Science.gov

Sample records for humor outflow pathway

  1. The aqueous humor outflow pathways in glaucoma: A unifying concept of disease mechanisms and causative treatment.

    PubMed

    Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R

    2015-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the critical risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease and frequent cause of blindness worldwide. As of today, all effective strategies to treat glaucoma aim at lowering IOP. IOP is generated and maintained via the aqueous humor circulation system in the anterior eye. Aqueous humor is secreted by the ciliary processes and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork (TM) or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. The TM outflow pathways provide resistance to aqueous humor outflow and IOP builds up in response to it. In the normal eye, the resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in the inner wall region is lowered through the contraction of the ciliary muscle or the relaxation of contractile myofibroblasts in the posterior part of the TM and the adjacent scleral spur. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most frequent form of glaucoma, typically suffer from an abnormally high outflow resistance of the inner wall region. There is increasing evidence that the increase in TM outflow resistance in POAG is the result of a characteristic change in the biological properties of the resident cells in the JCT, which increasingly acquire the phenotype of contractile myofibroblasts. This scenario strengthens simultaneously both their actin cytoskeleton and their directly associated extracellular matrix fibrils, leads to overall stiffening of the tissue, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells in glaucoma. Causative therapy concepts targeting the aqueous outflow pathways in glaucoma should aim at interfering with this process either by attenuating TM or SC stiffness, and/or by modulating TGF-β/CTGF signaling.

  2. Intraocular Pressure and the Mechanisms Involved in Resistance of the Aqueous Humor Flow in the Trabecular Meshwork Outflow Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP), the critical risk factor for glaucoma, is generated and maintained by the aqueous humor circulation system. Aqueous humor is secreted from the epithelial layers of the ciliary body and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. IOP builds up in response to a resistance to aqueous humor flow in the trabecular outflow pathways. The trabecular outflow resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in this region is lowered through the relaxation of contractile myofibroblast-like cells in trabecular meshwork and the adjacent scleral spur, or the contraction of the ciliary muscle. In primary open-angle glaucoma, the most frequent form of glaucoma, outflow resistance of the inner wall region is typically higher than normal. There is evidence that the increase in resistance is related to characteristic biological changes in the resident cells of the JCT, which more and more acquire the structural and functional characteristics of contractile myofibroblasts. The changes involve an augmentation of their actin cytoskeleton and of their surrounding fibrillary extracellular matrix, which connects to JCT cells via integrins. This scenario leads to an overall stiffening of the inner wall region, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β/connective tissue growth factor signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells. Stiffening of JCT and SC cells is very likely a critical causative factor for the increase in trabecular outflow resistance in POAG.

  3. Imaging the Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathway in Human Eyes by Three-dimensional Micro-computed Tomography (3D micro-CT)

    SciTech Connect

    C Hann; M Bentley; A Vercnocke; E Ritman; M Fautsch

    2011-12-31

    The site of outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma is believed to be located in the region of Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelium, its basement membrane and the adjacent juxtacanalicular tissue. Evidence also suggests collector channels and intrascleral vessels may have a role in intraocular pressure in both normal and glaucoma eyes. Traditional imaging modalities limit the ability to view both proximal and distal portions of the trabecular outflow pathway as a single unit. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (3D micro-CT) as a potential method to view the trabecular outflow pathway. Two normal human eyes were used: one immersion fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and one with anterior chamber perfusion at 10 mmHg followed by perfusion fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde/2% glutaraldehyde. Both eyes were postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide and scanned with 3D micro-CT at 2 {mu}m or 5 {mu}m voxel resolution. In the immersion fixed eye, 24 collector channels were identified with an average orifice size of 27.5 {+-} 5 {mu}m. In comparison, the perfusion fixed eye had 29 collector channels with a mean orifice size of 40.5 {+-} 13 {mu}m. Collector channels were not evenly dispersed around the circumference of the eye. There was no significant difference in the length of Schlemm's canal in the immersed versus the perfused eye (33.2 versus 35.1 mm). Structures, locations and size measurements identified by 3D micro-CT were confirmed by correlative light microscopy. These findings confirm 3D micro-CT can be used effectively for the non-invasive examination of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, collector channels and intrascleral vasculature that comprise the distal outflow pathway. This imaging modality will be useful for non-invasive study of the role of the trabecular outflow pathway as a whole unit.

  4. Variations in active outflow along the trabecular outflow pathway.

    PubMed

    Cha, Elliott D K; Xu, Jia; Gong, Lihua; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Previous tracer studies have shown segmental outflow in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and along the inner wall (IW) of Schlemm's canal (SC). Whether segmental outflow is conserved distal to SC has not yet been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether the segmented pattern of outflow is conserved in distal outflow pathways by using a newly developed global imaging method and to evaluate variations of active outflow in three distinct regions along trabecular outflow pathway. Six normal whole globe human eyes were first perfused at 15 mmHg to establish a stable baseline outflow facility. The anterior chamber was then exchanged (5 mL) and perfused with fluorescent microspheres (0.002% v/v, 200 μL) to label areas of active outflow. All eyes were perfusion fixed and dissected into anterior segments. The TM and scleral surface were en face imaged globally. Effective filtration area (EFA) and fluorescent tracer distribution and intensity were analyzed in global images for both the TM and episcleral veins (EPVs). Anterior segments were further dissected into a minimum of 16 radial wedges, from which frontal sections were cut, stained, and imaged, using confocal microscopy. EFA from all three locations along the trabecular outflow pathway were measured and compared. Additionally, TM thickness, SC height, and total number of collector channels (CC) were analyzed and compared between active and inactive areas of outflow. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank test with a required significance of p ≤ 0.05. All three locations showed a segmental outflow pattern. The TM had a significantly higher mean EFA (86.3 ± 3.5%) compared to both the IW (34.7 ± 2.9%; p ≤ 0.01) and EPVs (41.1 ± 3.8%; p ≤ 0.01). No significant difference in mean EFA was found between IW and EPVs. Preferential active outflow was observed in the nasal and inferior quadrants. TM thickness was significantly larger in areas of active

  5. The trabecular meshwork outflow pathways: structural and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Ernst R

    2009-04-01

    The major drainage structures for aqueous humor (AH) are the conventional or trabecular outflow pathways, which are comprised of the trabecular meshwork (made up by the uveal and corneoscleral meshworks), the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT), the endothelial lining of Schlemm's canal (SC), the collecting channels and the aqueous veins. The trabecular meshwork (TM) outflow pathways are critical in providing resistance to AH outflow and in generating intraocular pressure (IOP). Outflow resistance in the TM outflow pathways increases with age and primary open-angle glaucoma. Uveal and corneoscleral meshworks form connective tissue lamellae or beams that are covered by flat TM cells which rest on a basal lamina. TM cells in the JCT are surrounded by fibrillar elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to form a loose connective tissue. In contrast to the other parts of the TM, JCT cells and ECM fibrils do not form lamellae, but are arranged more irregularly. SC inner wall endothelial cells form giant vacuoles in response to AH flow, as well as intracellular and paracellular pores. In addition, minipores that are covered with a diaphragm are observed. There is considerable evidence that normal AH outflow resistance resides in the inner wall region of SC, which is formed by the JCT and SC inner wall endothelium. Modulation of TM cell tone by the action of their actomyosin system affects TM outflow resistance. In addition, the architecture of the TM outflow pathways and consequently outflow resistance appear to be modulated by contraction of ciliary muscle and scleral spur cells. The scleral spur contains axons that innervate scleral spur cells or that have the ultrastructural characteristics of mechanosensory nerve endings.

  6. The Autophagic Lysosomal System in Outflow Pathway Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Liton, Paloma B.

    2015-01-01

    Malfunction of the trabecular meshwork (TM)/schlemm’s canal (SC) conventional outflow pathway is associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and, therefore, increased risk of developing glaucoma, a potentially blinding disease affecting more than 70 million people worldwide. This TM/SC tissue is subjected to different types of stress, including mechanical, oxidative, and phagocytic stress. Long-term exposure to these stresses is believed to lead to a progressive accumulation of damaged cellular and tissue structures causing permanent alterations in the tissue physiology, and contribute to the pathologic increase in aqueous humor (AH) outflow resistance. Autophagy is emerging as an essential cellular survival mechanism against a variety of stressors. In addition to performing basal functions, autophagy acts as a cellular survival pathway and represents an essential mechanism by which organisms can adapt to acute stress conditions and repair stress-induced damage. A decline in autophagy has been observed in most tissues with aging and has been considered responsible, at least in part, for the accumulation of damaged cellular components in almost all tissues of aging organisms. Dysfunction in the autophagy pathway is associated with several human diseases, from infectious diseases to cancer and neurodegeneration. In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge of the emerging roles of autophagy in outflow tissue physiology and pathophysiology, including novel evidence suggesting compromised autophagy in the glaucomatous outflow pathway. PMID:26226231

  7. Aqueous Humor Outflow Structure and Function Imaging At the Bench and Bedside: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alex S.; Mohindroo, Chirayu; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Anterior segment glaucoma clinical care and research has recently gained new focus because of novel imaging modalities and the advent of angle-based surgical treatments. Traditional investigation drawn to the trabecular meshwork now emphasizes the entire conventional aqueous humor outflow (AHO) pathway from the anterior chamber to the episcleral vein. AHO investigation can be divided into structural and functional assessments using different methods. The historical basis for studying the anterior segment of the eye and AHO in glaucoma is discussed. Structural studies of AHO are reviewed and include traditional pathological approaches to modern tools such as multi-model two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Functional assessment focuses on visualizing AHO itself through a variety of non-real-time and real-time techniques such as aqueous angiography. Implications of distal outflow resistance and segmental AHO are discussed with an emphasis on melding bench-side research to viable clinical applications. Through the development of an improved structure: function relationship for AHO in the anterior segment of the normal and diseased eye, a better understanding of the eye with improved therapeutics may be developed. PMID:27790380

  8. Involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the aqueous humor outflow-enhancing effects of abnormal-cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhuanhong; Kumar, Akhilesh; Kumar, Pritesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal-cannabidiol (abn-cbd), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid agonist, on aqueous humor outflow via the trabecular meshwork (TM) of porcine eye, and to examine the involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor and the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) pathway. The effects of abn-cbd on aqueous humor outflow were measured using a porcine anterior segment perfused organ culture model. The activation of p42/44 MAPK by abn-cbd was determined in cultured TM cells with western blot analysis using an anti-phospho-p42/44 MAPK antibody. Administration of abn-cbd caused a concentration-dependent enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility with a maximum effect (155.0 ± 11.7% of basal outflow facility) after administration of 30 nM abn-cbd. Pretreatment with 1 μM of O-1918, a cannabidiol analog that acts as a selective antagonist at the non-CB1/CB2 receptor, produced a full antagonism of 30 nM abn-cbd induced increase of aqueous humor outflow facility. Pretreatment with 1 μM of CB1 antagonist SR141716A partially blocked, whereas pretreatment with either 1 μM of CB1 antagonist AM251 or 1 μM of CB2 antagonist SR144528 had no effect on abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. Treatment of TM cells with 30 nM of abn-cbd activated p42/44 MAPK, which was blocked completely by pretreatment with O-1918, and partially by pretreatment with SR141716A, but not by either AM251 or SR144528. In addition, PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK pathway, blocked completely the abn-cbd induced p42/44 MAPK activation and blocked partially the abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that abn-cbd increases aqueous humor outflow through the TM pathway of the eye, and this effect is mediated by a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor, with an involvement of p42/44 MAPK signaling pathway.

  9. Regionally Discrete Aqueous Humor Outflow Quantification Using Fluorescein Canalograms

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Pritha; Schuman, Joel S.; Sigal, Ian A.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To visualize and quantify conventional outflow directly in its anatomic location. Methods We obtained fluorescein canalograms in six porcine whole eyes and six porcine anterior segment cultures. Eyes were perfused with a constant pressure of 15 mmHg using media containing 0.017 mg/ml fluorescein. Flow patterns were visualized using a stereo dissecting microscope equipped for fluorescent imaging. Images were captured every 30 seconds for 20 minutes for time lapse analysis. Anterior chamber cultures were imaged again on day three of culture. Canalograms were first analyzed for filling time per quadrant. We then wrote a program to automatically compute focal flow fits for each macropixel and to detect convergent perilimbal flow patterns with macropixels grouped into 3 equal-radial width rings around the cornea. A generalized additive model was used to determine fluorescence changes of individual macropixels. Results The resulting imaging algorithm deployed 1024 macropixels that were fit to determine maximum intensity and time to fill. These individual fits highlighted the focal flow function. In whole eyes, significantly faster flow was seen in the inferonasal (IN) and superonasal (SN) quadrants compared to the superotemporal (ST) and inferotemporal (IT) ones (p<0.05). In anterior chamber cultures, reduced flow on day 1 increased in all quadrants on day 3 except in IT (p<0.05). Perilimbal ring analysis uncovered convergent perilimbal flow. Conclusions An algorithm was developed that analyzes regional and circumferential outflow patterns. This algorithm found flow patterns that changed over time and differ in whole eyes and anterior segment cultures. PMID:26998833

  10. Reduction of the Available Area for Aqueous Humor Outflow and Increase in Meshwork Herniations into Collector Channels Following Acute IOP Elevation in Bovine Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Battista, Stephanie A.; Lu, Zhaozeng; Hofmann, Sara; Freddo, Thomas; Overby, Darryl R.; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To understand how hydrodynamic and morphologic changes in the aqueous humor outflow pathway contribute to decreased aqueous humor outflow facility after acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in bovine eyes. Methods Enucleated bovine eyes were perfused at 1 of 4 different pressures (7, 15, 30, 45 mm Hg) while outflow facility was continuously recorded. Dulbecco PBS + 5.5 mM glucose containing fluorescent microspheres (0.5 μm, 0.002% vol/vol) was perfused to outline aqueous outflow patterns, followed by perfusion-fixation. Confocal images were taken along the inner wall (IW) of the aqueous plexus (AP) in radial and frontal sections. Percentage effective filtration length (PEFL; IW length exhibiting tracer labeling/total length of IW) was measured. Herniations of IW into collector channel (CC) ostia were examined and graded for each eye by light microscopy. Results Increasing IOP from 7 to 45 mm Hg coincided with a twofold decrease in outflow facility (P < 0.0001), a 33% to 57% decrease in PEFL with tracer confined more to the vicinity of CC ostia, progressive collapse of the AP, and increasing percentage of CC ostia exhibiting herniations (from 15.6% ± 6.5% at 7 mm Hg to 95% ± 2.3% at 30 mm Hg [P < 10−4], reaching 100% at 45 mm Hg). Conclusions Decreasing outflow facility during acute IOP elevation coincides with a reduction in available area for aqueous humor outflow and the confinement of outflow to the vicinity of CC ostia. These hydrodynamic changes are likely driven by morphologic changes associated with AP collapse and herniation of IW of AP into CC ostia. PMID:18515571

  11. Aqueous Angiography: Real-Time and Physiologic Aqueous Humor Outflow Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathy, Sindhu; Tan, James C. H.; Yu, Fei; Francis, Brian A.; Hinton, David R.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Huang, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Trabecular meshwork (TM) bypass surgeries attempt to enhance aqueous humor outflow (AHO) to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). While TM bypass results are promising, inconsistent success is seen. One hypothesis for this variability rests upon segmental (non-360 degrees uniform) AHO. We describe aqueous angiography as a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes as a way to simulate live AHO imaging. Methods Pig (n = 46) and human (n = 6) enucleated eyes were obtained, orientated based upon inferior oblique insertion, and pre-perfused with balanced salt solution via a Lewicky AC maintainer through a 1mm side-port. Fluorescein (2.5%) was introduced intracamerally at 10 or 30 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent (486 nm) images were acquired. Image processing allowed for collection of pixel information based on intensity or location for statistical analyses. Concurrent OCT was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histological analysis of angiographically active areas. Results Aqueous angiography yielded high quality images with segmental patterns (p<0.0001; Kruskal-Wallis test). No single quadrant was consistently identified as the primary quadrant of angiographic signal (p = 0.06–0.86; Kruskal-Wallis test). Regions of high proximal signal did not necessarily correlate with regions of high distal signal. Angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Conclusions Aqueous angiography is a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes. PMID:26807586

  12. Recent Developments in Understanding the Role of Aqueous Humor Outflow in Normal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Cheryl R.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second leading cause of blindness in the world's rapidly aging population. POAG is characterized by progressive degeneration of neural structures in the posterior segment, often associated with a concomitant elevation of intraocular pressure. Changes in IOP are believed to be caused by a disruption in the normal outflow of aqueous humor. This article reviews recent research associated with normal and POAG aqueous humor outflow. Novel findings elucidating biochemical and pathological changes in the ocular tissues affected in POAG are presented. Stem cell research, identification of lymphatic markers, and increased use of mouse models give researchers exciting new tools to understand aqueous humor outflow, changes associated with POAG and identify underlying causes of the disease. PMID:26236568

  13. Mechanisms of ATP Release by Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells, the Enabling Step in Purinergic Regulation of Aqueous Humor Outflow

    PubMed Central

    LI, ANG; LEUNG, CHI TING; PETERSON-YANTORNO, KIM; STAMER, W. DANIEL; MITCHELL, CLAIRE H.; CIVAN, MORTIMER M.

    2011-01-01

    Our guiding hypothesis is that ecto-enzymatic conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine activates A1 adenosine receptors, reducing resistance to aqueous humor outflow and intraocular pressure. The initial step in this purinergic regulation is ATP release from outflow-pathway cells by mechanisms unknown. We measured similar ATP release from human explant-derived primary trabecular meshwork (TM) cells (HTM) and a human TM cell line (TM5). Responses to 21 inhibitors indicated that pannexin-1 (PX1) and connexin (Cx) hemichannels and P2X7 receptors (P2RX7) were comparably important in modulating ATP release induced by hypotonic swelling, whereas vesicular release was insignificant. Consistent with prior studies of PX1 activity in certain other cells, ATP release was lowered by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Overexpressing PX1 in HEK293T cells promoted, while partial knockdown (KD) in both HEK293T and TM5 cells inhibited hypotonicity-activated ATP release. Additionally, KD reduced the pharmacologically-defined contribution of PX1 and enhanced those of Cx and P2RX7. ATP release was also triggered by raising intracellular Ca2+ activity with ionomycin after a prolonged lag time and was unaffected by the PX1 blocker probenecid, but nearly abolished by P2RX7 antagonists. We conclude that swelling-stimulated ATP release from human TM cells is physiologically mediated by PX1 and Cx hemichannels and P2X7 receptors, but not by vesicular release. PX1 appears not to be stimulated by intracellular Ca2+ in TM cells, but can be modulated by oxidation-reduction state. The P2RX7-dependent component of swelling-activated release may be mediated by PX1 hemichannels or reflect apoptotic magnification of ATP release, either through itself and/or hemichannels. PMID:21381023

  14. Endothelial glycocalyx layer in the aqueous outflow pathway of bovine and human eyes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Yuan Charlie; Huynh, Tiffany; Johnson, Mark; Gong, Haiyan

    2014-11-01

    The glycocalyx layer on the vascular endothelium is known to have an important role as a transport barrier and in the mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress. The detailed structure and distribution of the glycocalyx in the bovine and human aqueous humor outflow pathways has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this layer exists in the bovine and human aqueous outflow pathways and to compare the distribution and thickness therein. Enucleated bovine (N = 4) and human (N = 4) eyes were fixed using Alcian Blue to preserve the glycocalyx. The glycocalyx distribution and thickness (in regions where it was seen) were measured on the trabecular beams (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC)/aqueous plexus (AP), and collector channels (CC). The glycocalyx, which appears as a layer of hair-like brushes, coats the surface of the endothelium non-uniformly in the bovine and human aqueous outflow pathways with a thickness in bovine eyes of 68-122 nm and in human eyes of 52-166 nm (25th to 75th percentiles). The distribution of the glycocalyx in different regions of the outflow pathway is not the same between bovine and human eyes. In both species, the glycocalyx was most uniform in the CCs. Less coverage of glycocalyx was found in the AP than the TM in bovine eyes, while more coverage was found in SC than the TM in human eyes. Most interestingly, glycocalyx was also found filling most pores of the endothelium of AP/SC in both bovine and human eyes. Glycocalyx was usually not found coating the inner membranes of the giant vacuoles (GVs); however, in GVs with a visible pore, glycocalyx was frequently observed on the inner membranes of the GVs. Based on our findings and those from the vascular endothelium, it is likely that the glycocalyx in SC plays a role in transduction of shear stress and perhaps regulation of outflow resistance.

  15. Endothelial Glycocalyx Layer in the Aqueous Outflow Pathway of Bovine and Human Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen-Yuan Charlie; Huynh, Tiffany; Johnson, Mark; Gong, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    The glycocalyx layer on the vascular endothelium is known to have an important role as a transport barrier and in the mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress. The detailed structure and distribution of the glycocalyx in the bovine and human aqueous humor outflow pathways has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this layer exists in the bovine and human aqueous outflow pathways and to compare the distribution and thickness therein. Enucleated bovine (N=4) and human (N=4) eyes were fixed using Alcian Blue to preserve the glycocalyx. The glycocalyx distribution and thickness (in regions where it was seen) were measured on the trabecular beams (TM), Schlemm’s canal (SC)/aqueous plexus (AP), and collector channels (CC). The glycocalyx, which appears as a layer of hair-like brushes, coats the surface of the endothelium non-uniformly in the bovine and human aqueous outflow pathways with a thickness in bovine eyes of 68–122 nm and in human eyes of 52–166 nm (25th to 75th percentiles). The distribution of the glycocalyx in different regions of the outflow pathway is not the same between bovine and human eyes. In both species, the glycocalyx was most uniform in the CCs. Less coverage of glycocalyx was found in the AP than the TM in bovine eyes, while more coverage was found in SC than the TM in human eyes. Most interestingly, glycocalyx was also found filling most pores of the endothelium of AP/SC in both bovine and human eyes. Glycocalyx was usually not found coating the inner membranes of the giant vacuoles (GVs); however, in GVs with a visible pore, glycocalyx was frequently observed on the inner membranes of the GVs. Based on our findings and those from the vascular endothelium, it is likely that the glycocalyx in SC plays a role in transduction of shear stress and perhaps regulation of outflow resistance. PMID:25217864

  16. Humor.

    PubMed

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given.

  17. Modeling glaucoma in rats by sclerosing aqueous outflow pathways to elevate intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, John C.; Cepurna, William O.; Johnson, Elaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline via episcleral veins toward the limbus in laboratory rats can produce elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) by sclerosis of aqueous humor outflow pathways. This article describes important anatomic characteristics of the rat optic nerve head (ONH) that make it an attractive animal model for human glaucoma, along with the anatomy of rat aqueous humor outflow on which this technique is based. The injection technique itself is also described, with the aid of a supplemental movie, including necessary equipment and specific tips to acquire this skill. Outcomes of a successful injection are presented, including IOP elevation and patterns of optic nerve injury. These concepts are then specifically considered in light of the use of this model to assess potential neuroprotective therapies. Advantages of the hypertonic saline model include a delayed and relatively gradual IOP elevation, likely reproduction of scleral and ONH stresses and strains that may be important in producing axonal injury, and its ability to be applied to any rat (and potentially mouse) strain, leaving the unmanipulated fellow eye as an internal control. Challenges include the demanding surgical skill required by the technique itself, a wide range of IOP response, and mild corneal clouding in some animals. However, meticulous application of the principles detailed in this article and practice will allow most researchers to attain this useful skill for studying cellular events of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. PMID:26003399

  18. The Outflow Pathway: A Tissue With Morphological and Functional Unity.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Gandolfi, Stefano; Bagnis, Alessandro; Manni, Gianluca; Damonte, Gianluca; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Izzotti, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    The trabecular meshwork (TM) plays an important role in high-tension glaucomas. Indeed, the TM is a true organ, through which the aqueous humor flows from the anterior chamber to Schlemm's canal (SC). Until recently, the TM, which is constituted by endothelial-like cells, was described as a kind of passive filter. In reality, it is much more. The cells delineating the structures of the collagen framework of the TM are endowed with a cytoskeleton, and are thus able to change their shape. These cells also have the ability to secrete the extracellular matrix, which expresses proteins and cytokines, and are capable of phagocytosis and autophagy. The cytoskeleton is attached to the nuclear membrane and can, in millionths of a second, send signals to the nucleus in order to alter the expression of genes in an attempt to adapt to biomechanical insult. Oxidative stress, as happens in aging, has a deleterious effect on the TM, leading eventually to cell decay, tissue malfunction, subclinical inflammation, changes in the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton, altered motility, reduced outflow facility, and (ultimately) increased IOP. TM failure is the most relevant factor in the cascade of events triggering apoptosis in the inner retinal layers, including ganglion cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1876-1893, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Yeni H; Johnston, Miles G; Ly, Tina; Patel, Manoj; Drake, Brian; Gümüş, Ersin; Fraenkl, Stephan A; Moore, Sara; Tobbia, Dalia; Armstrong, Dianna; Horvath, Eva; Gupta, Neeru

    2009-11-01

    Impaired aqueous humor flow from the eye may lead to elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Drainage of aqueous fluid from the eye occurs through established routes that include conventional outflow via the trabecular meshwork, and an unconventional or uveoscleral outflow pathway involving the ciliary body. Based on the assumption that the eye lacks a lymphatic circulation, the possible role of lymphatics in the less well defined uveoscleral pathway has been largely ignored. Advances in lymphatic research have identified specific lymphatic markers such as podoplanin, a transmembrane mucin-type glycoprotein, and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1). Lymphatic channels were identified in the human ciliary body using immunofluorescence with D2-40 antibody for podoplanin, and LYVE-1 antibody. In keeping with the criteria for lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva used as positive control, D2-40 and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic channels in the ciliary body had a distinct lumen, were negative for blood vessel endothelial cell marker CD34, and were surrounded by either discontinuous or no collagen IV-positive basement membrane. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the presence D2-40-immunoreactivity in lymphatic endothelium in the human ciliary body. Fluorescent nanospheres injected into the anterior chamber of the sheep eye were detected in LYVE-1-positive channels of the ciliary body 15, 30, and 45 min following injection. Four hours following intracameral injection, Iodine-125 radio-labeled human serum albumin injected into the sheep eye (n = 5) was drained preferentially into cervical, retropharyngeal, submandibular and preauricular lymph nodes in the head and neck region compared to reference popliteal lymph nodes (P < 0.05). These findings collectively indicate the presence of distinct lymphatic channels in the human ciliary body, and that fluid and solutes flow at least partially through this system. The discovery of a uveolymphatic

  20. Localized and Controlled Delivery of Nitric Oxide to the Conventional Outflow Pathway via Enzyme Biocatalysis: Toward Therapy for Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chandrawati, Rona; Chang, Jason Y H; Reina-Torres, Ester; Jumeaux, Coline; Sherwood, Joseph M; Stamer, W Daniel; Zelikin, Alexander N; Overby, Darryl R; Stevens, Molly M

    2017-02-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) is able to lower intraocular pressure (IOP); however, its therapeutic effects on outflow physiology are location- and dose-dependent. An NO delivery platform that directly targets the resistance-generating region of the conventional outflow pathway and locally liberates a controlled dose of NO is reported. An increase in outflow facility (decrease in IOP) is demonstrated in a mouse model.

  1. Boar pheromone androstenol may affect the ovarian morphology in cycling gilts by humoral pathway.

    PubMed

    Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Wasowska, B; Jana, B

    2002-01-01

    Up to 1999 it was accepted that pheromones act exclusively by stimulation of dendritic receptors of olfactory neurons massed in the olfactory epithelium, but in 1999-2000, the presence of local humoral pathway for transfer of boar pheromone androstenol from the nasal cavity to the hypophysis and brain was demonstrated in gilts. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether boar pheromone androstenol may affect by humoral pathway the ovarian morphology in gilts. This study demonstrated that intramuscular injections of androstenol in the follicular phase (17-20 day) of the estrous cycle in anosmatic gilts, in which the neural pathway for olfactory function was experimentally blocked, produced lack of the ovulation and changes in the morphology of ovaries. Histological analysis of the ovaries, collected seven days after androstenol injections, revealed the absence of corpora lutea and healthy follicles of a diameter over 6 mm as well as a significant decrease in the number of the follicles up to I mm in diameter (P<0.01). In androstenol-treated gilts, the number of atretic follicles from 1 mm to 6 mm in size was increased (P<0.01-P<0.001) and in one gilt cysts were found. The obtained results provided some evidence that in gilts in addition to acting by standard neural pathway, androstenol as a priming pheromone may affect the ovarian morphology by a humoral pathway.

  2. Transport Pathways for Asian Pollution Outflow Over the Pacific: Interannual and Seasonal Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-01-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission (February-April 2001). The model is used also to place the TRACE-P observations in an interannual (1994-2001) and seasonal context. The major process driving Asian pollution outflow in spring is frontal lifting ahead of southeastward-moving cold fronts (the leading edge of cold surges) and transport in the boundary layer behind the cold fronts. Orographic lifting over central and eastern China combines with the cold fronts to promote the transport of Chinese pollution to the free troposphere. Outflow of seasonal biomass burning in Southeast Asia during spring takes place mostly by deep convection but also by northeastward transport and frontal lifting, mixing with the anthropogenic outflow. Boundary layer outflow over the western Pacific is largely devoid of biomass burning influence. European and African (biomass burning) plumes in Asian outflow during TRACE-P were weak (less than 60 ppbv and 20 ppbv CO, respectively) and were not detectable in the observations because of superposition of the much larger Asian pollution signal. Spring 2001 (La Nina) was characterized by unusually frequent cold surge events in the Asian Pacific rim and strong convection in Southeast Asia, leading to unusually strong boundary layer outflow of anthropogenic emissions and convective outflow of biomass burning emissions in the upper troposphere. The Asian outflow flux of CO to the Pacific is found to vary seasonally by a factor of 3-4 (maximum in March and minimum in summer). The March maximum results from frequent cold surge events and seasonal biomass burning emissions.

  3. Importance of accessory outflow pathways in hydrocephalus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Griebel, R.W.; Black, P.M.; Pile-Spellman, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-02-01

    This study evaluated the changes in pathways of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow that accompanied acute and compensated hydrocephalus in the rabbit. Intraventricularly injected 99mTc antimony sulfide was used as a tracer of outflow pathways, and specified structures were counted 12 to 24 hours after injection. Fifteen rabbits were divided into three groups: 1) an acutely hydrocephalic group in which 3 cisternal injections of blood were followed by a study of CSF pressure, ventricular size, and CSF outflow pathways 1 week after the last injection; 2) a control group treated according to the same protocol, except that sterile saline was injected instead of blood; and 3) a chronic group also treated according to the same protocol but in which the animals were maintained an average of 4 weeks after the last blood injection. Ventricular size was measured by computed digitation and expressed as an area ratio of ventricle to brain (VBR). In control animals, 11.8% of the injected colloid dosage was found in cranial perineural lymphatic channels, and 4.8% appeared in the spinal cord. The mean CSF pressure was 149 +/- 20.2 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and the mean VBR was 0.040 +/- 0.003. In animals evaluated 1 week after subarachnoid injection, accessory cranial perineural lymphatic outflow decreased significantly to 3.4%, and spinal cord activity increased to 9.8% (P less than 0.05, two-tailed t-test). These animals were hydrocephalic and had CSF pressure of 247 +/- 25.1 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and VBR of 0.083 +/- 0.009.

  4. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K; Pott, F; Stok, W J; Karemaker, J M

    2004-01-01

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture and central venous pressure (CVP) on the distribution of cerebral outflow over the internal jugular veins and the vertebral plexus, using a mathematical model. Input to the model was a data set of beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity and CVP measurements in 10 healthy subjects, during baseline rest and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position, but mainly through the vertebral plexus in the upright position. A Valsalva manoeuvre while standing completely re-opened the jugular veins. Results of ultrasound imaging of the right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area at the level of the laryngeal prominence in six healthy subjects, before and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R2 = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway. The internal jugular veins are collapsed in the standing position and blood is shunted to an alternative venous pathway, but a marked increase in CVP while standing completely re-opens the jugular veins. PMID:15284348

  5. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by /sup 3/H-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using /sup 3/H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and /sup 3/H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma.

  6. Distinct Pathways of Humoral and Cellular Immunity Induced with the Mucosal Administration of a Nanoemulsion Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Makidon, Paul E.; Janczak, Katarzyna W.; Blanco, Luz P.; Swanson, Benjamin; Smith, Douglas M.; Pham, Tiffany; Szabo, Zsuzsanna; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F.; Baker, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Nasal administration of an oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant W805EC produces potent systemic and mucosal, Th-1– and Th-17–balanced cellular responses. However, its molecular mechanism of action has not been fully characterized and is of particular interest because NE does not contain specific ligands for innate immune receptors. In these studies, we demonstrate that W805EC NE adjuvant activates innate immunity, induces specific gene transcription, and modulates NF-κB activity via TLR2 and TLR4 by a mechanism that appears to be distinct from typical TLR agonists. Nasal immunization with NE-based vaccine showed that the TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 pathways and IL-12 and IL-12Rβ1 expression are not required for an Ab response, but they are essential for the induction of balanced Th-1 polarization and Th-17 cellular immunity. NE adjuvant induces MHC class II, CD80, and CD86 costimulatory molecule expression and dendritic cell maturation. Further, upon immunization with NE, adjuvant mice deficient in the CD86 receptor had normal Ab responses but significantly reduced Th-1 cellular responses, whereas animals deficient in both CD80 and CD86 or lacking CD40 failed to produce either humoral or cellular immunity. Overall, our data show that intranasal administration of Ag with NE induces TLR2 and TLR4 activation along with a MyD88-independent Ab response and a MyD88-dependent Th-1 and Th-17 cell–mediated immune response. These findings suggest that the unique properties of NE adjuvant may offer novel opportunities for understanding previously unrecognized mechanisms of immune activation important for generating effective mucosal and systemic immune responses. PMID:24532579

  7. The Murine Humoral Immune Response to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Idiotype Network Pathways.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Michael Roy

    Recognition of a wide spectrum in disease outcomes following Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection has led to the suggestion that individual differences may be due to characteristics of the immune response. HBV, a hepatotropic virus, is not directly cytopathic to the host hepatocytes but the cellular damage which does not occur may be due to the host's own immune response. It is this variety in immune response capabilities following natural infection or vaccination which led to the present study in which the murine humoral immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was examined. Following immunization with purified HBsAg an anti-HBs response could be detected in 19 inbred strains of mice. The response, which varied among the strains, was linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Among high responders to HBsAg were two strains in which a poor response to a single epitope could be detected. Although quantitatively serum from these strains resembled serum from other high responders, there was a major difference in the qualitative aspects. Included within this study was the role of idotype networks within the murine anti-HBs response. By directly targeting HBsAg-specific B cells within the framework of an idiotype network by an Ab-2, it was possible to circumvent T cell-dependent regulation of an immune response. In each of five inbred strains of mice immunized with a polyclonal rabbit Ab-2 an Ab-3 population with HBsAg-specificity (Ab -1^') was induced. These mice were also immunized with HBsAg resulting in a higher anti-HBs response as compared to HBsAg immunization alone in all of the strains tested except for one. The response in this strain, normally a low responder to HBsAg, indicated that the mechanisms for genetic restriction of the anti -HBs response was still active, although it was not apparent during anti-Id immunization. The effects of an anti-Id on the murine antibody response to HBsAg may lead to insights on the presence of idiotype

  8. Profiling of Cytokines Secreted by Conventional Aqueous Outflow Pathway Endothelial Cells Activated In Vitro and Ex Vivo With Laser Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Jorge A.; Chau, Phuonglan; Wu, Jianfeng; Juster, Richard; Shifera, Amde Selassie; Geske, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To profile which cytokine genes are differentially expressed (DE) as up- or downregulated by cultured human trabecular meshwork (TMEs) and Schlemm's canal endothelial cells (SCEs) after three experimental treatments consisting of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) irradiation, exposure to media conditioned either by SLT-irradiated TMEs (TME-cm) or by SCEs (SCE-cm). Also, to profile which cytokines are upregulated ex vivo in SLT-irradiated human conventional aqueous outflow pathway (CAOP) tissues. Methods After each treatment, Affymetrix microarray assays were used to detect upregulated and downregulated genes for cytokines and their receptors in TMEs and SCEs. ELISA and protein antibody arrays were used to detect upregulated cytokines secreted in SLT-irradiated CAOP tissues ex vivo. Results The SLT irradiation upregulated numerous cytokine genes in TMEs, but only a few in SCEs. Exposure to TME- and SCE-cm induced SCEs to upregulate many more cytokine genes than TMEs. Selective laser trabeculoplasty irradiation and exposure to TME-cm downregulated several cytokine genes in TMEs but none in SCEs. Selective laser trabeculoplasty irradiation induced one upregulated and three downregulated cytokine-receptor genes in TMEs but none in SCEs. Exposure to TME-cm induced upregulation of one and downregulation of another receptor gene in TMEs, whereas two unique cytokine-receptor genes were upregulated in SCEs. Cytokine protein expression analysis showed that at least eight cytokines were upregulated in SLT-irradiated human CAOP tissues in situ/ex vivo. Conclusions This study has helped us identify a cytokine signaling pathway and to consider newly identified mechanisms regulating aqueous outflow that may lay the foundation for the future development of cytokine-based glaucoma therapies. PMID:26529044

  9. Relationships between increased aqueous outflow facility during washout with the changes in hydrodynamic pattern and morphology in bovine aqueous outflow pathways.

    PubMed

    Scott, Patrick A; Lu, Zhaozeng; Liu, Ye; Gong, Haiyan

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that the structural correlate for the increased outflow facility (C) during washout in the bovine eye is separation between the inner wall (IW) and underlying juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT). However, how these structural changes affect hydrodynamic patterns of outflow during washout has not been studied. We hypothesize that an increase in the outflow facility during washout is associated with an increase in the effective filtration area (EFA) of aqueous outflow, which is regulated by a loss of the connectivity between the IW and JCT. To test this hypothesis, the relationship between C and the hydrodynamic patterns of outflow as well as the morphological changes in JCT and IW during the washout were investigated. Ten bovine eyes were perfused at 15 mmHg with Dulbecco's PBS + 5.5 mM glucose (DPBS) for 30 min to establish stable baseline C. After measuring baseline C, five eyes (short-duration group) were perfused with 0.5 mL DPBS containing 0.002% microspheres (0.5 microm) to trace the hydrodynamic pattern of outflow. Five other eyes (long-duration group) were perfused for 3 h to elicit a significant washout effect followed by subsequent perfusion of the same volume (0.5 mL) of microspheres to map out the outflow pattern after washout. All eyes were then perfusion-fixed. Anterior segments were sectioned and prepared for confocal and light microscopy. Total length (TL) and filtration length (FL) of the IW were measured in > or =15 images/eye to calculate percent effective filtration length (PEFL = FL/TL) while TL and length exhibiting JCT/IW separation (SL) were measured in > or =13 images/eye to calculate percent separation length (PSL = SL/TL). In long-duration eyes, C increased 170.5 +/- 21.3% (mean +/- SEM, 1.55 +/- 0.24 vs 4.13 +/- 0.55 microl/min/mmHg, p = 0.001) above baseline. Pre-fixation C (4.13 +/- 0.55 microl/min/mmHg) in long-duration was 1.6-fold greater than that (2.14 +/- 0.61 microl/min/mmHg; p = 0.042) in short

  10. The Changing Paradigm of Outflow Resistance Generation: Towards Synergistic Models of the JCT and Inner Wall Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Darryl R.; Stamer, W. Daniel; Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous humor outflow resistance is the primary determinant of intraocular pressure (IOP), and increased outflow resistance is the basis for elevated IOP associated with glaucoma. Experimental evidence suggests that the bulk of outflow resistance is generated in the vicinity of the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm’s canal, its basement membrane and the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT). However, attempts to sort out the contribution of each of these tissues to total outflow resistance have not been successful. Conventional understanding of outflow resistance assumes that the resistance of each tissue strata (i.e., the inner wall endothelium, its basement membrane and JCT) in the outflow pathway adds in series to contribute to total outflow resistance generation. However, this perspective leads to a paradox where the apparent resistances of all tissues in the outflow pathway are much lower than the measured total resistance. To resolve this paradox, we explore synergistic models of outflow resistance generation where hydrodynamic interactions between different tissue strata lead to a total resistance that is greater than the sum of the individual tissue resistances. We closely examine the “funneling” hypothesis that has emerged as a leading synergistic model, and we review the basis of funneling, mechanical and biological requirements for funneling and evidence in support of this hypothesis. We also propose refinements to the funneling model and describe how funneling may relate to segmental variability of aqueous humor outflow patterns observed within the trabecular meshwork. Pressure gradients across the JCT and inner wall endothelium will generate mechanical loads that influence the morphology of these tissues. Because tissue morphology may in turn affect outflow resistance, there exists the potential for a two-way coupling or a “fluid-solid interaction” between outflow hydrodynamics and the mechanical behavior of the inner wall and JCT

  11. Humoral pathway for transfer of the boar pheromone, androstenol, from the nasal mucosa to the brain and hypophysis of gilts.

    PubMed

    Krzymowski, T; Grzegorzewski, W; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Skipor, J; Wasowska, B

    1999-11-01

    Signaling and priming pheromones play an important role in intraspecies behavioral and sexual interactions and in the control of reproduction. It is generally accepted that pheromones act by stimulating the dendritic receptors in the mucus-imbedded cilia of olfactory neurons massed in the olfactory epithelium. The boar pheromone androstenol, known to induce sexual behavior in pigs, is 1 of 2 pheromones that have been chemically defined, tritiated and thus made available for use in studies. In Experiment 1, sexually mature cyclic gilts at Days 16 to 21 of the estrous cycle were humanely killed and the heads separated from the bodies. The heads were attached to a perfusion system using heated, oxygenated, heparinized, autologous blood. A total amount of 10(8) dpm (758 ng) of 3H-5 alpha-androstenol (3HA) was either infused into the angularis oculi veins that drain the nasal cavities (n = 7) over a 5-min period or applied through intranasal catheters onto the mucose surface (n = 16) for 2 min. In both groups frequent blood samples were collected from the carotid rete and from venous effluent. Concentration of 3HA in the arterial blood of the carotid rete after direct (into angularis oculi veins) or indirect (onto the nasal mucosa) administration of 3HA into veins draining the nasal cavities was significantly higher than background radioactivity before 3HA administration (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). The 3HA was selectively accumulated (compared with the respective control tissue) in the neurohypophysis (P < 0.001), adenohypophysis (P < 0.01), ventromedial hypothalamus (P < 0.05), corpus mammillare (P < 0.01), and perihypophyseal vascular complex (P < 0.001). In a second in vitro experiment, active uptake of 3HA into the nasal mucosa of the proximal, respiratory segment of the nasal cavity was observed. These results demonstrate a humoral pathway for the transfer of pheromones from the nasal cavity to the hypophysis and brain. Androstenol was taken up by the

  12. Role of nitric oxide in murine conventional outflow physiology

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jason Y. H.; Stamer, W. Daniel; Bertrand, Jacques; Read, A. Thomas; Marando, Catherine M.; Ethier, C. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for glaucoma. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) decreases IOP by increasing outflow facility, but whether endogenous NO production contributes to the physiological regulation of outflow facility is unclear. Outflow facility was measured by pressure-controlled perfusion in ex vivo eyes from C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) or transgenic mice expressing human endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) superimposed on the endogenously expressed murine eNOS (eNOS-GFPtg). In WT mice, exogenous NO delivered by 100 μM S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) increased outflow facility by 62 ± 28% (SD) relative to control eyes perfused with the inactive SNAP analog N-acetyl-d-penicillamine (NAP; n = 5, P = 0.016). In contrast, in eyes from eNOS-GFPtg mice, SNAP had no effect on outflow facility relative to NAP (−9 ± 4%, P = 0.40). In WT mice, the nonselective NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10 μM) decreased outflow facility by 36 ± 13% (n = 5 each, P = 0.012), but 100 μM l-NAME had no detectable effect on outflow facility (−16 ± 5%, P = 0.22). An eNOS-selective inhibitor (cavtratin, 50 μM) decreased outflow facility by 19 ± 12% in WT (P = 0.011) and 39 ± 25% in eNOS-GFPtg (P = 0.014) mice. In the conventional outflow pathway of eNOS-GFPtg mice, eNOS-GFP expression was localized to endothelial cells lining Schlemm's canal and the downstream vessels, with no apparent expression in the trabecular meshwork. These results suggest that endogenous NO production by eNOS within endothelial cells of Schlemm's canal or downstream vessels contributes to the physiological regulation of aqueous humor outflow facility in mice, representing a viable strategy to more successfully lower IOP in glaucoma. PMID:26040898

  13. Protostellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John

    2016-09-01

    Outflows from accreting, rotating, and magnetized systems are ubiquitous. Protostellar outflows can be observed from radio to X-ray wavelengths in the continuum and a multitude of spectral lines that probe a wide range of physical conditions, chemical phases, radial velocities, and proper motions. Wide-field visual and near-IR data, mid-IR observations from space, and aperture synthesis with centimeter- and millimeterwave interferometers are revolutionizing outflow studies. Many outflows originate in multiple systems and clusters. Although most flows are bipolar and some contain highly collimated jets, others are wide-angle winds, and a few are nearly isotropic and exhibit explosive behavior. Morphologies and velocity fields indicate variations in ejection velocity, mass-loss rate, and in some cases, flow orientation and degree of collimation. These trends indicate that stellar accretion is episodic and often occurs in a complex dynamical environment. Outflow power increases with source luminosity but decreases with evolutionary stage. The youngest outflows are small and best traced by molecules such as CO, SiO, H2O, and H2. Older outflows can grow to parsec scales and are best traced by shock-excited atoms and ions such as hydrogen-recombination lines, [Sii], and [Oii]. Outflows inject momentum and energy into their surroundings and provide an important mechanism in the self-regulation of star formation. However, momentum injection rates remain uncertain with estimates providing lower bounds.

