), travoprost 0.004% (prostaglandin analogue) and travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination (TTFC; prostaglandin analogue plus non-selective beta-blocker). In early POAG, the uveoscleral outflow facility (Cfu) without treatment was 0.06±0.06, after betaxolol 0.5% as well as brinzolamid 1% use - 0.05±0.03, while after travoprost 0.004% and FCTT use - 0.10±0.06 and 0.08±0.05 correspondingly. In advanced POAG, Cfu was 0.04±0.03 without treatment, 0.06±0.04 - after betaxolol 0.5% or brinzolamid 1% use, 0.1±0.05 - after travoprost 0.004% use, and 0.1±0.04 - after FCTT use. Quantitative evaluation of the uveoscleral outflow with the new method that has not only been justified, but also clinically tested, provides an opportunity to optimize POAG treatment.

  1. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  2. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  3. RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN ULTRARELATIVISTIC OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2011-08-20

    Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the equation of radiative transfer in ultrarelativistic opaque jets. The solution describes the initial trapping of radiation, its adiabatic cooling, and the transition to transparency. Two opposite regimes are examined. (1) Matter-dominated outflow. Surprisingly, radiation develops enormous anisotropy in the fluid frame before decoupling from the fluid. The radiation is strongly polarized. (2) Radiation-dominated outflow. The transfer occurs as if radiation propagated in vacuum, preserving the angular distribution and the blackbody shape of the spectrum. The escaping radiation has a blackbody spectrum if (and only if) the outflow energy is dominated by radiation up to the photospheric radius.

  4. Auroral arcs and ion outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiolo, Romain

    2016-04-01

    This presentation provides an overwiew of the chapter "Auroral Arcs and Ion Outflow" from the AGU book "Auroral Dynamics and Space Weather" (eds Y. Zhang and L. J. Paxton). This topic covers a wide range of domains, from auroral acceleration processes, auroral arc morphology and dynamics to global magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and atmospheric erosion. This presentation mainly focuses on the observational properties of auroral ion outflow. Recent observations about their large-scale spatial distribution and link with auroral forms will be presented. Auroral ion outflow statistical dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity and its modulation by auroral dynamics at the timescale of substorms will also be discussed.

  5. AQUEOUS HUMOR DYNAMICS IN MONKEYS IN RESPONSE TO THE KAPPA OPIOID AGONIST BREMAZOCINE

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Gabelt, B’Ann True; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of the kappa opioid agonist, bremazocine (BRE), on intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humor dynamics in normotensive cynomolgus monkeys. Methods IOP, pupil diameter, refraction, aqueous humor flow, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured following unilateral topical application of 1 to 100 μg BRE. IOP and MAP responses to 100 μg BRE were repeated during intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (ATII). IOP and MAP responses to BRE were also measured following pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonists norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or naloxone. Outflow facility was measured following unilateral intracameral exchange with 0.01 to 100 μg/mL BRE. IOP, aqueous humor flow, pupil, and MAP were measured after unilateral intracameral bolus injection of 1 μg of BRE. Results Unilateral topical BRE caused a dose-related reduction in IOP and aqueous humor flow in both eyes and in MAP. Pupil miosis occurred at the 100-μg dose. There was no effect on refraction. IOP and MAP decreases after 100 μg of BRE were eliminated by ATII infusion. Differential IOP effects after 10-μg topical BRE doses were not eliminated by nor-BNI or naloxone. Unilateral intracameral bolus injection of BRE decreased IOP in both eyes but had no effect on MAP or aqueous humor flow. Outflow facility was unchanged after intracameral exchange with BRE. Conclusions The IOP response to high doses of BRE in monkeys can be attributed to peripheral or central effects on MAP. The IOP-lowering response to topical BRE is due to aqueous humor flow suppression via non-opioid receptor stimulation. Some components of the IOP response are mediated by unknown mechanisms. PMID:18427613

  6. Cardiac outflow tract anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Neeb, Zachary; Lajiness, Jacquelyn D.; Bolanis, Esther; Conway, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    The mature outflow tract (OFT) is, in basic terms, a short conduit. It is a simple, although vital, connection situated between contracting muscular heart chambers and a vast embryonic vascular network. Unfortunately, it is also a focal point underlying many multifactorial congenital heart defects (CHDs). Through the use of various animal models combined with human genetic investigations, we are beginning to comprehend the molecular and cellular framework that controls OFT morphogenesis. Clear roles of neural crest cells (NCC) and second heart field (SHF) derivatives have been established during OFT formation and remodeling. The challenge now is to determine how the SHF and cardiac NCC interact, the complex reciprocal signaling that appears to be occurring at various stages of OFT morphogenesis, and finally how endocardial progenitors and primary heart field (PHF) communicate with both these colonizing extra-cardiac lineages. Although we are beginning to understand that this dance of progenitor populations is wonderfully intricate, the underlying pathogenesis and the spatiotemporal cell lineage interactions remain to be fully elucidated. What is now clear is that OFT alignment and septation are independent processes, invested via separate SHF and cardiac neural crest (CNC) lineages. This review will focus on our current understanding of the respective contributions of the SHF and CNC lineage during OFT development and pathogenesis. PMID:24014420

  7. An In Vitro Perfusion System to Enhance Outflow Studies in Mouse Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kizhatil, Krishnakumar; Chlebowski, Arthur; Tolman, Nicholas G.; Freeburg, Nelson F.; Ryan, Margaret M.; Shaw, Nicholas N.; Kokini, Alexander D. M.; Marchant, Jeffrey K.; John, Simon W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The molecular mechanisms controlling aqueous humor (AQH) outflow and IOP need much further definition. The mouse is a powerful system for characterizing the mechanistic basis of AQH outflow. To enhance outflow studies in mice, we developed a perfusion system that is based on human anterior chamber perfusion culture systems. Our mouse system permits previously impractical experiments. Methods We engineered a computer-controlled, pump-based perfusion system with a platform for mounting whole dissected mouse eyes (minus lens and iris, ∼45% of drainage tissue is perfused). We tested the system's ability to monitor outflow and tested the effects of the outflow-elevating drug, Y27632, a rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Finally, we tested the system's ability to detect genetically determined decreases in outflow by determining if deficiency of the candidate genes Nos3 and Cav1 alter outflow. Results Using our system, the outflow facility (C) of C57BL/6J mouse eyes was found to range between 7.7 and 10.4 nl/minutes/mm Hg (corrected for whole eye). Our system readily detected a 74.4% Y27632-induced increase in C. The NOS3 inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and a Nos3 null mutation reduced C by 28.3% and 35.8%, respectively. Similarly, in Cav1 null eyes C was reduced by 47.8%. Conclusions We engineered a unique perfusion system that can accurately measure changes in C. We then used the system to show that NOS3 and CAV1 are key components of mechanism(s) controlling outflow. PMID:27701632

  8. Energy exchanges in reconnection outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin V.; Newman, David L.; Markidis, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Reconnection outflows are highly energetic directed flows that interact with the ambient plasma or with flows from other reconnection regions. Under these conditions the flow becomes highly unstable and chaotic, as any flow jets interacting with a medium. We report here massively parallel simulations of the two cases of interaction between outflow jets and between a single outflow with an ambient plasma. We find in both case the development of a chaotic magnetic field, subject to secondary reconnection events that further complicate the topology of the field lines. The focus of the present analysis is on the energy balance. We compute each energy channel (electromagnetic, bulk, thermal, for each species) and find where the most energy is exchanged and in what form. The main finding is that the largest energy exchange is not at the reconnection site proper but in the regions where the outflowing jets are destabilized.

  9. Shining a light on galactic outflows: photoionized outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti, Christy A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei; Wofford, Aida

    2016-04-01

    We study the ionization structure of galactic outflows in 37 nearby, star-forming galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We use the O I, Si II, Si III, and Si IV ultraviolet absorption lines to characterize the different ionization states of outflowing gas. We measure the equivalent widths, line widths, and outflow velocities of the four transitions, and find shallow scaling relations between them and galactic stellar mass and star formation rate. Regardless of the ionization potential, lines of similar strength have similar velocities and line widths, indicating that the four transitions can be modelled as a comoving phase. The Si equivalent width ratios (e.g. Si IV/Si II) have low dispersion, and little variation with stellar mass; while ratios with O I and Si vary by a factor of 2 for a given stellar mass. Photoionization models reproduce these equivalent width ratios, while shock models under predict the relative amount of high ionization gas. The photoionization models constrain the ionization parameter (U) between -2.25 < log (U) < -1.5, and require that the outflow metallicities are greater than 0.5 Z⊙. We derive ionization fractions for the transitions, and show that the range of ionization parameters and stellar metallicities leads to a factor of 1.15-10 variation in the ionization fractions. Historically, mass outflow rates are calculated by converting a column density measurement from a single metal ion into a total hydrogen column density using an ionization fraction, thus mass outflow rates are sensitive to the assumed ionization structure of the outflow.

  10. Extraversion and evaluation of humorous advertisements.

    PubMed

    Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata A; Borecka, Dorota

    2010-02-01

    Evaluation of humorous advertisements is supposed to be influenced by the perceivers' traits. The present study assessed the relation of extraversion with ratings of eight characteristics of humorous and informative advertisements. 75 high school students viewed the advertisements; a small positive correlation was found between scores on Extraversion and overall positive ratings of the humorous advertisement, but the correlation of scores on Extraversion with overall ratings of the informative advertisement was not statistically significant. Higher scores for Extraversion were positively correlated with more favorable reactions toward the humorous advertisement. Overall ratings of the humorous advertisement were also positively correlated with the humorousness and informativeness ratings, indicating that the more the advertisement was perceived as humorous and informative, the more positive was the overall rating. The latter ratings were significantly intercorrelated at r(s) = .50. The role of extraversion was small but significant in the evaluation of humorous advertisements.

  11. The Benefits of Humor in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulloth, Joan Kay

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 31 nursing students and 3 teachers identified several benefits from using humor in class: relieving stress, focusing attention, making learning fun, enhancing learning, and strengthening relationships. Students overwhelmingly supported the use of appropriate humor. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  12. Humor modulates the mesolimbic reward centers.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Dean; Greicius, Michael D; Abdel-Azim, Eiman; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L

    2003-12-04

    Humor plays an essential role in many facets of human life including psychological, social, and somatic functioning. Recently, neuroimaging has been applied to this critical human attribute, shedding light on the affective, cognitive, and motor networks involved in humor processing. To date, however, researchers have failed to demonstrate the subcortical correlates of the most fundamental feature of humor-reward. In an effort to elucidate the neurobiological substrate that subserves the reward components of humor, we undertook a high-field (3 Tesla) event-related functional MRI study. Here we demonstrate that humor modulates activity in several cortical regions, and we present new evidence that humor engages a network of subcortical regions including the nucleus accumbens, a key component of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Further, the degree of humor intensity was positively correlated with BOLD signal intensity in these regions. Together, these findings offer new insight into the neural basis of salutary aspects of humor.

  13. A Look at Humor in Literature and Children's Responses to Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Dianne L.

    Humor in literature and children's responses to humor deserve serious study. Humor in literature may focus on a character's method for coping with a disturbing situation, problems (such as riddles) that engender sudden insights when things fall into place, or ludicrous characters. Incongruity and surprise also play an important part in humor and…

  14. A Look at Humor in Literature and Children's Responses to Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Dianne L.

    Humor in literature and children's responses to humor deserve serious study. Humor in literature may focus on a character's method for coping with a disturbing situation, problems (such as riddles) that engender sudden insights when things fall into place, or ludicrous characters. Incongruity and surprise also play an important part in humor and…

  15. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  16. Effects of Including Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    Two 50-item multiple-choice forms of a grammar test were developed differing only in humor being included in 20 items of one form. One hundred twenty-six (126) eighth graders received the test plus alternate forms of a questionnaire. Humor inclusion did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items nor on common post-treatment…

  17. Effects of Incorporating Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two matched forms of a 50 item grammar test were developed. Twenty items designed to be humorous were included in one form. Inclusion of humorous items did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items, nor on commmon post-treatment items. Inclusion did not affect results of anxiety measures. (Author/DWH)

  18. Funny Babies: Humor and Power in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Eleni

    2004-01-01

    This article surveys existing research on the role of humor in early childhood. Babies and toddlers use humor to develop, apply, and expand their understanding of existing concepts; define themselves; and establish relationships with peers and caregivers. Humor helps young children view stressful situations in a nonthreatening way. As soon as…

  19. Humor in Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in…

  20. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  1. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R.

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when…

  2. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  3. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R.

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when…

  4. The humoral immune system of anadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Zwollo, Patty

    2017-01-03

    The immune system of anadromous fish is extremely complex, a direct consequence of their diadromous nature. Hormone levels fluctuate widely throughout their life cycle, as fish move between fresh and salt water. This poses major challenges to the physiology of anadromous fish, including adaptation to very different saline environments, distinct pathogen fingerprints, and different environmental stressors. Elevated cortisol and sex hormone levels inhibit B lymphopoiesis and IgM(+) antibody responses, while catecholamines, growth hormones and thyroid hormones are generally stimulatory and enhance the humoral immune response. Immunological memory in the form of long-lived plasma cells likely plays important roles in health and survival during the life cycle of anadromous fishes. This review discusses some of the complex immune-endocrine pathways in anadromous fish, focusing on essential roles for B lineage cells in the successful completion of their life cycle. A discussion is included on potential differences in immuno-competence between wild and hatchery-raised fish.

  5. Netarsudil Increases Outflow Facility in Human Eyes Through Multiple Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ruiyi; Li, Guorong; Le, Thuy Duong; Kopczynski, Casey; Stamer, W. Daniel; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Netarsudil is a Rho kinase/norepinephrine transporter inhibitor currently in phase 3 clinical development for glaucoma treatment. We investigated the effects of its active metabolite, netarsudil-M1, on outflow facility (C), outflow hydrodynamics, and morphology of the conventional outflow pathway in enucleated human eyes. Methods Paired human eyes (n = 5) were perfused with either 0.3 μM netarsudil-M1 or vehicle solution at constant pressure (15 mm Hg). After 3 hours, fluorescent microspheres were added to perfusion media to trace the outflow patterns before perfusion-fixation. The percentage effective filtration length (PEFL) was calculated from the measured lengths of tracer distribution in the trabecular meshwork (TM), episcleral veins (ESVs), and along the inner wall (IW) of Schlemm's canal after global and confocal imaging. Morphologic changes along the trabecular outflow pathway were investigated by confocal, light, and electron microscopy. Results Perfusion with netarsudil-M1 significantly increased C when compared to baseline (51%, P < 0.01) and to paired controls (102%, P < 0.01), as well as significantly increased PEFL in both IW (P < 0.05) and ESVs (P < 0.01). In treated eyes, PEFL was significantly higher in ESVs than in the IW (P < 0.01) and was associated with increased cross-sectional area of ESVs (P < 0.01). Percentage effective filtration length in ESVs positively correlated with the percentage change in C (R2 = 0.58, P = 0.01). A significant increase in juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) thickness (P < 0.05) was found in treated eyes compared to controls. Conclusions Netarsudil acutely increased C by expansion of the JCT and dilating the ESVs, which led to redistribution of aqueous outflow through a larger area of the IW and ESVs. PMID:27842161

  6. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  7. Humor Comprehension and Humor Appreciation of Cognitively Oriented Humor: A Study of Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Amelia J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates kindergarten children's ability to comprehend and appreciate cognitively-oriented humor. Conceptual development was measured by assessing children's responses to a liquid conservation task modeled after Piaget. Results fail to support previous theories and indicate that a majority of the children fully comprehended and were able to…

  8. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  9. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  10. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using 12CO(J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  11. Humor attenuates the cortisol awakening response in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Lai, Julian C L; Chong, Alice M L; Siu, Oswald T; Evans, Phil; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the impact of an important factor contributing to successful aging, humor, on post-awakening cortisol levels among a group of 45 older men whose ages ranged from 64 years to 86 years (mean=73.6 years). Four saliva samples were collected from the participants for 2 days immediately after waking and every 15 min thereafter for three times. Cortisol data of the 2 days were aggregated for analysis. Two separate indices of cortisol awakening response reflecting the mean level of secretion and the rise from immediately to 45 min post-awakening, AUC(G) and AUC(I), were computed using the trapezoid formula. The relation of these two indices to humor (operationalized as coping) was examined in a multiple regression analysis while controlling for the effect of age, socioeconomic status, and self-esteem. Results indicated that higher humor scores were associated with lower AUC(G) but had no relation with AUC(I). Findings of the present study suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is the major pathway whereby positive psychological dispositions, such as humor, exert their health effects in the aging population. Moreover, cortisol levels in the awakening period may be particularly sensitive to the influences of psychosocial factors.

  12. Outflow from a Nocturnal Thunderstorm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    P AD-A093 796 ILLINOIS STATE WATER SURVEY URBANAF/ .2 OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM. (U) NOV a0 R W SCOTT NSF-ATHN78-0a865 UNCLASSIFIED SWS...CR-242 ARO-15529.5-6S N I muuuuuuuuuuuu iDA0937 9 6 State Water Survey Division k istitute of METEOROLOGY SECTION 0 uJD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS...SWS Contract Report 242 / F OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM Robert W. Scott Meteorology Section Illinois State Water Survey -- DTIC ELECTE CD

  13. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  14. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  15. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  16. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  17. Molecular outflows in starburst nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Nath, Biman B.; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-12-01

    Recent observations have detected molecular outflows in a few nearby starburst nuclei. We discuss the physical processes at work in such an environment in order to outline a scenario that can explain the observed parameters of the phenomenon, such as the molecular mass, speed and size of the outflows. We show that outflows triggered by OB associations, with NOB ≥ 105 (corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR)≥1 M⊙ yr-1 in the nuclear region), in a stratified disc with mid-plane density n0 ˜ 200-1000 cm-3 and scaleheight z0 ≥ 200(n0/102 cm-3)-3/5 pc, can form molecules in a cool dense and expanding shell. The associated molecular mass is ≥107 M⊙ at a distance of a few hundred pc, with a speed of several tens of km s-1. We show that an SFR surface density of 10 ≤ ΣSFR ≤ 50 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 favours the production of molecular outflows, consistent with observed values.

  18. The Geometry of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Rajib

    2012-10-01

    Quasar outflows are important for understanding the accretion and growth processes of the central black hole, but also potentially play a role in feedback to the galaxy, halting star formation and infall of gas. A big uncertainty lies in the geometry and density of these outflows, especially as a function of ionization and velocity. We aim to tackle this using the archival COS M grating spectra of 266 quasars. We separate the geometry of outflows into two parts: the solid angle subtended around the black hole, and the distance of the outflow from the central engine. Large numbers of quasars with high resolution spectra are required for each aspect of this statistical investigation. First, we will determine which/how many absorption-line systems are intrinsic through both partial covering methods and statistical assessments. Second, we will consider the incidence of intrinsic absorbers as a function of quasar property {e.g., radio-loudness, SED shape, black hole mass, bolometric luminosity}. This will reveal what determines the solid angle. This can only be done at moderate redshifts where quasars with a larger range of properties are observable, and hence requires HST/COS. Third, we will use the wide range of diagnostic lines to constrain the physical conditions of the absorbers. We will target the CIII*1175 complex and apply photoionization models to constrain the densities and ionization parameters. This will provide the largest set yet of intrinsic absorbers with systematic distance constraints. In tandem with the solid angles, this work will inform models regarding the geometry of quasar outflows.

  19. Hot outflows in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the `iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe ∝ P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M⊙ yr- 1 in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ˜107-109 M⊙. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations.

  20. Aqueous Angiography–Mediated Guidance of Trabecular Bypass Improves Angiographic Outflow in Human Enucleated Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alex S.; Saraswathy, Sindhu; Dastiridou, Anna; Begian, Alan; Mohindroo, Chirayu; Tan, James C. H.; Francis, Brian A.; Hinton, David R.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the ability of trabecular micro-bypass stents to improve aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in regions initially devoid of AHO as assessed by aqueous angiography. Methods Enucleated human eyes (14 total from 7 males and 3 females [ages 52–84]) were obtained from an eye bank within 48 hours of death. Eyes were oriented by inferior oblique insertion, and aqueous angiography was performed with indocyanine green (ICG; 0.4%) or fluorescein (2.5%) at 10 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent images were acquired. Concurrent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histologic analysis of angiographically positive and negative areas. Experimentally, some eyes (n = 11) first received ICG aqueous angiography to determine angiographic patterns. These eyes then underwent trabecular micro-bypass sham or stent placement in regions initially devoid of angiographic signal. This was followed by fluorescein aqueous angiography to query the effects. Results Aqueous angiography in human eyes yielded high-quality images with segmental patterns. Distally, angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Trabecular bypass but not sham in regions initially devoid of ICG aqueous angiography led to increased aqueous angiography as assessed by fluorescein (P = 0.043). Conclusions Using sequential aqueous angiography in an enucleated human eye model system, regions initially without angiographic flow or signal could be recruited for AHO using a trabecular bypass stent. PMID:27588614

  1. [Investigation into the motives for different expressions of humor].

    PubMed

    Tsukawaki, Ryota; Koshi, Ryoko; Higuchi, Masataka; Fukada, Hiromi

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the motives for different expressions of humor. University students (n = 286) completed a questionnaire regarding motives for three types of humor expressions: aggressive humor, self-disparaging humor, and playful humor. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the motives for the expressions of humor could be classified into five types: relationship construction, transmitting dissatisfaction, supporting others, managing self-impression, or supporting self. ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in the strengths of the motives among the three types of humor expressions. The results indicated that the motive for transmitting dissatisfaction was stronger in aggressive humor expressions than in the two other types of humor expressions. On the other hand, the motive for supporting others was weaker in aggressive humor expressions than in the two other types of humor expressions. Moreover, the motive for supporting self was stronger in self-disparaging humor expression than in aggressive humor expression.

  2. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  3. Perturbation of Hyaluronan Synthesis in the Trabecular Meshwork and the Effects on Outflow Facility

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Kate E.; Sun, Ying Ying; Yang, Yong-Feng; Bradley, John M.; Acott, Ted S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the aqueous outflow pathway. However, the contribution of HA to human outflow resistance remains unclear. Three HA synthase genes (HAS1-3) have been identified. Here, we evaluate the contribution of each of the HAS proteins to outflow facility in anterior segment perfusion culture. Methods. Two methods were used to reduce HA synthesis: 1 mM 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) was used to inhibit all HAS synthases and shRNA silencing lentivirus was generated to knock down expression of each HAS individually. Quantitative RT-PCR, Western immunoblotting and an HA ELISA assay were used to assess HAS mRNA and protein levels and HA concentration, respectively. The effects of 4MU treatment and HAS gene silencing on outflow facility were assessed in human and porcine perfusion culture. Results. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting showed a reduction of each HAS in response to their respective silencing and 4MU treatment. HA concentration was concomitantly reduced. Treatment with 4MU decreased outflow facility in human anterior segments but increased outflow facility in porcine eyes. Lentiviral delivery of HAS1 and HAS2 silencing vectors caused similar opposite effects on outflow facility. Silencing of HAS3 did not significantly affect outflow resistance in either species. Conclusions. This is the first conclusive evidence for a significant role of HA in the human outflow pathway. HA chains synthesized by HAS1 and HAS2 contribute to outflow resistance, while hyaluronan produced by HAS3 does not appear to play a significant role. PMID:22695958

  4. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  5. Laughing It Up: Native American Humor as Spiritual Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Garrett, J. T.; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Native American humor is explored through a brief discussion of the current literature regarding the use of humor in counseling and descriptions of various forms and communication styles of Native humor as spiritual tradition. Implications for multicultural awareness in the use of humor and possible use of Native humor in counseling with Native…

  6. THE COMPLETE SURVEY OF OUTFLOWS IN PERSEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, Hector G.; Borkin, Michelle A.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Halle, Michael W.

    2010-06-01

    We present a study on the impact of molecular outflows in the Perseus molecular cloud complex using the COMPLETE Survey large-scale {sup 12}CO(1-0) and {sup 13}CO(1-0) maps. We used three-dimensional isosurface models generated in right ascension-declination-velocity space to visualize the maps. This rendering of the molecular line data allowed for a rapid and efficient way to search for molecular outflows over a large ({approx}16 deg{sup 2}) area. Our outflow-searching technique detected previously known molecular outflows as well as new candidate outflows. Most of these new outflow-related high-velocity features lie in regions that have been poorly studied before. These new outflow candidates more than double the amount of outflow mass, momentum, and kinetic energy in the Perseus cloud complex. Our results indicate that outflows have significant impact on the environment immediately surrounding localized regions of active star formation, but lack the energy needed to feed the observed turbulence in the entire Perseus complex. This implies that other energy sources, in addition to protostellar outflows, are responsible for turbulence on a global cloud scale in Perseus. We studied the impact of outflows in six regions with active star formation within Perseus of sizes in the range of 1-4 pc. We find that outflows have enough power to maintain the turbulence in these regions and enough momentum to disperse and unbind some mass from them. We found no correlation between outflow strength and star formation efficiency (SFE) for the six different regions we studied, contrary to results of recent numerical simulations. The low fraction of gas that potentially could be ejected due to outflows suggests that additional mechanisms other than cloud dispersal by outflows are needed to explain low SFEs in clusters.

  7. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  8. Humor in autism and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in autism and Asperger syndrome in the context of the main psychological theories (Theory of Mind, Executive Functions, Weak Central Coherence and Laterization models) and associated neural substrates. In the concluding sections, examples of humor displayed by individuals with autism/Asperger syndrome which appear to challenge the above theories are analyzed and areas for further research are suggested.

  9. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P < 0.0001). The aqueous humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  11. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  12. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  13. Humor as an Instructional Practice: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of Humor Use in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Scott G.