  14. Correction to "Asian chemical Outflow to the Pacific in Spring: Origins, Pathways, and Budgets" by Isabelle Bey et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Isabelle; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the Asian outflow of CO, ozone, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the Pacific in spring by using the GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and simulating the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) aircraft mission in February-March 1994. The GEOS-CHEM model uses assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). It reproduces relatively well the main features of tropospheric ozone, CO, and reactive nitrogen species observed in PEM-West B, including latitudinal and vertical gradients of the Asian pollution outflow over the western Pacific although simulated concentrations of CO tend to be too low (possibly because biogenic sources are underestimated). We use CO as a long-lived tracer to diagnose the processes contributing to the outflow. The highest concentrations in the outflow are in the boundary layer (0-2 km), but the strongest outflow fluxes are in the lower free troposphere (2-5 km) and reflect episodic lifting of pollution over central and eastern China ahead of eastward moving cold fronts. This frontal lifting, followed by westerly transport in the lower free troposphere, is the principal process responsible for export of both anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution from Asia. Anthropogenic emissions from Europe and biomass burning emissions from Africa make also major contributions to the Asian outflow over the western Pacific; European sources dominate in the lower troposphere north of 40 degrees N, while African sources are important in the upper troposphere at low latitudes. For the period of PEM-West B (February-March) we estimate that fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning make comparable contributions to the budgets of CO, ozone, and NO, in the Asian outflow. We find that 13% of NO, emitted in Asia is exported as NO, or PAN, a smaller fraction than for the United States because of higher aerosol concentrations that promote heterogeneous conversion of NOx to HNO3

  15. Aqueous outflow: Segmental and distal flow

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Swarup S.; Oh, Dong-Jin; Kang, Min Hyung; Rhee, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A prominent risk factor of primary open-angle glaucoma is ocular hypertension, a pathologic state caused by impaired outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork within the iridocorneal angle. The juxtacanalicular region of the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of Schlemm canal have been identified as the main contributors to aqueous outflow resistance, and both extracellular matrix within the trabecular meshwork and trabecular meshwork cell shape have been shown to affect outflow. Overexpression of multiple ECM proteins in perfused cadaveric human eyes has led to increased outflow resistance and elevated IOP. Pharmacologic agents targeting trabecular meshwork cytoskeletal arrangements have been developed after multiple studies demonstrated the importance of cell shape on outflow. Several groups have shown that aqueous outflow occurs only at certain segments of the trabecular meshwork circumferentially, a concept known as segmental flow. This is based on the theory that aqueous outflow is dependent on the presence of discrete pores within the Schlemm canal. Segmental flow has been described in the eyes of multiple species, including primate, bovine, mouse, and human samples. While the trabecular meshwork appears to be the major source of resistance, trabecular meshwork bypass procedures have been unable to achieve the degree of IOP reduction observed with trabeculectomy, reflecting the potential impact of distal flow, or flow through Schlemm canal and collector channels, on outflow. Multiple studies have demonstrated that outflow occurs preferentially near collector channels, suggesting that these distal structures may be more important to aqueous outflow than previously believed. PMID:25088623

  16. Wholemount imaging reveals abnormalities of the aqueous outflow pathway and corneal vascularity in Foxc1 and Bmp4 heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Kidson, Susan H

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the FOXC1/Foxc1 gene in humans and mice and Bmp4 in mice are associated with congenital anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) and the development of the aqueous outflow structures throughout the limbus. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of anterior segment abnormalities in mouse models of ASD using a 3-D imaging approach. Holistic imaging information combined with quantitative measurements were carried out on PECAM-1 stained individual components of the aqueous outflow vessels and corneal vasculature of Foxc1(+/-) on the C57BL/6Jx129 and ICR backgrounds, Bmp4(+/-) ICR mice, and wildtype mice from each background. In both wildtype and heterozygotes, singular, bifurcated and plexus forms of Schlemm's canal were noted. Of note, missing portions of the canal were seen in the heterozygous groups but not in wildtype animals. In general, we found the number of collector channels to be reduced in both heterozygotes. Lastly, we found a significant increase in the complexity of the corneal arcades and their penetration into the cornea in heterozygotes as compared with wild types. In conclusion, our 3-D imaging studies have revealed a more complex arrangement of both the aqueous vessels and corneal arcades in Foxc1(+/-) and Bmp4(+/-) heterozygotes, and further advance our understanding of how such abnormalities could impact on IOP and the aetiology of glaucoma.

  17. Murine Dishevelled 3 Functions in Redundant Pathways with Dishevelled 1 and 2 in Normal Cardiac Outflow Tract, Cochlea, and Neural Tube Development

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, S. Leah; Ray, Saugata; Li, Shuangding; Hamblet, Natasha S.; Lijam, Nardos; Tsang, Michael; Greer, Joy; Kardos, Natalie; Wang, Jianbo; Sussman, Daniel J.; Chen, Ping; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins are important signaling components of both the canonical β-catenin/Wnt pathway, which controls cell proliferation and patterning, and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which coordinates cell polarity within a sheet of cells and also directs convergent extension cell (CE) movements that produce narrowing and elongation of the tissue. Three mammalian Dvl genes have been identified and the developmental roles of Dvl1 and Dvl2 were previously determined. Here, we identify the functions of Dvl3 in development and provide evidence of functional redundancy among the three murine Dvls. Dvl3 −/− mice died perinatally with cardiac outflow tract abnormalities, including double outlet right ventricle and persistent truncus arteriosis. These mutants also displayed a misorientated stereocilia in the organ of Corti, a phenotype that was enhanced with the additional loss of a single allele of the PCP component Vangl2/Ltap (LtapLp/+). Although neurulation appeared normal in both Dvl3 −/− and LtapLp/+ mutants, Dvl3 +/−;LtapLp/+ combined mutants displayed incomplete neural tube closure. Importantly, we show that many of the roles of Dvl3 are also shared by Dvl1 and Dvl2. More severe phenotypes were observed in Dvl3 mutants with the deficiency of another Dvl, and increasing Dvl dosage genetically with Dvl transgenes demonstrated the ability of Dvls to compensate for each other to enable normal development. Interestingly, global canonical Wnt signaling appeared largely unaffected in the double Dvl mutants, suggesting that low Dvl levels are sufficient for functional canonical Wnt signals. In summary, we demonstrate that Dvl3 is required for cardiac outflow tract development and describe its importance in the PCP pathway during neurulation and cochlea development. Finally, we establish several developmental processes in which the three Dvls are functionally redundant. PMID:19008950

  18. Pharmacology of novel intraocular pressure-lowering targets that enhance conventional outflow facility: Pitfalls, promises and what lies ahead?

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Ganesh; Li, Byron; Mogi, Muneto; Rice, Dennis S

    2016-09-15

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering drugs that are approved for the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension have limited activity on increasing aqueous humor movement through the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal (TM/SC). The TM/SC complex is considered the conventional outflow pathway and is a primary site of increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow in glaucoma. Novel mechanisms that enhance conventional outflow have shown promise in IOP reduction via modulation of several pathways including Rho kinase, nitric oxide/soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP, adenosine A1, prostaglandin EP4/cAMP, and potassium channels. The clinical translatability of these pharmacological modulators based on pre-clinical efficacy models is currently being explored. In addition, identification of pathways from GWAS and other studies involving transgenic rodent models with elevated/reduced IOP phenotypes have begun to yield additional insights into IOP regulation and serve as a source for the next generation of IOP lowering targets. Lastly, improvements in drug delivery technologies to enable sustained IOP reduction are also discussed.

  19. American Humor. [Course Syllabus].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, David E. E.

    This syllabus describes a three-credit course entitled "American Humor," offered at the University of New Haven (Connecticut). According to the syllabus, "American Humor" will identify traits of American humor as historical phenomena with relations to national character, business attitudes, regionalism, folk humor, and health;…

  20. Inhibitory Humoral Responses to the Plasmodium falciparum Vaccine Candidate EBA-175 Are Independent of the Erythrocyte Invasion Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Badiane, Aida S.; Bei, Amy K.; Ahouidi, Ambroise D.; Patel, Saurabh D.; Salinas, Nichole; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndir, Omar; Tolia, Niraj H.; Mboup, Souleymane

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum utilizes multiple ligand-receptor interactions for invasion. The invasion ligand EBA-175 is being developed as a major blood-stage vaccine candidate. EBA-175 mediates parasite invasion of host erythrocytes in a sialic acid-dependent manner through its binding to the erythrocyte receptor glycophorin A. In this study, we addressed the ability of naturally acquired human antibodies against the EBA-175 RII erythrocyte-binding domain to inhibit parasite invasion of ex vivo isolates, in relationship to the sialic acid dependence of these parasites. We have determined the presence of antibodies to the EBA-175 RII domain by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in individuals from areas of Senegal where malaria is endemic with high and low transmission. Using affinity-purified human antibodies to the EBA-175 RII domain from pooled patient plasma, we have measured the invasion pathway as well as the invasion inhibition of clinical isolates from Senegalese patients in ex vivo assays. Our results suggest that naturally acquired anti-EBA-175 RII antibodies significantly inhibit invasion of Senegalese parasites and that these responses can be significantly enhanced through limiting other ligand-receptor interactions. However, the extent of this functional inhibition by EBA-175 antibodies is not associated with the sialic acid dependence of the parasite strain, suggesting that erythrocyte invasion pathway usage by parasite strains is not driven by antibodies targeting the EBA-175/glycophorin A interaction. This work has implications for vaccine design based on the RII domain of EBA-175 in the context of alternative invasion pathways. PMID:23761656

  1. Inhibitory humoral responses to the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate EBA-175 are independent of the erythrocyte invasion pathway.

    PubMed

    Badiane, Aida S; Bei, Amy K; Ahouidi, Ambroise D; Patel, Saurabh D; Salinas, Nichole; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndir, Omar; Tolia, Niraj H; Mboup, Souleymane; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2013-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum utilizes multiple ligand-receptor interactions for invasion. The invasion ligand EBA-175 is being developed as a major blood-stage vaccine candidate. EBA-175 mediates parasite invasion of host erythrocytes in a sialic acid-dependent manner through its binding to the erythrocyte receptor glycophorin A. In this study, we addressed the ability of naturally acquired human antibodies against the EBA-175 RII erythrocyte-binding domain to inhibit parasite invasion of ex vivo isolates, in relationship to the sialic acid dependence of these parasites. We have determined the presence of antibodies to the EBA-175 RII domain by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in individuals from areas of Senegal where malaria is endemic with high and low transmission. Using affinity-purified human antibodies to the EBA-175 RII domain from pooled patient plasma, we have measured the invasion pathway as well as the invasion inhibition of clinical isolates from Senegalese patients in ex vivo assays. Our results suggest that naturally acquired anti-EBA-175 RII antibodies significantly inhibit invasion of Senegalese parasites and that these responses can be significantly enhanced through limiting other ligand-receptor interactions. However, the extent of this functional inhibition by EBA-175 antibodies is not associated with the sialic acid dependence of the parasite strain, suggesting that erythrocyte invasion pathway usage by parasite strains is not driven by antibodies targeting the EBA-175/glycophorin A interaction. This work has implications for vaccine design based on the RII domain of EBA-175 in the context of alternative invasion pathways.

  2. TRPV4 regulates calcium homeostasis, cytoskeletal remodeling, conventional outflow and intraocular pressure in the mammalian eye

    PubMed Central

    Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Frye, Amber M.; Phuong, Tam T. T.; Yarishkin, Oleg; Jo, Andrew O.; Xu, Yong; Lakk, Monika; Iuso, Anthony; Redmon, Sarah N.; Ambati, Balamurali; Hageman, Gregory; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Torrejon, Karen Y.; Križaj, David

    2016-01-01

    An intractable challenge in glaucoma treatment has been to identify druggable targets within the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway, which is thought to be regulated/dysregulated by elusive mechanosensitive protein(s). Here, biochemical and functional analyses localized the putative mechanosensitive cation channel TRPV4 to the plasma membrane of primary and immortalized human TM (hTM) cells, and to human and mouse TM tissue. Selective TRPV4 agonists and substrate stretch evoked TRPV4-dependent cation/Ca2+ influx, thickening of F-actin stress fibers and reinforcement of focal adhesion contacts. TRPV4 inhibition enhanced the outflow facility and lowered perfusate pressure in biomimetic TM scaffolds populated with primary hTM cells. Systemic delivery, intraocular injection or topical application of putative TRPV4 antagonist prodrug analogs lowered IOP in glaucomatous mouse eyes and protected retinal neurons from IOP-induced death. Together, these findings indicate that TRPV4 channels function as a critical component of mechanosensitive, Ca2+-signaling machinery within the TM, and that TRPV4-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling regulates TM stiffness and outflow. Thus, TRPV4 is a potential IOP sensor within the conventional outflow pathway and a novel target for treating ocular hypertension. PMID:27510430

  3. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma.

  4. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  5. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  6. Humor. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)

  7. Humor in medicine.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  8. Humor's healing potential.

    PubMed

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  9. Humor and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  10. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  11. Sense of Humor Preferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2007-01-01

    Humor is a powerful tool. It can disarm an adversary. It can leaven the purposefully self-aggrandizing nature of a job interview. Perhaps most important, it can serve as a window to personality in the same way that a resume is a window to experience. In this article, the author emphasizes the value of having a sense of humor. He emphasizes that it…

  12. Memory for humorous cartoons.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S R; Williams, A R

    2001-03-01

    Incidental memory for three types of cartoons was compared: original cartoons, literal translations of the originals, and weird cartoons created by inserting incongruous material into the literal translations. In Experiment 1, the three types of cartoons were mixed together in lists. In Experiment 2, each list contained only two cartoon types. In both experiments, original cartoons were remembered better than the literal and the weird cartoons, whereas the literal and the weird cartoons were equally well remembered. The detection of incongruities, or attempts to resolve those incongruities, cannot adequately explain the observed humor effects. The results were also inconsistent with both rehearsal and distinctiveness interpretations. Rather, humor per se appears to support good memory performance. Perhaps participants elaborated or gave sustained attention to humorous material at the expense of less humorous material.

  13. The Humor in Horror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  14. Humor and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  15. The origin of humor.

    PubMed

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  16. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  17. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  18. Humor Competence: The Fifth Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Gladys M.

    The production and understanding of humor calls for a specific competence. It appears that second language learners fail to develop this competence even when they reach native-like proficiency levels. A review of the literature suggests that the notion of humor competence in second language learning has not been examined. Humor competence can be…

  19. Using Humor in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  20. Humor as a teaching strategy.

    PubMed

    Parrott, T E

    1994-01-01

    Nurse educators often look for alternate teaching strategies to increase students' attention, comprehension, motivation, and retention of content. Frequently, the use of humor has been shown qualitatively to be such a strategy. The author gives some of the theoretical basis for the use of humor in education and some examples of how humor has been used in her own teaching.

  1. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  2. "Tickle Your Storybone": Humorous Storytelling!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klor, Ellin

    1991-01-01

    Describes methods to use for successful humorous storytelling. Guidelines for story selection, preparation, and presentation are discussed in relation to various age groups from preschoolers through adolescents; types of humor are described; appropriate humorous stories and collections are suggested; and methods for learning a new story are…

  3. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  4. On Humorous Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menair, Marion Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the patterns and uses of transgressive humor and sexual talk that male traders from Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) indulge in when at their leisure from trading. I investigate how cultural conceptualizations or ideologies are brought into the present moment through discursive interaction and how the cultural signs…

  5. The Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator IWP-953 Increases Conventional Outflow Facility in Mouse Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Pei; Navarro, Iris D.; Kessler, Marco M.; Bernier, Sylvie G.; Perl, Nicholas R.; Sarno, Renee; Masferrer, Jaime; Hannig, Gerhard; Stamer, W. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The nitric oxide (NO)–cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway regulates aqueous humor outflow and therefore, intraocular pressure. We investigated the pharmacologic effects of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator IWP-953 on primary human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells and conventional outflow facility in mouse eyes. Methods Cyclic GMP levels were determined in vitro in HEK-293 cells and four HTM cell strains (HTM120/HTM123: predominantly myofibroblast-like phenotype, HTM130/HTM141: predominantly endothelial-like phenotype), and in HTM cell culture supernatants. Conventional outflow facility was measured following intracameral injection of IWP-953 or DETA-NO using a computerized pressure-controlled perfusion system in enucleated mouse eyes ex vivo. Results IWP-953 markedly stimulated cGMP production in HEK-293 cells in the presence and absence of DETA-NO (half maximal effective concentrations: 17 nM, 9.5 μM). Similarly, IWP-953 stimulated cGMP production in myofibroblast-like HTM120 and HTM123 cells, an effect that was greatly amplified by the presence of DETA-NO. In contrast, IWP-953 stimulation of cGMP production in endothelial-like HTM130 and HTM141 cells was observed, but was markedly less prominent than in HTM120 and HTM123 cells. Notably, cGMP was found in all HTM culture supernatants, following IWP-953/DETA-NO stimulation. In paired enucleated mouse eyes, IWP-953 at 10, 30, 60, and 100 μM concentration-dependently increased outflow facility. This effect (89.5%) was maximal at 100 μM (P = 0.002) and in magnitude comparable to DETA-NO at 100 μM (97.5% increase, P = 0.030). Conclusions These data indicate that IWP-953, via modulation of the sGC–cGMP pathway, increases aqueous outflow facility in mouse eyes, suggesting therapeutic potential for sGC stimulators as novel ocular hypotensive drugs. PMID:26998718

  6. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  7. Directly Driven Ion Outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Moore, T. E.; Russell, C. T.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We examine ionospheric outflows in the high altitude magnetospheric polar cap during the POLAR satellite's apogee on April 19, 1996 using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) instrument. The elevated levels of O(+) observed in this pass may be due to the geophysical conditions during and prior to the apogee pass. In addition to the high abundance of O(+) relative to H(+), several other aspects of this data are noteworthy. We observe relationships between the density, velocity, and temperature which appear to be associated with perpendicular heating and the mirror force, rather than adiabatic expansion. The H(+) outflow is at a fairly constant flux which is consistent with being source limited by charge exchange at lower altitudes. Local centrifugal acceleration in the polar cap is found to be insufficient to account for the main variations we observe in the outflow velocity. The solar wind speed is high during this pass approximately 700 kilometers per second, and there are Alfve'n waves present in the solar wind such that the solar wind speed and IMF Bx are correlated. In this pass both the H(+) and O(+) outflow velocities correlate with both the solar wind speed and IMF fluctuations. Polar cap magnetometer and Hydra electron data show the same long period wave structure as found in the solar wind and polar cap ion outflow. In addition, the polar cap Poynting flux along the magnetic field direction correlates well with the H(+) temperature (R=0.84). We conclude that the solar wind can drive polar cap ion outflow particularly during polar squalls by setting up a parallel drop that is tens of eV which then causes the ion outflow velocity of O(+) and H(+), the electrons, and magnetic perturbations to vary in a similar fashion.

  8. Humoral pathway for local transfer of the priming pheromone androstenol from the nasal cavity to the brain and hypophysis in anaesthetized gilts.

    PubMed

    Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Krzymowski, T; Grzegorzewski, W; W sowska, B; Skipor, J

    2000-11-01

    from the nasal cavity into the venous blood. Moreover, we found that 3H-A was present in the olfactory bulb (P <0.01), amygdala, septum, hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis (P > 0.05) and perihypophyseal vascular complex (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that, in anaesthetized gilts, the boar pheromone androstenol may be resorbed from the nasal mucosa, transferred in the perihypophyseal vascular complex into arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis, and then arrested in the hypophysis and certain brain structures. We suggest that in addition to the standard neural pathway for signalling pheromones, another pathway exists whereby androstenol, as a priming pheromone, may be resorbed from the nasal cavity into the bloodstream and then pass locally from the perihypophyseal vascular complex into the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis, thus avoiding the first passage metabolism in the liver.

  9. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  10. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The aqueous humor (AH) is the fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. Its main roles are to provide nourishment and metabolic waste removal to active metabolic ocular structures that are avascular and to contribute maintaining a normal intraocular pressure (IOP) without altering the refractive status of the eye. Its composition and the fluid dynamics associated with its flow are voluble and undergo changes associated with age and disease. Of particular importance is that the resistance to the outflow of AH from the anterior chamber is influenced by morphologic, physiologic, and biochemical dynamic factors.1 Beside aqueous nutritional importance, its solutes also participate in establishing the anterior chamber associate immune deviation, and carry and distribute the different proteins and molecules that promote and direct tissue remodeling and changes in the anterior segment that are associated with both age and disease. PMID:26337760

  11. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  12. VEGF as a Paracrine Regulator of Conventional Outflow Facility

    PubMed Central

    Reina-Torres, Ester; Wen, Joanne C.; Liu, Katy C.; Li, Guorong; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Chang, Jason Y. H.; Challa, Pratap; Flügel-Koch, Cassandra M.; Stamer, W. Daniel; Allingham, R. Rand; Overby, Darryl R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates microvascular endothelial permeability, and the permeability of Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelium influences conventional aqueous humor outflow. We hypothesize that VEGF signaling regulates outflow facility. Methods We measured outflow facility (C) in enucleated mouse eyes perfused with VEGF-A164a, VEGF-A165b, VEGF-D, or inhibitors to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). We monitored VEGF-A secretion from human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells by ELISA after 24 hours of static culture or cyclic stretch. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to localize VEGF-A protein within the TM of mice. Results VEGF-A164a increased C in enucleated mouse eyes. Cyclic stretch increased VEGF-A secretion by human TM cells, which corresponded to VEGF-A localization in the TM of mice. Blockade of VEGFR-2 decreased C, using either of the inhibitors SU5416 or Ki8751 or the inactive splice variant VEGF-A165b. VEGF-D increased C, which could be blocked by Ki8751. Conclusions VEGF is a paracrine regulator of conventional outflow facility that is secreted by TM cells in response to mechanical stress. VEGF affects facility via VEGFR-2 likely at the level of SC endothelium. Disruption of VEGF signaling in the TM may explain why anti-VEGF therapy is associated with decreased outflow facility and sustained ocular hypertension. PMID:28358962

  13. Some Humor in the Bible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehlk, Heinz D.

    The Bible contains a variety of literary genres including drama, tragedy, and epic poetry, and it is an excellent basis for character study. It also contains a certain amount of humor, which should not be overlooked by students of biblical literature. Examples of intentional humor include the second version of the creation, found in the second…

  14. The Scoop on Good Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends teaching about the uses of humor in technical writing classes by using computer user manuals. Suggests that humor has a place in technical communication, particularly in computer manuals, where new users' apprehension must be reduced, heavy technical points need clarification, and warnings and cautions should be reinforced. (SKC)

  15. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  16. Aqueous humor changes after experimental filtering surgery.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J; Claflin, A; Fiorentino, G

    1980-02-01

    We studied aqueous humor of rhesus and owl monkeys for its effect on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture. Aqueous humor samples obtained before glaucoma surgery inhibited the initiation of growth of fibroblasts. However, postoperative aqueous humor samples supported growth of fibroblasts. The change in aqueous humor physiology lasted for up to two months after glaucoma surgery. Our study indicated that possibly material added to the postoperative aqueous humor inactivates an inhibitor normally present in primary aqueous humor. An alternative explanation would be that primary aqueous humor, in contrast to secondary aqueous humor, lacks sufficient nutrient material to support fibroblast growth in tissue culture.

  17. METALLICITY AND QUASAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Yuan, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Correlations of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the C IV line, with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, are investigated. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to C IV increase prominently with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of the dominant coolant, C IV line, decreases, and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using Si IV+O IV]/C IV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicity and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7-6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely by affecting outflow acceleration. This effect may have a profound impact on galaxy evolution via momentum feedback and chemical enrichment.

  18. GALAXY OUTFLOWS WITHOUT SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Sur, Sharanya; Scannapieco, Evan; Ostriker, Eve C. E-mail: sharanya.sur@asu.edu

    2016-02-10

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have ≈50–100 km s{sup −1} line of sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds ≈35 km s{sup −1}, as occurs in the dense disks that have star-formation rate (SFR) densities above ≈0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These outflows are triggered by a thermal runaway, arising from the inefficient cooling of hot material coupled with successive heating from turbulent driving. Thus, even in the absence of stellar feedback, a critical value of the SFR density for outflow generation can arise due to a turbulent heating instability. This suggests that in strongly self-gravitating disks, outflows may be enhanced by, but need not caused by, energy input from supernovae.

  19. Not Just a Humor"ous" Text: Humor "as" Text in the Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The use of humorous texts in the writing class can help students improve skills in effective writing while encouraging critical thinking and an increased range in expression. In addition, because of the accessible nature of humor and the focus on purpose and audience that is necessary when writing it, students show a natural inclination toward…

  20. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  1. Aquaporin-1 Expression and Conventional Aqueous Outflow in Human Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Stamer, W. Daniel; Chan, Darren W.H.; Conley, Shannon M.; Coons, Serena; Ethier, C. Ross

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin channels facilitate the enhanced permeability of secretory and absorptive tissues to water. In the conventional drainage tract, aquaporin-1 is expressed but its contribution to outflow facility is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of elevated aquaporin-1 expression by cells of the human conventional drainage pathway on outflow facility. Using thirteen pairs of human anterior segments in organ culture, we modified aquaporin-1 protein expression in outflow cells using adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1. Contralateral anterior segments served as controls and were transduced with adenovirus encoding beta galactosidase. By confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed that inner trabecular meshwork cells from anterior segments exposed to adenovirus (via injection into the inlet tubing during perfusion) had increased aquaporin-1 protein expression compared to endogenous levels. In contrast, elevation of aquaporin-1 protein in outer meshwork cells (juxtacanalicular region) and Schlemm’s canal required transduction of adenovirus into anterior segments using retroperfusion via episcleral veins. Regardless of exposure route, outflow facility of experimental segments was not different than control. Specifically, overexpression of aquaporin-1 in the inner meshwork resulted in an average facility change of −2.0 ± 9.2 %, while overexpression of aquaporin-1 in the resistance-generating region changed outflow facility by −3.2 ± 11.2 %. Taken together, these results indicate that a transcellular pathway, mediated by aquaporin-1, does not contribute significantly to bulk outflow through the conventional aqueous outflow tract of human eyes. PMID:18657536

  2. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  3. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  4. Chryse Outflow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by a chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a complex of connected channel floors and chaotic terrain and extend as far south as and connect to eastern Valles Marineris. Ares Vallis originates from discontinuous patches of chaotic terrain within large craters. In the Chryse basin the Ares channel forks; one branch continues northwest into central Chryse Planitia (Latin for plain) and the other extends north into eastern Chryse Planitia.

  5. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  6. AQUEOUS HUMOR DYNAMICS IN MONKEYS IN RESPONSE TO THE KAPPA OPIOID AGONIST BREMAZOCINE

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Gabelt, B’Ann True; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of the kappa opioid agonist, bremazocine (BRE), on intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humor dynamics in normotensive cynomolgus monkeys. Methods IOP, pupil diameter, refraction, aqueous humor flow, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured following unilateral topical application of 1 to 100 μg BRE. IOP and MAP responses to 100 μg BRE were repeated during intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (ATII). IOP and MAP responses to BRE were also measured following pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonists norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or naloxone. Outflow facility was measured following unilateral intracameral exchange with 0.01 to 100 μg/mL BRE. IOP, aqueous humor flow, pupil, and MAP were measured after unilateral intracameral bolus injection of 1 μg of BRE. Results Unilateral topical BRE caused a dose-related reduction in IOP and aqueous humor flow in both eyes and in MAP. Pupil miosis occurred at the 100-μg dose. There was no effect on refraction. IOP and MAP decreases after 100 μg of BRE were eliminated by ATII infusion. Differential IOP effects after 10-μg topical BRE doses were not eliminated by nor-BNI or naloxone. Unilateral intracameral bolus injection of BRE decreased IOP in both eyes but had no effect on MAP or aqueous humor flow. Outflow facility was unchanged after intracameral exchange with BRE. Conclusions The IOP response to high doses of BRE in monkeys can be attributed to peripheral or central effects on MAP. The IOP-lowering response to topical BRE is due to aqueous humor flow suppression via non-opioid receptor stimulation. Some components of the IOP response are mediated by unknown mechanisms. PMID:18427613

  7. Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykov, Andrei; Gehrels, Neil; Krawczynski, Henric; Lemoine, Martin; Pelletier, Guy; Pohl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this review we confront the current theoretical understanding of particle acceleration at relativistic outflows with recent observational results on various source classes thought to involve such outflows, e.g. gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and pulsar wind nebulae. We highlight the possible contributions of these sources to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  8. Zephyria Outflow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    1 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows streamlined islands and a small cataract in an outflow channel system in the Zephyria region of Mars, south of Cerberus. The fluids responsible for creating these landforms flowed from the lower left (southwest) toward upper right (northeast). The fluids may have been water and mud or, some Mars scientists have argued, extremely fluid lava. The presence of a small cataract probably argues more strongly for a water and mud origin. This image is located near 3.8oN, 204.7oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from upper left.

  9. Extraversion and evaluation of humorous advertisements.

    PubMed

    Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata A; Borecka, Dorota

    2010-02-01

    Evaluation of humorous advertisements is supposed to be influenced by the perceivers' traits. The present study assessed the relation of extraversion with ratings of eight characteristics of humorous and informative advertisements. 75 high school students viewed the advertisements; a small positive correlation was found between scores on Extraversion and overall positive ratings of the humorous advertisement, but the correlation of scores on Extraversion with overall ratings of the informative advertisement was not statistically significant. Higher scores for Extraversion were positively correlated with more favorable reactions toward the humorous advertisement. Overall ratings of the humorous advertisement were also positively correlated with the humorousness and informativeness ratings, indicating that the more the advertisement was perceived as humorous and informative, the more positive was the overall rating. The latter ratings were significantly intercorrelated at r(s) = .50. The role of extraversion was small but significant in the evaluation of humorous advertisements.

  10. The Benefits of Humor in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulloth, Joan Kay

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 31 nursing students and 3 teachers identified several benefits from using humor in class: relieving stress, focusing attention, making learning fun, enhancing learning, and strengthening relationships. Students overwhelmingly supported the use of appropriate humor. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  11. A Look at Humor in Literature and Children's Responses to Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Dianne L.

    Humor in literature and children's responses to humor deserve serious study. Humor in literature may focus on a character's method for coping with a disturbing situation, problems (such as riddles) that engender sudden insights when things fall into place, or ludicrous characters. Incongruity and surprise also play an important part in humor and…

  12. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R.

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when…

  13. Humor in Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in…

  14. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  15. Effects of Including Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    Two 50-item multiple-choice forms of a grammar test were developed differing only in humor being included in 20 items of one form. One hundred twenty-six (126) eighth graders received the test plus alternate forms of a questionnaire. Humor inclusion did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items nor on common post-treatment…

  16. Effects of Incorporating Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two matched forms of a 50 item grammar test were developed. Twenty items designed to be humorous were included in one form. Inclusion of humorous items did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items, nor on commmon post-treatment items. Inclusion did not affect results of anxiety measures. (Author/DWH)

  17. Funny Babies: Humor and Power in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Eleni

    2004-01-01

    This article surveys existing research on the role of humor in early childhood. Babies and toddlers use humor to develop, apply, and expand their understanding of existing concepts; define themselves; and establish relationships with peers and caregivers. Humor helps young children view stressful situations in a nonthreatening way. As soon as…

  18. The humoral immune system of anadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Zwollo, Patty

    2017-01-03

    The immune system of anadromous fish is extremely complex, a direct consequence of their diadromous nature. Hormone levels fluctuate widely throughout their life cycle, as fish move between fresh and salt water. This poses major challenges to the physiology of anadromous fish, including adaptation to very different saline environments, distinct pathogen fingerprints, and different environmental stressors. Elevated cortisol and sex hormone levels inhibit B lymphopoiesis and IgM(+) antibody responses, while catecholamines, growth hormones and thyroid hormones are generally stimulatory and enhance the humoral immune response. Immunological memory in the form of long-lived plasma cells likely plays important roles in health and survival during the life cycle of anadromous fishes. This review discusses some of the complex immune-endocrine pathways in anadromous fish, focusing on essential roles for B lineage cells in the successful completion of their life cycle. A discussion is included on potential differences in immuno-competence between wild and hatchery-raised fish.

  19. An In Vitro Perfusion System to Enhance Outflow Studies in Mouse Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kizhatil, Krishnakumar; Chlebowski, Arthur; Tolman, Nicholas G.; Freeburg, Nelson F.; Ryan, Margaret M.; Shaw, Nicholas N.; Kokini, Alexander D. M.; Marchant, Jeffrey K.; John, Simon W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The molecular mechanisms controlling aqueous humor (AQH) outflow and IOP need much further definition. The mouse is a powerful system for characterizing the mechanistic basis of AQH outflow. To enhance outflow studies in mice, we developed a perfusion system that is based on human anterior chamber perfusion culture systems. Our mouse system permits previously impractical experiments. Methods We engineered a computer-controlled, pump-based perfusion system with a platform for mounting whole dissected mouse eyes (minus lens and iris, ∼45% of drainage tissue is perfused). We tested the system's ability to monitor outflow and tested the effects of the outflow-elevating drug, Y27632, a rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Finally, we tested the system's ability to detect genetically determined decreases in outflow by determining if deficiency of the candidate genes Nos3 and Cav1 alter outflow. Results Using our system, the outflow facility (C) of C57BL/6J mouse eyes was found to range between 7.7 and 10.4 nl/minutes/mm Hg (corrected for whole eye). Our system readily detected a 74.4% Y27632-induced increase in C. The NOS3 inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and a Nos3 null mutation reduced C by 28.3% and 35.8%, respectively. Similarly, in Cav1 null eyes C was reduced by 47.8%. Conclusions We engineered a unique perfusion system that can accurately measure changes in C. We then used the system to show that NOS3 and CAV1 are key components of mechanism(s) controlling outflow. PMID:27701632

  20. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  1. Humor attenuates the cortisol awakening response in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Lai, Julian C L; Chong, Alice M L; Siu, Oswald T; Evans, Phil; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the impact of an important factor contributing to successful aging, humor, on post-awakening cortisol levels among a group of 45 older men whose ages ranged from 64 years to 86 years (mean=73.6 years). Four saliva samples were collected from the participants for 2 days immediately after waking and every 15 min thereafter for three times. Cortisol data of the 2 days were aggregated for analysis. Two separate indices of cortisol awakening response reflecting the mean level of secretion and the rise from immediately to 45 min post-awakening, AUC(G) and AUC(I), were computed using the trapezoid formula. The relation of these two indices to humor (operationalized as coping) was examined in a multiple regression analysis while controlling for the effect of age, socioeconomic status, and self-esteem. Results indicated that higher humor scores were associated with lower AUC(G) but had no relation with AUC(I). Findings of the present study suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is the major pathway whereby positive psychological dispositions, such as humor, exert their health effects in the aging population. Moreover, cortisol levels in the awakening period may be particularly sensitive to the influences of psychosocial factors.

  2. Energy exchanges in reconnection outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin V.; Newman, David L.; Markidis, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Reconnection outflows are highly energetic directed flows that interact with the ambient plasma or with flows from other reconnection regions. Under these conditions the flow becomes highly unstable and chaotic, as any flow jets interacting with a medium. We report here massively parallel simulations of the two cases of interaction between outflow jets and between a single outflow with an ambient plasma. We find in both case the development of a chaotic magnetic field, subject to secondary reconnection events that further complicate the topology of the field lines. The focus of the present analysis is on the energy balance. We compute each energy channel (electromagnetic, bulk, thermal, for each species) and find where the most energy is exchanged and in what form. The main finding is that the largest energy exchange is not at the reconnection site proper but in the regions where the outflowing jets are destabilized.

  3. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  4. Shining a light on galactic outflows: photoionized outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti, Christy A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei; Wofford, Aida

    2016-04-01

    We study the ionization structure of galactic outflows in 37 nearby, star-forming galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We use the O I, Si II, Si III, and Si IV ultraviolet absorption lines to characterize the different ionization states of outflowing gas. We measure the equivalent widths, line widths, and outflow velocities of the four transitions, and find shallow scaling relations between them and galactic stellar mass and star formation rate. Regardless of the ionization potential, lines of similar strength have similar velocities and line widths, indicating that the four transitions can be modelled as a comoving phase. The Si equivalent width ratios (e.g. Si IV/Si II) have low dispersion, and little variation with stellar mass; while ratios with O I and Si vary by a factor of 2 for a given stellar mass. Photoionization models reproduce these equivalent width ratios, while shock models under predict the relative amount of high ionization gas. The photoionization models constrain the ionization parameter (U) between -2.25 < log (U) < -1.5, and require that the outflow metallicities are greater than 0.5 Z⊙. We derive ionization fractions for the transitions, and show that the range of ionization parameters and stellar metallicities leads to a factor of 1.15-10 variation in the ionization fractions. Historically, mass outflow rates are calculated by converting a column density measurement from a single metal ion into a total hydrogen column density using an ionization fraction, thus mass outflow rates are sensitive to the assumed ionization structure of the outflow.

  5. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  6. [Investigation into the motives for different expressions of humor].

    PubMed

    Tsukawaki, Ryota; Koshi, Ryoko; Higuchi, Masataka; Fukada, Hiromi

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the motives for different expressions of humor. University students (n = 286) completed a questionnaire regarding motives for three types of humor expressions: aggressive humor, self-disparaging humor, and playful humor. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the motives for the expressions of humor could be classified into five types: relationship construction, transmitting dissatisfaction, supporting others, managing self-impression, or supporting self. ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in the strengths of the motives among the three types of humor expressions. The results indicated that the motive for transmitting dissatisfaction was stronger in aggressive humor expressions than in the two other types of humor expressions. On the other hand, the motive for supporting others was weaker in aggressive humor expressions than in the two other types of humor expressions. Moreover, the motive for supporting self was stronger in self-disparaging humor expression than in aggressive humor expression.

  7. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  8. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  9. Netarsudil Increases Outflow Facility in Human Eyes Through Multiple Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ruiyi; Li, Guorong; Le, Thuy Duong; Kopczynski, Casey; Stamer, W. Daniel; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Netarsudil is a Rho kinase/norepinephrine transporter inhibitor currently in phase 3 clinical development for glaucoma treatment. We investigated the effects of its active metabolite, netarsudil-M1, on outflow facility (C), outflow hydrodynamics, and morphology of the conventional outflow pathway in enucleated human eyes. Methods Paired human eyes (n = 5) were perfused with either 0.3 μM netarsudil-M1 or vehicle solution at constant pressure (15 mm Hg). After 3 hours, fluorescent microspheres were added to perfusion media to trace the outflow patterns before perfusion-fixation. The percentage effective filtration length (PEFL) was calculated from the measured lengths of tracer distribution in the trabecular meshwork (TM), episcleral veins (ESVs), and along the inner wall (IW) of Schlemm's canal after global and confocal imaging. Morphologic changes along the trabecular outflow pathway were investigated by confocal, light, and electron microscopy. Results Perfusion with netarsudil-M1 significantly increased C when compared to baseline (51%, P < 0.01) and to paired controls (102%, P < 0.01), as well as significantly increased PEFL in both IW (P < 0.05) and ESVs (P < 0.01). In treated eyes, PEFL was significantly higher in ESVs than in the IW (P < 0.01) and was associated with increased cross-sectional area of ESVs (P < 0.01). Percentage effective filtration length in ESVs positively correlated with the percentage change in C (R2 = 0.58, P = 0.01). A significant increase in juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) thickness (P < 0.05) was found in treated eyes compared to controls. Conclusions Netarsudil acutely increased C by expansion of the JCT and dilating the ESVs, which led to redistribution of aqueous outflow through a larger area of the IW and ESVs. PMID:27842161

  10. Humor in autism and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in autism and Asperger syndrome in the context of the main psychological theories (Theory of Mind, Executive Functions, Weak Central Coherence and Laterization models) and associated neural substrates. In the concluding sections, examples of humor displayed by individuals with autism/Asperger syndrome which appear to challenge the above theories are analyzed and areas for further research are suggested.

  11. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  12. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  13. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  14. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  15. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using 12CO(J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  16. Outflow from a Nocturnal Thunderstorm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    P AD-A093 796 ILLINOIS STATE WATER SURVEY URBANAF/ .2 OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM. (U) NOV a0 R W SCOTT NSF-ATHN78-0a865 UNCLASSIFIED SWS...CR-242 ARO-15529.5-6S N I muuuuuuuuuuuu iDA0937 9 6 State Water Survey Division k istitute of METEOROLOGY SECTION 0 uJD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS...SWS Contract Report 242 / F OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM Robert W. Scott Meteorology Section Illinois State Water Survey -- DTIC ELECTE CD

  17. Aqueous Angiography–Mediated Guidance of Trabecular Bypass Improves Angiographic Outflow in Human Enucleated Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alex S.; Saraswathy, Sindhu; Dastiridou, Anna; Begian, Alan; Mohindroo, Chirayu; Tan, James C. H.; Francis, Brian A.; Hinton, David R.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the ability of trabecular micro-bypass stents to improve aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in regions initially devoid of AHO as assessed by aqueous angiography. Methods Enucleated human eyes (14 total from 7 males and 3 females [ages 52–84]) were obtained from an eye bank within 48 hours of death. Eyes were oriented by inferior oblique insertion, and aqueous angiography was performed with indocyanine green (ICG; 0.4%) or fluorescein (2.5%) at 10 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent images were acquired. Concurrent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histologic analysis of angiographically positive and negative areas. Experimentally, some eyes (n = 11) first received ICG aqueous angiography to determine angiographic patterns. These eyes then underwent trabecular micro-bypass sham or stent placement in regions initially devoid of angiographic signal. This was followed by fluorescein aqueous angiography to query the effects. Results Aqueous angiography in human eyes yielded high-quality images with segmental patterns. Distally, angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Trabecular bypass but not sham in regions initially devoid of ICG aqueous angiography led to increased aqueous angiography as assessed by fluorescein (P = 0.043). Conclusions Using sequential aqueous angiography in an enucleated human eye model system, regions initially without angiographic flow or signal could be recruited for AHO using a trabecular bypass stent. PMID:27588614

  18. Molecular outflows in starburst nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Nath, Biman B.; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-12-01

    Recent observations have detected molecular outflows in a few nearby starburst nuclei. We discuss the physical processes at work in such an environment in order to outline a scenario that can explain the observed parameters of the phenomenon, such as the molecular mass, speed and size of the outflows. We show that outflows triggered by OB associations, with NOB ≥ 105 (corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR)≥1 M⊙ yr-1 in the nuclear region), in a stratified disc with mid-plane density n0 ˜ 200-1000 cm-3 and scaleheight z0 ≥ 200(n0/102 cm-3)-3/5 pc, can form molecules in a cool dense and expanding shell. The associated molecular mass is ≥107 M⊙ at a distance of a few hundred pc, with a speed of several tens of km s-1. We show that an SFR surface density of 10 ≤ ΣSFR ≤ 50 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 favours the production of molecular outflows, consistent with observed values.

  19. Humor as a perioperative nursing management tool.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, S

    1999-04-01

    Humor is a powerful tool for accomplishing management goals. This article offers suggestions for using humor to relieve stress, cultivate teamwork, buy attention, improve morale, increase productivity, foster communication, enhance problem solving, and create a positive work culture in the operating room.

  20. Improving Performance through the Use of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Frank A.; Siegel, Laurence

    Although the role of humor in relaxation and interpersonal relationships is well documented, its role in increasing performance in the classroom has not been systematically studied. To investigate the effect of appropriately timed humor on performance of a stressful task, 40 college students performed a mathematics test under one of four…

  1. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  2. The Value of Humor in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that the use of humor in the technology education classroom can reduce stress while lessening the gap between teacher and students and stimulating cooperative work. Cautions against using humor that can be cruel or detrimental to the classroom environment. Includes a list of acceptable jokes. (Contains 17 references.) (JOW)

  3. Humorous Literature: A Doorway to Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Melanie

    Many theories have been developed to try to explain humor, among them, the social theory; psychoanalytic theories based on Freud; cognitive theories which identify stages corresponding to those of Piaget; and eclectic theories which combine elements of all the theories. The developmental stages of humor parallel the intellectual and emotional…

  4. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  5. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  6. The Geometry of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Rajib

    2012-10-01

    Quasar outflows are important for understanding the accretion and growth processes of the central black hole, but also potentially play a role in feedback to the galaxy, halting star formation and infall of gas. A big uncertainty lies in the geometry and density of these outflows, especially as a function of ionization and velocity. We aim to tackle this using the archival COS M grating spectra of 266 quasars. We separate the geometry of outflows into two parts: the solid angle subtended around the black hole, and the distance of the outflow from the central engine. Large numbers of quasars with high resolution spectra are required for each aspect of this statistical investigation. First, we will determine which/how many absorption-line systems are intrinsic through both partial covering methods and statistical assessments. Second, we will consider the incidence of intrinsic absorbers as a function of quasar property {e.g., radio-loudness, SED shape, black hole mass, bolometric luminosity}. This will reveal what determines the solid angle. This can only be done at moderate redshifts where quasars with a larger range of properties are observable, and hence requires HST/COS. Third, we will use the wide range of diagnostic lines to constrain the physical conditions of the absorbers. We will target the CIII*1175 complex and apply photoionization models to constrain the densities and ionization parameters. This will provide the largest set yet of intrinsic absorbers with systematic distance constraints. In tandem with the solid angles, this work will inform models regarding the geometry of quasar outflows.

  7. Hot outflows in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the `iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe ∝ P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M⊙ yr- 1 in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ˜107-109 M⊙. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations.

  8. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others.

  9. THE COMPLETE SURVEY OF OUTFLOWS IN PERSEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, Hector G.; Borkin, Michelle A.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Halle, Michael W.

    2010-06-01

    We present a study on the impact of molecular outflows in the Perseus molecular cloud complex using the COMPLETE Survey large-scale {sup 12}CO(1-0) and {sup 13}CO(1-0) maps. We used three-dimensional isosurface models generated in right ascension-declination-velocity space to visualize the maps. This rendering of the molecular line data allowed for a rapid and efficient way to search for molecular outflows over a large ({approx}16 deg{sup 2}) area. Our outflow-searching technique detected previously known molecular outflows as well as new candidate outflows. Most of these new outflow-related high-velocity features lie in regions that have been poorly studied before. These new outflow candidates more than double the amount of outflow mass, momentum, and kinetic energy in the Perseus cloud complex. Our results indicate that outflows have significant impact on the environment immediately surrounding localized regions of active star formation, but lack the energy needed to feed the observed turbulence in the entire Perseus complex. This implies that other energy sources, in addition to protostellar outflows, are responsible for turbulence on a global cloud scale in Perseus. We studied the impact of outflows in six regions with active star formation within Perseus of sizes in the range of 1-4 pc. We find that outflows have enough power to maintain the turbulence in these regions and enough momentum to disperse and unbind some mass from them. We found no correlation between outflow strength and star formation efficiency (SFE) for the six different regions we studied, contrary to results of recent numerical simulations. The low fraction of gas that potentially could be ejected due to outflows suggests that additional mechanisms other than cloud dispersal by outflows are needed to explain low SFEs in clusters.