    A study analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the use of humor in the classroom. A longitudinal content analysis of presentational and classroom studies from 1941 to 1991 was conducted. Earlier studies were included if they had been cited five or more times within articles on humor in the classroom. Scholars have argued that humor: is a…

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid outflow along lumbar nerves and possible relevance for pain research: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Bechter, Karl; Schmitz, Bernd

    2014-08-28

    CSF outflow through the cribriform plate near the olfactory nerves and the outflow along brain and spinal nerves are together known as peripheral CSF outflow pathway (PCOP). It is still not clear whether the PCOP has pathogenetic relevance. Our previous clinical observations have indicated that CSF may interact with nerves along the PCOP and in this article we present our finding of CSF outflow demonstrated by myelography in a single patient. We also discuss unexplained experimental pain pathomechanisms against the background of the PCOP hypothesis. We observed that CSF flowed along lumbar nerves in distal direction at a speed of about 10 cm per hour on its way through the tissues, mainly muscles. Total CSF outflow volume at the lumbar site was remarkable. CSF outflow at lumbar nerves was also documented by neuroradiology. It is plausible that CSF signaling serves for interaction with nerves along the PCOP, which could explain previously unknown pathomechanisms in pain generation. Experimental findings of tactile pain hypersensitivity within lumbosacral pain pathways could be explained by releasing of molecules, microparticles, or exosomes into the CSF by mast cells, which then move with CSF outflow along the PCOP and interact with nerves, initiating even retrograde synaptic stripping.

  15. Narrow UV Absorption Line Outflows from Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, F.; Simon, L.; Rodriguez Hidalgo, P.; Capellupo, D.

    2012-08-01

    Narrow absorption line (NAL) outflows are an important yet poorly understood part of the quasar outflow phenomenon. We discuss one particular NAL outflow that has high speeds, time variability, and moderate ionizations like typical BAL flows, at an estimated location just ˜5 pc from the quasar. It also has a total column density and line widths (internal velocity dispersions) ˜100 times smaller than BALs, with no substantial X-ray absorption. We argue that radiative shielding (in the form of an X-ray/warm absorber) is not critical for the outflow acceleration and that the moderate ionizations occur in dense substructures that have an overall small volume filling factor in the flow. We also present new estimates of the overall incidence of quasar outflow lines; e.g., ˜43% of bright quasars have a C IV NAL outflow while ˜68% have a C IV outflow line of any variety (NAL, BAL, or mini-BAL).

  16. Shrimp humoral responses against pathogens: antimicrobial peptides and melanization.

    PubMed

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Visetnan, Suwattana; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Tang, Sureerat

    2017-05-10

    Diseases have caused tremendous economic losses and become the major problem threatening the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture. The knowledge of host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens is essential for the implementation of efficient strategies to prevent disease outbreaks. Like other invertebrates, shrimp rely on the innate immune system to defend themselves against a range of microbes by recognizing and destroying them through cellular and humoral immune responses. Detection of microbial pathogens triggers the signal transduction pathways including the NF-κB signaling, Toll and Imd pathways, resulting in the activation of genes involved in host defense responses. In this review, we update the discovery of components of the Toll and Imd pathways in shrimp and their participation in the regulation of shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP) synthesis. We also focus on a recent progress on the two most powerful and the best-studied shrimp humoral responses: AMPs and melanization. Shrimp AMPs are mainly cationic peptides with sequence diversity which endues them the broad range of activities against microorganisms. Melanization, regulated by the prophenoloxidase activating cascade, also plays a crucial role in killing and sequestration of invading pathogens. The progress and emerging research on mechanisms and functional characterization of components of these two indispensable humoral responses in shrimp immunity are summarized and discussed. Interestingly, the pattern recognition protein (PRP) crosstalk is evidenced between the proPO activating cascade and the AMP synthesis pathways in shrimp, which enables the innate immune system to build up efficient immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  18. The Value of Humor in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that the use of humor in the technology education classroom can reduce stress while lessening the gap between teacher and students and stimulating cooperative work. Cautions against using humor that can be cruel or detrimental to the classroom environment. Includes a list of acceptable jokes. (Contains 17 references.) (JOW)

  19. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  20. Humor in Advertising: The Language Pun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seely, Jonathan

    While it is fashionable to use the semantic pun in advertising (for example, the meaning extension in "dollars and sense"), a lot of this humor slips past the American reader; not only unintentional bloopers that get past the proofreader but also intentional puns that escape the audience. Advertising humor has other pitfalls as well--the…

  1. Improving Performance through the Use of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Frank A.; Siegel, Laurence

    Although the role of humor in relaxation and interpersonal relationships is well documented, its role in increasing performance in the classroom has not been systematically studied. To investigate the effect of appropriately timed humor on performance of a stressful task, 40 college students performed a mathematics test under one of four…

  2. Humorous Literature: A Doorway to Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Melanie

    Many theories have been developed to try to explain humor, among them, the social theory; psychoanalytic theories based on Freud; cognitive theories which identify stages corresponding to those of Piaget; and eclectic theories which combine elements of all the theories. The developmental stages of humor parallel the intellectual and emotional…

  3. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  4. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  5. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  6. Humor as a perioperative nursing management tool.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, S

    1999-04-01

    Humor is a powerful tool for accomplishing management goals. This article offers suggestions for using humor to relieve stress, cultivate teamwork, buy attention, improve morale, increase productivity, foster communication, enhance problem solving, and create a positive work culture in the operating room.

  7. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  8. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  9. Humorous Literature: A Doorway to Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Melanie

    Many theories have been developed to try to explain humor, among them, the social theory; psychoanalytic theories based on Freud; cognitive theories which identify stages corresponding to those of Piaget; and eclectic theories which combine elements of all the theories. The developmental stages of humor parallel the intellectual and emotional…

  10. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others.

  11. Control of Outflow Resistance by Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Suk

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the United States affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure, even in patients with normal tension glaucoma. Typically, this is accomplished by reducing the rate of aqueous flow by limiting aqueous production or enhancing drainage using drugs and surgery. Whereas these strategies are effective in diminishing vision loss, some patients continue to lose vision and many discontinue use of their medications because of undesirable side effects. Drugs known to be effective in altering conventional outflow have for the most part been abandoned from modern clinical practice due to undesirable side effects. Identification of new drugs that could enhance conventional outflow, would offer additional options in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. To this end, our laboratory has recently uncovered a novel pathway for regulation of conventional outflow by the ciliary body. This pathway is dependent on soluble adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that catalyzes the generation of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′ monophosphate (cAMP) in response to bicarbonate. PMID:24320087

  12. Humor and creative life styles.

    PubMed

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  13. Vitreous humor thermodynamics during phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Villanueva, Guillermo; Kon-Jara, Veronica; Harasawa, Mariana; Cervantes-Coste, Guadalupe; Ochoa-Contreras, Daniel; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Guerrero-Naranjo, José Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Landers, Maurice B

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine baseline vitreous humor temperature during a combined phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) procedure; to determine what is the temperature variation during phacoemulsification; and to compare vitreous temperature to sublingual temperature. The methods used are prospective, interventional and comparative study. Patients with a diagnosis of cataract and vitreous hemorrhage, programed for a combined procedure of phacoemulsification and PPV, were included. Patients were excluded if posterior capsular rupture existed during the anterior segment procedure. A thermoprobe was inserted through a PPV trocar. Measurement of the vitreous temperature was obtained at baseline and throughout phacoemulsification, at the end of every surgical step, and every 5 min. Sublingual temperature was measured with the same probe at the end of the surgery. Room temperature was registered. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients were included. Mean sublingual temperature was 36.5 °C (standard deviation [σ] 0.26 °C). Mean total vitreous temperature was 31.47 °C (σ 2.1 °C). Mean baseline vitreous temperature was 33.04 °C (σ 0.99 °C). Comparison of sublingual temperature with baseline vitreous temperature resulted in a significant difference (t test P < 0.000. 95 % confidence interval 2.93-3.98). Temperature measured by surgical step and surgical time presented a significant decrease in temperature from baseline (Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.000, P = 0.003, respectively). Vitreous humor is significantly hypothermic when compared to sublingual temperature. Vitreous temperature decreases significantly during phacoemulsification.

  14. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2015-08-01

    Van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na i lines at 8200 Å found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted them as evidence for an unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 Å (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related to the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling signs of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that the ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift Doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related to gas outflow caused by star formation. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable Doppler components, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

  15. OUTFLOWS IN SODIUM EXCESS OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jongwon; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Jeong, Hyunjin

    2015-08-10

    Van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na i lines at 8200 Å found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted them as evidence for an unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 Å (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related to the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling signs of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that the ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift Doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related to gas outflow caused by star formation. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable Doppler components, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

  16. A threshold theory of the humor response.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the "setup" stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a "punch line" or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden "revelation" or "understanding"; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner.

  17. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the “setup” stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a “punch line” or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden “revelation” or “understanding”; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner. PMID:22478488

  18. Effects of Vitrectomy and Lensectomy on Older Rhesus Macaques: Oxygen Distribution, Antioxidant Status, and Aqueous Humor Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Carla J; Shui, Ying-Bo; Tian, Baohe; Nork, T Michael; Heatley, Gregg A; Kaufman, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant-oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Aqueous and vitreous humor specimens were analyzed for antioxidant status and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage. TM specimens were obtained for immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR analysis. pO2 at baseline revealed steep gradients in the anterior chamber and low levels in the posterior chamber (PC) and around the lens. Following PPV and PE/IOL, pO2 significantly increased in the PC, around the IOL, and angle. IOP increased following both surgical interventions, with no change in outflow facility. Histopathologic analysis did not show changes in TM cell quantification, but there was an increase in 8-OHdG. Quantitative PCR did not reveal significant differences in glaucoma-related gene expression. Aqueous and vitreous humor analysis revealed decreased ascorbate and total reactive antioxidant potential and increased 8-OHdG in the aqueous humor only in the surgical eyes. Oxygen distribution in the older rhesus monkey is similar to humans at baseline and following surgical interventions. Our findings of histopathologic changes of TM oxidative damage and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance suggest a potential correlation of increased oxygen exposure with oxidative stress/damage and the development of open angle glaucoma.

  19. Counseling through the Funny Bone: Humor in Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Meredith

    This paper examines the role that humor may play in guidance counseling. After a brief review of the literature on the physiology of laughter and the therapeutic effects of humor, the paper draws on past research to discuss the developmental stages of humor from infancy to late adolescence and adulthood, citing examples of the kinds of humor that…

  20. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  1. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  2. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  5. [An examination of support function of humor: construction of a preference scale for supportive humor].

    PubMed

    Miyato, M; Ueno, Y

    1996-10-01

    In this study, we constructed a scale to measure individual preference for supportive humor, and examined whether the preference related to mental health. Two samples of female undergraduates cooperated with survey studies. In the first, a scale was constructed to measure preference for supportive kinds of humor, and relationships were examined between its score, hardiness to negative events, and depression, together with preference for other types of humor identified in a previous study (Ueno, 1992). In the second, the preference was correlated with hedonistic attitudes and private self-consciousness. Main findings were as follows: (1) Of the three types of humor (aggressive, playful, and supportive), only preference for supportive humor correlated with depression. (2) Hedonistic attitudes correlated with preference for each of the three types. (3) Private self-consciousness correlated only with preference for supportive humor.

  6. Humor in Evaluating and Treating Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    BERNET, WILLIAM

    1993-01-01

    Humor can provide useful information during the psychiatric evaluation of children and adolescents and can also facilitate the therapeutic process. Clinical examples demonstrate how humor is useful as a diagnostic tool; how it can be used to shape the therapeutic relationship; and the role of humor as a therapeutic technique. Humor may help the child and adolescent patient explore feelings and may help the therapist deal with resistance. In some circumstances, the humor itself can become an agent of change. Humor has been used in the treatment of depression, aggression, social ineptitude, and conduct problems. Both the benefits and the risks of using humor are discussed. PMID:22700156

  7. Star formation inside a galactic outflow.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, R; Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Carniani, S; Gallagher, R; Cazzoli, S; Arribas, S; Belfiore, F; Bellocchi, E; Colina, L; Cresci, G; Ishibashi, W; Marconi, A; Mannucci, F; Oliva, E; Sturm, E

    2017-04-13

    Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy. Such star formation could provide in situ chemical enrichment of the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (through supernova explosions of young stars on large orbits), and some models also predict it to contribute substantially to the star-formation rate observed in distant galaxies. Although there exists observational evidence for star formation triggered by outflows or jets into their host galaxy, as a consequence of gas compression, evidence for star formation occurring within galactic outflows is still missing. Here we report spectroscopic observations that unambiguously reveal star formation occurring in a galactic outflow at a redshift of 0.0448. The inferred star-formation rate in the outflow is larger than 15 solar masses per year. Star formation may also be occurring in other galactic outflows, but may have been missed by previous observations owing to the lack of adequate diagnostics.

  8. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  9. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search. PMID:27932965

  10. Humoral innate immune response and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Varahan, Sriram; Yuan, Kai; Li, Xiangdong; Fleming, Sherry D.

    2012-01-01

    The humoral innate immune response consists of multiple components, including the naturally occurring antibodies (NAb), pentraxins and the complement and contact cascades. As soluble, plasma components, these innate proteins provide key elements in the prevention and control of disease. However, pathogens and cells with altered self proteins utilize multiple humoral components to evade destruction and promote pathogy. Many studies have examined the relationship between humoral immunity and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the interactions between the humoral components and their role in promoting the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Understanding the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the individual components and the interactions between proteins which regulate the innate and adaptive response will provide therapeutic targets for subsequent studies. PMID:22771788

  11. OUTFLOW-CORE INTERACTION IN BARNARD 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Hirano, Naomi; Takakuwa, Shigehisa

    2010-04-01

    In order to study how outflows from protostars influence the physical and chemical conditions of the parent molecular cloud, we have observed the Barnard 1 (B1) main core, which harbors four Class 0 and three Class I sources, in the CO (J = 1 - 0), CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} = 2{sub K} - 1{sub K}), and the SiO (J = 1 - 0) lines using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We have identified three CO outflows in this region: one is an elongated ({approx}0.3 pc) bipolar outflow from a Class 0 protostar B1-c in the submillimeter clump SMM 2, another is a rather compact ({approx}0.1 pc) outflow from a Class I protostar B1 IRS in the clump SMM 6, and the other is an extended outflow from a Class I protostar in SMM 11. In the western lobe of the SMM 2 outflow, both the SiO and CH{sub 3}OH lines show broad redshifted wings with the terminal velocities of 25 km s{sup -1} and 13 km s{sup -1}, respectively. It is likely that the shocks caused by the interaction between the outflow and ambient gas enhance the abundance of SiO and CH{sub 3}OH in the gas phase. The total energy input rate by the outflows (1.1 x 10{sup -3} L{sub sun}) is smaller than the energy-loss rate (8.5 x 10{sup -3} L{sub sun}) through the turbulence decay in the B1 main core, which suggests that the outflows cannot sustain the turbulence in this region. Since the outflows are energetic enough to compensate the dissipating turbulence energy in the neighboring, more evolved star-forming region NGC 1333, we suggest that the turbulence energy balance depends on the evolutionary state of the star formation in molecular clouds.

  12. Magnetospheric Sawtooth Oscillations Induced by Ionospheric Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambles, O. J.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Lyon, J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper aims to address why sawtooth oscillations occur and what factors affect their periodicity. We use a multifluid version of the LFM global simulation model, driven by a steady solar wind to examine the effects of ion outflow on convection in the magnetosphere. In the simulation model, the properties of cusp and auroral region O+ outflow are causally regulated by electron precipitation and electromagnetic power flowing into the ionosphere. It is found that when ion outflow is included in the simulation, the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction can generate periodic substorms which appear as sawtooth-like oscillations in the geostationary magnetic field. The ion outflow enhances plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere and the associated diamagnetic ring current stretches the field lines throughout the nightside, essentially from dawn to dusk. If the field lines are sufficiently stretched they reconnect and dipolarize, ejecting a plasmoid downtail. This cycle repeats forming multiple sawtooth oscillations. The periodicity of the sawtooth oscillation depends largely upon the strength of the outflow. The strength of outflow is varied in the simulation by changing both the driving conditions (which affects the power flowing into the ionosphere) and through direct modification of the constants in the empirical relationships. Higher outflow fluences produce oscillations with shorter periods. The period of the oscillation is found to vary in the simulations from approximately 2 hours to 6 hours depending upon the strength of the outflow. For a smaller solar wind electric field the outflow fluence is not large enough to stretch the nightside field lines enough for sawtooth oscillations to form and the magnetosphere goes into a steady magnetosphere convection (SMC) mode. As the solar wind electric field increases the outflow fluence becomes sufficiently large to affect the convection in the magnetosphere and generate sawtooth oscillations. The strength

  13. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  14. Brain activation during sight gags and language-dependent humor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Karli K; Matthews, Benjamin J; Allman, John M

    2007-02-01

    Humor is a hallmark of human discourse. People use it to relieve stress and to facilitate social bonding, as well as for pure enjoyment in the absence of any apparent adaptive value. Although recent studies have revealed that humor acts as an intrinsic reward, which explains why people actively seek to experience and create humor, few have addressed the cognitive aspects of humor. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate brain activity induced by the hedonic similarities and cognitive differences inherent in 2 kinds of humor: visual humor (sight gags) and language-based humor. Our findings indicate that the brain networks recruited during a humorous experience differ according to the type of humor being processed, with high-level visual areas activated during visual humor and classic language areas activated during language-dependent humor. Our results additionally highlight a common network activated by both types of humor that includes the amygdalar and midbrain regions, which presumably reflect the euphoric component of humor. Furthermore, we found that humor activates anterior cingulate cortex and frontoinsular cortex, 2 regions in the brain that are known to have phylogenetically recent neuronal circuitry. These results suggest that humor may have coevolved with another cognitive specialization of the great apes and humans: the ability to navigate through a shifting and complex social space.

  15. Fluid and structure coupling analysis of the interaction between aqueous humor and iris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjia; Qian, Xiuqing; Song, Hongfang; Zhang, Mindi; Liu, Zhicheng

    2016-12-28

    Glaucoma is the primary cause of irreversible blindness worldwide associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated intraocular pressure will affect the normal aqueous humor outflow, resulting in deformation of iris. However, the deformation ability of iris is closely related to its material properties. Meanwhile, the passive deformation of the iris aggravates the pupillary block and angle closure. The nature of the interaction mechanism of iris deformation and aqueous humor fluid flow has not been fully understood and has been somewhat a controversial issue. The purpose here was to study the effect of IOP, localization, and temperature on the flow of the aqueous humor and the deformation of iris interacted by aqueous humor fluid flow. Based on mechanisms of aqueous physiology and fluid dynamics, 3D model of anterior chamber (AC) was constructed with the human anatomical parameters as a reference. A 3D idealized standard geometry of anterior segment of human eye was performed. Enlarge the size of the idealization geometry model 5 times to create a simulation device by using 3D printing technology. In this paper, particle image velocimetry technology is applied to measure the characteristic of fluid outflow in different inlet velocity based on the device. Numerically calculations were made by using ANSYS 14.0 Finite Element Analysis. Compare of the velocity distributions to confirm the validity of the model. The fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis was carried out in the valid geometry model to study the aqueous flow and iris change. In this paper, the validity of the model is verified through computation and comparison. The results indicated that changes of gravity direction of model significantly affected the fluid dynamics parameters and the temperature distribution in anterior chamber. Increased pressure and the vertical position increase the velocity of the aqueous humor fluid flow, with the value increased of 0.015 and 0.035 mm/s. The results

  16. Tissue plasminogen activator in trabecular meshwork attenuates steroid induced outflow resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Shah, Shaily; Tang, Hai Michael; Smith, Matthew; Borrás, Teresa; Danias, John

    2013-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator, a serine protease encoded by the PLAT gene is present in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and other ocular tissues and has been reported to be downregulated by treatment with steroids in vitro. Steroids are known to cause changes in outflow facility of aqueous humor in many species. In the present study, we tested whether overexpression of PLAT can prevent and/or reverse the outflow facility of mouse eyes treated with steroids. Animals received bilateral injection with 20 µl of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) (40 mg/ml) suspension subconjunctivally to induce outflow facility changes. Some animals received unilateral intracameral injection with 2 µl of adenoviral suspension [3-4 x 10(12) virus genomes per milliliter (vg/ml)] carrying sheep PLAT cDNA (AdPLAT) either concurrently with TA injection or one week after TA injection, whereas others received bilateral intracameral injection with 2 µl of adenoviral suspension (9 x 10(12) vg/ml) carrying no transgene (AdNull) concurrently with TA injection. Animals were sacrificed one week after AdPLAT or AdNull treatment. Endogenous mRNA expression levels of mouse PAI-1 and MMP-2, -9 and -13 were also measured using qRT-PCR. Outflow facility one week after AdPLAT administration was increased by 60% and 63% respectively for animals that had not or had been pretreated with steroids. Overexpression of PLAT significantly upregulated expression of PAI-1, MMP-2, -9 and -13 compared to the levels found in TA only treated eyes. These findings suggest that overexpression of PLAT in TM of mouse eyes can both prevent and reverse the decrease in outflow facility caused by steroid treatment and is associated with upregulation of MMPs.

  17. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  18. The resolved outflow from 3C 48

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-10-20

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, the mass is ∼6 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow.

  19. Vitreous Humor Changes Expression of Iron-Handling Proteins in Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goralska, Malgorzata; Fleisher, Lloyd N.; McGahan, M. Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In humans, vitrectomy is associated with development of nuclear cataracts. Iron catalyzes free radical formation causing oxidative damage, which is implicated in cataract formation. This study was designed to determine if vitreous humor, which can initiate differentiation of lens epithelial cells, would have an effect on iron-handling proteins. Methods Cultured canine lens epithelial cells were treated with collected canine vitreous humor. Lysates of treated and control cells were separated by SDS-PAGE. Ferritin H- and L-chains, transferrin receptor 1, and aquaporin 0 were immunodetected and quantitated with specific antibodies. Morphologic changes in treated cells were assessed. Results Treatment of lens epithelial cells with a 33% (vol/vol) solution of vitreous humor changed the morphology of lens cells and induced expression of aquaporin 0, a marker of fiber cell differentiation that was undetectable in control cells. Treatment did not modify the size of iron-handling proteins but significantly increased content of ferritin from 2.9- to 8.8-fold over control and decreased levels of transferrin receptor by 37% to 59%. Conclusions Vitreous humor may significantly limit iron uptake by transferrin/transferrin receptor pathway, and by increasing ferritin levels could profoundly increase the iron-storage capacity of ferritin in lens cells. Vitreous humor may play a significant protective role against iron-catalyzed oxidative damage of lens epithelial cells and therefore in the formation of cataracts. PMID:28245299

  20. Retention of Lecture Items Reinforced with Humorous and Non-Humorous Exemplary Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruner, Charles R.; Freshley, Dwight L.

    College students in nine intact beginning speech classes served as subjects for a study testing the effects of humor on student recall of lecture information. The 156 subjects were exposed to one of three versions of an audiotaped lecture. One version amplified eight points in the subject matter with humorous material; and a third version (the…

  1. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  2. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  3. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  4. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    van Dokkum and Conroy reported that some giant elliptical galaxies show extraordinarily strong Na I absorption lines and suggested that this is the evidence of unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later studied galaxies with unexpectedly strong Na D absorption lines (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that the origins of NEOs are different for different types of galaxies. According to their study, the origin of Na D excess seems to be related to interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, but there seems to be no contributions from ISM in smooth-looking early-type galaxies. In order to test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in Na D lines of NEOs. We hypothesized that if Na D absorption line is related to ISM, the absorption line is more likely to be blueshifted in the spectrum by the motion of ISM caused by outflow. Many of late-type NEOs show blueshifted Na D absorption lines, so their origin seems related to ISM. On the other hand, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show Doppler departure and Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM, which is consistent with the finding of Jeong et al.

  5. MEF2C regulates outflow tract alignment and transcriptional control of Tdgf1.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ralston M; Harris, Ian S; Jaehnig, Eric J; Sauls, Kimberly; Sinha, Tanvi; Rojas, Anabel; Schachterle, William; McCulley, David J; Norris, Russell A; Black, Brian L

    2016-03-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects in humans, and those that affect the proper alignment of the outflow tracts and septation of the ventricles are a highly significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. A late differentiating population of cardiac progenitors, referred to as the anterior second heart field (AHF), gives rise to the outflow tract and the majority of the right ventricle and provides an embryological context for understanding cardiac outflow tract alignment and membranous ventricular septal defects. However, the transcriptional pathways controlling AHF development and their roles in congenital heart defects remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we inactivated the gene encoding the transcription factor MEF2C in the AHF in mice. Loss of Mef2c function in the AHF results in a spectrum of outflow tract alignment defects ranging from overriding aorta to double-outlet right ventricle and dextro-transposition of the great arteries. We identify Tdgf1, which encodes a Nodal co-receptor (also known as Cripto), as a direct transcriptional target of MEF2C in the outflow tract via an AHF-restricted Tdgf1 enhancer. Importantly, both the MEF2C and TDGF1 genes are associated with congenital heart defects in humans. Thus, these studies establish a direct transcriptional pathway between the core cardiac transcription factor MEF2C and the human congenital heart disease gene TDGF1. Moreover, we found a range of outflow tract alignment defects resulting from a single genetic lesion, supporting the idea that AHF-derived outflow tract alignment defects may constitute an embryological spectrum rather than distinct anomalies.

  6. Altered sense of humor in dementia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L; Cohen, Miriam H; Woodward, Felix J; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications.

  7. Altered Sense of Humor in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L.; Cohen, Miriam H.; Woodward, Felix J.; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications. PMID:26444779

  8. Magnetosphere sawtooth oscillations induced by ionospheric outflow.

    PubMed

    Brambles, O J; Lotko, W; Zhang, B; Wiltberger, M; Lyon, J; Strangeway, R J

    2011-06-03

    The sawtooth mode of convection of Earth's magnetosphere is a 2- to 4-hour planetary-scale oscillation powered by the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere (SW-M-I) interaction. Using global simulations of geospace, we have shown that ionospheric O(+) outflows can generate sawtooth oscillations. As the outflowing ions fill the inner magnetosphere, their pressure distends the nightside magnetic field. When the outflow fluence exceeds a threshold, magnetic field tension cannot confine the accumulating fluid; an O(+)-rich plasmoid is ejected, and the field dipolarizes. Below the threshold, the magnetosphere undergoes quasi-steady convection. Repetition and the sawtooth period are controlled by the strength of the SW-M-I interaction, which regulates the outflow fluence.