  10. Vitreous humor thermodynamics during phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Villanueva, Guillermo; Kon-Jara, Veronica; Harasawa, Mariana; Cervantes-Coste, Guadalupe; Ochoa-Contreras, Daniel; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Guerrero-Naranjo, José Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Landers, Maurice B

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine baseline vitreous humor temperature during a combined phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) procedure; to determine what is the temperature variation during phacoemulsification; and to compare vitreous temperature to sublingual temperature. The methods used are prospective, interventional and comparative study. Patients with a diagnosis of cataract and vitreous hemorrhage, programed for a combined procedure of phacoemulsification and PPV, were included. Patients were excluded if posterior capsular rupture existed during the anterior segment procedure. A thermoprobe was inserted through a PPV trocar. Measurement of the vitreous temperature was obtained at baseline and throughout phacoemulsification, at the end of every surgical step, and every 5 min. Sublingual temperature was measured with the same probe at the end of the surgery. Room temperature was registered. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients were included. Mean sublingual temperature was 36.5 °C (standard deviation [σ] 0.26 °C). Mean total vitreous temperature was 31.47 °C (σ 2.1 °C). Mean baseline vitreous temperature was 33.04 °C (σ 0.99 °C). Comparison of sublingual temperature with baseline vitreous temperature resulted in a significant difference (t test P < 0.000. 95 % confidence interval 2.93-3.98). Temperature measured by surgical step and surgical time presented a significant decrease in temperature from baseline (Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.000, P = 0.003, respectively). Vitreous humor is significantly hypothermic when compared to sublingual temperature. Vitreous temperature decreases significantly during phacoemulsification.

  11. A threshold theory of the humor response.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the "setup" stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a "punch line" or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden "revelation" or "understanding"; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner.

  12. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the “setup” stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a “punch line” or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden “revelation” or “understanding”; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner. PMID:22478488

  13. Narrow UV Absorption Line Outflows from Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, F.; Simon, L.; Rodriguez Hidalgo, P.; Capellupo, D.

    2012-08-01

    Narrow absorption line (NAL) outflows are an important yet poorly understood part of the quasar outflow phenomenon. We discuss one particular NAL outflow that has high speeds, time variability, and moderate ionizations like typical BAL flows, at an estimated location just ˜5 pc from the quasar. It also has a total column density and line widths (internal velocity dispersions) ˜100 times smaller than BALs, with no substantial X-ray absorption. We argue that radiative shielding (in the form of an X-ray/warm absorber) is not critical for the outflow acceleration and that the moderate ionizations occur in dense substructures that have an overall small volume filling factor in the flow. We also present new estimates of the overall incidence of quasar outflow lines; e.g., ˜43% of bright quasars have a C IV NAL outflow while ˜68% have a C IV outflow line of any variety (NAL, BAL, or mini-BAL).

  14. [An examination of support function of humor: construction of a preference scale for supportive humor].

    PubMed

    Miyato, M; Ueno, Y

    1996-10-01

    In this study, we constructed a scale to measure individual preference for supportive humor, and examined whether the preference related to mental health. Two samples of female undergraduates cooperated with survey studies. In the first, a scale was constructed to measure preference for supportive kinds of humor, and relationships were examined between its score, hardiness to negative events, and depression, together with preference for other types of humor identified in a previous study (Ueno, 1992). In the second, the preference was correlated with hedonistic attitudes and private self-consciousness. Main findings were as follows: (1) Of the three types of humor (aggressive, playful, and supportive), only preference for supportive humor correlated with depression. (2) Hedonistic attitudes correlated with preference for each of the three types. (3) Private self-consciousness correlated only with preference for supportive humor.

  15. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  16. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  18. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  19. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search. PMID:27932965

  20. Humoral innate immune response and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Varahan, Sriram; Yuan, Kai; Li, Xiangdong; Fleming, Sherry D.

    2012-01-01

    The humoral innate immune response consists of multiple components, including the naturally occurring antibodies (NAb), pentraxins and the complement and contact cascades. As soluble, plasma components, these innate proteins provide key elements in the prevention and control of disease. However, pathogens and cells with altered self proteins utilize multiple humoral components to evade destruction and promote pathogy. Many studies have examined the relationship between humoral immunity and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the interactions between the humoral components and their role in promoting the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Understanding the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the individual components and the interactions between proteins which regulate the innate and adaptive response will provide therapeutic targets for subsequent studies. PMID:22771788

  1. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  2. Control of Outflow Resistance by Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Suk

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the United States affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure, even in patients with normal tension glaucoma. Typically, this is accomplished by reducing the rate of aqueous flow by limiting aqueous production or enhancing drainage using drugs and surgery. Whereas these strategies are effective in diminishing vision loss, some patients continue to lose vision and many discontinue use of their medications because of undesirable side effects. Drugs known to be effective in altering conventional outflow have for the most part been abandoned from modern clinical practice due to undesirable side effects. Identification of new drugs that could enhance conventional outflow, would offer additional options in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. To this end, our laboratory has recently uncovered a novel pathway for regulation of conventional outflow by the ciliary body. This pathway is dependent on soluble adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that catalyzes the generation of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′ monophosphate (cAMP) in response to bicarbonate. PMID:24320087

  3. Mixing and Dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    geostrophic current. A simple geostrophic adjustment model is used to show that in the absence of frictional stresses, the outflow would very quickly...A simple numerical model that uses a Froude number dependent entrain- ment and a quadratic bottom friction law is used to simulate the outflow (Price...initially as high as 0.6), are simulated rather well, though the model overestimates the magnitude of the outflow current. We suspect that this is a

  4. Vitreous Humor Changes Expression of Iron-Handling Proteins in Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goralska, Malgorzata; Fleisher, Lloyd N.; McGahan, M. Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In humans, vitrectomy is associated with development of nuclear cataracts. Iron catalyzes free radical formation causing oxidative damage, which is implicated in cataract formation. This study was designed to determine if vitreous humor, which can initiate differentiation of lens epithelial cells, would have an effect on iron-handling proteins. Methods Cultured canine lens epithelial cells were treated with collected canine vitreous humor. Lysates of treated and control cells were separated by SDS-PAGE. Ferritin H- and L-chains, transferrin receptor 1, and aquaporin 0 were immunodetected and quantitated with specific antibodies. Morphologic changes in treated cells were assessed. Results Treatment of lens epithelial cells with a 33% (vol/vol) solution of vitreous humor changed the morphology of lens cells and induced expression of aquaporin 0, a marker of fiber cell differentiation that was undetectable in control cells. Treatment did not modify the size of iron-handling proteins but significantly increased content of ferritin from 2.9- to 8.8-fold over control and decreased levels of transferrin receptor by 37% to 59%. Conclusions Vitreous humor may significantly limit iron uptake by transferrin/transferrin receptor pathway, and by increasing ferritin levels could profoundly increase the iron-storage capacity of ferritin in lens cells. Vitreous humor may play a significant protective role against iron-catalyzed oxidative damage of lens epithelial cells and therefore in the formation of cataracts. PMID:28245299

  5. Requirement for integrin-linked kinase in neural crest migration and differentiation and outflow tract morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neural crest defects lead to congenital heart disease involving outflow tract malformation. Integrin-linked-kinase (ILK) plays important roles in multiple cellular processes and embryogenesis. ILK is expressed in the neural crest, but its role in neural crest and outflow tract morphogenesis remains unknown. Results We ablated ILK specifically in the neural crest using the Wnt1-Cre transgene. ILK ablation resulted in abnormal migration and overpopulation of neural crest cells in the pharyngeal arches and outflow tract and a significant reduction in the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and extracellular matrix components. ILK mutant embryos exhibited an enlarged common arterial trunk and ventricular septal defect. Reduced smooth muscle differentiation, but increased ossification and neurogenesis/innervation were observed in ILK mutant outflow tract that may partly be due to reduced transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2) but increased bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-sorted neural crest cells revealed reduced expression of genes associated with muscle differentiation, but increased expression of genes of neurogenesis and osteogenesis. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that ILK plays essential roles in neural crest and outflow tract development by mediating complex crosstalk between cell matrix and multiple signaling pathways. Changes in these pathways may collectively result in the unique neural crest and outflow tract phenotypes observed in ILK mutants. PMID:24131868

  6. Retention of Lecture Items Reinforced with Humorous and Non-Humorous Exemplary Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruner, Charles R.; Freshley, Dwight L.

    College students in nine intact beginning speech classes served as subjects for a study testing the effects of humor on student recall of lecture information. The 156 subjects were exposed to one of three versions of an audiotaped lecture. One version amplified eight points in the subject matter with humorous material; and a third version (the…

  7. OUTFLOWS IN SODIUM EXCESS OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jongwon; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Jeong, Hyunjin

    2015-08-10

    Van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na i lines at 8200 Å found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted them as evidence for an unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 Å (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related to the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling signs of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that the ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift Doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related to gas outflow caused by star formation. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable Doppler components, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

  8. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  9. Altered Sense of Humor in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L.; Cohen, Miriam H.; Woodward, Felix J.; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications. PMID:26444779

  10. Star formation inside a galactic outflow.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, R; Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Carniani, S; Gallagher, R; Cazzoli, S; Arribas, S; Belfiore, F; Bellocchi, E; Colina, L; Cresci, G; Ishibashi, W; Marconi, A; Mannucci, F; Oliva, E; Sturm, E

    2017-04-13

    Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy. Such star formation could provide in situ chemical enrichment of the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (through supernova explosions of young stars on large orbits), and some models also predict it to contribute substantially to the star-formation rate observed in distant galaxies. Although there exists observational evidence for star formation triggered by outflows or jets into their host galaxy, as a consequence of gas compression, evidence for star formation occurring within galactic outflows is still missing. Here we report spectroscopic observations that unambiguously reveal star formation occurring in a galactic outflow at a redshift of 0.0448. The inferred star-formation rate in the outflow is larger than 15 solar masses per year. Star formation may also be occurring in other galactic outflows, but may have been missed by previous observations owing to the lack of adequate diagnostics.

  11. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    PubMed

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  12. Tissue plasminogen activator in trabecular meshwork attenuates steroid induced outflow resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Shah, Shaily; Tang, Hai Michael; Smith, Matthew; Borrás, Teresa; Danias, John

    2013-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator, a serine protease encoded by the PLAT gene is present in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and other ocular tissues and has been reported to be downregulated by treatment with steroids in vitro. Steroids are known to cause changes in outflow facility of aqueous humor in many species. In the present study, we tested whether overexpression of PLAT can prevent and/or reverse the outflow facility of mouse eyes treated with steroids. Animals received bilateral injection with 20 µl of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) (40 mg/ml) suspension subconjunctivally to induce outflow facility changes. Some animals received unilateral intracameral injection with 2 µl of adenoviral suspension [3-4 x 10(12) virus genomes per milliliter (vg/ml)] carrying sheep PLAT cDNA (AdPLAT) either concurrently with TA injection or one week after TA injection, whereas others received bilateral intracameral injection with 2 µl of adenoviral suspension (9 x 10(12) vg/ml) carrying no transgene (AdNull) concurrently with TA injection. Animals were sacrificed one week after AdPLAT or AdNull treatment. Endogenous mRNA expression levels of mouse PAI-1 and MMP-2, -9 and -13 were also measured using qRT-PCR. Outflow facility one week after AdPLAT administration was increased by 60% and 63% respectively for animals that had not or had been pretreated with steroids. Overexpression of PLAT significantly upregulated expression of PAI-1, MMP-2, -9 and -13 compared to the levels found in TA only treated eyes. These findings suggest that overexpression of PLAT in TM of mouse eyes can both prevent and reverse the decrease in outflow facility caused by steroid treatment and is associated with upregulation of MMPs.

  13. Magnetospheric Sawtooth Oscillations Induced by Ionospheric Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambles, O. J.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Lyon, J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper aims to address why sawtooth oscillations occur and what factors affect their periodicity. We use a multifluid version of the LFM global simulation model, driven by a steady solar wind to examine the effects of ion outflow on convection in the magnetosphere. In the simulation model, the properties of cusp and auroral region O+ outflow are causally regulated by electron precipitation and electromagnetic power flowing into the ionosphere. It is found that when ion outflow is included in the simulation, the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction can generate periodic substorms which appear as sawtooth-like oscillations in the geostationary magnetic field. The ion outflow enhances plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere and the associated diamagnetic ring current stretches the field lines throughout the nightside, essentially from dawn to dusk. If the field lines are sufficiently stretched they reconnect and dipolarize, ejecting a plasmoid downtail. This cycle repeats forming multiple sawtooth oscillations. The periodicity of the sawtooth oscillation depends largely upon the strength of the outflow. The strength of outflow is varied in the simulation by changing both the driving conditions (which affects the power flowing into the ionosphere) and through direct modification of the constants in the empirical relationships. Higher outflow fluences produce oscillations with shorter periods. The period of the oscillation is found to vary in the simulations from approximately 2 hours to 6 hours depending upon the strength of the outflow. For a smaller solar wind electric field the outflow fluence is not large enough to stretch the nightside field lines enough for sawtooth oscillations to form and the magnetosphere goes into a steady magnetosphere convection (SMC) mode. As the solar wind electric field increases the outflow fluence becomes sufficiently large to affect the convection in the magnetosphere and generate sawtooth oscillations. The strength

  14. Humor in the classroom using faculty skits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cheryl Mixon; Noviello, Sheri Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The infusion of humor in the classroom through faculty-developed skits is a teaching-learning strategy that engages nursing students in the learning process. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for Adult Learners provides the framework for the use of humor as a strategy in higher education. Three exemplars are presented with a description of the specific strategy, an objective for each strategy, and the effect of the strategy on student engagement in nursing education. In the exemplars, the authors provide "ready to use" ideas with some "pearls of wisdom" for other faculty interested in developing similar learning activities.

  15. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    PubMed

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  17. Characterization of the effect of Cr(VI) on humoral innate immunity using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pragya, P; Shukla, A K; Murthy, R C; Abdin, M Z; Kar Chowdhuri, D

    2015-11-01

    With the advancement of human race, different anthropogenic activities have heaped the environment with chemicals that can cause alteration in the immune system of exposed organism. As a first line of barrier, the evolutionary conserved innate immunity is crucial for the health of an organism. However, there is paucity of information regarding in vivo assessment of the effect of environmental chemicals on innate immunity. Therefore, we examined the effect of a widely used environmental chemical, Cr(VI), on humoral innate immune response using Drosophila melanogaster. The adverse effect of Cr(VI) on host humoral response was characterized by decreased gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the exposed organism. Concurrently, a significantly decreased transcription of humoral pathway receptors (Toll and PGRP) and triglyceride level along with inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in exposed organism. This in turn weakened the immune response of exposed organism that was manifested by their reduced resistance against bacterial infection. In addition, overexpression of the components of humoral immunity particularly Diptericin benefits Drosophila from Cr(VI)-induced humoral immune-suppressive effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding negative impact of an environmental chemical on humoral innate immune response of Drosophila along with subsequent protection by AMPs, which may provide novel insight into host-chemical interactions. Also, our data validate the utility and sensitivity of Drosophila as a model that could be used for screening the possible risk of environmental chemicals on innate immunity with minimum ethical concern that can be further extrapolated to higher organisms.

  18. The resolved outflow from 3C 48

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-10-20

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, the mass is ∼6 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow.

  19. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  20. The Influence of Humorous Atmosphere on Divergent Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1983-01-01

    In one experiment, 78 adolescents were shown humorous film clips and required to write captions for cartoons. A creativity test was administered. In a second study, the experimental group completed the Torrance Creativity Test with humorous responses. In both studies, a humorous atmosphere was found to significantly increase creativity scores.…

  1. Teaching French Language and Culture by Means of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Humor can enliven classes, establish and maintain rapport, create ambiance for learning, and enhance student acquisition and retention. Ways to use humor in the classroom are presented, including clearly verbal approaches, visual aid techniques (magazines, cartoons, ads, etc.), and the humor of stand-up comedians. (12 references) (LB)

  2. Learning through Laughter: Humor in the Classroom. Fastback 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Claudia E.

    Focusing on humor as a powerful instructional resource, this booklet addresses a variety of issues regarding humor in the elementary and secondary classroom. Thirteen ways in which humor can help teachers to achieve educational goals are presented, specifically that it (1) attracts attention and provokes thought, (2) liberates creative capacities,…

  3. Use of Humorous Visuals To Enhance Computer-Based-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snetsinger, Wendy; Grabowski, Barbara

    It was hypothesized that a visual strategy that incorporates a humorous theme and cartoons with humorous comments relevant to the content helps motivate students to focus on and retain computer-based instructional material. An experiment to assess this hypothesis was undertaken with 43 college students who received a humorous presentation on…

  4. Continuity and Change: The Cultural Context of Women's Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Alice

    As a technique of social control intimately associated with the display and control of power, humor reflects empowerment. Contemporary women have few traditions of using power, and a variety of covert factors have discouraged women's use of humor. The most significant of these is the way that the popular mind has defined humor as a male…

  5. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  6. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  7. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  8. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  9. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  10. Humor in the Films of Alfred Hitchcock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Although usually considered the "master of suspense," Alfred Hitchcock relished working humor into his films, frequently juxtaposing it against scenes of utter gruesomeness. This placement of comic elements--comic relief--in an otherwise serious murder mystery or suspense thriller became a Hitchcock trademark early in his career.…

  11. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  12. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory

    PubMed Central

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection. PMID:28090322

  13. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates…

  14. Prosodic Markers of Saliency in Humorous Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Lucy; Corduas, Marcella; Eisterhold, Jodi; Seifried, Brenna; Eggleston, Alyson; Attardo, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Much of what we think we know about the performance of humor relies on our intuitions about prosody (e.g., "it's all about timing"); however, this has never been empirically tested. Thus, the central question addressed in this article is whether speakers mark punch lines in jokes prosodically and, if so, how. To answer this question,…

  15. Proteomic analysis of human vitreous humor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The vitreous humor is a transparent, gelatinous mass whose main constituent is water. It plays an important role in providing metabolic nutrient requirements of the lens, coordinating eye growth and providing support to the retina. It is in close proximity to the retina and reflects many of the changes occurring in this tissue. The biochemical changes occurring in the vitreous could provide a better understanding about the pathophysiological processes that occur in vitreoretinopathy. In this study, we investigated the proteome of normal human vitreous humor using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Results The vitreous humor was subjected to multiple fractionation techniques followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 1,205 proteins, 682 of which have not been described previously in the vitreous humor. Most proteins were localized to the extracellular space (24%), cytoplasm (20%) or plasma membrane (14%). Classification based on molecular function showed that 27% had catalytic activity, 10% structural activity, 10% binding activity, 4% cell and 4% transporter activity. Categorization for biological processes showed 28% participate in metabolism, 20% in cell communication and 13% in cell growth. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000957. Conclusion This large catalog of vitreous proteins should facilitate biomedical research into pathological conditions of the eye including diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment and cataract. PMID:25097467

  16. The Role of Humor in Children's Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    A total of 40 children in the three primary grades were studied to determine if they would donate more to a worthy cause after having been exposed to a humorous situation, in contrast to exposure to a serious one. The children who had heard a serious story about sharing donated slightly more to help Ethiopian refugees than did children who had…

  17. Culture through Humor in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guegan-Fisher, C.

    Humor can be a very effective tool to make students remember what they should know about the traditions and beliefs, manners and institutions of a culture. The teacher himself should outwardly be the embodiment of the culture which is taught. For example, when a teacher of French walks into the classroom the first day he should introduce himself…

  18. Wit and Humor in Discourse Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Debra L.; Graesser, Arthur C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy of jokes and wit as a useful, descriptive tool. Argues that humor processing may occur in a parallel rather than serial fashion by contrasting a serial-processing, incongruity-resolution model with an alternative dual-processing model. Also presents a taxonomy of the social functions of wit. (JK)

  19. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  20. Humor: A Critical Analysis for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibles, Warren

    Part of the "Teaching Young People to be Critical Series," this booklet defines and analyzes humor for children in light of theories of philosophers Ludwig Wittenstein and John Dewey. Intended for individual or small group work, the objectives are threefold: reading improvement, reading enjoyment, and student involvement in making the leap from…

  1. MEF2C regulates outflow tract alignment and transcriptional control of Tdgf1.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ralston M; Harris, Ian S; Jaehnig, Eric J; Sauls, Kimberly; Sinha, Tanvi; Rojas, Anabel; Schachterle, William; McCulley, David J; Norris, Russell A; Black, Brian L

    2016-03-01

    Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects in humans, and those that affect the proper alignment of the outflow tracts and septation of the ventricles are a highly significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. A late differentiating population of cardiac progenitors, referred to as the anterior second heart field (AHF), gives rise to the outflow tract and the majority of the right ventricle and provides an embryological context for understanding cardiac outflow tract alignment and membranous ventricular septal defects. However, the transcriptional pathways controlling AHF development and their roles in congenital heart defects remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we inactivated the gene encoding the transcription factor MEF2C in the AHF in mice. Loss of Mef2c function in the AHF results in a spectrum of outflow tract alignment defects ranging from overriding aorta to double-outlet right ventricle and dextro-transposition of the great arteries. We identify Tdgf1, which encodes a Nodal co-receptor (also known as Cripto), as a direct transcriptional target of MEF2C in the outflow tract via an AHF-restricted Tdgf1 enhancer. Importantly, both the MEF2C and TDGF1 genes are associated with congenital heart defects in humans. Thus, these studies establish a direct transcriptional pathway between the core cardiac transcription factor MEF2C and the human congenital heart disease gene TDGF1. Moreover, we found a range of outflow tract alignment defects resulting from a single genetic lesion, supporting the idea that AHF-derived outflow tract alignment defects may constitute an embryological spectrum rather than distinct anomalies.

  2. Humor and laughter may influence health. I. History and background.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Mary Payne; Lengacher, Cecile A

    2006-03-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  3. Variable effects of humor styles on organizational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Eric J; Arendt, Lucy A

    2011-04-01

    The relationship between individual humor styles and several organizational variables was investigated: stress, satisfaction with coworkers, team cooperation, and organizational commitment. Four humor styles from the Humor Styles Questionnaire were measured. Survey results of 349 participants indicated different humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating) can have either a positive or negative effect on organizational outcomes. Results suggested that both researchers and practitioners can benefit from having a better understanding of how different humor styles affect people and outcomes in organizations.

  4. Magnetosphere sawtooth oscillations induced by ionospheric outflow.

    PubMed

    Brambles, O J; Lotko, W; Zhang, B; Wiltberger, M; Lyon, J; Strangeway, R J

    2011-06-03

    The sawtooth mode of convection of Earth's magnetosphere is a 2- to 4-hour planetary-scale oscillation powered by the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere (SW-M-I) interaction. Using global simulations of geospace, we have shown that ionospheric O(+) outflows can generate sawtooth oscillations. As the outflowing ions fill the inner magnetosphere, their pressure distends the nightside magnetic field. When the outflow fluence exceeds a threshold, magnetic field tension cannot confine the accumulating fluid; an O(+)-rich plasmoid is ejected, and the field dipolarizes. Below the threshold, the magnetosphere undergoes quasi-steady convection. Repetition and the sawtooth period are controlled by the strength of the SW-M-I interaction, which regulates the outflow fluence.

  5. Humor and competence in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Masten, A S

    1986-04-01

    Multiple aspects of humor were evaluated in children between the ages of 10 and 14 and related to several areas of competence manifested at school. Humor measures assessed appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production, while competence measures included teacher ratings of classroom behavior, peer reputation, and achievement. Humor was related to competence in several ways consistent with previous theory and research: (1) through the manifestation of intellectual ability both in humor behaviors and in competent functioning; (2) through the role of mastery motivation enhancing both types of functioning; and (3) through peer relations, resulting from the effects of humor on peer acceptance or the effects of peer relations on humor behaviors. Ideas for further research relating humor to social competence, social cognition, and mastery motivation are discussed.

  6. Need for Humor Scale: validation with French children.

    PubMed

    Picard, Delphine; Blanc, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    The Need for Humor (NFH) Scale measures the tendency to produce and seek out humor. This personality trait affects the processing and recall of humorous material. This study is a transcultural adaptation and validation of the NFH Scale with French participants, including 100 university students (Study 1a) and 160 school-aged children (Study 1b). Results from iterative exploratory analyses and confirmatory analyses revealed a bi-dimensional structure with satisfactory factor loadings. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also found to be adequate (Cronbach's alphas = .79 and .68; test-retest rs = .87 and .82). Children were tested on a preference task for humorous vs non-humorous print advertisements; children with high NFH scores responded more positively to humorous advertisements (Study 2). The French NFH Scale can be used as a valid and reliable tool for assessing need for humor in children and its effects on responses to print advertisements.

  7. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Marina M.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2015-10-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars are radiatively driven. In all of these cases, the magnetic field influences matter flow from the stars and determines many observational properties. In this chapter we review recent studies of accretion, outflows, and winds of magnetized stars with a focus on three main topics: (1) accretion onto magnetized stars; (2) outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary; and (3) winds from isolated massive magnetized stars. We show results obtained from global magnetohydrodynamic simulations and, in a number of cases compare global simulations with observations.

  8. Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback and Galactic Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ai-Lei

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is thought to regulate the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxies. The most direct evidence of AGN feedback is probably galactic outflows. This thesis addresses the link between SMBHs and their host galaxies from four different observational perspectives. First, I study the local correlation between black hole mass and the galactic halo potential (the MBH - Vc relation) based on Very Large Array (VLA) HI observations of galaxy rotation curves. Although there is a correlation, it is no tighter than the well-studied MBH - sigma* relation between the black hole mass and the potential of the galactic bulge, indicating that physical processes, such as feedback, could link the evolution of the black hole to the baryons in the bulge. In what follows, I thus search for galactic outflows as direct evidence of AGN feedback. Second, I use the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to observe a luminous obscured AGN that hosts an ionized galactic outflow and find a compact but massive molecular outflow that can potentially quench the star formation in 10. 6 years.The third study extends the sample of known ionized outflows with new Magellan long-slit observations of 12 luminous obscured AGN. I find that most luminous obscured AGN (Lbol > 1046 ergs s-1) host ionized outflows on 10 kpc scales, and the size of the outflow correlates strongly with the luminosity of the AGN. Lastly, to capitalize on the power of modern photometric surveys, I experiment with a new broadband imaging technique to study the morphology of AGN emission line regions and outflows. With images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this method successfully constructs images of the [OIII]lambda5007 emission line and reveals hundreds of extended emission-line systems. When applied to current and future surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), this technique could open a new parameter space for the study of AGN outflows. In

  9. A robust measurement of the mass outflow rate of the galactic outflow from NGC 6090

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti Christy, A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of stellar feedback, it is critical to estimate the mass outflow rates of galaxies. Past estimates have been plagued by uncertain assumptions about the outflow geometry, metallicity, and ionization fraction. Here we use Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of the nearby starburst NGC 6090 to demonstrate that many of these quantities can be constrained by the data. We use the Si IV absorption lines to calculate the scaling of velocity (v), covering fraction (Cf), and density with distance from the starburst (r), assuming the Sobolev optical depth and a velocity law of the form: v ∝ (1 - Ri/r)β (where Ri is the inner outflow radius). We find that the velocity (β = 0.43) is consistent with an outflow driven by an r-2 force with the outflow radially accelerated, while the scaling of the covering fraction (Cf ∝ r-0.82) suggests that cool clouds in the outflow are in pressure equilibrium with an adiabatically expanding medium. We use the column densities of four weak metal lines and CLOUDY photoionization models to determine the outflow metallicity, the ionization correction, and the initial density of the outflow. Combining these values with the profile fitting, we find Ri = 63 pc, with most of the mass within 300 pc of the starburst. Finally, we find that the maximum mass outflow rate is 2.3 M⊙ yr-1 and the mass-loading factor (outflow divided by the star formation rate) is 0.09, a factor of 10 lower than the value calculated using common assumptions for the geometry, metallicity, and ionization structure of the outflow.

  10. NF-κB/Rel Proteins and the Humoral Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Sandhya; Aggarwal, Kamna; Paquette, Nicholas; Silverman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB)/Rel transcription factors form an integral part of innate immune defenses and are conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Studying the function, mechanism of activation and regulation of these factors is crucial for understanding host responses to microbial infections. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has proved to be a valuable model system to study these evolutionarily conserved NF-κB mediated immune responses. Drosophila combats pathogens through humoral and cellular immune responses. These humoral responses are well characterized and are marked by the robust production of a battery of anti-microbial peptides. Two NF-κB signaling pathways, the Toll and the IMD pathways, are responsible for the induction of these antimicrobial peptides. Signal transduction in these pathways is strikingly similar to that in mammalian TLR pathways. In this chapter, we discuss in detail the molecular mechanisms of microbial recognition, signal transduction and NF-κB regulation, in both the Toll and the IMD pathways. Similarities and differences relative to their mammalian counterparts are discussed, and recent advances in our understanding of the intricate regulatory networks in these NF-κB signaling pathways are also highlighted. PMID:20852987

  11. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Teresita; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circum-galactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disc can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at ˜1 kpc above disc, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on ˜100 kpc scales. To do this, we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the `burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in the CGM may therefore change in response to the detailed historical pattern of star formation. For instance, outflows generated by star formation with short, intense bursts contain up to 60 per cent of their gas mass at temperatures <5 × 104 K; for near-continuous star formation, the figure is ≲5 per cent. Further study of cosmological simulations, and of idealized simulations with e.g. metal-cooling, magnetic fields and/or thermal conduction, will help to understand the precise signature of bursty outflows on observed ion abundances.

  12. Powerful Quasar Outflows at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljanahi, Sara; Robert Scott Barrows

    2017-01-01

    Powerful quasar outflows can be driven by radiation pressure or radio jets, and they are capable of effecting the evolution of their host galaxies, particularly at high-redshifts (z~2)) when the quasar density peaks. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of 131 quasar outflows at high-redshifts (0.8outflows, their impact on the host galaxies, and their environments. We find that a subsample of 32 are detected by FIRST with 21 of them showing evidence for extended radio emission that suggests the outflows may be driven by the mechanical energy of radio jets in up to one-third of the sample. For the remaining two thirds of the sample, radiation pressure from the accretion disk is likely the driving mechanism. For those sources, we use the spatial information from long-slit spectra to estimate the energy of the outflowing gas, finding that one hundredth of the quasar energy is coupled with the energy being emitted by the radiation pressure from the accretion disk. Three of the quasars are found in the Hubble Space Telescope archives, with two of them showing clear signs of galaxy interactions/mergers, and a fraction of 0.4 show evidence of interactions from SDSS imaging. These combined results suggests that galaxy interactions may be the triggers of enhanced accretion onto the nuclear supermassive black holes of this sample, with the corresponding enhanced radiation pressure driving the outflows. Furthermore, the high-redshift nature of this sample has pushed the systematic study of quasar outflows closer to the epoch in which quasar feedback is likely to have been important in galaxy evolution.

  13. Evolutionary and Developmental Origins of the Cardiac Neural Crest: Building a Divided Outflow Tract

    PubMed Central

    Keyte, Anna L.; Alonzo-Johnsen, Martha; Hutson, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    The cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) have played an important role in the evolution and development of the vertebrate cardiovascular system: from reinforcement of the developing aortic arch arteries early in vertebrate evolution, to later orchestration of aortic arch artery remodeling into the great arteries of the heart, and finally outflow tract septation in amniotes. A critical element necessary for the evolutionary advent of outflow tract septation was the co-evolution of the cardiac neural crest cells with the second heart field. This review highlights the major transitions in vertebrate circulatory evolution, explores the evolutionary developmental origins of the CNCCs from the third stream cranial neural crest, and explores candidate signaling pathways in CNCC and outflow tract evolution drawn from our knowledge of DiGeorge Syndrome. PMID:25227322

  14. Humor as aggression: effects of motivation on hostility expressed in humor appreciation.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Netta; Hodgins, Holley S; Ostvik-White, Elin

    2011-06-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that relative to primed autonomy motivation, primed control would increase enjoyment of hostile (compared with nonhostile) humor as assessed by self-reported enjoyment and aversiveness and by nonverbal behavior. Results confirmed the hypothesis. Furthermore, initial state hostility moderated the effect such that high-hostility participants who were primed with control motivation especially enjoyed hostile humor. The 2 final studies showed that the effect was mediated by implicit aggression such that the combination of high initial state hostility and control priming led to implicit aggression, which in turn resulted in hostile humor enjoyment. Results are interpreted in terms of the effects of autonomy versus control motivation on intrapersonal self-regulatory processes, which influence interpersonal functioning.

  15. Widening of Protostellar Outflows: An Infrared Outflow Survey in Low-luminosity Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    We present an outflow survey toward 20 low-luminosity objects (LLOs), namely, protostars with an internal luminosity lower than 0.2 {L}ȯ . Although a number of studies have reported the properties of individual LLOs, the reasons for their low luminosity remain uncertain. To answer this question, we need to know the evolutionary status of LLOs. Protostellar outflows are found to widen as their parent cores evolve, and therefore the outflow opening angle could be used as an evolutionary indicator. The infrared scattered light escapes out through the outflow cavity and highlights the cavity wall, giving us the opportunity to measure the outflow opening angle. Using the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, we detected outflows toward eight LLOs out of 20 at Ks band, and based on archival Spitzer IRAC1 images, we added four outflow-driving sources from the remaining 12 sources. By fitting these images with radiative transfer models, we derive the outflow opening angles and inclination angles. To study the widening of outflow cavities, we compare our sample with the young stellar objects from Arce & Sargent and Velusamy et al. in a plot of opening angle versus bolometric temperature taken as an evolutionary indicator. Our LLO targets match well the trend of increasing opening angle with bolometric temperature reported by Arce & Sargent and are broadly consistent with that reported by Velusamy et al., suggesting that the opening angle could be a good evolutionary indicator for LLOs. Accordingly, we conclude that at least 40% of the outflow-driving LLOs in our sample are young Class 0 objects.

  16. Northwestern Tharsis Latent Outflow Activity Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Hare, T. M.; Strom, R. G.; Rudd, L.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Scott, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Previously defined outflow channels, which are indicated by relict landforms similar to those observed on Earth, signify ancient catastrophic flood events on Mars. These conspicuous geomorphic features are some of the most remarkable yet profound discoveries made by geologists to date. These outflow channels, which debouched tremendous volumes of water into topographic lows such as Chryse, Utopia, Elysium, and Hellas Planitiae, may represent the beginning of warmer and wetter climatic periods unlike the present-day cold and dry Mars. In addition to the previously identified outflow channels, observations permitted by the newly acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a system of gigantic valleys, referred to as the northwestern slope valleys (NSV), that are located to the northwest of a huge shield volcano, Arsia Mons, western hemisphere of Mars. These features generally correspond spatially to gravity lows similar to the easternmost, circum-Chryse outflow channel systems. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the large valley system pre-dates the construction of Arsia Mons and its extensive associated lava flows of mainly Late Hesperian and Amazonian age and coincides stratigraphically with the early development of the circum-Chryse outflow channel systems that debouch into Chryse Planitia. This newly identified system, the NSV, potentially signifies the largest flood event(s) ever recorded for the solar system. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  17. LVAD Outflow Graft Angle and Thrombosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Aliseda, Alberto; Chivukula, Venkat Keshav; Mcgah, Patrick; Prisco, Anthony R; Beckman, Jennifer A; Garcia, Guilherme J M; Mokadam, Nahush A; Mahr, Claudius

    This study quantifies thrombogenic potential (TP) of a wide range of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) outflow graft anastomosis angles through state-of-the-art techniques: 3D imaged-based patient-specific models created via virtual surgery and unsteady computational fluid dynamics with Lagrangian particle tracking. This study aims at clarifying the influence of a single parameter (outflow graft angle) on the thrombogenesis associated with flow patterns in the aortic root after LVAD implantation. This is an important and poorly-understood aspect of LVAD therapy, because several studies have shown strong inter and intrapatient thrombogenic variability and current LVAD implantation strategies do not incorporate outflow graft angle optimization. Accurate platelet-level investigation, enabled by statistical treatment of outliers in Lagrangian particle tracking, demonstrates a strong influence of outflow graft anastomoses angle on thrombogenicity (platelet residence times and activation state characterized by shear stress accumulation) with significantly reduced TP for acutely-angled anastomosed outflow grafts. The methodology presented in this study provides a device-neutral platform for conducting comprehensive thrombogenicity evaluation of LVAD surgical configurations, empowering optimal patient-focused surgical strategies for long-term treatment and care for advanced heart failure patients.

  18. Differential Canalograms Detect Outflow Changes from Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents and Ab Interno Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Hardik A.; Loewen, Ralitsa T.; Roy, Pritha; Schuman, Joel S.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently introduced microincisional glaucoma surgeries that enhance conventional outflow offer a favorable risk profile over traditional surgeries, but can be unpredictable. Two paramount challenges are the lack of an adequate training model for angle surgeries and the absence of an intraoperative quantification of surgical success. To address both, we developed an ex vivo training system and a differential, quantitative canalography method that uses slope-adjusted fluorescence intensities of two different chromophores to avoid quenching. We assessed outflow enhancement by trabecular micro-bypass (TMB) implantation or by ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT). In this porcine model, TMB resulted in an insignificant (p > 0.05) outflow increase of 13 ± 5%, 14 ± 8%, 9 ± 3%, and 24 ± 9% in the inferonasal, superonasal, superotemporal, and inferotemporal quadrant, respectively. AIT caused a 100 ± 50% (p = 0.002), 75 ± 28% (p = 0.002), 19 ± 8%, and 40 ± 21% increase in those quadrants. The direct gonioscopy and tactile feedback provided a surgical experience that was very similar to that in human patients. Despite the more narrow and discontinuous circumferential drainage elements in the pig with potential for underperformance or partial stent obstruction, unequivocal patterns of focal outflow enhancement by TMB were seen in this training model. AIT achieved extensive access to outflow pathways beyond the surgical site itself. PMID:27811973

  19. Humor as an adjunct to occupational therapy interactions.

    PubMed

    Tooper, V O

    1984-01-01

    Although humor and laughter have been a natural part of human life in all cultures as far back as recorded history can determine, the conscious use of humor as a therapeutic technique is comparatively recent. This article suggests that health specialists have been slow to adopt the ideas of some of the better known researchers and writers in the field due to professional and cultural attitudes toward humor as a "frivolous" subject. As more information on the positive benefits of humor and laughter is being disseminated in books and workshops, previous myths regarding humor are being dispelled and attitudes are changing. A brief history of the state of the art over the past decade is included along with a few ideas from seminars and workshops on the use of humor as a planned activity in health and educational settings.

  20. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Method Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Results Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Conclusion Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense. PMID:27788204

  1. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared to the non-disclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the non-disclosed condition suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  2. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  3. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  4. The Use of Humor as a Counselor Strategy with Native American Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Roger D.; Meggert, Sandra S.

    1994-01-01

    Advocates that counselors incorporate humor in their work with Native Americans. Discusses psychological theories of humor and explores Native American humor. Examines humor's implications for counseling and suggests specific strategies for the use of humor, such as storytelling, imagination, puppets, clowns, games, word games, and other devices.…

  5. Don't Smile before Christmas: The Role of Humor in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallinger, Linda Moody

    1997-01-01

    Humor can be a powerful, productive tool to help teachers succeed in the classroom. Humor cultivates spirit, alleviates stress, improves communication, and diffuses conflict. Reviews types of humor (satire, cheerfulness, eccentricity, and sarcasm), discusses humor's classroom uses and benefits, and shows how school leaders can introduce humor into…

  6. Molecular Outflows from Newly Formed Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2015-12-01

    We map 6 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the CO J=2-1 line and survey 18 massive YSOs, including the six, in the hcopj, sioj, water 6_{16}-5_{23} maser, and methanol 7_{0}-6_{1} A^{+} maser lines. We detect CO bipolar outflows in all the six mapped sources. Four of them are newly discovered (ifive, ieight, inine, iten), while itwo is mapped in the CO J=2-1 line for the first time. The detected outflows are much more massive and energetic than outflows from low-mass YSOs with masses >20 M_⊙ and momenta >300 M_⊙ km/s. They have mass outflow rates (3-6)×10^{-4} M_⊙ yr^{-1}, which are at least one order of magnitude greater than those observed in low-mass YSOs. We detect hcop and SiO line emission in 18 (100%) and 4 (22%) sources, respectively. The hcop spectra show high-velocity wings in 11 (61%) sources. We detect water maser emission in 13 (72%) sources and 44 GHz methanol maser emission in 8 (44%) sources. Of the detected sources, 5 water and 6 methanol maser sources are new discoveries. iseven shows high-velocity (>30 kms) water maser lines. We find good correlations of the bolometric luminosity of the central (proto)star with the mechanical force, mechanical luminosity, and mass outflow rate of molecular outflow %L_{bol} with F_{m}, L_{m}, and dot{M}_{out} in the bolometric luminosity range of 10^{-1}-10^6 lsol, and identified 3 intermediate- or high-mass counterparts of Class O objects.

  7. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    PubMed

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  8. Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Propson, B; Göricke, S; Jacobi, H; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Humor is a complex behavior which includes cognitive, affective and motor responses. Based on observations of affective changes in patients with cerebellar lesions, the cerebellum may support cerebral and brainstem areas involved in understanding and appreciation of humorous stimuli and expression of laughter. The aim of the present study was to examine if humor appreciation, perception of humorous stimuli, and the succeeding facial reaction differ between patients with cerebellar degeneration and healthy controls. Twenty-three adults with pure cerebellar degeneration were compared with 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects. No significant difference in humor appreciation and perception of humorous stimuli could be found between groups using the 3 Witz-Dimensionen Test, a validated test asking for funniness and aversiveness of jokes and cartoons. Furthermore, while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, and video sketches, facial expressions of subjects were videotaped and afterwards analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Using depression as a covariate, the number, and to a lesser degree, the duration of facial expressions during laughter were reduced in cerebellar patients compared to healthy controls. In sum, appreciation of humor appears to be largely preserved in patients with chronic cerebellar degeneration. Cerebellar circuits may contribute to the expression of laughter. Findings add to the literature that non-motor disorders in patients with chronic cerebellar disease are generally mild, but do not exclude that more marked disorders may show up in acute cerebellar disease and/or in more specific tests of humor appreciation.

  9. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned.

  10. Episodic High-velocity Outflows from V899 Mon: A Constraint On The Outflow Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Philip, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the detection of large variations in the outflow wind velocity from a young eruptive star, V899 Mon, during its ongoing high accretion outburst phase. Such large variations in the outflow velocity (from -722 to -425 km s-1) have never been reported previously in this family of objects. Our continuous monitoring of this source shows that the multi-component, clumpy, and episodic high velocity outflows are stable in the timescale of a few days, and vary over the timescale of a few weeks to months. We detect significant decoupling in the instantaneous outflow strength to accretion rate. From the comparison of various possible outflow mechanisms in magnetospheric accretion of young stellar objects, we conclude magnetically driven polar winds to be the most consistent mechanism for the outflows seen in V899 Mon. The large scale fluctuations in outflow over the short period makes V899 Mon the most ideal source to constrain various magnetohydrodynamics simulations of magnetospheric accretion. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  11. Effects of induction and inhibition of matrix cross-linking on remodeling of the aqueous outflow resistance by ocular trabecular meshwork cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong-Feng; Sun, Ying Ying; Acott, Ted S.; Keller, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    The trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue controls drainage of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye primarily by regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Glaucomatous TM tissue is stiffer than age-matched controls, which may be due to alterations in ECM cross-linking. In this study, we used genipin or beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) agents to induce or inhibit matrix cross-linking, respectively, to investigate the effects on outflow resistance and ECM remodeling. Treatment with BAPN increased outflow rates in perfused human and porcine anterior segments, whereas genipin reduced outflow. Using a fluorogenic peptide assay, MMP activity was increased with BAPN treatment, but reduced with genipin treatment. In genipin-treated TM cells, Western immunoblotting showed a reduction of active MMP2 and MMP14 species and the presence of TIMP2-MMP14 higher molecular weight complexes. BAPN treatment increased collagen type I mRNA and protein levels, but genipin reduced the levels of collagen type I, tenascin C, elastin and versican. CD44 and fibronectin levels were unaffected by either treatment. Collectively, our results show that matrix cross-linking has profound effects on outflow resistance and ECM composition and are consistent with the emerging paradigm that the stiffer the ECM, the lower the aqueous outflow facility through the TM. PMID:27465745

  12. Hippocrates' humoral pathology in nowaday's reflections.

    PubMed

    Bujalkova, M; Straka, S; Jureckova, A

    2001-01-01

    Ancient medicine integrated three components: experience (empirical observation), religion/magic and speculations of natural philosophers. The Greek medicine out-achieved medicine of other ancient nations in starting to investigate the true causes of health and diseases and thus laying foundations for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Hippocrates, the most famous physician of the ancient times, made a synthesis of existing philosophical opinions from the point of view of a physician. His 58 writings were preserved in the collection "Corpus Hippocraticum". The most relevant writing in it--"Peri fyseos anthropu" (On the nature of man)--is ascribed to Hippocrates' son-in-law Polybos to whom we are grateful for the ancient humoral-pathological theory. In explaining human organism and its processes the author integrated ancient teachings on 4 basic humors (humoral theory), elements and qualities with observations of manifestations of health and disease. Normal condition (health) was defined as balance between the body fluids (eukrasia) and external environment. If this balance is disturbed, the result is dyskrasia, i.e. disease studied by pathology. According to Hippocrates disease causes can be understood only through empirical study. A man has a power to overcome disease, but to achieve it the right diet is necessary to keep harmony in body fluids of an organism. The role of a physician was just to support the nature. "Prognosis", another writing included in "Corpus Hippocraticum", reflects Hippocrates' understanding of prognosis as a necessary development of diagnosis based on past knowledge (anamnesis) and present observation. Ideas of Hippocrates and his medical school are still valuable and inspiring especially for today's very sophisticated medicine--concept of fighting diseases by natural means: maintaining healthy lifestyle and harmony within the organism, or an effort for perfect understanding of human creature and for humanization of medicine. (Fig. 3

  13. Intrapersonal Perceptions of Shyness and Humor as Related to Interpersonal Perceptions of Social Distance and Humorousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Wolf, Amy

    Although humor and laughter are most often based in fundamental social interactions, this element of communication has received little attention. To examine the socially facilitating effects of communication and social acceptance by analyzing children's intrapersonal perceptions of communication apprehension, or shyness, 169 children, aged 8 to 13…

  14. Using humor to communicate competitive excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsley, M.

    1994-12-31

    The use of humor to communicate excellence in the nuclear industry is described, particularly as a method to relieve public anxiety. At many companies throughout our culture, it is not okay to have fun with anything work related; it violates the puritan work ethic - you know, nose to the grindstone, buckle down and get crackin, and so forth. At Wolf Creek, we`re finding that when we have fun - not only among ourselves, but around and with others as well - we are more effective with the public, more interesting to the media, and we all smile more.