  9. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    PubMed

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  10. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Marina M.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2015-10-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars are radiatively driven. In all of these cases, the magnetic field influences matter flow from the stars and determines many observational properties. In this chapter we review recent studies of accretion, outflows, and winds of magnetized stars with a focus on three main topics: (1) accretion onto magnetized stars; (2) outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary; and (3) winds from isolated massive magnetized stars. We show results obtained from global magnetohydrodynamic simulations and, in a number of cases compare global simulations with observations.

  11. Quantifying Supernovae-driven Multiphase Galactic Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Bryan, Greg L.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2017-06-01

    Galactic outflows are observed everywhere in star-forming disk galaxies and are critical for galaxy formation. Supernovae (SNe) play the key role in driving the outflows, but there is no consensus as to how much energy, mass, and metal they can launch out of the disk. We perform 3D, high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study SNe-driven outflows from stratified media. Assuming the SN rate scales with gas surface density Σgas as in the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, we find that the mass loading factor, η m, defined as the mass outflow flux divided by the star formation surface density, decreases with increasing Σgas as {η }{{m}}\\propto {{{Σ }}}{gas}-0.61. Approximately Σgas ≲ 50 M ⊙ pc-2 marks when η m ≳ 1. About 10%-50% of the energy and 40%-80% of the metals produced by SNe end up in the outflows. The tenuous hot phase (T > 3 × 105 K), which fills 60%-80% of the volume at the midplane, carries the majority of the energy and metals in the outflows. We discuss how various physical processes, including the vertical distribution of SNe, photoelectric heating, external gravitational field, and SN rate, affect the loading efficiencies. The relative scale height of gas and SNe is a very important factor in determining the loading efficiencies.

  12. Ciliary Blood Flow and Aqueous Humor Production

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, J.W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rao, R.; Chen, M.; Reitsamer, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous humor production is a metabolically active process sustained by the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of metabolic waste by the ciliary circulation. This article describes our investigations into the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production. The results presented indicate that there is a dynamic relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production, with production being blood flow independent above a critical level of perfusion, and blood flow dependent below it. The results also show that the plateau portion of the relationship shifts up or down depending on the level of secretory stimulation or inhibition, and that oxygen is one critical factor provided by ciliary blood flow. Also presented is a theoretical model of ocular hydrodynamics incorporating these new findings. PMID:20801226

  13. Humor in the classroom using faculty skits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cheryl Mixon; Noviello, Sheri Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The infusion of humor in the classroom through faculty-developed skits is a teaching-learning strategy that engages nursing students in the learning process. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for Adult Learners provides the framework for the use of humor as a strategy in higher education. Three exemplars are presented with a description of the specific strategy, an objective for each strategy, and the effect of the strategy on student engagement in nursing education. In the exemplars, the authors provide "ready to use" ideas with some "pearls of wisdom" for other faculty interested in developing similar learning activities.

  14. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    PubMed

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  16. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    PubMed

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  17. Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback and Galactic Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ai-Lei

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is thought to regulate the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxies. The most direct evidence of AGN feedback is probably galactic outflows. This thesis addresses the link between SMBHs and their host galaxies from four different observational perspectives. First, I study the local correlation between black hole mass and the galactic halo potential (the MBH - Vc relation) based on Very Large Array (VLA) HI observations of galaxy rotation curves. Although there is a correlation, it is no tighter than the well-studied MBH - sigma* relation between the black hole mass and the potential of the galactic bulge, indicating that physical processes, such as feedback, could link the evolution of the black hole to the baryons in the bulge. In what follows, I thus search for galactic outflows as direct evidence of AGN feedback. Second, I use the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to observe a luminous obscured AGN that hosts an ionized galactic outflow and find a compact but massive molecular outflow that can potentially quench the star formation in 10. 6 years.The third study extends the sample of known ionized outflows with new Magellan long-slit observations of 12 luminous obscured AGN. I find that most luminous obscured AGN (Lbol > 1046 ergs s-1) host ionized outflows on 10 kpc scales, and the size of the outflow correlates strongly with the luminosity of the AGN. Lastly, to capitalize on the power of modern photometric surveys, I experiment with a new broadband imaging technique to study the morphology of AGN emission line regions and outflows. With images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this method successfully constructs images of the [OIII]lambda5007 emission line and reveals hundreds of extended emission-line systems. When applied to current and future surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), this technique could open a new parameter space for the study of AGN outflows. In

  18. A robust measurement of the mass outflow rate of the galactic outflow from NGC 6090

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti Christy, A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of stellar feedback, it is critical to estimate the mass outflow rates of galaxies. Past estimates have been plagued by uncertain assumptions about the outflow geometry, metallicity, and ionization fraction. Here we use Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of the nearby starburst NGC 6090 to demonstrate that many of these quantities can be constrained by the data. We use the Si IV absorption lines to calculate the scaling of velocity (v), covering fraction (Cf), and density with distance from the starburst (r), assuming the Sobolev optical depth and a velocity law of the form: v ∝ (1 - Ri/r)β (where Ri is the inner outflow radius). We find that the velocity (β = 0.43) is consistent with an outflow driven by an r-2 force with the outflow radially accelerated, while the scaling of the covering fraction (Cf ∝ r-0.82) suggests that cool clouds in the outflow are in pressure equilibrium with an adiabatically expanding medium. We use the column densities of four weak metal lines and CLOUDY photoionization models to determine the outflow metallicity, the ionization correction, and the initial density of the outflow. Combining these values with the profile fitting, we find Ri = 63 pc, with most of the mass within 300 pc of the starburst. Finally, we find that the maximum mass outflow rate is 2.3 M⊙ yr-1 and the mass-loading factor (outflow divided by the star formation rate) is 0.09, a factor of 10 lower than the value calculated using common assumptions for the geometry, metallicity, and ionization structure of the outflow.

  19. Characterization of the effect of Cr(VI) on humoral innate immunity using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pragya, P; Shukla, A K; Murthy, R C; Abdin, M Z; Kar Chowdhuri, D

    2015-11-01

    With the advancement of human race, different anthropogenic activities have heaped the environment with chemicals that can cause alteration in the immune system of exposed organism. As a first line of barrier, the evolutionary conserved innate immunity is crucial for the health of an organism. However, there is paucity of information regarding in vivo assessment of the effect of environmental chemicals on innate immunity. Therefore, we examined the effect of a widely used environmental chemical, Cr(VI), on humoral innate immune response using Drosophila melanogaster. The adverse effect of Cr(VI) on host humoral response was characterized by decreased gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the exposed organism. Concurrently, a significantly decreased transcription of humoral pathway receptors (Toll and PGRP) and triglyceride level along with inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in exposed organism. This in turn weakened the immune response of exposed organism that was manifested by their reduced resistance against bacterial infection. In addition, overexpression of the components of humoral immunity particularly Diptericin benefits Drosophila from Cr(VI)-induced humoral immune-suppressive effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding negative impact of an environmental chemical on humoral innate immune response of Drosophila along with subsequent protection by AMPs, which may provide novel insight into host-chemical interactions. Also, our data validate the utility and sensitivity of Drosophila as a model that could be used for screening the possible risk of environmental chemicals on innate immunity with minimum ethical concern that can be further extrapolated to higher organisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Teresita; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circum-galactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disc can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at ˜1 kpc above disc, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on ˜100 kpc scales. To do this, we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the `burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in the CGM may therefore change in response to the detailed historical pattern of star formation. For instance, outflows generated by star formation with short, intense bursts contain up to 60 per cent of their gas mass at temperatures <5 × 104 K; for near-continuous star formation, the figure is ≲5 per cent. Further study of cosmological simulations, and of idealized simulations with e.g. metal-cooling, magnetic fields and/or thermal conduction, will help to understand the precise signature of bursty outflows on observed ion abundances.

  1. Powerful Quasar Outflows at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljanahi, Sara; Robert Scott Barrows

    2017-01-01

    Powerful quasar outflows can be driven by radiation pressure or radio jets, and they are capable of effecting the evolution of their host galaxies, particularly at high-redshifts (z~2)) when the quasar density peaks. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of 131 quasar outflows at high-redshifts (0.8outflows, their impact on the host galaxies, and their environments. We find that a subsample of 32 are detected by FIRST with 21 of them showing evidence for extended radio emission that suggests the outflows may be driven by the mechanical energy of radio jets in up to one-third of the sample. For the remaining two thirds of the sample, radiation pressure from the accretion disk is likely the driving mechanism. For those sources, we use the spatial information from long-slit spectra to estimate the energy of the outflowing gas, finding that one hundredth of the quasar energy is coupled with the energy being emitted by the radiation pressure from the accretion disk. Three of the quasars are found in the Hubble Space Telescope archives, with two of them showing clear signs of galaxy interactions/mergers, and a fraction of 0.4 show evidence of interactions from SDSS imaging. These combined results suggests that galaxy interactions may be the triggers of enhanced accretion onto the nuclear supermassive black holes of this sample, with the corresponding enhanced radiation pressure driving the outflows. Furthermore, the high-redshift nature of this sample has pushed the systematic study of quasar outflows closer to the epoch in which quasar feedback is likely to have been important in galaxy evolution.

  2. Use of Humorous Visuals To Enhance Computer-Based-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snetsinger, Wendy; Grabowski, Barbara

    It was hypothesized that a visual strategy that incorporates a humorous theme and cartoons with humorous comments relevant to the content helps motivate students to focus on and retain computer-based instructional material. An experiment to assess this hypothesis was undertaken with 43 college students who received a humorous presentation on…

  3. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  4. Are We Having Fun Yet? Humor in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Argues that humor is an invaluable teaching tool in English classes. Describes how the author and her students: found humor an important means of discovering profound truths in Shakespeare's dramas; enjoyed the epic "Paradise Lost"; worked with satire in Chaucer; and used humor in students' own creative activities. (SR)

  5. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  6. Are We Having Fun Yet? Humor in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Argues that humor is an invaluable teaching tool in English classes. Describes how the author and her students: found humor an important means of discovering profound truths in Shakespeare's dramas; enjoyed the epic "Paradise Lost"; worked with satire in Chaucer; and used humor in students' own creative activities. (SR)

  7. Learning through Laughter: Humor in the Classroom. Fastback 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Claudia E.

    Focusing on humor as a powerful instructional resource, this booklet addresses a variety of issues regarding humor in the elementary and secondary classroom. Thirteen ways in which humor can help teachers to achieve educational goals are presented, specifically that it (1) attracts attention and provokes thought, (2) liberates creative capacities,…

  8. The Performance of Humor in Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baym, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Argues that humor can be accomplished in computer-mediated communication and can be critical to creating social meaning online. Analyzes the humor of the USENET news group rec.arts.tv.soaps (r.a.t.s.), which discusses soap operas. Combines user surveys with message analysis to show the prevalence and importance of humor in r.a.t.s. (RS)

  9. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  10. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  11. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  12. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    PubMed

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  13. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  14. Continuity and Change: The Cultural Context of Women's Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Alice

    As a technique of social control intimately associated with the display and control of power, humor reflects empowerment. Contemporary women have few traditions of using power, and a variety of covert factors have discouraged women's use of humor. The most significant of these is the way that the popular mind has defined humor as a male…

  15. The Influence of Humorous Atmosphere on Divergent Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1983-01-01

    In one experiment, 78 adolescents were shown humorous film clips and required to write captions for cartoons. A creativity test was administered. In a second study, the experimental group completed the Torrance Creativity Test with humorous responses. In both studies, a humorous atmosphere was found to significantly increase creativity scores.…

  16. Teaching French Language and Culture by Means of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Humor can enliven classes, establish and maintain rapport, create ambiance for learning, and enhance student acquisition and retention. Ways to use humor in the classroom are presented, including clearly verbal approaches, visual aid techniques (magazines, cartoons, ads, etc.), and the humor of stand-up comedians. (12 references) (LB)

  17. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  18. Appropriate and Inappropriate Uses of Humor By Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekelja Wanzer, Melissa; Bainbridge Frymier, Ann; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M; Smith, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The use of humor in teaching has been linked to learning in several studies, although the research has been equivocal. The various types of humor used by teachers have also been investigated but not in terms of what students view as appropriate and inappropriate uses of humor. Participants in this study were asked to generate examples of…

  19. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  20. Assessing Students' Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study replicated and extended a preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it demeaned students as a group or individually.…

  1. Assessing Student Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2007-01-01

    This study replicated and extended Wanzer, Frymier, Wojtaszczyk, and Smith's (2006) preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it…

  2. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  3. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Culture through Humor in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guegan-Fisher, C.

    Humor can be a very effective tool to make students remember what they should know about the traditions and beliefs, manners and institutions of a culture. The teacher himself should outwardly be the embodiment of the culture which is taught. For example, when a teacher of French walks into the classroom the first day he should introduce himself…

  5. The Role of Humor in Children's Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    A total of 40 children in the three primary grades were studied to determine if they would donate more to a worthy cause after having been exposed to a humorous situation, in contrast to exposure to a serious one. The children who had heard a serious story about sharing donated slightly more to help Ethiopian refugees than did children who had…

  6. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  7. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  8. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates…

  9. Using Humor to Gain Mathematical Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George; Gadanidis, Janette M.; Huang, Alyssa Y.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical humor and insight are creative and pleasurable experiences. Both help students develop a positive attitude toward mathematics and facilitate higher-order thinking. The authors' classroom experience suggests that many middle school students have come to view mathematics as being a superficial and an uncreative activity where they…

  10. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory

    PubMed Central

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection. PMID:28090322

  11. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory.

    PubMed

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection.

  12. The Role of Humor in Children's Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    A total of 40 children in the three primary grades were studied to determine if they would donate more to a worthy cause after having been exposed to a humorous situation, in contrast to exposure to a serious one. The children who had heard a serious story about sharing donated slightly more to help Ethiopian refugees than did children who had…

  13. Proteomic analysis of human vitreous humor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The vitreous humor is a transparent, gelatinous mass whose main constituent is water. It plays an important role in providing metabolic nutrient requirements of the lens, coordinating eye growth and providing support to the retina. It is in close proximity to the retina and reflects many of the changes occurring in this tissue. The biochemical changes occurring in the vitreous could provide a better understanding about the pathophysiological processes that occur in vitreoretinopathy. In this study, we investigated the proteome of normal human vitreous humor using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Results The vitreous humor was subjected to multiple fractionation techniques followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 1,205 proteins, 682 of which have not been described previously in the vitreous humor. Most proteins were localized to the extracellular space (24%), cytoplasm (20%) or plasma membrane (14%). Classification based on molecular function showed that 27% had catalytic activity, 10% structural activity, 10% binding activity, 4% cell and 4% transporter activity. Categorization for biological processes showed 28% participate in metabolism, 20% in cell communication and 13% in cell growth. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000957. Conclusion This large catalog of vitreous proteins should facilitate biomedical research into pathological conditions of the eye including diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment and cataract. PMID:25097467

  14. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  15. Wit and Humor in Discourse Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Debra L.; Graesser, Arthur C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy of jokes and wit as a useful, descriptive tool. Argues that humor processing may occur in a parallel rather than serial fashion by contrasting a serial-processing, incongruity-resolution model with an alternative dual-processing model. Also presents a taxonomy of the social functions of wit. (JK)

  16. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  17. Humor in the Films of Alfred Hitchcock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Although usually considered the "master of suspense," Alfred Hitchcock relished working humor into his films, frequently juxtaposing it against scenes of utter gruesomeness. This placement of comic elements--comic relief--in an otherwise serious murder mystery or suspense thriller became a Hitchcock trademark early in his career.…

  18. Prosodic Markers of Saliency in Humorous Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Lucy; Corduas, Marcella; Eisterhold, Jodi; Seifried, Brenna; Eggleston, Alyson; Attardo, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Much of what we think we know about the performance of humor relies on our intuitions about prosody (e.g., "it's all about timing"); however, this has never been empirically tested. Thus, the central question addressed in this article is whether speakers mark punch lines in jokes prosodically and, if so, how. To answer this question,…

  19. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  20. Humorous Materials to Enhance Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. L.; Wilson, K.; Miller, J.; Enomoto, K.

    2017-01-01

    The use of humour in teaching and learning can be contentious, with some authors suggesting that the efficacy of humorous materials is mediated by the culture of the student. Nevertheless, humour represents a potential vehicle for the introduction of active learning in a classroom setting, as judicious use of humour may lead to a more relaxed…

  1. Humor: A Critical Analysis for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibles, Warren

    Part of the "Teaching Young People to be Critical Series," this booklet defines and analyzes humor for children in light of theories of philosophers Ludwig Wittenstein and John Dewey. Intended for individual or small group work, the objectives are threefold: reading improvement, reading enjoyment, and student involvement in making the leap from…

  2. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  3. Northwestern Tharsis Latent Outflow Activity Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Hare, T. M.; Strom, R. G.; Rudd, L.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Scott, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Previously defined outflow channels, which are indicated by relict landforms similar to those observed on Earth, signify ancient catastrophic flood events on Mars. These conspicuous geomorphic features are some of the most remarkable yet profound discoveries made by geologists to date. These outflow channels, which debouched tremendous volumes of water into topographic lows such as Chryse, Utopia, Elysium, and Hellas Planitiae, may represent the beginning of warmer and wetter climatic periods unlike the present-day cold and dry Mars. In addition to the previously identified outflow channels, observations permitted by the newly acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a system of gigantic valleys, referred to as the northwestern slope valleys (NSV), that are located to the northwest of a huge shield volcano, Arsia Mons, western hemisphere of Mars. These features generally correspond spatially to gravity lows similar to the easternmost, circum-Chryse outflow channel systems. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the large valley system pre-dates the construction of Arsia Mons and its extensive associated lava flows of mainly Late Hesperian and Amazonian age and coincides stratigraphically with the early development of the circum-Chryse outflow channel systems that debouch into Chryse Planitia. This newly identified system, the NSV, potentially signifies the largest flood event(s) ever recorded for the solar system. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  4. LVAD Outflow Graft Angle and Thrombosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Aliseda, Alberto; Chivukula, Venkat Keshav; Mcgah, Patrick; Prisco, Anthony R; Beckman, Jennifer A; Garcia, Guilherme J M; Mokadam, Nahush A; Mahr, Claudius

    This study quantifies thrombogenic potential (TP) of a wide range of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) outflow graft anastomosis angles through state-of-the-art techniques: 3D imaged-based patient-specific models created via virtual surgery and unsteady computational fluid dynamics with Lagrangian particle tracking. This study aims at clarifying the influence of a single parameter (outflow graft angle) on the thrombogenesis associated with flow patterns in the aortic root after LVAD implantation. This is an important and poorly-understood aspect of LVAD therapy, because several studies have shown strong inter and intrapatient thrombogenic variability and current LVAD implantation strategies do not incorporate outflow graft angle optimization. Accurate platelet-level investigation, enabled by statistical treatment of outliers in Lagrangian particle tracking, demonstrates a strong influence of outflow graft anastomoses angle on thrombogenicity (platelet residence times and activation state characterized by shear stress accumulation) with significantly reduced TP for acutely-angled anastomosed outflow grafts. The methodology presented in this study provides a device-neutral platform for conducting comprehensive thrombogenicity evaluation of LVAD surgical configurations, empowering optimal patient-focused surgical strategies for long-term treatment and care for advanced heart failure patients.

  5. Widening of Protostellar Outflows: An Infrared Outflow Survey in Low-luminosity Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    We present an outflow survey toward 20 low-luminosity objects (LLOs), namely, protostars with an internal luminosity lower than 0.2 {L}⊙ . Although a number of studies have reported the properties of individual LLOs, the reasons for their low luminosity remain uncertain. To answer this question, we need to know the evolutionary status of LLOs. Protostellar outflows are found to widen as their parent cores evolve, and therefore the outflow opening angle could be used as an evolutionary indicator. The infrared scattered light escapes out through the outflow cavity and highlights the cavity wall, giving us the opportunity to measure the outflow opening angle. Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we detected outflows toward eight LLOs out of 20 at Ks band, and based on archival Spitzer IRAC1 images, we added four outflow-driving sources from the remaining 12 sources. By fitting these images with radiative transfer models, we derive the outflow opening angles and inclination angles. To study the widening of outflow cavities, we compare our sample with the young stellar objects from Arce & Sargent and Velusamy et al. in a plot of opening angle versus bolometric temperature taken as an evolutionary indicator. Our LLO targets match well the trend of increasing opening angle with bolometric temperature reported by Arce & Sargent and are broadly consistent with that reported by Velusamy et al., suggesting that the opening angle could be a good evolutionary indicator for LLOs. Accordingly, we conclude that at least 40% of the outflow-driving LLOs in our sample are young Class 0 objects.

  6. Evolutionary and Developmental Origins of the Cardiac Neural Crest: Building a Divided Outflow Tract

    PubMed Central

    Keyte, Anna L.; Alonzo-Johnsen, Martha; Hutson, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    The cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) have played an important role in the evolution and development of the vertebrate cardiovascular system: from reinforcement of the developing aortic arch arteries early in vertebrate evolution, to later orchestration of aortic arch artery remodeling into the great arteries of the heart, and finally outflow tract septation in amniotes. A critical element necessary for the evolutionary advent of outflow tract septation was the co-evolution of the cardiac neural crest cells with the second heart field. This review highlights the major transitions in vertebrate circulatory evolution, explores the evolutionary developmental origins of the CNCCs from the third stream cranial neural crest, and explores candidate signaling pathways in CNCC and outflow tract evolution drawn from our knowledge of DiGeorge Syndrome. PMID:25227322

  7. Evolutionary and developmental origins of the cardiac neural crest: building a divided outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Keyte, Anna L; Alonzo-Johnsen, Martha; Hutson, Mary R

    2014-09-01

    The cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) have played an important role in the evolution and development of the vertebrate cardiovascular system: from reinforcement of the developing aortic arch arteries early in vertebrate evolution, to later orchestration of aortic arch artery remodeling into the great arteries of the heart, and finally outflow tract septation in amniotes. A critical element necessary for the evolutionary advent of outflow tract septation was the co-evolution of the cardiac neural crest cells with the second heart field. This review highlights the major transitions in vertebrate circulatory evolution, explores the evolutionary developmental origins of the CNCCs from the third stream cranial neural crest, and explores candidate signaling pathways in CNCC and outflow tract evolution drawn from our knowledge of DiGeorge Syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  9. Humor and laughter may influence health. I. History and background.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Mary Payne; Lengacher, Cecile A

    2006-03-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  10. Variable effects of humor styles on organizational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Eric J; Arendt, Lucy A

    2011-04-01

    The relationship between individual humor styles and several organizational variables was investigated: stress, satisfaction with coworkers, team cooperation, and organizational commitment. Four humor styles from the Humor Styles Questionnaire were measured. Survey results of 349 participants indicated different humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating) can have either a positive or negative effect on organizational outcomes. Results suggested that both researchers and practitioners can benefit from having a better understanding of how different humor styles affect people and outcomes in organizations.

  11. Differential Canalograms Detect Outflow Changes from Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents and Ab Interno Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Hardik A.; Loewen, Ralitsa T.; Roy, Pritha; Schuman, Joel S.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently introduced microincisional glaucoma surgeries that enhance conventional outflow offer a favorable risk profile over traditional surgeries, but can be unpredictable. Two paramount challenges are the lack of an adequate training model for angle surgeries and the absence of an intraoperative quantification of surgical success. To address both, we developed an ex vivo training system and a differential, quantitative canalography method that uses slope-adjusted fluorescence intensities of two different chromophores to avoid quenching. We assessed outflow enhancement by trabecular micro-bypass (TMB) implantation or by ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT). In this porcine model, TMB resulted in an insignificant (p > 0.05) outflow increase of 13 ± 5%, 14 ± 8%, 9 ± 3%, and 24 ± 9% in the inferonasal, superonasal, superotemporal, and inferotemporal quadrant, respectively. AIT caused a 100 ± 50% (p = 0.002), 75 ± 28% (p = 0.002), 19 ± 8%, and 40 ± 21% increase in those quadrants. The direct gonioscopy and tactile feedback provided a surgical experience that was very similar to that in human patients. Despite the more narrow and discontinuous circumferential drainage elements in the pig with potential for underperformance or partial stent obstruction, unequivocal patterns of focal outflow enhancement by TMB were seen in this training model. AIT achieved extensive access to outflow pathways beyond the surgical site itself. PMID:27811973

  12. Kinematics of YSO Molecular Hydrogen Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, L.; Cruz-González, I.

    2002-06-01

    As part of an on-going kinematical survey of molecular outflows, we describe observations of the 2.12 mu m line of H[2] for objects such as OMC-1, HH 211, HH 212, DR 21, Ceph A and S187-IR . The observations were made with the CAMILA IR-camera and an imaging Fabry-Pérot etalon at the 2.12 m telescope of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir. A 22 km s-1 (FWHM) resolution allows us to determine the global kinematics of these sources. We show that many of them are consistent with theoretical models such as the jet driven molecular outflow paradigm. A flux versus velocity relation, similar to the one observed for CO outflows, is revealed by H[2] velocity structure.

  13. Relative roles of the cellular and humoral responses in the Drosophila host defense against three gram-positive bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Nehme, Nadine T; Quintin, Jessica; Cho, Ju Hyun; Lee, Janice; Lafarge, Marie-Céline; Kocks, Christine; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2011-03-03

    Two NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Toll and immune deficiency (imd), are required for survival to bacterial infections in Drosophila. In response to septic injury, these pathways mediate rapid transcriptional activation of distinct sets of effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, which are important components of a humoral defense response. However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense. In order to dissect the relative importance of humoral and cellular defenses after septic injury with three different gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus), we used latex bead pre-injection to ablate macrophage function in flies wildtype or mutant for various Toll and imd pathway components. We found that in all three infection models a compromised phagocytic system impaired fly survival--independently of concomitant Toll or imd pathway activation. Our data failed to confirm a role of the PGRP-SA and GNBP1 Pattern Recognition Receptors for phagocytosis of S. aureus. The Drosophila scavenger receptor Eater mediates the phagocytosis by hemocytes or S2 cells of E. faecalis and S. aureus, but not of M. luteus. In the case of M. luteus and E. faecalis, but not S. aureus, decreased survival due to defective phagocytosis could be compensated for by genetically enhancing the humoral immune response. Our results underscore the fundamental importance of both cellular and humoral mechanisms in Drosophila immunity and shed light on the balance between these two arms of host defense depending on the invading pathogen.