  15. Aberrant Collagen Composition of the Trabecular Meshwork Results in Reduced Aqueous Humor Drainage and Elevated IOP in MMP-9 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Groef, Lies; Andries, Lien; Siwakoti, Anuja; Geeraerts, Emiel; Bollaerts, Ilse; Noterdaeme, Lut; Etienne, Isabelle; Papageorgiou, Anna-Pia; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Billen, Johan; West-Mays, Judith A.; Moons, Lieve

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Homeostatic turnover of the trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential to regulate aqueous humor outflow and to maintain intraocular pressure homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated aqueous humor turnover, intraocular pressure, and trabecular meshwork organization in MMP-9 null mice. Methods Intraocular pressure and aqueous humor turnover were measured in MMP-9 null versus wild-type mice. Morphology of the anterior segment of the eye, with special attention to the structural organization of the trabecular meshwork, was investigated by means of optical coherence tomography, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostainings, we evaluated the ECM composition of the trabecular meshwork. Finally, the integrity and function of the retina and optic nerve were assessed, via optical coherence tomography, histologic techniques, and optomotor testing. Results MMP-9 null mice displayed early-onset ocular hypertension and reduced aqueous humor turnover. While transmission electron microscopic analysis did not reveal any abnormalities in the cellular organization of the trabecular meshwork, detailed investigation of collagen expression indicated that there is an aberrant trabecular meshwork ECM composition in MMP-9 null mice. Notably, at the age of 13 months, no glaucomatous neurodegeneration was seen in MMP-9 null mice. Conclusions Our observations corroborate MMP-9 as an important remodeler of the collagenous composition of the trabecular meshwork and provide evidence for a causal link between MMP-9 deficiency, trabecular meshwork ultrastructure, and ocular hypertension. PMID:27820954

  16. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    PubMed

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  17. Simulating Galaxy Outflows Driven by Supersonic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannapieco, Evan

    Feedback from supernova-driven galaxy outflows plays a crucial role in setting the properties and assembly history of low-mass galaxies. Yet, numerically modeling such outflows has been by plagued by the fact that the underlying supernovae are much too small to be directly resolved, but have cooling times that are much too short to be modeled as thermal input. Here I will present three-dimensional, adaptive mesh simulations that overcome this problem using a subgrid model to deposit supernovae energy directly into supersonic turbulence, which acts on scales much smaller than the simulation grid spacing, but much larger than the particle mean free path. In this way, we are able to simulate a starbursting galaxy modeled after NGC 1569, including realistic radiative cooling throughout the simulation. Unlike in previous approaches, pockets of supernova-driven gas sweep up thick shells of material that persist for long times due to the cooling instability, and the overlapping of high-pressure, rarefied regions leads to a collective central outflow as observed in NGC 1569 and other outflowing starbursts. Such models will be directly comparable to a host of new observational constraints.

  18. Protostellar Outflow Evolution in Turbulent Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, A; Frank, A; Carroll, J; Blackman, E; Quillen, A

    2008-04-11

    The link between turbulence in star formatting environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers-type turbulence and produces a driving scale-length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star forming environments. In the last section we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets can not be the source of turbulence.

  19. Left ventricular outflow obstruction and necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.A.; Haney, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Two neonates had unusually rapid development of necrotizing enterocolitis within 24 hours of birth. Both patients had decreased systemic perfusion secondary to aortic atresia. Onset of either clinical or radiographic manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis in the first day of life should alert one to the possible presence of severe left ventricular outflow obstruction.

  20. A SPECTACULAR OUTFLOW IN AN OBSCURED QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Smith, Paul S.

    2012-02-10

    SDSS J1356+1026 is a pair of interacting galaxies at redshift z = 0.123 that hosts a luminous obscured quasar in its northern nucleus. Here we present two long-slit Magellan LDSS-3 spectra that reveal a pair of symmetric {approx}10 kpc size outflows emerging from this nucleus, with observed expansion velocities of {approx}250 km s{sup -1} in projection. We present a kinematic model of these outflows and argue that the deprojected physical velocities of expansion are likely {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} and that the kinetic energy of the expanding shells is likely 10{sup 44-45} erg s{sup -1}, with an absolute minimum of >10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Although a radio counterpart is detected at 1.4 GHz, it is faint enough that the quasar is considered to be radio quiet by all standard criteria, and there is no evidence of extended emission due to radio lobes, whether aged or continuously powered by an ongoing jet. We argue that the likely level of star formation is insufficient to power the observed energetic outflow and that SDSS J1356+1026 is a good case for radio-quiet quasar feedback. In further support of this hypothesis, polarimetric observations show that the direction of quasar illumination is coincident with the direction of the outflow.

  1. Where is the oxygen in protostellar outflows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Oxygen (O) is the third-most abundant element in the Universe after hydrogen and helium. Despite its high elemental abundance, a good picture of where oxygen is located in low-mass protostellar outflows and jets is missing: we cannot account for > 60% of the oxygen budget in these objects. This hole in our picture means that we currently do not have a good understanding of the dominant cooling processes in outflows jets, despite the fact that [O I] emission at 63 micron is one of the dominant cooling lines, nor how cooling processes evolve with protostellar evolution. To shed light on these processes, we propose to observe the [O I] 63 micron line with SOFIA-GREAT toward five low-mass protostars. As a first step, the velocity-resolved line profile will be decomposed into its constituent components to isolate the relative contributions from the jet and the irradiated outflow. Second, the [O I] line profile will be compared to those of H2O, OH and CO to obtain the relative atomic O abundance with respect to CO, H2O, and OH. Third, the effects of evolution will be examined by observing protostars at different evolutionary stages. These three approaches will allow us to quantify: the oxygen chemistry in warm and hot gas, the relative amounts of material in the outflow and the jet, and finally to start tracing the evolutionary sequence of how feedback evolves with time.

  2. Where is the oxygen in protostellar outflows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars

    Oxygen (O) is the third-most abundant element in the Universe after hydrogen and helium. Despite its high elemental abundance, a good picture of where oxygen is located in low-mass protostellar outflows and jets is missing: we cannot account for > 60% of the oxygen budget in these objects. This hole in our picture means that we currently do not have a good understanding of the dominant cooling processes in outflows jets, despite the fact that [O I] emission at 63 micron is one of the dominant cooling lines, nor how cooling processes evolve with protostellar evolution. To shed light on these processes, we propose to observe the [O I] 63 micron line with SOFIA-GREAT toward seven low-mass protostars. As a first step, the velocity-resolved line profile will be decomposed into its constituent components to isolate the relative contributions from the jet and the irradiated outflow. Second, the [O I] line profile will be compared to those of H2O, OH and CO to obtain the relative atomic O abundance with respect to CO, H2O, and OH. Third, the effects of evolution will be examined by observing protostars at different evolutionary stages. These three approaches will allow us to quantify: the oxygen chemistry in warm and hot gas, the relative amounts of material in the outflow and the jet, and finally to start tracing the evolutionary sequence of how feedback evolves with time.

  3. A Well-Defined Bipolar Outflow Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Patel, Nimesh

    1992-12-01

    A well-defined "eggplant-shaped" thin shell is revealed in the Mon R2 central core region by CO and (13) CO J=1-0 maps obtained with QUARRY. This thin shell outlines the extended blue lobe of the massive bipolar outflow. The projected length and width of the shell are about 5.7 pc and 2.5 pc respectively, and the averaged projected thickness of the shell is ~ 0.3 pc. The shape of this shell can be satisfactorily accounted for quantitatively in terms of limb-brightening within the framework of the Shu et al shell model with radially directed wind, although the model seems to be oversimplified with respect to the complexity that our data reveal. The outflow shell's symmetry axis is estimated to be inclined by ~ 70(deg) with respect to the line of sight. We suggest that the coincident blue- and red-shifted emission and the bending of the red-shifted lobe are the result of the red-shifted shell being compressed, rather than having a second bipolar outflow aligned roughly perpendicular to the axis of the first bipolar outflow.

  4. Enhancing trabecular outflow by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton, increasing uveoscleral outflow with prostaglandins, and understanding the pathophysiology of presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Several major areas of work by the author and his international collaborators are reviewed. 1) The ciliary muscle in the nonhuman primate eye was disinserted at the scleral spur. Pilocarpine was then ineffective in increasing outflow facility, indicating that ciliary muscle contraction mediated the IOP-lowering effect of muscarinic cholinergics. 2) Compounds such as cytochalasins, H-7 and latrunculin A/B, which alter the actin cytoskeleton, cellular contractility and cellular adhesions in cultured trabecular meshwork cells, relaxed trabecular pathway cells and consequently the meshwork itself so as to decrease IOP and enhance trabecular outflow facility in nonhuman primates. Gene transfer approaches utilizing C3 and caldesmon over-expression by viral vectors to target specific steps in the cellular contractility/cytoskeleton/cell adhesion cascades characteristically altered trabecular meshwork cell morphology and increased outflow facility in organ-cultured anterior segments. 3) Prostaglandin F2α analogues enhanced matrix metalloproteinase production by ciliary muscle cells and scleral fibroblasts, leading to remodeling of the extracellular matrix of the ciliary muscle and sclera and consequently to increased uveoslceral outflow and decreased IOP in primates. 4) The rhesus monkey was an excellent model for human presbyopia, losing the accommodative response to cholinergic stimulation in the same timeframe relative to lifespan. No changes were found in ciliary muscle enzymes involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis or degradation or in muscarinic receptor numbers or affinity. Contractility of isolated ciliary muscle did not diminish with age, but posterior ciliary muscle attachments stiffened, suggesting a possible role in restricting muscle and consequently lens movement during accommodation. A model to reproducibly stimulate accommodation through central stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus was developed. Goniovideography and ultrasound biomicroscopic

  5. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  6. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  7. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Janina; Sawicka, Teresa; Prosińska, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work was an estimation of the influence of two plant pharmaceutical preparations containing an extract from the root of Eleutherococcus senticosus: Argoeleuter tablets and Immuplant tablets, on the humoral response of immunological system. Experiments were performed with female Balb/c mice six weeks old. In order to reveal the influence of taking preparations, containing an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus on some elements of the immunological system, three ways of their administration have been compared: before illness, during illness and a combination of both. The obtained results allow formulating the following conclusions: - the pharmaceutical preparations, containing the extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus administered orally, influence on the increase of the level of immunoglobulins comprised in the mice's blood serum, - the pharmaceutical preparations act with different power, not fully dependent on the content of marker of the active substance - eleutheroside E, - dosage of the preparations containing the extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus should not be established basing only on the extract content, - best curative results, measured as the stimulation of humoral response of the organism were obtained when a given preparation was administered therapeutically, even though the combined administration - prophylactically with prolonged administration during illness also is correct.

  8. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  9. Humor in Children's Lives: A Guidebook for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Amelia J., Ed.

    Designed as a resource and as a guide for professionals who work with children and their families, this book explores the cathartic effect of humor on children, and looks at humor as an infusion of energy that promotes healthy growth, development, and adjustment in children of all ages. The chapters are as follows: (1) "Introduction: A Global…

  10. The Power of Humor in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Celeste M.; Gibboney, Elizabeth R.

    Humor is an important tool for the teacher in college classrooms. Generally, laughter is a great benefit in anyone's life, having even physiological influence. Laughter reduces stress and may facilitate creativity. However, the use of humor can both enhance and hinder the learning process. Various researchers have tried to identify structures,…

  11. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  12. DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN DICHOTOMOUS PERSONALITY GROUPS AS DETERMINED BY HUMOR PREFERENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WENCK, STANLEY L.

    THE HUMOR PREFERENCES OF DICHOTOMIZED GROUPS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (SPECIFICALLY, CONFORMISTS AND NONCONFORMISTS) WERE STUDIED TO DETERMINE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES AND TO ESTIMATE THE DEGREE OF RELIABILITY OF RESPONSES TO A HUMOR PREFERENCE INVENTORY. A TOTAL OF 111 MALE SOPHOMORE STUDENTS IN HIGH SCHOOL IDENTIFIED BY THEIR RESPECTIVE HOME ROOM…

  13. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  14. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. - Walnut Street Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Walnut Street (State Route 3034), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  15. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well.

  16. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  17. The Effect of Humor on Learning in a Planetarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Martin S.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of humor on retention of information was examined at the planetarium at Ohio's Center of Science and Industry (COSI) in Columbus, OH. Results showed that the visitors who saw a humorous show retained less of the instructional material and scored lower on the test than the visitors who saw a nonhumorous show. (Author/DKM)

  18. Stand Up Comics: Instructional Humor and Student Engagment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortley, Amy; Dotson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of instructional humor in higher education settings and makes connections between the levels of student achievement in academics and the influence of appropriate instructional humor. The work of prominent researchers such as Wanzer, Frymier, and Irwin (2010), and Segrist & Hupp (2015), who postulate that…

  19. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  20. Group Time: Taking a "Humor Break" at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    January is a perfect time to insert a strong dose of humor into group time gatherings. Oftentimes, children have tired of the predictable pattern of group meetings and need some change. Humor-filled group time activities can be the best secret remedy. Not only will children become more interested in the group time meetings (and therefore listen…

  1. The Use of Humor when Counseling African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vereen, Linwood G.; Butler, S. Kent; Williams, Franklyn C.; Darg, Jules A.; Downing, Trae K. E.

    2006-01-01

    According to the literature, humor is a critical tool to enhance the counseling process because it can reduce stress, build rapport, and aid in the increase of the client's self-efficacy. In recent years, the critical nature of using humor appropriately from a cultural perspective has been explored. In this article, the authors further explore the…

  2. Development: Ages & Stages--The Importance of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of humor and how it helps to understand children's thinking from birth to 6 years. The article presents three sections describing how a young child's sense of humor reveals much about the way he thinks. The first section is entitled "Giggles!" written by Carla Poole. Intended for babies from birth to 2, Poole…

  3. The Effect of Humor on Advertising Credibility and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, John C.

    A study examined the effect of humor on the perceived credibility, character, and authority of an advertisement and on the recall of that advertisement. Two groups of subjects each heard two radio spot announcements, one humorous and one serious. Two different products were advertised, so that the first group of subjects, 117 college advertising…

  4. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  5. Humor in advertisements enhances product liking by mere association.

    PubMed

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B; Holland, Rob W; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-03-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect persuasion through implicit attitude change. Participants viewed humorous and nonhumorous cartoons in a mock-up magazine. One of two products was consistently presented in the vicinity of the humorous cartoons, whereas the other product was consistently presented in the vicinity of the nonhumorous cartoons. The results of an evaluative priming task showed enhanced evaluations of products paired with humor (Experiment 1, 2, and 3). Furthermore, these enhanced evaluations mediated the relation between association with humor and product choice (Experiment 2 and 3). Paradoxically, products paired with humor were also less recognized than the control products (Experiments 2 and 3). In summary, the present research demonstrates that mere association with humor enhances product evaluations and product choice in a way that is dissociated from the accessibility of the product in memory.

  6. The effects of normal aging on humor appreciation.

    PubMed

    Shammi, Prathiba; Stuss, Donald T

    2003-09-01

    The importance of humor in healthy aging is being recognized. We compared elderly and young participants on their comprehension and appreciation of, and reaction to, verbal and nonverbal humor tests. Cognitive processes-working memory, cognitive flexibility, verbal abstraction, and visual scanning-were studied in relation to humor. Results indicated a relative deficit in the elderly in the cognitive comprehension of humor-selecting punch lines to jokes and in a cartoon array test. Measures of cognitive function correlated with humor comprehension. In contrast to this deficit in comprehension, the elderly showed intact affective appreciation and emotional reactiveness. Because of the hypothesis of frontal lobe degeneration as a basis for changes with aging, we compared the elderly to patients with focal frontal lesions. In this comparison, the elderly were significantly better than the patients in their comprehension of humor. They also displayed intact appreciation of humor compared to patients with frontal lesions. This preliminary study suggests that preserved affective responsiveness may underlie the success in using humor as a coping mechanism in the elderly.

  7. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  8. Development of Resolution in Children's Appreciation of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    The theory of a number of philosophers and psychologists, including Freud, is that humor is a biphasic sequence involving first the discovery of incongruity and then the resolution of the incongruity. Without the mechanism of resolution, we cannot distinguish humor from nonsense. The punch line of a joke is seemingly incongruous with the preceding…

  9. Did You Hear the One about...? Humor in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…

  10. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B.; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-01-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect…

  11. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  12. THE CIRCUMBINARY OUTFLOW: A PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW DRIVEN BY A CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Matsumoto, Tomoaki E-mail: inutsuka@nagoya-u.j

    2009-10-10

    Protostellar outflow is a star's first cry at the moment of birth. The outflows have an indispensable role in the formation of single stars because they carry off the excess angular momentum from the center of the shrinking gas cloud, and permit further collapse to form a star. On the other hand, a significant fraction of stars is supposedly born as binaries with circumbinary disks that are frequently observed. Here, we investigate the evolution of a magnetized rotating cloud using a three-dimensional resistive MHD nested-grid code, and show that the outflow is driven by the circumbinary disk and has an important role even in the binary formation. After the adiabatic core formation in the collapsing cloud core, the magnetic flux is significantly removed from the center of the cloud by the Ohmic dissipation. Since this removal makes the magnetic braking ineffective, the adiabatic core continuously acquires the angular momentum to induce fragmentation and subsequent binary formation. The magnetic field accumulates in the circumbinary disk where the removal and accretion of magnetic field are balanced, and finally drives the circumbinary outflow. This result explains the spectacular morphology of some specific young stellar objects such as L1551 IRS5. We can infer that most of the bipolar molecular outflows observed by low density tracers (i.e., CO) would correspond to circumbinary or circum-multiple outflows found in this Letter, since most of the young stellar objects are supposed to be binaries or multiples.

  13. [Relationships between humor expression and self-acceptance, aggression, and altruism].

    PubMed

    Tsukawaki, Ryota; Higuchi, Masataka; Fukada, Hiromi

    2009-10-01

    The structure of humor expression was clarified and its relationships with aggression, altruism, and self-acceptance were examined. In study 1, college students (n = 216) responded to a scale with items about humor expression. An exploratory factor analysis indicated three types of humor expression: aggressive, self-disparaging, and playful humor expression. In study 2, 119 college students responded to items about (a) humor expression, (b) aggression, (c) altruism, and (d) self-acceptance. The results showed positive relationships between aggressive humor expression and aggression, self-disparaging humor expression and self-acceptance, and playful humor expression and altruism.

  14. Humor, laughter, and physical health: methodological issues and research findings.

    PubMed

    Martin, R A

    2001-07-01

    All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.

  15. Playing with Expectations: A Contextual View of Humor Development

    PubMed Central

    Airenti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms. In particular, I focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants that is also considered a typical feature of irony. I argue that all forms of humor can be regarded as a type of interaction that I propose to call “playing with expectations.” PMID:27703438

  16. Humor and gender roles: does age make a difference?

    PubMed

    Vitulli, William F

    2005-08-01

    Crawford's analysis in 2003 suggests that humor interacts with gender so that traditional social norms of femininity and masculinity may be reinforced or diinished. Yet age as a covariate was not considered. Assessment of the attitudes toward humor among 72 older women (M=72.0, SD=9.8, range=51-93 years) and 24 older men (M=69.8, SD=6.8, range=59-90 years) in 1996 by Vitulli and Parman suggest ratings on a Likert-type scale (anchored by 5: strongly agree and 1: strongly disagree) in which humor and gender interact. Moreover, a post hoc Scheffé test showed a significant sex effect on the female-oriented scale. Older women perceived humor as an important quality for women, whereas older men did not. Generational differences among studies on humor and sex underscore the need for contemporary research inclusive of age measures.

  17. Stimulus characteristics affect humor processing in individuals with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Samson, Andrea C; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS individuals did not differ to the control group in humor appreciation of visual puns. However, they had difficulty understanding and appreciating Theory of Mind cartoons and provided mentalistic explanations less frequently than controls suggesting that humor processing is strongly related to the cognitive requirements that the stimuli pose on the perceiver. Furthermore, AS individuals referred in all conditions more frequently to non-joke relevant details. Therefore, humor processing is also influenced by their detail-oriented processing style.

  18. System-Wide Associations between DNA-Methylation, Gene Expression, and Humoral Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Michael T.; Oberg, Ann L.; Grill, Diane E.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Failure to achieve a protected state after influenza vaccination is poorly understood but occurs commonly among aged populations experiencing greater immunosenescence. In order to better understand immune response in the elderly, we studied epigenetic and transcriptomic profiles and humoral immune response outcomes in 50–74 year old healthy participants. Associations between DNA methylation and gene expression reveal a system-wide regulation of immune-relevant functions, likely playing a role in regulating a participant’s propensity to respond to vaccination. Our findings show that sites of methylation regulation associated with humoral response to vaccination impact known cellular differentiation signaling and antigen presentation pathways. We performed our analysis using per-site and regionally average methylation levels, in addition to continuous or dichotomized outcome measures. The genes and molecular functions implicated by each analysis were compared, highlighting different aspects of the biologic mechanisms of immune response affected by differential methylation. Both cis-acting (within the gene or promoter) and trans-acting (enhancers and transcription factor binding sites) sites show significant associations with measures of humoral immunity. Specifically, we identified a group of CpGs that, when coordinately hypo-methylated, are associated with lower humoral immune response, and methylated with higher response. Additionally, CpGs that individually predict humoral immune responses are enriched for polycomb-group and FOXP2 transcription factor binding sites. The most robust associations implicate differential methylation affecting gene expression levels of genes with known roles in immunity (e.g. HLA-B and HLA-DQB2) and immunosenescence. We believe our data and analysis strategy highlight new and interesting epigenetic trends affecting humoral response to vaccination against influenza; one of the most common and impactful viral pathogens. PMID:27031986

  19. Development of a novel two color tracer perfusion technique for the hydrodynamic study of aqueous outflow in bovine eyes

    PubMed Central

    Jing-yin, ZHU; Wen, YE; Hai-yan, GONG

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevation of intraocular pressure is usually associated with primary open angle glaucoma and caused by increased outflow resistance. A two-color fluorescent tracer technique was developed to investigate the hydrodynamics of aqueous humor outflow with changing intraocular pressure within the same eye, to better understand the relationship between outflow facility and effective filtration area. Methods Eighteen enucleated bovine eyes were first perfused at 30 mmHg with Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline containing 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose. After a stable baseline facility, red fluorescent microspheres (0.5 μm, 0.002% v/v) were exchanged and perfused. Eyes in the one-color control group (n=6) were immediately perfused with fixative. In the experimental group (n=6), eyes were perfused with green tracer after intraocular pressure reduced to 7 mmHg, while in the two-color control group (n=6), eyes were perfused with green tracer with intraocular pressure remaining at 30 mmHg. All 12 eyes were then perfusion-fixed. Outflow facility was continuously recorded in all eyes. Confocal images were taken along the inner wall of the aqueous plexus and the percent of the effective filtration length (PEFL; length of inner wall exhibiting tracer labeling/total length of inner wall) was measured. The relationships between outflow facility and PEFL were analyzed statistically. Results No significant differences were found in baseline facilities (μl·min−1·mmHg−1) among the three groups (the experimental group: 0.93±0.12; the two-color control group: 0.90±0.19; the one-color control group: 0.98±0.13). In the experimental group, the outflow facility was significantly higher at 7 mmHg (4.29±1.01) than that at 30 mmHg (1.90±0.67, P <0.001), which corresponded to a significant increase in the PEFL at 7 mmHg (54.70±8.42) from that at 30 mmHg ((11.76±4.56)%, P <0.001). The PEFL labeled by red fluorescent microspheres in the experimental group ((11.76±4.56)%) showed

  20. Plasma zinc's alter ego is a low-molecular-weight humoral factor.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ou; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Urgast, Dagmar; Gordon, Margaret-Jane; Campbell, Gill; Feldmann, Jörg; Nixon, Graeme F; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Kwun, In-Sook; Beattie, John H

    2013-09-01

    Mild dietary zinc deprivation in humans and rodents has little effect on blood plasma zinc levels, and yet cellular consequences of zinc depletion can be detected in vascular and other tissues. We proposed that a zinc-regulated humoral factor might mediate the effects of zinc deprivation. Using a novel approach, primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with plasma from zinc-deficient (<1 mg Zn/kg) or zinc-adequate (35 mg Zn/kg, pair-fed) adult male rats, and zinc levels were manipulated to distinguish direct and indirect effects of plasma zinc. Gene expression changes were analyzed by microarray and qPCR, and incubation of VSMCs with blood plasma from zinc-deficient rats strongly changed the expression of >2500 genes, compared to incubation of cells with zinc-adequate rat plasma. We demonstrated that this effect was caused by a low-molecular-weight (∼2-kDa) zinc-regulated humoral factor but that changes in gene expression were mostly reversed by adding zinc back to zinc-deficient plasma. Strongly regulated genes were overrepresented in pathways associated with immune function and development. We conclude that zinc deficiency induces the production of a low-molecular-weight humoral factor whose influence on VSMC gene expression is blocked by plasma zinc. This factor is therefore under dual control by zinc.

  1. LC-MS-Based Metabolic Fingerprinting of Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Dmuchowska, Diana Anna; Krasnicki, Pawel; Wojnar, Malgorzata; Skowronska, Aleksandra; Mariak, Zofia

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous humor (AH) is a transparent fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It supplies nutrients and removes metabolic waste from avascular tissues in the eye. Proper homeostasis of AH is required to maintain adequate intraocular pressure as well as optical and refractive properties of the eye. Application of metabolomics to study human AH may improve knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of eye diseases. Until now, global analysis of metabolites in AH has been mainly performed using NMR. Among the analytical platforms used in metabolomics, LC-MS allows for the highest metabolome coverage. The aim of this study was to develop a method for extraction and analysis of AH metabolites by LC-QTOF-MS. Different protocols for AH preparation were tested. The best results were obtained when one volume of AH was mixed with one volume of methanol : ethanol (1 : 1). In the final method, 2 µL of extracted sample was analyzed by LC-QTOF-MS. The method allowed for reproducible measurement of over 1000 metabolic features. Almost 250 metabolites were identified in AH and assigned to 47 metabolic pathways. This method is suitable to study the potential role of amino acids, lipids, oxidative stress, or microbial metabolites in development of ocular diseases. PMID:28154769

  2. Vangl2-regulated polarisation of second heart field-derived cells is required for outflow tract lengthening during cardiac development.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, Simon A; Sharma, Vipul; Rhee, Hong Jun; Eley, Lorraine; Phillips, Helen M; Rigby, Hannah F; Dean, Charlotte; Chaudhry, Bill; Henderson, Deborah J

    2014-12-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF) to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis.

  3. Vangl2-Regulated Polarisation of Second Heart Field-Derived Cells Is Required for Outflow Tract Lengthening during Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hong Jun; Eley, Lorraine; Phillips, Helen M.; Rigby, Hannah F.; Dean, Charlotte; Chaudhry, Bill; Henderson, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF) to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis. PMID:25521757

  4. Diffusion Regulation in the Vitreous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Käsdorf, Benjamin Tillmann; Arends, Fabienna; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The efficient treatment of many ocular diseases depends on the rapid diffusive distribution of solutes such as drugs or drug delivery vehicles through the vitreous humor. However, this multicomponent hydrogel possesses selective permeability properties, which allow for the diffusion of certain molecules and particles, whereas others are immobilized. In this study, we perform an interspecies comparison showing that the selective permeability properties of the vitreous are conserved across several mammalian species. We identify the polyanionic glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate as two key macromolecules that establish this selective permeability. We show that electrostatic interactions between the polyanionic macromolecules and diffusing solutes can be weakened by charge screening or enzymatic glycosaminoglycan digestion. Furthermore, molecule penetration into the vitreous is also charge-dependent and only efficient as long as the net charge of the molecule does not exceed a certain threshold. PMID:26588575

  5. Regulation of humoral immunity by complement.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael C; Isenman, David E

    2012-08-24

    The complement system of innate immunity is important in regulating humoral immunity largely through the complement receptor CR2, which forms a coreceptor on B cells during antigen-induced activation. However, CR2 also retains antigens on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Display of antigen on FDCs is critical for clonal selection and affinity maturation of activated B cells. This review will discuss the role of complement in adaptive immunity in general with a focus on the interplay between CR2-associated antigen on B cells with CR2 expressed on FDCs. This latter interaction provides an opportunity for memory B cells to sample antigen over prolonged periods. The cocrystal structure of CR2 with its ligand C3d provides insight into how the complement system regulates access of antigen by B cells with implications for therapeutic manipulations to modulate aberrant B cell responses in the case of autoimmunity.

  6. Visual impairment, verbal humor, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Tait, P E

    1986-03-01

    Through a cerebral hemispheric specialization model, I speculated that the reported discrepancy between visually impaired children's competency in language development and lags in cognition may be explained by the use of visual-spatial measurements of cognition. The performance of 51 visually impaired and 51 sighted children, ages 7 to 15 years, on a task of joke comprehension and conservation of weight scores was analyzed. I hypothesized that the ability to comprehend verbal humor would reflect the function of the left hemisphere of the brain and the ability to perform a Piagetian visual-spatial task would reflect the function of the right hemisphere. The findings indicate that although age and IQ contributed significantly to predicting joke comprehension, the ability to conserve did not have a unique contribution. In conclusion, I suggest that the cerebral hemispheric specialization model be considered when investigating language and cognition of visually impaired children.

  7. Example of reduced turbulence during thunderstorm outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.

    1996-06-01

    This research note describes the effects of a gust front passage resulting from a thunderstorm outflow on wind, turbulence, and other basic meteorological variables in northern Mew Mexico. The purpose of this note is to explain how a thunderstorm outflow can greatly reduce horizontal and vertical turbulence and produce strong winds, thereby promoting the rapid transport of elevated pollutant concentrations. Another goal is to demonstrate the usefulness of a sodar in combination with a tower to provide data for dispersion and transport calculations during an emergency response. Hopefully, this note will motivate other researchers to analyze and document the effects of thunderstorms on turbulence and dispersion by routine monitoring or by experimentation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Eddy Generation by a Steady Poleward Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T. S.; Pedlosky, J.; Spall, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The energetic eddy field coincident with the South Equatorial Current (SEC) in the eastern Indian Ocean has been variously attributed to baroclinic instability of the SEC, barotropic instability of the SEC and shedding of eddies by the branch of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) entering the basin through Timor Passage. We present an additional mechanism by demonstrating that in an idealized numerical model, a steady poleward outflow (meant to simulate the Lombok Strait branch of the ITF) can generate an eddy field with spatial and temporal patterns that bear a remarkable resemblance to observations of sea surface height varibility in the region. A simple conceptual model will be presented which links the nonlinear, eddy-generating dynamics to linear dynamics, thus making possible the prediction of eddy amplitudes and periodicity for a wide range of outflow latitudes and volume fluxes.

  9. Outflows of stars due to quasar feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; Nayakshin, Sergei; Sazonov, Sergey; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2013-05-01

    Quasar feedback outflows are commonly invoked to drive gas out of galaxies in the early gas-rich epoch to terminate growth of galaxies. Here we present simulations that show that AGN feedback may drive not only gas but also stars out of their host galaxies under certain conditions. The mechanics of this process is as follows: (1) AGN-driven outflows accelerate and compress gas filling the host galaxy; (2) the accelerated dense shells become gravitationally unstable and form stars on radial trajectories. For the spherically symmetric initial conditions explored here, the black hole needs to exceed the host's Mσ mass by a factor of a few to accelerate the shells and the new stars to escape velocities. We discuss potential implications of these effects for the host galaxies: (i) radial mixing of bulge stars with the rest of the host; (ii) contribution of quasar outflows to galactic fountains as sources of high-velocity clouds; (iii) wholesale ejection of hypervelocity stars out of their hosts, giving rise to Type II supernovae on galactic outskirts, and contributing to reionization and metal enrichment of the Universe; (iv) bulge erosion and even complete destruction in extreme cases resulting in overweight or bulgeless SMBHs.

  10. Density distributions of outflow-driven turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraghan, Anthony; Kim, Jongsoo; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2013-05-01

    Protostellar jets and outflows are signatures of star formation and promising mechanisms for driving supersonic turbulence in molecular clouds. We quantify outflow-driven turbulence through three-dimensional numerical simulations using an isothermal version of the robust total variation diminishing code. We drive turbulence in real space using a simplified spherical outflow model, analyse the data through density probability distribution functions (PDFs), and investigate the core formation rate per free-fall time (CFRff). The real-space turbulence-driving method produces a negatively skewed density PDF possessing an enhanced tail on the low-density side. It deviates from the log-normal distributions typically obtained from Fourier-space turbulence driving at low densities, but can provide a good fit at high densities, particularly in terms of mass-weighted rather than volume-weighted density PDF. Due to this fact, we suggest that the CFRff determined from a Fourier-driven turbulence model could be comparable to that of our particular real-space-driving model, which has a ratio of solenoidal to compressional components from the resulting turbulence velocity fields of ˜0.6.

  11. Magnetospheric imaging of high latitude ion outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrido, D. E.; Robinson, R. M.; Chiu, Y. T.; Collin, H. L.; Smith, R. W.; Swift, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    High latitude ion outflows mostly consist of upward streaming O(+) and He(+) emanating from the ionosphere. At heights above 1000 km, these flows consist of cold and hot components which resonantly scatter solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, however, the ion populations respond differently to Doppler shifting resulting from the large relative velocities between the ions and the Sun. The possibility of optical detection of the Doppler effect on the scattering rate will be discussed for the O(+) (83.4 nm) ions. We have contrasted the EUV solar resonance images of these outflows by simulations of the 30.4 nm He(+) and 83.4 nm O(+) emissions for both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Input data for the 1000 km level has been obtained from the EICS instrument aboard the Dynamics Explorer (DE) satellite. Our results show emission rates of 50 and 56 milli-Rayleighs at 30.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions and 65 and 75 milli-Rayleighs at 83.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions, respectively, obtained for a polar orbiting satellite and viewing radially outward. We also find that an imager at an equatorial distance of 9 R(sub E) or more is in a favorable position for detecting ion outflows, particularly when the plasmapause is depressed in latitude. However, an occultation disk is necessary to obscure the bright plasmaspheric emissions.

  12. CARMA OBSERVATIONS OF PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS IN NGC 1333

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, Adele L.; Arce, Hector G.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Mardones, Diego; Sargent, Anneila I.; Schnee, Scott L.

    2013-09-01

    We present observations of outflows in the star-forming region NGC 1333 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy (CARMA). We combined the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (1-0) CARMA mosaics with data from the 14 m Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory to probe the central, most dense, and active region of this protostellar cluster at scales from 5'' to 7' (or 1000 AU to 0.5 pc at a distance of 235 pc). We map and identify {sup 12}CO outflows, and along with {sup 13}CO data we estimate their mass, momentum, and energy. Within the 7' Multiplication-Sign 7' map, the 5'' resolution allows for a detailed study of morphology and kinematics of outflows and outflow candidates, some of which were previously confused with other outflow emission in the region. In total, we identify 22 outflow lobes, as well as 9 dense circumstellar envelopes marked by continuum emission, of which 6 drive outflows. We calculate a total outflow mass, momentum, and energy within the mapped region of 6 M{sub Sun }, 19 M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1}, and 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg, respectively. Within this same region, we compare outflow kinematics with turbulence and gravitational energy, and we suggest that outflows are likely important agents for the maintenance of turbulence in this region. In the earliest stages of star formation, outflows do not yet contribute enough energy to totally disrupt the clustered region where most star formation is happening, but have the potential to do so as the protostellar sources evolve. Our results can be used to constrain outflow properties, such as outflow strength, in numerical simulations of outflow-driven turbulence in clusters.

  13. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  14. BAL OUTFLOW CONTRIBUTION TO AGN FEEDBACK: FREQUENCY OF S IV OUTFLOWS IN THE SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Jay P.; Arav, Nahum; Laughlin, Courtney; Edmonds, Doug; Aoki, Kentaro; Wilkins, Ashlee; Bautista, Manuel E-mail: arav@vt.edu E-mail: kentaro.aoki@hawaiiantel.net E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu

    2012-05-10

    We present a study of broad absorption line (BAL) quasar outflows that show S IV {lambda}1063 and S IV* {lambda}1073 troughs. The fractional abundances of S IV and C IV peak at similar value of the ionization parameter, implying that they arise from the same physical component of the outflow. Detection of the S IV* troughs will allow us to determine the distance to this gas with higher resolution and higher signal-to-noise spectra, therefore providing the distance and energetics of the ubiquitous C IV BAL outflows. In our bright sample of 156 SDSS quasars, 14% show C IV and 1.9% S IV troughs, which are consistent with a fainter magnitude sample with twice as many objects. One object in the fainter sample shows evidence of a broad S IV trough without any significant trough present from the excited state line, which implies that this outflow could be at a distance of several kpc. Given the fractions of C IV and S IV, we establish firm limits on the global covering factor on S IV that ranges from 2.8% to 21% (allowing for the k-correction). Comparison of the expected optical depth for these ions with their detected percentage suggests that these species arise from common outflows with a covering factor closer to the latter.

  15. Quasar feedback revealed by giant molecular outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feruglio, C.; Maiolino, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Menci, N.; Aussel, H.; Lamastra, A.; Fiore, F.

    2010-07-01

    In the standard scenario for galaxy evolution young star-forming galaxies transform into red bulge-dominated spheroids, where star formation has been quenched. To explain this transformation, a strong negative feedback generated by accretion onto a central super-massive black hole is often invoked. The depletion of gas resulting from quasar-driven outflows should eventually stop star-formation across the host galaxy and lead the black hole to “suicide” by starvation. Direct observational evidence for a major quasar feedback onto the host galaxy is still missing, because outflows previously observed in quasars are generally associated with the ionized component of the gas, which only accounts for a minor fraction of the total gas content, and typically occurrs in the central regions. We used the IRAM PdB Interferometer to observe the CO(1-0) transition in Mrk 231, the closest quasar known. Thanks to the wide band we detected broad wings of the CO line, with velocities of up to 750 km s-1 and spatially resolved on the kpc scale. These broad CO wings trace a giant molecular outflow of about 700 M_⊙/year, far larger than the ongoing star-formation rate (~200 M_⊙/year) observed in the host galaxy. This wind will totally expel the cold gas reservoir in Mrk 231 in about 107 yrs, therefore halting the star-formation activity on the same timescale. The inferred kinetic energy in the molecular outflow is ~1.2 × 1044 erg/s, corresponding to a few percent of the AGN bolometric luminosity, which is very close to the fraction expected by models ascribing quasar feedback to highly supersonic shocks generated by radiatively accelerated nuclear winds. Instead, the contribution by the SNe associated with the starburst fall short by several orders of magnitude to account for the kinetic energy observed in the outflow. The direct observational evidence for quasar feedback reported here provides solid support to the scenarios ascribing the observed properties of local massive

  16. Humor theories and the physiological benefits of laughter.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Julia; Eisenbraun, Amy Janel

    2009-01-01

    There are 3 main theories used to explain the functions of humor: (1) the relief theory, (2) the incongruity theory, and (3) the superiority theory. Though these theories focus on the specific role that humor plays for people in situations such as dealing with misfortune, making sense of rule violations, and bonding with others, we propose that underlying each of these theories are the physiological benefits of laughter. We draw on findings from empirical studies on laughter to demonstrate that these physiological benefits occur regardless of the theory that is used to explain the humor function.

  17. Molecular Outflows in Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Nichol

    2015-11-01

    This thesis presents millimetre continuum and molecular line observations exploring the properties of molecular outflows towards massive star forming regions. Massive stars produce some of the most energetic phenomena in the Galaxy, yet we still do not have a comprehensive understanding of how they actually form. Outflows are known to play a key role in this formation process and their properties, particularly how they change depending on the mass, luminosity and evolution of the driving source can shed light on how massive stars actually form. This thesis presents observations at both high (SMA 3 arcsecond) and low (JCMT 15 arcsecond) spatial resolution of the known jet/outflow tracers, SiO and 12CO, towards a sample massive star forming region drawn from the RMS survey. Furthermore, the presence of infall signatures is explored through observations of HCO+ and H13CO+, and the hot core nature of the regions is probed using tracers such as CH3CN, HC3N and CH3OH. SiO is detected towards approximately 50% of the massive young stellar objects and HII regions in the JCMT sample. The detection of SiO appears to be linked to the age of the RMS source, with the likely younger sources showing a stronger dependence with SiO. The presence of SiO also appears to be linked to the CO velocity, with SiO more efficiently tracing sources with higher velocity dispersions. In the MOPRA observations towards a sample of 33 RMS sources, CH3CN is detected towards 66% of the sources, with the redder likely younger sources having the largest rotational temperatures. This thesis presents the first interferometric SiO (5-4) and 12CO (2-1) observations, taken with the SMA, towards the massive star forming region G203.3166/NGC 2264-C. In this intermediate/massive star forming cluster, SiO is again tracing the youngest sources. Both the SiO and 12CO emission trace two bipolar, high velocity outflows towards the mm brightest, IR-dark, likely youngest sources in this reg! ion. In contrast the IR

  18. Characterization of ocular biometrics and aqueous humor dynamics in primary angle closure suspects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Deng, Yuan; Fang, Li; Liu, Chaoqi; Guo, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Detailed characterizations of ocular biometrics and parameters of aqueous humor dynamics are lacking in primary angle closure suspect (PACS) patients. This study aims to characterize these parameters and compare them with age-matched healthy volunteers.Elderly healthy volunteers (60.6 ± 7.2 years of age, mean ± SD, n = 28) and PACS patients (64.1 ± 11.6 years, n = 30) completed the study. Parameters investigated were axial length (AXL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central cornea thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous flow (Fa), outflow facility (C), episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow (Fu). Comparisons and correlations were made between and within groups.In healthy volunteers, ocular biometric parameters, IOP, and EVP correlated very well between the 2 eyes of each individual, but Fa, C, and Fu were not significantly correlated. Biometric parameters of the PACS group significantly (P < 0.001) differed from those of the healthy controls: AXL (23.31 ± 1.03 mm [PACS] vs 22.39 ± 1.04 mm [Control]; mean ± SD), ACD (2.44 ± 0.33 mm [PACS] vs 1.86 ± 0.25 mm [Control]), ACV (136.0 ± 36.1 μL [PACS] vs 81.4 ± 21.8 μL [Control]), CCT (526.9 ± 37.0 μm [PACS] vs 556.1 ± 28.4 μm [Control]). There was no significant change in IOP, Fa, C, EVP, or Fu between Control and PACS. Furthermore, IOP showed no significant correlations with AXL, ACD, ACV, CCT, or C in both groups.The PACS eyes had a shorter AXL, a shallower ACD, and a smaller ACV, but a thicker CCT. Despite these morphological changes, the PACS eyes did not have any significant changes in IOP, and aqueous humor dynamics parameters. This is consistent with the findings that IOP did not show significant correlations with biometrics, or C.

  19. Characterization of ocular biometrics and aqueous humor dynamics in primary angle closure suspects

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Deng, Yuan; Fang, Li; Liu, Chaoqi; Guo, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Detailed characterizations of ocular biometrics and parameters of aqueous humor dynamics are lacking in primary angle closure suspect (PACS) patients. This study aims to characterize these parameters and compare them with age-matched healthy volunteers. Elderly healthy volunteers (60.6 ± 7.2 years of age, mean ± SD, n = 28) and PACS patients (64.1 ± 11.6 years, n = 30) completed the study. Parameters investigated were axial length (AXL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central cornea thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous flow (Fa), outflow facility (C), episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow (Fu). Comparisons and correlations were made between and within groups. In healthy volunteers, ocular biometric parameters, IOP, and EVP correlated very well between the 2 eyes of each individual, but Fa, C, and Fu were not significantly correlated. Biometric parameters of the PACS group significantly (P < 0.001) differed from those of the healthy controls: AXL (23.31 ± 1.03 mm [PACS] vs 22.39 ± 1.04 mm [Control]; mean ± SD), ACD (2.44 ± 0.33 mm [PACS] vs 1.86 ± 0.25 mm [Control]), ACV (136.0 ± 36.1 μL [PACS] vs 81.4 ± 21.8 μL [Control]), CCT (526.9 ± 37.0 μm [PACS] vs 556.1 ± 28.4 μm [Control]). There was no significant change in IOP, Fa, C, EVP, or Fu between Control and PACS. Furthermore, IOP showed no significant correlations with AXL, ACD, ACV, CCT, or C in both groups. The PACS eyes had a shorter AXL, a shallower ACD, and a smaller ACV, but a thicker CCT. Despite these morphological changes, the PACS eyes did not have any significant changes in IOP, and aqueous humor dynamics parameters. This is consistent with the findings that IOP did not show significant correlations with biometrics, or C. PMID:28207520

  20. Anatomy of the Vestibulo-automatic Outflow to the Gut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Motion sickness can be induced by vestibular effects on the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system. However, the pathways linking the vestibular and autonomic pathways are unknown. As a first step in this analysis, the locations of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSN) and dorsal root afferent ganglionic neurons (DRG) which supply sympathetic innervation to major portions of the gastrointestinal tract in rabbits were identified. The objective of a second series of experiments is to determine which of the brainstem nuclei project to the autonomic regions of the spinal cord that control gastrointestinal motility. To achieve this goal, a trans-synaptic retrograde tracer (3H-tetanus toxoid) is applied to the greater splanchnic nerve. This method allows the labeling of neurons within the brainstem that project only to the preganglionic synpathetic neurons. One structure that has been strongly implicated in mediating vestibulo-autonomic control is the cerebellum (i.e., nodulus and uvula). The outflow of these lobules to the autonomic regions of the brainstem is mediated by the fastigial nucleus. To determine the precise projections of the fastigial nucleus to the brainstem nuclei involved in emesis, anterograde tracer (3H-leucine) was injected into the fastigial nucleus in a third series of experiments.