  14. Molecular Outflows from Newly Formed Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2015-12-01

    We map 6 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the CO J=2-1 line and survey 18 massive YSOs, including the six, in the hcopj, sioj, water 6_{16}-5_{23} maser, and methanol 7_{0}-6_{1} A^{+} maser lines. We detect CO bipolar outflows in all the six mapped sources. Four of them are newly discovered (ifive, ieight, inine, iten), while itwo is mapped in the CO J=2-1 line for the first time. The detected outflows are much more massive and energetic than outflows from low-mass YSOs with masses >20 M_⊙ and momenta >300 M_⊙ km/s. They have mass outflow rates (3-6)×10^{-4} M_⊙ yr^{-1}, which are at least one order of magnitude greater than those observed in low-mass YSOs. We detect hcop and SiO line emission in 18 (100%) and 4 (22%) sources, respectively. The hcop spectra show high-velocity wings in 11 (61%) sources. We detect water maser emission in 13 (72%) sources and 44 GHz methanol maser emission in 8 (44%) sources. Of the detected sources, 5 water and 6 methanol maser sources are new discoveries. iseven shows high-velocity (>30 kms) water maser lines. We find good correlations of the bolometric luminosity of the central (proto)star with the mechanical force, mechanical luminosity, and mass outflow rate of molecular outflow %L_{bol} with F_{m}, L_{m}, and dot{M}_{out} in the bolometric luminosity range of 10^{-1}-10^6 lsol, and identified 3 intermediate- or high-mass counterparts of Class O objects.

  15. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection.

    PubMed

    McGee, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined whether different levels of sense of humor would influence respondents' ratings about a potentially desirable partner. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design--with gender and humor as independent variables and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables--the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than did those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets. The authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

  17. Humor and competence in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Masten, A S

    1986-04-01

    Multiple aspects of humor were evaluated in children between the ages of 10 and 14 and related to several areas of competence manifested at school. Humor measures assessed appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production, while competence measures included teacher ratings of classroom behavior, peer reputation, and achievement. Humor was related to competence in several ways consistent with previous theory and research: (1) through the manifestation of intellectual ability both in humor behaviors and in competent functioning; (2) through the role of mastery motivation enhancing both types of functioning; and (3) through peer relations, resulting from the effects of humor on peer acceptance or the effects of peer relations on humor behaviors. Ideas for further research relating humor to social competence, social cognition, and mastery motivation are discussed.

  18. Need for Humor Scale: validation with French children.

    PubMed

    Picard, Delphine; Blanc, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    The Need for Humor (NFH) Scale measures the tendency to produce and seek out humor. This personality trait affects the processing and recall of humorous material. This study is a transcultural adaptation and validation of the NFH Scale with French participants, including 100 university students (Study 1a) and 160 school-aged children (Study 1b). Results from iterative exploratory analyses and confirmatory analyses revealed a bi-dimensional structure with satisfactory factor loadings. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also found to be adequate (Cronbach's alphas = .79 and .68; test-retest rs = .87 and .82). Children were tested on a preference task for humorous vs non-humorous print advertisements; children with high NFH scores responded more positively to humorous advertisements (Study 2). The French NFH Scale can be used as a valid and reliable tool for assessing need for humor in children and its effects on responses to print advertisements.

  19. Episodic High-velocity Outflows from V899 Mon: A Constraint On The Outflow Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Philip, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the detection of large variations in the outflow wind velocity from a young eruptive star, V899 Mon, during its ongoing high accretion outburst phase. Such large variations in the outflow velocity (from -722 to -425 km s-1) have never been reported previously in this family of objects. Our continuous monitoring of this source shows that the multi-component, clumpy, and episodic high velocity outflows are stable in the timescale of a few days, and vary over the timescale of a few weeks to months. We detect significant decoupling in the instantaneous outflow strength to accretion rate. From the comparison of various possible outflow mechanisms in magnetospheric accretion of young stellar objects, we conclude magnetically driven polar winds to be the most consistent mechanism for the outflows seen in V899 Mon. The large scale fluctuations in outflow over the short period makes V899 Mon the most ideal source to constrain various magnetohydrodynamics simulations of magnetospheric accretion. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  20. NF-κB/Rel Proteins and the Humoral Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Sandhya; Aggarwal, Kamna; Paquette, Nicholas; Silverman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB)/Rel transcription factors form an integral part of innate immune defenses and are conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Studying the function, mechanism of activation and regulation of these factors is crucial for understanding host responses to microbial infections. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has proved to be a valuable model system to study these evolutionarily conserved NF-κB mediated immune responses. Drosophila combats pathogens through humoral and cellular immune responses. These humoral responses are well characterized and are marked by the robust production of a battery of anti-microbial peptides. Two NF-κB signaling pathways, the Toll and the IMD pathways, are responsible for the induction of these antimicrobial peptides. Signal transduction in these pathways is strikingly similar to that in mammalian TLR pathways. In this chapter, we discuss in detail the molecular mechanisms of microbial recognition, signal transduction and NF-κB regulation, in both the Toll and the IMD pathways. Similarities and differences relative to their mammalian counterparts are discussed, and recent advances in our understanding of the intricate regulatory networks in these NF-κB signaling pathways are also highlighted. PMID:20852987

  1. Effects of induction and inhibition of matrix cross-linking on remodeling of the aqueous outflow resistance by ocular trabecular meshwork cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong-Feng; Sun, Ying Ying; Acott, Ted S.; Keller, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    The trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue controls drainage of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye primarily by regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Glaucomatous TM tissue is stiffer than age-matched controls, which may be due to alterations in ECM cross-linking. In this study, we used genipin or beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) agents to induce or inhibit matrix cross-linking, respectively, to investigate the effects on outflow resistance and ECM remodeling. Treatment with BAPN increased outflow rates in perfused human and porcine anterior segments, whereas genipin reduced outflow. Using a fluorogenic peptide assay, MMP activity was increased with BAPN treatment, but reduced with genipin treatment. In genipin-treated TM cells, Western immunoblotting showed a reduction of active MMP2 and MMP14 species and the presence of TIMP2-MMP14 higher molecular weight complexes. BAPN treatment increased collagen type I mRNA and protein levels, but genipin reduced the levels of collagen type I, tenascin C, elastin and versican. CD44 and fibronectin levels were unaffected by either treatment. Collectively, our results show that matrix cross-linking has profound effects on outflow resistance and ECM composition and are consistent with the emerging paradigm that the stiffer the ECM, the lower the aqueous outflow facility through the TM. PMID:27465745

  2. A SPECTACULAR OUTFLOW IN AN OBSCURED QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Smith, Paul S.

    2012-02-10

    SDSS J1356+1026 is a pair of interacting galaxies at redshift z = 0.123 that hosts a luminous obscured quasar in its northern nucleus. Here we present two long-slit Magellan LDSS-3 spectra that reveal a pair of symmetric {approx}10 kpc size outflows emerging from this nucleus, with observed expansion velocities of {approx}250 km s{sup -1} in projection. We present a kinematic model of these outflows and argue that the deprojected physical velocities of expansion are likely {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} and that the kinetic energy of the expanding shells is likely 10{sup 44-45} erg s{sup -1}, with an absolute minimum of >10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Although a radio counterpart is detected at 1.4 GHz, it is faint enough that the quasar is considered to be radio quiet by all standard criteria, and there is no evidence of extended emission due to radio lobes, whether aged or continuously powered by an ongoing jet. We argue that the likely level of star formation is insufficient to power the observed energetic outflow and that SDSS J1356+1026 is a good case for radio-quiet quasar feedback. In further support of this hypothesis, polarimetric observations show that the direction of quasar illumination is coincident with the direction of the outflow.

  3. A Well-Defined Bipolar Outflow Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Patel, Nimesh

    1992-12-01

    A well-defined "eggplant-shaped" thin shell is revealed in the Mon R2 central core region by CO and (13) CO J=1-0 maps obtained with QUARRY. This thin shell outlines the extended blue lobe of the massive bipolar outflow. The projected length and width of the shell are about 5.7 pc and 2.5 pc respectively, and the averaged projected thickness of the shell is ~ 0.3 pc. The shape of this shell can be satisfactorily accounted for quantitatively in terms of limb-brightening within the framework of the Shu et al shell model with radially directed wind, although the model seems to be oversimplified with respect to the complexity that our data reveal. The outflow shell's symmetry axis is estimated to be inclined by ~ 70(deg) with respect to the line of sight. We suggest that the coincident blue- and red-shifted emission and the bending of the red-shifted lobe are the result of the red-shifted shell being compressed, rather than having a second bipolar outflow aligned roughly perpendicular to the axis of the first bipolar outflow.

  4. The HCO+ Molecular Outflow in NGC 2071

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girart, José M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rudolph, Alexander L.; Estalella, Robert; Wilner, David J.; Chernin, Lawrence M.

    1999-09-01

    We present high angular resolution and multitransition HCO+ observations toward the NGC 2071 molecular outflow. Comparison of the high-velocity (HV) HCO+ and the near-IR H2 in the molecular outflow shows a clear correlation. At high HCO+ flow velocities the spatial coincidence is especially remarkable. In addition, the HV HCO+ presents clear morphological and kinematical differences with the CO outflow. These differences appear not only in the HV HCO+ emission associated with the H2 but in the overall outflow. There is a clear HCO+ emission enhancement, relative to CO, at increasing flow velocities. This enhancement is probably due to an abundance enhancement produced by a velocity-dependent chemistry in the shocks. An overabundance of CH in low Mach shocks may cause the HCO+ abundance enhancement. Because of the short cooling time for H2, the correlation between the HCO+ and the H2 implies that HCO+ emission can provide a useful tool to study in detail the current interactions of protostellar winds with the dense ambient medium. At the position of the extremely high velocity (EHV) CO component in the red lobe we detect HCO+ (J=3-->2) emission within the velocity range of the EHV CO gas. This emission is roughly compatible with the expected HCO+ emission associated with EHV gas arising from behind dissociative shocks.

  5. Candidate Molecular Outflows from UC HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, D. S.; Churchwell, E. B.

    1994-05-01

    Ultracompact (UC) HII regions surrounding deeply embedded O and B stars represent the earliest stages of massive star formation and evolution. Although much has been learned about the global properties of these active objects, we are far from understanding how massive stars form and how they impact their environments. A key to the early stages of massive star formation during the accretion/outflow phase has been the discovery that several UC HII regions (i.e. G5.89-0.39, DR 21, and W49) are at the center of massive, luminous molecular outflows. To further our understanding of the global properties of massive star evolution during this phase we must identify additional sources that are undergoing bipolar outflow. To address this issue we have performed a survey of UC HII regions to search for high velocity (12) CO(J = 1 - 0) line wings with the NRAO 12m telescope. Our results are presented here. Most of the sources observed show evidence for some high velocity gas in the wing profiles indicating that these sources are candidates for massive stars with bipolar molecular outflows. Nearly 25% of the observed sources show extreme high velocity (EHV) wings with full width zero intensity (FWZI) > 100 km s(-1) at the 50 mK level.

  6. Where is the oxygen in protostellar outflows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Oxygen (O) is the third-most abundant element in the Universe after hydrogen and helium. Despite its high elemental abundance, a good picture of where oxygen is located in low-mass protostellar outflows and jets is missing: we cannot account for > 60% of the oxygen budget in these objects. This hole in our picture means that we currently do not have a good understanding of the dominant cooling processes in outflows jets, despite the fact that [O I] emission at 63 micron is one of the dominant cooling lines, nor how cooling processes evolve with protostellar evolution. To shed light on these processes, we propose to observe the [O I] 63 micron line with SOFIA-GREAT toward five low-mass protostars. As a first step, the velocity-resolved line profile will be decomposed into its constituent components to isolate the relative contributions from the jet and the irradiated outflow. Second, the [O I] line profile will be compared to those of H2O, OH and CO to obtain the relative atomic O abundance with respect to CO, H2O, and OH. Third, the effects of evolution will be examined by observing protostars at different evolutionary stages. These three approaches will allow us to quantify: the oxygen chemistry in warm and hot gas, the relative amounts of material in the outflow and the jet, and finally to start tracing the evolutionary sequence of how feedback evolves with time.

  7. Where is the oxygen in protostellar outflows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars

    Oxygen (O) is the third-most abundant element in the Universe after hydrogen and helium. Despite its high elemental abundance, a good picture of where oxygen is located in low-mass protostellar outflows and jets is missing: we cannot account for > 60% of the oxygen budget in these objects. This hole in our picture means that we currently do not have a good understanding of the dominant cooling processes in outflows jets, despite the fact that [O I] emission at 63 micron is one of the dominant cooling lines, nor how cooling processes evolve with protostellar evolution. To shed light on these processes, we propose to observe the [O I] 63 micron line with SOFIA-GREAT toward seven low-mass protostars. As a first step, the velocity-resolved line profile will be decomposed into its constituent components to isolate the relative contributions from the jet and the irradiated outflow. Second, the [O I] line profile will be compared to those of H2O, OH and CO to obtain the relative atomic O abundance with respect to CO, H2O, and OH. Third, the effects of evolution will be examined by observing protostars at different evolutionary stages. These three approaches will allow us to quantify: the oxygen chemistry in warm and hot gas, the relative amounts of material in the outflow and the jet, and finally to start tracing the evolutionary sequence of how feedback evolves with time.

  8. Protostellar Outflow Evolution in Turbulent Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, A; Frank, A; Carroll, J; Blackman, E; Quillen, A

    2008-04-11

    The link between turbulence in star formatting environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers-type turbulence and produces a driving scale-length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star forming environments. In the last section we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets can not be the source of turbulence.

  9. Simulating Galaxy Outflows Driven by Supersonic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannapieco, Evan

    Feedback from supernova-driven galaxy outflows plays a crucial role in setting the properties and assembly history of low-mass galaxies. Yet, numerically modeling such outflows has been by plagued by the fact that the underlying supernovae are much too small to be directly resolved, but have cooling times that are much too short to be modeled as thermal input. Here I will present three-dimensional, adaptive mesh simulations that overcome this problem using a subgrid model to deposit supernovae energy directly into supersonic turbulence, which acts on scales much smaller than the simulation grid spacing, but much larger than the particle mean free path. In this way, we are able to simulate a starbursting galaxy modeled after NGC 1569, including realistic radiative cooling throughout the simulation. Unlike in previous approaches, pockets of supernova-driven gas sweep up thick shells of material that persist for long times due to the cooling instability, and the overlapping of high-pressure, rarefied regions leads to a collective central outflow as observed in NGC 1569 and other outflowing starbursts. Such models will be directly comparable to a host of new observational constraints.

  10. Left ventricular outflow obstruction and necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.A.; Haney, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Two neonates had unusually rapid development of necrotizing enterocolitis within 24 hours of birth. Both patients had decreased systemic perfusion secondary to aortic atresia. Onset of either clinical or radiographic manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis in the first day of life should alert one to the possible presence of severe left ventricular outflow obstruction.

  11. Alignment between Protostellar Outflows and Filamentary Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ian W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Myers, Philip C.; Pokhrel, Riwaj; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Tobin, John J.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L.

    2017-09-01

    We present new Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of CO(2–1) outflows toward young, embedded protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud as part of the Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA (MASSES) survey. For 57 Perseus protostars, we characterize the orientation of the outflow angles and compare them with the orientation of the local filaments as derived from Herschel observations. We find that the relative angles between outflows and filaments are inconsistent with purely parallel or purely perpendicular distributions. Instead, the observed distribution of outflow-filament angles are more consistent with either randomly aligned angles or a mix of projected parallel and perpendicular angles. A mix of parallel and perpendicular angles requires perpendicular alignment to be more common by a factor of ∼3. Our results show that the observed distributions probably hold regardless of the protostar’s multiplicity, age, or the host core’s opacity. These observations indicate that the angular momentum axis of a protostar may be independent of the large-scale structure. We discuss the significance of independent protostellar rotation axes in the general picture of filament-based star formation.

  12. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  13. Enhancing trabecular outflow by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton, increasing uveoscleral outflow with prostaglandins, and understanding the pathophysiology of presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Several major areas of work by the author and his international collaborators are reviewed. 1) The ciliary muscle in the nonhuman primate eye was disinserted at the scleral spur. Pilocarpine was then ineffective in increasing outflow facility, indicating that ciliary muscle contraction mediated the IOP-lowering effect of muscarinic cholinergics. 2) Compounds such as cytochalasins, H-7 and latrunculin A/B, which alter the actin cytoskeleton, cellular contractility and cellular adhesions in cultured trabecular meshwork cells, relaxed trabecular pathway cells and consequently the meshwork itself so as to decrease IOP and enhance trabecular outflow facility in nonhuman primates. Gene transfer approaches utilizing C3 and caldesmon over-expression by viral vectors to target specific steps in the cellular contractility/cytoskeleton/cell adhesion cascades characteristically altered trabecular meshwork cell morphology and increased outflow facility in organ-cultured anterior segments. 3) Prostaglandin F2α analogues enhanced matrix metalloproteinase production by ciliary muscle cells and scleral fibroblasts, leading to remodeling of the extracellular matrix of the ciliary muscle and sclera and consequently to increased uveoslceral outflow and decreased IOP in primates. 4) The rhesus monkey was an excellent model for human presbyopia, losing the accommodative response to cholinergic stimulation in the same timeframe relative to lifespan. No changes were found in ciliary muscle enzymes involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis or degradation or in muscarinic receptor numbers or affinity. Contractility of isolated ciliary muscle did not diminish with age, but posterior ciliary muscle attachments stiffened, suggesting a possible role in restricting muscle and consequently lens movement during accommodation. A model to reproducibly stimulate accommodation through central stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus was developed. Goniovideography and ultrasound biomicroscopic

  14. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    PubMed

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  15. Outflow Entrainment and Feedback: A Case Study with HH46/47 Molecular Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichen; Arce, H.; Mardones, D.; Cabrit, S.

    2017-06-01

    Our ALMA multi-cycle multi-band observations of HH46/47 outflow show co-existence of entrainment by both wide-angle wind and jet bow-shock and this outflow is at a moment that the former has just become dominant. The estimated outflow mass and strength suggest that it has already strongly affected the core-to-star efficiency to 1/3 at this early stage. The zoom-in observation also reveals multiple wide outflowing shells with positions and shapes smoothly changing over a wide range of velocity, which may be an evidence of episodic eruption not only in jet but also in the wide-angle wind.

  16. Evolution of Mass Outflow in Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Dan M.; Calvet, Nuria P.; Fischer, William J.; Forrest, W. J.; Manoj, P.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Melnick, Gary J.; Najita, Joan; Neufeld, David A.; Sheehan, Patrick D.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Tobin, John J.

    2016-09-01

    We have surveyed 84 Class 0, Class I, and flat-spectrum protostars in mid-infrared [Si ii], [Fe ii], and [S i] line emission, and 11 of these in far-infrared [O i] emission. We use the results to derive their mass outflow rates, {\\dot{M}}w. Thereby we observe a strong correlation of {\\dot{M}}w with bolometric luminosity, and with the inferred mass accretion rates of the central objects, {\\dot{M}}a, which continues through the Class 0 range the trend observed in Class II young stellar objects. Along this trend from large to small mass flow rates, the different classes of young stellar objects lie in the sequence Class 0-Class I/flat-spectrum-Class II, indicating that the trend is an evolutionary sequence in which {\\dot{M}}a and {\\dot{M}}w decrease together with increasing age, while maintaining rough proportionality. The survey results include two that are key tests of magnetocentrifugal outflow-acceleration mechanisms: the distribution of the outflow/accretion branching ratio b={\\dot{M}}w/{\\dot{M}}a, and limits on the distribution of outflow speeds. Neither rules out any of the three leading outflow-acceleration, angular-momentum-ejection mechanisms, but they provide some evidence that disk winds and accretion-powered stellar winds (APSWs) operate in many protostars. An upper edge observed in the branching-ratio distribution is consistent with the upper bound of b = 0.6 found in models of APSWs, and a large fraction (31%) of the sample have a branching ratio sufficiently small that only disk winds, launched on scales as large as several au, have been demonstrated to account for them.

  17. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-07-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  18. THE CIRCUMBINARY OUTFLOW: A PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW DRIVEN BY A CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Matsumoto, Tomoaki E-mail: inutsuka@nagoya-u.j

    2009-10-10

    Protostellar outflow is a star's first cry at the moment of birth. The outflows have an indispensable role in the formation of single stars because they carry off the excess angular momentum from the center of the shrinking gas cloud, and permit further collapse to form a star. On the other hand, a significant fraction of stars is supposedly born as binaries with circumbinary disks that are frequently observed. Here, we investigate the evolution of a magnetized rotating cloud using a three-dimensional resistive MHD nested-grid code, and show that the outflow is driven by the circumbinary disk and has an important role even in the binary formation. After the adiabatic core formation in the collapsing cloud core, the magnetic flux is significantly removed from the center of the cloud by the Ohmic dissipation. Since this removal makes the magnetic braking ineffective, the adiabatic core continuously acquires the angular momentum to induce fragmentation and subsequent binary formation. The magnetic field accumulates in the circumbinary disk where the removal and accretion of magnetic field are balanced, and finally drives the circumbinary outflow. This result explains the spectacular morphology of some specific young stellar objects such as L1551 IRS5. We can infer that most of the bipolar molecular outflows observed by low density tracers (i.e., CO) would correspond to circumbinary or circum-multiple outflows found in this Letter, since most of the young stellar objects are supposed to be binaries or multiples.

  19. Humor as aggression: effects of motivation on hostility expressed in humor appreciation.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Netta; Hodgins, Holley S; Ostvik-White, Elin

    2011-06-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that relative to primed autonomy motivation, primed control would increase enjoyment of hostile (compared with nonhostile) humor as assessed by self-reported enjoyment and aversiveness and by nonverbal behavior. Results confirmed the hypothesis. Furthermore, initial state hostility moderated the effect such that high-hostility participants who were primed with control motivation especially enjoyed hostile humor. The 2 final studies showed that the effect was mediated by implicit aggression such that the combination of high initial state hostility and control priming led to implicit aggression, which in turn resulted in hostile humor enjoyment. Results are interpreted in terms of the effects of autonomy versus control motivation on intrapersonal self-regulatory processes, which influence interpersonal functioning.

  20. Humor as an adjunct to occupational therapy interactions.

    PubMed

    Tooper, V O

    1984-01-01

    Although humor and laughter have been a natural part of human life in all cultures as far back as recorded history can determine, the conscious use of humor as a therapeutic technique is comparatively recent. This article suggests that health specialists have been slow to adopt the ideas of some of the better known researchers and writers in the field due to professional and cultural attitudes toward humor as a "frivolous" subject. As more information on the positive benefits of humor and laughter is being disseminated in books and workshops, previous myths regarding humor are being dispelled and attitudes are changing. A brief history of the state of the art over the past decade is included along with a few ideas from seminars and workshops on the use of humor as a planned activity in health and educational settings.

  1. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  2. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Method Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Results Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Conclusion Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense. PMID:27788204

  3. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared to the non-disclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the non-disclosed condition suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Outflow Facility Increase With Trabecular Meshwork Bypass and Schlemm Canal Dilation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fan; Schieber, Andrew T; Camras, Lucinda J; Harasymowycz, Paul J; Herndon, Leon W; Allingham, R Rand

    2016-04-01

    To mathematically model the conventional aqueous humor outflow system with trabecular meshwork (TM) bypass and Schlemm canal (SC) dilation. The SC was modeled as a rectangular channel with the TM modeled as a permeable membrane. The collector channels (CCs) were modeled as fluid sinks distributed along the outer wall of SC. Two different implants were investigated in this study. The Hydrus Microstent (scaffold) was modeled with a TM bypass and a dilated region in SC that was 7 or 15 mm long and approximately 5-fold larger than the normal height of SC (h0). The iStent trabecular microbypass was modeled with a similar structure except that the dilated region in SC was 1 mm long and 25% larger than h0. Creation of a TM bypass structure would increase the pressure in the surrounding regions inside the SC and make it close to the intraocular pressure. SC dilation would increase the pressure more uniformly in the dilated region. The pressure increase led to higher flow rates in SC and CCs, and subsequently increased outflow facility (C). If CCs were uniformly distributed, the increase in C was the smallest after implantation of 1 microbypass, compared with that after implantation of 2 microbypasses or 1 scaffold. If CCs were nonuniformly distributed, the magnitude of increase in C was sensitive to the location of implant, and the sensitivity was higher for the microbypass than the scaffold. The study showed that creation of TM bypass and SC dilation significantly increased outflow facility, and the amount of increase correlated with the length of dilated regions in SC.

  5. Don't Smile before Christmas: The Role of Humor in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallinger, Linda Moody

    1997-01-01

    Humor can be a powerful, productive tool to help teachers succeed in the classroom. Humor cultivates spirit, alleviates stress, improves communication, and diffuses conflict. Reviews types of humor (satire, cheerfulness, eccentricity, and sarcasm), discusses humor's classroom uses and benefits, and shows how school leaders can introduce humor into…

  6. The Use of Humor as a Counselor Strategy with Native American Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Roger D.; Meggert, Sandra S.

    1994-01-01

    Advocates that counselors incorporate humor in their work with Native Americans. Discusses psychological theories of humor and explores Native American humor. Examines humor's implications for counseling and suggests specific strategies for the use of humor, such as storytelling, imagination, puppets, clowns, games, word games, and other devices.…

  7. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  8. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  9. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, H. M.

    2013-02-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. After the initial radial infall an accretion disk develops. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius by the stellar magnetic field. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. Hα, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many (if not all) accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. However, the exact driving mechanism is still unclear. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner disk rim, and thermally driven stellar winds. In any case, the outflows contain material of very different temperatures and speeds. The disk wind is cool and can have a molecular component with just a few tens of km s-1, while the central component of the outflow can reach a few 100 km s-1. In some cases the inner part of the outflow is collimated to a small-angle jet. These jets have an onion-like structure, where the inner components are consecutively hotter and faster. The jets can contain working surfaces, which show up as Herbig-Haro knots. Accretion and outflows in the CTTS phase do not only determine stellar parameters like the rotation rate on the main-sequence, they also can have a profound impact on the environment of young stars. This review concentrates on CTTS in near-by star forming regions where

  10. Regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in the trabecular meshwork: role in aqueous humour outflow facility.

    PubMed

    Rao, P Vasantha; Deng, Peifeng; Sasaki, Yasuharu; Epstein, David L

    2005-02-01

    Cellular contraction and relaxation and integrity of the actin cytoskeleton in trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue have been thought to influence aqueous humour outflow. However, the cellular pathways that regulate these events in TM cells are not well understood. In this study, we investigated physiological agonist-mediated regulation of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in the TM, and correlated such effects with alterations in aqueous outflow facility, since MLC phosphorylation is a critical biochemical determinant of cellular contraction in TM cells. Treatment of serum starved human TM cells with endothelin-1 (0.1 microM), thromboxane A2 mimetic U-46619 (1.0 microM), or angiotensin II (1 microM), all of which are agonists of G-protein coupled receptors, triggered activation of MLC phosphorylation, as determined by urea/glycerol-based Western blot analysis. Agonist-stimulated increase in MLC phosphorylation was associated with activation of Rho GTPase in TM cells, as determined in pull-down assays. In contrast, treatment of human TM cells with a novel Rho-kinase inhibitor H-1152 (0.1-2 microM), in the presence of serum reduced basal MLC phosphorylation. H-1152 also increased aqueous outflow facility significantly in a dose-dependent fashion, in perfusion studies with cadaver porcine eyes. This effect of H-1152 on outflow facility was associated with decreased MLC phosphorylation in TM tissue of drug-perfused eyes. Collectively, this study identifies potential physiological regulators of MLC phosphorylation in human TM cells and demonstrates the significance of Rho/Rho-kinase pathway-mediated MLC phosphorylation in modulation of aqueous outflow facility through TM.

  11. Development of a novel two color tracer perfusion technique for the hydrodynamic study of aqueous outflow in bovine eyes

    PubMed Central

    Jing-yin, ZHU; Wen, YE; Hai-yan, GONG

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevation of intraocular pressure is usually associated with primary open angle glaucoma and caused by increased outflow resistance. A two-color fluorescent tracer technique was developed to investigate the hydrodynamics of aqueous humor outflow with changing intraocular pressure within the same eye, to better understand the relationship between outflow facility and effective filtration area. Methods Eighteen enucleated bovine eyes were first perfused at 30 mmHg with Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline containing 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose. After a stable baseline facility, red fluorescent microspheres (0.5 μm, 0.002% v/v) were exchanged and perfused. Eyes in the one-color control group (n=6) were immediately perfused with fixative. In the experimental group (n=6), eyes were perfused with green tracer after intraocular pressure reduced to 7 mmHg, while in the two-color control group (n=6), eyes were perfused with green tracer with intraocular pressure remaining at 30 mmHg. All 12 eyes were then perfusion-fixed. Outflow facility was continuously recorded in all eyes. Confocal images were taken along the inner wall of the aqueous plexus and the percent of the effective filtration length (PEFL; length of inner wall exhibiting tracer labeling/total length of inner wall) was measured. The relationships between outflow facility and PEFL were analyzed statistically. Results No significant differences were found in baseline facilities (μl·min−1·mmHg−1) among the three groups (the experimental group: 0.93±0.12; the two-color control group: 0.90±0.19; the one-color control group: 0.98±0.13). In the experimental group, the outflow facility was significantly higher at 7 mmHg (4.29±1.01) than that at 30 mmHg (1.90±0.67, P <0.001), which corresponded to a significant increase in the PEFL at 7 mmHg (54.70±8.42) from that at 30 mmHg ((11.76±4.56)%, P <0.001). The PEFL labeled by red fluorescent microspheres in the experimental group ((11.76±4.56)%) showed

  12. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    PubMed

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  13. The Anals of History: Unintentional Humor from Freshman Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kristine

    1983-01-01

    Presents examples of unintentional humor from college freshman composition courses. Suggests that by pointing out miscommunications, teachers can persuade students to use standard English more effectively. (MM)

  14. Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Propson, B; Göricke, S; Jacobi, H; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Humor is a complex behavior which includes cognitive, affective and motor responses. Based on observations of affective changes in patients with cerebellar lesions, the cerebellum may support cerebral and brainstem areas involved in understanding and appreciation of humorous stimuli and expression of laughter. The aim of the present study was to examine if humor appreciation, perception of humorous stimuli, and the succeeding facial reaction differ between patients with cerebellar degeneration and healthy controls. Twenty-three adults with pure cerebellar degeneration were compared with 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects. No significant difference in humor appreciation and perception of humorous stimuli could be found between groups using the 3 Witz-Dimensionen Test, a validated test asking for funniness and aversiveness of jokes and cartoons. Furthermore, while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, and video sketches, facial expressions of subjects were videotaped and afterwards analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Using depression as a covariate, the number, and to a lesser degree, the duration of facial expressions during laughter were reduced in cerebellar patients compared to healthy controls. In sum, appreciation of humor appears to be largely preserved in patients with chronic cerebellar degeneration. Cerebellar circuits may contribute to the expression of laughter. Findings add to the literature that non-motor disorders in patients with chronic cerebellar disease are generally mild, but do not exclude that more marked disorders may show up in acute cerebellar disease and/or in more specific tests of humor appreciation.

  15. Guidelines for developing and implementing humor in nursing classrooms.

    PubMed

    Ulloth, Joan Kay

    2003-01-01

    The three teachers in this study selected many types of humor to exemplify their points. To avoid predictability, they varied their humor presentation styles and frequency by using simple cartoons projected on a screen, jokes and stories, and songs and dance routines. All three teachers engaged in a continuous search for new material to further expand their repertoire. Careful not to overuse humor, they never lost sight of the learning objectives, but they added enough humor to sustain students' attention. The teachers gradually increased their use of classroom humor as they felt more comfortable with the content and setting. All of the students' and teachers' comments corroborate the conclusions reached by Bryant and Zillmann 1989), "It would appear that success in teaching with humor...depends on employing the right type of humor, under the proper conditions, at the right time, and with properly motivated and receptive students' (p. 74). Not all types of humor are appropriate for all teachers. However, for teachers who carefully invest time and effort into learning to teach with humor, the reward can be a successful and enjoyable experience for all involved.

  16. Humor: Power Conveying Social Structures Inside Forensic Mental Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Paaske, Kristian J; Rasmussen, Vivian L; Nissen, Ricko D; Bradley, Stephen K; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2016-01-01

    According to research literature, humor inside the staff-patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic mental health staff members in interactions with forensic mental health inpatients. The study included 32 forensic mental health staff members, used 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal interviews, and seven formal semistructured interviews. Outcomes identify four themes concerning the conveyance of power to, from, and between forensic mental health staff and patients as they interact: (a) "the informal use: the human-to-human approach," characterized by an informal use of humor and without any reference to mental health issues; (b) the "formal use of humor: the staff-patient approach," characterized as formal with a view on the patient as mentally ill, unable to understand humor, and with the aim of using humor to prevent conflicts or negative behavior; (c) "protest against requested care: the human-patient approach," characterized by the use of humor as a protest against requested care; and the use of (d) "inadequacy humor: the staff-human approach," characterized by the use of inadequacy-humor referring to, for example, patients' physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-esteem instability and humor styles: does the stability of self-esteem influence how people use humor?

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jessica; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and the use of humor. This was accomplished by examining the associations that humor styles had with self-esteem level and self-esteem instability among 499 undergraduates. The results of the present study show that self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and humor styles such that individuals with stable high self-esteem reported the highest levels of affiliative humor as well as the lowest levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor. These results suggest that individuals with stable and unstable forms of self-esteem employ different styles of humor.

  19. Distinctive and pervasive alterations in aqueous humor protein composition following different types of glaucoma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Cyril; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A.; Price, Francis W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether specific glaucoma surgeries are associated with differences in aqueous humor protein concentrations compared to eyes without filters. Methods In this cross-sectional study, aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from control subjects who underwent routine cataract surgery (n=14) and from patients who had different glaucoma filters: Baerveldt aqueous shunt (n=6), Ahmed aqueous shunt (n=6), trabeculectomy (n=5), and Ex-Press trabeculectomy (n=3). Total protein concentrations were determined with Bradford assay. Tryptic digests were analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins were identified with high confidence using stringent criteria and were quantitatively compared with a label-free platform. Relative protein quantities were compared across groups with ANOVA. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results Compared to the control eyes, the aqueous humor protein concentration was increased approximately tenfold in the Ahmed and Baerveldt eyes and fivefold in the trabeculectomy and Ex-Press eyes. Overall, 718 unique proteins, splice variants, or isoforms were identified. No differences in the protein concentrations were detected between the Baerveldt and Ahmed groups. Likewise, the trabeculectomy and Ex-Press groups were remarkably similar. Therefore, the aqueous shunt groups were pooled, and the trabeculectomy groups were pooled for a three-way comparison with the controls. More than 500 proteins differed significantly in relative abundance (ANOVA p<0.01) among the control, aqueous shunt, and trabeculectomy groups. Functional analyses suggested these alterations in relative protein abundance affected dozens of signaling pathways. Conclusions Different glaucoma surgical procedures were associated with marked increases in the aqueous humor protein concentration and distinctive changes in the relative abundance of numerous proteins involved in multiple

  20. Distinctive and pervasive alterations in aqueous humor protein composition following different types of glaucoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Cyril; Price, Marianne O; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A; Price, Francis W

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether specific glaucoma surgeries are associated with differences in aqueous humor protein concentrations compared to eyes without filters. In this cross-sectional study, aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from control subjects who underwent routine cataract surgery (n=14) and from patients who had different glaucoma filters: Baerveldt aqueous shunt (n=6), Ahmed aqueous shunt (n=6), trabeculectomy (n=5), and Ex-Press trabeculectomy (n=3). Total protein concentrations were determined with Bradford assay. Tryptic digests were analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins were identified with high confidence using stringent criteria and were quantitatively compared with a label-free platform. Relative protein quantities were compared across groups with ANOVA. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Compared to the control eyes, the aqueous humor protein concentration was increased approximately tenfold in the Ahmed and Baerveldt eyes and fivefold in the trabeculectomy and Ex-Press eyes. Overall, 718 unique proteins, splice variants, or isoforms were identified. No differences in the protein concentrations were detected between the Baerveldt and Ahmed groups. Likewise, the trabeculectomy and Ex-Press groups were remarkably similar. Therefore, the aqueous shunt groups were pooled, and the trabeculectomy groups were pooled for a three-way comparison with the controls. More than 500 proteins differed significantly in relative abundance (ANOVA p<0.01) among the control, aqueous shunt, and trabeculectomy groups. Functional analyses suggested these alterations in relative protein abundance affected dozens of signaling pathways. Different glaucoma surgical procedures were associated with marked increases in the aqueous humor protein concentration and distinctive changes in the relative abundance of numerous proteins involved in multiple signaling pathways.

  1. Example of reduced turbulence during thunderstorm outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.

    1996-06-01

    This research note describes the effects of a gust front passage resulting from a thunderstorm outflow on wind, turbulence, and other basic meteorological variables in northern Mew Mexico. The purpose of this note is to explain how a thunderstorm outflow can greatly reduce horizontal and vertical turbulence and produce strong winds, thereby promoting the rapid transport of elevated pollutant concentrations. Another goal is to demonstrate the usefulness of a sodar in combination with a tower to provide data for dispersion and transport calculations during an emergency response. Hopefully, this note will motivate other researchers to analyze and document the effects of thunderstorms on turbulence and dispersion by routine monitoring or by experimentation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Eddy Generation by a Steady Poleward Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T. S.; Pedlosky, J.; Spall, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The energetic eddy field coincident with the South Equatorial Current (SEC) in the eastern Indian Ocean has been variously attributed to baroclinic instability of the SEC, barotropic instability of the SEC and shedding of eddies by the branch of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) entering the basin through Timor Passage. We present an additional mechanism by demonstrating that in an idealized numerical model, a steady poleward outflow (meant to simulate the Lombok Strait branch of the ITF) can generate an eddy field with spatial and temporal patterns that bear a remarkable resemblance to observations of sea surface height varibility in the region. A simple conceptual model will be presented which links the nonlinear, eddy-generating dynamics to linear dynamics, thus making possible the prediction of eddy amplitudes and periodicity for a wide range of outflow latitudes and volume fluxes.

  3. Aberrant Collagen Composition of the Trabecular Meshwork Results in Reduced Aqueous Humor Drainage and Elevated IOP in MMP-9 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Groef, Lies; Andries, Lien; Siwakoti, Anuja; Geeraerts, Emiel; Bollaerts, Ilse; Noterdaeme, Lut; Etienne, Isabelle; Papageorgiou, Anna-Pia; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Billen, Johan; West-Mays, Judith A.; Moons, Lieve

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Homeostatic turnover of the trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential to regulate aqueous humor outflow and to maintain intraocular pressure homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated aqueous humor turnover, intraocular pressure, and trabecular meshwork organization in MMP-9 null mice. Methods Intraocular pressure and aqueous humor turnover were measured in MMP-9 null versus wild-type mice. Morphology of the anterior segment of the eye, with special attention to the structural organization of the trabecular meshwork, was investigated by means of optical coherence tomography, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostainings, we evaluated the ECM composition of the trabecular meshwork. Finally, the integrity and function of the retina and optic nerve were assessed, via optical coherence tomography, histologic techniques, and optomotor testing. Results MMP-9 null mice displayed early-onset ocular hypertension and reduced aqueous humor turnover. While transmission electron microscopic analysis did not reveal any abnormalities in the cellular organization of the trabecular meshwork, detailed investigation of collagen expression indicated that there is an aberrant trabecular meshwork ECM composition in MMP-9 null mice. Notably, at the age of 13 months, no glaucomatous neurodegeneration was seen in MMP-9 null mice. Conclusions Our observations corroborate MMP-9 as an important remodeler of the collagenous composition of the trabecular meshwork and provide evidence for a causal link between MMP-9 deficiency, trabecular meshwork ultrastructure, and ocular hypertension. PMID:27820954

  4. Mixing and Dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Committee for Physical Oceanography Massachusetts Institute of Technology/ Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 2 MIXING AND DYNAMICS OF THE...isopycnal becomes more than a 2 °C. The flow eventually settles along two preferred isopycnals: 27.5 and 27.8 (Zenk 1975b). The spreading of the flow...on the outflow. This stress is as large as 5 Pa within 20 km of the Strait, while further downstream the stress decreases to about 1 Pa. The 2

  5. THE OUTFLOWING WIND OF V1057 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Herbig, G. H.

    2009-08-15

    In 1970-1971, V1057 Cyg rose from about m {sub pg} {approx} 16 to a peak near 10.5 mag. It has subsequently faded to about B = 15, and although it appeared to be a T Tauri star (TTS) before the outburst, it now resembles a rather peculiar rapidly rotating G-type supergiant. Before the outburst, it showed unmistakable evidence of high-velocity outflow (by the suppression of emission Ca II {lambda}3968 by the P Cyg absorption component of H{epsilon} {lambda}3970). Such outflow absorptions are currently found at many strong lines (H{alpha}, Na I D{sub 1,2}, K I {lambda}{lambda}7664, 7698, Ca II {lambda}{lambda}8498, 8662, ...). The same phenomenon has since been observed in a number of other FUors near maximum light, suggesting that it is a FUor characteristic that clearly differs from the outflows found in TTSs. The Li I resonance line at 6707 A is relatively weak, and on high-resolution spectra obtained between 1997 and 2008 showed variable absorption structure on its shortward side that probably represents wind structure that is lost in the stronger lines. In addition, a narrow emission line at 6707 A persists throughout the series and is the counterpart of the sharp emission lines that occur near the centers of many of the broad stellar absorption lines (v sin i = 55 km s{sup -1}) and that were responsible for the line-splitting phenomenon formerly regarded as evidence of a Keplerian disk. Given the evidence of a quasi-permanent outflow at V1057 Cyg, the hypothesis is advanced that a FUor outburst may be the result of a rapidly rotating TTS having contracted to a point of rotational instability, at which time it sheds enough material and angular momentum to resume contraction, until the next such event.

  6. Molecular outflow launched beyond the disk edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, F. O.; Girart, J. M.; Caselli, P.; Franco, G. A. P.; Zhao, B.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Evans, M. G.; Ricci, L.

    2017-07-01

    One of the long-standing problems of star formation is the excess of angular momentum of the parent molecular cloud. In the classical picture, a fraction of angular momentum of the circumstellar material is removed by the magneto-centrifugally driven disk wind that is launched from a wide region throughout the disk. In this work, we investigate the kinematics in the envelope-disk transition zone of the Class I object BHB07-11, in the B59 core. For this purpose, we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in extended configuration to observe the thermal dust continuum emission (λ0 1.3 mm) and molecular lines (CO, C18O and H2CO), which are suitable tracers of disk, envelope, and outflow dynamics at a spatial resolution of 30 AU. We report a bipolar outflow that was launched at symmetric positions with respect to the disk ( 80 AU in radius), but was concentrated at a distance of 90-130 AU from the disk center. The two outflow lobes had a conical shape and the gas inside was accelerating. The large offset of the launching position coincided with the landing site of the infall materials from the extended spiral structure (seen in dust) onto the disk. This indicates that bipolar outflows are efficiently launched within a narrow region outside the disk edge. We also identify a sharp transition in the gas kinematics across the tip of the spiral structure, which pinpoints the location of the so-called centrifugal barrier.

  7. Vangl2-regulated polarisation of second heart field-derived cells is required for outflow tract lengthening during cardiac development.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, Simon A; Sharma, Vipul; Rhee, Hong Jun; Eley, Lorraine; Phillips, Helen M; Rigby, Hannah F; Dean, Charlotte; Chaudhry, Bill; Henderson, Deborah J

    2014-12-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF) to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis.

  8. Vangl2-Regulated Polarisation of Second Heart Field-Derived Cells Is Required for Outflow Tract Lengthening during Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hong Jun; Eley, Lorraine; Phillips, Helen M.; Rigby, Hannah F.; Dean, Charlotte; Chaudhry, Bill; Henderson, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF) to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis. PMID:25521757

  9. Outflows of stars due to quasar feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; Nayakshin, Sergei; Sazonov, Sergey; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2013-05-01

    Quasar feedback outflows are commonly invoked to drive gas out of galaxies in the early gas-rich epoch to terminate growth of galaxies. Here we present simulations that show that AGN feedback may drive not only gas but also stars out of their host galaxies under certain conditions. The mechanics of this process is as follows: (1) AGN-driven outflows accelerate and compress gas filling the host galaxy; (2) the accelerated dense shells become gravitationally unstable and form stars on radial trajectories. For the spherically symmetric initial conditions explored here, the black hole needs to exceed the host's Mσ mass by a factor of a few to accelerate the shells and the new stars to escape velocities. We discuss potential implications of these effects for the host galaxies: (i) radial mixing of bulge stars with the rest of the host; (ii) contribution of quasar outflows to galactic fountains as sources of high-velocity clouds; (iii) wholesale ejection of hypervelocity stars out of their hosts, giving rise to Type II supernovae on galactic outskirts, and contributing to reionization and metal enrichment of the Universe; (iv) bulge erosion and even complete destruction in extreme cases resulting in overweight or bulgeless SMBHs.

  10. Shaping the outflows of evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Shazrene

    2015-08-01

    Both hot and cool evolved stars, e.g., red (super)giants and Wolf-Rayet stars, lose copious amounts of mass, momentum and mechanical energy through powerful, dense stellar winds. The interaction of these outflows with their surroundings results in highly structured and complex circumstellar environments, often featuring knots, arcs, shells and spirals. Recent improvements in computational power and techniques have led to the development of detailed, multi-dimensional simulations that have given new insight into the origin of these structures, and better understanding of the physical mechanisms driving their formation. In this talk, I will discuss three of the main mechanisms that shape the outflows of evolved stars:- interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM), i.e., wind-ISM interactions- interaction with a stellar wind, either from a previous phase of evolution or the wind from a companion star, i.e., wind-wind interactions- and interaction with a companion star that has a weak or insignicant outflow (e.g., a compact companion such as a neutron star or black hole), i.e., wind-companion interactions.I will also highlight the broader implications and impact of these stellar wind interactions for other phenomena, e.g, for symbiotic and X-ray binaries, supernovae and Gamma-ray bursts.

  11. Density distributions of outflow-driven turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraghan, Anthony; Kim, Jongsoo; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2013-05-01

    Protostellar jets and outflows are signatures of star formation and promising mechanisms for driving supersonic turbulence in molecular clouds. We quantify outflow-driven turbulence through three-dimensional numerical simulations using an isothermal version of the robust total variation diminishing code. We drive turbulence in real space using a simplified spherical outflow model, analyse the data through density probability distribution functions (PDFs), and investigate the core formation rate per free-fall time (CFRff). The real-space turbulence-driving method produces a negatively skewed density PDF possessing an enhanced tail on the low-density side. It deviates from the log-normal distributions typically obtained from Fourier-space turbulence driving at low densities, but can provide a good fit at high densities, particularly in terms of mass-weighted rather than volume-weighted density PDF. Due to this fact, we suggest that the CFRff determined from a Fourier-driven turbulence model could be comparable to that of our particular real-space-driving model, which has a ratio of solenoidal to compressional components from the resulting turbulence velocity fields of ˜0.6.

  12. Magnetospheric imaging of high latitude ion outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrido, D. E.; Robinson, R. M.; Chiu, Y. T.; Collin, H. L.; Smith, R. W.; Swift, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    High latitude ion outflows mostly consist of upward streaming O(+) and He(+) emanating from the ionosphere. At heights above 1000 km, these flows consist of cold and hot components which resonantly scatter solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, however, the ion populations respond differently to Doppler shifting resulting from the large relative velocities between the ions and the Sun. The possibility of optical detection of the Doppler effect on the scattering rate will be discussed for the O(+) (83.4 nm) ions. We have contrasted the EUV solar resonance images of these outflows by simulations of the 30.4 nm He(+) and 83.4 nm O(+) emissions for both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Input data for the 1000 km level has been obtained from the EICS instrument aboard the Dynamics Explorer (DE) satellite. Our results show emission rates of 50 and 56 milli-Rayleighs at 30.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions and 65 and 75 milli-Rayleighs at 83.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions, respectively, obtained for a polar orbiting satellite and viewing radially outward. We also find that an imager at an equatorial distance of 9 R(sub E) or more is in a favorable position for detecting ion outflows, particularly when the plasmapause is depressed in latitude. However, an occultation disk is necessary to obscure the bright plasmaspheric emissions.

  13. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    PubMed

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  14. Intrapersonal Perceptions of Shyness and Humor as Related to Interpersonal Perceptions of Social Distance and Humorousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Wolf, Amy

    Although humor and laughter are most often based in fundamental social interactions, this element of communication has received little attention. To examine the socially facilitating effects of communication and social acceptance by analyzing children's intrapersonal perceptions of communication apprehension, or shyness, 169 children, aged 8 to 13…

  15. CARMA OBSERVATIONS OF PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS IN NGC 1333

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, Adele L.; Arce, Hector G.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Mardones, Diego; Sargent, Anneila I.; Schnee, Scott L.

    2013-09-01

    We present observations of outflows in the star-forming region NGC 1333 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy (CARMA). We combined the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (1-0) CARMA mosaics with data from the 14 m Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory to probe the central, most dense, and active region of this protostellar cluster at scales from 5'' to 7' (or 1000 AU to 0.5 pc at a distance of 235 pc). We map and identify {sup 12}CO outflows, and along with {sup 13}CO data we estimate their mass, momentum, and energy. Within the 7' Multiplication-Sign 7' map, the 5'' resolution allows for a detailed study of morphology and kinematics of outflows and outflow candidates, some of which were previously confused with other outflow emission in the region. In total, we identify 22 outflow lobes, as well as 9 dense circumstellar envelopes marked by continuum emission, of which 6 drive outflows. We calculate a total outflow mass, momentum, and energy within the mapped region of 6 M{sub Sun }, 19 M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1}, and 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg, respectively. Within this same region, we compare outflow kinematics with turbulence and gravitational energy, and we suggest that outflows are likely important agents for the maintenance of turbulence in this region. In the earliest stages of star formation, outflows do not yet contribute enough energy to totally disrupt the clustered region where most star formation is happening, but have the potential to do so as the protostellar sources evolve. Our results can be used to constrain outflow properties, such as outflow strength, in numerical simulations of outflow-driven turbulence in clusters.

  16. Using humor to communicate competitive excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsley, M.

    1994-12-31

    The use of humor to communicate excellence in the nuclear industry is described, particularly as a method to relieve public anxiety. At many companies throughout our culture, it is not okay to have fun with anything work related; it violates the puritan work ethic - you know, nose to the grindstone, buckle down and get crackin, and so forth. At Wolf Creek, we`re finding that when we have fun - not only among ourselves, but around and with others as well - we are more effective with the public, more interesting to the media, and we all smile more.