  1. A Study of Humor Initiated by Cosmopolitan and Locals in an Urban University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Janet G.; Jain, Nemi C.

    This paper presents the results of an empirical study designed to test three hypotheses concerning the type of humor initiated by faculty in their interpersonal communication: (1) the organizational type of person is associated with the type of humor he initiates; (2) cosmopolitans tend to initiate abrasive humor more often than lubricant humor;…

  2. Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Using Humor in Education but Were Afraid to Laugh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    The importance of laughter and humor to enhance education, and special education in particular, is addressed. A sense of humor is an attitude, and humor together with enthusiasm helps students enjoy the learning process. Humor can make students become more alert, and can have very positive influences on affect. A funny remark, a pleasant…

  3. Adolescent Humor and Its Relationship to Coping, Defense Strategies, Psychological Distress, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,…

  4. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  5. The Views of Turkish Teachers on the Use of Humor in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Humor is the type of expression and writing representing the humorous aspect of life by adorning with jokes and wit. The main objective of humor is to criticize, ironize, and correct the flaws and hideousness in life. Humor develops the sensitivity, the empathizing ability and social facts' multidimensional perception of individuals. Humor…

  6. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. II. 3D Biconical Outflow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2016-09-01

    We present 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane for investigating the physical properties of the ionized gas outflows and their effect on the observed gas kinematics in type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a set of input parameters, we construct a number of models in 3D and calculate the spatially integrated velocity and velocity dispersion for each model. We find that three primary parameters, i.e., intrinsic velocity, bicone inclination, and the amount of dust extinction, mainly determine the simulated velocity and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion increases as the intrinsic velocity or the bicone inclination increases, while velocity (i.e., velocity shifts with respect to systemic velocity) increases as the amount of dust extinction increases. Simulated emission-line profiles well reproduce the observed [O iii] line profiles, e.g., narrow core and broad wing components. By comparing model grids and Monte Carlo simulations with the observed [O iii] velocity-velocity dispersion distribution of ˜39,000 type 2 AGNs, we constrain the intrinsic velocity of gas outflows ranging from ˜500 to ˜1000 km s-1 for the majority of AGNs, and up to ˜1500-2000 km s-1 for extreme cases. The Monte Carlo simulations show that the number ratio of AGNs with negative [O iii] velocity to AGNs with positive [O iii] velocity correlates with the outflow opening angle, suggesting that outflows with higher intrinsic velocity tend to have wider opening angles. These results demonstrate the potential of our 3D models for studying the physical properties of gas outflows, applicable to various observations, including spatially integrated and resolved gas kinematics.

  7. Outflow facility efficacy of five drugs in enucleated porcine eyes by a method of constant-pressure perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Shi, Hui-Min; Cong, Lin; Lu, Zhao-Zeng; Ye, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a technique that assesses the outflow facility (C) efficacy of five kinds of IOP-lowering drugs commonly used clinically in enucleated porcine Eyes. Eyes were perfused at 15 mmHg with GPBS first to establish the baseline outflow facility (C0). Then the anterior chamber contents were exchanged for GPBS with corresponding concentration eye drops (4.9×103 nM Brimonidine, 41.1 nM Latanoprost, 3.4×103 nM Levobunolol, 3.0×103 nM Brinzolamide, 8.3×103 nM Pilocarpine) in five groups (n = 6 each), while 6 eyes received GPBS alone as control. The mean stable facility obtained after drug administration (C1) was continuously recorded. The changes between C0 and C1 (ΔC = C1-C0) were analyzed. Finally, for drugs among the five experiment groups with statistical significance, the concentration was reduced 3 times, otherwise the drugs’ concentration was increased to 10 times to confirm its effectiveness further using the same methods (n = 6 each). We found that the average baseline outflow facility was 0.24±0.01 μl·min-1·mmHg-1. C increased significantly in Brimonidine and Latanoprost groups, even the concentration of Brimonidine and Latanoprost was decreased 3 times (P < 0.05). However, there was no significantly increase in Levobunolol, Brinzolamide, Pilocarpine and control group (P > 0.05), but when drugs’ concentration was increased to 10 times, the C value of Pilocarpine decreased significantly (P = 0.04). No significant washout effects in porcine eyes were observed. To conclude, outflow facility efficacy of five drugs in enucleated porcine eyes may provide a reference for clinical medicine. A constant-pressure perfusion technique should be useful to evaluate effect of pharmacologic agents or surgical manipulations on aqueous humor dynamics. PMID:26221257

  8. Modeling passive mechanical interaction between aqueous humor and iris.

    PubMed

    Heys, J J; Barocas, V H; Taravella, M J

    2001-12-01

    Certain forms of glaucoma are associated with displacement of the iris from its normal contour. We present here a mathematical model of the coupled aqueous humor-iris system that accountsfor the contribution of aqueous humor flow and passive iris deformability to the iris contour. The aqueous humor is modeled as a Newtonian fluid, and the iris is modeled as a linear elastic solid. The resulting coupled equation set is solved by the finite element method with mesh motion in response to iris displacement accomplished by tracking a pseudo-solid overlying the aqueous humor. The model is used to predict the iris contour in healthy and diseased eyes. The results compare favorably with clinical observations, supporting the hypothesis that passive iris deformation can produce the iris contours observed using ultrasound biomicroscopy.

  9. Ascorbate in aqueous humor protects against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Howes, E. L.; English, D.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotactic factors can cause polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release the contents of azurophilic granules, including the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase. In the presence of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye, the supernatant from stimulated leukocytes contains beta-glucuronidase, but myeloperoxidase is not detectable. Studies with aqueous humor and partially purified human myeloperoxidase suggest that this phenomenon is not due to a failure of enzyme release. The factor responsible for the inability to detect MPO in the assay system is heat-labile, dialyzable, and reversed by ascorbate oxidase. Comparable assay inhibition is produced by ascorbic acid at a concentration present in either human or rabbit aqueous humor. The ability of aqueous humor to protect against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation may contribute to several diverse phenomena, including the susceptibility of the eye to Candida infection and a prolonged half-life for several inflammatory mediators in the anterior chamber. PMID:2992283

  10. On the origin of pronounced O3 gradients in the thunderstorm outflow region during DC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Pucik, T.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Heimerl, K.; Fütterer, D.; Rappenglück, B.; Ackermann, L.; Pickering, K. E.; Cummings, K. A.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Betten, D. P.; Honomichl, S.; Barth, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Unique in situ measurements of CO, O3, SO2, CH4, NO, NOx, NOy, VOC, CN, and rBC were carried out with the German Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)-Falcon aircraft in the central U.S. thunderstorms during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry experiment in summer 2012. Fresh and aged anvil outflow (9-12 km) from supercells, mesoscale convective systems, mesoscale convective complexes, and squall lines were probed over Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. For three case studies (30 May and 8 and 12 June) a combination of trace species, radar, lightning, and satellite information, as well as model results, were used to analyze and design schematics of major trace gas transport pathways within and in the vicinity of the probed thunderstorms. The impact of thunderstorms on the O3 composition in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (LS) region was analyzed. Overshooting cloud tops injected high amounts of biomass burning and lightning-produced NOx emissions into the LS, in addition to low O3 mixing ratios from the lower troposphere. As a dynamical response, O3-rich air from the LS was transported downward into the anvil and also surrounded the outflow. The ΔO3/ΔCO ratio was determined in the anvil outflow region. A pronounced in-mixing of O3-rich stratospheric air masses was observed in the outflow indicated by highly positive or even negative ΔO3/ΔCO ratios (+1.4 down to -3.9). Photochemical O3 production (ΔO3/ΔCO = +0.1) was found to be minor in the recently lofted pollution plumes. O3 mixing ratios within the aged anvil outflow were mainly enhanced due to dynamical processes.

  11. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-02

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  12. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  13. Right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm with thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Syed Murfad; Bhat, P.S. Seetharama; Furtado, Arul Dominic; Chikkatur, Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) aneurysm is a known complication of tetralogy of Fallot repair when a ventriculotomy is done. It leads to RV dysfunction and may require re-operation. We describe a rare instance of a patient who developed an RVOT aneurysm after trans-ventricular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, which was complicated with the formation of a thrombus in the aneurysm sac. The patient underwent re-operation with thrombectomy, excision of the RVOT aneurysm and pulmonary valve replacement. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of this combination and its implications have not been reported. PMID:22232231

  14. Interferometric Mapping of Perseus Outflows with MASSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ian; Dunham, Michael; Myers, Philip C.; MASSES Team

    2017-01-01

    The MASSES (Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA) survey, a Submillimeter Array (SMA) large-scale program, is mapping molecular lines and continuum emission about the 75 known Class 0/I sources in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. In this talk, I present some of the key results of this project, with a focus on the CO(2-1) maps of the molecular outflows. In particular, I investigate how protostars inherit their rotation axes from large-scale magnetic fields and filamentary structure.

  15. Atomic Hydrogen in a Galactic Center Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ~14 km s-1, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ~200 km s-1 in a Galactic wind.

  16. Valles Marineris and Chryse Outflow Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Valles Marineris, the great canyon and the south Chryse basin-Valles Marineris outflow channels of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and averaging 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east and related outflow canyons that drain toward the Chryse basin. Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north) are two canyons connected to Valles Marineris. Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southeast part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color; Mercator projection. The image roughly extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 102.5 degrees.

    The connected chasma or valleys of Valles Marineris may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. Layers of material in the eastern canyons might consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes, eolian deposits, or volcanic materials. Huge ancient river channels began from Valles Marineris and from adjacent canyons and ran north. Many of the channels flowed north into Chryse Basin.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a

  17. Tick Humoral Responses: Marching to the Beat of a Different Drummer

    PubMed Central

    Oliva Chávez, Adela S.; Shaw, Dana K.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Pedra, Joao H. F.

    2017-01-01

    Ticks transmit a variety of human pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Multiple pathogens that are transmitted simultaneously, termed “coinfections,” are of increasing importance and can affect disease outcome in a host. Arthropod immunity is central to pathogen acquisition and transmission by the tick. Pattern recognition receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and induce humoral responses through the Toll and Immune Deficiency (IMD) pathways. Comparative analyses between insects and ticks reveal that while the Toll pathway is conserved, the IMD network exhibits a high degree of variability. This indicates that major differences in humoral immunity exist between insects and ticks. While many variables can affect immunity, one of the major forces that shape immune outcomes is the microbiota. In light of this, we discuss how the presence of commensal bacteria, symbionts and/or coinfections can lead to altered immune responses in the tick that impact pathogen persistence and subsequent transmission. By investigating non-insect arthropod immunity, we will not only better comprehend tick biology, but also unravel the intricate effects that pathogen coinfections have on vector competence and tick-borne disease transmission. PMID:28261180

  18. A novel mode of induction of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kenmoku, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drosophila adults have been utilized as a genetically tractable model organism to decipher the molecular mechanisms of humoral innate immune responses. In an effort to promote the utility of Drosophila larvae as an additional model system, in this study, we describe a novel aspect of an induction mechanism for innate immunity in these larvae. By using a fine tungsten needle created for manipulating semi-conductor devices, larvae were subjected to septic injury. However, although Toll pathway mutants were susceptible to infection with Gram-positive bacteria as had been shown for Drosophila adults, microbe clearance was not affected in the mutants. In addition, Drosophila larvae were found to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli with respect to the activation of a sterile humoral response. In particular, pinching with forceps to a degree that might cause minor damage to larval tissues could induce the expression of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin; notably, this induction was partially independent of the Toll and immune deficiency pathways. We therefore propose that Drosophila larvae might serve as a useful model to analyze the infectious and non-infectious inflammation that underlies various inflammatory diseases such as ischemia, atherosclerosis and cancer. PMID:28250052

  19. A humoral stress response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ekengren, S; Tryselius, Y; Dushay, M S; Liu, G; Steiner, H; Hultmark, D

    2001-05-01

    The ability to react to unfavorable environmental changes is crucial for survival and reproduction, and several adaptive responses to stress have been conserved during evolution [1-3]. Specific immune and heat shock responses mediate the elimination of invading pathogens and of damaged proteins or cells [4-6]. Furthermore, MAP kinases and other signaling factors mediate cellular responses to a very broad range of environmental insults [7-9]. Here we describe a novel systemic response to stress in Drosophila. The Turandot A (TotA) gene encodes a humoral factor, which is secreted from the fat body and accumulates in the body fluids. TotA is strongly induced upon bacterial challenge, as well as by other types of stress such as high temperature, mechanical pressure, dehydration, UV irradiation, and oxidative agents. It is also upregulated during metamorphosis and at high age. Strikingly, flies that overexpress TotA show prolonged survival and retain normal activity at otherwise lethal temperatures. Although TotA is only induced by severe stress, it responds to a much wider range of stimuli than heat shock genes such as hsp70 or immune genes such as Cecropin A1.

  20. Whole vitreous humor dissection for vitreodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-05-24

    The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection.

  1. Eosinophils: important players in humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Berek, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis.

  2. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  3. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, Hector G.; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Corder, Stuartt A.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2013-09-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion.

  4. Nest of Molecular Outflows in the Circinus Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Kazuhito; Sato, Fumio; Mizuno, Akira

    1998-12-01

    We report on the discovery of a large and bright molecular outflow associated with an intense CO clump in the Circinus cloud, which was detected with the CO (J=1--0) emission line using the new Nagoya 4 meter radio telescope ``Nanten'' installed at Las Campanas Observatory (Chile). The outflow is quite large, extending over an area of 10'times20 ' ( ~ 4times8 pc at its distance of 1.26 kpc) that covers most of the clump surface, and having very high radio brightness; actually, the CO brightness of the high velocity wings integrated over the outflow lobes amounts to as high as 1.5*E(-1) K km s(-1) deg(2) , which makes this CO outflow one of the brightest reported so far. The outflow is also massive ( ~ 50 MO ) and energetic ( ~ 4300 MO km(2) s(-2) ). The outflow exhibits a complex morphology, having 2 local peaks at each of the red- and blue-shifted lobes. Comparing the outflow morphology with the locations of the protostellar candidates selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog, we conclude that the detected outflow is most likely to be driven by at least 4 distinct protostars forming in the clump, namely, IRAS 14562-6248, 14563-6301, 14564-6254, and 14568-6304. Thereby, we suggest to designate the CO clump as the ``Nest of Molecular Outflows'' in the Circinus cloud.

  5. Our Understanding of Ion Outflows from Earth and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of energetic ion beams and conics by Shelley et al. and transversely accelerated ions by Klumpar in the 1970's heralded the extensive satellite, rocket, and radar observations of ion outflows over the past four decades. This body of observation has shaped our contemporary view on ion outflows and their important role in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The variety of ion outflows may be categorized into thermal and suprathermal outflows. Both categories of outflows are strongly influenced by solar EUV irradiance and solar wind energy input, and the state of the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and (at times) plasmasphere. Several important challenges remain in our quest for a fully quantitative, multi-scale understanding of ion outflows. These include the detection of the lowest-energy ions in the tenuous sunlit magnetosphere; the influence of these hidden ions in the magnetosphere; ion transit between low and high altitudes at quiet times; the role of microscale processes; the simultaneous monitoring of different outflow populations and their circulation and redistributions in the magnetosphere; the influence of solar energy input, the thermosphere and the plasmasphere on outflow composition, characteristics, and variability; and the effects of this variability on the coupling between thermal and suprathermal outflows and on the overall magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  6. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  7. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16–24, 25–35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80–.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66–.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5–35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0–15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus–despite similar labels–these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles. PMID:27547259

  8. Shining a light on star formation driven outflows: the physical conditions within galactic outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John P.; Tremonti, Christina A.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Chen, Yanmei

    2016-01-01

    Stellar feedback drives energy and momentum into the surrounding gas, which drives gas and metals out of galaxies through a galactic outflow. Unfortunately, galactic outflows are difficult to observe and characterize because they are extremely diffuse, and contain gas at many different temperatures. Here we present results from a sample of 37 nearby (z < 0.27) star forming galaxies observed in the ultraviolet with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The sample covers over three decades in stellar mass and star formation rate, probing different morphologies such as dwarf irregulars and high-mass merging systems. Using four different UV absorption lines (O I, Si II, Si III and Si IV) that trace a wide range of temperatures (ionization potentials between 13.6 eV and 45 eV), we find shallow correlations between the outflow velocity or the equivalent width of absorption lines with stellar mass or star formation rate. Absorption lines probing different temperature phases have similar centroid velocities and line widths, indicating that they are comoving. Using the equivalent width ratios of the four different transitions, we find the ratios to be consistent with photo-ionized outflows, with moderately strong ionization parameters. By constraining the ionization mechanism we model the ionization fractions for each transition, but find the ionization fractions depend crucially on input model parameters. The shallow velocity scalings imply that low-mass galaxies launch outflows capable of escaping their galactic potential, while higher mass galaxies retain all of their gas, unless they undergo a merger.

  9. IONIZED OUTFLOWS FROM COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan; Kewley, Lisa E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Massive outflows are known to exist, in the form of extended emission-line regions (EELRs), around about one-third of powerful FR II radio sources. We investigate the origin of these EELRs by studying the emission-line regions around compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies that are younger (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} yr old) versions of the FR II radio galaxies. We have searched for and analyzed the emission-line regions around 11 CSS sources by taking integral field spectra using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North. We fit the [O III] {lambda}5007 line and present the velocity maps for each detected emission-line region. We find, in most cases, that the emission-line regions have multi-component velocity structures with different velocity dispersions and/or flux distributions for each component. The velocity gradients of the emission-line gas are mostly well aligned with the radio axis, suggesting a direct causal link between the outflowing gas and the radio jets. The complex velocity structure may be a result of different driving mechanisms related to the onset of the radio jets. We also present the results from the line-ratio diagnostics we used to analyze the ionization mechanism of the extended gas, which supports the scenario where the emission-line regions are ionized by a combination of active galactic nucleus radiation and shock excitation.

  10. Magnetospheric and Thermospheric Influence on Ionospheric Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sage, K.; Moore, T. E.; Mitchell, E. J.; Olson, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) small explorer has been used extensively to study ionospheric outflow. Past research has used particle and field data to examine the contemporaneous transfer of electromagnetic energy and particle flow downward from the magnetosphere and upward from the ionosphere. Single event studies published by Strangeway et al. [2005] and Brambles et al. [2011, Supporting Online Material] showed that downward electromagnetic energy and particle flow into the ionosphere are correlated with the upward flow of ions out of the ionosphere. It is expected, however, that this correlation will be affected by circumstances that are unique to each specific event, including but not limited to the outflow location (cusp or nightside), preconditioning due to prior geomagnetic activity, and thermospheric neutral densities. Although knowledge of the thermospheric neutral density is usually unavailable, data from the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) is able to provide insight into thermospheric populations at altitudes of about 400 km for a few select events. We expand on the previously-mentioned studies by looking at FAST particle and field data for additional events, and we further examine the influence of thermospheric neutral populations, based on CHAMP data.

  11. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  12. Ionised outflows in z ~ 2.4 quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked by galaxy evolutionary models to quench star formation and to explain the origin of the relations observed locally between super-massive black holes and their host galaxies. We here aim to detect extended ionised outflows in luminous quasars, where we expect the highest activity both in star formation and in black-hole accretion. Currently, there are only a few studies based on spatially resolved observations of outflows at high redshift, z > 2. Methods: We analysed a sample of six luminous (L > 1047 erg/s) quasars at z ~ 2.4, observed in H-band using the near-IR integral field spectrometer SINFONI at the VLT. We performed a kinematic analysis of the [Oiii] emission line at λ = 5007 Å. Results: We detect fast, spatially extended outflows in five out of six targets. [Oiii]λ5007 has a complex gas kinematic, with blue-shifted velocities of a few hundreds of km s-1 and line widths up to 1500 km s-1. Using the spectroastrometric method, we infer a size of the ionised outflows of up to ~2 kpc. The properties of the ionised outflows, mass outflow rate, momentum rate, and kinetic power, are correlated with the AGN luminosity. The increase in outflow rate with increasing AGN luminosity is consistent with the idea that a luminous AGN pushes away the surrounding gas through fast outflows that are driven by radiation pressure, which depends on the emitted luminosity. Conclusions: We derive mass outflow rates of about 6-700 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample, which are lower than those observed in molecular outflows. The physical properties of ionised outflows show dependences on AGN luminosity that are similar to those of molecular outflows, but indicate that the mass of ionised gas is lower than that of molecular outflows. Alternatively, this discrepancy between ionised and molecular outflows could be explained with different acceleration mechanisms. Based on Observations collected at the European Organisation for

  13. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Joseph M.; Reina-Torres, Ester; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Rowe, Barnaby; Overby, Darryl R.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied in vivo to mice, as

  14. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    PubMed

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor.

  15. Humor as a Communication Strategy in Provider-Patient Communication in a Chronic Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Schöpf, Andrea C; Martin, Gillian S; Keating, Mary A

    2015-12-30

    Humor is a potential communication strategy to accomplish various and potentially conflicting consultation goals. We investigated humor use and its reception in diabetes consultations by analyzing how and why humor emerges and its impact on the interaction. We did this by using an interactional sociolinguistics approach. We recorded 50 consultations in an Irish diabetes setting. Analysis of the humor events drew on framework analysis and on concepts from Conversation Analysis and pragmatics. The study also comprised interviews using tape-assisted recall. We identified 10 humor functions and two umbrella functions. A key finding is that most humor is relationship-protecting humor initiated by patients, that is, they voice serious messages and deal with emotional issues through humor. Our findings imply that patients' and providers' awareness of indirect communication strategies needs to be increased. We also recommend that researchers employ varied methods to adequately capture the interactive nature of humor.

  16. Toward in vivo two-photon analysis of mouse aqueous outflow structure and function.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jose M; Ko, Minhee K; Masedunskas, Andrius; Hong, Young-Kwon; Weigert, Roberto; Tan, James C H

    2016-05-12

    The promise of revolutionary insights into intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humor outflow homeostasis, IOP pathogenesis, and novel therapy offered by engineered mouse models has been hindered by a lack of appropriate tools for studying the aqueous drainage tissues in their original 3-dimensional (3D) environment. Advances in 2-photon excitation fluorescence imaging (TPEF) combined with availability of modalities such as transgenic reporter mice and intravital dyes have placed us on the cusp of unlocking the potential of the mouse model for unearthing insights into aqueous drainage structure and function. Multimodality 2-photon imaging permits high-resolution visualization not only of tissue structural organization but also cells and cellular function. It is possible to dig deeper into understanding the cellular basis of aqueous outflow regulation as the technique integrates analysis of tissue structure, cell biology and physiology in a way that could also lead to fresh insights into human glaucoma. We outline recent novel applications of two-photon imaging to analyze the mouse conventional drainage system in vivo or in whole tissues: (1) collagen second harmonic generation (SHG) identifies the locations of episcleral vessels, intrascleral plexuses, collector channels, and Schlemm's canal in the distal aqueous drainage tract; (2) the prospero homeobox protein 1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter helps locate the inner wall of Schlemm's canal; (3) Calcein AM, siGLO™, the fluorescent reporters m-Tomato and GFP, and coherent anti-Stokes scattering (CARS), are adjuncts to TPEF to identify live cells by their membrane or cytosolic locations; (4) autofluorescence and sulforhodamine-B to identify elastic fibers in the living eye. These tools greatly expand our options for analyzing physiological and pathological processes in the aqueous drainage tissues of live mice as a model of the analogous human system.

  17. Clouds, Cap, and Consequences: Outflow Events and Mars Hesperian Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, D. L.; Colaprete, A.; Haberle, R. M.; Sloan, L. C.; Asphaug, E.

    2006-03-01

    We focus on how outflows relate to past climate using a MGCM with cloud scheme. Early runs show water goes to the poles with current orbital configurations. We run the model for five years with a northern water ice cap then release the outflow, and will present these results.

  18. Collective outflow from a small multiple stellar system

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klaassen, Pamela D.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Schrön, Martin; Klessen, Ralf S.; Federrath, Christoph; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-06-10

    The formation of high-mass stars is usually accompanied by powerful protostellar outflows. Such high-mass outflows are not simply scaled-up versions of their lower-mass counterparts, since observations suggest that the collimation degree degrades with stellar mass. Theoretically, the origins of massive outflows remain open to question because radiative feedback and fragmentation of the accretion flow around the most massive stars, with M > 15 M {sub ☉}, may impede the driving of magnetic disk winds. We here present a three-dimensional simulation of the early stages of core fragmentation and massive star formation that includes a subgrid-scale model for protostellar outflows. We find that stars that form in a common accretion flow tend to have aligned outflow axes, so that the individual jets of multiple stars can combine to form a collective outflow. We compare our simulation to observations with synthetic H{sub 2} and CO observations and find that the morphology and kinematics of such a collective outflow resembles some observed massive outflows, such as Cepheus A and DR 21. We finally compare physical quantities derived from simulated observations of our models to the actual values in the models to examine the reliability of standard methods for deriving physical quantities, demonstrating that those methods indeed recover the actual values to within a factor of two to three.

  19. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  20. Mathematical modeling the radiation effects on humoral immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O. A.

    A mathematical model of humoral immune response in nonirradiated and irradiated mammals is developed. It is based on conventional theories and experimental facts in this field. The model is a system of nonlinear differential equations which describe the dynamics of concentrations of antibody and antigen molecules, immunocompetent B lymphocytes, and the rest blood lymphocytes, as well as the bone-marrow lymphocyte precursors. The interaction of antigen molecules with antibodies and with antibody-like receptors on immunocompetent cells is also incorporated. The model quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of the humoral immune response to the T-independent antigen (capsular antigen of plague microbe) in nonirradiated mammals (CBA mice). It describes the peculiarities of the humoral immune response in CBA mice exposed to acute radiation before or after introducing antigen. The model predicts an adaptation of humoral immune system to low dose rate chronic irradiation in the result of which the intensity of immune response relaxes to a new, lower than normal, stable level. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are revealed. The results obtained show that the developed model, after the appropriate identification, can be used to predict the effects of acute and low-level long-term irradiation on the system of humoral immunity in humans. Employment of the mathematical model identified in the proper way should be important in estimating the radiation risk for cosmonauts and astronauts on long space missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony.

  1. FIRE simulations: galactic outflows and their consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keres, Dusan; FIRE Team

    2016-06-01

    We study gaseous outflows and their consequences in high-resolution galaxy formation simulations with explicit stellar feedback from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project. Collective, galaxy scale, effect of stellar feedback results in episodic ejections of large amount of gas and heavy elements into the circum-galactic medium. Gas ejection episodes follow strong bursts of star formation. Properties of galactic star formation and ejection episodes depend on galaxy mass and redshift and, together with gas infall and recycling, shape the evolution of the circum-galactic medium and galaxies. As a consequence, our simulated galaxies have masses, star formation histories and heavy element content in good agreement with the observed population of galaxies.

  2. Metastatic carcinoid tumor obstructing left ventricular outflow.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Horstmanshof, Douglas A; Guniganti, Uma M

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare and usually indicate metastatic disease. Characterizing a tumor and reaching an exact diagnosis can be difficult. Diagnosis has been aided greatly by advances in imaging, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance with the use of gadolinium-pentetic acid. Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms that are found most often in the intestinal tract, although they can also develop in the lung, stomach, or heart. Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of intestinal carcinoid disease and presenting symptoms of dizziness, fatigue, and chest pain. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium enhancement to identify a large mass obstructing left ventricular outflow. The histopathologic results of an endomyocardial biopsy confirmed that the mass was a left-sided metastatic carcinoid cardiac tumor. To our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st combined use of clinical evaluation, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and histopathologic studies to reach such a diagnosis.

  3. Ice sculpture in the Martian outflow channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Viking Orbiter and terrestrial satellite images are examined at similar resolution to compare features of the Martian outflow channels with features produced by the movement of ice on earth, and many resemblances are found. These include the anastomoses, sinuosities, and U-shaped cross profiles of valleys; hanging valleys; linear scour marks on valley walls; grooves and ridges on valley floors; and the streamlining of bedrock highs. Attention is given to the question whether ice could have moved in the Martian environment. It is envisaged that springs or small catastrophic outbursts discharged fluids from structural outlets or chaotic terrains. These fluids built icings that may have grown into substantial masses and eventually flowed like glaciers down preexisting valleys. An alternative is that the fluids formed rivers or floods that in turn formed ice jams and consolidated into icy masses in places where obstacles blocked their flow.

  4. What controls aqueous humour outflow resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The bulk of aqueous humour outflow resistance is generated in or near the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal in normal eyes, and probably also in glaucomatous eyes. Fluid flow through this region is controlled by the location of the giant vacuoles and pores found in cells of the endothelium of Schlemm's canal, but the flow resistance itself is more likely generated either in the extracellular matrix of the juxtacanalicular connective tissue or the basement membrane of Schlemm's canal. Future studies utilizing in vitro perfusion studies of inner wall endothelial cells may give insights into the process by which vacuoles and pores form in this unique endothelium and why inner wall pore density is greatly reduced in glaucoma. PMID:16386733

  5. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from nonrelativistic quasar outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-03-01

    It has been suggested that nonrelativistic outflows from quasars can naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic γ -ray background and explain the cumulative neutrino background through pion decay in collisions between protons accelerated by the outflow shock and interstellar protons. Here, we show that the same quasar outflows are capable of accelerating protons to energies of ˜1020 eV during the early phase of their propagation. The overall quasar population is expected to produce a cumulative ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray flux of ˜10-7 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 at ECR≳1018 eV . The spectral shape and amplitude are consistent with recent observations for outflow parameters constrained to fit secondary γ rays and neutrinos without any additional parameter tuning. This indicates that quasar outflows simultaneously account for all three messengers at their observed levels.

  6. Optically thick outflows in ultraluminous supersoft sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, R.; Soria, R.

    2016-02-01

    Ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are defined by a thermal spectrum with colour temperatures ˜0.1 keV, bolometric luminosities ˜ a few 1039 erg s-1, and almost no emission above 1 keV. It has never been clear how they fit into the general scheme of accreting compact objects. To address this problem, we studied a sample of seven ULSs with extensive Chandra and XMM-Newton coverage. We find an anticorrelation between fitted temperatures and radii of the thermal emitter, and no correlation between bolometric luminosity and radius or temperature. We compare the physical parameters of ULSs with those of classical supersoft sources, thought to be surface-nuclear-burning white dwarfs, and of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), thought to be super-Eddington stellar-mass black holes. We argue that ULSs are the sub-class of ULXs seen through the densest wind, perhaps an extension of the soft-ultraluminous regime. We suggest that in ULSs, the massive disc outflow becomes effectively optically thick and forms a large photosphere, shrouding the inner regions from our view. Our model predicts that when the photosphere expands to ≳ 105 km and the temperature decreases below ≈50 eV, ULSs become brighter in the far-UV but undetectable in X-rays. Conversely, we find that harder emission components begin to appear in ULSs when the fitted size of the thermal emitter is smallest (interpreted as a shrinking of the photosphere). The observed short-term variability and absorption edges are also consistent with clumpy outflows. We suggest that the transition between ULXs (with a harder tail) and ULSs (with only a soft thermal component) occurs at blackbody temperatures of ≈150 eV.

  7. Outflow Collimation in Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Frank, A.

    1993-05-01

    Recent results of long-slit spectroscopy of the forbidden lines of the outflow in the young star DG Tau [7] suggest that its wind is well collimated very close to it, leading to the formation of its jet. The analysis of the width of stellar jets, on the other hand, seems to indicate that the collimation of the jets takes place at larger scales [5]. In other to understand this discrepancy, we are studying by means of a two dimensional hydrodynamical code [1][3], the collimation driven by the interaction of the stellar wind with the surrounding density structure left by the star formation process [8][9]. We have found in our adiabatic outflow simulations (using physical parameters similar to those for the HH 34 bipolar stellar jet [2]) that a spherical wind is well collimated near the source resembling a de Laval Nozzle [4][6]. ANC research is supported by NSF grant AST-91-14888. \\ References [1] Frank, A. 1992, PhD Thesis, University of Washington. [2] Heathcote, S. & Reipurth, B. 1992, AJ 104, 2193. [3] Icke, V., 1988 A&A 202, 177. [4] Konigl, A. 1982, ApJ 261, 115. [5] Mundt, R., Ray, T.P., & Raga, A.C. 1991, A&A 252, 740. [6] Raga A.C., & Canto, J. 1989, ApJ 344, 404. [7] Solf, J., & Bohm, K.H. 1993, ApJL (in press). [8] Terebey, S., Shu, F.H., & Cassen, P. 1984, ApJ 286, 529. [9] Yorke, H.W., Bodenheimer, P., & Laughlin, G. 1993, ApJ (in press).

  8. Myocardialization of the cardiac outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van den Hoff, M. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Ruijter, J. M.; Lamers, W. H.; Bennington, R. W.; Markwald, R. R.; Wessels, A.

    1999-01-01

    During development, the single-circuited cardiac tube transforms into a double-circuited four-chambered heart by a complex process of remodeling, differential growth, and septation. In this process the endocardial cushion tissues of the atrioventricular junction and outflow tract (OFT) play a crucial role as they contribute to the mesenchymal components of the developing septa and valves in the developing heart. After fusion, the endocardial ridges in the proximal portion of the OFT initially form a mesenchymal outlet septum. In the adult heart, however, this outlet septum is basically a muscular structure. Hence, the mesenchyme of the proximal outlet septum has to be replaced by cardiomyocytes. We have dubbed this process "myocardialization." Our immunohistochemical analysis of staged chicken hearts demonstrates that myocardialization takes place by ingrowth of existing myocardium into the mesenchymal outlet septum. Compared to other events in cardiac septation, it is a relatively late process, being initialized around stage H/H28 and being basically completed around stage H/H38. To unravel the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the induction and regulation of myocardialization, an in vitro culture system in which myocardialization could be mimicked and manipulated was developed. Using this in vitro myocardialization assay it was observed that under the standard culture conditions (i) whole OFT explants from stage H/H20 and younger did not spontaneously myocardialize the collagen matrix, (ii) explants from stage H/H21 and older spontaneously formed extensive myocardial networks, (iii) the myocardium of the OFT could be induced to myocardialize and was therefore "myocardialization-competent" at all stages tested (H/H16-30), (iv) myocardialization was induced by factors produced by, most likely, the nonmyocardial component of the outflow tract, (v) at none of the embryonic stages analyzed was ventricular myocardium myocardialization-competent, and finally

  9. Development and Morphology of the Ventricular Outflow Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shumpei; Spicer, Diane E.; Brown, Nigel A.; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    It is customary, at the current time, to consider many, if not most, of the lesions involving the ventricular outflow tract in terms of conotruncal malformations. This reflects the introduction, in the early 1940s, of the terms conus and truncus to describe the components of the developing outflow tract. The definitive outflow tracts in the postnatal heart, however, possess three, rather than two, components. These are the intrapericardial arterial trunks, the arterial roots, and the subvalvar ventricular outflow tracts. Congenital lesions afflicting the arterial roots, however, are not currently considered to be conotruncal malformations. This suggests a lack of logic in the description of cardiac development and its use as a means of categorizing congenital malformations. It is our belief that the developing outflow tract, like the postnatal outflow tracts, can readily be described in tripartite fashion, with its distal, intermediate, and proximal components forming the primordiums of the postnatal parts. In this review, we present evidence obtained from developing mice and human hearts to substantiate this notion. We show that the outflow tract, initially with a common lumen, is divided into its aortic and pulmonary components by a combination of an aortopulmonary septum derived from the dorsal wall of the aortic sac and outflow tract cushions that spiral through its intermediate and proximal components. These embryonic septal structures, however, subsequently lose their septal functions as the outflow tracts develop their own discrete walls. We then compare the developmental findings with the anatomic arrangements seen postnatally in the normal human heart. We show how correlations with the embryologic findings permit logical analysis of the congenital lesions involving the outflow tracts. PMID:27587491

  10. A distance-limited sample of massive molecular outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maud, L. T.; Moore, T. J. T.; Lumsden, S. L.; Mottram, J. C.; Urquhart, J. S.; Hoare, M. G.

    2015-10-01

    We have observed 99 mid-infrared-bright, massive young stellar objects and compact H II regions drawn from the Red MSX source survey in the J = 3-2 transition of 12CO and 13CO, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. 89 targets are within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a representative range of luminosities and core masses. These constitute a relatively unbiased sample of bipolar molecular outflows associated with massive star formation. Of these, 59, 17 and 13 sources (66, 19 and 15 per cent) are found to have outflows, show some evidence of outflow, and have no evidence of outflow, respectively. The time-dependent parameters of the high-velocity molecular flows are calculated using a spatially variable dynamic time-scale. The canonical correlations between the outflow parameters and source luminosity are recovered and shown to scale with those of low-mass sources. For coeval star formation, we find the scaling is consistent with all the protostars in an embedded cluster providing the outflow force, with massive stars up to ˜30 M⊙ generating outflows. Taken at face value, the results support the model of a scaled-up version of the accretion-related outflow-generation mechanism associated with discs and jets in low-mass objects with time-averaged accretion rates of ˜10-3 M⊙ yr-1 on to the cores. However, we also suggest an alternative model, in which the molecular outflow dynamics are dominated by the entrained mass and are unrelated to the details of the acceleration mechanism. We find no evidence that outflows contribute significantly to the turbulent kinetic energy of the surrounding dense cores.

  11. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  12. Modeling the Causal Regulation of Transversely Accelerated Ion (TAI) Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, R. H.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Zhang, B.; Schmitt, P.; Lotko, W.

    2013-12-01

    TAIs are generated by wave particle interactions driven by waves at temporal and spatial scales which are inaccessible in global coupled geospace models. So far attempts to include TAI outflows in global models have focused on the use of empirical correlations between observed outflow fluxes and various inputs such as DC Poynting flux, Alfvénic Poynting flux, and electron precipitation fluxes. These treatments ignore feedbacks between the outflow and the state of the ionosphere and assume the spatial and temporal distributions of the outflows are identical to those of their drivers. This work presents an alternative approach which can overcome these deficiencies while still being sufficiently computationally efficient to couple into a global modeling framework. TAIs are incorporated into a 3-D fluid model of the ionosphere and polar wind by modeling them as a separate fluid which obeys transport equations appropriate for monoenergetic conic distributions. The characteristics of the TAI outflow produced depend on the assumed transverse heating rates and the 'promotion rate' which connects the TAI fluid to the thermal O+ fluid. Using drivers extracted from runs of the Coupled Magnetosphere Ionosphere Thermosphere (CMIT) model, different strategies for causally regulating these free parameters are explored. The model can reproduce many of the observed features of TAI outflows but also exhibits physical attributes that empirical relationships alone miss. These characteristics include flux limiting of the outflow from below when intense outflow creates high-altitude cavities, time delays between the onset of transverse heating and the appearance of outflow, and spatial distributions of outflow which are different from the spatial distributions of the applied transverse heating and which depend on the ionospheric convection pattern.

  13. TGFβ2-induced outflow alterations in a bioengineered trabecular meshwork are offset by a rho-associated kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Torrejon, Karen Y.; Papke, Ellen L.; Halman, Justin R.; Bergkvist, Magnus; Danias, John; Sharfstein, Susan T.; Xie, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) cytokine family have long been associated with affecting several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. Of particular interest to this work, TGFβ2 has been linked to most types of glaucomas as a potential fibrotic agent that can cause elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Given that the trabecular meshwork (TM) provides most of aqueous humor outflow resistance in the eye, an in vitro bioengineered human TM (HTM) model has been created and validated by analyzing effects of TGFβ2 on transcellular pressure changes and outflow facility. These changes were correlated with several biological alterations induced by this cytokine, including ECM production and overexpression of HTM-marker myocillin. Furthermore, this TM model has been used to extend current knowledge of gene expression of cytokines involved in TGFβ-induced ECM turnover over time. In particular, the ability for a ROCK-inhibitor to diminish the effect of TGFβ on TM was demonstrated. This work supports the notion that anti-fibrotic activities of ROCK-inhibitors could counteract the elevation of IOP and increased strain observed in glaucomatous TM. PMID:27924833

  14. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  15. Building international partnerships through an on-line humor exchange.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kathleen J; Maiuri, Tiffany; Poleshchuk, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The Maine/Komi Online Collaborative (MKOC) provides an online learning tool for high school students in Franklin County, Maine, and Komi, Russia. The tool, or "Humor Exchange," teaches students to use positive humor to manage stress and provide social support. Rural, disadvantaged students also become more competitive to enter college due to the language and multicultural experiences. Students utilize Blackboard's Discussion Forum and videoconferencing. Art and theater are integral components of this tool. The majority of students report that the tool is "fun" and that they have learned humorous ways to deal with stress, provide social support, and experience another culture. The videoconferencing has proven to be a unique and exciting way to communicate. This tool promotes social well-being among two countries that have been adversaries. It has mobilized social change by including the community, namely, rural high school students, where it is difficult to obtain multicultural experiences.

  16. The use of humor in serious mental illness: a review.

    PubMed

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.

  17. Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Borchert, Mark

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that spectroscopic analysis of the aqueous humor of the eye could be used to indirectly predict blood glucose levels in diabetics noninvasively. We have been investigating this potential using Raman spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) analysis. We have determined that glucose at clinically relevant concentrations can be accurately predicted in human aqueous humor in vitro using a PLS model based on artificial aqueous humor. We have further determined that with proper instrument design, the light energy necessary to achieve clinically acceptable prediction of glucose does not damage the retinas of rabbits and can be delivered at powers below internationally acceptable safety limits. Herein we summarize our current results and address our strategies to improve instrument design. 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  18. Influence of ion outflow in coupled geospace simulations: 2. Sawtooth oscillations driven by physics-based ion outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, R. H.; Wiltberger, M.; Zhang, B.; Lotko, W.; Lyon, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present the first simulations of magnetospheric sawtooth oscillations under steady solar wind conditions that are driven internally by heavy ion outflow from a physics-based model. The simulations presented use the multifluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry magnetohydrodynamics model two-way coupled to the ionosphere/polar wind model (IPWM). Depending on the type of wave-particle interactions utilized within IPWM, the coupled simulations exhibit either sawtooth oscillations or steady magnetospheric convection. Contrasting the simulations that do and do not develop sawtooth oscillations yields insights into the relationship between outflow and sawtooth oscillations. The total outflow rate is not an adequate predictor of the convection mode that will emerge. The simulations that develop sawtooth oscillations are characterized by intense outflow concentrated in the midnight auroral region. This outflow distribution mass loads the tail reconnection region without excessively mass loading the dayside reconnection region and leads to an imbalance between the dayside and nightside reconnection rates.

  19. Molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars. I. Correcting for underestimates when measuring outflow masses and dynamical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Michael M.; Arce, Héctor G.; Mardones, Diego; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Matthews, Brenda C.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2014-03-01

    We present a survey of 28 molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars, all of which are sufficiently isolated spatially and/or kinematically to fully separate into individual outflows. Using a combination of new and archival data from several single-dish telescopes, 17 outflows are mapped in {sup 12}CO (2-1) and 17 are mapped in {sup 12}CO (3-2), with 6 mapped in both transitions. For each outflow, we calculate and tabulate the mass (M {sub flow}), momentum (P {sub flow}), kinetic energy (E {sub flow}), mechanical luminosity (L {sub flow}), and force (F {sub flow}) assuming optically thin emission in LTE at an excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, of 50 K. We show that all of the calculated properties are underestimated when calculated under these assumptions. Taken together, the effects of opacity, outflow emission at low velocities confused with ambient cloud emission, and emission below the sensitivities of the observations increase outflow masses and dynamical properties by an order of magnitude, on average, and factors of 50-90 in the most extreme cases. Different (and non-uniform) excitation temperatures, inclination effects, and dissociation of molecular gas will all work to further increase outflow properties. Molecular outflows are thus almost certainly more massive and energetic than commonly reported. Additionally, outflow properties are lower, on average, by almost an order of magnitude when calculated from the {sup 12}CO (3-2) maps compared to the {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps, even after accounting for different opacities, map sensitivities, and possible excitation temperature variations. It has recently been argued in the literature that the {sup 12}CO (3-2) line is subthermally excited in outflows, and our results support this finding.

  20. Age effects on B cells and humoral immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Landin, Ana Marie; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2010-01-01

    Both humoral and cellular immune responses are impaired in aged individuals, leading to decreased vaccine responses. Although T cell defects occur, defects in B cells play a significant role in age-related humoral immune changes. The ability to undergo class switch recombination (CSR), the enzyme for CSR, AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) and the transcription factor E47 are all decreased in aged stimulated B cells. We here present an overview of age-related changes in human B cell markers and functions, and also discuss some controversies in the field of B cell aging. PMID:20728581

  1. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.

  2. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.

  3. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients’ recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further. PMID:27347254

  4. Scaling Relations Between Warm Galactic Outflows and Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti, Christy A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei; Wofford, Aida; Lundgren, Britt

    2015-10-01

    We report on a sample of 48 nearby, star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure the kinematics of warm gas in galactic outflows using a combination of four Si ii absorption lines. We use multi-wavelength ancillary data to estimate stellar masses (M*), star formation rates (SFR), circular velocities (vcirc), and morphologies. The galaxies cover four orders of magnitude in M* and SFR, and sample a wide range of morphologies from starbursting mergers to normal star-forming galaxies. We derive 3.0-3.5σ relations between outflow velocity and SFR, M*, and vcirc. The outflow velocities scale as SFR0.08-0.22, {M}*0.12-0.20 and {v}{circ}0.44-0.87, with the range depending on whether we use a maximum or a central velocity to quantify the outflow velocity. After accounting for their increased SFR, mergers drive 32% faster outflows than non-merging galaxies, with all of the highest velocity outflows arising from mergers. Low-mass galaxies (log(M*/ M⊙) < 10.5) lose some low-ionization gas through galactic outflows, while more massive galaxies retain all of their low-ionization gas, unless they undergo a merger.

  5. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J. E-mail: Harold.W.Yorke@jpl.nasa.gov

    2015-02-20

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass.

  6. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-11-20

    A protostellar jet and outflow are calculated for ∼270 yr following the protostar formation using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in which both the protostar and its parent cloud are spatially resolved. A high-velocity (∼100 km s{sup –1}) jet with good collimation is driven near the disk's inner edge, while a low-velocity (≲ 10 km s{sup –1}) outflow with a wide opening angle appears in the outer-disk region. The high-velocity jet propagates into the low-velocity outflow, forming a nested velocity structure in which a narrow high-velocity flow is enclosed by a wide low-velocity flow. The low-velocity outflow is in a nearly steady state, while the high-velocity jet appears intermittently. The time-variability of the jet is related to the episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which is caused by gravitational instability and magnetic effects such as magnetic braking and magnetorotational instability. Although the high-velocity jet has a large kinetic energy, the mass and momentum of the jet are much smaller than those of the low-velocity outflow. A large fraction of the infalling gas is ejected by the low-velocity outflow. Thus, the low-velocity outflow actually has a more significant effect than the high-velocity jet in the very early phase of the star formation.

  7. Contribution of alluvial groundwater to the outflow of mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käser, Daniel; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Alluvial aquifers in mountainous regions cover typically a limited area. Their contribution to catchment storage and outflow is rarely isolated; alluvial groundwater discharge under gauging stations is generally assumed negligible; and hydrological models tend to lump alluvial storage with other units. The role of alluvial aquifers remains therefore unclear: can they contribute significantly to outflow when they cover a few percent of catchment area? Should they be considered a dynamic storage unit or merely a transmission zone? We address these issues based on the continuous monitoring of groundwater discharge, river discharge (one year), and aquifer storage (6 months) in the 6 km2 alluvial system of a 194 km2 catchment. River and groundwater outflow were measured jointly through "coupled gauging stations." The contribution of alluvial groundwater to outflow was highest at the outlet of a subcatchment (52 km2), where subsurface discharge amounted to 15% of mean annual outflow, and 85% of outflow during the last week of a drought. In this period, alluvial-aquifer depletion supported 75% of the subcatchment outflow and 35% of catchment outflow—thus 3% of the entire catchment supported a third of the outflow. Storage fluctuations occurred predominantly in the aquifer's upstream part, where heads varied over 6 m. Not only does this section act as a significant water source, but storage recovers also rapidly at the onset of precipitation. Storage dynamics were best conceptualized along the valley axis, rather than across the more conventional riparian-channel transect. Overall the contribution of alluvial aquifers to catchment outflow deserves more attention.

  8. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Kai E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  9. A Doppler dimming determination of coronal outflow velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strachan, Leonard; Kohl, John L.; Weiser, Heinz; Withbroe, George L.; Munro, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    Outflow velocities in a polar coronal hole are derived from observations made during a 1982 sounding rocket flight. The velocity results are derived from a Doppler dimming analysis of resonantly scattered H I Ly-alpha. This analysis indicates radial outflow velocities of 217 km/s at 2 solar radii from sun-center with an uncertainty range of 153 to 251 km/s at a confidence level of 67 percent. These results are best characterized as strong evidence for supersonic outflow within 2 solar radii of sun-center in a polar coronal hole. Several means for obtaining improved accuracy in future observations are discussed.

  10. Molecular outflows in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, Michael; Lada, Charles J.; Snell, Ronald L.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of J = 1-0 emission from CO in nine suspected molecular outflows in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud are presented. It is found that, if the five sources which are confirmed to be outflows conserve momentum as they evolve, they will sweep up at least 0.6 percent of the mass of the entire cloud before coming into pressure equilibrium with the ambient gas. This number indicates that it should take at most 160 episodes of similar outflow activity in order to sweep up the bulk of the Mon OB1 cloud to highly supersonic speeds.

  11. Magnified Views of Relativistic Outflows in Gravitationally Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartas, G.; Cappi, M.; Hamann, F.; Eracleous, M.; Strickland, S.; Vignali, C.; Dadina, M.; Giustini, M.; Saez, C.; Misawa, T.

    2016-06-01

    We presents results from X-ray observations of relativistic outflows in lensed quasars. The lensing magnification of the observed objects provides high signal-to-noise X-ray spectra of quasars showing the absorption signatures of relativistic outflows at redshifts near a crucial phase of black hole growth and the peak of cosmic AGN activity. We summarise the properties of the wide-angle relativistic outflow of the z = 1.51 NAL quasar HS 0810 detected in recent deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of this object. We also present preliminary results from a mini-survey of gravitationally lensed mini-BAL quasars performed with XMM-Newton.

  12. Physics and structure of photoionised outflows in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaastra, Jelle

    2012-07-01

    I discuss the recent progress in the study of outflows from active galactic nuclei. Using long and deep monitoring observations, it is now possible to get a detailed view on the structure and location of the outflow, as well as its impact on the environment of the AGN. Focus will be on the nature of the outflow components in terms of number of components, and on time-dependent photoionisation modeling as a tool to constrain the location of these components. I will illustrate this using the results of a large monitoring campaign on Mrk 509 with XMM-Newton, Integral, Chandra, HST, Swift and ground-based observatories.

  13. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  14. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  15. The Effect of A Genre Study of Humorous Material with Ambigious Language on Children's Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutray, Carol L.

    A study examined the influence of a humorous genre study on children's writing from writer's workshop and children's projects during a language arts period. The study explored the type of humor selected by children to assimilate into their writing and projects. Humorous material with ambiguous language was presented in multiple formats of print,…

  16. The Use of Humor as a Teaching Strategy in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukehart, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the use of humor as a teaching strategy among a sample of nurse educators employed by community colleges and universities in Northern and Central California nursing programs. The study also identified the types of humor used, how humor is used in the classroom, and nurse educators' perceptions of…

  17. Use and Non-Use of Humor in Academic ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…

  18. Humor in Literature about Children with Disability: What Are We Seeing in Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…

  19. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  20. An Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of Humor Used as a Refutational Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welford, Thomas Winfred

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of a political speech of refutation using humor and one which did not use humor. Three speeches were tape-recorded and played before 328 college freshmen students: the first was a speech of advocacy, the second was a speech of refutation, and the third was the same as the second, but humor was…

  1. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  2. Hope, Laughter, and Humor in Residents and Staff at an Assisted Living Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westburg, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses and compares hope levels and laughter and humor experiences of 24 elderly residents and 21 staff at an assisted living facility. Residents and staff reported numerous benefits from humor and laughing, but differences arose between the two groups about the source and frequency of humor and laughter. Implications for mental health…

  3. Influence of ion outflow in coupled geospace simulations: 1. Physics-based ion outflow model development and sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, R. H.; Wiltberger, M.; Zhang, B.; Lotko, W.; Lyon, J.

    2016-10-01

    We describe a coupled geospace model that includes causally regulated ion outflow from a physics-based ionosphere/polar wind model. The model two-way couples the multifluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model to the ionosphere/polar wind model (IPWM). IPWM includes the H+ and O+ polar wind as well as a phenomenological treatment of energetic O+ accelerated by wave-particle interactions (WPI). Alfvénic Poynting flux from the MHD simulation causally regulates the ion acceleration. The wave-particle interactions (WPI) model has been tuned and validated with comparisons to particle-in-cell simulations and empirical relationships derived from Fast Auroral Snapshot satellite data. IPWM captures many aspects of the ion outflow that empirical relationships miss. First, the entire coupled model conserves mass between the ionospheric and magnetospheric portions, meaning the amount of outflow produced is limited by realistic photochemistry in the ionosphere. Second, under intense driving conditions, the outflow becomes flux limited by what the ionosphere is capable of providing. Furthermore, the outflows produced exhibit realistic temporal and spatial delays relative to the magnetospheric energy inputs. The coupled model provides a flexible way to explore the impacts of dynamic heavy ion outflow on the coupled geospace system. Some of the example simulations presented exhibit internally driven sawtooth oscillations associated with the outflow, and the properties of these oscillations are analyzed further in a companion paper.

  4. Knowledge through Humor: An Original Approach for Teaching Developmental Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Phyllis

    This paper suggests that developmental reading teachers could benefit from a little laughter or a little humor in their courses, since they teach subject matter no one wants to hear or read about to students who resent being placed in the classes, and they must do this well enough so that their students will pass a test they have already failed…

  5. Joking Riddles: A Developmental Index of Children's Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Norman M.; Fathman, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    The promise of joking riddles as a developmental index of children's humor was investigated through studying the enjoyment and comprehension of riddles and nonriddles by first-, third-, and fifth-grade normal children. Based on previous studies, it was predicted that enjoyment and comprehension of riddles would increase with age and that the…

  6. COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S APPRECIATION OF HUMOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZIGLER, EDWARD; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILDREN'S HUMOR RESPONSE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. BY USING CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT GRADE LEVELS AS SUBJECTS, IT WAS ASSUMED THAT THE STUDY WOULD INCLUDE SEVERAL LEVELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. TWENTY-FIVE CARTOONS WERE SHOWN TO 64 TEST CHILDREN. THE TEST CHILDREN WERE CHOSEN FROM GRADES TWO,…

  7. Implications for Teachers' Use of Humor in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rareshide, Stephen W.

    Humor can be an effective element of classroom teaching, serving to reduce tension, increase motivation, aid instruction and strengthen teacher/student relationships. A review of the literature reveals that research in this area is incomplete and inconclusive. This study surveys 5th- and 6th-grade teachers (N=50) for information on how they vary…

  8. Humor As a Weapon in Virginia Woolf's "Orlando."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Robin

    Virginia Woolf's "Orlando" is an excellent example of mock biography to use in literature classes concerned with analyzing literary genres. Woolf used humor to undermine some conventions of the genre of biography and to reform biography into a shape adequate to express the life of Vita Sackville-West. An ordinary biography most likely…

  9. Humor as a Presentational Device in Broadcast Public Service Announcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, D. J.

    On a daily basis, American television and radio audiences are subjected to a stream of broadcast Public Service Announcements (PSAs), each promoting "some kind of social or economic action deemed beneficial" (Stridsberg, 1977). Often, these announcements employ humor as a presentational device to help stimulate the behavioral change…

  10. Using Humorous Sitcom Clips in Teaching Federal Income Taxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, H. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…

  11. Laughing Matters: Infant Humor in the Context of Parental Affect

    PubMed Central

    Mireault, Gina C.; Crockenberg, Susan C.; Sparrow, John E.; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early in the first year, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5- to 7-months as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-subjects design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect, but significantly longer at 5 and 6 months , and more often and sooner at 7 months when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were only more likely to smile at it when parents provided humor cues, and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months, parental affect influenced infants’ affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  12. Humoral response to rabies vaccines in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Tiwari, K N; Mohan, Bhardwaj; Mala, Chabbra; Rana, U V S; Ichhpujani, R L

    2007-06-01

    Humoral immune response was studied in dogs vaccinated with different tissue culture vaccines commonly used for immunization of dogs in India. The results revealed that after single dose of vaccination only 56% dogs developed protective titer (> or = 1:8). The response of the three vaccines used in the study was not similar, highlighting the need to maintain post marketing surveillance.

  13. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing.

  14. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  15. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  16. Brock Cole: The Good, the Bad, and the Humorously Ironic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Wendy J.

    1999-01-01

    Looks at three books for young adults by Brock Cole: "The Goats" (1987), "Celine" (1989), and "The Facts Speak for Themselves" (1997). Discusses common elements in these stories: young people who rise to the occasion; adults who often do not; characters readers can empathize with; an honest treatment of sexuality; and a wonderful use of humor. (SR)

  17. Rheumatoid course of humoral (vascular) rejection after heart allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Beletskaya, L V; Kupriyanova, A G; Kormer, A Ya; Mironkov, B L; Kazakov, E N; Shumakov, V I

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of planned endomyocardial biopsy specimens of heart allotransplants from 22 recipients revealed signs of humoral type rejection (slight, medium, and severe) presenting as fixation of IgG, IgM, and complement components (C3, C4d) in 61 of 63 sections. Permanent presence of rejection signs attests to rheumatoid course of this process.

  18. Mexican Proverbs: The Philosophy, Wisdom and Humor of a People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballesteros, Octavio A.

    Careful reading of proverbs can aid an individual to develop self-awareness by providing insights into what one cultural group considers desirable human behavior. Respect for the elderly can be taught to the young through the study of proverbs. Through their proverbs, the Mexicans reveal their friendliness, love of animals, sense of humor, and…

  19. Outflows from Supersonically-Moving Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, Noel; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Rangelov, Blagoy; Pavlov, George

    2015-08-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are sources of nonthermal X-ray emission and prominent sites of particle acceleration. Among other parameters, the PWN appearance depends on the pulsar velocity. If a pulsar moves with a supersonic speed, the ram pressure exceeds the ambient medium pressure, resulting in a bow shock PWN with a tail behind the pulsar. We report on Chandra observations of extended pulsar tails behind PSR J1509-5850 and J1747-2958 ("the Mouse"), and the discovery of a puzzling outflow (in the J1509-5850 PWN) strongly misaligned with the pulsar's direction of motion. We resolve the structures of the heads of the two PWNe and interpret them in light of pulsar wind models. We perform spatially resolved spectral measurements and find only marginal evidence of cooling in the long tail of PSR J1509-5850. The morphologies of the PWN heads and the extended tails are discussed and compared with those of other bow shock PWNe detected by Chandra. A possible unifying scheme will be discussed.

  20. Adult Drosophila melanogaster evolved for antibacterial defense invest in infection-induced expression of both humoral and cellular immunity genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve in flies selected for improved antibacterial defense. Here we use this experimental system to examine how insects invest in constitutive versus infection-induced transcription of immunity genes. These two strategies carry with them different consequences with respect to energetic and pleiotropic costs and may be more or less effective in improving defense depending on whether the genes contribute to humoral or cellular aspects of immunity. Findings Contrary to expectation we show that selection preferentially increased the infection-induced expression of both cellular and humoral immunity genes. Given their functional roles, infection induced increases in expression were expected for the humoral genes, while increases in constitutive expression were expected for the cellular genes. We also report a restricted ability to improve transcription of immunity genes that is on the order of 2-3 fold regardless of total transcription level of the gene. Conclusions The evolved increases in infection-induced expression of the cellular genes may result from specific cross talk with humoral pathways or from generalised strategies for enhancing immunity gene transcription. A failure to see improvements in constitutive expression of the cellular genes suggests either that increases might come at too great a cost or that patterns of expression in adults are decoupled from the larval phase where increases would be most effective. The similarity in fold change increase across all immunity genes may suggest a shared mechanism for the evolution of increased transcription in small, discrete units such as duplication of cis-regulatory elements. PMID:21859495

  1. Hydrothermal outflow plume of Valles caldera, New Mexico, and a comparison with other outflow plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Gardner, J.N.; Vuataz, F.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1988-06-10

    Stratigraphic, temperature gradient, hydrogeochemical, and hydrologic data have been integrated with geologic data from previous studies to show the structural configuration of the Valles caldera hydrothermal outflow plume. Hydrologic data suggest that 25--50% of the discharge of the Valles outflow is confined to the Jemez fault zone, which predates caldera formation. Thermal gradient data from bores penetrating the plume show that shallow gradients are highest in the vicinity of the Jemez fault zone (up to 190 /sup 0/C/km). Shallow heat flow above the hydrothermal plume is as high as 500 mW m/sup -2/ near core hole VC-1 (Jemez fault zone) to 200 mW m/sup -2/ at Fenton Hill (Jemez Plateau). Chemical and isotopic data indicate that two source reservoirs within the caldera (Redondo Creek and Sulphur Springs reservoirs) are parents to mixed fluids flowing in the hydrothermal plume. However, isotopic data, borehole data, basic geology, and inverse relations between temperature and chloride content at major hot springs indicate that no single reservoir fluid and no single diluting fluid are involved in mixing. The Valles caldera hydrothermal plume is structurally dominated by lateral flow through a belt of vertical conduits (Jemez fault zone) that strike away from the source reservoir. Stratigraphically confined flow is present but dispersed over a wide area in relatively impermeable rocks. The Valles configuration is contrasted with the configuration of the hydrothermal plume at Roosevelt Hot Springs, which is dominated by lateral flow through a near-surface, widespread, permeable aquifer. Data from 12 other representative geothermal systems show that outflow plumes occur in a variety of magmatic and tectonic settings, have varying reservoir compositions, and have different flow characteristics.

  2. Morphine-Stimulated Nitric Oxide Release in Rabbit Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Dortch-Carnes, Juanita; Russell, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated a role of nitric oxide (NO) in morphine-induced reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil diameter (PD) in the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit. The present study was designed to determine the effect of morphine on NO release in the aqueous humor of NZW rabbits, as this effect could be associated with morphine-mediated changes in aqueous humor dynamics and iris function. Dark adapted NZW rabbits were treated as follows: 1) treatment with morphine (10, 33 or 100 μg, 5 min); 2) treatment with morphine or endomorphin-1 for 5, 15 or 30 min; 3) pretreatment with naloxone (100 μg), L-NAME (125 μg) or reduced glutathione (GSH, 100 μg) for 30 minutes, followed by treatment with morphine (100 μg, 5 min). After the various treatment regimens, aqueous humor samples were obtained by paracenthesis and immediately assayed for nitrates and nitrites (an index of NO production), using a microplate assay kit. Morphine caused a dose-dependent increase in the levels of NO in aqueous humor after 5 min of treatment with each dose. Rabbits treated with endomorphin-1 (100 μg) had no significant change in NO levels in aqueous at any point in the time course. Aqueous samples from rabbits treated with morphine (100 μg) for 5 minutes increased from 29.84 ± 2.39 μM (control) to 183.94 ± 23.48 μM (treated). The increase in NO levels by morphine (100 μg, 5 min) was completely inhibited in the presence of naloxone (100 μg), L-NAME (125 μg) or GSH (100 μg). These results indicate that morphine-induced increase in NO production in aqueous humor is a transient response that is linked to activation of mu opioid receptors. Data obtained suggest that morphine-stimulated changes in ocular hydrodynamics and iris function are due, in part, to increased release of NO in aqueous humor. In addition, the sensitivity of the response to L-NAME and GSH suggests that morphine-induced release of nitric oxide into aqueous humor is mediated by

  3. Indirect measurement of Delta outflow using ultrasonic velocity meters and comparison with mass-balance calculated outflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Richard N.

    1998-01-01

    A measurement of the quantity of water flowing from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into Suisun Bay (Delta outflow) has been desired by those studying and managing the San Francisco Bay/Delta estuary since the 1920s.  Historically, Delta outflow has been estimated using a mass-balance calculation that uses measured Delta inflows and exports, and imprecise estimates of consumptive use for the approximately 2,000 small agricultural diversions with the Delta.  The DWR has estimated Delta outflow for 1929 to present using the computer program DAYFLOW.

  4. Formation of Intense Plasma Outflows from Laboratory Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S. K. P.

    2005-10-01

    Solar prominences have been simulated in a laboratory experiment using a four-electrode magnetized plasma source [1]. An ultra-high speed intensified CCD camera records visual images of the laboratory prominence evolution and a magnetic probe array measures internal magnetic fields. Laboratory prominences produced using low pressure argon and krypton form localized outflow from the main structure. These outflows appear immediately after Ar and Kr prominences become unstable and contact surrounding metal structures. Within a few microseconds after this event, the main structure disappears and the outflow becomes extremely intense and elongated. An analytic model based on Hamiltonian formalism predicts the existence of a critical parameter below which ions lose confinement in a force-free magnetic field and subsequently form intense outflows. This escape of ions from force-free magnetic fields has been verified in numerical computations of ion trajectories.[1] J. F. Hansen, S. K. P. Tripathi, and P. M. Bellan, Phys. Plasmas 11(6), 3177 (2004)

  5. Topographic vorticity waves forced by Antarctic dense shelf water outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Gustavo M.; Padman, Laurie; Springer, Scott R.; Howard, Susan L.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.

    2014-02-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate excitation of topographic vorticity waves (TVWs) along the Antarctic continental slope by outflows of dense shelf water through troughs. Idealized models show that wave frequency depends on the amount of stretching in the ambient fluid over the outflow and on background along-slope mean flow. Frequency is higher for steeper bottom slope, larger outflow density anomaly, and stronger westward mean flow. For weak stratification and weak westward along-slope flows typical of the Antarctic slope, wave energy propagates eastward, in the opposite direction from phase velocity. Our results are consistent with recent observations of TVWs in the southern Weddell Sea. In a realistic simulation of the Ross Sea, TVW properties are modulated on seasonal and shorter time scales as background ocean state varies. We expect these waves to affect mixing, cross-slope exchanges, and sea ice concentration in the vicinity of sources of dense water outflows.

  6. Regulation of Breathing and Autonomic Outflows by Chemoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2016-01-01

    Lung ventilation fluctuates widely with behavior but arterial PCO2 remains stable. Under normal conditions, the chemoreflexes contribute to PaCO2 stability by producing small corrective cardiorespiratory adjustments mediated by lower brainstem circuits. Carotid body (CB) information reaches the respiratory pattern generator (RPG) via nucleus solitarius (NTS) glutamatergic neurons which also target rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic neurons thereby raising sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Chemoreceptors also regulate presympathetic neurons and cardiovagal preganglionic neurons indirectly via inputs from the RPG. Secondary effects of chemoreceptors on the autonomic outflows result from changes in lung stretch afferent and baroreceptor activity. Central respiratory chemosensitivity is caused by direct effects of acid on neurons and indirect effects of CO2 via astrocytes. Central respiratory chemoreceptors are not definitively identified but the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is a particularly strong candidate. The absence of RTN likely causes severe central apneas in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Like other stressors, intense chemosensory stimuli produce arousal and activate circuits that are wake- or attention-promoting. Such pathways (e.g., locus coeruleus, raphe, and orexin system) modulate the chemoreflexes in a state-dependent manner and their activation by strong chemosensory stimuli intensifies these reflexes. In essential hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea and congestive heart failure, chronically elevated CB afferent activity contributes to raising SNA but breathing is unchanged or becomes periodic (severe CHF). Extreme CNS hypoxia produces a stereotyped cardiorespiratory response (gasping, increased SNA). The effects of these various pathologies on brainstem cardiorespiratory networks are discussed, special consideration being given to the interactions between central and peripheral chemoreflexes. PMID:25428853

  7. Use of triamcinolone acetonide particles to visualize aqueous outflow.

    PubMed

    Devgan, Uday

    2007-01-01

    Using triamcinolone acetonide suspension within the anterior chamber allows visualization of fluid outflow for glaucoma surgeries where aqueous egress from the eye is desired for pressure control. Dilute non-preserved triamcinolone acetonide particles can be injected into the anterior chamber at the end of intraocular surgeries to assess fluid outflow and to provide an anti-inflammatory effect at the end-target tissue.

  8. Ultra-fast outflows (aka UFOs) from AGNs and QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, M.; Tombesi, F.; Giustini, M.

    During the last decade, strong observational evidence has been accumulated for the existence of massive, high velocity winds/outflows (aka Ultra Fast Outflows, UFOs) in nearby AGNs and in more distant quasars. Here we briefly review some of the most recent developments in this field and discuss the relevance of UFOs for both understanding the physics of accretion disk winds in AGNs, and for quantifying the global amount of AGN feedback on the surrounding medium.

  9. Characterization of molecular outflows in the substellar domain

    SciTech Connect

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Dang-Duc, Cuong; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Li, Di E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2014-11-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M {sub J}, which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36°. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} to 2.9 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} to 4.1 × 10{sup –8} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M {sub J} in ρ Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M {sub J} in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with a duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

  10. Physical Factors Affecting Outflow Facility Measurements in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boussommier-Calleja, Alexandra; Li, Guorong; Wilson, Amanda; Ziskind, Tal; Scinteie, Oana Elena; Ashpole, Nicole E.; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Farsiu, Sina; Challa, Pratap; Gonzalez, Pedro; Downs, J. Crawford; Ethier, C. Ross; Stamer, W. Daniel; Overby, Darryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mice are commonly used to study conventional outflow physiology. This study examined how physical factors (hydration, temperature, and anterior chamber [AC] deepening) influence ocular perfusion measurements in mice. Methods Outflow facility (C) and pressure-independent outflow (Fu) were assessed by multilevel constant pressure perfusion of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6 mice. To examine the effect of hydration, seven eyes were perfused at room temperature, either immersed to the limbus in saline and covered with wet tissue paper or exposed to room air. Temperature effects were examined in 12 eyes immersed in saline at 20°C or 35°C. Anterior chamber deepening was examined in 10 eyes with the cannula tip placed in the anterior versus posterior chamber (PC). Posterior bowing of the iris (AC deepening) was visualized by three-dimensional histology in perfusion-fixed C57BL/6 eyes and by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in living CD1 mice. Results Exposure to room air did not significantly affect C, but led to a nonzero Fu that was significantly reduced upon immersion in saline. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 35°C increased C by 2.5-fold, more than could be explained by viscosity changes alone (1.4-fold). Perfusion via the AC, but not the PC, led to posterior iris bowing and increased outflow. Conclusions Insufficient hydration contributes to the appearance of pressure-independent outflow in enucleated mouse eyes. Despite the large lens, AC deepening may artifactually increase outflow in mice. Temperature-dependent metabolic processes appear to influence conventional outflow regulation. Physical factors should be carefully controlled in any outflow studies involving mice. PMID:26720486

  11. Recurrent pulmonary intimal sarcoma involving the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dipesh K; Joyce, Lyle D; Grogan, Martha; Aubry, Marie Christine; Miller, John A; Ding, Wei; Haddock, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is commonly misdiagnosed as chronic pulmonary embolism. Rarely, it can involve the right ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary valve. We report a patient who was treated surgically for an intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery involving the right ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary valve. The sarcoma recurred in about 8 weeks. It responded favorably to chemoradiation therapy and shows some signs of regression.

  12. Role of Humor in the Persuasiveness of Entertainment Narratives on Unprotected Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Futerfas, Michelle L; Nan, Xiaoli

    2017-02-19

    Past research involving the persuasive impact of entertainment narratives on health attitudes and behavior has largely been limited to dramatic narratives. The current research focuses on humorous narratives related to unprotected sex. We conducted an experiment (N = 161) in which female viewers were exposed to a humorous story line about unprotected sex, an identical story line with humor edited out, or a story line unrelated to unprotected sex. Our findings suggested that humor increased perceived severity of unintended pregnancy, while having no effect on counterarguing. Also, the presence of humor reduced behavioral intentions to engage in unprotected sex. Implications of the findings for safe sex communication are discussed.

  13. The Implications of Extreme Outflows from Extreme Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-05-01

    Interstellar ultraviolet absorption lines provide crucial information about the properties of galactic outflows. In this paper, we augment our previous analysis of the systematic properties of starburst-driven galactic outflows by expanding our sample to include a rare population of starbursts with exceptionally high outflow velocities. In principle, these could be a qualitatively different phenomenon from more typical outflows. However, we find that instead these starbursts lie on, or along the extrapolation of, the trends defined by the more typical systems studied previously by us. We exploit the wide dynamic range provided by this new sample to determine scaling relations of outflow velocity with galaxy stellar mass (M *), circular velocity, star formation rate (SFR), SFR/M *, and SFR/area. We argue that these results can be accommodated within the general interpretational framework we previously advocated, in which a population of ambient interstellar or circumgalactic clouds is accelerated by the combined forces of gravity and the momentum flux from the starburst. We show that this simple physical picture is consistent with both the strong cosmological evolution of galactic outflows in typical star-forming galaxies and the paucity of such galaxies with spectra showing inflows. We also present simple parameterizations of these results that can be implemented in theoretical models and numerical simulations of galaxy evolution.

  14. MOS Mapping of the NIR Outflow HH 223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Estalella, R.; Gómez, G.; García-Lorenzo, B.

    2016-10-01

    The Multi-Object-Spectroscopy (MOS) mode of LIRIS was used to map the near-IR stellar outflow HH 223, in the dark cloud Lynds 723 (L723). HH 223 spatially coincides with the east-west component of the L723 quadrupolar CO outflow. The radio continuum source SMA2, towards the center of the quadrupolar CO outflow, hides the YSO that seems to power both the near-IR and the CO outflows. To map the S-shaped, near-IR emission of HH 223, extending ˜ 5', an appropriate mask was designed, with 16 rectangular slitlets. J, H and K-band spectra (R ˜eq 2500) were obtained through the mask. The kinematics of the neutral (H2) and ionized ([FeII]) gas outflow was derived from these data. The results confirm that both the near-IR and the CO outflows have a common driving source. To our knowledge, this is the first use of the MOS-LIRIS observing mode with the mask designed ad hoc to fit several extended, nonaligned targets.

  15. Radiation pressure confinement - IV. Application to broad absorption line outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Alexei; Laor, Ari; Stern, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    A fraction of quasars present broad absorption lines, produced by outflowing gas with typical velocities of 3000-10 000 km s-1. If the outflowing gas fills a significant fraction of the volume where it resides, then it will be highly ionized by the quasar due to its low density, and will not produce the observed UV absorption. The suggestion that the outflow is shielded from the ionizing radiation was excluded by recent observations. The remaining solution is a dense outflow with a filling factor f < 10-3. What produces such a small f? Here, we point out that radiation pressure confinement (RPC) inevitably leads to gas compression and the formation of dense thin gas sheets/filaments, with a large gradient in density and ionization along the line of sight. The total column of ionized dustless gas is a few times 1022 cm-2, consistent with the observed X-ray absorption and detectable P V absorption. The predicted maximal columns of various ions show a small dependence on the system parameters, and can be used to test the validity of RPC as a solution for the overionization problem. The ionization structure of the outflow implies that if the outflow is radiatively driven, then broad absorption line quasars should have L/L_Eddgtrsim 0.1.

  16. Determining the Spatially Resolved Mass Outflow Rate in Markarian 573

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revalski, Mitchell; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Fischer, Travis C.; Kraemer, Steven B.; Schmitt, Henrique R.

    2017-01-01

    We report on current progress in calculating the narrow line region (NLR) mass outflow rate in the Seyfert 2 galaxy Markarian 573. Our goal is to determine the mass outflow rate as a function of distance from the nucleus in 10 nearby Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with spatially resolved NLRs. These nearby AGN allow us to study the feeding and feedback of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that may play an important role in understanding large scale structure, enrichment of the interstellar medium, and coevolution of SMBHs with their host galaxies. Utilizing archival spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) we measured emission line ratios from a wide range of ionized species. Next we used the line ratios to find a reddening correction and determined the physical conditions in the ionized gas using the photoionization code Cloudy. Specifically, we derived the mass of the ionized gas and then estimate the total mass outside of the spectral slit using HST [O III] images. Combined with kinematic models of the outflows we will determine the mass outflow rate and kinetic luminosity as a function of distance from the central AGN. Ultimately, we aim to determine if NLR outflows are effective in regulating AGN feedback by comparing our observed outflow rates with theoretical models.

  17. Quantification of Focal Outflow Enhancement Using Differential Canalograms

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Ralitsa T.; Brown, Eric N.; Scott, Gordon; Parikh, Hardik; Schuman, Joel S.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To quantify regional changes of conventional outflow caused by ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT). Methods Gonioscopic, plasma-mediated AIT was established in enucleated pig eyes. We developed a program to automatically quantify outflow changes (R, package eye-canalogram, github.com) using a fluorescent tracer reperfusion technique. Trabecular meshwork (TM) ablation was demonstrated with fluorescent spheres in six eyes before formal outflow quantification with two-dye reperfusion canalograms in six additional eyes. Eyes were perfused with a central, intracameral needle at 15 mm Hg. Canalograms and histology were correlated for each eye. Results The pig eye provided a model with high similarity to AIT in human patients. Histology indicated ablation of TM and unroofing of most Schlemm's canal segments. Spheres highlighted additional circumferential and radial outflow beyond the immediate area of ablation. Differential canalograms showed that AIT caused an increase of outflow of 17 ± 5-fold inferonasally, 14 ± 3-fold superonasally, and also an increase in the opposite quadrants with a 2 ± 1-fold increase superotemporally, and 3 ± 3 inferotemporally. Perilimbal specific flow image analysis showed an accelerated nasal filling with an additional perilimbal flow direction into adjacent quadrants. Conclusions A quantitative, differential canalography technique was developed that allows us to quantify supraphysiological outflow enhancement by AIT. PMID:27227352

  18. Ionospheric Plasma Outflow Under High Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malingre, M.; Bouhram, M.; Dubouloz, N.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Berthomier, M.; Carlson, C. W.

    The polar cusp is well-known to be one of the most intense source regions of iono- spheric outflow. Since this region is of direct access for solar wind plasma, changes in the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind dynamic pressure are expected to influence the ion outflow. We report combined observations from the Interball- Auroral in the high-altitude range (10,000-20,000km) and the FAST satellite in the mid-altitude range (4000 km) revealing enhanced ion outflows in association with the passage of an interplanetary shock and CME. Several case studies based on the anal- ysis of ion data recorded from several orbits before and after the pressure impulse are made to investigate how the dynamic pressure affects the amount of outflowing ions. We found a clear relationship between the ion outflow variations and the dy- namic pressure changes when choosing average ion flux and average ion energy flux, inferred from global conservation laws, as parameters to characterize the ion outflow.

  19. Quasar Outflows and Black Hole Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon; Hennawi, Joseph; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2016-08-01

    Black-hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z > 2, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity-width of the CIV broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity-widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the CIV-emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries ('blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km/s to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. Using both archival data and new observations, we have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Ha and/or Hb emission lines, for ~400 luminous (L_Bol = 45.5-48.5 erg/s) SDSS quasars, at redshifts 1.5 < z < 4, with CIV emission lines spanning the full-range of blueshifts present in the population. A strong correlation between CIV-velocity width and blueshift is found and, at large blueshifts, >2000 km/s, the velocity-widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Using the Ha/Hb emission to provide black hole masses free from non-virial contributions, we are able to derive a quantitative correction to the CIV-based black-hole masses as a function of blueshift. This correction reduces the scatter between Ha/Hb and CIV velocity widths to just ~0.1 dex. Without the correction, black hole masses would be overestimated by a factor of nine at the largest blueshifts. With a suitable systemic redshift-estimation algorithm, this correction can be straightforwardly applied based only on information contained in the rest-frame UV spectra.

  20. RADIATION TRANSPORT FOR EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOWS: OPACITY REGROUPING

    SciTech Connect

    Wollaeger, Ryan T.; Van Rossum, Daniel R. E-mail: daan@flash.uchicago.edu

    2014-10-01

    Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) are methods used to stochastically solve the radiative transport and diffusion equations, respectively. These methods combine into a hybrid transport-diffusion method we refer to as IMC-DDMC. We explore a multigroup IMC-DDMC scheme that in DDMC, combines frequency groups with sufficient optical thickness. We term this procedure ''opacity regrouping''. Opacity regrouping has previously been applied to IMC-DDMC calculations for problems in which the dependence of the opacity on frequency is monotonic. We generalize opacity regrouping to non-contiguous groups and implement this in SuperNu, a code designed to do radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with non-monotonic opacities. We find that regrouping of non-contiguous opacity groups generally improves the speed of IMC-DDMC radiation transport. We present an asymptotic analysis that informs the nature of the Doppler shift in DDMC groups and summarize the derivation of the Gentile-Fleck factor for modified IMC-DDMC. We test SuperNu using numerical experiments including a quasi-manufactured analytic solution, a simple 10 group problem, and the W7 problem for Type Ia supernovae. We find that opacity regrouping is necessary to make our IMC-DDMC implementation feasible for the W7 problem and possibly Type Ia supernova simulations in general. We compare the bolometric light curves and spectra produced by the SuperNu and PHOENIX radiation transport codes for the W7 problem. The overall shape of the bolometric light curves are in good agreement, as are the spectra and their evolution with time. However, for the numerical specifications we considered, we find that the peak luminosity of the light curve calculated using SuperNu is ∼10% less than that calculated using PHOENIX.

  1. Protostellar Outflows and Radiative Feedback from Massive Stars. II. Feedback, Star-formation Efficiency, and Outflow Broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, Rolf; Turner, Neal J.; Yorke, Harold W.

    2016-11-01

    We perform two-dimensional axially symmetric radiation hydrodynamic simulations to assess the impact of outflows and radiative force feedback from massive protostars by varying when the protostellar outflow starts, and to determine the ratio of ejection to accretion rates and the strength of the wide-angle disk wind component. The star-formation efficiency, i.e., the ratio of final stellar mass to initial core mass, is dominated by radiative forces and the ratio of outflow to accretion rates. Increasing this ratio has three effects. First, the protostar grows slower with a lower luminosity at any given time, lowering radiative feedback. Second, bipolar cavities cleared by the outflow become larger, further diminishing radiative feedback on disk and core scales. Third, the higher momentum outflow sweeps up more material from the collapsing envelope, decreasing the protostar's potential mass reservoir via entrainment. The star-formation efficiency varies with the ratio of ejection to accretion rates from 50% in the case of very weak outflows to as low as 20% for very strong outflows. At latitudes between the low-density bipolar cavity and the high-density accretion disk, wide-angle disk winds remove some of the gas, which otherwise would be part of the accretion flow onto the disk; varying the strength of these wide-angle disk winds, however, alters the final star-formation efficiency by only ±6%. For all cases, the opening angle of the bipolar outflow cavity remains below 20° during early protostellar accretion phases, increasing rapidly up to 65° at the onset of radiation pressure feedback.

  2. FEEDBACK FROM MASS OUTFLOWS IN NEARBY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. OUTFLOWS IN THE NARROW-LINE REGION OF NGC 4151

    SciTech Connect

    Crenshaw, D. Michael; Fischer, Travis C.; Kraemer, Steven B.; Schmitt, Henrique R. E-mail: fischer@astro.gsu.edu E-mail: schmitt.henrique@gmail.com

    2015-01-20

    We present a detailed study of active galactic nucleus feedback in the narrow-line region (NLR) of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. We illustrate the data and techniques needed to determine the mass outflow rate ( M-dot {sub out}) and kinetic luminosity (L {sub KE}) of the outflowing ionized gas as a function of position in the NLR. We find that M-dot {sub out} peaks at a value of 3.0 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at a distance of 70 pc from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH), which is about 10 times the outflow rate coming from inside 13 pc, and 230 times the mass accretion rate inferred from the bolometric luminosity of NGC 4151. Thus, most of the outflow must arise from in situ acceleration of ambient gas throughout the NLR. L {sub KE} peaks at 90 pc and drops rapidly thereafter, indicating that most of the kinetic energy is deposited within about 100 pc from the SMBH. Both values exceed the M-dot {sub out} and L {sub KE} determined for the UV/X-ray absorber outflows in NGC 4151, indicating the importance of NLR outflows in providing feedback on scales where circumnuclear star formation and bulge growth occur.

  3. Quasars Outflows As A Function of SED - An Empirical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Joseph M.; Ganguly, Rajib

    2015-08-01

    Feedback from quasars (jets, outflows, and luminosity) is now recognized as a vital phase in describing galaxy evolution, growth, and star formation efficiency. Regarding outflows, roughly 60% are observed to have outflowing gas appearing at large velocities and with a variety of velocity dispersions. The most extreme observed form of these outflows appears in the ultraviolet spectrum of 15-20% of objects. Understanding the physics of these outflows is important for both astrophysical and cosmological reasons. Establishing empirical relationships to test the theoretical models of how these outflows are driven (and hence, how they impact their surroundings) is currently plagued by having too few objects, where other parameters like the black hole mass or accretion rate, may add to the scatter. We aim to fix this by using a systematic study of a large sample of objects. As a follow up to a previous study, we have identified a sample of nearly 11000 z=1.7-2 quasars using archived data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Data Release 7), of which roughly 4400 appear to show outflows according to the visual inspection. The specific redshift range is chosen to feature both the Mg II 2800 emission line as well as wavelengths extending to nearly 20,000 km/s blueward of the C IV 1549 emission line. Our goals for this study are: (1) To temper our visual inspection schemes with a more automated, computer-driven scheme; (2) To measure the properties of the outflows (velocity, velocity dispersion, equivalent width, ionization); (3) To supplement the SDSS spectra with photometric measurements from GALEX, 2MASS, and WISE to further characterize the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and dust content; (4) To form spectral composites to investigate possible SED changes with outflow properties; and (5) To use published estimates of the quasar physical properties (black hole mass, accretion rate, etc.) to fully establish in an empirical way the complex dependencies between the

  4. Evidence for a chemically differentiated outflow in Mrk 231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, J. E.; Aalto, S.; Muller, S.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Falstad, N.; Costagliola, F.; Henkel, C.; van der Werf, P.; García-Burillo, S.; González-Alfonso, E.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Our goal is to study the chemical composition of the outflows of active galactic nuclei and starburst galaxies. Methods: We obtained high-resolution interferometric observations of HCN and HCO+J = 1 → 0 and J = 2 → 1 of the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231 with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We also use previously published observations of HCN and HCO+J = 1 → 0 and J = 3 → 2, and HNC J = 1 → 0 in the same source. Results: In the line wings of the HCN, HCO+, and HNC emission, we find that these three molecular species exhibit features at distinct velocities which differ between the species. The features are not consistent with emission lines of other molecular species. Through radiative transfer modelling of the HCN and HCO+ outflow emission we find an average abundance ratio X(HCN) /X(HCO+) ≳ 1000. Assuming a clumpy outflow, modelling of the HCN and HCO+ emission produces strongly inconsistent outflow masses. Conclusions: Both the anti-correlated outflow features of HCN and HCO+ and the different outflow masses calculated from the radiative transfer models of the HCN and HCO+ emission suggest that the outflow is chemically differentiated. The separation between HCN and HCO+ could be an indicator of shock fronts present in the outflow, since the HCN/HCO+ ratio is expected to be elevated in shocked regions. Our result shows that studies of the chemistry in large-scale galactic outflows can be used to better understand the physical properties of these outflows and their effects on the interstellar medium in the galaxy. Based on observations with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Reduced datacubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A15

  5. Molecular Outflows in Local ULIRGs: Energetics from Multitransition OH Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Alfonso, E.; Fischer, J.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Stewart, K. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Veilleux, S.; Smith, H. A.; Sturm, E.; Farrah, D.; Falstad, N.; Meléndez, M.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Janssen, A. W.; Lebouteiller, V.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the energetics of molecular outflows in 14 local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) that show unambiguous outflow signatures (P Cygni profiles or high-velocity absorption wings) in the far-infrared lines of OH measured with the Herschel/PACS spectrometer. All sample galaxies are gas-rich mergers at various stages of the merging process. Detection of both ground-state (at 119 and 79 μm) and one or more radiatively excited (at 65 and 84 μm) lines allows us to model the nuclear gas (≲300 pc) and the more extended components using spherically symmetric radiative transfer models. Reliable models and the corresponding energetics are found in 12 of the 14 sources. The highest molecular outflow velocities are found in buried sources, in which slower but massive expansion of the nuclear gas is also observed. With the exception of a few outliers, the outflows have momentum fluxes of (2–5) × L IR/c and mechanical luminosities of (0.1–0.3)% of L IR. The moderate momentum boosts in these sources (≲3) suggest that the outflows are mostly momentum driven by the combined effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and nuclear starbursts, as a result of radiation pressure, winds, and supernova remnants. In some sources (∼20%), however, powerful (1010.5–11 L ⊙) AGN feedback and (partially) energy-conserving phases are required, with momentum boosts in the range of 3–20. These outflows appear to be stochastic, strong AGN feedback events that occur throughout the merging process. In a few sources, the outflow activity in the innermost regions has subsided in the past ∼1 Myr. While OH traces the molecular outflows at subkiloparsec scales, comparison of the masses traced by OH with those previously inferred from tracers of more extended outflowing gas suggests that most mass is loaded (with loading factors of \\dot{M}/{SFR}=1{--}10) from the central galactic cores (a few × 100 pc), qualitatively consistent with an ongoing inside-out quenching of

  6. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  7. The Structure of the Trabecular Meshwork, Its Connections to the Ciliary Muscle, and the Effect of Pilocarpine on Outflow Facility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Darryl R.; Bertrand, Jacques; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich; Stamer, W. Daniel; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the connections between the ciliary muscle (CM), trabecular meshwork (TM), and Schlemm's canal (SC) and their innervations that allows CM contraction (by pilocarpine) to influence conventional outflow in mice. Methods. Sequential sections and whole mounts of murine corneoscleral angles were stained for elastin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Elastic (EL) fibers between the CM, TM, and SC were examined in ultrathin, sequential sections from different planes. The effect of pilocarpine (100 μM) on conventional outflow facility was measured by perfusion of enucleated mouse eyes. Results. The mouse TM contains a three-dimensional (3D) net of EL fibers connecting the inner wall of SC to the cornea anteriorly, the ciliary body (CB) internally and the choroid and CM posteriorly. The CM bifurcates near the posterior TM, extending outer tendons to the juxtacanalicular tissue and inner wall of SC and internal connections to the lamellated TM and CB. Ciliary muscle and lamellated TM cells stain with αSMA and are innervated by VAChT-containing nerve fibers, without TH, VIP, or nNOS. Pilocarpine doubled outflow facility. Conclusions. Mouse eyes resemble primate eyes not only by their well developed SC and TM, but also by their 3D EL net tethering together the TM and SC inner wall and by the tendinous insertion of the CM into this net. The increase in outflow facility following cholinergic stimulation in mice, as in primates, supports using mice for studies of aqueous humor dynamics and glaucoma. PMID:24833737

  8. Decoding Humor Experiences from Brain Activity of People Viewing Comedy Movies

    PubMed Central

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  9. Envelope structure on 700 AU scales and the molecular outflows of low-mass young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Hogerheijde, M R; van Dishoeck, E F; Blake, G A; van Langevelde, H J

    1998-07-20

    IRS 5 outflow, which extends over 10' (0.4 pc), seven of the remaining eight sources are found to drive 12CO 3-2 outflows over < or = 1' (0.04 pc); only L1527 IRS has a well-developed outflow of some 3'(0.12 pc). Estimates are obtained for the outflow kinetic luminosity, Lkin, and the flow momentum rate, FCO, applying corrections for line opacity and source inclination. The flow force FCO correlates with the envelope mass and with the 2.7 mm flux of the circumstellar disk. Only a weak correlation is seen with Lbol, while none is found with the relative age of the object as measured by integral Tmb(HCO+ 3-2)dV/Lbol. These trends support the hypothesis that outflows are driven by accretion through a disk, with a global mass infall rate determined by the mass and density of the envelope. The association of compact HCO+ emission with the walls of the outflow cavities indicates that outflows in turn influence the appearance of the envelopes. It is not yet clear, however, whether they are actively involved in sweeping up envelope material, or merely provide a low-opacity pathway for heating radiation to reach into the envelope.