  17. BAL OUTFLOW CONTRIBUTION TO AGN FEEDBACK: FREQUENCY OF S IV OUTFLOWS IN THE SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Jay P.; Arav, Nahum; Laughlin, Courtney; Edmonds, Doug; Aoki, Kentaro; Wilkins, Ashlee; Bautista, Manuel E-mail: arav@vt.edu E-mail: kentaro.aoki@hawaiiantel.net E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu

    2012-05-10

    We present a study of broad absorption line (BAL) quasar outflows that show S IV {lambda}1063 and S IV* {lambda}1073 troughs. The fractional abundances of S IV and C IV peak at similar value of the ionization parameter, implying that they arise from the same physical component of the outflow. Detection of the S IV* troughs will allow us to determine the distance to this gas with higher resolution and higher signal-to-noise spectra, therefore providing the distance and energetics of the ubiquitous C IV BAL outflows. In our bright sample of 156 SDSS quasars, 14% show C IV and 1.9% S IV troughs, which are consistent with a fainter magnitude sample with twice as many objects. One object in the fainter sample shows evidence of a broad S IV trough without any significant trough present from the excited state line, which implies that this outflow could be at a distance of several kpc. Given the fractions of C IV and S IV, we establish firm limits on the global covering factor on S IV that ranges from 2.8% to 21% (allowing for the k-correction). Comparison of the expected optical depth for these ions with their detected percentage suggests that these species arise from common outflows with a covering factor closer to the latter.

  18. Outflow Kinematics Manifested by the Hα Line: Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. IV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Daeun; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Energetic ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been studied as a key phenomenon related to AGN feedback. To probe the kinematics of the gas in the narrow-line region, [O iii] λ5007 has been utilized in a number of studies showing nonvirial kinematic properties due to AGN outflows. In this paper, we statistically investigate whether the Hα emission line is influenced by AGN-driven outflows by measuring the kinematic properties based on the Hα line profile and comparing them with those of [O iii]. Using the spatially integrated spectra of ∼37,000 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.3 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find a nonlinear correlation between Hα velocity dispersion and stellar velocity dispersion that reveals the presence of the nongravitational component, especially for AGNs with a wing component in Hα. The large Hα velocity dispersion and velocity shift of luminous AGNs are clear evidence of AGN outflow impacts on hydrogen gas, while relatively smaller kinematic properties compared to those of [O iii] imply that the observed outflow effect on the Hα line is weaker than the case of [O iii].

  19. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    PubMed

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  20. Quasar feedback revealed by giant molecular outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feruglio, C.; Maiolino, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Menci, N.; Aussel, H.; Lamastra, A.; Fiore, F.

    2010-07-01

    In the standard scenario for galaxy evolution young star-forming galaxies transform into red bulge-dominated spheroids, where star formation has been quenched. To explain this transformation, a strong negative feedback generated by accretion onto a central super-massive black hole is often invoked. The depletion of gas resulting from quasar-driven outflows should eventually stop star-formation across the host galaxy and lead the black hole to “suicide” by starvation. Direct observational evidence for a major quasar feedback onto the host galaxy is still missing, because outflows previously observed in quasars are generally associated with the ionized component of the gas, which only accounts for a minor fraction of the total gas content, and typically occurrs in the central regions. We used the IRAM PdB Interferometer to observe the CO(1-0) transition in Mrk 231, the closest quasar known. Thanks to the wide band we detected broad wings of the CO line, with velocities of up to 750 km s-1 and spatially resolved on the kpc scale. These broad CO wings trace a giant molecular outflow of about 700 M_⊙/year, far larger than the ongoing star-formation rate (~200 M_⊙/year) observed in the host galaxy. This wind will totally expel the cold gas reservoir in Mrk 231 in about 107 yrs, therefore halting the star-formation activity on the same timescale. The inferred kinetic energy in the molecular outflow is ~1.2 × 1044 erg/s, corresponding to a few percent of the AGN bolometric luminosity, which is very close to the fraction expected by models ascribing quasar feedback to highly supersonic shocks generated by radiatively accelerated nuclear winds. Instead, the contribution by the SNe associated with the starburst fall short by several orders of magnitude to account for the kinetic energy observed in the outflow. The direct observational evidence for quasar feedback reported here provides solid support to the scenarios ascribing the observed properties of local massive

  1. Molecular Outflows in Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Nichol

    2015-11-01

    This thesis presents millimetre continuum and molecular line observations exploring the properties of molecular outflows towards massive star forming regions. Massive stars produce some of the most energetic phenomena in the Galaxy, yet we still do not have a comprehensive understanding of how they actually form. Outflows are known to play a key role in this formation process and their properties, particularly how they change depending on the mass, luminosity and evolution of the driving source can shed light on how massive stars actually form. This thesis presents observations at both high (SMA 3 arcsecond) and low (JCMT 15 arcsecond) spatial resolution of the known jet/outflow tracers, SiO and 12CO, towards a sample massive star forming region drawn from the RMS survey. Furthermore, the presence of infall signatures is explored through observations of HCO+ and H13CO+, and the hot core nature of the regions is probed using tracers such as CH3CN, HC3N and CH3OH. SiO is detected towards approximately 50% of the massive young stellar objects and HII regions in the JCMT sample. The detection of SiO appears to be linked to the age of the RMS source, with the likely younger sources showing a stronger dependence with SiO. The presence of SiO also appears to be linked to the CO velocity, with SiO more efficiently tracing sources with higher velocity dispersions. In the MOPRA observations towards a sample of 33 RMS sources, CH3CN is detected towards 66% of the sources, with the redder likely younger sources having the largest rotational temperatures. This thesis presents the first interferometric SiO (5-4) and 12CO (2-1) observations, taken with the SMA, towards the massive star forming region G203.3166/NGC 2264-C. In this intermediate/massive star forming cluster, SiO is again tracing the youngest sources. Both the SiO and 12CO emission trace two bipolar, high velocity outflows towards the mm brightest, IR-dark, likely youngest sources in this reg! ion. In contrast the IR

  2. The evolution of humor from male aggression.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15-69 years, with 2-40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.

  3. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  4. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Janina; Sawicka, Teresa; Prosińska, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work was an estimation of the influence of two plant pharmaceutical preparations containing an extract from the root of Eleutherococcus senticosus: Argoeleuter tablets and Immuplant tablets, on the humoral response of immunological system. Experiments were performed with female Balb/c mice six weeks old. In order to reveal the influence of taking preparations, containing an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus on some elements of the immunological system, three ways of their administration have been compared: before illness, during illness and a combination of both. The obtained results allow formulating the following conclusions: - the pharmaceutical preparations, containing the extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus administered orally, influence on the increase of the level of immunoglobulins comprised in the mice's blood serum, - the pharmaceutical preparations act with different power, not fully dependent on the content of marker of the active substance - eleutheroside E, - dosage of the preparations containing the extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus should not be established basing only on the extract content, - best curative results, measured as the stimulation of humoral response of the organism were obtained when a given preparation was administered therapeutically, even though the combined administration - prophylactically with prolonged administration during illness also is correct.

  5. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. II. 3D Biconical Outflow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2016-09-01

    We present 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane for investigating the physical properties of the ionized gas outflows and their effect on the observed gas kinematics in type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a set of input parameters, we construct a number of models in 3D and calculate the spatially integrated velocity and velocity dispersion for each model. We find that three primary parameters, i.e., intrinsic velocity, bicone inclination, and the amount of dust extinction, mainly determine the simulated velocity and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion increases as the intrinsic velocity or the bicone inclination increases, while velocity (i.e., velocity shifts with respect to systemic velocity) increases as the amount of dust extinction increases. Simulated emission-line profiles well reproduce the observed [O iii] line profiles, e.g., narrow core and broad wing components. By comparing model grids and Monte Carlo simulations with the observed [O iii] velocity-velocity dispersion distribution of ˜39,000 type 2 AGNs, we constrain the intrinsic velocity of gas outflows ranging from ˜500 to ˜1000 km s-1 for the majority of AGNs, and up to ˜1500-2000 km s-1 for extreme cases. The Monte Carlo simulations show that the number ratio of AGNs with negative [O iii] velocity to AGNs with positive [O iii] velocity correlates with the outflow opening angle, suggesting that outflows with higher intrinsic velocity tend to have wider opening angles. These results demonstrate the potential of our 3D models for studying the physical properties of gas outflows, applicable to various observations, including spatially integrated and resolved gas kinematics.

  6. Mass Outflow in the Narrow Line Region of Markarian 573

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revalski, Mitchell; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Fischer, Travis C.; Kraemer, Steven B.; Schmitt, Henrique R.

    2016-01-01

    We present our progress toward determining the mass outflow rate in the narrow emission line region (NLR) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Markarian 573. Mass outflows in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) drive gas away from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) into the circumnuclear environment, and may play an important role in regulating the growth of the SMBH, and its coevolution with the host galaxy bulge. Recent work by Crenshaw et al. (2015, ApJ, 799, 83) found that the mass outflow rate in the NLR of NGC 4151 is too large for the outflowing mass to have originated only from the central region, indicating a significant amount of gas is picked up by the outflow as it travels away from the nucleus. Using archival spectra taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), we are working to determine the mass outflow rates in a sample of 10 Seyfert galaxies to determine if correlations exist between their outflows and other properties including galaxy luminosity. To accomplish this, we will analyze the emission line spectra using photoionization models to determine the mass of the outflowing gas. Combining this information with previous kinematic modeling from Fischer et al. (2013, ApJS, 209, 1), we can determine the mass outflow rates and kinetic luminosities as a function of radius from the nucleus. These quantities will provide a direct comparison between observation and theoretical feedback models, allowing us to determine the significance of these outflows in regulating AGN feedback.

  7. The Use of Humor when Counseling African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vereen, Linwood G.; Butler, S. Kent; Williams, Franklyn C.; Darg, Jules A.; Downing, Trae K. E.

    2006-01-01

    According to the literature, humor is a critical tool to enhance the counseling process because it can reduce stress, build rapport, and aid in the increase of the client's self-efficacy. In recent years, the critical nature of using humor appropriately from a cultural perspective has been explored. In this article, the authors further explore the…

  8. Humor in advertisements enhances product liking by mere association.

    PubMed

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B; Holland, Rob W; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-03-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect persuasion through implicit attitude change. Participants viewed humorous and nonhumorous cartoons in a mock-up magazine. One of two products was consistently presented in the vicinity of the humorous cartoons, whereas the other product was consistently presented in the vicinity of the nonhumorous cartoons. The results of an evaluative priming task showed enhanced evaluations of products paired with humor (Experiment 1, 2, and 3). Furthermore, these enhanced evaluations mediated the relation between association with humor and product choice (Experiment 2 and 3). Paradoxically, products paired with humor were also less recognized than the control products (Experiments 2 and 3). In summary, the present research demonstrates that mere association with humor enhances product evaluations and product choice in a way that is dissociated from the accessibility of the product in memory.

  9. The Effect of Humor on Advertising Credibility and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, John C.

    A study examined the effect of humor on the perceived credibility, character, and authority of an advertisement and on the recall of that advertisement. Two groups of subjects each heard two radio spot announcements, one humorous and one serious. Two different products were advertised, so that the first group of subjects, 117 college advertising…

  10. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B.; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-01-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect…

  11. Stand Up Comics: Instructional Humor and Student Engagment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortley, Amy; Dotson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of instructional humor in higher education settings and makes connections between the levels of student achievement in academics and the influence of appropriate instructional humor. The work of prominent researchers such as Wanzer, Frymier, and Irwin (2010), and Segrist & Hupp (2015), who postulate that…

  12. Development: Ages & Stages--The Importance of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of humor and how it helps to understand children's thinking from birth to 6 years. The article presents three sections describing how a young child's sense of humor reveals much about the way he thinks. The first section is entitled "Giggles!" written by Carla Poole. Intended for babies from birth to 2, Poole…

  13. Group Time: Taking a "Humor Break" at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    January is a perfect time to insert a strong dose of humor into group time gatherings. Oftentimes, children have tired of the predictable pattern of group meetings and need some change. Humor-filled group time activities can be the best secret remedy. Not only will children become more interested in the group time meetings (and therefore listen…

  14. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  15. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  16. Laughlines: The Role of Humor in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Linda Abby; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the 1987 Drexel University/Free Library of Philadelphia Conference on Children's Literature. The edited text of the keynote address by Alvin Schwartz, "Children, Humor and Folklore," and the acceptance speech by Deborah Kogan Ray, recipient of the 1987 Drexel Citation, are included. Observations on humor from workshop sessions are…

  17. The Power of Humor in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Celeste M.; Gibboney, Elizabeth R.

    Humor is an important tool for the teacher in college classrooms. Generally, laughter is a great benefit in anyone's life, having even physiological influence. Laughter reduces stress and may facilitate creativity. However, the use of humor can both enhance and hinder the learning process. Various researchers have tried to identify structures,…

  18. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.

  19. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  20. Humor in Children's Lives: A Guidebook for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Amelia J., Ed.

    Designed as a resource and as a guide for professionals who work with children and their families, this book explores the cathartic effect of humor on children, and looks at humor as an infusion of energy that promotes healthy growth, development, and adjustment in children of all ages. The chapters are as follows: (1) "Introduction: A Global…

  1. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  2. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. - Walnut Street Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Walnut Street (State Route 3034), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  3. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  4. DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN DICHOTOMOUS PERSONALITY GROUPS AS DETERMINED BY HUMOR PREFERENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WENCK, STANLEY L.

    THE HUMOR PREFERENCES OF DICHOTOMIZED GROUPS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (SPECIFICALLY, CONFORMISTS AND NONCONFORMISTS) WERE STUDIED TO DETERMINE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES AND TO ESTIMATE THE DEGREE OF RELIABILITY OF RESPONSES TO A HUMOR PREFERENCE INVENTORY. A TOTAL OF 111 MALE SOPHOMORE STUDENTS IN HIGH SCHOOL IDENTIFIED BY THEIR RESPECTIVE HOME ROOM…

  5. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  6. Does humor moderate the effects of experimentally-induced stress?

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Stone, A A

    1996-06-01

    This study attempted to determine whether humor production moderates mood and physiological responses to stress of subjects high and low in trait humor. Forty subjects who were high and 40 subjects who were low in trait humor were selected. Half of each group was randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In one condition they generated a humorous monologue and in the other condition they generated a serious monologue to a silent stressful film. Heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature were taken continuously for the fifteen minutes before, during, and fifteen minutes after the film. Pre- and post-stress mood and tension ratings were also recorded. Analyses of covariance were conducted with baseline mood and tension as covariates. Compared to the production of a serious narrative, humor production led to lower negative affect, lower tension, and reduced psychophysiological reactivity for both high and low trait-humor groups. These results suggest that humor production may be an effective coping strategy, even for individuals who do not typically use humor to cope with stress.

  7. Humor in Children's Lives: A Guidebook for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Amelia J., Ed.

    Designed as a resource and as a guide for professionals who work with children and their families, this book explores the cathartic effect of humor on children, and looks at humor as an infusion of energy that promotes healthy growth, development, and adjustment in children of all ages. The chapters are as follows: (1) "Introduction: A Global…

  8. The Effect of Humor on Learning in a Planetarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Martin S.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of humor on retention of information was examined at the planetarium at Ohio's Center of Science and Industry (COSI) in Columbus, OH. Results showed that the visitors who saw a humorous show retained less of the instructional material and scored lower on the test than the visitors who saw a nonhumorous show. (Author/DKM)

  9. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  10. The Power of Humor in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Celeste M.; Gibboney, Elizabeth R.

    Humor is an important tool for the teacher in college classrooms. Generally, laughter is a great benefit in anyone's life, having even physiological influence. Laughter reduces stress and may facilitate creativity. However, the use of humor can both enhance and hinder the learning process. Various researchers have tried to identify structures,…

  11. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  12. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  13. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  14. The effects of normal aging on humor appreciation.

    PubMed

    Shammi, Prathiba; Stuss, Donald T

    2003-09-01

    The importance of humor in healthy aging is being recognized. We compared elderly and young participants on their comprehension and appreciation of, and reaction to, verbal and nonverbal humor tests. Cognitive processes-working memory, cognitive flexibility, verbal abstraction, and visual scanning-were studied in relation to humor. Results indicated a relative deficit in the elderly in the cognitive comprehension of humor-selecting punch lines to jokes and in a cartoon array test. Measures of cognitive function correlated with humor comprehension. In contrast to this deficit in comprehension, the elderly showed intact affective appreciation and emotional reactiveness. Because of the hypothesis of frontal lobe degeneration as a basis for changes with aging, we compared the elderly to patients with focal frontal lesions. In this comparison, the elderly were significantly better than the patients in their comprehension of humor. They also displayed intact appreciation of humor compared to patients with frontal lesions. This preliminary study suggests that preserved affective responsiveness may underlie the success in using humor as a coping mechanism in the elderly.

  15. Development of Resolution in Children's Appreciation of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    The theory of a number of philosophers and psychologists, including Freud, is that humor is a biphasic sequence involving first the discovery of incongruity and then the resolution of the incongruity. Without the mechanism of resolution, we cannot distinguish humor from nonsense. The punch line of a joke is seemingly incongruous with the preceding…

  16. Did You Hear the One about...? Humor in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…

  17. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  18. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  19. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  20. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  1. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  2. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  3. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B.; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-01-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect…

  4. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  5. Anatomy of the Vestibulo-automatic Outflow to the Gut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Motion sickness can be induced by vestibular effects on the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system. However, the pathways linking the vestibular and autonomic pathways are unknown. As a first step in this analysis, the locations of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSN) and dorsal root afferent ganglionic neurons (DRG) which supply sympathetic innervation to major portions of the gastrointestinal tract in rabbits were identified. The objective of a second series of experiments is to determine which of the brainstem nuclei project to the autonomic regions of the spinal cord that control gastrointestinal motility. To achieve this goal, a trans-synaptic retrograde tracer (3H-tetanus toxoid) is applied to the greater splanchnic nerve. This method allows the labeling of neurons within the brainstem that project only to the preganglionic synpathetic neurons. One structure that has been strongly implicated in mediating vestibulo-autonomic control is the cerebellum (i.e., nodulus and uvula). The outflow of these lobules to the autonomic regions of the brainstem is mediated by the fastigial nucleus. To determine the precise projections of the fastigial nucleus to the brainstem nuclei involved in emesis, anterograde tracer (3H-leucine) was injected into the fastigial nucleus in a third series of experiments.

  6. Anatomy of the Vestibulo-automatic Outflow to the Gut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Motion sickness can be induced by vestibular effects on the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system. However, the pathways linking the vestibular and autonomic pathways are unknown. As a first step in this analysis, the locations of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSN) and dorsal root afferent ganglionic neurons (DRG) which supply sympathetic innervation to major portions of the gastrointestinal tract in rabbits were identified. The objective of a second series of experiments is to determine which of the brainstem nuclei project to the autonomic regions of the spinal cord that control gastrointestinal motility. To achieve this goal, a trans-synaptic retrograde tracer (3H-tetanus toxoid) is applied to the greater splanchnic nerve. This method allows the labeling of neurons within the brainstem that project only to the preganglionic synpathetic neurons. One structure that has been strongly implicated in mediating vestibulo-autonomic control is the cerebellum (i.e., nodulus and uvula). The outflow of these lobules to the autonomic regions of the brainstem is mediated by the fastigial nucleus. To determine the precise projections of the fastigial nucleus to the brainstem nuclei involved in emesis, anterograde tracer (3H-leucine) was injected into the fastigial nucleus in a third series of experiments.

  7. [Relationships between humor expression and self-acceptance, aggression, and altruism].

    PubMed

    Tsukawaki, Ryota; Higuchi, Masataka; Fukada, Hiromi

    2009-10-01

    The structure of humor expression was clarified and its relationships with aggression, altruism, and self-acceptance were examined. In study 1, college students (n = 216) responded to a scale with items about humor expression. An exploratory factor analysis indicated three types of humor expression: aggressive, self-disparaging, and playful humor expression. In study 2, 119 college students responded to items about (a) humor expression, (b) aggression, (c) altruism, and (d) self-acceptance. The results showed positive relationships between aggressive humor expression and aggression, self-disparaging humor expression and self-acceptance, and playful humor expression and altruism.

  8. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    PubMed

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  9. Stimulus characteristics affect humor processing in individuals with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Samson, Andrea C; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS individuals did not differ to the control group in humor appreciation of visual puns. However, they had difficulty understanding and appreciating Theory of Mind cartoons and provided mentalistic explanations less frequently than controls suggesting that humor processing is strongly related to the cognitive requirements that the stimuli pose on the perceiver. Furthermore, AS individuals referred in all conditions more frequently to non-joke relevant details. Therefore, humor processing is also influenced by their detail-oriented processing style.

  10. Playing with Expectations: A Contextual View of Humor Development

    PubMed Central

    Airenti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms. In particular, I focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants that is also considered a typical feature of irony. I argue that all forms of humor can be regarded as a type of interaction that I propose to call “playing with expectations.” PMID:27703438

  11. Humor intervention program for children with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sim, In Ok

    2015-11-01

    This study developed and implemented a humor intervention program for school-aged children with chronic diseases. Thirty-three children with atopic dermatitis and type 1 diabetes were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group included 17 children while the control group included 16 children. The experimental group participated in 6 weekly sessions of a 60-minute humor intervention. The subject and type of humorous material was collected from a survey of parents and children. Outcome measures assessed pre- and post-intervention included stress, behavior profile scores, and resilience. There was a significant decrease in behavior problems and increase in resiliency in experimental group compared to control group. There was no difference in stress cortisol measures between the groups. This study was the first to examine a humor intervention for children with chronic diseases in South Korea and offers practical implications for humor interventions in pediatric nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Humor and gender roles: does age make a difference?

    PubMed

    Vitulli, William F

    2005-08-01

    Crawford's analysis in 2003 suggests that humor interacts with gender so that traditional social norms of femininity and masculinity may be reinforced or diinished. Yet age as a covariate was not considered. Assessment of the attitudes toward humor among 72 older women (M=72.0, SD=9.8, range=51-93 years) and 24 older men (M=69.8, SD=6.8, range=59-90 years) in 1996 by Vitulli and Parman suggest ratings on a Likert-type scale (anchored by 5: strongly agree and 1: strongly disagree) in which humor and gender interact. Moreover, a post hoc Scheffé test showed a significant sex effect on the female-oriented scale. Older women perceived humor as an important quality for women, whereas older men did not. Generational differences among studies on humor and sex underscore the need for contemporary research inclusive of age measures.

  13. System-Wide Associations between DNA-Methylation, Gene Expression, and Humoral Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Michael T.; Oberg, Ann L.; Grill, Diane E.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Failure to achieve a protected state after influenza vaccination is poorly understood but occurs commonly among aged populations experiencing greater immunosenescence. In order to better understand immune response in the elderly, we studied epigenetic and transcriptomic profiles and humoral immune response outcomes in 50–74 year old healthy participants. Associations between DNA methylation and gene expression reveal a system-wide regulation of immune-relevant functions, likely playing a role in regulating a participant’s propensity to respond to vaccination. Our findings show that sites of methylation regulation associated with humoral response to vaccination impact known cellular differentiation signaling and antigen presentation pathways. We performed our analysis using per-site and regionally average methylation levels, in addition to continuous or dichotomized outcome measures. The genes and molecular functions implicated by each analysis were compared, highlighting different aspects of the biologic mechanisms of immune response affected by differential methylation. Both cis-acting (within the gene or promoter) and trans-acting (enhancers and transcription factor binding sites) sites show significant associations with measures of humoral immunity. Specifically, we identified a group of CpGs that, when coordinately hypo-methylated, are associated with lower humoral immune response, and methylated with higher response. Additionally, CpGs that individually predict humoral immune responses are enriched for polycomb-group and FOXP2 transcription factor binding sites. The most robust associations implicate differential methylation affecting gene expression levels of genes with known roles in immunity (e.g. HLA-B and HLA-DQB2) and immunosenescence. We believe our data and analysis strategy highlight new and interesting epigenetic trends affecting humoral response to vaccination against influenza; one of the most common and impactful viral pathogens. PMID:27031986

  14. Plasma zinc's alter ego is a low-molecular-weight humoral factor.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ou; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Urgast, Dagmar; Gordon, Margaret-Jane; Campbell, Gill; Feldmann, Jörg; Nixon, Graeme F; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Kwun, In-Sook; Beattie, John H

    2013-09-01

    Mild dietary zinc deprivation in humans and rodents has little effect on blood plasma zinc levels, and yet cellular consequences of zinc depletion can be detected in vascular and other tissues. We proposed that a zinc-regulated humoral factor might mediate the effects of zinc deprivation. Using a novel approach, primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with plasma from zinc-deficient (<1 mg Zn/kg) or zinc-adequate (35 mg Zn/kg, pair-fed) adult male rats, and zinc levels were manipulated to distinguish direct and indirect effects of plasma zinc. Gene expression changes were analyzed by microarray and qPCR, and incubation of VSMCs with blood plasma from zinc-deficient rats strongly changed the expression of >2500 genes, compared to incubation of cells with zinc-adequate rat plasma. We demonstrated that this effect was caused by a low-molecular-weight (∼2-kDa) zinc-regulated humoral factor but that changes in gene expression were mostly reversed by adding zinc back to zinc-deficient plasma. Strongly regulated genes were overrepresented in pathways associated with immune function and development. We conclude that zinc deficiency induces the production of a low-molecular-weight humoral factor whose influence on VSMC gene expression is blocked by plasma zinc. This factor is therefore under dual control by zinc.