  10. Envelope structure on 700 AU scales and the molecular outflows of low-mass young stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Blake, G. A.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    IRS 5 outflow, which extends over 10' (0.4 pc), seven of the remaining eight sources are found to drive 12CO 3-2 outflows over < or = 1' (0.04 pc); only L1527 IRS has a well-developed outflow of some 3'(0.12 pc). Estimates are obtained for the outflow kinetic luminosity, Lkin, and the flow momentum rate, FCO, applying corrections for line opacity and source inclination. The flow force FCO correlates with the envelope mass and with the 2.7 mm flux of the circumstellar disk. Only a weak correlation is seen with Lbol, while none is found with the relative age of the object as measured by integral Tmb(HCO+ 3-2)dV/Lbol. These trends support the hypothesis that outflows are driven by accretion through a disk, with a global mass infall rate determined by the mass and density of the envelope. The association of compact HCO+ emission with the walls of the outflow cavities indicates that outflows in turn influence the appearance of the envelopes. It is not yet clear, however, whether they are actively involved in sweeping up envelope material, or merely provide a low-opacity pathway for heating radiation to reach into the envelope.

  11. The Dynamics of Outflows from Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridge, Naomi A.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of CO outflows around young stellar objects (YSOs) suggests that mass-loss is a necessary ingredient of the star-formation process, and they are thought to provide a means to remove angular momentum from the accreting matter. Our understanding of molecular outflows from low-mass YSOs has come from a large number of studies performed during the last decade. However there have been relatively few similar detailed studies of high-mass YSO outflows, and it is still not clear whether outflows from high-mass YSOs are generated and entrained by the same mechanism as those from their low-mass counterparts. Studies of high-mass star-formation which attempt to extend the established correlations between outflow momentum-flux and source bolometric luminosity into the high-mass regime are further hindered by the problem of Malmquist bias, which we show to be prevalent in the existing studies of high-mass YSOs. We therefore selected a sample of known intermediate to high-mass YSOs with outflows with a range of luminosities but all located at a distance of 2 +/- 0.3 kpc. With this sample we are able to test the correlations between outflow dynamical properties and source properties free from biases due to source distance, and to investigate whether the other phenomena associated with low-mass YSO outflows are also common in high-mass flows. We present high-sensitivity 12CO maps of the 11 outflows from intermediate to high-mass YSOs, and discuss their morphology and dynamics. These data were also used to re-investigate the uncertainties involved in using spectral-line data to derive flow properties, particularly the importance of variations in optical depth and the problem of separating ambient cloud emssion from flow emission. We also present 13CO and C18O observations of the ``cores'' surrounding each YSO and discuss how the cloud core and outflow may be related. The primary conclusions of this work are: The correlation between outflow momentum flux (FrmCO ) and

  12. Central serotonin(2B) receptor blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical dopamine outflow.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Di Marco, Barbara; Caraci, Filippo; Drago, Filippo; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) is currently considered as an interesting pharmacological target for improved treatment of drug addiction. In the present study, we assessed the effect of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and dopamine (DA) outflow in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsal striatum of freely moving rats. The peripheral administration of RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) or LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced basal DA outflow in the NAc shell, but had no effect on cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced DA outflow in this brain region. Also, RS 127445 failed to modify both basal and cocaine-induced DA outflow in the NAc core and the dorsal striatum. Conversely, both 5-HT2BR antagonists reduced cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, RS 127445 as well as the DA-R antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced significantly the late-onset hyperlocomotion induced by the DA-R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5-HT2BR blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical DA outflow. This interaction takes place downstream to DA neurons and could involve an action at the level of dorsostriatal and/or NAc DA transmission, in keeping with the importance of these brain regions in the behavioural responses of cocaine. Overall, this study affords additional knowledge into the regulatory control exerted by the 5-HT2BR on ascending DA pathways, and provides additional support to the proposed role of 5-HT2BRs as a new pharmacological target in drug addiction.

  13. Evening types among german university students score higher on sense of humor after controlling for big five personality factors.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Humor research has focused on relationships between humor and various personality traits. As personality and morningness-eveningness, as well as personality and humor, are related based on genetics and neurobehavioral function, one might also expect a relationship between humor and chronotype. 197 students responded to the Composite Scale of Morningness as a measure of chronotype, the Sense of Humor Questionnaire and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. Individuals scoring as evening types reported a greater sense of humor than morning individuals, with higher morningness scores. In a stepwise linear regression, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Chronotype each accounted for a significant amount of variance in sense of Humor scores. That is, the relationship between scores on Sense of Humor and evening orientation was significant after controlling for personality dimensions. Eveningness was related to sense of Humor scores in women but not in men. Social but not cognitive humor was predicted by eveningness.

  14. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-10-10

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus.

  15. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    SciTech Connect

    Federrath, Christoph; Schrön, Martin; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  16. Low Altitude Initiation of Ionospheric Upflow and Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, M.; Zettergren, M. D.; Rowland, D. E.; Klenzing, J.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of ionospheric plasma can be transported to high altitudes (above 1000 km) in response to a variety of plasma heating and uplifting processes. Soft electron precipitation heats ambient, F-region ionospheric electrons creating electron pressure increases and upflows. Strong DC electric fields frictionally heat the ion population also resulting in ion upflows. Lastly, field-aligned thermospheric winds can contribute to ion motion at lower altitudes, while geomagnetically perpendicular winds may affect frictional heating. Once ions have been lifted to high altitudes, transverse ion acceleration by broadband ELF waves can give the upflowing ions sufficient energy to escape into the magnetosphere (ionospheric outflow). This study examines the thermospheric wind regulation of ionospheric upflow and outflow with a focus on how lower ionosphere dynamics feed source populations for transverse energization and determine the types, and amounts, of outflowing ions. The model used here for this study is a 2D ionospheric model based on a modified 16-moment transport description. It solves conservation of mass, momentum, and parallel and perpendicular energy for all relevant ionospheric species. This model encapsulates ionospheric upflow and outflow processes through the inclusion of DC electric fields, and empirical descriptions of heating by soft electron precipitation and BBELF waves. This model is used to conduct a parametric study of neutral wind effects on upflow and outflow and highlights how low-altitude processes affect ion outflow through the regulation of source plasma available to higher altitudes. This model is also used to construct a case study of ion outflows at the nightside polar cap boundary using data from the VISIONS sounding rocket campaign.

  17. Dust outflows from quiescent spiral disks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alton, P. B.; Rand, R. J.; Xilouris, E. M.; Bevan, S.; Ferguson, A. M.; Davies, J. I.; Bianchi, S.

    2000-07-01

    We have conducted a search for ``dust chimneys'' in a sample of 10 highly-inclined spiral galaxies (i=86-90deg) which we had previously observed in the Hα emission line (Rand 1996). We have procured B-band CCD images for this purpose and employed unsharp-masking techniques to accentuate the structure of the dust lane. A scattering+absorption radiation transfer model enabled us to separate 5 galaxies from the sample which are sufficiently inclined (i>87deg) for us to reliably identify and quantify dust clouds residing at over 2 scale-heights above the disk. Three of these galaxies possess numerous curvi-linear chimney structures stretching up to 2 kpc from the midplane and the fraction of total galactic dust contained in such structures is of order 1%. Optical extinction offers a lower limit to the amount of dust contained in the extraplanar layer but, by examining the transparent submm thermal emission from NGC 891, we fix an upper limit of 5%. Our results are consistent with a similar recent study by Howk & Savage (1999) which indicates that about half of quiescent spiral disks possess detectable dust chimneys. We have compared our optical images with the corresponding Hα emission-line radiation. We do not find a detailed spatial correspondance between dust chimneys and either sites of recent star-formation or the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas. This is somewhat surprising given that FIR-bright galaxies, such as M 82, are known to entrain dust at the working surface of the starburst-driven outflow (traced in Hα ). It is possible a global correlation exists, with disks experiencing overall higher rates of star-formation also possessing the greatest number of chimneys. This may indicate a timescale difference between the two phenomena with the Hα phase lasting ~ 106 yr but chimneys requiring ~ 107 yr to form. Additionally, we have investigated the edge-on disk NGC 55 which, being ten times closer than galaxies in our main sample, allows us to examine in greater

  18. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account.

  19. The effect of humorous movies on inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gelkopf, Marc; Gonen, Bruria; Kurs, Rena; Melamed, Yuval; Bleich, Avi

    2006-11-01

    We assessed the impact of humorous movies on psychopathology, anxiety, depression, anger, social functioning, insight, and therapeutic alliance in schizophrenia inpatients. Twenty-nine psychiatric inpatients in open wards participated in the study. The study group viewed humorous and the control group viewed neutral movies daily for 3 months. Participants were assessed before and after viewing movies with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, Calgary Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Multinomah Community Ability Scale, the Insight and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire, and the Working Alliance Inventory. Reduced levels of psychopathology, anger, anxiety, and depression symptoms and an improvement in social competence were revealed in the study group. No changes were observed in treatment insight or working alliance. Video films are a practical and cost-efficient means of entertainment that seem to have a positive effect on patient morale, mood, and mental status.

  20. Aqueous humor cytokine profiling in patients with wet AMD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yu; Li, Jiaqing; Tang, Miao; Yuan, Miner; Hu, Andina; Zhan, Zongyi; Li, Zijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the chemokine expression profiles in the aqueous humor of wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) patients and to correlate their levels with clinical findings. Methods Undiluted aqueous humor samples (100–200 μl) were obtained from 16 wet AMD eyes and 12 control eyes. Forty chemokines were measured using a multiplex method. A 6×6 mm area of the macular region centered on the fovea was examined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results The detection rates were 50% or more for 15 chemokines. Compared with the control group, the aqueous humor in wet AMD patients showed a significantly higher expression of CXCL10 (p=0.004), CCL14 (p=0.002), CXCL16 (p=0.013), CXCL7 (p=0.033), and CCL22 (p=0.037), while growth-related oncogene (GRO) was significantly decreased in the wet AMD patients (p=0.001). When compared with treatment-naïve patients, the recurrent group had significant upregulation of CXCL10 (p=0.012) and CCL22 (p=0.002). CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size, and CCL22 was higher in patients whose OCT images showed intraretinal fluid (IRF) or hyperreflective foci (HF). Conclusions Elevated levels of inflammation-related chemokines, including CXCL10, CCL14, CXCL16, CXCL7, and CCL22, in the aqueous humor of AMD patients may suggest a pathogenic role for inflammation. CXCL10 and CCL22 were more elevated in eyes with recurrent wet AMD than in treatment-naïve eyes. CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size. The increase in CCL22 was correlated with the presence of IRF or HF. These data may be of interest in the search for biomarkers associated with wet AMD and may potentially indicate different treatment strategies. PMID:27122966

  1. Acetylcholine in the rat pituitary: a possible humoral factor.

    PubMed

    Egozi, Y; Kloog, Y; Fleminger, G; Sokolovsky, M

    1988-12-20

    Significant amounts of acetylcholine (ACh) were detected in each of the 3 lobes of the rat pituitary (3-6 pmol/anterior lobe, 3 pmol/intermediate lobe and 1.8 pmol/posterior lobe). In the anterior lobes of cyclic rats the levels of ACh varied with the estrous cycle, with daily peaks being observed on the days of proestrus and estrus. The occurrence of ACh, apparently as a humoral factor, appears to be unique to the anterior pituitary.

  2. Comprehension of humor in primary agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa; Dietrich, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) can, in some cases, perform normally on standardized intelligence tests. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that individuals with ACC and normal IQ scores have deficits in domains of fluid and social intelligence. Anecdotal reports from families suggest diminished appreciation of the subtleties of social interactions, and deficits in the comprehension of jokes and stories. In this research, both the cartoon and narrative joke subtests of a humor test (developed by Brownell et al. [Brownell, H., Michel, D., Powelson, J., & Gardner, H. (1983). Surprise but not coherence: sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and language, 18(1), 20-27] and Bihrle et al. [Bihrle, A. M., Brownell, H. H., Powelson, J. A., & Gardner, H. (1986). Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain and Cognition, 5(4), 399-411]) were given to 16 adults with complete ACC (all with IQs>80) and 31 controls of similar age and IQ. Individuals with ACC performed worse than controls on the narrative joke subtest (p<.025) when VIQ was controlled. However, on the cartoon subtest the two groups were not significantly different. Covarying age, forms of IQ, narrative memory, set-switching, and literal language comprehension did not substantially alter the group difference. However, covarying comprehension of nonliteral language and proverbs eliminated the difference, suggesting a common origin for the comprehension of jokes, nonliteral language, and proverbs, most likely related to capacity for understanding second-order meanings.

  3. Stochastic humoral expression of human growth hormone epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverrigaray, M; Paladini, A C; Retegui, L A

    1988-01-01

    Competition experiments between insolubilized monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and polyclonal antisera has led to the description of the humoral expression of human growth hormone (hGH) epitopes. This study was carried out with sera from mice and hamsters submitted to different immunization schedules: chronic administration of the antigen, secondary response and conventional hyperimmunization. The results indicated the absence of a unique immunodominant epitope in hGH; a significant individual variation of antibody (Ab) population titres with time; changes with time in the relative proportion of one Ab population with respect to the others; and the occurrence of Ab enhancing the 125I-hGH binding to five mAb depending upon the individuals and the time of immunization. Heterocliticity towards non-human GH was also detected. Although most of the animals showed cross-reacting Ab, two out of 12 mice, chronically injected, developed heteroclitic Ab. The data suggest that the humoral response to different epitopes of a protein antigen during the maturation of the immune response is a stochastic process leading to transient humoral immunodominance, enhancing Ab populations and heterocliticity, depending upon individual characteristics, either in outbred or inbred populations. PMID:2452789

  4. Sex differences during humor appreciation in child-sibling pairs.

    PubMed

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span, and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to sex differences in rates of depression, a disorder afflicting twice as many women as men. In this study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain responses to funny versus positive (and neutral) video clips in 22 children, ages 6-13 years, including eight sibling-pairs. Our data revealed increased activity to funny clips in bilateral temporo-occipital cortex, midbrain, and amygdala in girls. Conversely, we found heightened activation to positive clips in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in boys. Many of these effects persisted when looking at sibling-pairs only. We interpret such findings as reflecting the presence of early sex divergence in reward saliency or expectation and stimulus relevance attribution. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary and developmental theories of humor function.

  5. Neural substrates of incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor.

    PubMed

    Samson, Andrea C; Hempelmann, Christian F; Huber, Oswald; Zysset, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the present paper analyzes the neural correlates of processing and appreciating incongruity-resolution and nonsense cartoons. Furthermore, the relation between experience seeking and these neural substrates was investigated as this personality characteristic is known to influence humor appreciation. In the processing of incongruity-resolution stimuli the incongruity of the joke is largely resolvable, whereas in nonsense stimuli it is only partially resolvable and more incongruity remains. The anterior medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral superior frontal gyri and temporo-parietal junctions (TPJ) show more activation during processing of incongruity-resolution than of nonsense cartoons. These differences indicate that processing of incongruity-resolution cartoons requires more integration of multi-sensory information and coherence building, as well as more mental manipulation and organization of information. In addition, less self-reference might be established in nonsense cartoons as it is more absurd and more often deals with impossible situations. Higher experience-seeking scores correlate with increased activation in prefrontal, posterior temporal regions and the hippocampus. This might be due to a more intense exploration of the humorous stimuli as experience seekers tend to search novel mental stimulation. Furthermore, experience seeking was positively associated with brain reactivity towards processing nonsense in contrast to incongruity-resolution stimuli, which is in line with behavioral studies that showed a preference for nonsense humor by experience seekers.

  6. Humor appreciation in remitted patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bozikas, Vasilis P; Kosmidis, Mary H; Tonia, Thomy; Garyfallos, George; Focas, Kostas; Karavatos, Athanasios

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of remitted patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 19 patients (8 men) with bipolar disorder I, currently remitted, and 22 (9 men) healthy controls, matched on age, education, and gender, on a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons, the Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT). Residual manic symptoms were evaluated with the Young Mania Rating Scale and residual depressive symptoms with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients with bipolar disorder performed worse than the healthy group on the PHAT, but this difference was not statistically significant. Performance on the PHAT did not significantly correlate with age of onset and duration of illness, or with residual manic or depressive symptoms measured by Young Mania Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, respectively. Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons, in bipolar disorder does not seem to be deficient at least during remission, suggesting that this high-order cognitive function may not be considered a trait deficit of the disorder.

  7. SEX DIFFERENCES DURING HUMOR APPRECIATION IN CHILD SIBLING-PAIRS

    PubMed Central

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to sex differences in rates of depression, a disorder afflicting twice as many women as men. In this study, we employed fMRI to investigate brain responses to funny versus positive (and neutral) video clips in 22 children ages 6 to 13 years, including 8 sibling pairs. Our data revealed increased activity to funny clips in bilateral temporo-occipital cortex, midbrain, and amygdala in girls. Conversely, we found heightened activation to positive clips in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in boys. Many of these effects persisted when looking at sibling-pairs only. We interpret such findings as reflecting the presence of early sex divergence in reward saliency / expectation and stimulus relevance attribution. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary and developmental theories of humor function. PMID:23672302

  8. Monitoring of aqueous humor metabolites using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicksted, James P.; Erckens, Roel J.; Motamedi, Massoud; March, Wayne F.

    1994-05-01

    Laser Raman scattering has been used to monitor glucose and lactate metabolites within aqueous humor specimens obtained from nine human eyes during cataract surgery. Nine postmortem rabbit eyes were also investigated. Raman measurements were obtained using a single grating Raman spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. A 514.5 nm line from an argon laser was used to illuminate capillaries containing several microliters of aqueous humor. A water background was subtracted from each of the aqueous humor Raman spectra. This experimental system was calibrated so that each metabolite in water could be measured down to 0.1 weight percent. Raman peaks indicative of the stretching vibrations of methylene and methyl groups associated with glucose and lactate, respectively, were observed in the human specimens. A second stretching mode characteristic of lactate between the carbon atom and either the carboxylic acid group or carboxylate ion group was also observed providing a distinguishing feature between the glucose and lactate Raman peaks. Similar structure was observed from the rabbit specimens, but these samples have recently been found to have been contaminated during euthanasia.

  9. Effects of astaxanthin on antioxidation in human aqueous humor

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hirotaka; Arai, Kiyomi; Hayashi, Shimmin; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Jiro; Chikuda, Makoto; Obara, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative effects of astaxanthin through the changes in superoxide scavenging activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide and total hydroperoxides in human aqueous humor. The study subjects were 35 patients who underwent bilateral cataract surgery on one side before and the other side after intake of astaxanthin (6 mg/day for 2 weeks). Their aqueous humor was taken during the surgery and subjected to measurements of the three parameters. After astaxanthin intake, the superoxide scavenging activity was significantly (p<0.05) elevated, while the level of total hydroperoxides was significantly (p<0.05) lowered. There was a significant negative correlation between the superoxide scavenging activity and the level of total hydroperoxides (r = −0.485, p<0.01), but no correlations between the hydrogen peroxide level and the other two parameters. Astaxanthin intake clearly enhanced the superoxide scavenging activity and suppressed the total hydroperoxides production in human aqueous humor, indicating the possibility that astaxanthin has suppressive effects on various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:23874063

  10. The effect of humor on aggression catharsis in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ziv, A

    1987-07-01

    Two studies were designed to measure the cathartic effects of humor on aggressive responses. In the first study, two versions (easy and difficult) of Raven's intelligence test were administered to two groups of high school students. Only the easy version could be solved in the alloted time. Rosenzweig's (1951) Picture Frustration test was then administered and the students' aggressive responses were scored. Results showed that those who did not solve the problems had significantly higher scores on aggressivity than did the others. The second study, using four different groups, was planned according to a modified Solomon design. Two of the four groups of students completed the difficult part of the Raven test, and then two video-tapes were presented: a humorous one to two groups and a neutral one to the others. Finally, the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test was administered to all four groups. An analysis of variance computed on the aggressivity scores showed one significant difference: frustrated students who viewed the humorous videotape had lower scores than those viewing the neutral one.

  11. HUMOR STYLES, CREATIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND CREATIVE THINKING IN A HONG KONG SAMPLE.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na

    2015-12-01

    Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits.

  12. Characterizing the Cep E protostellar outflow: the oxygen chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusdorf, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    With this proposal we aim at observing two positions in the Cep E protostellar outflow in OI and OH emission lines with the GREAT receiver. It is associated with another proposal by the same team to map the CII emission in this outflow associated to an intermediate mass protostar. These observations will be combined with Herschel observations of water line emission, and with previous CO data from various telescopes (IRAM 30m, PdBI, JCMT, Herschel, and most importantly, SOFIA). Their analysis will benefit from the important work initiated since the Cycle 0 of SOFIA, which has enabled our team to accurately link spatial structures (the jet, the outflow cavity, the terminal bowshock in the southern outflow lobe) to spectral components seen in the CO line profiles, and to precisely constrain the associated physical conditions by means of LVG methods or shock models. The goal is to precisely understand the water chemistry and to characterize the energetic impacts of the outflow based on a self-consistent and unique dataset that will allow us to fully characterize the associated shocks. Such a work is necessary also to understand the processes of formation of stars of intermediate mass with respect to their low-mass counterparts.

  13. Asymmetric ionospheric outflow observed at the dayside magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, Y.; Otto, A.; Rème, H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2015-05-01

    An important source of the terrestrial magnetospheric plasma is the Earth's ionospheric outflows from the high-latitude regions of both hemispheres. The ionospheric ion outflows have rarely been observed at the dayside magnetopause. We report Cluster observations of the ionospheric ion outflows observed at the dayside magnetopause. The low-energy (up to 1.5 keV) electrons are detected with bidirectional pitch angle distributions indicating that the magnetic field lines are closed. The unidirectional cold ions (< 200 eV) are observed in the magnetosphere by both C1 and C3. The pitch angle distributions (0∘-75∘) of the cold ions (< 1 keV) at the dayside magnetopause indicate that these cold ions are the ionospheric outflows coming only from the Southern Hemisphere. The cold ions (< 200 eV) fluxes are modulated by the ULF wave electric field. Two different species (possibly H+ and He+) are observed in the magnetosphere. Our results suggest that the ionospheric outflows can directly reach the dayside magnetopause region and may participate in the reconnection process.

  14. Left ventricular assist device outflow graft: alternative sites.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M; Aftab, Muhammad; Singh, Steve K; Mallidi, Hari R; Frazier, Oscar H

    2014-09-01

    We describe three alternative approaches for the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) outflow graft during implantation of the LVAD. The supraceliac abdominal aorta, innominate artery and left axillary artery were employed as alternative sites for the LVAD outflow graft in the setting of a heavily calcified ascending aorta or a hostile chest wall and mediastinum. The first approach involved the use of the supraceliac abdominal aorta. Given that the patient had a history of multiple previous breast surgeries and chest wall radiation for breast cancer treatment, a left subcostal incision was employed as a sternotomy-sparing approach. The second approach was the use of the innominate artery in a patient with a porcelain ascending aorta. The patient underwent pulmonary valve replacement, right ventricle outflow tract reconstruction and tricuspid valve annuloplasty in addition to the LVAD implantation. The third approach was the use of the left axillary artery. This patient had a history of LVAD implantation and subsequently developed infection with pseudoaneurysm formation at the aortic anastomosis of the outflow graft. We conclude that the supraceliac abdominal aorta, the innominate artery and the left axillary artery are potential alternative routes for the LVAD outflow graft in the settings of heavily calcified ascending aorta or a hostile chest wall and mediastinum. Although the described alternative approaches are safe and viable options, we highly recommend utilizing these approaches only in selected patients with significantly higher risks and hazards to the standard surgical approach.

  15. The Molecular Gas Outflow of NGC 1068 Imaged by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have used the ALMA array to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3), and CS(7-6)) in the central r˜2 kpc of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with spatial resolutions ˜0.3″-0.5″ (˜20-35 pc). The sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA give a detailed view of the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas. The gas kinematics from r˜50 pc out to r˜400 pc reveal a massive outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet, and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN driven. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, M/dt˜63+21-37 M⊙ yr-1, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii. The molecular outflow could quench star formation in the inner r˜400 pc of the galaxy on short timescales of ≤1 Myr and regulate gas accretion in the CND.

  16. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  17. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  18. SUPERNOVAE AND AGN DRIVEN GALACTIC OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mahavir; Nath, Biman B. E-mail: biman@rri.res.in

    2013-01-20

    an appropriate relation between M {sub .} and M{sub h} and an appropriate opacity of dust grains in infrared (K band), this ratio has the attractive property of being minimum at a certain halo mass scale (M{sub h} {approx} 10{sup 12}-10{sup 12.5} M {sub Sun }) that signifies the crossover of AGN domination in outflow properties from starburst activity at lower masses. We find that stellar mass for massive galaxies scales as M {sub *}{proportional_to}M {sup 0.26} {sub h}, and for low-mass galaxies, M {sub *}{proportional_to}M {sup 5/3} {sub h}.

  19. The humoral response in TCR alpha-/- mice. Can gammadelta-T cells support the humoral immune response?

    PubMed

    Lindroth, K; Troye-Blomberg, M; Singh, M; Dieli, F; Ivanyi, J; Fernández, C

    2002-03-01

    An optimal humoral response requires T-cell help; however, it has been questioned if this help comes exclusively from alphabeta-T cells or whether gammadelta-T cells also contribute. We have attempted to answer this question by studying the humoral response in T-cell receptor alpha-chain knockout (alpha-/-) mice, which lack the alphabetaT cell subset. Two model antigens were used to characterize the response: the thymus-independent (TI) antigen native dextran B512 (Dx), and the thymus-dependent (TD) antigen heat shock protein (HSP65) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When challenged with Dx, the alpha-/- mice elicited a strong antibody response and formed rudimentary germinal centres (GCs), a T-cell dependent reaction. In contrast, the humoral response to HSP65 was poor. However, alpha-/- mice became primed when challenged with HSP65, because when supplemented with wild-type thymocytes, the antigen-primed animals were able to mount a stronger response than the nonprimed ones when challenged with HSP65. A crucial step seems to be the collaboration between gammadeltaT cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs), as splenocytes from alpha-/- mice were able to respond to HSP65 in an environment containing primed-APCs. Based on these results, we propose a model for B-cell activation in the alpha-/- mice.

  20. Plasma Outflows: Known Knowns, Known Unknowns, and The Unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    A brief summary is given of i) what we know from observing ionospheric outflows and ii) how outflow parameterizations are being used in global simulations to evaluate their effects on magnetospheric dynamics. Then, a list of unanswered questions and issues to be resolved is given, followed by a description of the known future mission plans expressed in the Heliophysics Roadmap, such as Origin of Near-Earth Plasmas (ONEP), and Ion-Neutral Coupling in the Atmosphere (INCA). Finally, a set of requirements for definitive plasma outflow observations are identified, along with possible methods for fulfilling them in future missions. Since results of the current Heliophysics Decadal Survey are expected soon, it is hoped that future plans can be summarized and discussed without speculation at the GEM 2012 meeting.

  1. The function and structure of the cerebrospinal fluid outflow system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This review traces the development of our understanding of the anatomy and physiological properties of the two systems responsible for the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the systemic circulation. The roles of the cranial and spinal arachnoid villi (AV) and the lymphatic outflow systems are evaluated as to the dominance of one over the other in various species and degree of animal maturation. The functional capabilities of the total CSF drainage system are presented, with evidence that the duality of the system is supported by the changes in fluid outflow dynamics in human and sub-human primates in hydrocephalus. The review also reconciles the relative importance and alterations of each of the outflow systems in a variety of clinical pathological conditions. PMID:20565964

  2. Asymmetric Ionospheric Outflow Observed at the Dayside Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Zong, Q.; Sibeck, D. G.; Wang, Y.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Reme, H.

    2014-12-01

    An important source of the terrestrial magnetospheric plasma is cold plasma from the polar ionosphere. The ionospheric ion outflows have been rarely observed at the dayside magnetopause. We investigate the source and the behaviors of the cold ions observed by the Cluster spacecraft measurements. The pitch angle distributions (0°-75°) of the cold ions observed by both C1 and C3 at the dayside magnetopause indicate that these cold ions are ionospheric outflows coming from the southern hemisphere. The cold ions (< 200 eV) fluxes are modulated by the ULF wave electric field. The cold ions move perpendicular to the magnetic field due to the enhanced convection electric field when they are close to the magnetic reconnection region. Two different populations (possibly H+ and He+) were observed in the magnetosphere. Our results suggest that the ionospheric outflows can be transported to the dayside magnetopause and may play an important role in the dynamics of this region.

  3. Time-Dependent Photoionization of Gas Outflows in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhoussieny, Ehab E.; Bautista, M.; Garcia, J.; Kallman, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Gas outflows are fundamental components of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) activity. Time-variability of ionizing radiation, which is characteristic of AGN in various different time scales, may produce non-equilibrium photoionization conditions over a significant fraction of the flow and yields supersonically moving cooling/heating fronts. These fast fronts create pressure imbalances that can only be resolved by fragmentation of the flow and acceleration of such fragments. This mechanism can explain the kinematic structure of low ionization BAL systems (FeLoBAL). This mechanism may also have significant effects on other types of outflows given the wide range of variability time scales in AGN. We will study these effects in detail by constructing time-dependent photoionization models of the outflows and incorporating these models into radiative-hydrodynamic simulations.

  4. Solar wind outflow and the chromospheric magnetic network

    PubMed

    Hassler; Dammasch; Lemaire; Brekke; Curdt; Mason; Vial; Wilhelm

    1999-02-05

    Observations of outflow velocities in coronal holes (regions of open coronal magnetic field) have recently been obtained with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. Velocity maps of Ne7+ from its bright resonance line at 770 angstroms, formed at the base of the corona, show a relationship between outflow velocity and chromospheric magnetic network structure, suggesting that the solar wind is rooted at its base to this structure, emanating from localized regions along boundaries and boundary intersections of magnetic network cells. This apparent relation to the chromospheric magnetic network and the relatively large outflow velocity signatures will improve understanding of the complex structure and dynamics at the base of the corona and the source region of the solar wind.

  5. A cluster of outflows in the Vulpecula Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, J. C.; Brunt, C. M.

    2012-02-01

    We present 12CO, 13CO and C18O (J=3-2) observations of a new cluster of outflows in the Vulpecula Rift with HARP on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The mass associated with the outflows, measured using the 12CO HARP observations and assuming a distance to the region of 2.3 kpc, is 129 M⊙, while the mass associated with the dense gas from C18O observations is 458 M⊙ and the associated sub-millimeter (sub-mm) core has a mass of 327 ± 112 M⊙ independently determined from Bolocam 1.1-mm data. The outflow-to-core mass ratio is therefore ˜0.4, making this region one of the most efficient observed thus far with more than an order of magnitude more mass in the outflow than would be expected based on previous results. The kinetic energy associated with the flows, 94 × 1045 erg, is enough to drive the turbulence in the local clump, and potentially unbind the local region altogether. The detection of SiO (J=8-7) emission towards the outflows indicates that the flow is still active, and not simply a fossil flow. We also model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the four young stellar objects (YSOs) associated with the molecular material, finding them all to be of mid to early B spectral type. The energetic nature of the outflows and significant reservoir of cold dust detected in the sub-mm suggest that these intermediate mass YSOs will continue to accrete and become massive, rather than reach the main sequence at their current mass.

  6. How stellar feedback simultaneously regulates star formation and drives outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Christopher C.; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-02-01

    We present an analytic model for how momentum deposition from stellar feedback simultaneously regulates star formation and drives outflows in a turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). Because the ISM is turbulent, a given patch of ISM exhibits sub-patches with a range of surface densities. The high-density patches are 'pushed' by feedback, thereby driving turbulence and self-regulating local star formation. Sufficiently low-density patches, however, are accelerated to above the escape velocity before the region can self-adjust and are thus vented as outflows. When the gas fraction is ≳ 0.3, the ratio of the turbulent velocity dispersion to the circular velocity is sufficiently high that at any given time, of the order of half of the ISM has surface density less than the critical value and thus can be blown out on a dynamical time. The resulting outflows have a mass-loading factor (η ≡ dot{M}_{out}/M_{star }) that is inversely proportional to the gas fraction times the circular velocity. At low gas fractions, the star formation rate needed for local self-regulation, and corresponding turbulent Mach number, declines rapidly; the ISM is 'smoother', and it is actually more difficult to drive winds with large mass-loading factors. Crucially, our model predicts that stellar-feedback-driven outflows should be suppressed at z ≲ 1 in M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ galaxies. This mechanism allows massive galaxies to exhibit violent outflows at high redshifts and then 'shut down' those outflows at late times, thereby enabling the formation of a smooth, extended thin stellar disc. We provide simple fitting functions for η that should be useful for sub-resolution and semi-analytic models.

  7. High resolution imaging of the outflow channels on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzes, A. K.; Gulick, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    We report observations of the outflow channels on Mars from HiRISE images in MRO's first Martian year. Several hundred images of the outflow channels on Mars have been collected to date from HiRISE, as well as coordinated images with CTX and CRISM. Depositional features, such as slackwater deposits and small bedforms that are expected to be visible at the resolution of HiRISE have not yet been observed, largely due to post-fluvial modification of the channels. Many of the channels have been subsequently covered by a thin layer of lava, ash, dust, or lineated valley fill. Although altered slightly by later aeolian modification, Ares Valles and Kasei Valles preserve much of the original fluvial erosional forms, particularly cataracts and longitudinal grooves that can be used to infer the mechanics of the flow. Cataracts, steep knickpoints in the large outflow channels, were once large waterfalls on the Martian surface. These have been observed in all of the larger outflow systems, including Kasai, Athabasca, Mangala, and Reull Valles. High resolution imaging shows that all of the cataract systems have multiple generations of erosion, with smaller subchannels within the cataract system. Based on the length of the recession and the morphological evidence most of the large channels experienced multiple flooding events or pulses. The tectonically sourced outflow channels, such as Athabasca and Mangala Valles, show sourcing at regions of complex fault geometries, specifically at fault relays. In terrestrial systems, relays tend to be regions of concentrated stress that can produce dilation manifested as high joint density, as well as point sources for hydrothermal outflow on Earth. Athabasca and Mangala Valles, sourced proximal to large volcanic centers, may have been regions of major hydrothermal activity in the past.

  8. Formation of Hydrocarbons in the Outflows from Red Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Wayne; Kress, Monika; Tielens, Alexander G.

    1995-01-01

    The formation of hydrocarbons in the oxygen-rich outflows from red giants was studied. The existence of organic molecules in such outflows has been known for several years; however, their surprisingly high abundances has been a mystery since all of the carbon had been thought to be irretrievably locked up in CO, the most strongly bound molecule. CO is the first molecule to form from the atoms present in the star's extended atmosphere, and as strong stellar winds drive a cooling outflow, dust grains condense out. In oxygen-rich outflows, the dust is thought to be composed mainly of silicates and other metal oxides. Perhaps the noble metals can condense out in metallic form, in particular the relatively abundant transition metals iron and nickel. We proposed that perhaps the carbon reservoir held as CO can be accessed through a catalytic process involving the chemisorption of CO and H2 onto grains rich in metallic iron. CO and H2 are the two most abundant molecules in circumstellar outflows, and they both are known to dissociate on transition metal surfaces at elevated temperatures, freeing carbon to form organic molecules such as methane. We believe methane is a precursor molecule to the organics observed in oxygen-rich red giants. We have developed a nonequilibrium numerical model of a surface chemical (catalytic) process. Based on this model, we believe that methane can be formed under the conditions present in circumstellar outflows. Although the methane formation rates are exceptionally low under these conditions, over dynamical timescales, a significant amount of CO can be converted to methane and driven further out in the envelope, explaining the presence of organics there.

  9. Multiple outflows in the planetary nebula NGC 6058

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillén, P. F.; Vázquez, R.; Miranda, L. F.; Zavala, S.; Contreras, M. E.; Ayala, S.; Ortiz-Ambriz, A.

    2013-07-01

    We present narrow-band [O III]λ5007 and Hα images, as well as long-slit high-resolution echelle spectra of the planetary nebula NGC 6058. Our data reveal that NGC 6058 is a multipolar planetary nebula of ˜45 arcsec in extent that is formed by four bipolar outflows oriented at different position angles. Assuming homologous expansion for all the structures, and a distance of 3.5 kpc, we obtain polar velocities of ˜68 km s-1 for three of them. The estimated kinematical ages suggest that the three oldest outflows were ejected at intervals of ˜1100 and ˜400 yr, during which the ejection axis changed its orientation by ˜60° and ˜40°, respectively. Although an inner ring-like structure is suggested by the direct images, the kinematics shows that no equatorial ring or toroid exists in the nebula. On the contrary, the long-slit spectra reveal that the ring-like structure corresponds to a fourth outflow that is oriented almost perpendicular to the other three. This fourth outflow is the youngest one and appears to be interacting with the other three, creating a protruding zone that sweeps material in a region almost perpendicular to the major axes of the oldest outflows. This structure also presents two bright arcuate regions along the direction of the older outflows, and on opposite sides of the central star. From our model, we suggest that NGC 6058 could be at an intermediate evolutionary stage between starfish planetary nebulae and multipolar planetary nebula with apparent equatorial lobes.

  10. Frontal brain asymmetry and transient cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor.

    PubMed

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Samson, Andrea C; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Lackner, Helmut K

    2013-04-01

    The study examined the relationship of individual differences in prefrontal brain asymmetry, measured by the EEG in resting conditions, to the individual's responsivity in the context of humor (n=42). Several weeks after the EEG recording, immediate cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor and behavioral indicators of humor processing were obtained in an experimental paradigm involving non-verbal cartoons. Relatively greater resting activity in the left than right prefrontal cortex, particularly at the ventrolateral positions, was associated with faster detection of humor, a more pronounced cardiac response to the perception of humor (heart rate and cardiac output), and more accessible internal positive affective states (indicated by faster reports of amusement levels). The study confirms and extends findings of the relevance of prefrontal brain asymmetry to affective responsivity, contributing evidence in the domain of positive affect and humor, and demonstrating relationships to the immediate cardiovascular response pattern to an emotional event.

  11. Fast outflows and star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2016-06-01

    Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is considered a key mechanism in shaping galaxy evolution. Fast, extended outflows are frequently detected in the AGN host galaxies at all redshifts and luminosities, both in ionised and molecular gas. However, these outflows are only potentially able to quench star formation, and we are still lacking decisive evidence of negative feedback in action. Here we present observations obtained with the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) H- and K-band integral-field of two quasars at z ~ 2.4 that are characterised by fast, extended outflows detected through the [Oiii]λ5007 line. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our observations allows us to identify faint narrow (FWHM< 500 km s-1) and spatially extended components in [Oiii]λ5007 and Hα emission associated with star formation in the host galaxy. This star formation powered emission is spatially anti-correlated with the fast outflows. The ionised outflows therefore appear to be able to suppress star formation in the region where the outflow is expanding. However, the detection of narrow spatially extended Hα emission indicates star formation rates of at least ~50-90 M⊙ yr-1, suggesting either that AGN feedback does not affect the whole galaxy or that many feedback episodes are required before star formation is completely quenched. On the other hand, the narrow Hα emission extending along the edges of the outflow cone may also lead also to a positive feedback interpretation. Our results highlight the possible double role of galaxy-wide outflows in host galaxy evolution. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, P.ID: 086.B-0579(A) and 091.A-0261(A).The reduced data cubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A28

  12. River Outflow of the Conterminous United States, 1939-1988.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guetter, Alexandre K.; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.

    1993-10-01

    A record of 50 years of daily outflows through the boundaries of the continental United States has been assembled based on observations recorded by U.S. Geological Survey streamflow stations. Only stations with continuous records from 1939 through 1988 were included. These stations (197 total) are near the outlets of rivers located at the vicinity of the Canadian, Mexican, Atlantic (including the Gulf of Mexico), and Pacific borders of the continental United States. The drainage area of the selected stations covers 77% of the conterminous United States, whereas the existing network of gauging stations covers 83% of the conterminous U.S. area. Station daily data were aggregated over the entire boundary of the United States and were integrated in monthly and annual totals. The 50-year average annual streamflow divergence normalized by the aggregated drainage area is 210.2 mm yr1, reaching a peak in April with 27.3 mm month1 and a minimum in September with 8.7 mm month1. The Mississippi-Missouri Basin comprises 50% of the gauged area and dominates the absolute value of the outflow discharge. Spectral analysis of the monthly outflow anomalies shows an 11-year dominant cycle. The 1939-1988 period contains four notable droughts. Two droughts are partially registered in the limits of the records characterized by the negative anomalies extending from 1939 to 1941 and by the 1987-1988 anomalies for the late 1980s drought. The middle 1950s and early 1960s droughts are fully included in the dataset. Periods of high outflows were registered in the middle 1940s, early 1970s, and early 1980s. Analysis of the spatial coherence of the annual anomalies shows large-scale features, whereas analysis of the monthly anomalies yields the frequency and persistence patterns of floods and droughts. An estimate of the climatological land-surface water budget for the continental United States was done based on recorded precipitation, panevaporation, and outflow. Eigenvector analysis of the

  13. Super Star Clusters: the Engines of Galactic Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, Kelly; Lu, Jessica R.; Kewley, Lisa; Kudritzki, Rolf; Barnes, Joshua Edward

    2015-08-01

    Winds in starburst galaxies are ubiquitous; however, we still do not understand how winds from individual star clusters unite into a large-scale galactic outflow. Recent work suggests that radiation pressure from young (<7 Myr) massive super star clusters (SSCs) may be a necessary first step in launching global starburst winds. We have begun a program using integral field spectroscopy with Keck/OSIRIS to investigate the winds from these very young clusters, and how energy is transferred from the stellar population to the surrounding medium to launch galactic-scale outflows. We present preliminary work on a sample of young massive clusters from the Antennae.

  14. Outflow channel sources, reactivation, and chaos formation, Xanthe Terra, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Sasaki, S.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Dohm, J.M.; Tanaka, K.L.; Miyamoto, H.; Kurita, K.; Komatsu, G.; Fairen, A.G.; Ferris, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The undulating, warped, and densely fractured surfaces of highland regions east of Valles Marineris (located north of the eastern Aureum Chaos, east of the Hydraotes Chaos, and south of the Hydaspis Chaos) resulted from extensional surface warping related to ground subsidence, caused when pressurized water confined in subterranean caverns was released to the surface. Water emanations formed crater lakes and resulted in channeling episodes involved in the excavation of Ares, Tiu, and Simud Valles of the eastern part of the circum-Chryse outflow channel system. Progressive surface subsidence and associated reduction of the subsurface cavernous volume, and/or episodes of magmatic-driven activity, led to increases of the hydrostatic pressure, resulting in reactivation of both catastrophic and non-catastrophic outflow activity. Ancient cratered highland and basin materials that underwent large-scale subsidence grade into densely fractured terrains. Collapse of rock materials in these regions resulted in the formation of chaotic terrains, which occur in and near the headwaters of the eastern circum-Chryse outflow channels. The deepest chaotic terrain in the Hydaspis Chaos region resulted from the collapse of pre-existing outflow channel floors. The release of volatiles and related collapse may have included water emanations not necessarily linked to catastrophic outflow. Basal warming related to dike intrusions, thermokarst activity involving wet sediments and/or dissected ice-enriched country rock, permafrost exposed to the atmosphere by extensional tectonism and channel incision, and/or the injection of water into porous floor material, may have enhanced outflow channel floor instability and subsequent collapse. In addition to the possible genetic linkage to outflow channel development dating back to at least the Late Noachian, clear disruption of impact craters with pristine ejecta blankets and rims, as well as preservation of fine tectonic fabrics, suggest that

  15. The Anatomy of the Young Protostellar Outflow HH 211

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappe, A.; Forbrich, J.; Martín, S.; Yuan, Y.; Lada, C. J.

    2012-05-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope 5-36 μm mapping observations toward the southeastern lobe of the young protostellar outflow HH 211. The southeastern terminal shock of the outflow shows a rich mid-infrared spectrum including molecular emission lines from OH, H2O, HCO+, CO2, H2, and HD. The spectrum also shows a rising infrared continuum toward 5 μm, which we interpret as unresolved emission lines from highly excited rotational levels of the CO v = 1-0 fundamental band. This interpretation is supported by a strong excess flux observed in the Spitzer/IRAC 4-5 μm channel 2 image compared to the other IRAC channels. The extremely high critical densities of the CO v = 1-0 ro-vibrational lines and a comparison to H2 and CO excitation models suggest jet densities larger than 106 cm-3 in the terminal shock. We also observed the southeastern terminal outflow shock with the Submillimeter Array and detected pure rotational emission from CO 2-1, HCO+ 3-2, and HCN 3-2. The rotationally excited CO traces the collimated outflow backbone as well as the terminal shock. HCN traces individual dense knots along the outflow and in the terminal shock, whereas HCO+ solely appears in the terminal shock. The unique combination of our mid-infrared and submillimeter observations with previously published near-infrared observations allow us to study the interaction of one of the youngest known protostellar outflows with its surrounding molecular cloud. Our results help us to understand the nature of some of the so-called green fuzzies (Extended Green Objects), and elucidate the physical conditions that cause high OH excitation and affect the chemical OH/H2O balance in protostellar outflows and young stellar objects. In an appendix to this paper, we summarize our Spitzer follow-up survey of protostellar outflow shocks to find further examples of highly excited OH occurring together with H2O and H2.