  15. Outflow facility efficacy of five drugs in enucleated porcine eyes by a method of constant-pressure perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Shi, Hui-Min; Cong, Lin; Lu, Zhao-Zeng; Ye, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a technique that assesses the outflow facility (C) efficacy of five kinds of IOP-lowering drugs commonly used clinically in enucleated porcine Eyes. Eyes were perfused at 15 mmHg with GPBS first to establish the baseline outflow facility (C0). Then the anterior chamber contents were exchanged for GPBS with corresponding concentration eye drops (4.9×103 nM Brimonidine, 41.1 nM Latanoprost, 3.4×103 nM Levobunolol, 3.0×103 nM Brinzolamide, 8.3×103 nM Pilocarpine) in five groups (n = 6 each), while 6 eyes received GPBS alone as control. The mean stable facility obtained after drug administration (C1) was continuously recorded. The changes between C0 and C1 (ΔC = C1-C0) were analyzed. Finally, for drugs among the five experiment groups with statistical significance, the concentration was reduced 3 times, otherwise the drugs’ concentration was increased to 10 times to confirm its effectiveness further using the same methods (n = 6 each). We found that the average baseline outflow facility was 0.24±0.01 μl·min-1·mmHg-1. C increased significantly in Brimonidine and Latanoprost groups, even the concentration of Brimonidine and Latanoprost was decreased 3 times (P < 0.05). However, there was no significantly increase in Levobunolol, Brinzolamide, Pilocarpine and control group (P > 0.05), but when drugs’ concentration was increased to 10 times, the C value of Pilocarpine decreased significantly (P = 0.04). No significant washout effects in porcine eyes were observed. To conclude, outflow facility efficacy of five drugs in enucleated porcine eyes may provide a reference for clinical medicine. A constant-pressure perfusion technique should be useful to evaluate effect of pharmacologic agents or surgical manipulations on aqueous humor dynamics. PMID:26221257

  16. On the origin of pronounced O3 gradients in the thunderstorm outflow region during DC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Pucik, T.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Heimerl, K.; Fütterer, D.; Rappenglück, B.; Ackermann, L.; Pickering, K. E.; Cummings, K. A.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Betten, D. P.; Honomichl, S.; Barth, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Unique in situ measurements of CO, O3, SO2, CH4, NO, NOx, NOy, VOC, CN, and rBC were carried out with the German Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)-Falcon aircraft in the central U.S. thunderstorms during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry experiment in summer 2012. Fresh and aged anvil outflow (9-12 km) from supercells, mesoscale convective systems, mesoscale convective complexes, and squall lines were probed over Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. For three case studies (30 May and 8 and 12 June) a combination of trace species, radar, lightning, and satellite information, as well as model results, were used to analyze and design schematics of major trace gas transport pathways within and in the vicinity of the probed thunderstorms. The impact of thunderstorms on the O3 composition in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (LS) region was analyzed. Overshooting cloud tops injected high amounts of biomass burning and lightning-produced NOx emissions into the LS, in addition to low O3 mixing ratios from the lower troposphere. As a dynamical response, O3-rich air from the LS was transported downward into the anvil and also surrounded the outflow. The ΔO3/ΔCO ratio was determined in the anvil outflow region. A pronounced in-mixing of O3-rich stratospheric air masses was observed in the outflow indicated by highly positive or even negative ΔO3/ΔCO ratios (+1.4 down to -3.9). Photochemical O3 production (ΔO3/ΔCO = +0.1) was found to be minor in the recently lofted pollution plumes. O3 mixing ratios within the aged anvil outflow were mainly enhanced due to dynamical processes.

  17. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-02

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  18. How Stellar Feedback Simultaneously Regulates Star Formation and Drives Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Christopher C.

    2017-07-01

    Stellar-feedback-driven outflows are thought to be a crucial process in galaxy formation, but our physical understanding of them is still rudimentary. I will present an analytical model for how stellar feedback simultaneously regulates star formation and drives outflows. One interesting prediction of the model is that although stellar feedback can efficiently generate outflows in all galaxies at high redshift, it is unable to drive outflows in massive galaxies below z 1. This prediction agrees with the results of state-of-the-art cosmological zoom simulations that include explicit stellar feedback. This model, combined with the aforementioned simulations, suggests that high-redshift galaxies are highly turbulent, disordered and characterized by strong starbursts and subsequent violent outflows, and the suppression of outflows in massive galaxies at z 1 is crucial for the emergence of well-ordered, steadily star-forming disk galaxies.

  19. LC-MS-Based Metabolic Fingerprinting of Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Dmuchowska, Diana Anna; Krasnicki, Pawel; Wojnar, Malgorzata; Skowronska, Aleksandra; Mariak, Zofia

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous humor (AH) is a transparent fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It supplies nutrients and removes metabolic waste from avascular tissues in the eye. Proper homeostasis of AH is required to maintain adequate intraocular pressure as well as optical and refractive properties of the eye. Application of metabolomics to study human AH may improve knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of eye diseases. Until now, global analysis of metabolites in AH has been mainly performed using NMR. Among the analytical platforms used in metabolomics, LC-MS allows for the highest metabolome coverage. The aim of this study was to develop a method for extraction and analysis of AH metabolites by LC-QTOF-MS. Different protocols for AH preparation were tested. The best results were obtained when one volume of AH was mixed with one volume of methanol : ethanol (1 : 1). In the final method, 2 µL of extracted sample was analyzed by LC-QTOF-MS. The method allowed for reproducible measurement of over 1000 metabolic features. Almost 250 metabolites were identified in AH and assigned to 47 metabolic pathways. This method is suitable to study the potential role of amino acids, lipids, oxidative stress, or microbial metabolites in development of ocular diseases. PMID:28154769

  20. Atomic Hydrogen in a Galactic Center Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ~14 km s-1, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ~200 km s-1 in a Galactic wind.

  1. Interferometric Mapping of Perseus Outflows with MASSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ian; Dunham, Michael; Myers, Philip C.; MASSES Team

    2017-01-01

    The MASSES (Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA) survey, a Submillimeter Array (SMA) large-scale program, is mapping molecular lines and continuum emission about the 75 known Class 0/I sources in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. In this talk, I present some of the key results of this project, with a focus on the CO(2-1) maps of the molecular outflows. In particular, I investigate how protostars inherit their rotation axes from large-scale magnetic fields and filamentary structure.

  2. Right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm with thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Syed Murfad; Bhat, P.S. Seetharama; Furtado, Arul Dominic; Chikkatur, Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) aneurysm is a known complication of tetralogy of Fallot repair when a ventriculotomy is done. It leads to RV dysfunction and may require re-operation. We describe a rare instance of a patient who developed an RVOT aneurysm after trans-ventricular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, which was complicated with the formation of a thrombus in the aneurysm sac. The patient underwent re-operation with thrombectomy, excision of the RVOT aneurysm and pulmonary valve replacement. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of this combination and its implications have not been reported. PMID:22232231

  3. GGD 37: AN EXTREME PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J. D.; Watson, D. M.; Forrest, W. J.; Kim, K. H.; Bergin, E.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Tolls, V.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Sargent, B. A.; Raines, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first Spitzer-IRS spectral maps of the Herbig-Haro flow GGD 37 detected in lines of [Ne III], [O IV], [Ar III], and [Ne V]. The detection of extended [O IV] (55 eV) and some extended emission in [Ne V] (97 eV) indicates a shock temperature in excess of 100,000 K, in agreement with X-ray observations, and a shock speed in excess of 200 km s{sup -1}. The presence of an extended photoionization or collisional ionization region indicates that GGD 37 is a highly unusual protostellar outflow.

  4. Valles Marineris and Chryse Outflow Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Valles Marineris, the great canyon and the south Chryse basin-Valles Marineris outflow channels of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and averaging 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east and related outflow canyons that drain toward the Chryse basin. Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north) are two canyons connected to Valles Marineris. Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southeast part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color; Mercator projection. The image roughly extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 102.5 degrees.

    The connected chasma or valleys of Valles Marineris may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. Layers of material in the eastern canyons might consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes, eolian deposits, or volcanic materials. Huge ancient river channels began from Valles Marineris and from adjacent canyons and ran north. Many of the channels flowed north into Chryse Basin.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a

  5. Molecular Clouds in the North American and Pelican Nebulae: Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaobo; Yang, Ji; Xu, Ye

    2015-08-01

    We present observations of a 9 deg2 area toward the North American and Pelican Nebulae in the J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. Three molecular species show different emission areas with their own distinct structures. We search line wing structures in the 12CO spectra as outflow candidates, and distinguish the candidates with carefully selected criteria. We study the physical properties of the identified outflows and their energy contributions to the supersonic turbulence in parent molecular clouds. Several CO outflows are associated with massive star forming cores and outflow features detected in other bands.

  6. Nest of Molecular Outflows in the Circinus Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Kazuhito; Sato, Fumio; Mizuno, Akira

    1998-12-01

    We report on the discovery of a large and bright molecular outflow associated with an intense CO clump in the Circinus cloud, which was detected with the CO (J=1--0) emission line using the new Nagoya 4 meter radio telescope ``Nanten'' installed at Las Campanas Observatory (Chile). The outflow is quite large, extending over an area of 10'times20 ' ( ~ 4times8 pc at its distance of 1.26 kpc) that covers most of the clump surface, and having very high radio brightness; actually, the CO brightness of the high velocity wings integrated over the outflow lobes amounts to as high as 1.5*E(-1) K km s(-1) deg(2) , which makes this CO outflow one of the brightest reported so far. The outflow is also massive ( ~ 50 MO ) and energetic ( ~ 4300 MO km(2) s(-2) ). The outflow exhibits a complex morphology, having 2 local peaks at each of the red- and blue-shifted lobes. Comparing the outflow morphology with the locations of the protostellar candidates selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog, we conclude that the detected outflow is most likely to be driven by at least 4 distinct protostars forming in the clump, namely, IRAS 14562-6248, 14563-6301, 14564-6254, and 14568-6304. Thereby, we suggest to designate the CO clump as the ``Nest of Molecular Outflows'' in the Circinus cloud.

  7. Our Understanding of Ion Outflows from Earth and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of energetic ion beams and conics by Shelley et al. and transversely accelerated ions by Klumpar in the 1970's heralded the extensive satellite, rocket, and radar observations of ion outflows over the past four decades. This body of observation has shaped our contemporary view on ion outflows and their important role in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The variety of ion outflows may be categorized into thermal and suprathermal outflows. Both categories of outflows are strongly influenced by solar EUV irradiance and solar wind energy input, and the state of the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and (at times) plasmasphere. Several important challenges remain in our quest for a fully quantitative, multi-scale understanding of ion outflows. These include the detection of the lowest-energy ions in the tenuous sunlit magnetosphere; the influence of these hidden ions in the magnetosphere; ion transit between low and high altitudes at quiet times; the role of microscale processes; the simultaneous monitoring of different outflow populations and their circulation and redistributions in the magnetosphere; the influence of solar energy input, the thermosphere and the plasmasphere on outflow composition, characteristics, and variability; and the effects of this variability on the coupling between thermal and suprathermal outflows and on the overall magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  8. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, Hector G.; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Corder, Stuartt A.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2013-09-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion.

  9. Molecular Outflows In the R Coronae Australis Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, Lewis

    2017-06-01

    The low mass star forming region associated with the Corona Australis cloud hosts an embedded culture of young stellar objects (YSOs), many of which drive molecular outflows associated with shock-excited (HH-objct) emission-line objects. CO(1-0) mapping from the SEST and CO(3-2) mapping from JCMT are presented and analyzed in the context of identifying outflows and associating them with known YSOs and HH-objects. This region hosts far more molecular outflows than previously thought and resembles in some respects the "burst" of outflow activity associated with the star forming region NGC1333.

  10. DISCOVERY OF RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOW IN THE SEYFERT GALAXY Ark 564

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Mathur, S.; Krongold, Y.; Nicastro, F.

    2013-07-20

    We present Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxy Ark 564. The spectrum shows numerous absorption lines which are well modeled with low-velocity outflow components usually observed in Seyfert galaxies. There are, however, some residual absorption lines which are not accounted for by low-velocity outflows. Here, we present identifications of the strongest lines as K{alpha} transitions of O VII (two lines) and O VI at outflow velocities of {approx}0.1c. These lines are detected at 6.9{sigma}, 6.2{sigma}, and 4.7{sigma}, respectively, and cannot be due to chance statistical fluctuations. Photoionization models with ultra-high velocity components improve the spectral fit significantly, providing further support for the presence of relativistic outflow in this source. Without knowing the location of the absorber, its mass and energy outflow rates cannot be well constrained; we find E-dot (outflow)/L{sub bol} lower limit of {>=}0.006% assuming a bi-conical wind geometry. This is the first time that absorption lines with ultra-high velocities are unambiguously detected in the soft X-ray band. The presence of outflows with relativistic velocities in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with Seyfert-type luminosities is hard to understand and provides valuable constraints to models of AGN outflows. Radiation pressure is unlikely to be the driving mechanism for such outflows and magnetohydrodynamic may be involved.

  11. The Bipolar Outflow toward G5.89-0.39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, C.; Churchwell, E.; Zweibel, E. G.; Crutcher, R. M.

    2007-03-01

    We present high-resolution observations of G5.89-0.39 in CO(1-->0), 13CO(1-->0), C18O(1-->0), and HCO+(1-->0). We characterize the G5.89-0.39 outflow using the 13CO emission. The outflow is found to be young, massive, and powerful. We conclude that (1) the outflow is nearly along the line of sight, (2) there is dynamical evidence for entrainment of ambient interstellar material into the outflow, (3) the mass entrainment rate is ~4×10-3 Msolar yr-1, (4) in the blue lobe, only ~27% of the outflow mass is due to entrainment, and (5) expansion of the outflow lobes perpendicular to the flow axis is occurring at ~1-10 vsound. A neutral and ionized outflow tracer are compared. Watson and coworkers predicted that if entrainment through the Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability adds significantly to the outflow mass, a difference in the turbulent velocity widths of neutral and ionized outflow tracers could be measurable. We cannot conclude that the Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability is the physical process causing this entrainment, but it may operate at a level below our detection limit.

  12. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  13. Regulation of humoral immunity by complement.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael C; Isenman, David E

    2012-08-24

    The complement system of innate immunity is important in regulating humoral immunity largely through the complement receptor CR2, which forms a coreceptor on B cells during antigen-induced activation. However, CR2 also retains antigens on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Display of antigen on FDCs is critical for clonal selection and affinity maturation of activated B cells. This review will discuss the role of complement in adaptive immunity in general with a focus on the interplay between CR2-associated antigen on B cells with CR2 expressed on FDCs. This latter interaction provides an opportunity for memory B cells to sample antigen over prolonged periods. The cocrystal structure of CR2 with its ligand C3d provides insight into how the complement system regulates access of antigen by B cells with implications for therapeutic manipulations to modulate aberrant B cell responses in the case of autoimmunity.

  14. Diffusion Regulation in the Vitreous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Käsdorf, Benjamin Tillmann; Arends, Fabienna; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The efficient treatment of many ocular diseases depends on the rapid diffusive distribution of solutes such as drugs or drug delivery vehicles through the vitreous humor. However, this multicomponent hydrogel possesses selective permeability properties, which allow for the diffusion of certain molecules and particles, whereas others are immobilized. In this study, we perform an interspecies comparison showing that the selective permeability properties of the vitreous are conserved across several mammalian species. We identify the polyanionic glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate as two key macromolecules that establish this selective permeability. We show that electrostatic interactions between the polyanionic macromolecules and diffusing solutes can be weakened by charge screening or enzymatic glycosaminoglycan digestion. Furthermore, molecule penetration into the vitreous is also charge-dependent and only efficient as long as the net charge of the molecule does not exceed a certain threshold. PMID:26588575

  15. Visual impairment, verbal humor, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Tait, P E

    1986-03-01

    Through a cerebral hemispheric specialization model, I speculated that the reported discrepancy between visually impaired children's competency in language development and lags in cognition may be explained by the use of visual-spatial measurements of cognition. The performance of 51 visually impaired and 51 sighted children, ages 7 to 15 years, on a task of joke comprehension and conservation of weight scores was analyzed. I hypothesized that the ability to comprehend verbal humor would reflect the function of the left hemisphere of the brain and the ability to perform a Piagetian visual-spatial task would reflect the function of the right hemisphere. The findings indicate that although age and IQ contributed significantly to predicting joke comprehension, the ability to conserve did not have a unique contribution. In conclusion, I suggest that the cerebral hemispheric specialization model be considered when investigating language and cognition of visually impaired children.

  16. Shining a light on star formation driven outflows: the physical conditions within galactic outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John P.; Tremonti, Christina A.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Chen, Yanmei

    2016-01-01

    Stellar feedback drives energy and momentum into the surrounding gas, which drives gas and metals out of galaxies through a galactic outflow. Unfortunately, galactic outflows are difficult to observe and characterize because they are extremely diffuse, and contain gas at many different temperatures. Here we present results from a sample of 37 nearby (z < 0.27) star forming galaxies observed in the ultraviolet with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The sample covers over three decades in stellar mass and star formation rate, probing different morphologies such as dwarf irregulars and high-mass merging systems. Using four different UV absorption lines (O I, Si II, Si III and Si IV) that trace a wide range of temperatures (ionization potentials between 13.6 eV and 45 eV), we find shallow correlations between the outflow velocity or the equivalent width of absorption lines with stellar mass or star formation rate. Absorption lines probing different temperature phases have similar centroid velocities and line widths, indicating that they are comoving. Using the equivalent width ratios of the four different transitions, we find the ratios to be consistent with photo-ionized outflows, with moderately strong ionization parameters. By constraining the ionization mechanism we model the ionization fractions for each transition, but find the ionization fractions depend crucially on input model parameters. The shallow velocity scalings imply that low-mass galaxies launch outflows capable of escaping their galactic potential, while higher mass galaxies retain all of their gas, unless they undergo a merger.

  17. Magnetospheric and Thermospheric Influence on Ionospheric Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sage, K.; Moore, T. E.; Mitchell, E. J.; Olson, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) small explorer has been used extensively to study ionospheric outflow. Past research has used particle and field data to examine the contemporaneous transfer of electromagnetic energy and particle flow downward from the magnetosphere and upward from the ionosphere. Single event studies published by Strangeway et al. [2005] and Brambles et al. [2011, Supporting Online Material] showed that downward electromagnetic energy and particle flow into the ionosphere are correlated with the upward flow of ions out of the ionosphere. It is expected, however, that this correlation will be affected by circumstances that are unique to each specific event, including but not limited to the outflow location (cusp or nightside), preconditioning due to prior geomagnetic activity, and thermospheric neutral densities. Although knowledge of the thermospheric neutral density is usually unavailable, data from the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) is able to provide insight into thermospheric populations at altitudes of about 400 km for a few select events. We expand on the previously-mentioned studies by looking at FAST particle and field data for additional events, and we further examine the influence of thermospheric neutral populations, based on CHAMP data.

  18. IONIZED OUTFLOWS FROM COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan; Kewley, Lisa E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Massive outflows are known to exist, in the form of extended emission-line regions (EELRs), around about one-third of powerful FR II radio sources. We investigate the origin of these EELRs by studying the emission-line regions around compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies that are younger (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} yr old) versions of the FR II radio galaxies. We have searched for and analyzed the emission-line regions around 11 CSS sources by taking integral field spectra using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North. We fit the [O III] {lambda}5007 line and present the velocity maps for each detected emission-line region. We find, in most cases, that the emission-line regions have multi-component velocity structures with different velocity dispersions and/or flux distributions for each component. The velocity gradients of the emission-line gas are mostly well aligned with the radio axis, suggesting a direct causal link between the outflowing gas and the radio jets. The complex velocity structure may be a result of different driving mechanisms related to the onset of the radio jets. We also present the results from the line-ratio diagnostics we used to analyze the ionization mechanism of the extended gas, which supports the scenario where the emission-line regions are ionized by a combination of active galactic nucleus radiation and shock excitation.

  19. "Streamer Blob" Outflow from Interchange Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Benjamin J.; Edmondson, J. K.; Li, Y.

    2011-05-01

    Given the recent observational results of interchange reconnection processes in the solar corona and theoretical development of the S-Web model for the slow solar wind, we present further analysis of the 3D MHD simulation of interchange reconnection by Edmondson et al. (2009). Specifically, we will analyze the observable properties of the dynamic streamer belt jump that corresponds to previously closed streamer belt flux opening up via interchange reconnection. We quantify the system's kinetic energy and open flux evolution in time and show that the material released from the reconnection region outflow is qualitatively similar to the transient slow solar wind features known as "streamer blobs". Our simulation results imply that the commonly accepted interpretation of streamer blobs as small-scale magnetic flux-ropes may not be universally applicable. Additionally, we examine the synthetic emission from the density evolution above the surface and show the correspondence between coronal "dimming" and the opening up of previously closed flux. We will discuss future improvements to the MHD simulations that include a solar wind outflow and more rigorous comparisons to observations. BJL and YL acknowledge support from NASA HGI NNX08AJ04G and JKE acknowledges support from the NASA Postdoctoral Program.

  20. Simulation of ion outflows in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydorenko, D.; Rankin, R.

    2012-12-01

    Ion outflows are observed in the polar region in response to particle precipitation and magnetospheric wave activity. In order to study the ion outflow, we modified the previously developed two-dimensional model of realistic active ionosphere [Sydorenko, 2012] by including ion motion along the geomagnetic field. The new model considers a layer of near-Earth plasma of thickness of a few thousand kilometers. The plasma consists of multiple ion species. Collisions between particles are accounted for everywhere, even at high altitudes where they are negligible. Therefore, unlike in the previous model, the electron and ion dynamics is continuous. Chemical reactions between different ion and neutral species are included. Simulations demonstrate formation of field-aligned ion flows when an intense Alfven wave or electron precipitation perturbs the ionosphere. The significance of the results is discussed in the context of Canadian Space Agency e-POP spacecraft mission. Sydorenko D. and R. Rankin, "Simulation of ionospheric disturbances created by Alfven waves", submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research, 2012.

  1. Relative Roles of the Cellular and Humoral Responses in the Drosophila Host Defense against Three Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ju Hyun; Lee, Janice; Lafarge, Marie-Céline; Kocks, Christine; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Background Two NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Toll and immune deficiency (imd), are required for survival to bacterial infections in Drosophila. In response to septic injury, these pathways mediate rapid transcriptional activation of distinct sets of effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, which are important components of a humoral defense response. However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to dissect the relative importance of humoral and cellular defenses after septic injury with three different Gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus), we used latex bead pre-injection to ablate macrophage function in flies wildtype or mutant for various Toll and imd pathway components. We found that in all three infection models a compromised phagocytic system impaired fly survival – independently of concomitant Toll or imd pathway activation. Our data failed to confirm a role of the PGRP-SA and GNBP1 Pattern Recognition Receptors for phagocytosis of S. aureus. The Drosophila scavenger receptor Eater mediates the phagocytosis by hemocytes or S2 cells of E. faecalis and S. aureus, but not of M. luteus. In the case of M. luteus and E. faecalis, but not S. aureus, decreased survival due to defective phagocytosis could be compensated for by genetically enhancing the humoral immune response. Conclusions/Significance Our results underscore the fundamental importance of both cellular and humoral mechanisms in Drosophila immunity and shed light on the balance between these two arms of host defense depending on the invading pathogen. PMID:21390224

  2. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Regina W Y; Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  4. Children's Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children.

  5. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  6. Sharp needle recanalization for salvaging hemodialysis accesses with chronically occluded peripheral outflow.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregg A; Koh, Elsie; Khariton, Aleksandr; Preddie, Dean C; Hwang, Wayne W; Savransky, Yevgeny; Schur, Israel

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sharp needle recanalization (SNR) for treatment of chronically occluded venous outflow in hemodialysis access. A retrospective analysis of patient records from January 2006 to March 2010 was conducted. Forty-four hemodialysis patients (31 fistulas, 13 grafts) were referred for arm swelling (18%), excessive bleeding after dialysis (29%), and thrombosis (53%). All patients had chronic occlusion of the outflow vein which failed conventional recanalization techniques. A new outflow pathway was established by advancing a 21g needle and dilating the subcutaneous tract to bridge the fistula body to a juxtaposed patent vein. If necessary, uncovered or covered stents were utilized to maintain patency of the newly formed subcutaneous tract. Forty-four patients underwent 45 SNR procedures, with restoration of normal function and complete relief of symptoms in 40 (91%) patients. The average tract length was 15 mm (range, 1 to 32) and the average dilatation diameter was 8 mm. During the initial SNR procedure, bare metal (n=21) or covered (n=5) stents were inserted in 26 patients. The average follow-up was 18.4 months (range, 0.2 to 48 months). No major complications were observed with the procedure. At 12 months, the primary access, primary tract, and secondary access patencies were 10%, 51%, and 92%, respectively. Percutaneous thrombectomy procedures were performed at a rate of 1.16 per access-year and the number of interventions within the tract was 0.94 per access-year. Sharp needle recanalization is an effective percutaneous treatment for restoring function to hemodialysis accesses with chronically occluded venous outflow pathways.

  7. Characterization of ocular biometrics and aqueous humor dynamics in primary angle closure suspects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Deng, Yuan; Fang, Li; Liu, Chaoqi; Guo, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Detailed characterizations of ocular biometrics and parameters of aqueous humor dynamics are lacking in primary angle closure suspect (PACS) patients. This study aims to characterize these parameters and compare them with age-matched healthy volunteers.Elderly healthy volunteers (60.6 ± 7.2 years of age, mean ± SD, n = 28) and PACS patients (64.1 ± 11.6 years, n = 30) completed the study. Parameters investigated were axial length (AXL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central cornea thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous flow (Fa), outflow facility (C), episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow (Fu). Comparisons and correlations were made between and within groups.In healthy volunteers, ocular biometric parameters, IOP, and EVP correlated very well between the 2 eyes of each individual, but Fa, C, and Fu were not significantly correlated. Biometric parameters of the PACS group significantly (P < 0.001) differed from those of the healthy controls: AXL (23.31 ± 1.03 mm [PACS] vs 22.39 ± 1.04 mm [Control]; mean ± SD), ACD (2.44 ± 0.33 mm [PACS] vs 1.86 ± 0.25 mm [Control]), ACV (136.0 ± 36.1 μL [PACS] vs 81.4 ± 21.8 μL [Control]), CCT (526.9 ± 37.0 μm [PACS] vs 556.1 ± 28.4 μm [Control]). There was no significant change in IOP, Fa, C, EVP, or Fu between Control and PACS. Furthermore, IOP showed no significant correlations with AXL, ACD, ACV, CCT, or C in both groups.The PACS eyes had a shorter AXL, a shallower ACD, and a smaller ACV, but a thicker CCT. Despite these morphological changes, the PACS eyes did not have any significant changes in IOP, and aqueous humor dynamics parameters. This is consistent with the findings that IOP did not show significant correlations with biometrics, or C.