  16. A Model for Infall-Outflow Interactions in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, W. Langer T.

    1997-01-01

    Recently we have shown(sup 1,2) from (sup 12)CO and C(sup 18)O OVRO-MMA observations evidence of infall-outflow interactions in the Young Stellar Object IRS1 in B5. We present new data obtained with the OVRO-MMA in (sup 13)CO(2-1) and (1-0) to trace the full extent of this infall-outflow interaction region.

  17. Radiologic Evaluation of Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Myxomas

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Brent W.; Lin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 22-year-old man was referred for palpitations. On transthoracic echocardiography, he was found to have a right ventricular outflow tract mass. Further cardiac imaging was conducted by means of transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance. Complete surgical resection of the tumor was achieved, and pathologic examination revealed the lesion to be a myxoma. Cardiac tumors located in the right ventricular outflow tract are rare and can present unusual diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are becoming more widely available and can be useful adjuncts in the management of such tumors. PMID:23466872

  18. Mechanisms for pressurized groundwater outflow channels, implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Hauber, Ernst; McLelland, Stuart J.; Murphy, Brendan J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Conway, Susan J.

    2014-05-01

    Various valleys on Mars show evidence for extensive fluvial activity in the past. The largest valleys on Mars are several tens to hundreds of kilometers wide and are thought to have originated from outflow of pressurized groundwater. However, exact mechanisms of these processes are lacking, which hampers a quantitative interpretation of some of the most impressive morphological features on Mars. Using flume experiments, we studied a range of possible pressurized groundwater outflow mechanisms including artesian seepage, enhanced seepage through fissures and the eruption of a pressurized groundwater reservoir. These experiments focused on the morphological development of such systems. We also analyze the scalability of the laboratory analogues to real-word systems and we study the outflow-channel areas in Lunae Planum and Xanthe Terra north of Valles Marineris. In the experiments, we found that low water injection pressures led to the formation of surface lakes, intermediate pressures led to the formation of subsurface fissures, and high pressure led to the buildup of a pressurized subsurface lake that erupted to the surface. Each of these systems resulted in catastrophic release of water greater than the groundwater discharge, from accumulation in a lake, enhanced seepage through fissures or both. In all experiments, an outflow channel formed, but we observed other morphologies as well that are unique to the mechanism of release. Fissure seepage created small holes and in the case of a subsurface lake eruption, large depressions and fractures were formed. In all cases, the sudden release of water resulted in the deposition of sedimentary lobes due to infiltration of water flowing over downstream areas that were still dry. This mechanism is absent in in the case of slow groundwater outflow. Our study of the surface of Mars reveals a range of morphological features that were not associated with pressurized groundwater outflow before. These features include

  19. THE ANATOMY OF THE YOUNG PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HH 211

    SciTech Connect

    Tappe, A.; Forbrich, J.; Lada, C. J.; Martin, S.; Yuan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope 5-36 {mu}m mapping observations toward the southeastern lobe of the young protostellar outflow HH 211. The southeastern terminal shock of the outflow shows a rich mid-infrared spectrum including molecular emission lines from OH, H{sub 2}O, HCO{sup +}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and HD. The spectrum also shows a rising infrared continuum toward 5 {mu}m, which we interpret as unresolved emission lines from highly excited rotational levels of the CO v = 1-0 fundamental band. This interpretation is supported by a strong excess flux observed in the Spitzer/IRAC 4-5 {mu}m channel 2 image compared to the other IRAC channels. The extremely high critical densities of the CO v = 1-0 ro-vibrational lines and a comparison to H{sub 2} and CO excitation models suggest jet densities larger than 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} in the terminal shock. We also observed the southeastern terminal outflow shock with the Submillimeter Array and detected pure rotational emission from CO 2-1, HCO{sup +} 3-2, and HCN 3-2. The rotationally excited CO traces the collimated outflow backbone as well as the terminal shock. HCN traces individual dense knots along the outflow and in the terminal shock, whereas HCO{sup +} solely appears in the terminal shock. The unique combination of our mid-infrared and submillimeter observations with previously published near-infrared observations allow us to study the interaction of one of the youngest known protostellar outflows with its surrounding molecular cloud. Our results help us to understand the nature of some of the so-called green fuzzies (Extended Green Objects), and elucidate the physical conditions that cause high OH excitation and affect the chemical OH/H{sub 2}O balance in protostellar outflows and young stellar objects. In an appendix to this paper, we summarize our Spitzer follow-up survey of protostellar outflow shocks to find further examples of highly excited OH occurring together with H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}.

  20. Heart–kidney crosstalk and role of humoral signaling in critical illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Organ failure in the heart or kidney can initiate various complex metabolic, cell-mediated and humoral pathways affecting distant organs, contributing to the high therapeutic costs and significantly higher morbidity and mortality. The universal outreach of cells in an injured state has myriad consequences to distant organ cells and their milieu. Heart performance and kidney function are closely interconnected and communication between these organs occurs through a variety of bidirectional pathways. The term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is often used to describe this condition and represents an important model for exploring the pathophysiology of cardiac and renal dysfunction. Clinical evidence suggests that tissue injury in both acute kidney injury and heart failure has immune-mediated inflammatory consequences that can initiate remote organ dysfunction. Acute cardiorenal syndrome (CRS type 1) and acute renocardiac syndrome (CRS type 3) are particularly relevant in high-acuity medical units. This review briefly summarizes relevant research and focuses on the role of signaling in heart–kidney crosstalk in the critical care setting. PMID:24393300

  1. A biomimetic Schlemm's canal inner wall: A model to study outflow physiology, glaucoma pathology and high-throughput drug screening.

    PubMed

    Dautriche, Cula N; Szymanski, Dennis; Kerr, Matthew; Torrejon, Karen Y; Bergkvist, Magnus; Xie, Yubing; Danias, John; Stamer, W D; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Glaucoma is a disease that damages the optic nerve, frequently leading to blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, which is expected to affect 80 million people by 2020, causing bilateral blindness in over 10 million individuals. Because pathological changes to Schlemm's canal (SC) may account for significant resistance to outflow, there is considerable interest in characterizing and evaluating the Schlemm's canal as a target for glaucoma therapeutics. In conventional, two-dimensional culture, human Schlemm's canal (HSC) cells lose spatial, mechanical and biochemical cues, resulting in altered gene expression and cell signaling than observed in vivo, compromising the clinical relevance of data obtained from such systems. Here, we report, for the first time, that 3D culture of HSC cells on microfabricated scaffolds with defined physical and biochemical cues, rescued expression of key HSC markers, VE-cadherin and PECAM1, and mediated pore formation, crucial for the Schlemm's canal regulation of IOP. We demonstrated that following treatment with the glaucopathogenic agent, TGF-β2, HSC cells undergo an endothelial-mesenchymal transition, which together with the increase in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins might account for the decrease in outflow facility observed in patients with high TGF-β2 levels in their aqueous humor. We also demonstrated that unlike 2D cultures, 3D cultures of HSC cells are amenable to gene transfer. Thus, our data imply that 3D culture of HSC cells may be used as a platform to advance our understanding of HSC physiology and pathology and as a model for high-throughput drug and gene screening.

  2. A biomimetic Schlemm's canal inner wall: a model to study outflow physiology, glaucoma pathology and high-throughput drug screening

    PubMed Central

    Dautriche, Cula N.; Szymanski, Dennis; Kerr, Matthew; Torrejon, Karen Y.; Bergkvist, Magnus; Xie, Yubing; Danias, John; Stamer, W.D.; Sharfstein, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a disease that damages the optic nerve, frequently leading to blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, which is expected to affect 80 million people by 2020, causing bilateral blindness in over 10 million individuals. Because pathological changes to Schlemm's canal (SC) may account for significant resistance to outflow, there is considerable interest in characterizing and evaluating the Schlemm's canal as a target for glaucoma therapeutics. In conventional, two-dimensional culture, human Schlemm's canal (HSC) cells lose spatial, mechanical and biochemical cues, resulting in altered gene expression and cell signaling than observed in vivo, compromising the clinical relevance of data obtained from such systems. Here, we report, for the first time, that 3D culture of HSC cells on microfabricated scaffolds with defined physical and biochemical cues, rescued expression of key HSC markers, VE-cadherin and PECAM1, and mediated pore formation, crucial for the Schlemm's canal regulation of IOP. We demonstrated that following treatment with the glaucopathogenic agent, TGF-β2, HSC cells undergo an endothelial-mesenchymal transition, which together with the increase in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins might account for the decrease in outflow facility observed in patients with high TGF-β2 levels in their aqueous humor. We also demonstrated that unlike 2D cultures, 3D cultures of HSC cells are amenable to gene transfer. Thus, our data imply that 3D culture of HSC cells may be used as a platform to advance our understanding of HSC physiology and pathology and as a model for high-throughput drug and gene screening. PMID:26142779

  3. Humoral immune response to the antigen administered as an immune complex.

    PubMed

    Marusić, M; Marusić-Galesić, S; Pokrić, B

    1992-12-01

    Antigen (HSA) bound in immune complexes at equivalence with syngeneic anti-HSA antibodies elicit much stronger humoral immune response then soluble HSA. On the other hand, administration of immune complexes formed with xenogeneic (rabbit) anti-HSA antibodies suppressed humoral immune response against HSA, but not against rabbit IgG in mice. We suggest that immunization with antigen bound in immune complex might represent a powerful tool in enhancing humoral immune responses.

  4. (abstract) A Test of the Theoretical Models of Bipolar Outflows: The Bipolar Outflow in Mon R2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul; Patel, Nimesh

    1993-01-01

    We report some results of a study of the massive bipolar outflow in the central region of the relatively nearby giant molecular cloud Monoceros R2. We make a quantative comparison of our results with the Shu et al. outflow model which incorporates a radially directed wind sweeping up the ambient material into a shell. We find that this simple model naturally explains the shape of this thin shell. Although Shu's model in its simplest form predicts with reasonable parameters too much mass at very small polar angles, as previously pointed out by Masson and Chernin, it provides a reasonable good fit to the mass distribution at larger polar angles. It is possible that this discrepancy is due to inhomogeneities of the ambient molecular gas which is not considered by the model. We also discuss the constraints imposed by these results on recent jet-driven outflow models.

  5. Sex differences in preferences for humor: a replication, modification, and extension.

    PubMed

    Hone, Liana S E; Hurwitz, William; Lieberman, Debra

    2015-02-10

    Evolutionary-minded scientists have proposed that humor is a sexually selected trait in men that signals mate quality. Indeed, women tend to prefer men who make them laugh and men tend to prefer women who laugh at their jokes. However, it is unclear how robust this pattern is. Here we report a replication of one of the first studies (Bressler, Martin, and Balshine, 2006) to examine the sex differences in preferences for humor receptivity versus humor production. We replicate Bressler et al.'s (2006) findings that men prefer women who are receptive to their humor whereas women prefer men who produce humor. These findings held even after we modified Bressler et al.'s questionnaire for better conceptual validity. Furthermore, using a separate measure designed to assess trade-offs, we found that men viewed humor receptivity as a necessity and humor production as a luxury when they were asked to create an ideal long-term partner. For women, it was just the opposite. These results bolster the claim that sexual selection has shaped sex differences regarding preferences for a prospective mate's sense of humor and that what one means by "sense of humor" can vary.

  6. Humor as a Reward Mechanism: Event-Related Potentials in the Healthy and Diseased Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mensen, Armand; Poryazova, Rositsa; Schwartz, Sophie; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Humor processing involves distinct processing stages including incongruity detection, emotional response, and engagement of mesolimbic reward regions. Dysfunctional reward processing and clinical symptoms in response to humor have been previously described in both hypocretin deficient narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) and in idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). For NC patients, humor is the strongest trigger for cataplexy, a transient loss of muscle tone, whereas dopamine-deficient PD-patients show blunted emotional responses to humor. To better understand the role of reward system and the various contributions of hypocretinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms to different stages of humor processing we examined the electrophysiological response to humorous and neutral pictures when given as reward feedback in PD, NC and healthy controls. Humor compared to neutral feedback demonstrated modulation of early ERP amplitudes likely corresponding to visual processing stages, with no group differences. At 270 ms post-feedback, conditions showed topographical and amplitudinal differences for frontal and left posterior electrodes, in that humor feedback was absent in PD patients but increased in NC patients. We suggest that this effect relates to a relatively early affective response, reminiscent of increased amygdala response reported in NC patients. Later ERP differences, corresponding to the late positive potential, revealed a lack of sustained activation in PD, likely due to altered dopamine regulation in reward structures in these patients. This research provides new insights into the temporal dynamics and underlying mechanisms of humor detection and appreciation in health and disease. PMID:24489683

  7. Humor as a reward mechanism: event-related potentials in the healthy and diseased brain.

    PubMed

    Mensen, Armand; Poryazova, Rositsa; Schwartz, Sophie; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Humor processing involves distinct processing stages including incongruity detection, emotional response, and engagement of mesolimbic reward regions. Dysfunctional reward processing and clinical symptoms in response to humor have been previously described in both hypocretin deficient narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) and in idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). For NC patients, humor is the strongest trigger for cataplexy, a transient loss of muscle tone, whereas dopamine-deficient PD-patients show blunted emotional responses to humor. To better understand the role of reward system and the various contributions of hypocretinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms to different stages of humor processing we examined the electrophysiological response to humorous and neutral pictures when given as reward feedback in PD, NC and healthy controls. Humor compared to neutral feedback demonstrated modulation of early ERP amplitudes likely corresponding to visual processing stages, with no group differences. At 270 ms post-feedback, conditions showed topographical and amplitudinal differences for frontal and left posterior electrodes, in that humor feedback was absent in PD patients but increased in NC patients. We suggest that this effect relates to a relatively early affective response, reminiscent of increased amygdala response reported in NC patients. Later ERP differences, corresponding to the late positive potential, revealed a lack of sustained activation in PD, likely due to altered dopamine regulation in reward structures in these patients. This research provides new insights into the temporal dynamics and underlying mechanisms of humor detection and appreciation in health and disease.

  8. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall.

  9. The use of humor in forensic mental health staff-patient interactions.

    PubMed

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Bradley, Stephen K; Paaske, Kristian J; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting. The search was conducted in June 2013. Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychINFO were searched using keywords relevant to the study. Articles were categorized using a literature matrix and analyzed using thematic analysis. Twelve research articles were reviewed and included in the analysis. Three themes were identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) "the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts, dimensions of health, and motivation. The results of the analysis are however limited because of the dearth of published articles on the subject.

  10. [Detection of leptospira by culture of vitreous humor and detection of antibodies against leptospira in vitreous humor and serum of 225 horses with equine recurrent uveitis].

    PubMed

    Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU.

  11. The clinical impact of humoral immunity in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-03-01

    The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study.

  12. The Clinical Impact of Humoral Immunity in Pediatric Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Ozawa, Mikki; Everly, Matthew J.; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V. Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Li, Li; Sigdel, Tara K.; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Dai, Hong; Naesens, Maarten; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar; Terasaki, Paul I.

    2013-01-01

    The development of anti-donor humoral responses after transplantation associates with higher risks for acute rejection and 1-year graft survival in adults, but the influence of humoral immunity on transplant outcomes in children is not well understood. Here, we studied the evolution of humoral immunity in low-risk pediatric patients during the first 2 years after renal transplantation. Using data from 130 pediatric renal transplant patients randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression in the NIH-SNSO1 trial, we correlated the presence of serum anti-HLA antibodies to donor HLA antigens (donor-specific antibodies) and serum MHC class 1-related chain A (MICA) antibody with both clinical outcomes and histology identified on protocol biopsies at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. We detected de novo antibodies after transplant in 24% (23% of SF group and 25% of SB group), most often after the first year. Overall, 22% developed anti-HLA antibodies, of which 6% were donor-specific antibodies, and 6% developed anti-MICA antibody. Presence of these antibodies de novo associated with significantly higher risks for acute rejection (P=0.02), chronic graft injury (P=0.02), and decline in graft function (P=0.02). In summary, antibodies to HLA and MICA antigens appear in approximately 25% of unsensitized pediatric patients, placing them at greater risk for acute and chronic rejection with accelerated loss of graft function. Avoiding steroids does not seem to modify this incidence. Whether serial assessments of these antibodies after transplant could guide individual tailoring of immunosuppression requires additional study. PMID:23449533

  13. On the Formation of Molecular Clumps in QSO Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, A.; Scannapieco, E.

    2016-12-01

    We study the origin of the cold molecular clumps in quasar outflows, recently detected in CO and HCN emission. We first describe the physical properties of such radiation-driven outflows and show that a transition from a momentum- to an energy-driven flow must occur at a radial distance of R≈ 0.25 {kpc}. During this transition, the shell of swept-up material fragments due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, but these clumps contain little mass and are likely to be rapidly ablated by the hot gas in which they are immersed. We then explore an alternative scenario in which clumps form from thermal instabilities at R≳ 1 {kpc}, possibly containing enough dust to catalyze molecule formation. We investigate this process with 3D two-fluid (gas+dust) numerical simulations of a kpc3 patch of the outflow, including atomic and dust cooling, thermal conduction, dust sputtering, and photoionization from the QSO radiation field. In all cases, dust grains are rapidly destroyed in ≈ {10}4 years; and while some cold clumps form at later times, they are present only as transient features, which disappear as cooling becomes more widespread. In fact, we only find a stable two-phase medium with dense clumps if we artificially enhance the QSO radiation field by a factor of 100. This result, together with the complete destruction of dust grains, renders the interpretation of molecular outflows a very challenging problem.

  14. Far-Infrared Water Line Emissions from Circumstellar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wesley; Neufeld, David A.

    1995-01-01

    We have modeled the far-infrared water line emission expected from circumstellar outflows from oxygen-rich late-type stars, as a function of the mass-loss rate and the terminal outflow velocity. For each mass-loss rate and terminal outflow velocity considered, we computed self-consistently the gas density, temperature, outflow velocity, and water abundance as a function of distance from the star. We then used an escape probability method to solve for the equilibrium level populations of 80 rotational states of water and thereby obtained predictions for the luminosity of a large number of far-infrared rotational transitions of water. In common with previous models, our model predicts that water will be copiously produced in the warm circumstellar gas and that water rotational emission will dominate the radiative cooling. However, our use of a realistic radiative cooling function for water leads to a lower gas temperature than that predicted in previous models. Our predictions for the far-infrared water line luminosities are consequently significantly smaller than those obtained in previous studies. Observations to be carried out by the Infrared Space Observatory will provide a crucial test of the models presented here.

  15. The Production of Cold Gas Within Galaxy Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannapieco, Evan

    2017-03-01

    I present a suite of three-dimensional simulations of the evolution of initially hot material ejected by starburst-driven galaxy outflows. The simulations are conducted in a comoving frame that moves with the material, tracking atomic/ionic cooling, Compton cooling, and dust cooling and destruction. Compton cooling is the most efficient of these processes, while the main role of atomic/ionic cooling is to enhance density inhomogeneities. Dust, on the other hand, has little effect on the outflow evolution, and is rapidly destroyed in all the simulations except for the case with the smallest mass flux. I use the results to construct a simple steady-state model of the observed UV/optical emission from each outflow. The velocity profiles in this case are dominated by geometric effects, and the overall luminosities are extremely strong functions of the properties of the host system, as observed in ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). Furthermore the luminosities and maximum velocities in several models are consistent with emission-line observations of ULIRGs, although the velocities are significantly greater than observed in absorption-line studies. It may be that absorption line observations of galaxy outflows probe entrained cold material at small radii, while emission-line observations probe cold material condensing from the initially hot medium at larger distances.

  16. Simulated O VI Doppler dimming measurements of coronal outflow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strachan, Leonard; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of determining O(5+) outflow velocities by using a Doppler dimming analysis of the resonantly scattered intensities of O VI lambda 1031.9 and lambda 1037.6 is addressed. The technique is sensitive to outflow velocities, W, in the range W greater than 30 and less than 250 km/s and can be used for probing regions of the inner solar corona, where significant coronal heating and solar wind acceleration may be occurring. These velocity measurements, when combined with measurements of other plasma parameters (temperatures and densities of ions and electrons) can be used to estimate the energy and mass flux of O(5+). In particular, it may be possible to locate where the flow changes from subsonic to supersonic and to identify source regions for the high and low speed solar wind. The velocity diagnostic technique is discussed with emphasis placed on the requirements needed for accurate outflow velocity determinations. Model determinations of outflow velocities based on simulated Doppler observations are presented.

  17. Determination of ventricular fluid outflow resistance in patients with ventriculomegaly.

    PubMed Central

    Lundar, T; Nornes, H

    1990-01-01

    Resorption of the ventricular fluid was studied by measuring ventricular fluid outflow resistance during steady state 1.5 and 5.0 ml/min infusions in 26 patients with substantial enlargement of the supratentorial ventricular system. This test may avoid unnecessary use of shunts, but a shunt could be introduced during the same procedure. PMID:2266372

  18. Unusual cause of right ventricular outflow tract compression: mediastinal lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Bulakci, Mesut; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Ucar, Adem; Erer, Burak; Erer, Betul; Dursun, Memduh

    2011-11-01

    Mediastinal lipomatosis (ML) is a benign condition characterized by the accumulation of mature adipose tissue within the mediastinum. ML is usually associated with Cushing syndrome and obesity. Most patients are asymptomatic, but some have thoracic pain, dyspnea, cough, dysphonia, dysphagia, and supraventricular tachycardia. We report a case of ML compressing the right ventricular outflow tract in a patient with Behçet disease.

  19. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Star formation and the nature of bipolar outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Frank H.; Ruden, Steven P.; Lada, Charles J.; Lizano, Susana

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a simple physical model for the bipolar molecular outflows that frequently accompany star formation. The model forges an intrinsic link between the bipolar flow phenomenon and the process of star formation, and it helps to explain many of the systematics known for existing sources.

  1. Quantifying the Multiphase Galactic Outflows Driven by Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Bryan, Greg; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2017-01-01

    Galactic outflows are ubiquitously observed in star-forming disk galaxies and are critical for galaxy formation. Supernovae (SN) play a key role in driving the outflows, but there is no consensus as to how much energy, mass and metals they can launch out of the disk. We perform 3D, high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study SN-driven outflows from stratified media. We study various conditions along the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, and examine the loading factors of energy, mass and metals as a function of the star formation rate. We find that the hot phase, being fast and metal-enriched, would have a broad impact on the circum-galactic medium. We explore how various physical processes, including SN scale height, photoelectric heating, external gravitational field and SN rate, affect the loading factors. We find that the mass loading factor can achieve unity for a gas surface density similar to the solar neighborhood, but is lower for higher densities. The mass loading is in general a factor of a few smaller than what is currently adopted in cosmological simulations. SN-driven outflows are expected to efficiently transport out of the galaxies both energy and metals.

  2. Effects of stellar outflows on interstellar sulfur oxide chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, W. J.; Vogel, S.; Terebey, S.; Dreher, J.; Jackson, J.; Carlstrom, J.

    1986-01-01

    Interferometer Maps with 2" to 6" resolution of a number of regions with active star formation (Orion A, W49, W51, SGRB2) show that the distribution of the molecule SO is very compact around stellar outflow sources. Both SO and SO2 were studied near three outflows, OrionA/IRc2 and two sources in W49. The two molecules have similar distributions and abundances. More than 95% of the emission comes from regions whose extents are only .05 to .2 pc., being larger around the more energetic sources. Their spectra are broad, 30 km/sec or more, suggesting that the oxide production is associated with the flows. The outflows are identified by water masers and by extended bipolar flows in SiO. Maps in other molecules, such as HCO+ and CS, which have similar collisional excitation requirements, have much greater spatial extent. Thus it appears that the SO and SO2 abundances are truly compact and are closely associated with the outflows.

  3. Morphology of Fresh Outflow Channel Deposits on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Parker, T. J.; Russell, A. J.; Knudsen, O.

    2002-01-01

    We interpret the channel surface of Athabasca and Marte Valles to be fresh former ice-rich fluvial (hyperconcentrated) deposits rather than volcanic flows. Simply stated, this is what a fresh outflow channel deposit would look like. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Evidence for strong, widespread chlorine radical chemistry associated with pollution outflow from continental Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Angela K.; Sauvage, Carina; Thorenz, Ute R.; van Velthoven, Peter; Oram, David E.; Zahn, Andreas; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    The chlorine radical is a potent atmospheric oxidant, capable of perturbing tropospheric oxidative cycles normally controlled by the hydroxyl radical. Significantly faster reaction rates allow chlorine radicals to expedite oxidation of hydrocarbons, including methane, and in polluted environments, to enhance ozone production. Here we present evidence, from the CARIBIC airborne dataset, for extensive chlorine radical chemistry associated with Asian pollution outflow, from airborne observations made over the Malaysian Peninsula in winter. This region is known for persistent convection that regularly delivers surface air to higher altitudes and serves as a major transport pathway into the stratosphere. Oxidant ratios inferred from hydrocarbon relationships show that chlorine radicals were regionally more important than hydroxyl radicals for alkane oxidation and were also important for methane and alkene oxidation (>10%). Our observations reveal pollution-related chlorine chemistry that is both widespread and recurrent, and has implications for tropospheric oxidizing capacity, stratospheric composition and ozone chemistry.

  5. Evidence for strong, widespread chlorine radical chemistry associated with pollution outflow from continental Asia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Angela K.; Sauvage, Carina; Thorenz, Ute R.; van Velthoven, Peter; Oram, David E.; Zahn, Andreas; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The chlorine radical is a potent atmospheric oxidant, capable of perturbing tropospheric oxidative cycles normally controlled by the hydroxyl radical. Significantly faster reaction rates allow chlorine radicals to expedite oxidation of hydrocarbons, including methane, and in polluted environments, to enhance ozone production. Here we present evidence, from the CARIBIC airborne dataset, for extensive chlorine radical chemistry associated with Asian pollution outflow, from airborne observations made over the Malaysian Peninsula in winter. This region is known for persistent convection that regularly delivers surface air to higher altitudes and serves as a major transport pathway into the stratosphere. Oxidant ratios inferred from hydrocarbon relationships show that chlorine radicals were regionally more important than hydroxyl radicals for alkane oxidation and were also important for methane and alkene oxidation (>10%). Our observations reveal pollution-related chlorine chemistry that is both widespread and recurrent, and has implications for tropospheric oxidizing capacity, stratospheric composition and ozone chemistry. PMID:27845366

  6. ARE MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS AROUND HIGH-MASS STARS DRIVEN BY IONIZATION FEEDBACK?

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Klaassen, Pamela D.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-11-20

    The formation of massive stars exceeding 10 M {sub Sun} usually results in large-scale molecular outflows. Numerical simulations, including ionization, of the formation of such stars show evidence for ionization-driven molecular outflows. Here we examine whether the outflows seen in these models reproduce the observations. We compute synthetic ALMA and CARMA maps of CO emission lines of the outflows, and compare their signatures to existing single-dish and interferometric data. We find that the ionization-driven models can only reproduce weak outflows around high-mass star-forming regions. We argue that expanding H II regions probably do not represent the dominant mechanism for driving observed outflows. We suggest instead that observed outflows are driven by the collective action of the outflows from the many lower-mass stars that inevitably form around young massive stars in a cluster.

  7. [The control of humoral transport of the eye tissues].

    PubMed

    Rapis, E G; Tumanov, V P; Levin, Iu M; Kurbanov, N Kh

    1991-02-01

    Three series of investigations were carried out in experiments on rabbits with administration under the conjunctiva or by means of electrophoresis of lymphotrophic preparations of different mechanisms of actions with the use of a morphological marker: Gerot's mass and Indian ink jelly with subsequent histological study of the eyeball. Dalargin dilated structured liquorolymphatic drainage ducts of the eye. Terrylythin produced a selective effect on the pigment epithelium of the retina, and mannitol provided penetration of the marker into the retina neurons. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to control selectively the humoral transport of some tissues of the eye by means of lymphotrophic agents.

  8. Analysis of Arctic outflows west and east of Greenland in an eddying global sea ice-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Bacon, Sheldon; Regan, Heather; Nurser, George; Coward, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Low salinity buoyant polar waters exit the Arctic Ocean into the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic, affecting deep convection in the Nordic and Labrador Seas with potential impacts on the meridional overturning circulation. The pathways of the polar water in Davis Strait, Fram Strait and then to the south are well documented by observations and model simulations. In contrast, measurements upstream of Fram Strait are too sparse to allow us to explain what causes the outflows to exit either west or east of Greenland or to attribute the variability in the Arctic outflows to atmospheric or oceanic mechanisms. A high-resolution global ocean general circulation model, NEMO-ORCA12, has been used to examine the dynamics of the outflow north of Greenland, above the Belgica Bank and in Nares Strait. Montgomery potential analysis is used to investigate the dynamics of the currents in the area. The model results suggest wind as a driving mechanism for the variability of the ocean circulation in these areas.

  9. Outflow and Accretion Physics in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Sean Michael

    This dissertation focuses on placing observational constraints on outflows and accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGN) for the purpose of better understanding the physics of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) and their evolution with the host galaxy over cosmic time. Quasar outflows and their importance in SMBH-host galaxy co-evolution can be further understood by analyzing broad absorption lines (BALs) in rest-frame UV spectra that trace a range of wind conditions. We quantify the properties of the flows by conducting BAL variability studies using multiple-epoch spectra acquired primarily from MDM Observatory and from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Iron low-ionization BALs (FeLoBALs) are a rare type of outflow that may represent a transient phase in galaxy evolution, and we analyze the variations in 12 FeLoBAL quasars with redshifts between 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 1.9 and rest frame timescales between ˜10 d to 7.6 yr. We investigate BAL variability in 71 quasar outflows that exhibit P V absorption, a tracer of high column density gas (i.e. NH ≥ 1022 cm -2), in order to quantify the energies and momenta of the flows. We also characterize the variability patterns of 26 quasars with mini-BALs, an interesting class of absorbers that may represent a distinct phase in the evolution of outflows. Low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) are important objects to study since their prominence in the local Universe suggest a possible evolution from the quasar era, and their low radiative outputs likely indicate a distinct mode of accretion onto the SMBH. We probe the accretion conditions in the LLAGN NGC 4203 by estimating the SMBH mass, which is obtained by modeling the 2-dimensional velocity field of the nebular gas using spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope. We detect significant BAL and mini-BAL variability in a subset of quasars from each of our samples, with measured rest-frame variability time-scales from days to years and over multiple years on average. Variable wavelength

  10. Outflows in low-mass galaxies at z >1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maseda, Michael V.; MUSE GTO Consortium

    2017-03-01

    Star formation histories of local dwarf galaxies, derived through resolved stellar populations, appear complex and varied. The general picture derived from hydrodynamical simulations is one of cold gas accretion and bursty star formation, followed by feedback from supernovae and winds that heat and eject the central gas reservoirs. This ejection halts star formation until the material cools and re-accretes, resulting in an episodic SFH, particularly at stellar masses below ~ 109 M⊙. Such feedback has often been cited as the driving force behind the observed slowly-rising rotation curves in local dwarfs, due to an under-density of dark matter compared to theoretical models, which is one of the primary challenges to LCDM cosmology. However, these events have not yet been directly observed at high-redshift. Recently, using HST imaging and grism spectroscopy, we have uncovered an abundant population of low-mass galaxies (M* < 109 M⊙) at z = 1 - 2 that are undergoing strong bursts of star formation, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. These Extreme Emission Line Galaxies, with high specific SFRs and shallow gravitational potential wells, are ideal places to test the theoretical prediction of strong feedback-driven outflows. Here we use deep MUSE spectroscopy to search these galaxies for signatures of outflowing material, namely kinematic offsets between absorption lines (in the restframe optical and UV), which trace cool gas, and the nebular emission lines, which define the systemic redshift of the galaxy. Although the EELGs are intrinsically very faint, stacked spectra reveal blueshifted velocity centroids for Fe II absorption, which is indicative of outflowing cold gas. This represents the first constraint on outflows in M* < 109 M⊙ galaxies at z = 1 - 2. These outflows should regulate the star formation histories of low-mass galaxies at early cosmic times and thus play a crucial role in galaxy growth and evolution.

  11. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS15398-3359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeli, Per; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2015-08-01

    The Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398-3359 is located in the Lupus I cloud at a distance of 155 pc. The source is known to harbour a molecular outflow, but the region has not attracted much interest until recently. IRAS 15398 is known to show interesting chemical signatures and being one of the very nearby, young outflow sources makes it an excellent target for detailed studies of the gas kinematics of different species.We present observations of several molecular species, carried out with the Submillimeter Array and ALMA, towards the IRAS 15398 outflow. The analysis of CO emission show obvious signs of episodic mass ejections, with a dynamical time scale between the knots in the jet, of the order 100 years. This is consistent with recent ALMA results where luminosity outbursts are estimated to occur on similar time-scales. The physical properties of the outflow, such as mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy and mass-loss rate are estimated at relatively low values. We argue that this source is of a very young age, possibly younger than ~1000 years. This is consistent with recent studies of the kinematics of the inner envelope/disk. The observed line profiles were compared to full 3D radiative transfer models of the source, constructed with the Line Modelling Engine (LIME). The observed line shapes can only be understood when considering several distinctly different physical components, viz. the outflow cavity, the infalling envelope and the surrounding cloud material. This allows us to put quantitative constraints on the kinematics of the material close to the central source.

  12. Coordinated UV and X-ray Observations of AGN Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Gerard A.

    2017-01-01

    Observations of AGN outflows have progressed from the era of single-object surveys to intensive monitoring campaigns spanning weeks to months. The combination of multiple observations, improved temporal coverage, multi-wavelength monitoring in both the X-ray and UV bands, and the baseline of prior historical observations has enabled determinations of the locations, mass flux, and kinetic luminosities of the outflowing absorbing gas in several AGN. Typically the mass flux and kinetic energy are dominated by the higher-ionization X-ray absorbing gas. But the higher-resolution UV observations give a kinematically resolved picture of the overall outflow. In most cases, the outflowing gas is located at parsec to kpc scales, with insufficient kinetic luminosity to have an evolutionary impact on the host galaxy. Multiple coordinated observations have also revealed a new class of UV and X-ray absorbers. They typically show transient, heavy X-ray obscuration in the low-energy spectrum characterized by high column densities of mildly ionized gas. These X-ray obscuration events are accompanied by the appearance of broad, fast, blue-shifted UV absorption lines of moderate ionization, comparable to the X-ray absorbing gas. In the best-studied case of NGC 5548, the strength of the broad UV absorption lines varies with the degree of soft X-ray obscuration first revealed by XMM-Newton spectra. The high outflow velocities, variability timescales of a day or less in the X-ray, and the broad widths suggest an origin in a wind from the accretion disk. This low-ionization component may represent the shielding gas necessary to facilitate disk winds driven by radiative acceleration in UV absorption lines.

  13. Multiwavelength Spectroscopy of the Bipolar Outflow from Cepheus E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Froebrich, Dirk; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2003-07-01

    Cepheus E is the site of an exceptional example of a protostellar outflow with a very young dynamical age and extremely high near-infrared luminosity. We combine molecular spectroscopic data from the submillimeter to the near-infrared in order to interpret the rotational excitation of CO and the rovibrational excitation of H2. We conclude that C-type shocks with a paraboloidal bow shock geometry can simultaneously explain all the molecular excitations. Extinction accounts for the deviation of the column densities from local thermodynamic equilibrium. A difference in the extinction between the red- and blueshifted outflow lobes may account for the measured flux difference. The outflow is deeply embedded in a clump of density 105 cm-3, yet a good fraction of atomic hydrogen, about 40%, is required to explain the excitation and statistical equilibrium. We propose that this atomic component arises, self-consistently, from the dissociated gas at the apex of the leading bow shocks and the relatively long molecule reformation time. At least 20 bow shocks are required in each lobe, although these may be subdivided into smaller bows and turbulent shocked regions. The total outflow mechanical power and cooling amounts to over 30 Lsolar, almost half the source's bolometric luminosity. Nevertheless, only about 6% of the clump mass has been set in outward motion by the outflow, allowing a collapse to continue. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  14. Jets and Outflows from Star to Cloud: Observations Confront Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, A.; Ray, T. P.; Cabrit, S.; Hartigan, P.; Arce, H. G.; Bacciotti, F.; Bally, J.; Benisty, M.; Eislöffel, J.; Güdel, M.; Lebedev, S.; Nisini, B.; Raga, A.

    In this review we focus on the role jets and outflows play in the star- and planet-formation process. Our essential question can be posed as follows: Are jets/outflows merely an epiphenomenon associated with star formation, or do they play an important role in mediating the physics of assembling stars both individually and globally? We address this question by reviewing the current state of observations and their key points of contact with theory. Our review of jet/outflow phenomena is organized into three length-scale domains: (1) source and disk scales (0.1-102 AU) where the connection with protostellar and disk evolution theories is paramount; (2) envelope scales (102-105 AU) where the chemistry and propagation shed further light on the jet launching process, its variability and its impact on the infalling envelope; and (3) parent cloud scales (105-106 AU) where global momentum injection into cluster/cloud environments become relevant. Issues of feedback are of particular importance on the smallest scales, where planet formation regions in a disk may be impacted by the presence of disk winds, irradiation by jet shocks, or shielding by the winds. Feedback on envelope scales may determine the final stellar mass (core-to-star efficiency) and envelope dissipation. Feedback also plays an important role on the larger scales with outflows contributing to turbulent support within clusters, including alteration of cluster star-formation efficiencies (SFEs) (feedback on larger scales currently appears unlikely). In describing these observations we also look to the future and consider the questions that new facilities such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Jansky Array can address. A particularly novel dimension of our review is that we consider results on jet dynamics from the emerging field of high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics (HEDLA), which is now providing direct insights into the three-dimesional dynamics of fully magnetized

  15. Overconsumption, outflows and the quenching of satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Sean L.; Bower, Richard G.; Balogh, Michael L.

    2014-07-01

    The baryon cycle of galaxies is a dynamic process involving the intake, consumption and ejection of vast quantities of gas. In contrast, the conventional picture of satellite galaxies has them methodically turning a large gas reservoir into stars until this reservoir is forcibly removed due to external ram pressure. This picture needs revision. Our modern understanding of the baryon cycle suggests that in some regimes the simple interruption of the fresh gas supply may quench satellite galaxies long before stripping events occur, a process we call overconsumption. We compile measurements from the literature of observed satellite quenching times at a range of redshifts to determine if satellites are principally quenched through orbit-based gas stripping events - either direct stripping of the disc (ram pressure stripping) or the extended gas halo (strangulation) - or from internally driven star formation outflows via overconsumption. These time-scales show significant deviations from the evolution expected for gas stripping mechanisms and suggest that either ram pressure stripping is much more efficient at high redshift, or that secular outflows quench satellites before orbit-based stripping occurs. Given the strong redshift evolution of star formation rates, at high redshift even moderate outflow rates will lead to extremely short delay times with the expectation that high-redshift (z > 1.5) satellites will be quenched almost immediately following the cessation of cosmological inflow. Observations of high-redshift satellites give an indirect but sensitive measure of the outflow rate, with current measurements suggesting that outflows are no larger than 2.5 times the star formation rate for galaxies with a stellar mass of 1010.5 M⊙.

  16. Storm time heavy ion outflow at mid-latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Local ionospheric observations with the Millstone Hill incoherent scatterradar reveal an upward ion bulk velocity in excess of 3 km s{sup {minus} 1} at 1,000 km altitude during the very large magnetic storm on February 8, 1986. The upward flux of O{sup +} ions exceeded 3 {times} 10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at 42{degree} geodetic latitude (55{degree} {Lambda}) for a 3-hour period around 18 MLT during the event. Frictinal ion heating with ion temperatures in excess of 4,000 K at 500 km altitude was observed by the radar in the vicinity of the ion outflow event. Satellite observations place the ion outflow event within a region of intense ion and electron precipitation on field lines associated with the storm-perturbed ring current. For a one-dimensional analysis of the observed plasma profiles, continuity considerations indicate a region of intense O{sup +} production (200 cm{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}) as well as significant upward acceleration (5-10 m s{sup {minus}2}) in the region between 600 km and 800 km altitude where the outflow approaches supersonic speed. Ionizing collisions involving fast backsplash neutral O atoms (Torr et al., 1974) produced by ring current heavy ion precipitation can provide sufficient upward momentum to account for the acceleration in the observed outflowing thermal O{sup +} fluxes. Alternatively, the outflow event can be explained in terms of a time-dependent diffusion process triggered by a sudden change in the frictional heating rate in the collision-dominated F region (St.-Maurice, 1989). The concurrence of rapid ion convection and energetic ring current precipitation is unique at mid-latitudes during intense magnetic storms. Under these conditions, the observations indicate that the mid-latitude ionosphere constitutes a significant source of upflowing thermal O{sup +} fluxes to the overlying magnetosphere.

  17. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Son, Donghoon; Karouzos, Marios

    2016-02-01

    To constrain the nature and fraction of the ionized gas outflows in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we perform a detailed analysis on gas kinematics as manifested by the velocity dispersion and shift of the [{{O}}\\{{III}}] λ5007 emission line, using a large sample of ˜39,000 type 2 AGNs at z < 0.3. First, we confirm a broad correlation between [{{O}} {{III}}] and stellar velocity dispersions, indicating that the bulge gravitational potential plays a main role in determining the [{{O}} {{III}}] kinematics. However, [{{O}} {{III}}] velocity dispersion is on average larger than stellar velocity dispersion by a factor of 1.3-1.4 for AGNs with double Gaussian [{{O}} {{III}}], suggesting that the non-gravitational component, i.e., outflows, is almost comparable to the gravitational component. Second, the increase of the [{{O}} {{III}}] velocity dispersion (after normalized by stellar velocity dispersion) with both AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio suggests that non-gravitational kinematics are clearly linked to AGN accretion. The distribution in the [{{O}} {{III}}] velocity-velocity dispersion diagram dramatically expands toward large values with increasing AGN luminosity, implying that the launching velocity of gas outflows increases with AGN luminosity. Third, the majority of luminous AGNs present the non-gravitational kinematics in the [{{O}} {{III}}] profile. These results suggest that ionized gas outflows are prevalent among type 2 AGNs. On the other hand, we find no strong trend of the [{{O}} {{III}}] kinematics with radio luminosity, once we remove the effect of the bulge gravitational potential, indicating that ionized gas outflows are not directly related to radio activity for the majority of type 2 AGNs.

  18. Studies of mass loss and outflows from giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian

    This thesis aims to provide better understanding of mass loss and outflows from asymptotic giant branch stars using the Bowen code. There are 3 projects involved in this thesis. The main project presented here is on the morphology of the outflow when disturbed by a super Jupiter size companion. There exists resonant modes between the pulsation period and orbital period. At different resonant modes, multiple spiral arms with different spiral arm periods form in the outflows. A simple formula gives the spiral arm period as a function of pulsation and orbital periods. Since the resonant modes appear in close orbits, the decay time scale and spiral arm morphology are also presented. These results may explain asymmetry in the outflows that form planetary nebulae. It also explains the origin of the spiral arm structure around some late AGB stars. A 3-D code will ultimately be need to resolve some questions unanswered by the current 1-D models. The paper on the outflow morphology has been submitted to ApJ. In this thesis, ongoing mass loss studies using the Bowen code are also briefly explained. I generated a large grid of models with varying mass, luminosity, metallicity, mixing length and Bowen model parameters in order to find correlations between the mass loss rate and these parameters. Since dust abundance is an important factor for mass loss, for the third project I tested dust formation in the refrigeration zone which is closer to the photosphere than normal dusty regions. In this test, I assumed that the dust temperature equals to the gas kinetic temperature which is lower than the radiative equilibrium temperature. Since dust temperature is close to the radiative temperature when the dust grain is large, this assumption brings excessive dust into the refrigeration zones. The detailed treatment of dust formation will be refined in future studies.

  19. The soluble pattern recognition receptor PTX3 links humoral innate and adaptive immune responses by helping marginal zone B cells

    PubMed Central

    Sintes, Jordi; Polentarutti, Nadia; Walland, A. Cooper; Yeiser, John R.; Cunha, Cristina; Lacerda, João F.; Salvatori, Giovanni; Blander, J. Magarian

    2016-01-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a fluid-phase pattern recognition receptor of the humoral innate immune system with ancestral antibody-like properties but unknown antibody-inducing function. In this study, we found binding of PTX3 to splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells, an innate-like subset of antibody-producing lymphocytes strategically positioned at the interface between the circulation and the adaptive immune system. PTX3 was released by a subset of neutrophils that surrounded the splenic MZ and expressed an immune activation–related gene signature distinct from that of circulating neutrophils. Binding of PTX3 promoted homeostatic production of IgM and class-switched IgG antibodies to microbial capsular polysaccharides, which decreased in PTX3-deficient mice and humans. In addition, PTX3 increased IgM and IgG production after infection with blood-borne encapsulated bacteria or immunization with bacterial carbohydrates. This immunogenic effect stemmed from the activation of MZ B cells through a neutrophil-regulated pathway that elicited class switching and plasmablast expansion via a combination of T cell–independent and T cell–dependent signals. Thus, PTX3 may bridge the humoral arms of the innate and adaptive immune systems by serving as an endogenous adjuvant for MZ B cells. This property could be harnessed to develop more effective vaccines against encapsulated pathogens. PMID:27621420

  20. Humoral and cellular immunity in chromium picolinate-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, B S L; McManus, C M; Caldeira, D F; Campeche, A; Burtet, R T; Paim, T P; Gomes, E F; Branquinho, R P; Braz, S V; Louvandini, H

    2013-08-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on humoral and cellular immunity in sheep were investigated. Twenty-four male lambs divided into four treatments and received different dosages of CrPic: placebo (0), 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg of chromium/animal/day during 84 days. The base ration was Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Blood samples were collected fortnightly for total and differential leukocyte counts. On days 28 and 56, the lambs were challenged with chicken ovalbumin I.M. Serum samples were collected on days 46 and 74 and subjected to an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure IgG anti-ovalbumin. The cell-mediated immune response was determined by a delay-type hypersensitivity test using phytohemagglutinin. CrPic did not significantly affect humoral immunity in lambs but there was a negative effect on cellular immunity (P < 0.05) as Cr supplementation increased. Therefore, the level of Cr supplementation for lambs must be better studied to address its effect on stressed animals or the possible toxic effects of Cr on the animal itself or its immune system.