  8. Characterization of ocular biometrics and aqueous humor dynamics in primary angle closure suspects

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Deng, Yuan; Fang, Li; Liu, Chaoqi; Guo, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Detailed characterizations of ocular biometrics and parameters of aqueous humor dynamics are lacking in primary angle closure suspect (PACS) patients. This study aims to characterize these parameters and compare them with age-matched healthy volunteers. Elderly healthy volunteers (60.6 ± 7.2 years of age, mean ± SD, n = 28) and PACS patients (64.1 ± 11.6 years, n = 30) completed the study. Parameters investigated were axial length (AXL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central cornea thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous flow (Fa), outflow facility (C), episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow (Fu). Comparisons and correlations were made between and within groups. In healthy volunteers, ocular biometric parameters, IOP, and EVP correlated very well between the 2 eyes of each individual, but Fa, C, and Fu were not significantly correlated. Biometric parameters of the PACS group significantly (P < 0.001) differed from those of the healthy controls: AXL (23.31 ± 1.03 mm [PACS] vs 22.39 ± 1.04 mm [Control]; mean ± SD), ACD (2.44 ± 0.33 mm [PACS] vs 1.86 ± 0.25 mm [Control]), ACV (136.0 ± 36.1 μL [PACS] vs 81.4 ± 21.8 μL [Control]), CCT (526.9 ± 37.0 μm [PACS] vs 556.1 ± 28.4 μm [Control]). There was no significant change in IOP, Fa, C, EVP, or Fu between Control and PACS. Furthermore, IOP showed no significant correlations with AXL, ACD, ACV, CCT, or C in both groups. The PACS eyes had a shorter AXL, a shallower ACD, and a smaller ACV, but a thicker CCT. Despite these morphological changes, the PACS eyes did not have any significant changes in IOP, and aqueous humor dynamics parameters. This is consistent with the findings that IOP did not show significant correlations with biometrics, or C. PMID:28207520

  9. Ionised outflows in z ~ 2.4 quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked by galaxy evolutionary models to quench star formation and to explain the origin of the relations observed locally between super-massive black holes and their host galaxies. We here aim to detect extended ionised outflows in luminous quasars, where we expect the highest activity both in star formation and in black-hole accretion. Currently, there are only a few studies based on spatially resolved observations of outflows at high redshift, z > 2. Methods: We analysed a sample of six luminous (L > 1047 erg/s) quasars at z ~ 2.4, observed in H-band using the near-IR integral field spectrometer SINFONI at the VLT. We performed a kinematic analysis of the [Oiii] emission line at λ = 5007 Å. Results: We detect fast, spatially extended outflows in five out of six targets. [Oiii]λ5007 has a complex gas kinematic, with blue-shifted velocities of a few hundreds of km s-1 and line widths up to 1500 km s-1. Using the spectroastrometric method, we infer a size of the ionised outflows of up to ~2 kpc. The properties of the ionised outflows, mass outflow rate, momentum rate, and kinetic power, are correlated with the AGN luminosity. The increase in outflow rate with increasing AGN luminosity is consistent with the idea that a luminous AGN pushes away the surrounding gas through fast outflows that are driven by radiation pressure, which depends on the emitted luminosity. Conclusions: We derive mass outflow rates of about 6-700 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample, which are lower than those observed in molecular outflows. The physical properties of ionised outflows show dependences on AGN luminosity that are similar to those of molecular outflows, but indicate that the mass of ionised gas is lower than that of molecular outflows. Alternatively, this discrepancy between ionised and molecular outflows could be explained with different acceleration mechanisms. Based on Observations collected at the European Organisation for

  10. Humor theories and the physiological benefits of laughter.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Julia; Eisenbraun, Amy Janel

    2009-01-01

    There are 3 main theories used to explain the functions of humor: (1) the relief theory, (2) the incongruity theory, and (3) the superiority theory. Though these theories focus on the specific role that humor plays for people in situations such as dealing with misfortune, making sense of rule violations, and bonding with others, we propose that underlying each of these theories are the physiological benefits of laughter. We draw on findings from empirical studies on laughter to demonstrate that these physiological benefits occur regardless of the theory that is used to explain the humor function.

  11. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Joseph M.; Reina-Torres, Ester; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Rowe, Barnaby; Overby, Darryl R.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied in vivo to mice, as

  12. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    PubMed Central

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  13. The Views of Turkish Teachers on the Use of Humor in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Humor is the type of expression and writing representing the humorous aspect of life by adorning with jokes and wit. The main objective of humor is to criticize, ironize, and correct the flaws and hideousness in life. Humor develops the sensitivity, the empathizing ability and social facts' multidimensional perception of individuals. Humor…

  14. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  15. Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Using Humor in Education but Were Afraid to Laugh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    The importance of laughter and humor to enhance education, and special education in particular, is addressed. A sense of humor is an attitude, and humor together with enthusiasm helps students enjoy the learning process. Humor can make students become more alert, and can have very positive influences on affect. A funny remark, a pleasant…

  16. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  17. Adolescent Humor and Its Relationship to Coping, Defense Strategies, Psychological Distress, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,…

  18. Adolescent Humor and Its Relationship to Coping, Defense Strategies, Psychological Distress, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,…

  19. Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Using Humor in Education but Were Afraid to Laugh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    The importance of laughter and humor to enhance education, and special education in particular, is addressed. A sense of humor is an attitude, and humor together with enthusiasm helps students enjoy the learning process. Humor can make students become more alert, and can have very positive influences on affect. A funny remark, a pleasant…

  20. A Study of Humor Initiated by Cosmopolitan and Locals in an Urban University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Janet G.; Jain, Nemi C.

    This paper presents the results of an empirical study designed to test three hypotheses concerning the type of humor initiated by faculty in their interpersonal communication: (1) the organizational type of person is associated with the type of humor he initiates; (2) cosmopolitans tend to initiate abrasive humor more often than lubricant humor;…

  1. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…

  2. Toward in vivo two-photon analysis of mouse aqueous outflow structure and function.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jose M; Ko, Minhee K; Masedunskas, Andrius; Hong, Young-Kwon; Weigert, Roberto; Tan, James C H

    2017-05-01

    The promise of revolutionary insights into intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humor outflow homeostasis, IOP pathogenesis, and novel therapy offered by engineered mouse models has been hindered by a lack of appropriate tools for studying the aqueous drainage tissues in their original 3-dimensional (3D) environment. Advances in 2-photon excitation fluorescence imaging (TPEF) combined with availability of modalities such as transgenic reporter mice and intravital dyes have placed us on the cusp of unlocking the potential of the mouse model for unearthing insights into aqueous drainage structure and function. Multimodality 2-photon imaging permits high-resolution visualization not only of tissue structural organization but also cells and cellular function. It is possible to dig deeper into understanding the cellular basis of aqueous outflow regulation as the technique integrates analysis of tissue structure, cell biology and physiology in a way that could also lead to fresh insights into human glaucoma. We outline recent novel applications of two-photon imaging to analyze the mouse conventional drainage system in vivo or in whole tissues: (1) collagen second harmonic generation (SHG) identifies the locations of episcleral vessels, intrascleral plexuses, collector channels, and Schlemm's canal in the distal aqueous drainage tract; (2) the prospero homeobox protein 1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter helps locate the inner wall of Schlemm's canal; (3) Calcein AM, siGLO™, the fluorescent reporters m-Tomato and GFP, and coherent anti-Stokes scattering (CARS), are adjuncts to TPEF to identify live cells by their membrane or cytosolic locations; (4) autofluorescence and sulforhodamine-B to identify elastic fibers in the living eye. These tools greatly expand our options for analyzing physiological and pathological processes in the aqueous drainage tissues of live mice as a model of the analogous human system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Collective outflow from a small multiple stellar system

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klaassen, Pamela D.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Schrön, Martin; Klessen, Ralf S.; Federrath, Christoph; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-06-10

    The formation of high-mass stars is usually accompanied by powerful protostellar outflows. Such high-mass outflows are not simply scaled-up versions of their lower-mass counterparts, since observations suggest that the collimation degree degrades with stellar mass. Theoretically, the origins of massive outflows remain open to question because radiative feedback and fragmentation of the accretion flow around the most massive stars, with M > 15 M {sub ☉}, may impede the driving of magnetic disk winds. We here present a three-dimensional simulation of the early stages of core fragmentation and massive star formation that includes a subgrid-scale model for protostellar outflows. We find that stars that form in a common accretion flow tend to have aligned outflow axes, so that the individual jets of multiple stars can combine to form a collective outflow. We compare our simulation to observations with synthetic H{sub 2} and CO observations and find that the morphology and kinematics of such a collective outflow resembles some observed massive outflows, such as Cepheus A and DR 21. We finally compare physical quantities derived from simulated observations of our models to the actual values in the models to examine the reliability of standard methods for deriving physical quantities, demonstrating that those methods indeed recover the actual values to within a factor of two to three.

  4. Bipolar Molecular Outflows from Young Stars and Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachiller, Rafael

    A violent outflow of high-velocity gas is one of the first manifestations of the formation of a new star. Such outflows emerge bipolarly from the young object and involve amounts of energy similar to those involved in accretion processes. The youngest (proto-)stellar low-mass objects known to date (the Class 0 protostars) present a particularly efficient outflow activity, indicating that outflow and infall motions happen simultaneously and are closely linked since the very first stages of the star formation processes. This article reviews the wealth of information being provided by large millimeter-wave telescopes and interferometers on the small-scale structure of molecular outflows, as well as the most recent theories about their origin. The observations of highly collimated CO outflows, extremely high velocity (EHV) flows, and molecular "bullets" are examined in detail, since they provide key information on the origin and propagation of outflows. The peculiar chemistry operating in the associated shocked molecular regions is discussed, highlighting the recent high sensitivity observations of low-luminosity sources. The classification schemes and the properties of the driving sources of bipolar outflows are summarized with special attention devoted to the recently identified Class 0 protostars. All these issues are crucial for building a unified theory on the mass-loss phenomena in young stars.

  5. Clouds, Cap, and Consequences: Outflow Events and Mars Hesperian Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, D. L.; Colaprete, A.; Haberle, R. M.; Sloan, L. C.; Asphaug, E.

    2006-03-01

    We focus on how outflows relate to past climate using a MGCM with cloud scheme. Early runs show water goes to the poles with current orbital configurations. We run the model for five years with a northern water ice cap then release the outflow, and will present these results.

  6. Confronting the outflow-regulated cluster formation model with observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Li, Zhi-Yun E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu

    2014-03-10

    Protostellar outflows have been shown theoretically to be capable of maintaining supersonic turbulence in cluster-forming clumps and keeping the star formation rate per free-fall time as low as a few percent. We aim to test two basic predictions of this outflow-regulated cluster formation model, namely, (1) the clump should be close to virial equilibrium and (2) the turbulence dissipation rate should be balanced by the outflow momentum injection rate, using recent outflow surveys toward eight nearby cluster-forming clumps (B59, L1551, L1641N, Serpens Main Cloud, Serpens South, ρ Oph, IC 348, and NGC 1333). We find, for almost all sources, that the clumps are close to virial equilibrium and the outflow momentum injection rate exceeds the turbulence momentum dissipation rate. In addition, the outflow kinetic energy is significantly smaller than the clump gravitational energy for intermediate and massive clumps with M {sub cl} ≳ a few × 10{sup 2} M {sub ☉}, suggesting that the outflow feedback is not enough to disperse the clump as a whole. The number of observed protostars also indicates that the star formation rate per free-fall time is as small as a few percent for all clumps. These observationally based results strengthen the case for outflow-regulated cluster formation.

  7. What controls aqueous humour outflow resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The bulk of aqueous humour outflow resistance is generated in or near the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal in normal eyes, and probably also in glaucomatous eyes. Fluid flow through this region is controlled by the location of the giant vacuoles and pores found in cells of the endothelium of Schlemm's canal, but the flow resistance itself is more likely generated either in the extracellular matrix of the juxtacanalicular connective tissue or the basement membrane of Schlemm's canal. Future studies utilizing in vitro perfusion studies of inner wall endothelial cells may give insights into the process by which vacuoles and pores form in this unique endothelium and why inner wall pore density is greatly reduced in glaucoma. PMID:16386733

  8. Ice sculpture in the Martian outflow channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Viking Orbiter and terrestrial satellite images are examined at similar resolution to compare features of the Martian outflow channels with features produced by the movement of ice on earth, and many resemblances are found. These include the anastomoses, sinuosities, and U-shaped cross profiles of valleys; hanging valleys; linear scour marks on valley walls; grooves and ridges on valley floors; and the streamlining of bedrock highs. Attention is given to the question whether ice could have moved in the Martian environment. It is envisaged that springs or small catastrophic outbursts discharged fluids from structural outlets or chaotic terrains. These fluids built icings that may have grown into substantial masses and eventually flowed like glaciers down preexisting valleys. An alternative is that the fluids formed rivers or floods that in turn formed ice jams and consolidated into icy masses in places where obstacles blocked their flow.

  9. Metastatic carcinoid tumor obstructing left ventricular outflow.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Horstmanshof, Douglas A; Guniganti, Uma M

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare and usually indicate metastatic disease. Characterizing a tumor and reaching an exact diagnosis can be difficult. Diagnosis has been aided greatly by advances in imaging, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance with the use of gadolinium-pentetic acid. Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms that are found most often in the intestinal tract, although they can also develop in the lung, stomach, or heart. Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of intestinal carcinoid disease and presenting symptoms of dizziness, fatigue, and chest pain. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium enhancement to identify a large mass obstructing left ventricular outflow. The histopathologic results of an endomyocardial biopsy confirmed that the mass was a left-sided metastatic carcinoid cardiac tumor. To our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st combined use of clinical evaluation, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and histopathologic studies to reach such a diagnosis.

  10. Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor Obstructing Left Ventricular Outflow

    PubMed Central

    Chrysant, George S.; Horstmanshof, Douglas A.; Guniganti, Uma M.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare and usually indicate metastatic disease. Characterizing a tumor and reaching an exact diagnosis can be difficult. Diagnosis has been aided greatly by advances in imaging, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance with the use of gadolinium-pentetic acid. Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms that are found most often in the intestinal tract, although they can also develop in the lung, stomach, or heart. Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of intestinal carcinoid disease and presenting symptoms of dizziness, fatigue, and chest pain. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium enhancement to identify a large mass obstructing left ventricular outflow. The histopathologic results of an endomyocardial biopsy confirmed that the mass was a left-sided metastatic carcinoid cardiac tumor. To our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st combined use of clinical evaluation, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and histopathologic studies to reach such a diagnosis. PMID:21720473

  11. FIRE simulations: galactic outflows and their consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keres, Dusan; FIRE Team

    2016-06-01

    We study gaseous outflows and their consequences in high-resolution galaxy formation simulations with explicit stellar feedback from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project. Collective, galaxy scale, effect of stellar feedback results in episodic ejections of large amount of gas and heavy elements into the circum-galactic medium. Gas ejection episodes follow strong bursts of star formation. Properties of galactic star formation and ejection episodes depend on galaxy mass and redshift and, together with gas infall and recycling, shape the evolution of the circum-galactic medium and galaxies. As a consequence, our simulated galaxies have masses, star formation histories and heavy element content in good agreement with the observed population of galaxies.

  12. Modeling passive mechanical interaction between aqueous humor and iris.

    PubMed

    Heys, J J; Barocas, V H; Taravella, M J

    2001-12-01

    Certain forms of glaucoma are associated with displacement of the iris from its normal contour. We present here a mathematical model of the coupled aqueous humor-iris system that accountsfor the contribution of aqueous humor flow and passive iris deformability to the iris contour. The aqueous humor is modeled as a Newtonian fluid, and the iris is modeled as a linear elastic solid. The resulting coupled equation set is solved by the finite element method with mesh motion in response to iris displacement accomplished by tracking a pseudo-solid overlying the aqueous humor. The model is used to predict the iris contour in healthy and diseased eyes. The results compare favorably with clinical observations, supporting the hypothesis that passive iris deformation can produce the iris contours observed using ultrasound biomicroscopy.

  13. Ascorbate in aqueous humor protects against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Howes, E. L.; English, D.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotactic factors can cause polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release the contents of azurophilic granules, including the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase. In the presence of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye, the supernatant from stimulated leukocytes contains beta-glucuronidase, but myeloperoxidase is not detectable. Studies with aqueous humor and partially purified human myeloperoxidase suggest that this phenomenon is not due to a failure of enzyme release. The factor responsible for the inability to detect MPO in the assay system is heat-labile, dialyzable, and reversed by ascorbate oxidase. Comparable assay inhibition is produced by ascorbic acid at a concentration present in either human or rabbit aqueous humor. The ability of aqueous humor to protect against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation may contribute to several diverse phenomena, including the susceptibility of the eye to Candida infection and a prolonged half-life for several inflammatory mediators in the anterior chamber. PMID:2992283

  14. The purpose and function of humor in OR nursing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, V

    1993-01-01

    1. Laughter has always echoed throughout the halls and rooms of hospitals. The latest jokes and the funniest stories are heard in the OR department; from there come some of the funniest "dumb student" stories; macabre practical jokes; stories and jokes about surgeon/anesthesiologist/nurse relationships; and jokes, cartoons, and get-well cards that reveal patients' greatest anxieties and fears about surgery and the operating room. 2. Humor as an indirect form of communication (verbal or non-verbal) has many sociologic and psychologic purposes. Also, humor enhances learning, and stimulates alertness and creativity. The resulting laughter produces a positive physiologic change in the body. 3. Humor and laughter are healthy therapeutic tools we must value, learn to cultivate, and add to our professional and personal lives. However, there is still a need for more research on how to use humor therapeutically, especially in OR nursing.

  15. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from nonrelativistic quasar outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-03-01

    It has been suggested that nonrelativistic outflows from quasars can naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic γ -ray background and explain the cumulative neutrino background through pion decay in collisions between protons accelerated by the outflow shock and interstellar protons. Here, we show that the same quasar outflows are capable of accelerating protons to energies of ˜1020 eV during the early phase of their propagation. The overall quasar population is expected to produce a cumulative ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray flux of ˜10-7 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 at ECR≳1018 eV . The spectral shape and amplitude are consistent with recent observations for outflow parameters constrained to fit secondary γ rays and neutrinos without any additional parameter tuning. This indicates that quasar outflows simultaneously account for all three messengers at their observed levels.

  16. Outflow Collimation in Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Frank, A.

    1993-05-01

    Recent results of long-slit spectroscopy of the forbidden lines of the outflow in the young star DG Tau [7] suggest that its wind is well collimated very close to it, leading to the formation of its jet. The analysis of the width of stellar jets, on the other hand, seems to indicate that the collimation of the jets takes place at larger scales [5]. In other to understand this discrepancy, we are studying by means of a two dimensional hydrodynamical code [1][3], the collimation driven by the interaction of the stellar wind with the surrounding density structure left by the star formation process [8][9]. We have found in our adiabatic outflow simulations (using physical parameters similar to those for the HH 34 bipolar stellar jet [2]) that a spherical wind is well collimated near the source resembling a de Laval Nozzle [4][6]. ANC research is supported by NSF grant AST-91-14888. \\ References [1] Frank, A. 1992, PhD Thesis, University of Washington. [2] Heathcote, S. & Reipurth, B. 1992, AJ 104, 2193. [3] Icke, V., 1988 A&A 202, 177. [4] Konigl, A. 1982, ApJ 261, 115. [5] Mundt, R., Ray, T.P., & Raga, A.C. 1991, A&A 252, 740. [6] Raga A.C., & Canto, J. 1989, ApJ 344, 404. [7] Solf, J., & Bohm, K.H. 1993, ApJL (in press). [8] Terebey, S., Shu, F.H., & Cassen, P. 1984, ApJ 286, 529. [9] Yorke, H.W., Bodenheimer, P., & Laughlin, G. 1993, ApJ (in press).

  17. Erectile hydraulics: maximizing inflow while minimizing outflow.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, David R; Burnett, Arthur L; Dorey, Grace; Esposito, Katherine; Ignarro, Louis J

    2014-05-01

    Penile rigidity depends on maximizing inflow while minimizing outflow. The aim of this review is to describe the principal factors and mechanisms involved. Erectile quality is the main outcome measure. Data from the pertinent literature were examined to inform our conclusions. Nitric oxide (NO) is the principal factor increasing blood flow into the penis. Penile engorgement and the pelvic floor muscles maintain an adequate erection by impeding outflow of blood by exerting pressure on the penile veins from within and from outside of the penile tunica. Extrinsic pressure by the pelvic floor muscles further raises intracavernosal pressure above maximum inflow pressure to achieve full penile rigidity. Aging and poor lifestyle choices are associated with metabolic impediments to NO production. Aging is also associated with fewer smooth muscle cells and increased fibrosis within the corpora cavernosa, preventing adequate penile engorgement and pressure on the penile veins. Those same penile structural changes occur rapidly following the penile nerve injury that accompanies even "nerve-sparing" radical prostatectomy and are largely prevented in animal models by early chronic use of a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor. Pelvic floor muscles may also decrease in tone and bulk with age, and pelvic floor muscle exercises have been shown to improve erectile function to a similar degree compared with a PDE5 inhibitor in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). Because NO is critical for vascular health and ED is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, maximal attention should be focused on measures known to increase vascular NO production, including the use of PDE5 inhibitors. Attention should also be paid to early, regular use of PDE5 inhibition to reduce the incidence of ED following penile nerve injury and to assuring normal function of the pelvic floor muscles. These approaches to maximizing erectile function are complementary rather than competitive, as they

  18. Optically thick outflows in ultraluminous supersoft sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, R.; Soria, R.

    2016-02-01

    Ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are defined by a thermal spectrum with colour temperatures ˜0.1 keV, bolometric luminosities ˜ a few 1039 erg s-1, and almost no emission above 1 keV. It has never been clear how they fit into the general scheme of accreting compact objects. To address this problem, we studied a sample of seven ULSs with extensive Chandra and XMM-Newton coverage. We find an anticorrelation between fitted temperatures and radii of the thermal emitter, and no correlation between bolometric luminosity and radius or temperature. We compare the physical parameters of ULSs with those of classical supersoft sources, thought to be surface-nuclear-burning white dwarfs, and of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), thought to be super-Eddington stellar-mass black holes. We argue that ULSs are the sub-class of ULXs seen through the densest wind, perhaps an extension of the soft-ultraluminous regime. We suggest that in ULSs, the massive disc outflow becomes effectively optically thick and forms a large photosphere, shrouding the inner regions from our view. Our model predicts that when the photosphere expands to ≳ 105 km and the temperature decreases below ≈50 eV, ULSs become brighter in the far-UV but undetectable in X-rays. Conversely, we find that harder emission components begin to appear in ULSs when the fitted size of the thermal emitter is smallest (interpreted as a shrinking of the photosphere). The observed short-term variability and absorption edges are also consistent with clumpy outflows. We suggest that the transition between ULXs (with a harder tail) and ULSs (with only a soft thermal component) occurs at blackbody temperatures of ≈150 eV.

  19. Myocardialization of the cardiac outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van den Hoff, M. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Ruijter, J. M.; Lamers, W. H.; Bennington, R. W.; Markwald, R. R.; Wessels, A.

    1999-01-01

    During development, the single-circuited cardiac tube transforms into a double-circuited four-chambered heart by a complex process of remodeling, differential growth, and septation. In this process the endocardial cushion tissues of the atrioventricular junction and outflow tract (OFT) play a crucial role as they contribute to the mesenchymal components of the developing septa and valves in the developing heart. After fusion, the endocardial ridges in the proximal portion of the OFT initially form a mesenchymal outlet septum. In the adult heart, however, this outlet septum is basically a muscular structure. Hence, the mesenchyme of the proximal outlet septum has to be replaced by cardiomyocytes. We have dubbed this process "myocardialization." Our immunohistochemical analysis of staged chicken hearts demonstrates that myocardialization takes place by ingrowth of existing myocardium into the mesenchymal outlet septum. Compared to other events in cardiac septation, it is a relatively late process, being initialized around stage H/H28 and being basically completed around stage H/H38. To unravel the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the induction and regulation of myocardialization, an in vitro culture system in which myocardialization could be mimicked and manipulated was developed. Using this in vitro myocardialization assay it was observed that under the standard culture conditions (i) whole OFT explants from stage H/H20 and younger did not spontaneously myocardialize the collagen matrix, (ii) explants from stage H/H21 and older spontaneously formed extensive myocardial networks, (iii) the myocardium of the OFT could be induced to myocardialize and was therefore "myocardialization-competent" at all stages tested (H/H16-30), (iv) myocardialization was induced by factors produced by, most likely, the nonmyocardial component of the outflow tract, (v) at none of the embryonic stages analyzed was ventricular myocardium myocardialization-competent, and finally

  20. The PLA2 gene mediates the humoral immune responses in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiujia; Dong, Xiaolong; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2017-02-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) gene encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PLs) from the sn-2 position. However, little is known about its role in humoral immune responses. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of PLA2 in different tissues and developmental stages in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and the results showed that the transcriptional level of PLA2 was high in the egg and mature stage and in the testis tissue. Bacterial infection increased the expression of PLA2, and the highest degree of up-regulation appeared in the fat body. Silencing PLA2 influenced the expression of immune-related genes, including MyD88 and defensin in the Toll pathway and relish and diptericin in the Imd pathway. Moreover, the expression of MyD88 and defensin was down-regulated significantly in the ds-PLA2 group compared with those in the ds-egfp group when B. dorsalis was infected with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, indicating that PLA2 was involved in the activation of the Toll pathway. Meanwhile, infection with L. monocytogenes and E. coli, which activate the Imd pathway, does not increase the mRNA levels of relish and diptericin in the ds-PLA2 group as severely as it increases those in the ds-egfp group, indicating that the Imd pathway was also repressed after silencing PLA2. Notably, the development of lipid droplets in fat body cells was influenced by silencing PLA2, implying that PLA2 affects the function of fat body tissue. These results suggest that the PLA2 gene may mediate humoral immune responses by reducing lipid storage in fat body cells in B. dorsalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.